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Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group ( FGS: Bulletin 38 )

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Stratigraphy and zonation of the Ocala group ( FGS: Bulletin 38 )
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(FGS: Bulletin 38 )
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Puri, Harbans Singh

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City of Ocala ( local )
City of Crystal River ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Jackson County ( local )
City of Marianna ( local )

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
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STATE OF FLORIDA


STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION

Ernest Mitts, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Herman Gunter, Director








GEOLOGICAL BULLETIN NO. 38







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP







HARBANS S. PURI









Published for
THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida November 1, 1957














FLORIDA STATE BOARD


OF

CONSERVATION









LEROY COLLINS
Governor


NATHAN MAYO
(Cmmissioncr of Agricidtiare



THOMAS 1). BAILEY
Spcrintcnidct I'itblic listrctio/



RICHARI) ERVIN A ttorle Gq m'ral


R. A. GRAY
Secretary of State



J. E)WIN LARSON
Treas/Icr



RAY E. GREEN Comptrlhalr


ERNEST MITTS
Supervisor of Conse ra ti) it






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


5i-iorida geoloqical Survey

alakassee
April 17, 1957

MR. ERNEST MITTS, Director
FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA

SIR:

The Ocala limestone is probably the most significant formation in the geologic section of Florida, because of its importance as a fresh-water aquifer, as a source of high purity limestone and as a key to the solution of the orogeny, stratigraphy, and historical geology of Florida. A better understanding of the history of these sediments is important since all of the early structural maps were drawn upon the eroded top of the Ocala limestone.
This report, entitled "Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group," was prepared by Dr. Harbans S. Puri, Paleontologist of this department. Part I is a comprehensive report that contributes much new data to the biostratigraphy of the Ocala group; Part II is a detailed study of the Foraminifera and Part III describes the Ostracoda contained in these rocks.
Respectfully submitted,
HERMAN GUNTER, Director










ABSTRACT


Regional studies of the Ocala limestone justify the use of the term Ocala group, which is redefined to include all calcareous sediments of Jackson age that occur east of Tombigbee River. So defined, the group includes the following formations: Inglis, Williston and Crystal River. The Inglis and the Williston were both originally described as members of the Moodys Branch formation. but are here raised to formational rank because of the distinctiveness of their lithology and fauna, and because of their lithologic differences from the type Moodys Branch. The name Crystal River formation is proposed for the 108 feet of limestone exposed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, Township 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida. It includes all calcareous sediments of upper Eocene age lying stratigraphicall'y between the Williston formation and the overlying Oligocene limestones.
The following faunizones are recognized within the three formations of the Ocala group:

Crystal River formation
Lepidocylclina (Nephrolepidina) chaptri faunizone
Astcrocycliia-Spirolaca veinoni faunizone
Na mmilites vanderstoki-H( inicqthere faunizone
Lepidoc.lclina-Pseadoph rag inina faunizone
Spirolocina 1ieib ('1T1leiisis faunizone
Williston formation
Ni in elites in ood1/branehvisxis faunizone
Opercdinoides jacksonensis faunizone
Inglis formation
Periarchias lyelli flor-ida ii s-Plecto.frotdic alaria? inqlisia .a
faunizone

Part I is a comprehensive study of the Foraminifera of the Ocala group. The fauna of these sediments consists of 145 species. of which 17 are new. These species are distributed over 78 genera. of which, two, Neoclavalita and Vernovina, are described as new.




Part III is a detailed study of Ostracoda contained in these rocks. Forty species are reported from the Ocala group, of which 23 are new. The ostracode fauna is distributed over 23 genera, of which three, Pseudocytheromorpha, Jugosocythereis and Absonocytheropteron, are reported for the first time.




PREFACE


The lithologic homogeneity of sediments formerly included in the Ocala limestone, with hardly any marked lateral facies, increases the difficulty in correlation by ordinary methods based only on lithology. Therefore, in determining the exact lithologic position of various horizons within the "Ocala limestone" in widely scattered areas, a basis of correlation independent of lithology must be provided. A method of correlation is supplied by the detailed zonation by means of microfossils and this method has been used in this study to establish a greater number of biostratigraphic units over a wider area than has been accomplished by other means. A detailed examination of several outcrop sections and rock cuttings from water wells show that in Florida at least eight faunizones can be recognized in the "Ocala limestone."

The "Ocala limestone" is probably the most significant stratigraphic unit in the geologic section of Florida, because of its importance as a fresh-water aquifer, as a source of high purity limestone, and as the key to the solution of the orogeny, stratigraphy and historical geology of Florida Tertiary sediments, particularly of those cropping out at the surface. The Florida Geological Survey recognized the importance of the full understanding of the history of these sediments since all of the early structural maps were drawn upon the eroded top of the Ocala limestone and the structures thus depicted were not truly representative.
Applin and Applin (1944) made the first subdivision of the Ocala limestone, but not until Vernon's (1951) study on Citrus and Levy counties could these sediments be divided into three stratigraphic units that enabled the construction of a representative structural map of the Tertiary beds of Florida.

Vernon (1951) recognized in the Ocala limestone three distinct units, from top to bottom, the Ocala limestone (restricted), the Williston member, and the Inglis member, the last two composing the Moodys Branch formation. With the completion of this study it was felt that the Ocala limestone (restricted) could be further subdivided and W. R. Oglesby was encouraged to map Dixie and Gilchrist counties and attempt further subdivisions. The present study of the Ocala limestone was initiated early in 1950 as a result of discussions with Oglesby on the possibility of such a zonation.





An attempt was then made to find accurate datum planes within the Ocala limestone. It was realized early in the study that several faunizones, each with characteristic fossils, could be recognized in the Ocala limestone but it soon became apparent that only a small portion of the Ocala limestone existed in Dixie and Gilchrist counties. Additional work was, therefore, recommended at the type locality at Ocala, Marion County, and other well-exposed sections in Peninsular Florida, to determine whether such faunizones could be recognized laterally, irrespective of variation in the character of sediments.
Four control sections, Newberry, Alachua County; Zuber and Kendrick, Marion County; and Crystal River, Citrus County, were collected at five-foot intervals in the summer of 1951. A study of the rock cuttings from water well W-381, Polk County, served to amplify the evidence relating to the stratigraphic distribution of the faunal zones in the type area and to extend the correlation southward. A manuscript entitled "Zonation of the Ocala Group in Peninsular Florida" was submitted to the Florida Geological Survey for publication in November, 1952, but Dr. R. 0. Vernon suggested that the correlation in Peninsular Florida be extended throughout the State. The zonation in Peninsular Florida was presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists at Houston on March 25, 1953, and was published in abstract (Puri, 1953). It can now be established that the seven faunizones recognized in the Ocala group in Peninsular Florida can be correlated throughout Florida.

In spite of careful search to recognize any lithologic units within the Ocala limestone (restricted) of Vernon, none was found to be persistent enough to be of any real value.
The faunizones established in the present study are based on the evaluation of suites of species; conclusions are drawn from faunal assemblages rather than from individual species. Most of these faunizones can be recognized in Florida. Species of Foraminifera and Ostracoda are most useful in this zonation. Several characteristic fossils of these zones are figured in the belief that they will help those not acquainted with the fauna. Several of the species of Ostracoda are new and are described and figured for the first time. Further studies may extend their stratigraphic range. Most of the species of Foraminifera have been previously described and




figured. The literature on the foraminiferal fauna of the Ocala limestone is widely scattered; in most cases either the descriptions are too lengthy or the figures too generalized and poor. Very rarely the exact stratigraphic occurrence of the fauna has been recorded. With the exception of the few recent studies, the faunal succession of the species of Foraminifera of the Ocala limestone has not hitherto been clear and an attempt is here made to clarify some of these problems.
Larger Foraminifera and Ostracoda are used for the most part in this study because they are abundant and well preserved; in addition they are known to have a narrow vertical and a wide horizontal range as compared with the ranges of smaller Foraminifera, which are used more commonly in zonation in the western Gulf coast. Smaller Foraminifera are, moreover, destroyed by leaching and recrystallization in limestones and in many cases induration makes it hard to free them from the rock. In addition to the Foraminifera, well-preserved Bryozoa are abundant in the Ocala limestone. They offer promising possibilities as zonal markers, if careful faunal studies are made in conjunction with a restudy of bryozoan terminology.
The present zonation of the Ocala group was complicated by the difficult task of assigning specific names to most species of smaller Foraminifera because of their poor state of preservation. Most ostracode carapaces are either closed, articulate valves, or filled with calcium carbonate, and therefore it is difficult to observe their detailed hinge structure, pore canals, and muscle scars. The nature of the problem, in view of the poor state of preservation of species, and consequent difficulties in identification due to poor preservation, does not warrant a complete taxonomic analysis.
Gratitude is expressed to W. R. Oglesby, William Lapinsky and Lionel Brenneman, for their assistance in the field work and collection of samples. The author is grateful to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon for his keen interest during the study and his constructive criticism of the manuscript. Dr. Vernon also contributed much well data from central and northern Florida; some of this data has already been published (Vernon, 1951). Paul L. and Esther R. Applin kindly allowed use of their well and slide collection and helpcd to clarify some of the stratigraphic problems.
The report has been discussed with Drs. H. V. Howe, G. E.







Murray and the late L. J. Wilbert, Jr. Dr. Howe also assisted in the comparison of ostracode species with his type collection. The Foraminifera have been compared with homeotypes identified by the late Dr. Joseph A. Cushman and Dr. Hans Naegeli. Mr. Andrew R. Janson and Miss Doryand P. Janson assisted in the preparation of illustrations. Mrs. Ruth Shuler helped type the final manuscript.
All types are deposited in the Florida Geological Survey Museum. Type numbers refer to the Survey catalog. A paratype set of the new species of Ostracoda is deposited in the Henry V. Howe collection, Louisiana State University.



























TABLE OF CONTENTS


Letter of Transmittal 3 A b stra ct . .... .. .... ... ... 5
P r e fa c e . ..... ...... ... .. .. .. 7

Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group P art I Stratigraphy ...... ........ ... ... .. .. .. .... ..-13
Part II F oram inifera ...................... .. ... .. . 91
P art III O stracoda ----.. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. 185
Index 245






I


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-' '1















4'

V V.' <44




4,. 7























PART I


STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCAIA GROUP


STRATIGRAPHY






















f-f





PART I



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Stratigraphy
H is t o r ic a l r e v ie w ------------------------------------------------------------ - ------------------- 1 7
C l a s s ifi c a t i o n .. .. .... ............... ...- ............................. .. ................... ....- 2 2
Ocala group ...................................................................................- 22
In g lis f o r m a tio n ...... .... ... ..... ... ... .. ... .... ..... .. .. .. .... 2 4
T y p e lo c a l it y ........ .... ... ... . ..... ... . ......... ....... ... ....- 2 4
F a u n a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2 5
Williston formation 28
T y p e lo c a lity .... .... ....... .. ... ... ... ..... .... .. ... 2 9
F a u n a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9
Crystal River formation 31
T y p e loca lity --------------------------------- 35
F a u n a . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6
T h ic k n e s s ................. ... ... .. .. ... .. .. ... ... 3 7
Distribution 38
Downdip facies of the Ocala group .. ......................... ... 38
Larger Foraminifera of the Ocala group 41 Notes on species of larger Foraminifera 42
Z o n a t io n .... .. ...... ...... .. .. ...... ... ... ... .... ....... ..- 4 6
L o c a lit ie s ...... ....... .. . . . . ....... . ... .. .. ..... .... ...... . 5 7
Bibliography 86


ILLUSTRATIONS



Figures
1 Entrance to locality PM-2 23
2 Panorama of Zuber pit of the, Cummer Lime and Manufacturing
Company, locality PM-2 23
3 Cavern at locality PA-4. The vertical drop is 30 feet. Such caverns
are common in the limestones of the Ocala group 32
4 Solution pipes at locality PA-1. These "pipes" are filled with the
Hawthorn sediments and carry a varied vertebrate fauna 32
5 Boulders of chert at locality PA-2. Deposition of silica has replaced
the limestone. Pseudomorphs of shells are common in these boulders 33 6 A nsiutm bed at locality PL-1 37 7 Surface occurrences of the Ocala group in Florida 39 8 Typical sediment of the Inglis formation from borrow pit 49 9 Typical rock specimen of the Williston formation, locality L-37 ....-51







10 Typical sediment of the L )i(locycliii(I-l's'udoph rogm iua faunizone of the Crystal River 53 11 Typical rock specimen of Nmmlitcs i,adcrstoki faunizone, locality PL-1 54 12 Typical sediment of the Ast'rocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PJ-1 56 13 Locality map of Florida with lines of sections In pocket 14 Panorama at locality PA-1 showing the Newberry Corporation pits 59 15 Entrance to S. M. Wall quarry, locality PA-2. Hawthorn clays (background) overlie the Crystal River formation unconformably 61 16 Panorama at locality PA-2 showing the S. M. Wall quarry 61 17 Panorama at locality PA-3 showing the Buda Pit of the Williston Shell Rock Co. 62 18 Panorama at locality PA-4 showing the Duval Construction Co. pits 63 19 Panorama at locality PG-1 63 20 Panorama at locality PG-2 showing Gordon Philpot quarry 64 21 Panorama at locality PG-5 66 22 Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, locality PJ-1 67 23 Sam Smith quarry, locality PJ-4 69 24 Panorama at locality PL-1 showing the Dell Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Co. 71 25 Panorama at locality PM-1, Dixie Lime Products Co., Reddick, Florida 73 26 Panorama at locality PM-3, Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co. 73 27 Panorama at locality PS-1 74 28 Panorama at locality PS-2 74 29 Panorama at locality PS-3, showing the Suwannee Limerock Co.
quarry 75 30 Crushing plant at locality PS-3, Suwannee Limerock Co. 75

Plates
1 Stratigraphic Sections A-A' and B-B' In pocket 2 Isometric Projection of the Ocala group In pocket
3 Isometric Projection of the Ocala group showing the various
faunizones In pocket

Tables
1 Classification of the Ocala group in Florida 28
2 Distribution of Foraminifera and Ostracoda in the Inglis and Williston formations 29
3 Comparison of septa per whorl in species of Nuonmulites in the
Ocala group 45





Part I


STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP

STRATIGRAPHY

HISTORICAL REVIEW

The term Ocala limestone was proposed by Dall (1892, pp. 103104) for the limestone exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida. Dall (op. cit.) correlated these sediments with the "Nummulitic beds" and with the Oligocene of Heilprin (1887) which Dall then thought to be of Eocene age. Dall (1892, pp. 103104) recognized three units in the Eocene of Peninsular Florida, the "Orbitoides limestone" (Vicksburg), the "Nummulitic limestone" (Ocala) and the "Miliolitic limestone" (? Williston). He considered them to belong in part to the Vicksburg. Later Dall (1903, p. 1554) proposed the name "Peninsular limestone" for part of the orbitoidal limestone between the Vicksburg and the Ocala limestone. He suggested that the Peninsular limestone might be younger than the typical Vicksburg and older than the Ocala limestone.
Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 51) adopted the name Peninsular and Ocala limestones and proposed a new name "Marianna limestone" for the limestone of northwestern Florida containing Lepidocyclina mantelli. They (op. cit.) referred Marianna limestone to the Oligocene. They based this age determination on a species of Nummulites (really a Lepidocyclina) identified by Heilprin (1882) as associated with the Oligocene and were also influenced by Dall's (1903) idea that the Ocala fauna was of upper Vicksburg age. These conclusions were adopted by Matson and Sanford (1913) without further question.
The credit for assigning the Ocala limestone to its correct stratigraphic position goes to Cooke (1915) who for the first time showed that much of the Peninsular limestone is the same as Ocala; that "Ocala limestone" underlies the Marianna limestone and the "Ocala fauna is essentially Jackson stage." Most subsequent authors have accepted this age determination.




18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Sellards and Gunter (1918, p. 88) and Sellards (1919, p. 113) referred to the Claiborne Eocene some "glauconitic calcareous sandrock" along the Choctawhatchee River. Vernon (1942, pp. 43-45) notes strong faunal evidence for a lower Jackson age assignment of these beds.
Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 47-48) lumped in the "Ocala" all sediments of Eocene age exposed in Florida, including the "Orbitoidal," "Nummulitic" and "Miliolitic" limestones of Dall as well as the "Peninsular" limestone of Matson.
Cooke, Gardner and Woodring (1943), in their correlation of the Cenozoic formations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain, correlated the "Ocala limestone" with the Jackson stage of the Gulf states.
Applin and Applin (1944), who subdivided the Ocala limestone for the first time into a lower and an upper member, show that the upper member which is the typical Ocala limestone occurs in subsurface throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of Seminole and Volusia counties. The wells in this area penetrated the lower, less fossiliferous member directly beneath a thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds.
Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 130), in their discussion of the diagnostic Foraminifera of the subsurface formations of Florida, listed the following species to be common and characteristic in the Ocala limestone:

Amphistegiia alabamensis Applin and Jordan Cibicides inississippiensis ocalanus Cushman
Discocyclina (Asterocycliva) nassauensis Cole Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Gypsina globula (Reuss)
Heterostegina ocalana Cushman
Nonion chapapotensis Cole
Operculina marianuensis Vaughan
Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin) Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman)
Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin)
Pseudophraginina (Proporocyclina) citreusis (Vaughan)
Reussella eocena (Cushman)
Reussella sc)ptilis (Cushman)

Applin and Jordan (op. cit.) thought the following species were common and characteristic in the lower member of the Ocala limestone in Peninsular Florida:

Anphistegiva piuarcusis cosdeni Applin and Jordan
Canierina aff. vaderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt)
Rotalia cushnmai Applin and Jordan
Spiroloculina seviboleusis Applin and Jordan




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Bandy (1949), in his attempt to zone the upper Eocene, Jackson group, which he called Jackson "formation" in Alabama (Little Stave Creek section), divided it, in descending order, into zone B, zone A, Yazoo clay "member" and Moodys Branch marl "member."
He listed and illustrated the following species to be diagnostic of the Moodys Branch "member":

:Boliviva salebrosa Bandy *Cibicides truncatus Bandy
*Discorbis hemisphericus Cushman
Numnulites jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna)
Operculinoides vaughani (Cushman)
IRenssella moodyensis Bandy
Sphacrogypsina globaus (Reuss)

The species indicated by an asterisk are common in the "member" but are not restricted, the species without an asterisk are good markers with the exception of Gypsina globida which is known to range throughout the Cenozoic.
Bandy (1949, p. 13) listed the following species to be diagnostic of the Yazoo clay "member":

A mwiobaculites pseudorostratus Bandy
Ammobaculites yazoocusis Bandy
*Cibicidina yazooensis Bandy
Massilbia cookei Cushman
Massilina yazooensis Bandy
*Nonion advenum (Cushman)
:Noni)o inexcavaturn (Cushman and Applin)
:.Nomionella spissa Cushman
Quinqueloculina constans Bandy
Spiroplectanmmina pseudoeloigata Bandy
*Textdaria adalta Cushman
*Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Triloculina subrotunda Bandy

The species shown by asterisks are common but not restricted and the rest of the species are good markers.
He listed the following species to be restricted to his zone A, overlying the Yazoo clay:

Aktibocyclbia bainbridgenisis Vaughan
Lepidocyclina ocalaa Cushman

Although Bandy (1949, p. 13) records that Lepidocyclina ocalana is restricted to his zone A, the species is known to occur also in the Williston sediments (lower Jackson substage) of Florida.
The following species are listed by Bandy (1949, p. 14) to be characteristic of his zone B:




20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman Asterigerinella gailowayi Bandy
Bolivina dalli (Cushman)
Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman
Bulimina jacksonensis cuneata Cushman
Discorbis cocoacnsis Cushman and Garrett
Cibicidina walli Bandy
Gaudryina jacksonensis Cushman Marginulina cocoaensis Cushman
Saracenaria ornatus Cushman and Bermudez
Robulus insitatus Cushman
Robulus rectidorsatus Bandy
Uvigerina cocoaensis Cushman
Vulvuliva advena Cushman

In the opinion of the writer, zones A and B of Bandy are equivalent in part to the Pachuta and Shubuta formations of Alabama and Mississippi, respectively.
The most recent contribution, to our knowledge, of the "Ocala" is that of Vernon (1951). After completion of a detailed study of the geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Vernon came to the conclusion that the basal 80 feet of the "Ocala limestone" can be distinguished from the stratigraphically higher rock in the Moodys Branch formation. Two lithologically as well as faunistically distinct units are recognized by him in the Moodys Branch formation, approximately 50 and 30 feet thick. The lower 50 feet of the Moodys Branch formation, to which the name Inglis member is given by Vernon (op. cit., p. 111) is considered by him to correspond to Applin and Applin's (1944) lower member of the Ocala limestone. The overlying 30 feet of strata are included in the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation. Beds overlying the Moodys Branch formation are placed by Vernon in the Ocala limestone (restricted). Undifferentiated "Ocala limestone," as used by previous workers, is contemporaneous with the Jackson stage of the eastern Gulf states (Cooke, 1915; Cooke, Gardner and Woodring, 1943; Cooke, 1945; Murray, 1952). MacNeil (1947) used the Jackson group in the litho-stratigraphic sense but Vernon (1952) used Jackson both as a stage and as a group name. Jackson stage defined by Murray and Wilbert (1950) as "Jacksonian," is a time-rock unit as used by most American stratigraphers and, according to their best judgment, is of age or stage usage and therefore should not be used in a rock sense. The Jackson stage in Mississippi and Alabama is divided into a lower Moodys Branch formation and an upper Yazoo group (Murray, 1952). East of the MississippiAlabama state line the upper clayey facies become calcareous gradually and pass into a distinct limy facies in Florida. Vernon justifies the extension of the Moodys Branch formation into Florida because




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


of the continuity of biozones from the type locality in the vicinity of Jackson, Mississippi, to Florida and because of the gradual lateral change in facies of deposition. The Moodys Branch formation at its type locality consists of a lower sand member and an upper marl member, which on induration may resemble a limestone at some places. In Florida, however, both members (Inglis and Williston) are calcareous. Whether or not these end members of the Moodys Branch formation in Alabama, Mississippi and Florida, which are certainly contemporaneous in age, should be referred to the same formational name is a matter of opinion. Rather than introduce a new name, and because of unfinished studies being undertaken on the Florida sediments of the Jackson stage, Vernon' preferred to extend the formational name to Florida, although he recognized that the calcareous facies could not be called properly the Moodys Branch formation in a litho-stratigraphic concept.
Vernon (1951, p. 112) listed the following Foraminifera from the Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation:

Fabiania cubensis
Spiroloculina seminolensis
Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni
Rotalia cushmani Nonion advenum
"Camerina" vanderstoki

He (op. cit., p. 142) considered the following to be common in the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation:

"Camerina" vanderstoki
"Camerina" guayabalensis Operculinoides floridensis
Operculinoides vaughani var.
Lepidocyclina ocalana Heterostegina ocalana
He (op. cit., p. 158) considered the following species to be abundant in the Ocala limestone (restricted)

Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars.
"Camerina" jacksonensis "Camerina" vanderstoki
"Camerina" moodybranchensis
Operculinoides vaughani
Operculinoides willcoxi Heterostegina ocalana

Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term "Ocala group" on a diagram, to apply to the calcareous facies of the Jackson stage and included


1Personal communication, February 29, 1952.






22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

the Moodys Branch formation and the Ocala limestone (restricted) of Vernon (195i) and Applin's (1944) "lower" and "upper" members of the "Ocala." This term can be utilized as a group name in this study but it requires definition. As used by this writer, the Ocala group is a litho-stratigraphic unit that includes all the calcareous sediments of the Jackson stage in Florida.

CLASSIFICATION
OCALA GROUP

The term Ocala limestone has been widely used, primarily as a rock unit. The name was employed thus by various writers to cover all the calcareous sediments in eastern Alabama and Florida deposited between middle Eocene (Claiborne) and Oligocene (Vicksburg) time, although the exact stratigraphic position of the sediments remained in doubt until Cooke (1915) established them as Eocene. He (op. cit.) showed that the Ocala limestone underlies the Marianna limestone and that its fauna is essentially of Jackson stage. Since then Ocala limestone, Jackson group, Jackson stage, have been used indiscriminately by various writers for these upper Eocene calcareous sediments. Vernon (1951) showed that "Ocala limestone" consists of at least three easily recognizable lithologic units. Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term Ocala group on a diagram to include the Moodys Branch and Ocala limestone (restricted) of Vernon (op. cit.) or "lower Ocala" and "upper Ocala" of the Applins (op. cit.). Murray, however, did not define the Ocala group and he made the following passing reference to it under his discussion of the Yazoo (op. cit., p. 182) :

"... regional studies (Murray and Wilbert 1950; Murray 1950; and pl.
13) of the Jackson stage indicate the advisability of using Yazoo (argillaceous) as a group term corresponding to the Ocala (calcareous) group of the eastern Gulf and Fayette (arenaceous and volcanic) group of
the western Gulf region."

Present studies strongly suggest the advisability of using Ocala as a group name. The Ocala limestone was described from exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida (Dall, 1892, pp. 103-104), and ever since it has been commonly used to include all calcareous sediments of upper Eocene age until the Applins (1944) showed that it could be divided into an upper and a lower member. Because Vernon (1951) has recognized three units and has established its subdivisions into a lower Moodys Branch formation and upper Ocala limestone (restricted) and because its regional

























Figure 1
Entrance to locality PM-2.


Figure 2
Panorama of Zuber Pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co., locality PM-2.






24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

nature has long been recognized, the name Ocala can no longer, in the opinion of the writer, be used as a formational name. It is here proposed to promote Ocala to a group name. Since the "Ocala limestone" at the type locality has been quarried and the type section destroyed, and the exposures in the vicinity of Ocala represent only about 40 feet of sediments (the basal section in most pits belongs to the Williston member), the Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company in the SE'4 of the NWI/I of Section 11, Township 14 South, Range 21 East, Marion County, is here designated as a cotype locality for the Ocala group. Seventy feet of limestone is exposed here (see figs. 1 and 2).
The following three formations are assigned to the Ocala group
(Pur, 1953) and their relationship, together with faunizones recognized in this article is shown in table 1.
Jackson stage
Ocala group
3. Crystal River formation
2. Williston formation
1. Inglis formation

INGLIS FORMATION

Vernon (1951, pp. 115-116) proposed the name Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation for 50 feet of the basal section of the "Ocala limestone" as exposed in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County. Vernon2 extended the name Moodys Branch formation into Florida although he realized that the calcareous facies could not properly be called the Moodys Branch formation. His application was that of age rather than rock usage. Since Inglis differs both faunistically and lithologically from the overlying Williston and the underlying Avon Park limestone and has been recognized in the field and mapped, it is here proposed to raise it to formational rank.

TYPE LOCALITY

The type locality of the Inglis formation is around the town of Inglis, Levy County, where the limestone is exposed in several pits and quarries, and also along the Withlacoochee River. Vernon (1951, p. 123) gives the following section, about one-eighth mile below the Florida Power Corporation plant at Inglis, on the right bank of the Withlacoochee River in the southeast quarter of the
2Personal communication, February 29, 1952.







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


northwest quarter, Section 3, Township 17 South, Range 16 East:

"Locality L-135: Feet
Pleistocene series-Pamlico formation
2 Quartz sand Variable
"Unconformity
"Upper Eocene Series-Inglis formation (member of Vernon)
1 Cream to tan, soft, porous, but case-hardened and densely crystalline
where weathered, massive, granular, miliolid, marine limestone. Contains numerous echinoids, particularly Eupatagis mooreanus, Pcriarchus lyelli floridanis, and associated foraminifers. Exposed to
water level in the stream bank -- 5.0 Total thickness 5.0
"The channel was improved in 1942 and the contact of the limestone facies with the underlying dolomite facies of the Inglis member was penetrated. Boulders of the following lithologies can be seen along the banks of the river at locality L-135:
"1. Gray, granular limestone as exposed along the river banks.
2. Cream-colored, soft, granular, porous miliolid limestone with specimens
of Velates floridanus, Lucinid sp. "A", buckshot miliolids and echinoids.
In addition to these Dr. H. B. Stenzel identified "Cerithium" n. sp., Xeuopho-a sp., Turritella cariuata Lea?, Crassatella? flexura Conrad, Trachycardiamn or Trigonocardia n. sp., and Corbula (Caryocorbula) densata Conrad or C. alabaniensis tecla de Gregorio. Across the river
in channel dredgings of similar rock, one Aturia sp. was found.
3. Mottled gray and brown, porous, finely crystalline, massive, sugary
textured dolomite with rare molds of mollusks and Periarchus lyelli
floridanus."

FAUNA

Inglis formation has a tremendous fauna. Swain (1946) described some Ostracoda from the Ocala. Vernon (1951) lists species of Foraminifera and Mollusca from the Inglis formation in the outcrop area. Fischer (1951) described the echinoid fauna. The molluscan fauna has been described by Richards and Palmer (1953). Roberts (1953) described a species of decapod crustaceous from the Inglis.
Palmer (1953, p. 10, 11) lists the following gastropods from the Inglis:

Astraea wvithlacoochensis Palmer
Velates floridanus Richards
Turritella fischeri Palmer
Diastoma sp.
Batillaria adveua Palmer
Bellatara americana Palmer
Bellatara citrana Palmer
Bellatara floridana Palmer Pseadoaluca clarki Palmer Hipponix floridanus Palmer
Calyptraea aperta (Solander)
Xeuophora sp.
Tuguriubm grayi Palmer







26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

L ( lla floridana Palmer
Tcrrebciin (Seraphs) bh 0cnito 01 Palmer
('11pracdia fcncstralis Conrad
Amllplinopsis citrincnsis Palmer Pscidocromiian brucci Palmer
Distorsio ( Personclla ) jacksoocnsis (Meyer)
IPapillina gontcri Palmer Agaronia inglisia Palmer
Oirclla (Callianax) poinciana Palmer
('ononitra sp.
Lapparia conradi Palmer Eo rasum vrinoni Palmer Athi'ta ara)nqia Palmer
Sycospira coccnica Palmer Caricclla obsoh ta Palmer
Vointicella hc Isis Palmer
Lyria citrnse'sis Palmer
Lyria pycnoph ara coccnia Palmer
P'sciidotoma floridana Palmer
('onus sp. A ('01,s sp. B
Scapha der richardsi Palmer

Richards (1953, pp. 42, 43) lists the following pelecypods from the Inglis:

Barbatia pa11rac Richards Ia rbatia? inglisia Richards
Glycyineris lisbonclsis Harris
Ostrea falco Dall
Ostrea Sp.
Volsclla sp.
Crassatclla inglisia Richards
('rassatclla cuItawacocns Harris
('rassatclla sp.
Vcncricardia scabricostata Guppy
Vcncricardia withlacoochensis Richards
I'sendomiltha m(gaenCris Dali
Hre cf. I. iacisspaI Dali
HCrC Sp.
11 ariclla robertsi Richards
Filib ,ia v'rnoni Richards
('ardion (Diaocardi ) i' ryi Richards
('ardillm (Trigoniocardimn) protoalicidfin Richards
('ardilm (Trachycardim) cf. C. (T.) claiborncnse Aldrich
Gari jacksoncnse Harris
Macrocallista ailcl a Conrad ilagrai'cia? gointcii Richards
('orbla dcnsata Conrad


Fischer (1951) lists the following species of irregular echinoids
from the Inglis:

Fibaoiria vaighani (Twitchell) Oligopygos haldcnian1 (Conrad)
Lagan m ocalanum Cooke
11cronclha crustidoidIcs (Morton)
Pcvonclla dalli Cooke
Pclronclla archcrcnsis (Twitchell)
'l riarchiis 11Ilclli floridaim1s Fischer







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Cassidubus (C.) ericsoni Fischer
Cassiddlus (Paralampas) lyelli (Conrad)
Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus Fischer
Agassizia floridana de Loriol
Eupatagus vtooreanus Pilsbry
Eupatagus clevei Cotteau

Cidaris (Phyllacanthus) mortovi (Conrad) is the only regular
echinoid known from the Inglis (Fischer, 1951, p. 55).
The following foraminiferal assemblage is contained in the
Inglis:

Aimuospirata? levyensis Puri, n. sp.
Amphistegia pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan
Archaias withlacoochensis Purl, n. sp.
Camagueyia perplexa Cole and Bermudez
Cyclamina sp.
Dentafita vertebralis albatrossi (Cushman)
Dictyocons cookei (Moberg)
Discorinopsis gunteri Cole
Elphidium sp.
Epistonaria serimnarginata (d'Orbigny)
Fabiania cubeusis Cushman and Bermudez
Globigerina sp.
Globdina gibba d'Orbigny
Globulina gibba globossa (Von Miinster)
Lepidocyclbia sp. (small, noded)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Lituouella sp.
Miliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck
Noiov advenur (Cushman)
Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp.
Quinqueloculbia ocalana Puri, n. sp.
Reussella cocena (Cushman)
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman)
Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan
Sphaeogypsiva globula (Reuss)
Spiroliva coryeusis Cole
Spirolocu/iua newberryeusis Puri, n. sp.
Spiroloco/ita seminoleusis Applin and Jordan
Textularia adalta Cushman
Textdaria dibollensis Cushman and Applin
Textuaria ocalana Cushman
Textularia recta Cushman
Textularia triangulata Puri, n. sp.
Valvuliva floridana Cole
Veruo ja taberculata Puri, n. gen., n. sp.

The following species of ostracodes occur in the Inglis:

Aulocytheridea miargodentata Howe
Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe
Cytheretta daytonensis Swain
Cytheretta infirma Howe
Echinocythereis nuda Puri, n. sp.
Hem icythere mota Howe
Jugosocythereis bicarinata (Swain) Jugosocythereis lebanoneusis Howe
Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe
Spongicythere caudata Puri, n. sp.









28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Spongicythere spissa Howe
Trachyleberis parexanthemata (Swain)
Xestoleberis gunteri Howe


TABLE 1
CLASSIFICATION OF THE OCALA GROUP IN FLORIDA

ChronologicalStrati- LithoTime graphic logical Stratigraphic Biostratigraphic

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone

Asterocyclina-Spirolaea Crystal vernoni faunizone River
Nummulites vanderstokiFormation Hemicythere faunizone

Q Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone

0 Spiroloculina new14 berryensis faunizone

Williston Operculinoides moodybranchWlt ensis faunizone


Formation Operculinoides jacksoiiensis faunizone

Periarchus lyelli floridanusInglis Plectofrondicularia? Formation inglisiana faunizone


WILLISTON FORMATION

Vernon (op. cit., p. 141) proposed the name Williston member for about 30 feet of foraminiferal limestone overlying the Inglis and placed it in the Moodys Branch formation. Over 60 feet of the basal section at Newberry belongs to this formation. Vernon (1952, pp. 122, 144) recorded that the Williston and Inglis thicken toward Polk, Baker and Volusia counties and this is confirmed by the presence of 25 feet of Williston and 55 feet of Inglis sediments in water well W-381, Polk County. Furthermore, two faunizones (Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone and Operculinoides noodybranchensis faunizone) can be recognized in the Williston. Because







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


it is lithologically and faunistically distinct from the underlying Inglis formation, and because faunizones are recognizable in it, it is here proposed that the Williston be raised to formational rank.

TYPE LOCALITY

The Williston formation is typically exposed west of the town of Williston in Levy County. Vernon (1951, p. 145) gives the following section on the southeast side of a limestone quarry in the southeast quarter, northeast quarter, Section 27, Township 12 South, Range 18 East:

Locality L-37 Feet Upper Eocene serics-Williston formation (member of Vernon)
4 Cream to tan, soft detrital limestone containing numerous hard
crystalline nodules, many Pecten sp., rare Anmisium sp., Lcpidocyclina ocalana, Operculinoides floridensis, Amphistegina pinarensis
cosdeni and abundant Caoierina ianderstoki 0.6
3 Cream-colored, massive, somewhat nodular, pasty foraminiferal co(luina limestone with numerous spongiform concretions. Foraminifers of bed no. 4, Opercilinoides floridensis, Nonion advenum, Rotalia cnshmani and Eponides jacksonensis are very abundant 6.8
2 Cream-colored, very hard ledge, porous, somewhat crystalline, very
fossiliferous limestone containing numerous mollusks, molds, echinoid
plates, abundant miliolids and other rare foraminifers 0.45
1 Cream-colored, granular, detrital, soft, porous, miliolid limestone
containing the fossils above. Somewhat more resistant to weathering
and more massive than beds above 9.3 Total thickness 17.15

TABLE 2

DISTRIBUTION OF FORAMINIFERA AND OSTRACODA IN THE
INGLIS AND WILLISTON FORMATIONS

Inglis Inglis Williston
Foraminifera VGL-5 VGL-13 VGL-3 Amphistegina pinarensis cosdc(ii Applin
and Jordan xxxx xxxx
Aininospirata? lei'ycnsis Puri, n. sp. xxxx xxxx Archaias withlacoochcnsis Puri, n. sp. xxxx xxxx
Dictyoconms cookei (Moberg) xxxx
Discorinopsis guntc)i Cole xxxx xxxx
Epistomaria scmi(mrginata xxxx
Fabiania cbunsis Cushman and Bermudez xxxx xxxx Lupidoclino A (noded small) xxxx xxxx Liebns lla byramensis turgida Cushman xxxx
Miliola cf. Al. saxoruni Lamarck xxxx xxxx









30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


Ostracoda

Plectofrovdicularia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp. Qahiqneloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp. Reassella eocena (Cushman) Reusselh scuiptilis (Cushman) Rotali cushmani Applin and Jordan Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuss) Spirolina coryensis Cole Spiroloco lina newberryensis Puri, n. sp. Spirolocidina seminolensis Applin and Jordan Tctularia adalta Cushman Tc4t-hiuria dibollensis Cushman and Applin Textdaria ocalana Cushman Textudbria recta Cushman Veruwoia tuberculata Puri, n. gen., n. sp. A uocytheridea margodenitata Howe Bairdoppilata vernoni Howe Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe Cytherelloidea floridana Howe Cytheretta daytoneusis Swain Cytheretta iforma Howe Echbiocythereis okeechobiensis (Swain) Hemicythere mota Howe Jogosocythereis bicarnbata (Swain) Jagosocythereis lebanoneusis Howe Paracytheridea scorpiona Howe Spoiugicythere caudata Puri Spougicythere spissa Howe Trachylcberis parexan themata (Swain) Xestoleberis gouteri Howe


Inglis Inglis VGL-5 VGL-13

XXXX


xxxx xxxx

xxxx



XXXX



xxxx xxxx XXXX
xxxx


XXXX XXXX


Williston VGL-3


XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX

XXXX


XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX
xxx


XXXX


XXXX

XXXX XXXX


XXXX


XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX


XXXX

XXXX XXXX

XXXX XXXX



XXXX XXXX


xxxx




XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX


XXXX XXXX 999X


XXXX XXXX




99

XXXX

XXXX


On the northwest side of the pit an additional 3.6 feet of bed no. 4 is exposed in the face of the quarry and an additional two feet, 50 feet back of the rim.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION

The name Crystal River formation (Puri, 1953, p. 130; Vernon and Purl, 1956, pp. 35, 38) proposed for the 108 feet of limestone exposed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, Township 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida, ineludes all calcareous deposits of upper Eocene age, lying stratigraphically between the Williston formation and the Oligocene limestones. It consists of a homogeneous microcoquina, almost entirely made up of tests of Foraminifera. The basal portion may contain a few beds, as much as 12 feet thick, of secondary dolomite. The Crystal River formation is synonymous with "Ocala limestone (restricted)" of Vernon (op. cit.). The entire Crystal River formation is nowhere exposed, because its top is marked by an erosional unconformity, but a total of 310 feet of sediments belonging to this formation are present in water well W-381, Polk County.
The following faunizones are recognized in the formation:

Lepidocycli~ia (Nephrolepidiuo ) chaperi faunizone
Asterocyclina-Spirolaea veritoii faunizone
Ntimmilites no derstoki-H('i icythere faunizone
Lepidocyclita-Pseudophragtiina faunizone
Spirolociflina niveberryensis faunizone

A thickness of over 300 feet of the formation occurs in the subsurface of Jackson County, Florida, where its upper portion has been designated Lepidocyclina fragilis zone by MacNeil (1944).
Moore's (1955, pp. 30-32) treatment of the Crystal River formation is different from the original definition of the formation. He erroneously includes in this unit all upper Eocene beds overlying the Opcrcidinoides sabinensis faunizones of the Lisbon formation (Claiborne). This is not surprising since Moore does not recognize the existence of Moodys Branch (or Williston-Inglis) equivalent in the Jackson County area. But he does recognize the Operculinoides jacksooensis zone and places it in the lower portion of the Crystal River. Regarding this faunizone he (p. 23) says:

"The 0. jacksoneasis zone may not be equivalent to the Moodys Branch
formation, however, because:
1. The species of the Moodys Branch formation are not confined to the
0. jacksonensis zone in Jackson County and some of the species range as high as the Bumpnose limestone member of the Crystal River
limestone.
2. There is no lithologic reason to separate the zone from the Crystal
River limestone.
3. Faunal indications that the Jackson County area was structurally
high during the Jackson Eocene and the existence of an unconformity at the top of the middle Eocene, suggest that the Jackson County







32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


Figure 3
Cavern at locality PA-4. The vertical drop is 30 feet. Such caverns are
common in the limestones of the Ocala group.


Figure 4
Solution pipes at locality PA-1. These "pipes" are filled with the Hawthorn
sediments and carry a varied vertebrate fauna.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 5
Boulders of chert at locality PA-2. Deposition of silica has replaced the limestone. Pseudomorphs of shells are common in these boulders.
area may not have been covered by the sea during the Moodys
Branch time."
Beds of Moodys Branch age do exist in Jackson County and have a significant fauna. It is true, as Moore says, that some of the species do range into the Crystal River; but he is mistaken when he uses it as an argument against recognition of their age. Faunizones are not separated on changes in lithology but on distinct faunal assemblages and Moore is not justified in assuming that the beds of Moodys Branch age are absent in Jackson County because\ the area was "structurally high." That there is an unconformity on the top of Claiborne in Florida is an established fact; but, never theless, beds of Moodys Branch age are present not only in Jackso County, but also in the adjoining counties (see pls. 1 and 2) (in pocket).
Two stratigraphic units are proposed by Moore (1955). R garding the Bumpnose limestone member, Moore (op. cit., p. 3 says:






34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

"Beds younger than the Crystal River of Purl occur in Jackson County at the top of the Ocala group. These beds are here named the Bumpnose limestone member of the Crystal River limestone for the exposures along
and near the Bumpnose road north and west of Marianna, Florida."

turi (1953, p. 130) proposed the name Crystal River formation (nov "limestone" as Moore says) for "the 108 feet of limestone exposed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, Township 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida." Pur (op. cit.) included in the Crystal River formation "all calcareous sediments of upper Eocene age lying stratigraphically between the Williston formatibn and the overlying Oligocene limestones." Moore's Bumpnose limestone member is not stratigraphically valid because:
1. The beds for which this name is proposed are not "younger than the Crystal River of Pur" since they underlie the Marianna limestone of Oligocene age.
2. These beds are of upper Eocene age and Moore himself placed them in the "Ocala group."
3. There is no lithologic distinction between these beds and the rest of the Crystal River formation to justify the use of a new name.
4. This stratigraphic interval is really a faunizone and exactly the same beds are defined by MacNeil (1944, p. 1325) as Lepidocycliva fragilis faunizone at the same outcrop.
Moore (op. cit., p. 43) gives the following definition of the Gadsden limestone:

"The Gadsden limestone in Jackson County consists of those limestones of Jackson age that have no, or few, specimens of the larger Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina, Asterocyclfia, or Operculbioides. The Gadsden limestone is known to occur only in the subsurface at present.
The foraminiferal fauna of the Gadsden limestone is dominated by the families Buliminidae and Lagenidae. . The Gadsden limestone is the stratigraphic equivalent of the Crystal River formation, which includes the Bumpnose member. The Gadsden limestone grades laterally into the Crystal River formation in Jackson County, and the youngest
beds of the Gadsden limestone extend farthest to the northwest."

It will appear to the writer that Moore has named one of the several faunal facies of the Cryti r rather than a formation. Moore (op. cit.) further says: "Depending upon where the Gadsden limestone is encountered in wells, it is underlain by the Crystal River limestone or by the older Eocene formations." How could this particular unit be "stratigraphic equivalent" of the Crystal River and also be "underlain" by Crystal River at the same time? Sediments containing a sparse larger Foraminifera fauna occur







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


locally throughout the Crystal River and in the downdip facies in
the Apalachicola Embayment area. Whether a local name be assigned to a faunal facies is seriously doubted and it is here suggested this term be abandoned.

TYPE LOCALITY

Locality C-64: Crystal River Rock Company quarry, NE/' SW'4 Sec. 6, T. 19 S., R. 18 E., Citrus County, Florida. (Section from Vernon, 1951, pp. 166-167).
Bed Description Thickness (feet)
Oligocene series
Suwannee limestone

13 A cream-colored, porous, firmly cemented, detrital limestone composed of echinoid plates and spines, poorly preserved foraminifers
and granular calcite. Chlamys brooksvilh'nlsis, C(hi ie sp., ('ypcaste,"
i 'qcsi, Cassididus gon dii, Kaphas icrassatafs, and numerous specimens of Dictjocootis cookei, ('oskinolina toridaut are present.
The bed measured 9 feet from the top of the highest pinnacle east of the quarry to the rim and an additional 8 feet is exposed in the
quarry face 17.0 12 Cream to tan, hard, crystalline, nodular, very porous limestone with
seams of the limestone of bed no. 13 and containing many poorly preserved mollusk molds, including Chionw sp. cf. C. baitbridgcansis, Tiui'-itella Pathicitsis, T. vicksba'gensis and rare specimens of ('as
sidubts gouldii and Lepidocyclitia sp. 1.6 11 White to light gray, dense, thin-bedded, pasty to cryptocrystalline
limestone containing rather numerous molds of Tn'ritella 1atialc~lsis and T. ricksburgeatsis. Weathered surfaces appear brecciated 2.0 10 Layer of light gray to cream-colored, weathered brown, cryptocrystalline, sublithographic, hard, dense, thin-bedded limestone with
an occasional seam of light green, waxy marl 0.3
9 Light gray, dense, thin-bedded, hard, lithographic limestone with
rare molds of Tar'itella 1.65
8 Brown to light gray, dense, hard, cryptocrystalline limestone with
porous detrital limestone seams 1.0
7 Light greenish-gray clay with fibrous, crystalline, light greenishgray calcite growths lying along a very irregular surface developed
upon bed no. 6, (see figs. 30, 31) 0.5 (variable)

Unconformity
Crystal River formation. Elevation: 124.65 feet.

6 Cream-colored, detrital, porous, firmly cemented limestone with
seams of dense, crystalline limestone and numerous poorly preserved molds of mollusks and rare specimens of Gypsiia sp. cf. G. globala.
The upper few inches are very indurated and the top of the limestone
is very irregular --- - 1.9
5 Cream to white, massive, bedded, pasty, soft coquina composed of
mollusks, Bryozoa, corals and large foraminifers in a pasty calcite matrix. Specimens of Cameijra vandeistoki are common in the lower 25 feet, but decrease upward and are replaced by Opercadinoides ocalaita, Trritella sp., Pecten sp., corals, Lepidocyclina ocalana, Gypsia globida, Epoa ides jacksoaeiisis, Gandryia jacksonensis were identified 43.25
4 Cream to white limestone of bed no. 5, but containing irregular
crystalline nodular concretions and Ostrea podagriia, A i) asiaiin ocala mi, Pecten sp., Gypsina global ia, Lepidocyclina ocalana,







36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Reussella eocena, Discocylina flintensis, Nonion preadvenum,
Cibicides mississippiensis ocalanus 9.5
3 Cream-colored, coquina limestone composed of foraminifers, Bryozoa, echinoid plates and spines, corals, Pecten sp. cf. P. "perplanus,"
Agassizia floridana, Oligopygus haldemani, Fibularia vaughani, Laganum floridanum, L. ocalanum, Peronella cubae, Schizaster
ocalanus, and some of the foraminiferas above 7.0
2 Cream-colored, pasty, massive, coquina limestone with numerous
irregular and spongiform concretions, and Amusium ocalanum, Ostrea podagrina, Pecten sp. P. "perplanus," Fibularia vaughani, Peronella cubae, Lagena laevis and foraminifers of bed no. 4 38.0
1 Cream-colored, very pasty, porous, soft limestone containing Lepidocyclina ocalana, Heterostegina ocalana, Operculinoides floridensis,
Operculinoides sp., Gypsina globula, Cibicides mississippievsis,
Rotalia cushmani and other poorly preserved foraminifers 8.25
Total thickness 131.25

FAUNA

Crystal River formation has an abundant molluscan fauna. Mrs.
Katherine Van Winkle Palmer is presently engaged in a comprehensive study of the molluscan fauna collected by Dr. R. 0. Vernon and the writer from numerous outcrop sections in Florida.
Harris (1951) lists the following pelecypods from the "Ocala" (most of Harris' locations belong to the Crystal River formation)

Ostrea georgiana Conrad Ostrea "podagrina" Dall Ostrea trigonalis Conrad
Plicatula filamentosa Conrad
Spondylus hollisteri Harris
Pecten perplanus Morton, var.
Pecten (Chlamys) spillmani (Gabb), vars.
Pecten (Chlamys) anatipes (Morton)
Amusium ocalanum. (Dall)
Lima tricincta Harris
Lima vicksburgiana Dall
Pinna quadrata Dall
A trina jacksoniana Dall
Pteria cf. P. argentea (Conrad)
Volsella ocalensis MacNeil
Arca cf. A. rhomboidella Lea, var.
Arca (Barbatia) cuculloides (Conrad)
Nuculana sp.
Glycymeris aretatus var. cookei Dall Glycymeris cf. G. anteparilis Kellum
Venericardia planicosta var. ocalaedes Harris
Venericardia cf. V. nodifera Kellum
Euloxa sp.
Crassatella protexta var. sinus Harris
Crassatella sp.
Crassatella porcus Harris Crassatella ocordia Harris
Lirodiscus jacksonensis (Meyer)
Here cf. H. wacissana (Dall)
Miltha ocalana (Dall)
Lucina perovata (Dall)
Pitar cf. P. nuttali Conrad
Pitar cf. P. subimpresa Conrad







STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 6
Amusium bed at locality PL-1.


Pitar trigoniata (Lea)
Cardiumr nicolletti Conrad
Cardium cf. C. cabezai (Gardner)
Cardium eversum? Conrad
Cardium sp.
Cardium eversurn Conrad
Gari cerasiumn (Dall)
Paiiope oblongata (Conrad)
Spisula praetenuis Conrad
Acroperva? sp.
Arcopernta sp. (sic.)

THICKNESS

An exact estimate of the thickness of the Crystal River formation is rendered difficult because the rock is unevenly eroded at the top and its base is of transitional nature. A maximum of 310 feet of






38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

the formation is present in water well W-381, Polk County. Over 300 feet of the formation occurs in the subsurface in Jackson County.
Vernon (1951, p. 141) assigned 30-50 feet of sediments to the Williston formation. The Williston formation thickens at the expense of the Inglis formation in the Florida Panhandle, where Inglis is absent.
The Inglis formation seems to have a more or less constant thickness of 50-55 feet in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County, which is the type locality. In northeastern and eastern Peninsular Florida (Columbia, Bradford, Duval and Volusia counties) the Inglis formation appears to thicken as much as 150 feet (Vernon, op. cit., p. 122).
Thickness and the correlation of the Ocala group appears on plates 1 and 2.

DISTRIBUTION

The limestones of the Ocala group outcrop in two extensive areas in Florida. The more extensive area is a regional feature, the Ocala uplift, which borders the Gulf of Mexico in the northwest part of Peninsular Florida. The other area is the northern half of Washington and Jackson counties and the eastern portion of Holmes County, whence the limestones extend into southern Alabama and southwestern Georgia.
From surface samples, it is known that the Ocala group underlies the entire State of Florida except for small areas in northern Seminole County, Volusia County, southern Orange County, northern Osceola County, Lake County, Marion County, and in southern Levy County where it is absent (Vernon, op. cit., pl. 2). Applin and Applin (1944) showed that their upper member of the "Ocala," which is the typical Crystal River formation, occurs in subsurface throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of Seminole County. The wells in this area, on the east coast, penetrated the lower, less fossiliferous member of the "Ocala" directly beneath a thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds.
Surface distribution of the Ocala group is shown on figure 7.

I)OWN1)II FACIES OF THE OCALA GROUP

In several wells in the Florida Panhandle, the downdip facies of the Ocala is a soft, chalky limestone that carries a Pachuta, Shubuta and Danville Landing microfauna. Genera of the large Fora-






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 7
rinifera, like Lepidocyclina, Nummulites, Operculinoides, Heterostegina, Pseudophragmina, and Asterocyclina are either absent or occur as lenses sporadically. The microfauna encountered in these wells consists of Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin), Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman, Globorotalia sp., Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman, Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken), R. gutticostatus (Giimbel), R. gutticostatus cocoaensis (Cushman), Nodosaria latejugata Gfimbel, Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin), Valvulin ,ria jacksovensis Cushman, Uvigerina glabrans Cushman, U. jacksonensis Cushman, U. gardnerae Cushman, U. Cocaensis Cushman, Globigerina bulloides d'Orbigny and Gyroidina soldanii d'Orbigny. The above assemblage occurs in Calhoun







40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

County, W-1103, 566 to 1000 feet. At 945 feet, specimens of Pseudophragmiva occur in association with the above assemblage.
In Gadsden County, W-4, the following microfauna is encountered between 650 and 1370 feet:

Anomalina bilateralis Cushman
Bolivina jacksoiensis Cushman and Applin
Bulmiia jacksoneosis Cushman
Cibicides pseudoatogeria 0as (Cushman)
Dentalina jacksoneisis (Cushman and Applin)
Dentalina vertebralis (Gijmbel)
Eponides cocoaensis Cushman
Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin)
Epovides ocalana Cushman
Globigerbia sp.
Margi uliua fragaria texasensis (Cushman and Applin)
Nodosaia latejugata carolfefiisis Cushman
Plamlina cooperensis Cushman
Robulus alatolimbatus (Gimbel)
Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace)
Robulus liinbosus (Reuss)
Saracenaria moresiana Howe and Wallace
Siphoniia jacksonensis Cushman and Applin
Uvigerina cocoaensis Cushman
Uvigerbia cookei Cushman
Uvigerina glabrans Cushman
Uvigerina jacksonensis Cushman
Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellisor

At 660 feet, this microfauna occurs in association with larger Foraminifera like Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Nummulites vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). At 670 feet, larger Foraminifera like Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin), Nummulites vavderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt), Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., occur with the microfaunal assemblage listed above. At 720 to 750 feet, Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) also occur.
In Jackson County, W-276, the Crystal River formation is encountered from 245-430 feet. The interval between 270-280 feet has abundant Asterocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, and Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). The section between 290430 feet has the following microfauna:

Anomalina cocoaeasis Cushman
Dentalina jacksonensis Cushman
Dentalina vertebralis (Giimbel)
Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman)
Margiknina fragaria t(xasensis (Cushman and Applin)
Nodosaria latejagata (Giimbel)
Robulas alatolimbatus (Gilmbel)
Robains arcuatostriatus (Hantken)
RobuIns gutticostatus (Gimbel) var.
Robubins limbosifs (Reuss) Uvigerina cookei Cushman






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


In this well, Moore (1955, p. 97) places the interval between 270 to 460 feet in the "Gadsden limestone." If Moore's definition of "Gadsden limestone" and Crystal River formation is followed, we will have several alternating beds of "Gadsden limestone" and Crystal River formation. Since the stratigraphic unit Crystal River formation was established to include all calcareous sediments lying between the Williston formation and the overlying Oligocene limestones (Pur, 1953), the downdip sediments are here referred to the Crystal River formation.
Moore (1955, p. 97) places the top of Claiborne in W-276 at 460 feet. The section between 430 to 477 feet has yielded abundant Operculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna), hence this interval is here included in the Williston formation in spite of the fact that Moore (1955, p. 23) does not recognize Moodys Branch equivalent in Jackson County.
Moore (1955, p. 97) places the top of the Gadsden limestone at 140 feet below the top in W-1364. Sediments between 140-240 feet below ground level belong in the Oligocene Marianna limestone since they have yielded specimens of Lepidocyclina (Eulepidiva) indosa, L. mantelli and Opercdinoides dius. The top of the Crystal River formation is at 240 feet below ground level. Sediments between 240-300 feet below have yielded abundant specimens of Asterocyclina characteristic of the Asterocycliva faunizone. Moore (op. cit.) also places this interval in the "Gadsden limestone."

LARGER FORAMINIFERA OF THE OCALA GROUP

Only a few of the genera of the larger Foraminifera from the Ocala group of Florida and Georgia are discussed in this paper but the following is a complete list of the species reported' (F from Florida, G from Georgia) :

Discocyclina (Astcrocyclina) atmericana (Cushman) F, G chipolcsis Vaughan F
gcorgiana (Cushman) F, G
?nariamwnsis (Cushman) F, G
var. paJillata (Cushman) F, G
8assai8sis Cole F
'aughani (Cushman) F, G
Ht fEr stcgi(a ocala0a Cushman F
Lc pidocgcliOa (Lepidocyclina) georgiana (Cushman) G mortoni Cushman F, G
ocalana Cushman F, G
var. attcnnata Cushman F
cookci Cushman F
floridana Cushman F
psi(docarinata Cushman F
psciadomarginata Cushman F
tschoppi Thiadens F





42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

(Nc pheolhpidina ) fragilis Cushman F
scmnesi Vaughan and Cole F
N ifmmflites gniafjabalc isis (Barker) F
j]cksoncnsis (Gravell and Hanna) F
iioodybranchinsis (Gravell and Hanna) F
i, lerstoki Rutten and Vermunt F
Opc 'cljnn barkeri Vaughan and Cole F
inarioaensis Vaughan F
O(Drc)i ioi/Ies cookei (Cushman) F, G
eurasiiens (Rutten and Vermunt) F
floridcnsis (Heilprin) F
ocalaiis (Cushman) F, G raughani (Cushman) F, G
willcoxi (Heilprin) F
I'scidoph ragnina (Pr aporocclina ) citrensis Vaughan F
f/intensis (Cushman) F, G
(Psado phragmiani) bainbridgensis (Vaughan) G florida n (Cushman) F, (;
NOTES ON SPECIES OF LARGER FORAMINIFERA
Vernon (1951, p. 142), while discussing the fauna of the Williston formation, observed that "the most common species and greater number of specimens in the bed is Careeriva vaiiderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) with minor percentages of C. guayabalensis Barker, C. sp. cf. inoodybravchensis Gravell and Hanna." The identifications of the first two species were made by Mme. de Cizancourt and the latter by Vernon. Gravell, in 1950, did not recognize the specimens that the writer calls Operculinoides moodybranchensis in the Williston formation as being typical of his species.' Since the most abundant species observed by the writer in the Williston formation is Operculinoides moodybranchensis, there appears to be some confusion regarding the determination of these species. Cole (1945, pl. 13) figured specimens of both Nummulites vanderstoki and 0. mood ybran hensis. While Cole's median and vertical sections of both these species are excellent, his external views of Nummalites vanderstoki (pl. 13, fig. 1) and 0. moodybranchensis (pl. 13, fig. 2) certainly belong to a single species, N. vanderstoki. Since there seems to be some confusion in the identification of these species, it is thought to be worthwhile to discuss the salient features of these three species, which though allied, show definite specific characteristics.
Nummulites guayabalensis is a Claiborne species described )y Barker (1939, p. 325) from the Guayabal of Mexico. It is a small to medium form, completely involute and lenticular, with a wvelldeveloped peripheral "keel." The form is pseudocarinate, the "keel" is a mere thickening of the wall. The septal filaments are simple 'Letter dated February 23, 1950, addressed to R. 0. Vernon, filed w:th the Florida Geological Survey.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


radiate, almost straight, anastomosing in such a way that only less than half of them reach the center (text fig. la). Equatorial sections show 41/ to 5 whorls (text fig. 1b). Vertical sections show its strongly lenticular pseudocarinate form and a faintly developed pustule which often breaks up into a series of polar pillars (text fig. 1c). This species may occur in the middle Eocene (Claiborne) of western Gulf states but has not yet been found by the writer in the Jackson Eocene. It does not occur in the Ocala group.
Op ercdinoides inoodybranchensis was described by Gravell and Hanna (1935, p. 332) from the Moodys Branch formation, Montgomery Bluff, Grant Parish, Louisiana. It is by far the most common species of Operculinoides in the Moodys Branch formation of the western Gulf states and the Williston formation of Florida. Externally, it shows superficial resemblance to N. guayabalensis, with which it has been confused in Florida. It is a relatively thin form; lentieular but without a peripheral "keel." The septal filaments are not straight but undulating with a retral swing toward the periphery; the filaments anastomose near the poles (text fig. 2a). Equatorial sections show 4 to 5 whorls with 5 to 6 chambers in the first whorl, 13 to 14 chambers in the second whorl, 18 to 19 in the third whorl, 23 to 25 in the fourth whorl, and 28 to 30 chambers in the fifth whorl. The chambers are rectangular in shape and are relatively higher than either N. guayabalensis or N. vanderstoki (text fig. 2b). It can be easily distinguished from N. guayabalensis in equatorial section by its greater number of chambers in the fifth whorl (N. guayabalensis has 24 to 27; 0. moodybranchensis 28 to 30). Vertical sections show its lenticular form, relatively thin lateral whorl walls and moderately developed polar pillars (text fig. 2c). It is a very common species in the Williston formation and locally occurs in great abundance.
Nummulites vanderstoki was described by Rutten and Vermunt (1932, p. 240) from the upper Eocene Serce di Cueba limestone and since has been reported from the Claiborne of Mexico by Barker (1939, p. 323). It is a relatively inflated form, has simple radiate septa, and a well-developed pustule (text fig. 3a). Between the periphery and the center the septal filaments are thickest, tapering toward each end (text fig. 3a). They are fewer in number than in either N. guayabalensis or 0. moodybranchensis, and are widely spaced. Equatorial sections show 4 to 5 whorls with a maximum of 22 chambers in the fourth, and 24 in the fifth whorl. In an equatorial section, it can be easily distinguished from N. guayabalensis and 0. moodybranchensis in having fewer chambers per whorl. The






44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT












l
lb l






Cc




2ct 2b 2













3b
3 3t

Explanation of text figures 1 to 3
1, Nummidies guayabalensis Barker; 2, Operculinoides moodybra che1sis
(Gravell and Hanna) ; 3, Nummulites vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt.






STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


chambers are rectangular and are lower in height than 0. moodybra wheiisis (text fig. 3b). Vertical sections show thick lateral whorl walls, and a well-pronounced polar pustule composed of several coalescing small pillars (text fig. 3c). The accompanying table shows comparison of septa per whorl in Nammoditcs t~aJYabalensis, 0. moodybranchevsis and N. vanderstoki.
Opercdinoides moodybranchemnsis and N. vanderstoki do occur together but only in the Williston formation where 0. moodybranchevsis is the common form, N. vantderstoki occurring only infrequently except in the top few feet of the formation. It is only near the top of the Ni mMulites va nderstoki faunizone of the Crystal River formation that N. vanderstoki reaches its maximum development in size and frequency. In the upper 40 feet of strata in the Crystal River formation at the Crystal River quarry (locality C-64), N. vanderstoki occurs in epidemic number, the beds being composed almost entirely of a N. vanderstoki coquina with a small percentage of species of Lepidocyclina.
Operculinoides .jacksonenisis (Gravell and Hanna, 1935, p. 331) is a common form in the Moodys Branch formation of western and central Gulf states and the Williston formation of Florida. It can be distinguished easily from the rest of the species of this genus in the Ocala group by its papillate ornamentation which consists of a group of radially arranged beads of clear shell material.


TABLE 3.
COMPARISON OF SEPTA PER WHORL IN SPECIES OF
NUMMULITES IN THE OCALA GROUP

iN inamilites Opercdinoides N a, nlit.s gioyabalcisis iioodybra cheilsis va tderstoki
1Diameter of specimen Average size Average size Average size
2.40 mm 3.00-3.50 mm 3.50 mm Number of coils 42-5 4-5 4-5 Number of septa
in 1st whorl 7 5-6 6-8 Number of septa
in 2nd whorl 15 13-14 12-15 Number of septa
in 3rd whorl 22 18-19 14-20 Number of septa
in 4th whorl 25 23-24 16-22 Number of septa
in 5th whorl 24-27 28-30 18-24




46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

There is a definite relationship in the development of Operculinoides cookei, 0. vaughani, 0. ocalana, 0. floridensis and 0. willcoxi. Operculinoides cookei and 0. vaughani are closely related. This relationship is shown by the rapidly flaring nature of the last whorl as well as by the highly arched septa. The nature of coiling in both these species is basically the same; the only difference being the number of septa. 0. cookei, which is the older of the two, gave rise to 0. vaughani by the reduction in the number of chambers. 0. cookei, in the adult whorl has 28 to 34 septa; 0. vaughani has 18 to 22. Cushman (1921) thought that both 0. vaughani and 0. ocalanus evolved from 0. cookei by gradual reduction in the number of septa. That 0. ocalanus evolved from 0. vaughani by the reduction of septa, is doubted by the writer. Cushman (op. cit., pp. 155158), in his description of 0. ocalanus observed that in the last coil, it has 16 to 18 chambers. His type specimen (pl. 19, fig. 5) has at least 20 septa in the last whorl. The author has seen good specimens of 0. ocalanus with 16 to 26 septa in the last whorl. It is more probable that 0. ocalanus evolved from 0. cookei stock than 0. vaughani. 0. cookei is not known to occur either with 0. vaughani or with 0. ocalanus but 0. vaughani and 0. ocalanus do occur together. 0. floridensis and 0. willcoxi are related species. 0. floridensis has 30 to 40 chambers in the last whorl, 0. icillcoxi has only 20 to 32.

ZONATION

Detailed faunal studies of the subsurface of Florida are limited to a few wells studied by Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944). Surface reconnaissance work has been confined to a few selected localities and the faunal succession has not been precisely determined. In this work, most of the species were described by Heilprin (1885), Cushman (1917, 1920, 1921, 1934), Vaughan (1928), Cole (1938, 1941, 1942, 1944) and Applin and Jordan (1945).
Among scores of papers published on the "Ocala limestone," only three have a direct bearing on its zonation. Gravell and Hanna (1938, pp. 99-106) reported three faunal zones in the "Ocala limestone." These in the descending order are:
1. Discocycliva (Asterocyclina) zone including several species of Discocyclina and Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman), Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and Heterostegina ocalana Cushman.
2. Operculinoides mariannensis zone.
3. "Camerina" jacksonensis zone including "Camerina" jack-




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


sonensis Gravell and Hanna, "Camerina" moodybranchensis Gravell and Hanna and Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) mortoni Cushman.
Applin and Applin (1944, p. 1684) divided the "Ocala limestone" informally into a lower and an upper member. The lower member is hard, crystalline limestone and contains few species and specimens of larger Foraminifera, the most abundant of these being "Camerina" aff. "C." vanderstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Other species present in the lower member are Amphistegina pinarensis Cushman and Bermudez var. lawsoni Applin and Jordan. The upper member, which is mostly a chalky, porous coquinoid limestone, is made entirely of Foraminifera containing Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and its varieties, Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) and Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). This informal division did not designate any names for these two members.
Vernon (1951) divided the upper Eocene into two formations, a lower one, the Moodys Branch formation, and an upper one, the "Ocala limestone (restricted)," on the basis of both lithology and fauna. He recognized and mapped two units (Inglis and Williston) in the Moodys Branch formation which also differs faunistically from the overlying strata designated by him as "Ocala limestone (restricted) ."
An attempt is made in this paper to correlate between equivalent sedimentary facies and contemporaneously deposited sediments. Correlation is based on the number of corresponding horizons of marked faunal changes. The criteria used are: vertical distribution of species; vertical changes in the number of individual species; vertical changes in the average size and preservation of various species. Zonal "index fossils," in the opinion of the writer, are obsolete since evolution has been continuous and all kinds of gradations do occur between allied forms. Unless there has been a break in sedimentation or a distinct ecological change, in all probability the "index fossils" will show a continuous gradation. Splitting of such gradational forms on nothing better than their stratigraphic occurrence has made paleontologic species unnatural and imaginary "stratigraphic" species which more often than not serve to confuse the nomenclature. Since the distinctiveness of the horizon of marked faunal changes increases with the number of species simultaneously affected, such a distinctiveness becomes more effective for abundantly occurring species than for those that occur less commonly or rarely. Sets of assemblages of larger Foraminifera, smaller Foraminifera and Ostracoda are used here. Larger ForaMinifera are known to occur in a restricted environment, living in




48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

a depth range of 125 to 200 feet, and in calcareous mud, on biostromes and bioherms. Since they are definitely more specialized than most smaller Foraminifera, they are more susceptible to relatively smaller changes in salinity, lime content and temperature of sea water as well as depth. These factors are reflected in their abundance, size and preservation, which make them useful for recognition of faunizones. Smaller Foraminifera on the other hand are useful in erecting small faunizones because of the different environments that various assemblages inhabit. Ostracoda and Bryozoa furnished supplementary evidence to check the validity of such faunizones.
The following faunizones are recognized in the Ocala group:

Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone )
)
Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vernoni faunizone ) Crystal
)
Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere faunizone ) River
)
Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone ) Formation
)
Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone )

Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone ) Williston
)
Operculinoides jacksonensis faunizone ) Formation

Periarchus lyelli floridanus- ) Inglis
)
Plcctofrondicularia? inglisiana faunizone ) Formation

1. Periarchus lyelli floridauus-Plectofroudicularia? inglisiana faunizone:

Periarchus lyelli floridanus, and Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana are by far the most common species of fossils found throughout

Figure 8
Typical sediment of the Inglis formation from borrow pit, three miles south of Gulf Hammock (R. 0. Vernon collection). Note the abundance of Periarchus lyelli floridanus which appears as cross sections. Fabiania cubensis is another guide fossil for the Periarchus lyelli floridanus faunizone. Natural size.





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


A
A


-~, '4


Figure 8




50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

the Inglis formation and hence this biostratigraphic portion of the Ocala group is named after these species. Other species of microfossils which are restricted to this horizon are Archaias withlacoochensis, Epistomaria semimarginata, Ammospirata? levyevsis, Quinqueloculina ocalana and Spongicythere caudata. Some of the most common and easily recognizable forms as Fabiania cubensis, Discorinopsis gunteri, Camagueyia perplexa, Spirolina coryensis, Valvduia floridana, Cytheretta infirma and Bairdoppilata vernoni also occur in the Inglis formation. All these forms were originally described from the middle Eocene, but are also abundant in the Inglis formation. The fauna of the Inglis formation is transitional between the middle and the upper Eocene; hence some of the middle Eocene forms occur in the Inglis in association with definite Jackson fauna like Textularia dibollensis, Textularia recta, Textularia adalta, Textularia ocalanus, Reussella eocena, Reussella sculptilis and Rotalia cushmani.
2. Operculino ides jacksonensis faunizone (Will. 1):
This faunizone consists of 15 to 50 feet of basal Williston sediments. Operculina mariannensis (in the Newberry section, locality PA-1) and Operculinoides jacksonensis (in Polk County well W381) are its markers. The writer has not observed Operculinoides jacksonensis in any other part of the section in the Ocala group and it seems to be confined to this faunizone. The basal 15 feet of the section at Newberry (locality PA-1) belongs to this faunizone, which is easily recognized by the marker species. Its top is marked by the uppermost occurrence of either Operculina mariannevsis or Operculiiides jacksonensis in Peninsular Florida. In West Florida, however, Operculina mariannensis occurs in the Asterocycliva faunizone. This faunizone as such cannot be recognized in West Florida.
3. Operculidoides moodybranchensis faunizone (Will. 2):

The uppermost occurrence of Operculinoides jacksonensis overlain by an abundance of Operculinoides moodybranchensis, Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni and the occasional occurrence of Spiroloculina seminolensis and Spongicythere willistonensis mark the base of this faunizone. Lepidocyclina ocalana and its varieties are uncommon and the top of the faunizone is marked by the disappearance of Operculinoides moodybranchensis, together with the gradual increase in number of arenaceous forms (various species of Textularia, Valvuina and Neoclavulina), Miliolidae (species of








rAr






z





0



0




Figure 9 Typical rock specimen of the Williston formation, locality PL-37, Levy County. Note large specimen of Operculinoides wrilicoxi (Heilprin) in the lower right quarter. X2.




52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Spiroloculina and Quinqueloculina) and Lepidocyclina ocalana and its varieties. At some places Nummulites vanderstoki is associated with Operculinoides mood ybranchensis but occurs only in small quantities. Relatively large individuals of Opercidinoides floridensis and Operculinoides wicoxi are associated with Operculinoides moodybranchensis and Amphistegina pina yensis cosdeni and make it easy to identify this zone in the field.
The Operculinoides mood ybranchensis faunizone varies in thickness from 14 feet at Bell (locality PG-5) to 25 feet in the Polk County well (locality W-381). At Newberry (PA-1) it is 30 feet thick while at Kendrick (locality PM-3) it is only five feet.

4. Spiroloculina newberr'yensis faunizone (CR-1):

Spiroloculina newberryensis is the most common miliolid species in this faunizone. The base of the zone is marked by the uppermost occurrences of Operculinoides moodybranchensis and Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni, and by the relative abundance of arenaceous Foraminifera such as various species of Textularia, Valvulina and Neoclavulina, and Spiroloculina newberryensis. The top of this zone is marked by a distinct change in ecology. Several new forms make their appearance here, e.g., at Zuber (locality PM-2) the top of this zone is marked by the presence of Hirsutocythere spinosa, Echinocythereis nuda, Jugosocythereis tricarinata, A bsonocythcropteron carinata, Textularia subhauerii and Rotalia cushmani. Similar changes in other sections are seen by a total increase in the number of species at the top of this zone. The fauna is suggestive of shallow warm-water conditions, not over 60 feet in depth, in an open sea. The fauna of the overlying sediments inhabited a relatively deeper water, the fauna being suggestive of a modern bioherm or reef facies in which larger Foraminifera thrived at a depth between 60 to 150 feet.
The thickness of the Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone varies between 25 feet (at Kendrick, locality PM-3) to 48 feet (at Crystal River, locality C-64). Forty feet of sediments in the Polk County section (locality W-381) and at Zuber (locality PM-2) and 40 feet of sediments at Newberry (locality PA-1) belong to this zone. The correlation of the various sections examined is shown in the accompanying correlation chart (pl. 3) (in pocket).

5. L 'pidocyclinia-Pseutdoph 'agm ia faunizone (CR-2):
The base of this faunizone is marked by the uppermo. t occurrence of Spiroloculina neiberryensis and by the abundance of




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Figure 10
Typical sediment of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PS-3, bed no. 9. Note the larger foraminiferal coquina dominated by species of Lepidocyclia. Natural size.




54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


Figure 11
Typical rock specimen of Nummulites vanderstoki faunizone, locality PL-1, bed no. 3. Note the Nummulites coquina with scattered specimens of Lepidocyclina. XIi/.




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


species of Lepidocyclina and Pseudophragmina. Several species like Jugosocythereis tricarinata, Absonocytheropteron carinata, Valvulina jacksonensis, Textularia howei, Nonion planatum, Cancris sp., and Bulimina sp., occur at the base of this zone and help to delineate it. The top of the zone is marked by the uppermost occurrence of Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County section (locality W-381) and the incoming of Nummulites vanderstoki in epidemic occurrences in the Crystal River section (locality C-64). The thickness of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone varies from 10 feet (at Kendrick locality PM-3) to 60 feet (in the Polk County section W-381). Thirty-two feet of sediments at Crystal River (locality C-64) and at Newberry (locality PA-1) and 10 feet of sediments at Kendrick (locality PM-3) are referred to this zone.

6. Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere faunizone (CR-3):

The base of this faunizone is marked by the epidemic occurrence of Nummulites vanderstoki in the Crystal River section (locality C-64) and is indicated by the occurrence of Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County section (locality W-381). This composite zone, which by some geologists may be considered as two distinct bathymetric zones, is essentially contemporaneous. There is a suggestion of relatively deeper water conditions in the sediments referred to this faunizone in the Polk County section (locality W-381). The top of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost occurrence of Hemicythere punctata. Twenty-seven feet of sediments in the Crystal River section (locality C-64) and 30 feet of sediments in the Polk County section (locality W-381) are referred to this zone.

7. Asterocyclina-Spirolaea vernoni faunizone (CR-4):

The base of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost occurrence of Hemicythere punctata. The top is marked by an unconformity and the zone is overlain by beds of the Oligocene or younger age in Peninsular Florida and by Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone in Jackson County. The species confined to this zone are: Asterocyclina americana, Asterocyclina chipolensis, Asterocyclina georgiana, Asterocyclina mariannensis, and Spirolaea vernoni. The smaller Foraminifera are dominant over larger species and the sporadic occurrences of Uvigerina suggest deeper water conditions than those prevalent during the deposition of the LepidocyclinaPseudophragmina zone.




56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


Figure 12
Typical sediment of the Asterocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PJ-1, bed no. 7. Note the larger foraminiferal coquina chiefly made of test of Asterocyclina and Lepidocyclina X2/3.




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Correlation of the various zones recognized in the sections examined is shown in the accompanying correlation chart (pl. 3).
8. Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone (CR-5):
This faunizone represents the youngest upper Eocene sediments in Florida which contain abundant specimens of Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi Lemoine and Douvill. This faunizone is represented by 14 feet of sediments at locality PJ-4, 10 feet of sediments at locality PJ-5 and 15 feet of sediments in W-276.
Valvulina ocalana Cushman is a very distinctive form that occurs in the shallow warm-water facies of the Crystal River formation. It is restricted to lower 50 feet of the section and is generally very well preserved, although other species that accompany it are in a poor state of preservation. This form is relatively large enough to be easily recognized and should prove to be an excellent marker for the lower portion of the section.
Another facies fossil that generally occurs in association with V. ocalana is a relatively large form referred by Cushman (1935, p. 55) to Rupertia floridana Cushman. This elongate attached form is easily recognized by its loose spiral chambers that are columnarly arranged. It is very abundant in the shallow water facies of the Crystal River formation and should prove to be a good ecologic marker because of its attached nature.
These two species generally associated with an assemblage consisting of Lepidocyclina ocalana, L. ocalana pseudomarginata, L. ocalana floridana, L. ocalana attenuata, Heterostegina ocalana, Operculinoides moodybranchensis, 0. ocalanus, 0. wicoxi, 0. vaughani, Nummulites vanderstoki, Textularia adalta, T. recta, T. ocalana, T. howei, Gaudryina gardnerae, Rotalia cushmani, Eponides jacksonensis, among other smaller Foraminifera species. This assemblage is typically shallow water with depth not more than 30 meters.

LOCALITIES

Listed below are the localities from which samples used were collected. This list is divided into parts: outcrop samples and well sections. All locations of outcrop samples and well sections are listed alphabetically under counties; reference to locations contained in the text are indicated by the index number which precedes each entry. Florida Geological Survey accession numbers precede each well location. The locality map (fig. 13) (in pocket) shows their exact location.





58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

OUTCROP SAMPLES
ALACHUA COUNTY

Locality PA-I: Newberry Corporation pits, SW/4 SE1/4 Sec. 13, T. 9 S., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida.
Measured on the southern wall of quarry. Elevation 91.91' Bed Description Th ickness
Crystal River formation
5 Amusium bed. Shell coquina of Foraminifera, Mollusca and abundant Amusiun well cemented in a granular matrix, nodular weathering 16'
4 Moderately hard, granular limestone, with several holothurian-like concretions and Mollusca, grades into a foraminiferal shell coquina
tow ard the upper portion ----.-.. -.-.. -.I.......... .......... ..... ... . 4'
3 Modiolus bed. Soft, chalky limestone, with molluscan, echinoid and foraminiferal skeletal material; first smooth oval Amusium sp. at 812' 71'2'
2 Soft, granular limestone, with Spondylus sp. and holothurian-like concretions .... .. .. .. ....... ... 2 1,2'
1 Foraminiferal shell coquina. Holothurian-like concretions 5' Total thickness 35'

Two more sections were also measured; one on the east wall and the other on the west wall of the quarry. The succession of beds throughout the quarry is the same. Section on the west wall measured 36 feet.

Locality PA-2: S. M. Wall quarry, SW/4 NE'4 Sec. 36, T. 9 S., R. 18 E., Alachua County, Florida.
Section measured on northwest wall of quarry. Elevation 108.62' Crystal River formation
4 Amusium bed. White, coarsely granular, chalky limestone with abundant Amnusium sp. (flat, smooth, oval sp.) 21'
3 A coquina of large foraminiferal shells in a chalky matrix with some Amuisiurm sp. (flat, smooth, oval sp.) present --------- .................... 10'
2 Soft, chalky, limestone matrix cementing a lepidocyclinic camerinid shell coquina. Spondylus sp. and Pecten (striated) common. Holothurian-like concretions present in lower portion of section 30' 1 Modiolus bed. Soft, granular limestone with pockets of Modiolis sp. 5' Total thickness 66'

Water percolating through Modiolus bed has formed beautiful stalactites around individual Modiolus. Toward the top of the section, boulders of chert occur. These boulders are round and unlike the trunk-shaped boulders around Kendrick, Marion County, locality PM-3.

The upper portion in this quarry carries some boulders of chert. Deposition of silica seemed to have started around grains of quartz and gradually built up to chert boulders which are over six feet across. Some Mollusca in these boulders are also replaced (see fig. 5).






















Figure 14
Panorama at locality PA-1 showing the Newberry Corporation pits.





60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Locality PA-3: Buda Pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE14 NE1A Sec. 32, T. 8 S., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida. Composite section. Elevation 63.23' Crystal River formation
7 Soft, chalky, friable limestone, studded with Foraminifera and Mollusca sp.
6 Soft, chalky limestone, questionably glauconitic, with abundant Spondylus sp.; upper portion contains striated Pecten sp.
5 Cream-colored, moderately hard, granular limestone, with some holothurian-like concretions; partially dolomitized
4 Soft, granular limestone, with very little chalk, thin streaks of foraminiferal shell coquina; striated Pecten sp.
3 Larger foraminiferal shell coquina in a granular matrix; abundant Mollusca; some holothurian-like concretions
2 Cream-colored, soft, granular, somewhat chalky limestone; with abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus; somewhat c h a l k y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..- _.
1 Cream-colored, granular, pasty limestone; nodular weathering; abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus sp., poorly
bedded; dolomitized ledges up to '' thick with casts of mollusks


15-20' Cream-colored, granular limestone Total thickness


14'8"

9'

3'

5' 5'

--2'6"

4' (lowest


exposure)
15'-20' (dredged)
58'2"-63'2"


GILCHRIST COUNTY
Locality PG-I: Abandoned quarry, 0.9 mile north of northern city limits of Bell, SE'!4 NW1!4 Sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Section measured on east wall of quarry. Crystal River formation
6 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, with abundant Lepidocyclinas. Limestone is filled with pockets of gray clay and pink to brown sand of Hawthorn and post-Hawthorn age; solution funnels
c o m m o n . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 7 7 '
5 Hard, granular limestone, with molds of Spondylus sp. and other Mollusca ... ... ...................................... ....... ............. ..........- 1'
4 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, almost a foraminiferal c o q u i n a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 '
3 Hard, white, chalky limestone, with abundant Foraminifera and Mollusca; some of the Foraminifera and Mollusca are of brownish
color and are embedded in a white chalky matrix 2' 2 White, chalky, granular limestone, with occasional Lepidocyclina sp. 6.5' Williston formation
1 White to cream-colored, chalky limestone, with abundant Foraminifera and Mollusca; almost a foraminiferal coquina in places;
abundant Pecten sp., Solen sp. in lower 3' 7'
Total thickness 27.2'
Locality PG-2: Gordon Philpot's quarry, 1.9 miles south of bridge on Santa Fe River on Florida Highway 49, on section line, between Sees. 12 and 13, T.
7 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Section measured on north wall of quarry. Crystal River formation


2 Hard, white, foraminiferal coquina; weathers yellowish-brown,
Pecten sp.; solution funnels common, filled with gray and brown,
waxy clay and sand
1 White, granular, foraminiferal limestone, soft and friable; lower
portion at the base of quarry with large Ostrea sp.


7'10"
6'


13'10"


Total thickness












,.]'















Figure 15
Entrance to S. M. Wall quarry locality PA-2 Hawthorn clays (background) overlie
the Crystal River formation unconformably.

0-


Figure 16
Panorama at locality PA-2 showing the S. M. Wall quarry.









0






















Figure 17 Panorama at locality PA-3 showing the Buda pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company.














Figure 18 > Panorama at locality PA-4 showing the Duval Construction Company pits.





M










Figure 19
Panorama at locality PG-1.




64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Locality PG-3: Marvin Stancel's pit, SW/4 NE14 Sec. 11, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida.
Crystal River formation
5 White to cream-colored, hard, granular, fossiliferous limestone; many Lepidocyclina sp. and Bryozoa. Spondylus sp. 3' Williston formation
4 Coarsely granular limestone; in places almost a coquina of large f o r a m i n i f e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . 3 6 "
3 Cream-colored, granular limestone, with very little smaller Foraminifera. Modiolus sp., Xenophora sp. present 4'
2 Modiolus bed. Cream-colored, large foraminiferal coquina, loosely cem ented -------------- 2'
1 Soft, granular limestone with fewer larger Foraminifera than bed no.
2 ... ......... .... .. ............. .... .. ..... .... .. .- 2'
Total thickness 14'6"





















Figure 20
Panorama at locality PG-2 showing Gordon Philpot quarry.
Solution funnels filled with clays of Hawthorn age have riddled this quarry. Solution pipes and natural wells are common at the top of the quarry where the sand overburden has been removed.
Locality PG-4: Bill Rush's pit, NE1/4 SW14 Sec. 15, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida.
Composite section.
Crystal River formation
4 Cream to white-colored, granular, chalky, pure limestone; lower 6"
to 9" with some calcite lenses; larger Foraminifera abundant 4'
3 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, with some foraminiferal and molluscan casts .. .... .......... .. . 4'7"
Williston formation
2 Modiolus bed. Hard, granular limestone, with abundant Lepidocyclina and Mollusca; Modiolus sp., Turritella sp., Xenophora sp. 2'
1 White, granular limestone, very few larger Foraminifera, few Lepidocyclinas ..... ....... ........ .. .. 4'10"
Total thickness 15'5"





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Locality PG-5: Abandoned quarry, SE1/4 SEI/j Sec. 23, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida.
Composite section.
Crystal River formation
6 Cream-colored to white foraminiferal limestone 5' 5 Hard, well cemented, granular limestone with casts of Mollusca 1'
4 Cream-colored, coarsely granular, chalky limestone with abundant larger Foraminifera and Mollusca, Lepidocyclina sp., Pecten sp .... 2'
3 Modiolus bed. Cream-colored, granular limestone, with few larger Foraminifera and Mollusca, molds of mollusks and Lepidocyclila sp. 16' Williston formation
2 Cream-colored foraminiferal limestone, studded with larger Foraminifera, holothurian-like concretions, Pecten sp. and Spovdylus
sp.; has a characteristic nodular weathering; echinoids common 8' 1 Cream-colored granular limestone, few larger Foraminifera 6'
Total thickness 38'
JACKSON COUNTY
Locality PJ-1: Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, SE14 NEI4 Sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 115'
8 White, very hard, questionably dolomitic limestone, with rounded solution cavities. (2'-3' behind the hill, hardening due to solution).
Back of the hill several pinnacles of hard limestone occur with the
softer part eroded away 2'-3'
7 Amusium-Asterocyclina bed. Hard, white limestone, well cemented, calcitic, with abundant specimens of Amusium sp. Top bed has crystals of calcite, horizontal pocket and veins of calcite 11/2' to
2' thick 5'6"
6 White, chalky limestone, composed of broken pieces of echinoid fragments, Bryozoa, Mollusca, and larger Foraminifera, Lepidocycliha sp. common, occasional specimens of Asterocyclina sp., on weathered
exposures. It almost looks like a shell coquina; bedding not apparent.
Specimens of Lepidocyclinas oriented in all directions; geodes of
calcite common ................... .. .......... ..... 9'2"
5 Hard, white, calcitic limestone composed of tests of Foraminifera, skeletal remains of Bryozoa, and some specimens of Lepidocyclita, Amusium sp., Pecten sp., and Spondylus sp. Weathered exposures
p in k to b r o w n ................ ..... ... ....... ... .............. . ...................-3 '
4 White, chalky limestone, coarsely granular, specimens of Lepidocyclina, Spondylus sp. and Pecten sp., and echinoids common on
weathered exposures. The limestone has a nodular appearance ---- 1'
3 White, chalky limestone, with occasional specimens of Asterocycliha georgiana, abundant tests of Foraminifera and skeletal remains of Bryozoa, Pecten sp. and Amusium sp. fairly common (also Spond y lu s s p .) ...... ............... ....................... .. ......................... ..-2 '
2 Hard, cream to white limestone, pink on weathered exposures, almost microcoquina, lower portion calcitic, Lepidocyclina sp. frequent,
Pecten sp., Spondylus sp., Amusium sp. 1'6"
1 White, granular, fossiliferous limestone, composed mostly of rounded calcium grains and tests of smaller Foraminifera. Bryozoa
and Lepidocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana rare 3'
Total thickness 27'2"
Locality PJ-4: Sam Smith's quarry, SE'4 NE'/4 Sec. 23, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida.
Marianna limestone
Soft granular pure limestone +60'




66 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT









Y

















Figure 22 Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, locality PJ-1.
0





68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Crystal River formation
5 Lepidocyclina chaperi zone. Hard, white, granular limestone with L. chaperi and some Pecten sp.; some Lepidocyclinas as large as
half a dollar. Glauconitic in places; oysters and echinoids common 41/2
4 White, granular limestone with microforaminiferal coquinas and Lepidocyclina sp. Abundant Xenophora sp. and Conus sp. 4'9" 3 White, granular limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina chaperi -.... 9"-l'
2 White, granular limestone, with microforaminiferal coquina in places, and Lepidocyclina sp. 4' 1 Cream to brown, soft limestone ....................... ................... .- 8" (base)
Total thickness (Ocala) 14'8"
The Limerock Company mined the Marianna limestone as a building stone up to the second level before mining the Crystal River formation. The present operations are in the Crystal River formation. In this general area the Crystal River formation is penetrated below 60 feet of Marianna limestone. The top portion of Crystal River (chaperi zone) is exposed wherever the outcrop exists and also occurs in wells. This section may as well be of Oligocene age, being an equivalent of Red Bluff of the western Gulf states (see MacNeil, 1944, pp. 1324, 1325). The Marianna generally is finer grained and yields purer lime and was quarried mostly as building stone. Ocala limestone, however, yields around 80-85 percent of calcium (as against over 95 percent in Marianna limestone) and has been quarried as agricultural fertilizer.

JACKSON COUNTY
Locality PJ-5: On the west side of Chipola River, under bridge on U. S. Highway 90, about one mile east of Marianna, Jackson County, Florida. Byram formation
6 Buff-colored, dense, finely crystalline dolomite .............. ............. 3'
Marianna limestone
5 Hard, white to cream-colored granular limestone, Lepidocyclina mnantelli common .... .................... ..... ... ................... .... ....... ..- 3'
4 Soft, white, massive limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina mantelli 15'
3 White limestone with glauconite; Lepidocyclina mantelli and Pecten poulsoni com m on ............ .... ..... ............ ... .... .......... .... 6'
Covered 6' Crystal River formation
2 Very hard, cream-colored limestone with abundant Lepidocyclina (N ephrolepidina) chaperi ...... ..... .. ................... .. ... ... ..... 10'
1 Soft, cream-colored microcoquinoid limestone with Asterocyclina sp., Lepidocyclina ocalana, Heterostegina ocalana and Operculina ocalana 1' Total thickness 44' LAFAYETTE COUNTY
Locality PL-1: Dell Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE'4 NW14 Sec. 32, T. 4 S., R. 11 E., Lafayette County, Florida. Crystal River formation Elevation 56.17'
9 W hite, chalky lim estone .. .... ........... .... ... ....... ........ .. ... 1-- -




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP




70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

8 Pecten bed. White, chalky limestone 9-1, 7 W hite, chalky limestone ------------- 1'
6 Pecten bed with Numniulites sp. in a chalky matrix 9", 5 Nummulitid coquina in a chalky matrix 2'
4 White, granular, chalky limestone with abundant Lepidocyclhia sp.
and some molluscan casts 11'
3 White to pink, hard limestone; abundant Amnsiam sp. numerous Mollusca and Foraminifera -- 12'
2 Cream to pink, soft, nummulitid coquina with some Pecten and holothurian-like concretions 6"-2'
1 Cream to pink, granular limestone with holothurian-like concretion impressions and nummulitids 5'
Total thickness 33.25'-34.0'

LEVY COUNTY

Locality VGL-3, Williston formation. Road cut one-quarter mile northeast of
Sumner, Levy County. Collected by Vernon and Gunter.
Locality VGL-5 Inglis formation, Wylis quarry, north of Road 13, about two
miles northeast of Rosewood, Levy County, Florida. Collected by Vernon
and Gunter.
Locality VGL-13 Inglis formation, quarry, one mile west of Road 15, NE1/4
NE1/4 Sec. 3, T. 17 S., R. 16 E., Levy County, Florida. Collected by
Vernon and Gunter.

MARION COUNTY

Locality PM-i: Dixie Limestone Products Company pit at Reddick, Marion County, Florida.
Composite section. Elevation 156.83' ?Hawthorn (marine) facies
3 Cream-colored molluscan limestone, cross-bedded in places, lower portion honeycombed with molds of large Turritella sp., manatee ribs,
upper three feet beach rock facies 8'
UnconformityCrystal River formation
2 Anmvsiun bed. White chalky limestone with abundant specimens of A m usium sp . ...... .............. .. ...... . .. ... 20'
1 White chalky limestone, a coquina of larger Foraminifera mostly Lepidocyclina oealana and vars ......... 22'
Total thickness 50'
Locality PM-2: Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company near Martin, SE14 SW14 Sec. 11, T. 14 S., R. 21 E., Marion County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 134.67'
6 Amusium bed. White chalky limestone with abundant Amusihm sp., upper portion with several horizontal beds of silicified limestone 31'
5 White, soft, chalky limestone with occasional specimens of Spo dylas
sp. and Pecten sp . ..... ...... . . 5'
4 Cream-colored, soft, chalky limestone, in places a coquina of larger
Foraminifera; specimens of Pecten sp. and Turritella sp. common 10'
3 Pale granular limestone, in places almost entirely a larger Foraminifera coquina, with casts and molds of mollusks 9'




















Figure 24 Panorama at locality PL-1, showing the Dell Mine (Mayo) of the
Williston Shell Rock Company.
z





72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

2 Very hard, consolidated limestone, a shell bed of Ostrea sp., Spondylns sp., and several gastropod casts and molds 5'
1 Pale, soft, granular limestone, in places a coquina of Lepidocycin ocalao and nummulitids; specimen of Xenophora sp., Cardium sp.,
and Ostrea sp. common ... . .. ...... 10'
Total thickness 70'

Locality PM-3: Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company, Kendrick, Marion County, Florida.
Composite section. Elevation 115.39' ?Hawthorn (marine) facies
5 Pale to cream-colored hard molluscan limestone with abundant, large T urritella sp ..... .... ........ ....... ...... ... 10'
UnconformityCrystal River formation
4 Amn(siuni bed. White chalky limestone with beds of calcite and chert.
Lcpidocyclina ocalaa and vars. common; abundant specimens of
A n (siun sp .... .. .......... .... .. .. .... .... ....... ... .... .... .. 2 2'
3 White chalky limestone, in places a larger Foraminifera coquina, abundant large specimens of Lepidocyclia ocalana and vars., Heterostegia ocalana and Operculinoidcs ocalinus 15'
2 Cream to white, soft limestone, chalky in places, with large specimens of Lepidocyclhia ocalaa very common 3'
Williston formation
1 Cream to white, granular limestone with dwarfed Lepidocyclina ocahia, Operculinoidcs moodybranchensis, Operculinoides willcoxi 5'
Total thickness 55'

SUWANNEE COUNTY
Locality PS-I: Abandoned quarry, SE/4 SE/4 Sec. 18 and NE14 NE/4 Sec. 19, T. 6 S., R. 15 E., Suwannee County, Florida. Section measured on north wall, parallel with U. S. Highway 29.
Crystal River formation Elevation 52.72'
4 Atmsitmi bed. White, soft, chalky limestone, with two species of Pectent. Aninsinni sp. (smooth oval form, probably same horizon as PL-1)
Spondyins sp. 13'
3 White, granular limestone; large foraminiferal coquina and Pectcin
sp. (smooth type) toward bottom, somewhat chalky; increases in
chalkiness toward top 11' 2 White, granular limestone, chalky in places 11'-2' 1 Hard, white limestone, firmly cemented with molluscan casts 22'-3'
Total thickness 28'-29'
Locality PS-2: Abandoned quarry, SW/4 SEI4 Sec. 14 and NW'4 NE'4 See. 23, T. 6 S., R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 45.72'
7 Cream-colored, foraminiferal coquina; with Pecteni sp. and Amnusimm sp.; weathered exposures are ferrugineous and brown in color 3'-312'
6 Amnsipi bed. Foraminiferal coquina, with abundant Aimsimim sp.
(smooth oval) ; Spondybis sp. harder than underlying bed 72'
5 Foraminiferal coquina cemented in a granular matrix with abundant Lcpidocyclina sp. 7'













$0


>


-zz



Figure 25 o Panorama at locality PM-1 Dixie Lime Products Co., Reddick, Florida.










Figure 26
Panorama at locality PM-3 Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co.





74 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT


C62 00




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 75 I


Figure 29
Panorama at locality PS-3 showing the Suwannee Limerock Company quarry.















Figure 30
Crushing Plant at locality PS-3, Suwannee Limerock Company.

4 Cream-colored, granular, somewhat chalky limestone, with some
larger Foraminifera and Amusium sp. 11/2'
3 Coarse, foraminiferal coquina, cemented in a granular limestone
matrix .. .. 2'9"
2 Cream-colored, granular limestone, composed mostly of Foraminifera
and occasional Pectei sp. and Arnusium sp. ... .. 2'
1 Pectenp-Amfsium bed. Cream-colored, hard, well cemented limestone,
nodular, weathering, with striated Pecten sp.; in places it is a larger
foraminiferal coquina 7'1"
Total thickness 31'-31 12'
Locality PS-3: Suwannee Limerock Company quarry, SE1A NWI4 Sec. 32, T.
5 S., R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida.
Crystal River formation Elevation 38.8'
9 Foraminiferal and molluscan coquina, cemented in a hard limestone
matrix. Larger Foraminifera are of Ocala age 5'
8 Very hard, questionably dolomitized, brownish limestone, with molds
of Foraminifera and Mollusca 2'
7 Tioritella bed. Soft, granular, cream-colored limestone, with abundant Ta-iritella sp., Conus sp., Pecten sp., and other Mollusca (oysters common) ; no Lepidocyclina noted 3'




76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

6 Cream-colored, granular limestone, with occasional Pecten sp. and Foraminifera 5'
5 Pecten bed. Very hard, partially dolomitized limestone with abundant Pecten sp. (striated) 5'
4 Soil zone consisting of limonite and weathered specimens of Foraminifera and Pectens embedded in a ferrugineous matrix 2"
3 White, granular limestone, with some tests of Foraminifera and molds of Glycymeris sp. 2'
2 Cream-colored foraminiferal coquina, well cemented, with occasional Pecten sp. (striated) (lowest exposure) 5'
1 Cream-colored, granular limestone, moderately hard, massive; tests of larger Foraminifera and Pecten sp., Pecten bed (striated) is also
represented in the dredged rock; Turritella sp. common 15' (dredged)
Total thickness 42'2"
The company removes all of the Hawthorn clay from solution pipes and fills them back up with Crystal River formation in order to blast the quarry effectively. This is the reason why no "pipe" or sinkholes exist around the quarry.


WELL SECTIONS

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth
ALACHUA COUNTY

W-324 700' from E line, 525' from N line, Sec. 14,
T9S, R19E 78.28' 447'6" W-505 2250' from E line, 300' from N line, SW !4
SE'4 Sec. 23, T9S, R20E 159' 446'8" W-1379 NE corner SW/4 NE/4 Sec. 3, T8S, R17E 70.82' 243' W-1773 1350' N and 750' W of SE corner of Sec. 6,
T10S, R20E 163.20' 418' W-1894 SE corner of Sec. 4, TIOS, R20E 141.06' 464'

BAKER COUNTY

W-1500 660' S and 660' E of NW corner NE 14 Sec.
21, TIN, R20E 124' 3349'

BRADFORD COUNTY

W-263 2568' from N line, 1056' from W line, Sec.
28, T6S, R22E 166.56' 610' W-264 200' from N line, 100' from W line, Sec. 28,
T6S, R22E 168.77' 503' W-531 550' from N line, 2190' from E line, NW/4
NE!4 Sec. 30, T7S, R22E 145.57' 235' W-1466 Center of NE'A SE'!4 Sec. 15, T6S, R20E 132' 3167'

BREVARD COUNTY

W-9 2350' from S line, 2325' from W line, Sec. 21,
T27S, R37E 17.58' 511'





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-104 2515' from N line, 1740' from E line, Sec. 28,
T29S, R38E, 1000' NE of Grant P. 0. 3.59' 872' W-604 1600' from N line, 665' from E line, NW'!4
NWI,4 Sec. 31, T24S, R37E 2.66' 180' W-638 2460' from W line, 2090' from N line, NE%,
Sec. 33, T27S, R36E 24.2' 457' W-1365 NWI'4 NW/4 Sec. 1, T20S, R35E 11.17' 230' W-1380 NW'/4 Sec. 3, T24S, R36E, 6 mi. NE of P. 0. 2.46' 335'

CALHOUN COUNTY

W-1103 785' N and 660' W from SE corner of Sec. 2,
TIS, R11W 140'- 3580'

CITRUS COUNTY

W-720 Back side of Crystal River Rock Company
quarry, Sec. 6, T19S, R18E, center SW1/4 210' 300'

CLAY COUNTY

W-78 1663' from E line, 1742' from S line, S of normal
Sec. 9, T4S, R26E, Kingsley Grant 22.32' W-136 1980' from N line, 240' from W line, NW part of
Sec. 16, T6S, R25E 82.8' 550' W-321 150' from S line, 2160' from E line, Sec. 1,
T8S, R23E 135' 202' W-522 Municipal Airport, Green Cove Springs 13.14' 650' W-534 660' from S line, 2480' from E line, Sec. 14,
T6S, R23E 160' 700' W-535 1635' from N line, 90' from W line, Sec. 24,
T6S, R23E 151' 680' W-536 1510' from E line, 2460' from S line, Sec. 26,
T6S, R23E 162' 580'6" W-537 730' from W line, 615' from S line, Sec. 26,
T6S, R23E 197' 581' W-538 210' from W line, 1350' from S line, Sec. 27,
T6S, R23E 228' 718' W-539 1180' from N line, 1920' from W line, Sec.
34, T6S, R23E 188' 695' W-540 300' from W line, 1285' from S line, Sec. 13,
T6S, R23E 149' 685' W-611 891' from S line, 1320' from W line, Sec. 8,
T8S, R23E 132.9' 395' W-613 820' from W line, 930' from N line, Sec. 36,
T7S, R23E 214.2' 560' W-617 840' from S line, 560' from E line, Sec. 23,
T6S, R23E 161' 765'9" W-634 825' from N line, 1520' from W line, NE'!4
NW'!4 Sec. 6, T8S, R23E 160.8' 474' W-635 790' from W line, 395' from S line, SW',4
SWI4 Sec. 31, T7S, R23E 180' 535' W-1590 1980' N of S line, 1980' E of W line, NE'!4
SWI4, Sec. 4, T5S, R25E 105.1' 5862'





78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
1W'ell .\o. Descriptioit Eleration Depth

COLUMBIA COUNTY

W-34 1612' from W line, 1558' from S line, Sec. 29,
T3S, R17E 196.07' 400' W-268 1425' from N line, 2140' from E line, Sec. 5,
T4S, R17E 101.49' 360' W-299 1420' from N line, 2135' from E line, Sec. 5,
T4S, R17E 101.47' 1016' W-656 Sec. 1, T4S, R17E 181' 372' W-702 50' from S line, 1770' from W line, SW14
SE14 SWI4 Sec. 28, T2S, R18E 133.53' 234'

DADE COUNTY

W-215 300' from W line, 3095' from S line, Sec. 12,
T55S, R40E 9.91' 5535' W-443 3900' from N line, 40' from E line, Sec. 15,
T53S, R42E 6.9' 950' W-466 260' from W line, 210' from S line, Sec. 31,
T53S, R35E 8.20' 1280' W-468 2375' from N line, 1500' from E line, Sec. 30,
T52S, R40E 7.63' 223.4' W-889 Center of NE14 NW'4 Sec. 30, T55S, R36E 15' 11789'

DESOTO COUNTY

W-383 240' from E line, 2420' from N line, Sec. 23,
T38S, R24E 46.84' 541'

DIXIE COUNTY

W-504 Sec. 29, T9S, R10E, SW'4 NE'4 7' 95' W-593 140' from S line, 2330' from W line, NW'4
Sec. 31, T9S, R12E 42.58' 118' W-598 100' from N line, 1870' from E line, Sec. 9,
T10S, R12E 41.93' 100' W-671 1420' from S line, 1250' from E line, Sec. 10,
T10S, R12E 42' 215'

DUVAL COUNTY

W-48 972' from E line, 2567' from S line, Sec. 20,
T2S, R26E 24' 900' W-304 1540' from W line, 750' from S line, Sec. 12,
T2S, R26E 8.87' 1249' W-322 2560' from N line, 205' from E line, Sec. 25,
T2S, R26E 19.72' 1278' W-392 1440' from S line, 1620' from W line, Sec. 21,
T2S, R29E, N'!2 SW' 11.69' 622' W-513 1765' from W line, 340' from S line, Sec. 23,
T3S, R26E 8.9' 1005' W-514 3520' from W line, 350' from S line, Sec. 39,
(Win. Traverse Grant) SWI4 SE14 Sec.
22, T3S, R26E 22.3' 1015' W-532 1460' from W line, 1905' from S line, Sec. 31,





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 79

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

TiN, R26E 10.50' 690' W-544 2710' from N line, 600' from E line, near W
line of NW'4 Sec. 13, TIS, R26E 13.73' 1019' W-581 1610' from E line, 1612' from N line, SW
corner, NE14 NE1!4 Sec. 22, T3S, R24E 75' 990' W-610 1785' from S line, 1160' from W line, Sec.
31, T2S, R26E 19.79' 730' W-649 842' from W line, 4850' from N line, Sec. 18,
T2S, R27E 3.61' 1074.6' W-661 2870' from S line, 2760' from E line, Sec. 21,
T3S, R26E 15.5' 987'5" W-731 850' from S line, 840' from E line, Sec. 9,
T3S, R24E 79.6' 780' W-741 2100' from S line, 640' from W line, Sec. 13,
T2S, R27E 60.17' 1050' W-826 2544' from E line, 2286' from N line, Sec. 3,
T2S, R26E 28.90' 1064'

GADSDEN COUNTY

W-4 2305' from S line, 470' from W line, Sec. 6,
T2N, R3W 149.72' 1395' W-226 129' from N line, 1510' from W line, Sec. 7,
T2N, R3W 253.51' 1001'

GILCHRIST COUNTY

W-318 1875' from W line, 1335' from N line, Sec. 16,
T10S, R15E 53.04' 234'

HARDEE COUNTY

W-2894 NE14 NE'4 See. 29, T35S, R24E 88.86'HERNANDO COUNTY

W-274 1980' from N line, 396' from W line, Sec. 36,
T21S, R19E 261.4' 804' W-707 785' from W line, 740' from S line, Sec. 18,
T23S, R19E 68' 340'

HIGHLANDS COUNTY

W-2859 SE'4 NW'4 Sec. 18, T34S, R29E 1400'

HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY

W-119 330' from E line, 1320' from N line, NE corner
of SE'4 NE'!4 See. 18, T30S, R22E 66.43' 776' W-267 2140' from W line, 2150' from N line, Sec. 6,
T30S, R22E, 300' W and 600' N of the
center line 84.18' 805' W-1448 Sec. 16, T30S, R22E 57' 820' W-1504 NE corner NE'4 NEI4 Sec. 6, T29S, R19E 65.57' 620'




80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-1604 SE1/4 SW14 Sec. 19, T29S, R18E +5' 720' W-1627 SE'4 SE'4 SW'/4 Sec. 19, T29S, R18E 5.2' 704' W-2007 Sec. 35, T28S, R16E 5' 1805' W-2008 Sec. 28, T29S, R21E 77.97' 1700'

HOLMES COUNTY

W-2301 2 blocks east of test well No. 1, at dead end of
street running east of Courthouse 120.4' 615'

JACKSON COUNTY

W-220 860' from S line, 940' from W line, Sec. 3,
T4N, R10W 117.47' 408' W-235 1090' from S line, 1990' from W line, Sec. 18,
T4N, RIOW 154.23' 250' W-276 490' from N line, 1290' from W line, Sec. 36,
T4N, R7W 82.28' 477' W-654 1170' from S line, 2440' from W line, Sec. 18,
T5N, R9W 117.50' 297'8" W-687 370' from S line, 160' from E line, Sec. 13,
T5N, R10W 107.50' 240' W-706 870' from S line, 790' from W line, Sec. 3,
T4N, R10W 115.75' 744' W-1360 660' N and 1160' E of SW corner, Sec. 15,
T3N, R9W 96' 1300' W-1364 2079' N and 3293' W of SE corner, Sec. 8,
T4N, R8W 122' 1478' W-1824 SE corner NE'!4 Sec. 7, T4N, R10W 171.84' 362'

JEFFERSON COUNTY

W-19 775' from S line, 560' from W line, Sec. 17,
T2N, R5E 217.94' 3838'

LAFAYETTE COUNTY

W-44 1490' from N line, 420' from W line, NE corner
NW14 NW'!4 Sec. 13, T5S, Ri1E 67.81' 202' W-968 143' N 600 W of center of SW'!4 NE'4 Sec. 25,
T6S, R12E 65' 4133' W-1566 600' N and 50' E of SW corner, Sec. 34,
T7S, R13E 59' 1308'

LAKE COUNTY

W-275 535' from S line, 895' from E line, SE14
SEI4 Sec. 17, T24S, R25E 113.66' 6129' W-309 1187' from E line, 1190' from N line, NE
corner SW'4 NW'4 NE'4 Sec. 11, T23S,
R25E 107.5' 210' W-515 NW'4 SW'4 NE'!4 Sec. 26, T19S, R24E
Leesburg at City Pumping Plant 93.90' 425' W-998 About center of NW'4 SW'!4 Sec. 13, T20S,
R26E 84.61' 245'





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-1658 NW corner SEI4 SEI4 Sec. 9, T19S, R25E 77.69' 191' W-1660 NW corner SE14 Sec. 21, T19S, R24E 82.51' 108' W-1711 NW corner SE'!4 Sec. 17, T18S, R24E 79.83' 169' W-2011 Center of W half of NEI4 NE/4 Sec. 27,
T19S, R24E 80.36' 320'

LEON COUNTY

W-453 1435' from S line, 320' from W line, Sec. 30,
TiN, RIE 186.66' 413'6"

LEVY COUNTY

W-170 2320' from N line, 750' from W line, Sec. 30,
T12S, R19E 83.9' 125' W-171 1340' from S line, 1750' from W line, Sec. 35,
T12S, R18E 73.63' 114' W-814 1885' from W line, 2047' from S line, Sec. 16,
T15S, R13E 8.7' 385' W-1537 990' from W line and 1650' from S line, SW'4
Sec. 16, T15S, R13E 5' 5850' W-1699 NEI/4 NW'4 Sec. 6, T13S, R19E 76'- 158' W-1846 2000' S and 1200' W from NE corner Sec. 23,
T13S, R13E 419'

MADISON COUNTY

W-1596 Center of SW'4 SEI/4 Sec. 6, TIS, R10E 102' 5381'

MANATEE COUNTY

W-23 1080' from N line, 160' from W line, W1/2 of
NWI4 NW'!4 Sec. 15, T34S, R17E 4.7' 1265'

MARION COUNTY

W-18 2900' from W line, 2520' from S line, center of
Sec. 10, T16S, R20E 75.5' 6180' W-203 315' from S line, 10' from W line, SW14 Sec.
7, T16S, R23E 75.4' 125' W-204 2625' from S line, 190' from W line, Sec. 29,
T16S, R22E 64.2' 100' W-650 552' from W line, 295' from S line, Secs. 25,
26, 35, 36, T16S, R19E 62.0' 174' W-651 612' from W line, 382' from N line, Sec. 36,
T16S, R19E 63.5' W-888 398' from W line, 1700' from S line, Sec. 17,
T15S, R22E 110.11' 455' W-891 19.7' from N line, 18.4' from E line, Sec. 2,
T13S, R21E 83.24' 375' W-892 1320' from S line, 1320' from E line, Sec. 35,
T13S, R21E 111.23' 400' W-901 330' from N line, 660' from W line, NE14
Sec. 25, T13S, R20E 165' 4334' W-1904b Center of NE'!4 SE'4 Sec. 24, T14S, R22E 69' 195'





82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

MARTIN COUNTY

W-2860 SE14 Sec. 31, T38S, R38E 1155' W-2861 NE14 Sec. 9, T38S, R40E 20' 958'

MONROE COUNTY

W-2 2380' from W line, 1320' from S line, Sec. 9,
T66S, R32E 6.50' 2555' W-445 Center of NW'4 Sec. 6, T55S, R34E 14' 10006'

NASSAU COUNTY

W-336 2310' from S line, 2475' from E line, NW
corner of NW'4 SE'4 Sec. 19, T4N, R24E 99.02' 4824'

OKALOOSA COUNTY

W-3550 NE14 NW'4 Sec. 8, T3N, R23W, in SE
corner 264' 920'

OKEECHOBEE COUNTY

W-50 1500' from W line, 360' from N line, Sec. 22,
T37S, R35E 24.6' W-51 2490' from W line, 540' from S line, Sec. 16,
T37S, R35E 31.3' 810'

ORANGE COUNTY

W-26 820' from E line, 715' from S line, Sec. 9,
T21S, R28E 147.32'
W-57 5 miles SW of Orlando 89' 417' W-312 SE corner of South Street and Chapman
Street, Sec. 35, T22S, R29E 107' 566' W-3287 Magnolia Ranch, Sees. 3 and 4, T23S, R31E 81'

OSCEOLA COUNTY

W-696 1815' from E line, 175' from N line, Sec. 30,
T25S, R29E, 1800' W and 200' S of NE corner 77.7' 398' W-697 1825' from E line, 415' from S line, Sec. 19,
T25S, R29E 79.5' 394' W-1014 710' N of S line and 660' W of E line, Sec. 10,
T27S, R34E 62' 8044'6" W-1411 660' N and 1980' W of SE corner, Sec. 12,
T31S, R33E 72.02'- 8798' W-1749 201' N and 83.5' E, SW corner SE'4 Sec. 27,
T25S, R34E 38.3' 1460' W-1770 SW corner SE'4 Sec. 27, T25S, R34E 44' 5856' W-1833 45' S and 310' W of NE corner, SE'A SWl4
Sec. 4, T27S, R32E 69' 6510'




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
Wcell No. Description Elevation Depth

PALM BEACH COUNTY

W-20 1305' from S line, 1920' from W line, Sec. 3,
T44S, R37E 14.1' 1332'

PASCO COUNTY

W-658 975' from W line, 1200' from N line, Sec. 13,
T26S, R21E 79.0' 325' W-662 1220' from W line, 500' from N line, Sec. 13,
T26S, R21E 80.7' 330' W-1545 200' S and 25' E of NW corner, Sec. 6,
T24S, R18E 79' 440'

PINELLAS COUNTY

W-60 545' from E line, 2040' from S line, Sec. 6,
T29S, R16E 68.26' 845' W-2007 Sec. 35, T28S, R16E 5.56' 1805'

POLK COUNTY

W-5 Sec. 30, T31S, R25E 131.2' 838' W-11 690' from N line, 480' from W line, Sec. 3,
T27S, R27E 121.88' 365' W-24 260' from S line, 720' from W line, Sec. 12,
T28S, R23E 217.85' 753' W-40 1733' from W line, 335' from N line, NW14
NWA Sec. 31, T27S, R25E 125.82' 752' W-110 SE14I NWIA NE1A Sec. 6, T30S, R24E 136.0' 778' W-341 1440' from N line and 1035' from W line,
Sec. 24, T29S, R27E 222.0' 732' W-344 800' W and 600' S of NE corner Sec. 17,
T29S, R24E 250.7' 757' W-345 1013' from N line, 1080' from E line, Sec. 9,
T29S, R27E 130.0' 545' W-381 2600' from S line, 8' from E line, Sec. 31,
T32S, R30E 61.0' 1035' W-382 1944' from N line, 1944' from E line, Sec. 32,
T27S, R26E 179.40' 505' W-402 1380' from N line, 85' from W line, Sec. 28,
T27S, R27E 177.60' 802'6" W-448 410' from S line, 1920' from E line, Sec. 25,
T27S, R23E 158.18' 550' W-457 1728' from S line, 459' from E line, Sec. 32,
T27S, R26E 179.86' 559' W-458 2560' from S line, 1350' from E line, Sec. 12,
T28S, R27E 100.66' 600' W-459 2360' from S line, 840' from E line, Sec. 35,
T27S, R23E 220.09' 708' W-500 1160' from N line, 1510' from E line, E1/2 of
Sec. 2, T30S, R27E 242.44' 1063' W-503 1540' from S line, 300' from E line, NE1/4
SEIA Sec. 32, T28S, R24E 114.0' 1030' W-518 1300' from E line, 1350' from S line, Sec. 18,
T28S, R26E 140.57' 550'





84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevation Depth

W-519 2100' from S line, 740' from W line, Sec. 33,
T31S, R28E 93.0' 1060' W-616 1800' from N line, 345' from W line, Sec. 1,
T28S, R26E 151.93' 592' W-623 450' from S line, 1400' from W line, SE'/4
Sec. 28, T30S, R28E 161.65' 967' W-639 1860' from N line, 1455' from W line, Sec. 10,
T31S, R25E 115.35' 800' W-668 1850' from S line, 40' from E line, Sec. 31,
T32S, R30E 61.50' 1055' W-672 2520' from E line, 740' from N line, Sec. 23,
T29S, R25E 127.5' 601' W-673 2520' from E line, 45' from N line, Sec. 23,
T29S, R25E 129.0' 600' W-928 500' S and 100' W of NE corner NW' SW'/4
Sec. 23, T30S, R26E 163.4' 658' W-951 SW4 SW4 NW/4 Sec. 33, T27S, R26E 170.81' 555' W-956 1400' W and 900' N of SE corner, Sec. 1,
T30S, R24E 118.90' 635' W-965 Center of SE'/4 NW'4 Sec. 9, T32S, R28E 140.09' 1023' W-974 NE'4 NE4 NW !4 Sec. 19, T30S, R26E 175.8' 781.6' W-995 889' N and 59' W of SE corner SW 4 NW 4
Sec. 10, T31S, R25E 110.18' 747.6' W-1006 SE'4 NW'4 Sec. 24, T30S, R25E 170.7' 717' W-1008 98' S and 483' E of SW corner NE'!4 Sec. 9,
T31S, R25E 131.02' 801'6" W-1050 657' N, 96' W of SE corner SW'4 NW !4 Sec.
10, T31S, R25E 110.14' 797' W-1059 Center of NW'!4 SE4 Sec. 17, T28S, R25E 160' 613' W-1060 NW /4 SE'4 Sec. 10, T28S, R25E 146.28' 639' W-1111 NW corner of SW'4 SW'4 Sec. 10, T30S,
R26E 500' E and 50' S 159.4' 824' W-1389 400' N and 200' E of SW corner of NE/4 Sec.
17, T28S, R25E 155.9' 609' W-1395 111' N and 94' E of SW corner of NW'4
NE'4 Sec. 30, T30S, R25E 135.5' 776'10" W-1441 SW/4 Sec. 13, T29S, R24E 116.9' 605' W-1445 NW'4 SE'!4 Sec. 5, T29S, R26E 135.7' 662' W-1476 210' N and 1198' E of SW corner of Sec.
23, T30S, R23E 135.04' 888'9" W-1589 NWY4 NW'4 SE'4 Sec. 19, T28S, R24E 200.86' 1111' W-1754 SW corner SW'4 Sec. 18, T30S, R28E 146.7' 990' W-1760 125' W and 100' N of SE corner Sec. 2, T30S,
R23E 116.24' 764' W-1800 1500' E and 300' S from NW corner Sec. 10,
T28S, R24E 140.81' 570' W-1801 51 NE'4 Sec. 2, T30S, R25E 146.83' 1085' W-1802 S'2 NE'!4 Sec. 2, T30S, R25E 146.31' 772' W-1864 1000' S and 900' W of NE corner of NW'4
Sec. 11, T29S, R24E 122.72' 619' W-1887 Center of NE'4 NW'4 SE'4 Sec. 8, T32S,
R28E 154.56' 1113' W-1949 NW corner NW'4 NE' SE'4 Sec. 12, T30S,
R28E 225.9' 743' W-1997 120' from N line and 1050' from W line, Sec. 24,
T29S, R27E 201.32' 1100' W-2003 SE corner of NW'4 SE'!4 Sec. 32, T28S,
R26E 147.3' 677' W-2013 SW corner of NW4 Sec. 3, T27S, R27E 130.8' 577' W-2014 SE'!4 SW'4 Sec. 31, T28S, R26E 141.7' 625'




STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Total
We'll No. Description Elevation Depth

W-2127 NW corner NW14 SE14 Sec. 30, T30S, R28E 187.9' 825' W-2129 Center of Sec. 3, T29S, R23E 142.79' 698'6"

PUTNAM COUNTY

W-619 80' from N line, 1940' from W line, Sec. 38,
T10S, R27E 16.18' 247' W-1514 150' SE of center of NW/4 NW14 Sec. 19,
T9S, R25E 196' 331'

ST. JOHNS COUNTY

W-236 1530' from E line, 2120' from S line, Sec. 18,
T7S, R30E 6.51' 1440'

SANTA ROSA COUNTY

W-454 1285' from S line, 350' from W line, Sec. 5,
T1S, R26W 11.59' 1063'

SARASOTA COUNTY

W-106 1800' from E line, 1420' from N line, Sec. 34,
T36S, R19E 27.10' 735'

SEMINOLE COUNTY

W-337 1750' from N line, 2160' from E line, Sec. 19,
T19S, R30E 26.32' 195' W-347 2310' from N line, 1980' from E line, NE14/
Sec. 28, T19S, R30E 29.11' 164' W-356 2370' from N line, 610' from W line, Sec. 33,
T19S, R31E 23.42' 195' W-357 810' from S line, 1640' from E line, SE14
Sec. 28, T19S, R31E 15.19' W-594 380' from S line, 1750' from E line, Sec. 30,
T19S, R31E 25.13' 183'

SUWANNEE COUNTY

W-(i 2300' from S line, 530' from E line, Sec. 23,
T2S, R13E 104.58' 655'

TAYLOR COUNTY

W-1065 Sec. 12, T6S, R5E, 15 miles SW of Perry 1.59' 10.7' W-2106 850' N and 750' W of SE corner Sec. 18, T4S,
R9E 85' 5243'

VOLUSIA COUNTY

W-582 1670' from W line, 2200' from N line, Sec. 3,




86 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

Total
Well No. Description Elevationi Depth

T16S, R33E 4.7' 139.6' W-923 100' from N line, 2080' from E line, Sec. 34,
T14S, R28E 75'-1- 145' W-1717 Center of NE1/4 Sec. 2, T15S, R30E 35' 158' W-3125 120'

WAKULLA COUNTY

W-12 1900' from E line, 2050' from N line, Sec. 16,
T3S, R1E 15.79' 2169' W-440 680' from N line, 710' from W line, near
center of NW1/ NW1A Sec. 14, T3S, R1E 18.13' 5766'

WALTON COUNTY

W-148 1425' from N line, 2440' from W line, Sec. 12,
TIN, R19W 214.51' 5375' W-249 About center of SW/4 Sec. 9, T2N, R21W 227.41' 625' W-499 660' from N line, 2210' from E line, NW/4
NE1/ Sec. 11, T1S, R20W 58.31' 2757' W-739 720' from N line, 2340' from E line, NE1/4
Sec. 5, T2S, R18W 23.43' 756'9"

WASHINGTON COUNTY

W-1 680' from N line, 875' from W line, NW1/
NWA Sec. 27, T4N, R13W 198.02' 4912' W-2884 Center of NE1/ NE'/4 Sec. 29, TIN, R6W 77.4' 4993'

GEORGIA-Decatur County

W-709 6 miles NW of Bainbridge, Decatur Co. 425'

GEORGIA-Bacon County

W-372 South side of RR, 1/4 mile east of Station
Alma, Georgia 199.7' 626'


BIBLIOGRAPHY


Applin, Esther R. (also see Applin, Paul L., 1944)
1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnostic Foraminifera from subsurface
formations i Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp.
129-148.
Applin, Paul L.
1944 (and Applin, Esther R.) Regional subsarface stratigraphy and
structure of Florida and southern Georgia: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1673-1753. Bandy, Orville L.
1949 Eocene and Oligoce)e Foraniifera froni Litth Stave Creek,
Clarke County, Alabama: Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131,
210 pp., 27 pls.





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP


Barker, R. W.
1939 Species of the foraminiferal family Camerinidae in the Tertiary
and Cretaceous of Mexico: U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 86, no.
3052, p. 325.
Clapp, F. G. (also see Matson, 1909)
1941 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, 91 pp.
1942 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20, 89 pp.
1944 Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies of wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, 168 pp. Cole, W. Storrs
1938 Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two deep wells in Florida:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 16, 77 pp. Cooke, C. Wythe
1915 The age of the Ocala limestone: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
95, pp 107-117.
1929 (and Mossom, Stuart) Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey
20th Ann. Rept., pp 29-227.
1939 Equivalence of the Gosport sand to the Moody's miarl: Jour.
Paleontology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 337-340.
1943 (and Gardner, Julia, and Woodring, Wendell P.) Correlatio)i of
the Cenozoic formations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and the Caribbean Region: Geol. Soc. America Bull., vol. 54, pp.
1713-1723.
1945 Geology of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 29, 339 pp. Cushman, Joseph A.
1917 Orbitoid Foraminifera of the genus Orthophragmina fron Georgia and Florida: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G, pp.
115-124.
1920 The American species of Orthophragmina and Lepidocyclina:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125-D, pp. 39-105.
1921 American species of Operculina and Heterostegina: U. S. Geol.
Survey Prof. Paper 128-E, pp. 125-142.
1934 Upper Eocene Foraminifera of the southeastern' United States:
U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, 181 pp. Dall, William Harris
1890
1903 Contributions to the Tertiary fauna of Florida: Wagner Free
Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 3, pts. 1-6, pp. 1-1654. Fischer, A. G.
1951 The echinoid fauna of the Inglis member, Moodys Branch formation: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 2, pp. 45-101, 7 pls.
1953 Petrology of Eocene limestone in and around the Citrus-Levy
County area, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Report of Investigations, no. 9, pt. 2, pp. 41-70, 15 figs., 6 tables. Gardner, Julia (see Cooke, 1943) Gravell, D. W.
1935 (and Hanna, M. A.) Larger Foraaminifera from the Moodys
Branch marl, Jackson Eocene, of Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 9, pp. 327-340.
1938 (and Hanna, M. A.) Subsurface Tertiary zones of correlation
through Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 22, pp. 984-1013. Gunter, Herman (see Sellards, 1918) Hanna, M. A. (see Gravell) Harris, G. D.
1951 Preliminary notes on Ocala bivalves: Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol.
33, no. 138, 55 pp., 13 pls. Heilprin, Angelo
1882 On the occurrence of Numninulitic deposits in Florida, and the
association of Nummilites with a fresh-water fauna: Acad. Nat.
Sci. Philadelphia Proc., pp. 189-193.





88 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

1887 Exploration on the west coast of Florida and in the Okeechobee
wilderness: Wagner Free Inst. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, 134 pp. Howe, Henry V.
1951 New Tertiary ostracode fauna from Levy County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 1, pp. 1-43, 5 pls. Jordan, Louise (see Applin, Esther R., 1944) MacNeil, F. Stearns
1944 Oligocene stratigraphy of southeastern United States: Am. Assoc.
Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, pp. 1313-1354, 1 fig.
1947 Correlation chart of the outcropping Tertiary formations of the
eastern Gulf region: U.S. Geol. Survey, Oil and Gas Investigation Preliminary Chart 29.
Matson, G. C.
1909 (and Clapp, F. G.) A preliminary report on the geology of Florida with special reference to the stratigraphy: Florida Geol.
Survey 2nd Ann. Rept., 1908-1909, pp. 25-173.
1913 (and Sanford, S.) Geology and ground water of Florida: U. S.
Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, 445 pp. Moore, Wayne E.
1955 The geology of Jackson County: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 37,
101 pp.
Mossom, Stuart (see Cooke, 1929) Murray, G. E.
1950a Lithological facies of Jacksonian stage, central and eastern
Gulf coast: Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Annual Meeting, Chicago (abstract).
1950b (and Wilbert, L. J.) Jacksonian stage: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 23, pp. 1990-1997.
1952 Geology of Beauregard and Allen Parishes: Louisiana Dept. Cons.
Geol. Bull. 27 (stratigraphy, pl. 13). Palmer, K. V. W. (see Richards, 1953) Pressler, E. D.
1947 Geology and occurrence of oil in Florida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum
Geologists Bull., vol. 31, pp. 1851-1862. Puri, Harbans S. (also see Vernon, 1956)
1953 Zonation of the Ocala group in Peninsular Florida (abstract):
Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 23, p. 130. Richards, Horace G.
1953 (and Palmer, K.V.W.) Eocene mollusks from Citrus and Levy
counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 35, 95 pp., 13 pis. Roberts, Henry B. (in Richards and Palmer)
1953 A new species of Decapod Crustacean from the Inglis member:
Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 35, pp. 64-67. Rutten, M. G.
1932 (and Vermunt, L. W. J.) The Serce di Cueba limestone from
Curacao: K. Akad. Wetensch. Amsterdam, Proc. Sect. Sci.,
Amsterdam, Nederland, vol. 35, p. 240. Sanford, Samuel (see Matson, 1913). Sellards, E. H.
1918 (and Gunter, Herman) Geology between the Choctawhatchee and
Apalachicola rivers in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey 10th-lith
Ann. Repts., 1917-1918.
1919 Review of the geology of Florida, with special reference to
structural conditions: Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept.,
1918-1919, pp. 105-141.
Swain, Frederick M.
1946 Ostracoda from the Tertiary of Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol.
20, pp. 374-383, pis. 54, 55. Vaughan, T. W.
1928 New species of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala
limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155-165.
1933 Studies of American species of Foraminifera of the genus Lepidocyclina: Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 89, no. 10, 53 pp., 32 pis.





STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 89

Vermunt, L. W. J. (see Rutten, 1932) Vernon, Robert 0.
1947 Tertiary formations cropping out in Citrus and Levy counties:
Fifth Field Trip Guidebook, Southeastern Geol. Soc., Tallahassee, Florida, pp. 1-54.
1951 Geology of Citrus and Levy counties, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33, 256 pp., 2 pls.
1956 (and Puri, Harbans S.) A summary of the geology of Panhandle Florida and a guidebook to the surface exposures: Florida Geol. Survey, G.S.A. Field Trip, 83 pp. Wilbert, L. J. (see Murray, 1950b) Woodring, Wendell P. (see Cooke, 1943).




















Part II

STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION
OF THE OCALA GROUP

FORAMINIFERA







PART II


TABLE OF CONTENTS AND TAXONOMY

The following foraminiferal associations are ascertained in the Ocala group:
Page

Systematic Treatment 93

FAMILY Rupertiidae 99 GENUS Rupertia Wallich, 1877 99
SPECIES Rupertia floridana Cushman 99

FAMILY Textulariidae 99 SUBFAMILY Textulariinae 99
GENUS Textularia Defrance, 1824 99
SPECIES Textularia adalta Cushman 99
Textularia recta Cushman 100 Textularia ocalana Cushman 100 Textularia howei Puri, n. sp. 100 Textularia triangulata Puri, n. sp. 101 Textularia cf. T. hockleyensis Cushman and Applin ---- 101 Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin 101 Textularia subhauerii Cushman 102
SUBFAMILY Spiroplectammininae 102
GENUS Ammobaculites Cushman, 1910 102
SPECIES Ammobaculites hockleyensis Cushman and Applin -- 102
GENUS Ammospirata Cushman, 1933 102
SPECIES Ammospirata? levyensis Puri, n. sp. 102

FAMILY Verneuilinidae 103 GENUS Verneuilina d'Orbigny, 1840 103
SPECIES ?Verneuilina propinqua H. B. Brady 103
GENUS Guadryina d'Orbigny, 1839 103
SPECIES Gaudryina gardnerae Cushman .......................... 103
GENUS Pseudogaudryina Cushman, 1936 103
SPECIES Pseudogaudryina cf. P. jacksonensis Cushman .... 103

FA M ILY V alvulinidae .............. .. ........ ............. ........ 104
GENUS Valvulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ................. ...... ....... ....... 104
SPECIES Valvulina ocalana Cushman ............... ....... ..... 104
Valvulina floridana Cole . ......... ....... 104
GENUS Liebusella Cushman, 1933 ... ........ ......... ....... 104
SPECIES Liebusella byramensis turgida (Cushman) ...... 104
GENUS Textulariella Cushman, 1927 ..... .......... ....... 105
SPECIES Textulariella barretti (Jones and Parker) 105
GENUS Dictyoconus Blanckenhorn, 1900 ............ .......... .. .... 105
SPECIES Dictyoconus cookei Moberg 105
GENUS Lituonella Schlumberger, 1905 .......... ....... ... ... 106
SPECIES Lituonella sp ........ ... ...... ... 106
GENUS Neoclavulina Puri, n. gen ... .. .... ......... 106
SPECIES Neoclavulina robusta Puri, n. sp. 106

FAMILY Miliolidae 107 GENUS Quinqueloculina d'Orbigny, 1826 107
SPECIES Quinquiloculina newberryensis Puri, n. sp. 107
Quinqueloculina ocalava Puri, n. sp. 107




GENUS Miliola Lamarck, 1801 .. ... .. ......
SPECIES Miliola cf. M. saxorum Lamarck .... ...
Miliola jacksonensis Cushman ... ..... GENUS Massilina Schlumberger, 1893 .. ......
SPECIES Massilina cf. M. jacksonensis Cushman ....... GENUS Spiroloculina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Spiroloculina bidentata Hadley
Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan
Spiroloculina newberryensis Puri, n. sp. GENUS Articulina d'Orbigny, 1826 .. .....
SPECIES Articulina zuberentsis Puri, n. sp. GENUS Pyrgo Defrance, 1824
SPECIES Pyrgo cf. P. inornata (d'Orbigny) -_


F A M I L Y L a g e n id a e -.. ---.. -.. ----. ---. ----.-..----------------...... .. ... .... ...
SUBFAMILY Nodosariinae .... ...... ..
GENUS Robulus Montfort, 1808
SPECIES Robulus alatolimbatus (Giimbel)
Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace)
Robulus limbosus (Reuss)
Robulus gutticostatus (Giimbel)
Robulus arcuatostriatus (Hantken) ......
Robuins cf. R. propinqius (Hantken) Robulus dumblei Weinzierl and Applin
GENUS Marginulina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Marginulina fragaria texasensis (Cushman
p lin ) ........
Marginulina cf. M. karreriana Cushman
GENUS Den talina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Dentalina vertebralis albatrossi (Cushman)
Dentalina cooperensis Cushman
GENUS Nodosaria Lamarck, 1812
SPECIES ?Nodosaria ewaldi Reuss
Nodosaria latejugata Giimbel .... ........ .
Nodosaria fissicostata (Giimbel)
GENUS Saracenaria Defrance, 1824
SPECIES Saracenaria hantkeni Cushman
Saracenaria italica Defrance
Saracenaria moresiana Howe and Wallace
GENUS Lingulina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Lingulina ocalana Puri, n. sp.
SUBFAMILY Lageninae
GENUS Lagena Walker and Jacob, 1798 ..............
SPECIES Lagena laevis (Montagu)
Lagena acuticosta Reuss
GENUS Planularia Defrance, 1824
SPECIES Plannlaria trunckcana (Gtimbel) ......

FAMILY Polymorphinidae SUBFAMILY Polymorphininae GENUS Polymorphina d'Orbigny, 1826 ......
SPECIES Polymorphina sp.
GENUS Guttulina d'Orbigny, 1826 .......
SPECIES Guttulina irregularis (d'Orbigny) .........
Guttelina spicaeforuiis (Roemer)
GENUS Globilina d'Orbigny, 1826 ...........
SPECIES Globulina gibba d'Orbigny
Globnlina gibba globosa (Von Mdinster)
GENUS Siginomorphina Cushman and Ozawa, 1928
SPECIES Sigmnomorphina jacksonensis (Cushman) .

FAMILY Heterohelicidae ..... .. SUBFAMILY Plectofrondiculariinae ................


110 110 110 110 110 110 110
111
111 111 111 and Ap111 112 112
_. 112
112 113 113
... 113
113 113 113 114 114 114 114 115
115
115 115 115
S 115

116 116
_116
116
_116 116
116
__ 116
_116
117
. .117
117

118
..118




GENUS Plectofrondicularia Liebus, 1903 118
SPECIES Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana Purl, n. sp. 118

FAMILY Buliminidae 118
SUBFAMILY Turrilininae 118
GENUS Buliminella Cushman, 1911 118
SPECIES Buliminella sp. 118
SUBFAMILY Bulimininae 118
GENUS Bulimina d'Orbigny, 1826 118
SPECIES Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman 118
SUBFAMILY Virgulininae 119
GENUS Bolivina d'Orbigny, 1826 119
SPECIES Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin 119
Bolivina advena Cushman 119
GENUS Bitubulogenerina Howe, 1934 119
SPECIES Bitubulogenerina vickburgensis Howe 119
SUBFAMILY Reussellinae 119
GENUS Reussella Galloway, 1933 119
SPECIES Reussella eocena (Cushman) 119
Reussella sculptilis (Cushman) 120
SUBFAMILY Uvigerininae 120
GENUS Uvigerina d'Orbigny, 1826 120
SPECIES Uvigerina glabrans Cushman 120
Uvigerina jacksonensis Cushman 120 Uvigerina gardnerae Cushman 120 Uvigerina cf. U. cookei Cushman ------ 121
GENUS Trifarina Cushman, 1923 121
SPECIES Trifarina bradyi advena Cushman 121
GENUS Angulogerina Cushman, 1927 .......... 121
SPECIES Angulogeriva ocalana Cushman 121
FAMILY Cassidulinidae 121 GENUS Cassidulina d'Orbigny, 1826 121
SPECIES Cassiduflina cf. C. moodyensis Cushman and Todd --...121

SUPERFAMILY Rotaliidea 122
FAMILY Rotaliidae 122 SUBFAMILY Rotaliinae 122
GENUS Camagueyia Cole and Bermudez 122 GENUS Camagueyia Cole and Bermudez, 1944 122 GENUS Rotalia Lamarck, 1804 122
SPECIES Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan 122
SUBFAMILY Discorbisinae 122
GENUS Discorbis Lamarck, 1804 122
SPECIES Discorbis bulla Cushman 122
Discorbis ocalana Cushman 123
GENUS Discorinopsis Cole, 1941 123
SPECIES Discorinopsis gunteri Cole 123
GENUS Mississippiana Howe, 1930 123
SPECIES Mississippiana monsouri Howe 123
GENUS Stomatorbina Dorreen, 1948 123
SPECIES Stomatorbina kendrickensis Puri, n. sp. 123
GENUS Vernonina Puri, n. gen. 124
SPECIES Vernonina tuberculata Purl, n. sp. 124
SUBFAMILY Valvulineriinae 124
GENUS Gyroidina d'Orbigny, 1826 124
SPECIES Gyroidina crystalriverensis Puri. n. sp. 124
Gyroidina nassauensis Cole 125 Gyroidina soldanii d'Orbigny 125 Gyroidina springfieldensis Purl, n. sp. 125
GENUS Valvulineria Cushman, 1926 125
SPECIES Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellisor 125
Valvulineria jacksonensis Cushman 125




GENUS Eponides Montfort, 1808 126
SPECIES Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) 126
Eponides ocalana Cushman 126 Eponides budensis planata Cushman 126 Epon ides cocoaensis Cushman ..... 126

FAMILY Globorotaliidae -- 126
GENUS Cribrogloborotalia Cushman and Bermudez, 1936 126
SPECIES Cribrogloborotalia marielina Cushman and Bermudez 126
GENUS Globorotalia Cushman, 1927 127
SPECIES Globorotalia crystariverensis Puri, n. sp. 127
Globorotalia cocoaevsis Cushman 127

FAMILY Hantkeninidae 127
GENUS Hantkenina Cushman, 1924 127
SPECIES Hantkeniva alabamensis Cushman ------- 127

FAMILY Epistomininae -------------- 128
GENUS Alabamia Toulmin, 1941 128
SPECIES Alabainina obtusa (Burrows and Holland) 128
GENUS Epistomaria Galloway, 1933 128
SPECIES Epistoinaria semimarginata (d'Orbigny) 128

FAMILY Cymbaloporidae 128
GENUS Fabiania A. Silvestri, 1926 -- 128
SPECIES Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez) 128 SUBFAMILY Planulininae 129 GENUS Plandina d'Orbigny, 1826 129
SPECIES Plami a cocoaensis Cushman .. ...... 129
Piannima kendrickensis Puri, n. sp. 129 SUBFAMILY Siphoninae 129 GENUS Siphonina Reuss, 1850 129
SPECIES Siphon ia jacksonensis Cushman and Applin 129

F A M IL Y C eratobu lim in idae .............................. ... ................... .......... 180
SUBFAMILY Ceratobulimininae 130 GENUS Lamarckina Berthelin, 1881 130
SPECIES Laniarckina sp. 130

F A M IL Y A n om a lin id a e -.. ----------------. ---------------------- .... ........ .... .... 130
SUBFAMILY Anomalininae -------- 130 G E N U S A nom alina d'Orbigny, 1826 ........... ...... ..................... ..- 130
SPECIES Anomalina bilateralis Cushman .... 130
Anoinalbia cocoaensis Cushman ...... 130 SUBFAMILY Cibicidinae 130 GENUS Cibicides Montfort, 1808 ----- 130
SPECIES Cibicides psendoungerianus (Cushman) - 130
Cibicides cf. C. yazooensis Cushman -------................ 131
Cibicides cf. C. mississippiensis (Cushman) 131 Cibicides cf. C. cooperensis Cushman --- 131 Cibicides m ississippiensis ocalanus (Cushman) ---- 131
GENUS Dyocibicides Cushman and Valentine, 1930 ..... 131
SPECIES Dyocibicides sp ........ 131

FAMILY Amphisteginidae .............. ...... 132
GENUS Amphistegina d'Orbigny, 1826 ..... .. 132
SPECIES Amphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan 132

FAMILY Nonionidae -- 132 SUBFAMILY Nonioninae .............. 132
GENUS Nonion Montfort, 1808 132
SPECIES Nonion advenni (Cushman) 132





Non ion plaatum Cushman and Thomas 133
GENUS Non onella Cushman, 1826 ... .. 133
SPECIES Non ionella sp .... 133

SUBFAMILY Elphidiinae ......... 133
GENUS Elphidinin Montfort, 1808 ...... 133
SPECIES Elphidium sp. ......... 133

FAMILY Nummulitidae ............. 133
GENUS Niemmalites Lamarck, 1801 --- 133
SPECIES Nunmmdites vanderstoki Rutten and Vermunt 133
GENUS Opercnlina d'Orbigny, 1826 134
SPECIES Operculina mariannensis Vaughan -- 134
GENUS Operculinoides Hanzawa, 1935 ..... 134
SPECIES Operculinoides ocalanus (Cushman) 134
Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin) 134
Operculivoides moodybravchensis (Gravell and
Hanna) 135 Operculinoides vaughani (Cushman) 135 Operculinoides willcoxi (Heilprin) 135 Operculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna) 136
SUBFAMILY Heterostegininae ..... 136
GENUS Heterostegina d'Orbigny, 1826 131;
SPECIES Heterostegina ocalana Cushman 136

FAMILY Lepidocyclinidae 137 GENUS Lepidocyclina Giimbel, 1870 137
SPECIES Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman 137
Lepidocyclina ocalana floridana Cushman 137 Lepidocyclina ocalana attenuata Cushman 137 Lepidocyclina ocalana pseudomarginata Cushman 138 Lepidocyclina mortoni Cushman 138
SUBGENUS Nephrolepidina H. DouviIl6, 1911 ----138
SPECIES Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi Lemoine and
R. Douvill -- 138 Lepidocyclina sp. 139

SUPERFAMILY Discocyclinidea ... 139
FAMILY Discocyclinidae 139 GENUS Psendophragmina H. Douvill, 1923 139
SUBGENUS Proporocyclina Vaughan and Cole, 1940 .. ...-139
SPECIES Psendophragmi a (Proporocyclina) fin tensis (Cushman) 139 Psendophragnina (Proporocyclina) floridana (Cushman) 139 Psendophragmina (Proporocyclina) citen'nsis
(Vaughan) 140
FAMILY Asterocyclinidae 140 GENUS Asterocyclina Giimbel, 1870 - 140
SPECIES Asterocyclina georgiana (Cushman) 140
Asterocyclina americana (Cushman) 140 Asterocyclina maria nensis (Cushman) 141 Asterocyclina chipolensis (Vaughan) 141 Asterocyclina vanghani (Cushman) 141 Asterocyclina aff. A. nassaensis Cole 142
FAMILY Peneroplidae 142 SUBFAMILY Spirolininae 112
GENUS Spirolina Lamarck, 1804 - 142
SPECIES Spirolina coryenisis Cole _- 142
SUBFAMILY Archaiasinae 142




GENUS Archaias Montfort, 1808
SPECIES Archaias withlacoochensis Puri, n. sp.

FAMILY Gypsininae
GENUS Sphaerogypsina Galloway, 1933
SPECIES Sphaerogypsina globula (Reuss)


FAMILY Planorbulinidae
GENUS Planorbulina d'Orbigny, 1826
SPECIES Planorbulina sp.
GENUS Linderina Schlumberger, 1893
SPECIES Linderina sp.


ILLUSTRATIONS


Plates


Tables
1 Stratigraphic distribution of the Foraminifera of the Ocala group




Part II

Description of Species


Family RUPERTIIDAE Genus RUPERTIA Wallich, 1877 Rupertia floridana Cushman Plate 8, figs. 7, 8; plate 12, fig. 8
Rifpertia floridana Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,
vol. 9, p. 21, pl. 2, figs. 13, 14.
Rapertia floridana Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, p. 55, pl. 23, figs. 6, 7.
This attached, elongate, cylindrical form with inflated chambers in a loose spiral can be easily identified by its large size, tapering test with slightly depressed and distinct sutures and a multiple aperture.
The typical specimen is figured on pl. 12, fig. 8. There are a number of variations with this species, and some of the variants are figured on pl. 8, figs. 7, 8.
This species is common in the Spiroloculina newberryensis and the Asterocyclina faunizones of the Crystal River formation. Doubtless, this species occurs throughout the Crystal River. Since it occurs attached on the valves of mollusks and tests of larger Foraminifera, it is difficult to spot in well cuttings.

Family TEXTULARIIDAE Subfamily TEXTULARIINAE
Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824 Textularia adalta Cushman Plate 1, figs. la, b
Textjilaria adalta Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,
vol. 2, p. 29, pl. 4, fig. 2.
Textularia adalta Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, p. 8, pl. 1, figs. 11, 12.
Tejxtularia adalta Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32,
no. 131, p. 35, pl. 4, figs. 13a, b, 14a, b.
Textuaria adalta Cushman. Todd, 1952, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 241,
p. 5, pl. 1, fig. 6.
This species can easily be identified by its elongate, slender, tapering and compressed form with 5 or 6 chambers making up more than half of the test. The periphery is subacute except in the last few chambers where it is subrounded.




100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT

This species occurs throughout the Ocala group but is more abundant in the Spiroloculiha newberryensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation.

Textularia recta Cushman
Plate 1, figs. 2a, b
Te.tuhlria recta Cushman, 1923, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, p. 17,
pl. 1, fig. 2.
Tc.dtilaria recta Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, pp. 7, 8, pl. 1, figs. 8, 9.
This species can be easily identified by its elongate, slightly compressed test, which in its early portion increases rapidly but in the later portion increases slowly. This causes the adult to show parallel sides.
This species occurs throughout the Ocala group, but is abundant in the Spiroloculina newberryensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation.

Textuhd ria ocalana Cushman
Plate 1, figs. 3a, b; plate 2, fig. 1
Te.htiltria ocalana Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,
vol. 2, p. 30, pl. 4, figs. 3a, b.
Tcxtalaria ocalana Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper
181, p. 7, pl. 1, figs. 7a, b.
This species could be easily identified by its small, compressed, nearly flat test with few, uninflated chambers with slightly depressed sutures.
This species has only been noticed in the Spiroloclina newberrycisis faunizone of the Crystal River and Inglis formations where it occasionally occurs at most locations.

Textilaria howei Puri, n. sp.
Plate 1, fig. 4
Test small, average size 0.7 mm., short, broad, slightly compressed; periphery rounded, initial end acute, apertural end broad. Chambers few, distinct, increasing in height and breadth as added, with early portion of the test triangular, later two chambers as high as wide, making up half of the test. Sutures distinct, curved, depressed. Aperture arched, at the inner margin of the last formed chamber. Average height 0.7 mm.; breadth 0.5 mm.
Named in honor of Dr. Henry V. Howe, Louisiana State University.
This species could easily be identified from the rest of the Gulf coast species by its short, broad test. T. dibollensis Cushman and




Full Text

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TATE OF FLORIDA TATE BOARD OF CONSERVATIO Ernest Mitts, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Herman Gunter, Director GEOLOGI ALB .LLETIN NO.3 STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONA'"fiON OF THE OCALA GRO P HARBANS S. PURl Publi hed for THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL RVEY Tallaha ee, Florida November 1, 1957

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COPYRIGHT NOTICE [year of publication] Florida Geological Survey [source text] The Florida Geolooical Survey holds all riohts to the source te of the B1i1Jetins., rnual Reports, Itifornta on Cilcultws, Letdfet& l'Wscella emu Stnilks, Rqons qf Inves i:lllio11s. Special Pub& ons, and .Maps and shall be co sidered the t holde for the text and ages of these publica ons. The Florida Geolooical Suxvey has rna e this publication available to the University of Florida, o behalf of e IMLS grant L. g Florida)s Natural Heri age for ptuposes of dioi za on and Internet dis bu on. The Florida Geological Survey reserves all rights to this publica on. Al uses e clu g those ade u der ''faiJ use" pro isio s of U.S. Code. Title 17 Section 107 3l'e restricted. C ntact the Florida Geoloo.ical S nvey additional info ati and pennissions. .dep.s ate.fl.us/geo ( ) for

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fLORID;.\ TE BO RD f 0 ER\ TION LEROY OLLI r Govenw1 'rHA MAYO Commissioner of Agdcultzue THOMA D. B .\ILEY upcriutendeut P ublic Instnwtiou RI HARD ERVI A tto ru c 11 n r ral R. . GRAY cc1etary of tate J. ED\YI L .. \R 0 T rea s u 1e 1 R . \ y E. GREE T omptrollrr ER E T MITT upervi 01 of onse1vatiou 2

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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL rfloriJa {jeofoqical Survelj CCalfakassee April 17, 1957 MR. ERNEST MITTS, Di1ecto ' r FLORIDA STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA SIR: The Ocala limestone is probably the most significant formation in the geologic section of Florida, because of its importance as a fresh-water aquifer, as a source of high purity limestone and as a key to the solution of the orogeny, stratigraphy, and historical geology of Florida. A better understanding of the history of these sediments is important since all of the early structural maps were drawn upon the eroded top of the Ocala limestone. This report, entitled "Stratigraphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group," was prepared by Dr. Harbans S. Puri, Paleontologist of this department. Part I is a comprehensive report that contributes mu ch new data to the biostratigraphy of the Ocala group; Part II is a detailed study of the Foraminifera and Part III describes the Ostracoda contained in these rocks. \ Respectfully submitted, HERMAN GUNTER, Di1ectoT

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.. .. . . f. .. _ • '
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ABSTRACT R eg i o n a l .. t u d ies o f the Ocala lim es t o n e j u tify the u e of the t erm Oca l a g-rou p, w hi c h i r edefi n e d to inc lud e a ll calcar eo u e di ments of J ac k .. o n age that occ u r ea .. t of T o m b igbee Ri ver. So d e fined, t h e g r o u p inc lud es the following formati o n s : Ingli , Willi s t on a nd Cry .. tal Ri ver. The Ing l L a nd t h e Williston w e r e b oth ori ginally d escribe d as m embe r s of the Mood y Branc h formation. but a r e h e r e r a i eel to formati o n a l r ank b eca u e of the distinctive ne.... of t h e i r lit h o l o!ry a n d faun a, and beca u e of t h e i r li t h o l og i c d i ffere n ce f r om t h e typ e M oody Bra n c h. The n a m e C r y .. tal River formati o n propo e d f o r t h e 108 feet of li me expo .. ed in t h e Cry tal River R oc k C omp a n y q u arry, Secti o n 6 , T ow n hip 19 R a ng-e 1 8 E a t, C i tru Co un ty, Florida . It inc lu des all cal careo u of upper E oce n e age l y in g strati g raphically t h e Willi ton fo rmati o n a n d t h e over l ying Oli goce n e lim etone ..... T h e following fauni zo n e .. a r e r ecog ni ze d \ v i thin t h e three formati o n s of t h e Oca l a group: ry .. tal River forma ti o n L epiclocyc linc t ( N ep h1olepi dina ) chaperi faunizon e AsteroC'ycli1laSpi? ola e a veJnoni fau n izon e Nununuli te 1 ande?stokiH c Jnicyth e r e fau n i zone L e p idoc yclinaP seudo plz ragntina faunizon e piroloculina JZe7vbe?TlJf'1l is fauni zo n e W illi.. ton fo rmati o n N uJnJJlUlites faunizon e Ope1cul1'?zoides iack o?le?zsis fauni zo n e Ingli. formation P eri archu Z uelli floridanu. -Pl ecto[Jonclicu laria? inglisiana fauni zone Part II is a comprehen ive tudy of t h e Foramin i f e r a of t h e Ocala group. T h e fauna of t heQe .. edime nts con .. i ts of 145 spec i e , of '''hi c h 17 are new. T h e e spec i e .. a r e d istri b u t o d ov e r 78 genera. of w hi c h , t\vo, N eoclavuli11a a n d V er-nonina, are d escribe d a n ew . 5

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Part III i a detailed study of 0 tracoda contained in the e rock . Forty pecies are reported from the Ocala group, of which 23 are new. The ostracode fauna is distributed over 23 genera, of which three, PseudocytheromoTpha, Jugosocythe1eis and Ab sonocythe?'OJJ t e ?on, are reported for the fir t time.

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PREFACE The lithologic homogeneity of ediment formerly included in the Ocala limestone, with hardly any marked lateral facie , increases the difficulty in correlation by ordinary methods based o nl y on lithology. Therefore, in determining the exact litholo g i c po ition of various horizon within the "Ocala limestone" in widely cattered area , a basis of correlation independent of lithology must be provided. A method of correlation is upplied by the de tailed zonation by means of microfossils and this method ha been u sed in this study to establish a greater number of biostratigraphic units over a wider area than has been accomplished by other means. A detailed examination of several outcrop sections and rock cutting from water wells that in Florida at least eight faunizone ca n be recognized in the "Ocala limestone." The "Ocala limestone" i s probably the most significant tratigraphic unit in the geologic section of Florida, because of it importance as a fresh-water aquifer, as a source of high purity lim e stone, and as the key to the solution of the orogeny, stratigraphy and historical geology of Florida Tertiary sediments, particularly of those cropping out at the surface. The Florida Geological Survey r ecog nized the importance of the full understanding of the hi tory of these sediments since all of the early structural map vvere drawn upon the eroded top of the Ocala limestone and the tructure thus depicted were not truly representative. Applin and Applin ( 1944) made the first subdivision of the Ocala lim estone, but not until Vernon's (1951) study on Citrus and Levy counties could these sediments be divided into three stratigraphic units that enabled the construction of a representative tructural map of the Tertiary beds of Florida. Vernon ( 1951) recognized in the Ocala limestone three di tinct units, from top to bottom, the Ocala limestone (restricted), the Williston member, and the Inglis men1ber , the last two compo ing the Moodys Branch formation. With the completion of thi tudy it was felt that the Ocala limestone (restricted) could be further subdivided and W. R. Oglesby was encouraged to map Dixie and Gilchrist counties and attempt further subdivisions. The pre ent tudy of the Ocala lin1estone was initiated early in 1950 as a re ult of discussions \ vith Oglesby on the possibility of such a zonation. 7

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An attempt was t h e n made to find accurate datum planes vvithin the Ocala lim e tone. It wa realized earl y in the stud y that everal fauni zone , each with characteristi c fo il , co uld be recognized in the Ocala lim e tone but it oon became apparent that o nl y a s m all portion of the Oc a la lim esto n e existed in Dixie and Gilchrist co untie . Additional work was, therefore, recommended at the type locality at Oca l a, Marion County, and other well-expo ed sec t i on in Penin ular Florida, to determine w hether s u ch faunizo n e could be recognized late r a ll y, irrespective of variation in the character of ediment . Four control ecti o n , Ne,vberry, Alachua County; Zuber and Kendric k , Mari on County; and Crystal River, Citrus County, wer e collected at five-foot interval in the summer of 1951 . A stud y of the rock cutting from water well W 381, P o lk County, served to amplify the ev id ence relating to the stratigraphic di tribution of the faunal zon es in the t y pe area and to extend the correlation outh vvard. A manu cript entitled " Z o nati on of the Ocala Group in Penin ul a r Florida" wa ubmitted to the Florida Geological Survey fo r pub licati o n in November, 1952, but Dr. R. 0. Vernon s uggested that the corr e lati o n in P eninsular Florida be extended throughout the State. The zonation in Penin ul a r Florida was presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Economic Paleontologist and Mineralooi ts at H o uston on March 25, 195 3, and was published in ab tract (Puri, 1953). I t can now be e tabli h ed that t h e even faunizon es recognized in the Qcala group in Peninsular Florida ca n be correlated throughout Florida. In pite of careful search to recognize any li t hol ogic unit ' v i t hin t h e O ca la lim e tone (re tricted) of Vernon, none wa found to be per i tent enoug h to be of any real valu e . The fauni zone establis h ed in the pre ent t ud y are ba ed on the eva luati on of uites of pecie ; co n c lu i o n are dravvn from faunal a emblage rather than from individual spec i e . Mo t of t h ese fauni zone can be recognized in Florid a. Spec i e of Fora minifera and 0 tracoda are mo t u eful in t hi zonati on. Several c h a racteri tic fo il of these zones are figured in t h e belief that they w ill help those not acquainted w i t h t h e fauna. Several of the pec i e of 0 t r acoda are new and are d e cri bed and figured for the fir t time. Further t udi e may extend their stratigraphic range. Mo t of the pec i es of Foraminifera have been previously de cribed and 8

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figured. The literature on the foraminiferal fauna of the Ocala limestone i widely scattered; in most cases either the descriptions are too lengthy or the figures too generalized and poor. Very rarely the exact tratigraphic occurrence of the fauna has been recorded. With the exception of the few recent studies, the faunal s ucces s ion of the specie of Foraminifera of the Ocala limestone has not hitherto been clear and an attempt is here made to clarify some of these problems . Larger Foraminifera and Ostracoda are used for the most part in this study because they are abundant and well preserved; in ad dition they are known to have a narrow vertical and a wide hori zontal range as compared with the ranges of smaller Foraminifera, which are used more commonly in zonation in the western Gulf coast. Smaller Foraminifera are, moreov er, destroyed by leaching and recrystallization in limestones and in many cases induration makes it hard to free them from the rock. In addition to the Foraminifera, we ll-preserved Bryozoa are abundant in the Ocala lin1e stone. They offer promising possibilities as zonal markers, if care ful faunal tudies are made in conjunction with a restudy of bryo zoan terminology. The pre ent zonation of the Ocala group was complicated by the difficult task of assigning spec ific names to most species of smaller Foraminifera because of their poor state of preservation. Most ostracode carapaces are either closed, articulate valves, or filled with calc ium carbonate, and therefore it i s difficult to ob erve their detail ed hinge tructure, pore canals, and muscle scars. The nature of the problem, in view of the poor state of preservation of specie , and con equent difficulties in identification due to poor pre ervation, does not warrant a comp lete taxonomic analysis. Gratitude i expressed to 'Y R. Oglesby, William Lapinsky and Lionel Brenneman, for their assistance in the field work and col l ection of ampl es. The author i s grateful to Dr. Robert 0. Vernon for his keen interest during the study and his constructive criticism of the manuscript. Dr. Vernon also contributed much well data from central and northern Florida; s ome of this data ha already been published (Vernon, 1951). Paul L. and Esthtr R. Applin kindly aliowed u se of their well and s lide collection and help E d to clarify some of the stratigraphic problems. The report has been discussed with Drs. H. V. Howe, G. E. 9

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a nd the late L. J. Wilbert Jr. Dr. H O \\ ' e a l o a. i ted in t h e compa ri o n of o tracode pecie. \ vith hi type ollecti on. The F oraminifera have been compa r ed 'vith h omeotype id entified by the late Dr. J o eph A. u .. hma n a nd Dr. Han Naegeli. Mr. Andre ' v R . Jan. o n a nd Mi s Doryand P. J a n o n a ted in the preparation of illu .. tration . Mr . Ruth Shul e r h e lp e d type the final m a nu cript. All type are depo ited in t h e Florida Geological Mu .::e um . T ype number .. refer to the urvey catal og . A para type , et o t t h e n e " ' pecie of 0 tracoda i depo ited in the H enry V. H o,v e collection, Loui siana State Univ e r ity. JO (

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Letter of Transmittal ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 Abstract __________ --------------------------------------__ -----_---------------------------------------------. ---------5 Preface __________ ------------------------------------__ -----------------------------------------------------.--------.--7 Stlati graphy and Zonation of the Ocala Group Part I S tra tigra p hy ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 3 Part II For am in i f era ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------91 Part I II 0 s trac od a -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 85 Inde}( ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11

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PART I TRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GRO P TRATIGRAPHY

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PART I TABLE OF CONTENTS Stratigraphy H i storical revie w ----------------------------------------------------------_ _ . -----------------------17 C l assifi cation __ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 () cala --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 I n g 1 i s f o rn1 at ion --------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 4 T y p e 1 o cal i ty -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------24 Faun a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------______________ __ 2 5 Will i s ton formation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 8 T y p e 1 oca I i t y -------------------------------------------------------------------------_____________ _ 2 9 Fa11na --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------29 Crystal Riv e r for m at ion ------------------------------------------------------------------------3 1 T y p e 1 o cal i ty ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 5 Fauna -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3t> Thickness ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 7 Dis tri b uti on ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 8 Downdip fac i es of the () cala g roll]) ------------------------------------------------------38 Large r F o r aminifera of the ()cala g rou]) ------------------------------------------41 Note s on s p ec ies of larger Foraminifera ----------------------------------------------4 2 Zonation -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------___ _____________ 4 6 Loca 1 it i e s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------57 Bib I i o gr a p hy -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 t> ILLUSTRATIONS Figures 1 En trance to 1 o cal i ty PM -2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------2 3 2 Panoran1a of Zube r pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacttiring C on1 ])any , 1 o cal i ty PM-2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------23 3 Cavern at lo cality PA-4. The v ertical drop i s 30 feet. Suc h caverns a r e c on1n1on in the limestone s of the ()cala grouJ> ------------------------------3 2 4 Solution pipes at lo cality PA-l. These "I>i])es" are fill e d with the Hawthorn sediments and carry a varie d v ertebrate fauna __________________ 3 2 5 Bould e r s of c h ert at lo cality P A-2. D e po sition of silic a has r eplaced the lin 1estone. Pseudomorphs of s h e ll s are common in these boulde r s 33 6 A r nusiu1n b e d at I o cali ty P L-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------3 7 7 Surface o ccurre n ces of the () cala group in Florida -----------------------------3 9 8 Typical sediment of the Ing li s formation from bo rrow pit ________________ 49 9 T ypical r ock s pecime n of the Williston formation, lo cality L3 7 ________ 51 15

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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 -Typical sediment of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophrag?nina faunizone of the Crystal River _ __ __ _ _ ____ ---------__ __ _ __ _ 53 Typical rock specimen of Numntulites vande1stoki faunizone, lo-cality PL-1 _ --------54 Typical sediment of the AsteYocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PJ -1 56 Locality map of Florida with lines of sections In pocket Panorama at locality P A-1 showing the Newberry Corporation pits 59 Entrance to S. M. Wall quarry, locality PA-2. Hawthorn clays (background) overlie the Crystal River formation unconformably 61 61 Panorama at locality P A-2 showing the S. M. Wall quarry __ Panorama at locality P A-3 showing the Buda Pit of the Williston Shell Rock Co. _____ _ _ Panorama at locality P A-4 showing the Duval Construction Co. pits Panorama at locality PG-1 ------------Panorama at locality PG-2 showing Gordon Philpot quarry _________ _ Panorama at locality PG-5 -----------------Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, locality PJ-1 ----------Sam Smith quarry, locality PJ-4 Panorama at locality PL-1 showing the Dell Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Co. 62 63 63 64 66 67 69 71 25 Panorama at locality PM-1, Dixie Lime Products Co., Reddick, Florida _ ____ _ _ _ _ _ ________ 73 26 Panorama at locality PM-3, Kendrick pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co. ___ _____ 73 27 Panorama at locality PS-1 ------------------------------------------------------74 28 Panorama at locality PS-2 74 29 Panorama at locality PS-3, showing the Suwannee Limerock Co. quarry ___ _____ _ -------______ -_ 7 5 30 Crushing plant at locality PS-3, Suwannee Limerock Co. ----------------75 Plates Stratigraphic Sections A-A' and B-B' Isometric Projection of the Ocala group In pocket In pocket 1 2 3 Isometric Projection of the Ocala group showing the various faunizones _ _____ _ __ In pocket Tables 1 Classification of the Ocala group in Florida 28 2 Distribution of Foran1inifera and Ostracoda In the Inglis and Wil-lis ton formations 29 3 Comparison of septa per whorl 1n species of Nummulites In the Ocala group _ 45 16

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Part I STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP STRATIGRAPHY HISTORICAL REVIEW The term Ocala limestone was proposed by Dall (1892, pp. 103104) for the limestone exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida. Dall ( op . cit. ) correlated these sediments with the "Nummulitic beds" and with the Oligocene of Heilprin ( 1887) which Dall then thought to be of Eocene age. Dall (1892, pp. 103104) recognized three units in the Eocene of Peninsular Florida, the limestone" (Vicksburg), the "Nummulitic limetone" (Ocala) and the "Miliolitic limestone" (? Williston) . He considered them to belong in part to the Vicksburg. Later Dall (1903, p. 1554) proposed the name "Peninsular limestone" for part of the orbitoidal limestone between the Vicksburg and the Ocala limestone. He suggested that the Peninsular limestone might be younger than the typical Vicksburg and older than the Ocala lime s tone. Matson and Clapp (1909, p. 51) adopted the name Peninsular and Ocala limestones and proposed a new name "Marianna lime stone" for the limestone of northwestern Florida containing L epi docyclina They ( op. cit. ) referred Marianna limestone to the Oligocene. They based this age determination on a species of Nummulites (really a Lepido cyc lina) identified by Heilprin (1882) as associated with the Oligocene and were also influenced by Dall's ( 1903) idea that the Ocala fauna was of upper Vicksburg age. These conclusions were adopted by Matson and Sanford (1913) without further question. The credit for assigning the Ocala limestone to its correct stratigraphic position goes to Cooke ( 1915) who for the first time showed that much of the Peninsular limestone is the same as Ocala; that "Ocala limestone" underlies the Marianna limestone and the "Ocala fauna is essentially Jackson stage." Most subsequent authors have accepted this age determination. 17

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18 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Sellards and Gunter (1918, p. 88) and Sellards (1919, p. 113) referred to the Claiborne Eocene so m e "glauconitic calcareous sand rack" a lon g the Choctawhatchee River. Vernon (1942, pp. 43-45) notes strong faunal evidence for a lower Jackso n age assignment of the e beds. Cooke and Mossom (1929, pp. 47-48) lumped in the "Ocala" a ll ediment of Eocene age exposed in Florida, includin g the "Orbitoidal," "Nummulitic" and "Miliolitic" limeston es of Dall as we ll as the "Peninsular" limestone of Matso n. Cooke, Gardner and Woodring ( 1943), in their correlation of the Cenozoic formations of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Pla in, correlated the "Ocala limestone" with the Jackson stage of the Gulf state . Applin and Applin (1944), who s ubdivided the Ocala lim esto n e for the first time into a lower and an upper member, s how that the upper member which is the typical Ocala limestone occurs in ubsurface throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of Seminole and Volusia counties. The wells in this area penetrated the lower, less fossiliferous member directly beneath a thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds. Applin and Jordan ( 1945, p. 130) , in their discussion of the diagno tic Foraminifera of the subsurface formations of Florida, listed the following s p ec ie s to be common and characteri tic in the O ca l a lim estone : A 1nphistegin a alaba1 nensis Applin and Jordan Cibicid e s 1nississippi en sis ocalanus Cushman D i scocyclina (Astm ocycli na) n assauensis Col e Eponide s jackson en sis (Cushman and Applin) Gypsina globula (Reuss) H e t e 1 oste gina ocala n a Cushman N o n ion chapapotensis Cole Ope ' rculina ma1iann en sis Vaughan Op er culinoid e s fio1iden sis ( Heilprin) Operculinoid e s ocala nus (Cushman) Op er c u linoid e s w i llcoxi (Heilprin) Ps eudoph-rag tnin a (P1opo?ocycli n a) c itrens i s (Vaughan) R eu ss e lla eocen a (Cushman) R eu ss e lla sc u lpt i lis (Cushman) Applin and Jordan ( op. cit.) thought the followin g s p ec ie s were common and characteristic in the lower member of the Ocala lime stone in Peninsular Florida: . 4?n1Jhiste gina pinarensis c o s d eni Applin and Jordan Ca1neTin a aff. vand erstoki (Rutten and Vermunt) R o tal i a c ush1nan i Applin and Jordan Spiroloculina se1ni n ol en s i s Applin and Jordan

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 19 Bandy (1949), in his attempt to zone the upper Eocene, Jackso n g roup, which he called Jackson "formation" in Alabama (Little Stave Creek section) , divided it, in descending order, into zone B, zo ne A, Yazoo clay "member" and Moodys Branch marl "member." He listed and illustrated the following spec ies to be diagno tic of the Moodys Branch "member": :::Bolivina sale b rosa Bandy :::Cib icides t?''uncatus Bandy ::: Disco r bi s hemisphe1icus Cushman Nu1nm ulite s jacksonen sis (Gravell and Hanna) Op e1culinoides v a ughani (Cushman) :::R eus s e lla 1noodyensis Bandy S7:>hae1ogypsina glob u lus (Reuss) The pecies indicated by an asterisk are common in the " member" but are not restricted, the species without an asterisk are good markers with the exception of Gypsina globula which i known to range throughout the Cenozoic. Bandy ( 1949, p. 13) listed the following species to be diagnostic of the Yazoo c lay "member" : A m1no baculites pseu do?osttatus Bandy A 1n1nobaculites yazoo cnsis Bandy ::: Cibicidina yazoo en sis Bandy M assilin a cook ei Cushman M assilina yazoo en sis Bandy ::: N onion advenu1n (Cushman) ::: Nonio n inexcavatu?n (Cushn1an and Applin) ::: N onion e lla spissa Cushman Qui nque loculina constans Bandy S1Ji1opl ec ta1nmina pseudoelongata Bandy :::Textula1ia adaJta C u shman ::: T extula1 ia dibolle n sis Cushman and Applin T1iloc u lina sub1otunda Bandy The species shown by asterisks are common but not re tricted a nd the rest of the species are good markers. He listed the following species to be restricted to hi zone A, over lying the Yazoo clay : Aktinocyc li n a bai n b 1idgensis Vaughan L epidocy clina ocalana Cushman Although Bandy ( 1949, p. 13) records that L epidocyclina ocalana is restricted to his zone A, the species is known to occur a l o in the Williston sediments (lower Jackson substage) of Florida. The following species are listed by Bandy ( 1949 , p. 14) to be characteristic of his zone B :

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20 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT A no1na lina cocoaensis C u shman Aste ' rigerinella g allowayi Bandy Bolivina dalli (Cushman) Buli1nina jacksonensis C u shman B u limina jacksonensis cuneata Cu shman cocoaensis Cushman and Garrett Ci b icidina walli Bandy Ga ud1yina jacksonensis C u shman M arginulina cocoaensis C u shman Sa1acenaria ornatus Cushman and Bermudez Rob u lus insitatus Cushman Robulus rectido1satus Bandy Uvige1i n a cocoaensis Cushman Vulvuli n a advena Cushman In the opinion of the writer, zones A and B of Bandy are equivalent in part to the Pachuta and Shubuta formations of Alabama and Mi issippi , respectively. The most recent contribution, to our knowledge, of the "Ocala" i that of Vernon (1951). After completion of a detailed of the geology of Citru and Levy counties, Vernon came to the con clu ion that the ba al 80 feet of the "Ocala limestone" can be di -tingui hed from the stratigraphically higher rock in the Moody s Branch formation. Two lithologically as well as faunistically distinct units are recognized by him in the Moodys Branch formation, approximately 50 and 30 feet thick. The lower 50 feet of the Moodys Branch formation, to which the name Inglis member is given by Vernon (op. cit., p. 111) is considered by him to correspond to Applin and Applin's (1944) lower member of the Ocala lime tone. The overlying 30 feet of strata are included in the Williston member of the Moodys Branch formation. Beds overlying the Moody Branch formation are placed by Vernon in the Ocala lime tone (restricted). Undifferentiated "Ocala limestone," as u se d by previou workers, is contemporaneous with the Jackson tage of the eastern Gulf states (Cooke, 1915; Co oke, Gardner and Woodring, 1943; Cooke, 1945; Murray, 1952). MacNeil (1947) used the Jackson group in the litho-stratigraphic sense but Vernon (1952) used Jackson both as a stage and as a group name. Jacks on tage d e fined b y Murray and Wilbert (1950) a "Jacksonian," i s a time-rock unit a u ed by most American stratigraphers and, according to their best judgment, is of age or stage u sage and therefore s hould not be used in a rock sense . The Jackson stage in Mississippi and Alabama i divided into a lower Moody s Branch formation and a n upper Yazoo group (Murray, 1952). Ea t of the Missis s ippiAlabama state line the upper clayey facies become calcareous gradually and pas into a distinct limy facies in Florida. Vern on justifies the exten s ion of the Moodys Branch formation into Florida because

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 21 of the continuity of biozones from the type locality in the vicinity of Jack on, Mississippi, to Florida and because of the gradual lateral change in facies of deposition. The Moodys Branch formation at it t y pe localit y consists of a lower sand member and an upper marl member, \Vhich on induration may resemble a limestone at s ome place . In Florida, however, both members (Inglis and Williston) are calcareous. Whether or not thes e end members of the Moody Branch formation in Alabama, Mississippi and Florida, which are certainly contemporaneous in age, should be referred to the same formational name is a matter of opinion. Rather than introduce a new name, and because of unfinished studies being undertaken on the Florida sediments of the Jackson stage, Vernon1 preferred to extend the formational name to Florida, although he recognized that the calcareou s facies could not be called properly the Moodys Branch formation in a litho-stratigraphic concept. Vernon ( 1951, p. 112) listed the following Foraminifera from the Ingli member of the Moodys Branch formation: Fabi a nia cub en sis Spir oloculina seminolen sis A rnph istegina pina 1 en sis cos deni Rotalia cushrnani N onio n adven u m "Cameri na" v a n derstoki He ( op. cit., p. 142) considered the following to be common in the Willi ton member of the Moodys Branch formation: " C ameri n a " v a n d ers t oki g uayabalensis Operc u lino i d e s fio? id en s i s O pe ' r c u linoid e s v a ughani var . L e p i docyclina o cala n a H e te? os t egin a o c ala n a He ( op. cit., p. 158) considered the following species to be abundant in the Ocala limestone (restricted) : L e pidocyclina ocala n a and vars . " C ammi na" jac ksonensis " C ameri na" v a n de1sto k i m ood y brranch ensis Operc u lino i d e s v a u g hani Operculino i d e s will coxi H e t e 1 oste gina o c ala n a Murray ( 1952, pl. 13) used the term "Ocala group" on a diagram, to apply to the calcareous facies of the Jackson stage and included 1 P e r sonal communication, F ebruary 29, 195 2.

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22 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT the Mo odys Branch formation and the Ocala limestone (restricted) of Vernon (195i) and Applin's (1944) "lower" and "upper" men1-bers of the "Ocala." This term can be utilized as a group name in this study but it requires definition. A s used by thi writer, the Ocala group i s a litho-stratigraphic unit that include all the calcareous sediments of the Jackso n stage in Florida. CLASSIFICATION OCALA GROUP The term Ocala limestone has been widely used, primaril y as a rock unit. The name was employed thus by various writers to cover all the calcareous sediments in eastern Alabama and Florida deposited between middle Eocene (Claiborne) and Oligoc e n e (Vicks burg) time, although the exact stratigraphic position of the sediments remained in doubt until Cooke (1915) established them a Eocene. He ( op. cit.) showed that the Ocala limestone underlies the Marianna limestone and that its fauna i s essentially of Jackson stage. Since then Ocala limestone, Jackson group, Jackso n stage, have been used indiscriminately by various writers for these upper Eocene calcareous sediments. Vernon (1951) showed that "Ocala limestone" consists of at least three easily recognizable litholo g i c units. Murray (1952, pl. 13) used the term Ocala group on a diagram to include the Moodys Branch and Ocala limestone (restricted ) of Vernon ( op. cit.) or "lower Ocala" and "upper Ocala" of the Applins (op. cit.). Murray, however, did not define the Ocala group and he made the following passing reference to it under his di s c ussion of the Yazoo ( op . cit., p. 182) : " ... regional studies (Murray and Wilbert 1950; Murray 1950; and pl. 13) of the Jackson stage indicate the advisability of using Yazoo ( argillaceous) as a group term corresponding to the Ocala (calcareous) group of the eastern Gulf and Fayette (arenaceous and volcanic) group of the wes tern Gulf region." Present studies strongly suggest the advisability of using Ocala as a group name. The Ocala limestone was described from exposures in the vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida (Dall, 1892, pp. 103-104), and ever since it has been commonly used to include all calcareous sediments of upper Eocene age until the Applins (1944) showed that it could be divided into an upper and a lower member. Because Vernon (1951) has recognized three units and has established its subdivisions into a lower Moodys Branch formation and upper Ocala limestone (restricted) and because its regional

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1 Entrance to locality PM-2. Figure 2 Panorama of Zuber Pit of th Cummer Lime and Co., locality PM-2.

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24 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT nature has long been recognized, the name Ocala can no longer, in the opinion of the writer, be used as a formational name. It is here proposed to promote Ocala to a group name. Since the "Ocala lime stone" at the type locality been quarried and the type section destroyed, and the exposures in the vicinity of Ocala represent only about 40 feet of sediments (the basal section in most pits belongs to the Williston member), the Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company in the SE1.4 of the NW1.4 of Section 11, Township 14 South, Range 21 East, Marion County, is here designated as a cotype locality for the Ocala group. Seventy feet of limestone is exposed here (see figs . 1 and 2). The following three formations are assigned to the Ocala group (Puri, 1953) and their relationship, together with faunizones recognized in this article is shown in table 1. Jackson stage Ocala group 3. Crystal River formation 2. Williston formation 1 . Inglis formation INGLIS FORMATION Vernon (1951, pp. 115-116) proposed the name Inglis member of the Moodys Branch formation for 50 feet of the basal section of the "Ocala limestone" as exposed in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County. Vernon2 extended the name Moodys Branch formation into Florida although he realized that the calcareous facies could not properly be called the Moodys Branch formation. His application was that of age rather than rock usage. Since Inglis differs both faunistically and lithologically from the overlying Williston and the underlying Avon Park limestone and has been recognized in the field and mapped, it is here proposed to raise it to formational rank. TYPE LOCALITY The type locality of the Inglis formation is around the town of Inglis, Levy County, where the limestone is exposed in several pits and quarries, and also along the Withlacoochee River. Vernon (1951, p. 123) gives the following section, about one-eighth mile below the Florida Power Corporation plant at Inglis, on the right bank of the Withlacoochee River in the southeast quarter of the 2Personal communication, February 29, 1952.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 25 northwest quarter, Section 3, Township 17 South, Range 16 East: "Locality L-135: Feet Pleistocene series-Pamlico formation 2 Quartz sand _________________________ _ Variable "Unconformity "Upper Eocene Series-Inglis formation (member of Vernon) 1 Cream to tan, soft, porous, but case-hardened and densely crystalline where weathered, massive, granular, miliolid, marine limestone. Con tains numerous echinoids, particularly Eupatagus moorean.u.s, Peliarchus lyelli ftoridanus, and associated foraminifers. Exposed to water level in the stream bank ____ ---------------_ __ __ _ _____ __________ .. __ 5.0 Total thickness ___ _ ---____ .. _ __ _ _________ ... _ _ __ __ _ __ _ --5.0 "The channel was improved in 1942 and the contact of the limestone facies with the underlying dolomite facies of the Inglis member was penetrated. Boulders of the following lithologies can be seen along the banks of the river at locality L-135: "1. Gray, granular limestone as exposed along the river banks. 2. Cream-color ed, soft, granular, porous miliolid limestone with specimens of Velates fto?idanus, Lucinid sp. "A", buckshot miliolid s and echi noid s. In addition to these Dr. H. B. Stenzel identified "Cerithiutn" n. sp., X enop ho "a sp., Tun.,tella ca1inata Lea?, C1assatella? ftexura Conrad, T1achycaJdiu1n or T1igonoca1dia n. sp., and Co1bula ( Ca1yocor bula) clensata Conrad or C . al.aba1nensis tecla de Gregorio. Across the river in channe l dredgings of similar rock, one A sp. was found. 3. Mottled gray and brown, porous, finely crystalline, massive, sugary textured dolomite with rare molds of mollusks and Pe J'iarchus lyelli fto1idanus . " FAUNA Inglis formation has a tremendous fauna . . Swain (1946) described some Ostracoda from the Ocala. Vernon (1951) lists species of Foraminifera and Mollusca from the Inglis formation in the outcrop area. Fischer (1951) described the echinoid fauna. The molluscan fauna has been described by Richards and Palmer (1953). Roberts ( 1953) described a species of decapod crustaceous from the Inglis. Palmer (1953 , p. 10, 11) lists the following gastropods from. the Inglis: Astraea tvithlacoochensis Palmer Velates floridanus Richards Turrite lla fische?'i Palmer Diasto1na sp. Batilla1ia advena Palmer Bellata1a a1nericana Palmer B e llatara citrana Palmer B e llata ' ra fto?idana Palmer Pseudoaluca cla?'ki Palmer Hipponix ftmidanus Palmer Calyptraea ape1ta (Solander) X eno phora sp. Tugtoiunt g1ayi Palmer

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26 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT lAte z:cl/a floridana Palmer Tc 1 rebellum (Seraphs) bel em 11itu m Paln1er Cypraedia fenest,alis Conrad A mpullinopsis cihiuensis Palmer Pscucloc1ommiHm bnwei Palmer Disto1sio (Pe1sonella) jacksone11sis (Meyer) Papillina gzmte1 i Palmer Agcuonia inglisia Palmer Oli vella ( Ca lliana.t) poinciana Palmer Conomitra sp. Lapparia conradi Palmer Eovaszon vernoni Palmer Athleta a>angia Palmer Sycospira eocenica Palmer Ca 1icella obsoleta Palme1 l'oluticella leveusis Palmer L1J1ia cit1use1zsis Palmer Luria pycnopleu ra cocen ia Palmer Pscudotoma floridana Palmer Conus sp. A Conus sp. B caphander 1icha>dsi Palme r Richard ( 1953, pp. 42, 43) lists the follo\ving pelecypod fron1 the Inglis: B(ubatia palme1ae Richards fl(obatia ? in glisia Richards Glycymeris lisbon ensis Harris Ostrea falco Dall Ost1e{t sp. Volsella sp. Crassatella inglisia Richards C1assatel/a eutauacolens Harris Crassatella sp. l ' cncricardia scabricostata Guppy V c uerica rdia withlacooch ensis Richards ?neg a men's Dall He rc cf. H. wacissana Dall H c 1' ' sp. lh o(uicella 1obertsi Richards Fimbl'ia vcrnoni Richards Cardium (Diuoca l'clium) le vyi Richards Canlium ( Trigonioca1dium) p1otoaliculum Richards Cardium ( Tfachyca1dium) cf. C . ( T.) cla iboruense Aldrich Ga ri jacksonense Harri s Mac I'Occd list a awn Conrad Blagraveia? gunte1 i Richards Cm bulo (/ensota Conrad Fi cher ( 1951) list the following speci es of irregular echinoid: from the Inglis: Fibularia vaug hani (Twitchell) Oligopygus haldema ni (Conrad) Laganum ocalanzon Cooke Pc ron ella crustuloidrs ( l\fotton) Pc ron ella clalli Cooke Pe1onella a>cherensis (Twitchell) Pe ria rchus lyelli jio1iclanus Fischer

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE O CALA GROUP 27 Cassidulus (C. ) ericsoni Fischer Cassidulus (Patalampas) lyelli (Conrad) Cassidulus (Paralampas) globosus Fischer Agassizia flotidana de Loriol Eupatagus mooTeanus Pilsbry Eupatagus clevei Cotteau CidaTis (Phyllacanthus) mortoni (Conrad) is the only regular echinoid known from the Inglis (Fischer, 1951, p. 55). The following foraminiferal assemblage is contained in the Inglis: A mmospi1ata? levyensis Puri, n. sp. A mphistegina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan A rchaias withlacoochensis Puri, n. sp. Camagueyia pe 'rplexa Cole and Bermudez Cyclamina sp. Dentalina ve1tebralis albat1ossi (Cushman) Dictyoconus cookei (Moberg) Discori nopsis gunteri Cole Elphidium sp. EpistO?naTia semimarginata (d'Orbigny) Fabiania cubensis Cushman and Bermudez Globige1ina sp. Globulina gibba d'Orbigny Globulina gibba globossa (Von Munster) L epidocyclina sp. (small, noded) Liebusella byra1n ensis turgida (Cushman) Lituonella sp. Miliola cf. M. saxoTum Lamarck N onion advenum (Cushman) Plectoj?ondicula1ia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp. Quinq ueloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp. Reussella eocena (Cushman) R eussella sculptilis (Cushman) Rotalia cushntani Applin and Jordan Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuss) Spirolina cotyensis Cole Spi1oloculina newbenyensis Pu1i, n. sp. S7Jitoloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan T extula1ia adalta Cushman T extula?ia dibollensis Cushman and Applin Textularia ocalana Cushman T extulatia 1ecta Cushman Te xtula1ia t1iangulata Puri, n. sp. V alvulina floridana Cole V e?'?Wnia tube1culata Puri, n. gen., n. sp. • The following species of ostracodes occur in the Inglis: A ulocythmidea ntargodentata Howe ClithTocytheridea sagittaria Howe Cythe1etta daytonensis Swain CytheTetta iufirma Howe Echinocyth eteis nuda Puri, n. sp. H etnicyt h ete mota Howe bicarinata (Swain) Jugosocythereis lebanonensis Howe Pa1acytheridea scorpiona Howe Spongicythere caudata Puri, n. sp.

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28 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Time z 0 0 P-4 P-4 :::> S p o n gicythet e spissa Howe T?a c hyleb etis p arexa nthemata (Swain) X esto l e b eTis gunteti Howe TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF THE O CALA GROUP IN FLORIDA Chrono-logical-Strati-Litho-graphic l ogical Stratigraphic Bios tratigraphic L epidocyclina ( N eph1ol epi-I dina) c h ape1'i faunizone Crystal Aste? ocyclina Spi1olaea vernoni faunizone Rive1 Nummulites vanderstoki-0 Formation H emicythe1e faunizone < P-4 :::> I -8 rn. 0 Lepid ocyclina-Pseudop h tagmina fauniz on e Z • 0 0 Spi-rol o culina newrn. < be1yens i s faunizone 0 < Opercul inoides tnoody branch-< 0 Williston ensis faunizone """:> 0 Format ion O pe1culinoi d es jacksonensis faunizone Ing li s Pe1ia rchu s l y elli ftoridanus -I P lee t o j?ondicul a?ia? I Formation inglisiana faunizone WILLISTON FORMATION Vernon ( op. cit. , p. 141) propos ed the name Willi ston member for about 30 feet of foraminiferal limestone overlying the Ing li s and placed it in the Mood y s Branc h formation. Over 60 feet of the bas al s ection at Newberry belongs to this formation. Verno n (1952, pp. 122 , 144) recorded that the Willi ston and Inglis thicke n toward Polk, Bake r and Volu sia countie s and this i s confirmed b y the presence of 25 feet of Williston and 55 feet of Ingli s sediments in water well W -381, Polk County. Furthermore, two faunizones ( Operculi n oid es j a c k s onensis fauniz on e and O pe ' rcu li n o i d es rnood y b 1anch ensis faunizone ) can be reco g ni z ed in the Willi ston. Because

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 29 it i lithologically and faunistically distinct from the underlying Inglis formation, and because faunizones are recognizable in it, it is here proposed that the Williston be raised to formational rank. TYPE LOCALITY The Williston formation i typically exposed \vest of the to,vn of Williston in Levy County. Vernon (1951, p. 145) give the fol l owing section on the southeast side of a limestone quarry in the southeast quarter, northeast quarter, Section 27, Township 12 South, Range 18 East: Locality L-37 Upper Eocene series-Williston formation (member of Vernon) 4 Cream to tan, soft detrital limestone containing numerous hard crystalline nodules, many Pecten sp., rare A 1nusium sp., LeJJido cyclina ocalana, Operculinoides fio1idensis, A mphistegina pina1ensls F eet cosdeni and abundant Camerina vanderstoki 0.6 3 Cream-colored, massive, somewhat nodular, pasty foraminiferal coquina limestone with numerous spongiform concretions. Foraminifers of bed no. 4, Operculinoides floridensis, 1Vonion advenum, Rotalia cush-mani and Eponides jacksonensis are very abundant 6.8 2 Cream-colored, very hard ledge, porous, somewhat crystalline, very fossiliferous limestone containing numerous mollusks, molds, echinoid plates, abundant miliolids and othe1 rare foraminifers . 0.45 1 Cream-colored, granular, detrital, soft, porous, miliolid limestone containing the fossils above. Somewhat more resistant to weathering and more 1nassive than beds above __ --9.3 Total thickness 17.15 TABLE 2 DISTRIBUTION OF FORAMINIFERA AND OSTRACODA IN THE INGLIS AND WILLISTON FORMATIONS Inglis Inglis \Villiston 1 Foraminifera A mphistegina pina1ensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan Am mospira fa? le vyensis Puri, n . sp. A rchaias withlacoochensis Puri, n. sp. Dictyoconus cookci ( l\1oberg) -------Discorinopsis gunteri Cole Epistomaria se1m'marginata Fabiania cubensis Cushman and Bermudez Lcpidocydina A (noded small) Lie busdla byramensis turgida Cushman ---M iliola cf. IJ1. sa.t'OJ'Um Lamarck VGL-5 VGL-13 VGL-3 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -

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30 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Ostracoda Inglis VGL-5 Inglis Williston VGL-13 VGL-3 Plectofrondiculatia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp. xxxx Quinqu e loculina ocalana Puri, n. sp. xxxx --R eu ss e lla e ocena (Cushman) xxxx xxxx -R eussella sculptilis (Cushman) xxxx xxxx -Rotalia cush1nani Applin and Jordan xxxx xxxx -. Sphaeogypsina globula (Reuss) xxxx xxxx ----. Spirolina co1yensis Cole xxxx --S1Ji>oloculina newbe?Tyensis Puri, n. sp. xxxx xxxx xxxx --Spiroloculina s e ntinolensis Applin and Jordan xxxx xxxx ??? ... ---T extularia adalta Cushman xxxx xxxx xxxx --Textularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin xxxx xxxx xxxx ---ocalana Cushman xxxx xxxx TextulaJ'ia 1ecta Cushman xxxx xxxx xxxx -Venzonia tuberculata Puri, n . gen., n. sp. xxxx xxxx A ulocythe ridea 1na1godentata Howe xxxx xxxx xxxx Bairdoppilata ve1noni Howe xxxx Clithrocytheridea sagittaria Howe xxxx ---Cythe>elloidea fioTidana Howe xxxx -Cythe1etta daytonensis Swain xxxx xxxx xxxx --Cytheretta informa Howe xxxx xxxx --Echinocythetei s okeechobiensis (Swain) xxxx -H e1nicyth e1e mota Howe xxxx Jugosocyth e reis bica1inata (Swain) xxxx xxxx xxxx -Jugosocythereis lebanon ensis Howe xxxx Paracythe>idea sco1piona Howe xxxx -Spongicythe1e caudata Puri xxxx ??? ... -Spongicythere spissa Howe xxxx T1achylebeJ'is pa1exan themata (Swain) xxxx xxxx X e stole be1'is gunte1i Howe xxxx On the northwest side of the pit an additional 3.6 feet of bed no. 4 is exposed in the face of the quarry and an additional two feet, 50 feet back of the rim.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 31 RYSTAL RIVER FORMATION The name Crystal River formation (Puri, 1953, p. 130; Vernon and Puri, 1956, pp. 35, 38) proposed for the 108 feet of limestone exposed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, Township 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida, in clud es all calcareous deposits of upper Eocene age, lying stratigraphically between the Williston formation and the Oligocene limestones. It consists of a homogeneous microcoquina, almost entire l y made up of tests of Foraminifera. The basal portion may contain a few beds, as much as 12 feet thick, of secondary dolomite. The Crystal River formation is synonymous with "Ocala lime stone (restricted) " of Vernon ( op. cit.) . The entire Crystal River formation is nowhere exposed, becau se its top is marked by an ero s ional unconformity, but a total of 310 feet of sediments belonging to this formation are present in water well W -381, Polk County. The following faunizone s are recognized in the formation: Lepidocyclina (Ne1Jh1olepidina) chaperi faunizone Asterocyclina-Spi1olaea venwni faunizone Num. m:ulites vanderstoki-H emicythe>e faunizone L e pidocyclina-Pseudoph?agntina faunizone Spirolocu lina newberryensis faunizone A thickness of over 300 feet of the formation occurs in the suburface of Jackson County, Florida, where its upper portion ha been designated L epidocyclina fragilis zone by MacNeil ( 1944). Moore's (1955, pp. 30-32) treatment of the Crystal River formation is different from the original definition of the formation. He erroneo u s l y includes in this unit all upper Eocene beds overlying the Operculinoides sabinensis faunizones of the Lisbon formation (Claiborne). This is not surprising since Moore does not recognize the existence of Moodys Branch (or Williston-Inglis) equivalent in the Jackson County area. But he does recognize the Operculinoides .iacksonensis zone and places it in the lower portion of the Crystal Ri ver. Regarding this faunizone he (p. 23) says: "The 0. jacksonensis zone may not be equivalent to the Moody s Branc h formation, however, because: 1. The species of the Moodys Branch formation are not confined to the 0. jacksonensis zone in Jacl{so n County and some of the species range as high as the Bumpnose limestone member of the Crystal River limeston e. 2. There is no lithologic reason to separate the zone from the Crystal River limeston e. 3. Faunal indications that the Jackso n County area was structurally high during the Jackson Eocene and the existence of an unconformity at the top of the middle Eoce n e , suggest that the Jackso n County

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32 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Figure 3 Cavern at locality P A-4. The vertical drop is 30 feet. Such caverns are common in the limestones of the Ocala group. Figure 4 Solution p1pes at locality P A-1. These "pipes" are filled with the Hawthorn sed iments and carry a varied vertebrate fauna.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 33 Figure 5 Boulders of chert at locality PA-2. Deposition of s ilica has replaced the limestone. Pseudomorphs of s h e ll s are common in these boulders. area n1ay not have b een covered by the sea during the Moodys Branch time." Beds of Moody s Branch age do exist in Jackson County and hav e a s ignificant fauna. It i s true, as Moore says, that so me the spec ies do range into the Crystal River; but he is mistaken when he uses it as an argument against recognition of their age. Faunizones are not separated on changes in lithology but on distinct faunal assemblages and Moore i s not justified in assuming that the bed s of Moodys Branch age are absent in Jackson County because the area was "structurally high." That there is an unconformity on the top of Claiborne in Florida is an established fact; but, never thel ess, beds of Moodys Branch age are present not only in J ackso County, but also in the adjoining counties (see pls. 1 and 2) (i pocket). Two stratigraphic units are proposed by Moore ( 1955) . garding the Bumpnose limestone member, Moore ( op. cit., p. says:

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34 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT "Beds younger than the Crystal River of Puri occur in Jackson County at the top of the Ocala group. These beds are here named the Bumpnose limestone member of the Crystal River limestone for the exposures along and near the Bumpnose road north and west of Marianna, Florida." p. 130) proposed the name Crystal River formation ,__ __ (not "1imestone" as Moore says) for "the 108 feet of limestone ex posed in the Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Section 6, ship 19 South, Range 18 East, Citrus County, Florida." Puri ( op. cit.) included in the Crystal River formation "all calcareous sed i ments of upper Eocene age lying stratigraphically between the Williston formailbn and the overlying Oligocene limestones . " Moore's Bumpnose limestone member is not stratigraphically valid because: 1. The beds for which this name is proposed are not "younger than the Crystal River of Puri" since they underlie the Marianna limestone of Oligocene age. 2. These beds are of upper Eocene age and Moore himself placed them in the "Ocala group." 3. There is no lithologic distinction between these beds and the rest of the Crystal River formation to justify the use of a new name. 4. This stratigraphic interval is really a faunizone and exactl y the same beds are defined by lVIacN eil ( 1944, p. 1325) as Lepido cyclina fragilis faunizone at the same outcrop. Moore ( op . cit., p . 43) gives the following definition of the Gadsden limestone: "The Gadsden limestone in Jackson County consists of those limestones of Jackson age that have no, or few, specimens of the larger Foraminifera such as Lepidocyclina, Aste rocyclina, or Op e 1culinoides. The Gadsden limestone is known to occur only in the subsurface at present. The foraminiferal fauna of the Gadsden limestone is dominated by the families Buliminidae and Lagenidae. . . . The Gadsden limestone is the stratigraphic equivalent of the Crystal River formation, which includes the Bumpnose member. The Gadsden limestone grades laterally into the Crystal River formation in Jackson County, and the youngest beds of the Gadsden limestone extend farthest to the northwest." It will appear to the writer that Moore has named one of the several faunal facies of the rather than a formation. Moore ( op. cit.) further says: "Depending upon where the Gadsden limestone is encountered in wells, it is underlain by the Crystal River limestone or by the older Eocene formations." How could this particular unit be "stratigraphic equivalent" of the Crystal River and also be "underlain" by Crystal River at the same time? Sediments containing a sparse larger Foraminifera fauna occur

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 35 locally throughout the Crystal River and in the downdip facies in the Apalachicola Embayment area. Whether a local name be as signed to a faunal facies is seriousl y doubted and it i s here sug gested this term be abandoned. TYPE LOCALITY Locality C-64 : Crystal River Rock Company quarry, NE SW1,4 Sec. 6, T. 19 S., R. 1 8 E., Citrus County, Florida. (Section from Vernon, 1951, pp. 1 66-167). Bed Description Thickness (feet) Oligocene series Suwannee limestone 13 A cream-colored, porous, firmly cemented, detrital limeston e coln posed of echinoid plates and spines, poorly preserved foraminifers and granular calcite. Chlantys b1ooksvillensis, Chione sp., Clypeastcr 1ogersi, Cassidulus gouldii, Kuphus incrassatus, and numerous specimen s of Dictyoconus cookei, Coskinolina flol'idana are present. The bed measured 9 feet from the top of the hig-hest pinnacle east of the quarry to the rim and an additional 8 feet is exposed in the quarry face ___ _ ____ _ _ ___ _ _ ___ ___ 17.0 1 2 Cream to tan, hard, crystalline, nodular, very porous limestone with seams of the limeston e of bed no. 13 and containing many poorly preserved mollusk molds, including Chione sp. cf. C . bainb1idgensis, TuJTitella 1narti>tensis, T. vicksblugensis and rare specimens of Cas-sidulus gouldii and Lepidocyclina s p. __ _ 1.6 1 1 White to light gray, d e n se, thin-bedded, pasty to cryptocrystalline limestone containing rather numerous molds of TwTitella ?nartiuensis and T . vicksburgensis. Weathered surfaces appear brecciated 2.0 10 Layer of light gray to cream-colored, weathered brown, cryptocrystalline, sublithographic, hard, dense, thin-bedded limestone with an occasional seam of light green, waxy marl 0.3 9 Light gray, dense, thin-bedded, hard, lithographic limestone with rare molds of TwTitella ____ __ ______ _ _______ 1.65 8 Brown to light gray, dense, hard, cryptocrystalline limestone with porous detrital limestone seams 1.0 7 Light greenish-gray clay with fibrous, crystalline, light greenishgray calcite growths lying along a very irregular surface developed upon bed no. 6, (see figs. 30, 31) __ _ 0 . 5 (va1 iable) Unconformity Crystal River formation. Elevation: 124.65 feet. 6 5 4 Creamco lored, detrital, porous, firmly cemented limestone with seams of dense, crystalline limestone and numerous poorly preserved molds of mollusks and rare specimens of Gypsina sp. cf. G. globula. The upper few inches are very indurated and the top of the limestone is very irregular ______ . -----___ ___ ___ _ 1.9 Cream to white, massive, bedded, pasty, soft coquina composed of mollusks, Bryozoa, corals and large foraminifers in a pasty calcite matrix. Specimens of Came1ina vande1stoki are common in the lower 25 feet, but decrease upward and are replaced by Ope1cttli noides ocalana, sp., Pecten sp., corals, Lepidocyclina ocalana, Gypsina globula, Eponides jacksonensis, Gaud1yina jack-sonensis were identified _____ _ __ _____ _ 43 . 25 Cream to white limestone of bed no. 5, but containing irregular crystallin e nodular concretions and Ost1ea podagrina, A ntusiu m ocalanu.?n, Pecten sp. , Gypsina globula, Lepidocyclina ocalana,

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36 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT R eu ssella eocena, D iscocylina fii n t en sis, Nonion preadvenu m, Ci bic ides 1nississippiensis ocalanus ------------_______ ---------------------------9 . 5 3 C r eam-c olor e d, coquina limestone composed of foraminifers , Bryozoa, echinoid plates and spines, corals , P ecten s p. cf. P. "pe1planus," Agassizia fiorida n a, O ligopygus halde1nani , F i bularia vaugha ni, Laganu?n fio1'idanum, L. ocalanu 'rn, Pe1onella cu ba e , Schizaste1 ocala nus, and s om e of the foraminiferas abov e __ --------------------------------7.0 2 Cream-colore d, pas t y , massiv e , coquina limestone with numerou s irregular and spongiform concretion s, and A tnusiu?n ocalanum, O s-tJe a podag 1in a, P ecten s p. P. "perplanus," F i bularia vaughani, P e ron e lla cubcte , Lagena la evi s and foraminife1s of b e d no. 4 ---------------38.0 1 Creamcolored , very pasty, porous, soft limestone containing L e pi clocyclina ocalana, H ete1 ostegina ocalana, Ope1cul inoid e s .flor idensis, OpeJcu linoicl es s p., Gypsina glob ula, Ci b i c ides m i ssissippiensis, R otalia cushmani and other poorly preserved foraminifers --------------------8.25 Total thick n ess . 1 31.25 FAUNA Crystal River formation has an abundant mollu scan fauna. Mrs. Katherine Van Vv .. inkle Palmer i s presently engaged in a comprehens ive study of the mollu scan fauna collected by Dr. R . 0. Vernon and the writer from numerous outcrop sectio n s in Florida. Harris ( 1951) li sts the following pelecypod s from the "Ocala" (most of Harris ' locations belong to the Crystal River formation) : Ostt e a g e otgia n a Conrad Ostrea ''podagrina" Dall O st1ea t?igo nalis Conrad Plicatula fila?nentosa Conrad Spondylus hollisteri Harris P ec t e n p e 1planus Morton, var. P ecten ( C hlamys) spillmani ( Gabb), vars. Pecten ( Chlamys) anatipe s (Morton) A musium ocalanu?n ( Dall) L ima tricincta Harri s Lima vicksb uT giana Dall Pinna quad?'ata Dall A t1ina jacksoniana Dall Pte1ia cf. P. a1 gent e a (Conrad) Vol sella ocale n sis MacNeil A 1ca cf. A. thomboid e lla Lea, var. A ? ,ca (Barbatia) cuculloides ( Conrad) N uculana s p. Glycy'Ynetis a 'rctatus var. cook ei Dall Glycy metis c f . G. ante paTilis K ellum Vene1 i caTdia planicosta var. ocala e d es Harr i s V e n eri cardia cf. V. nodi/eTa K e llun1 E ulox a s p. Crassatella p1otex ta var. sinus Harris C1assatella sp. C1 assatella po?'cu s Harris Crassa t e lla ocotdia Harr i s L i1odiscus jackson ensi s (Meyer) He1e cf. H. w acissana (Dall ) M iltha ocala n a (Dall ) L u cina peTovata (Dall) P ita?' cf. P. nuttali Conrad P ita1 cf. P. s u b imp?'esa Co nrad

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 37 Figure 6 Amusium b e d at locality PL-1. Pita1 t1igoniata (Lea) Ca1diwm nicolletti Co nrad Cardium cf. C . cabezai (Gardn e r ) Ca1dium eversum? Conrad Cardiunt s p. Cardium eve1 su1n Conrad Gari ce1asium ( D a ll ) Panope o blongata (Conrad) Spisula praetenuis Conrad Ac1 op e1na? sp. A J'CO]Je1na sp. (sic.) THICKNESS An exac t estimate of the thickness of the Crystal River formation i rendered diffi cult b eca u se the rock i s une venly eroded at the top and it base i s of transitional nature. A maximum of 3 10 feet of

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38 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT the formation is present in water well W -381, Polk County. Over 300 feet of the formation occurs in the subsurface in Jackson Coun ty. Vernon (1951, p. 141) assigned 30-50 feet of sediments to the Williston formation. The Williston formation thickens at the ex pense of the Inglis formation in the Florida Panhandle, where Inglis is absent. The Inglis formation seems to have a more or less constant thickness of 50-55 feet in the vicinity of Inglis, Levy County, which is the type locality. In northeastern and eastern Peninsular Florida (Columbia, Bradford, Duval and Vol usia counties) the Inglis formation appears to thicken as much as 150 feet (Vernon, op. cit., p. 122). Thickness and the correlation of the Ocala group appears on plates 1 and 2. DISTRIBUTION The limestones of the Ocala group outcrop in two extensive areas in Florida. The more extensive area is a regional feature, the Ocala uplift, which borders the Gulf of Mexico in the northwest part of Peninsular Florida. The other area is the northern half of Washington and Jackson counties and the eastern portion of Holmes County, whence the limestones extend into southern Alabama and southwestern Georgia . From surface samples, it is known that the Ocala group underlies the entire State of Florida except for small areas in northern Seminole County, Volusia County, southern Orange County, northern Osceola County, Lake County, Marion County, and in southern Levy County where it is absent (Vernon, op. cit., pl. 2). Applin and Applin (1944) showed that their upper member of the "Ocala," which is the typical Crystal River formation, occurs in subsurface throughout Florida except on the east coast in parts of Semino l e County. The wells in this area, on the east coast, penetrated the lower, less fossiliferous member of the "Ocala" directl y beneath a thin cover of Miocene or Pliocene beds. Surface distribution of the Ocala group is shown on figure 7. DOWNDIP FACIES OF THE OCALA GROUP In several wells in the Florida Panhandle, the downdip facies of the Ocala is a soft, chalky limestone that carries a Pachuta, Shubuta and Danville Landing microfauna. Genera of the large Fora-

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 39 SURFACE OCCURRENCES OF THE OCALA GROUP IN FLORIDA IN PAIH AfTER VERNON, 1951 CRYSTAL RIVER FORMATION WILLISTON FORMATION E INGLIS FORMATION N 25 0 25 50 70 100 MILES r Figure 7 minifera, like Lepidocyclina, Nummulites, OpeTculinoides, Hete1'o stegina, Pseudophragmina, and Aste?"ocyclina are either absent or occur as l enses sporadically. The microfauna encountered in these wells consists of Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin), A nomalina cocoaensis Cushman, GloboTotalia sp., Bulimina jack sonensis Cushman, Robulus (Hantken), R. gutticostatus (Gumbel), R. gutticostatus cocoaensis (Cushman), No dosaTia latejugata Gumbel, Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin), jacksonensis Cushman, Uvige ' rina glab1ans Cushman, U . jacksonensis Cushman, U. gaTdnerae Cushman, U. cocoaensis Cushman, GlobigeTina bulloides d'Orbigny and Gyroi dina soldanii d'Orbigny. The above assemblage occurs in Calhoun

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40 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT County, W -1103, 566 to 1000 feet. At 945 feet, specimens of occur in association with the above assemblage. In Gadsden County, W-4, the following microfauna is encountered between 650 and 1370 feet: A nomalina b ilateral-is Cushman Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin Bulmina jacksonensis Cushman Cibicides pseudounge1ianus (Cushman) Dentalina jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) D entalina ve' rtebralis (Gumbel) Eponides cocoaensis Cushman Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) Eponides ocalana Cushman Globige11ina sp. Marginulina fragaTia texasensis (Cushman and Applin) N odosa1ia latejugata ca1olinensis Cushman Planulina coope ' rensis Cushman Robulus alatolimbatus (Gumbel) Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace) Robulus li1nbosus (Reuss) Saracenaria mo11esiana Howe and Wallace Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin Uvigerina cocoaensis Cushman Uvige11ina cookei Cushman Uvigerina glabTans Cushman Uvigerina jacksonensis Cushman V alvuline11ia texana Cushman and Ellisor At 660 feet, this microfauna occurs in association with larger Foraminifera like Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, Num1nulites vande1stoki (Rutten and Vermunt). At 670 feet, larger Foraminifera like Operculinoides (Heilprin), Nummulites van derstoki (Rutten and Vermunt), Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., occur with the microfauna! assemblage listed above . At 720 to 750 feet, Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman and Opercu linoid es coxi (Heilprin) also occur. In Jackson County, W -276, the Crystal River formation is encountered from 245-430 feet. The interval between 270-280 feet has abundant Asterocyclina sp., L epi docyclina ocalana Cushman, and Operculinoides ocala nus (Cushman) . The section between 290430 feet has the following microfauna: A nomalina cocoaensis Cushman D entalina jacksonensis Cushman D entalina verteb ' ralis (Gumbel) Liebusella bytamensis turgida (Cushman) M a ' rginulina /11agatia texasensis (Cushman and Applin) N odosatia latejugata (Gumbel) Robulus alatoli1nbatus (Gumbel) Robulus a1cuatost1iatus (Hantken) Robulus gutticostatus (Gumbel) var. Robulus li1nbosus (Reuss) Uvige ' rina cookei Cushman

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 41 In thi \veil, Moore ( 1955, p. 97) places the interval between 270 to 460 feet in the "Gadsden limesto n e . " If Moore's definition 0f "Gadsden limestone" and Crystal River formation i s followed, vve \Yill have several alternating bed of "Gadsden limestone" and Crystal River formation . Since the strati g ra}Jhi c unit Crystal River formation was establi b ed to include all calcareous sediment lying bet,veen t h e Williston formation and the overlying Oligocene limestones (Puri, 1953), the downdip sediments are h e r e referred to the C r ystal Rive r formation. M oore ( 1955, p. 97) places the top of C laiborne in W -276 at 460 feet. The section between 430 to 4 77 feet has yielded abundant Qpe1'cul inoides jac ksonensis (Grave ll and Hanna), h e n ce this interval i here included in the Williston formation in spite of the fact that Moore (1955, p. 23) doe s not reco gnize Moodys Branch eq uiva len t in Jac k so n County. Moore ( 1955, p. 97) places the top of the Gadsden limeston e at 140 feet belo\v the top in W -1364. Sediments between 140-240 feet below ground level belong in the Oli gocene Marianna lime stone s ince they have y ielded s pecimen s of Lepid ocyclina (Eu l epi dina) L. 1nantelli and Op ercu linoid es dius. The top of the Crystal River formation i s at 240 feet below ground level. Sediments between 240-300 feet below have yie lded abundant specimens of AsteTocy clina characteristic of the A ste1ocyc lina faunizone. Moore ( op. cit.) also places this interval in the "Gadsden lime stone." LARGER FORAMINIFERA OF THE OCALA GROUP Only a few of the genera of the larger Foraminifera from the Ocala g r oup of Florida and Georgia are discussed in this paper but the following i s a complete li s t of the species reported (F from Florida, G from Georgia) : Discocyoli11a (Astefocyolina) ame 1ioana (Cushn1an) F, G o hipolensis Vaughan F ge01gia1ta (Cushman) F, G mariannensis (Cushman) F, G var. papillata (Cushman ) F, G nassaucnsis Co l e F vaugha1li (Cushman) F, G H etc rostegina ocalana Cushman F Lepidooyclina ( L epidocyclinct) georgiana (Cushman) G m01toni Cushman F, G ocalana Cushman F, G var. attenuata Cushman F coo kci Cushman F flol'iclana Cushman F pseudocariuata Cushman F pseudornarginata Cushman F tscho ppi Thiadens F

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42 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT (N ephrolepidina) fragilis Cushn1an F sc1n1nesi Vaughan and Cole F Nummulites guayabalensis (Barker) F jacksorzensis (Gravell and Hanna) F mooclyb1anchensis (Gravell and Hanna) F vande1stoki Rutte n and Vermunt F Ope1culina barke1i Vaughan and Cole F mariannensis Vaughan F Ope1culiuoicles cookei (Cushman) F, G cu1asvicus (Rutten and Vermunt) F floJidensis (Heilprin) F oca lan us (Cushman) F, G vaughani (Cushman) F, G willcoxi ( Heilprin) F Pseudo ph 1agmina ( Proporocyclina) cit1 ensis Vaughan F flinte nsis (Cushman) F, G (Pseudophrag mi11a) bainbriclgensis (Vaughan) G floridana (Cushman) F, G NOTES ON SPECIES OF LARGER FORAMINIFERA Vernon (1951, p. 142), while discussing the fauna of the \Villis ton formation, observed that "the most common species and greater number of specimens in the bed is Came1ina vande1stoki (Rutten and Vermunt) with minor percentages of C . guayabalensis Barker, C. sp. cf. 1noodyb1anchensis Gravell and Hanna." The identification s of the first two species were made by Mme. de Cizancourt and the latter by Vernon. Gravell, in 1950, did not recognize the specimens that the writer calls Ope1culinoid es moodyb1anchensis in the \Villiston formation as being typical of his species.=i Since the most abundant species observed by the writer in the Williston formation i s Ope1culinoides moodyb1anchensis, there appears to be so me con fusion regarding the determination of these species. Cole ( 1945, pl. 13) figured specimens of both Nummulites vande1stoki and 0. moodyb' ranchensis. While Cole's median and vertical sections of both these species are excellent, his external views of Nu nunulites vande1stoki (pl. 13, fig. 1) and 0. 1noodyb1anchensis (pl. 13, fig. 2) certainly belong to a single species, N. vande'i"Stoki. Since there seems to be some confusion in the identification of these species, it is thought to be worthwhile to discuss the salient features of these three species, which though allied, show definite specific characteristics. Nummulites guayabalensis is a Claiborne species descri bed by Barker ( 1939, p. 325) from the Guayabal of Mexico . It is a s mall to medium form, completely involute and lenticular, with a \Yell developed peripheral "keel." The form is pseudocarinate, the "keel" is a mere thickening of the wall. The septal filaments are s imple :iLetter dated February 23, 1950, addressed to R. 0. Vernon, filed with the Florida Geological Survey.

PAGE 42

STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 43 radiate, almost straight, anastomosing in such a way that only less than half of them reach the center (text fig. la). Equatorial sections show 41;2 to 5 whorls (text fig. 1b). Vertical section s show its strongly lenticular pseudocarinate form and a faint l y developed pustule w hi c h often breaks up into a series of polar pillars (text fig. 1c). This specie s may occur in the middle Eocene (Claiborne) of western Gulf states but has not yet been found b y the writer in the Jack son Eocene. It does not o ccur in the Ocala grouo. 0J JeTcu linoides 1noodybranchensis was described by Gravell and H anna ( 1935, p. 332) from the Moodys Branch formation, Montgomery Bluff, Grant Parish, Loui siana. It is b y far the most common spec ies of Op eTcu linoid es in the Moody s Branc h formation of the western Gulf states and the Williston formation of Florida. Externally, it shows superficial resemblance to N . guayabalensis, with which it has been confused in Florida. It is a relatively thin form; lenticular but without a peripheral "keel." The septal fila m ents are not straight but undulating with a retral swing toward the periphery; the filaments anastomose near the poles (text fig. 2a). Equatorial sections show 4 to 5 whorls with 5 to 6 chambers in the first whorl, 13 to 14 chambers in the sec ond whorl, 18 to 19 in the third whorl, 23 to 25 in the fourth whorl, and 28 to 30 chambers in the fifth whorl. The chambers are rectangular in shape and are relatively higher than either N. g1;, ayabal ensis or N . vanderstoki (text fig. 2b). It can be easily distinguished from N . guayabalen sis in equatorial section by its greater number of chambers in the fifth whorl (N. g u ayabal ensis has 24 to 27; 0. moodybranchensis 28 to 30). Vertical sections show its lenticular form, relatively thin lateral vvhorl walls and moderately developed polar pillars (text fig. 2c). It i s a very common s pecies in the Willi ston formation and l oca ll y occurs in great abundance. Num1nuli t es vanderstoki was described b y Rutten and Vermunt ( 1932, p. 240) from the upper Eocene Serce di Cueba limestone and since has been reported from the C laiborne of Mexico by Barker (1939, p. 323). It is a relatively inflated form, has s imple radiate septa, and a well developed pustule (text fig. 3a). Between the periphery and the center the septal filaments are thickest, tapering t oward each end (text fig. 3a). They are fewer in number than in eithe r N. guayabalensis or 0. moodybranch ensis, and are widely spaced . Equatorial sections show 4 to 5 whorls with a maximum of 22 cham be r s in the fourth, and 24 in the fifth whorl. In an equatorial section, it can be easily distinguished from N. g u ayabalensis and 0. moodyb1anchensis in having fewer chambers per whorl. The

PAGE 43

44 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT 1a. lb lc 2c 3a 3b Explanation of text figures 1 to 3 1, Nu?n ' mulies guayabalensis Barker; 2, Op e1culinoides moodybranchensis (Gravell and Hanna); 3, Nummulites vandetstoki Rutten and Vermunt.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 45 chambers are rectangular and are lower in height than 0. nzoody b?anchensis (text fig. 3b). Vertical sections show thick lateral whorl walls, and a well-pronounced polar pustule composed of several coalescing small pillars (text fig. 3c). The accompanying table shows comparison of septa per whorl in Nun1,mulit e s guayabalensis, 0. moodyb1anchensis and N. vande1stoki. Ope1culinoides moodybTanchensis and N. vande1stoki do occur together but only in the Williston formation where 0. nzoody b?anchensis is the common form, N. vandeTstoki occurring only infrequently except in the top few feet of the formation. It is only near the top of the Nummulites vandeTstoki faunizone of the Crystal River formation that N. reaches its maximum development in size and frequency. In the upper 40 feet of strata in the Crystal River formation at the Crystal River quarry (locality C-64), N. occurs in epidemic number, the beds being composed almost entirely of aN. vande1stoki coquina with a small percentage of species of Lepidocyclina. OpeTculinoides jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna, 1935, p. 331) is a common form in the Moodys Branch formation of western and central Gulf states and the Williston formation of Florida. It can be distinguished easily from the rest of the species of this genus in the Ocala group by its papillate ornamentation which consists of a group of radially arranged beads of clear shell material. I TABLE 3. COMPARISON OF SEPTA PER WHORL IN SPECIES OF NUMMULITES IN THE OCALA GROUP N u mm.ulites Ope1cnlinoides Nu?nmztlites guayabalensis moodybranchensis vandeJstoki Diameter of specin1en A ve1age size Average size Average size 2.40 mm 3.00-3.50 mm 3.50 mm Nun1ber of coils 41h-5 4-5 4-5 Number of septa in 1st whorl 7 5-6 6-8 Number of septa in 2nd whorl 15 13-14 12-15 Number of septa in 3rd whorl 22 18-19 14-20 Number of septa in 4th whorl 25 23-24 16-22 Number of septa in 5th whorl 24-27 28-30 18-24

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46 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT There i s a definite relationship in the deve lopment of Opwrculi noides cookei, 0. vaughani, 0. ocalana, 0. [lo1idensis and 0. coxi. Op eTcu linoides cookei and 0. vaughani are c l osely related. This relationship i s shown by the rapidly flaring nature of the last whorl as well as by the highly arched septa. The nature of coiling in both these specie s i s basically the same; the only difference being the number of septa. 0. cookei, which i s the older of the two, gave rise to 0 . vaughani by the reduction in the number of chambers. 0 . cookei, in the adult whorl has 28 to 34 septa; 0. vaughani has 18 to 22 . C u shman (1921) thought that both 0. vaughani and 0. ocalanus evo l ved from 0. cookei by gradual reduction in the number of septa. That 0. ocalanus evo lved from 0 . vaughani by the reduction of septa, i s doubted by the writer. Cushman (op. cit., pp. 155-158), in his description of 0. ocalanus observed that in the last coil, it has 16 to 18 chambers. His type specimen (pl. 19, fig. 5) has at least 20 septa in the last whorl. The author has seen good specimens of 0 . ocalanus with 16 to 26 septa in the last whorl. It is more probable that 0. ocalanus evo lv ed from 0. cookei stock than 0. vaughani . 0. cookei i s not known to occur either with 0. vaughani or with 0. ocalanus but 0. vaughani and 0. ocalanus do occur together. 0. fio1"idensis and 0. are related species . 0. fioridensis has 30 to 40 chambers in the last whorl, 0. 1villcoxi has on l y 20 to 32. ZONATION Detailed faunal studie s of the subsurface of Florida are limited to a few wells studied by Cole ( 1938, 1941, 1942, 1944). Surface reconnais ance work has been confined to a few selected localities and the faunal s ucce ss ion has not been precisely determined. In this \vork, most of the s p ec ie s were described by Heilprin (1885) , Cushman (1917, 1920, 1921, 1934), Vaughan (1928), Cole (1938 , 1941, 1942, 1944) and Applin and Jordan ( 1945). Among scores of papers published on the "Ocala limestone," onl y three have a direct bearing on its zonation. Gravell and Hanna (1938, pp. 99-106) reported three faunal zones in the "Ocala lime stone." These in the descending order are: 1. Discocyclina ( AsteTocyclina) zone including several species of D iscocyclina and Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, 0JJe1"cu linoides ocalanus (Cushman), Ope1culinoides 'lvillcoxi (Heilprin) and H ete1"ostegina ocalana Cushman. 2. 1na1,.iannensis zone. 3. "Camerina" iacksonensis zone including "Camerina" iack-

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 47 son e nsis Gravell and Hanna, "Camerina" moodybTanchensis Gravell and Hanna and L epi docyclina (Lepidocyc lina) mortoni Cushman. Applin and Applin ( 1944, p. 1684) divided the "Ocala limestone" informall y into a lower and an upper member. The lower member i s hard, crystalline limestone and contains few species and speci mens of larger Foraminifera, the most abundant of these being "Camerina" aff. "C." vand erstoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Other species present in the lower member are A mphistegina 1Jinare nsis Cushman and Bermudez var. Applin and Jordan. The upper member, which is mostly a chalky, porous coquinoid limestone, is made entirely of Foraminifera containing L e pidocyclina ocalana Cushman and its varieties, Operculinoid es (Heilprin) and Opercu li noi d es ocalanus (Cushman). This informal divi s ion did not designate any names for these two members. Vernon ( 1951) divided the upper Eocene into two formations, a lower one, the Moodys Branch formation, and an upper one, the "Oca la limestone (restricted)," on the basis of both lithology and fauna. He recog nized and mapped two units (Inglis and Williston) in Moodys Branch formation which also differs faunistically from the overlying strata designated by him as "Ocal a limestone (restricted) . " An attempt i s made in this paper to correlate between equivalent sedimentary facies and contemporaneously deposited sediments . Correlation i s based on the number of corresponding horizons of marked faunal changes. The criteria u se d are: vertical distribution of specie s ; vertical changes in the number of individual s pecies; vertical changes in the average s i ze and preservation of various species. Zonal "index fossils," in the opinion of the writer, are obso lete since evolution has been continuous and all kinds of gradation s do occur between allied forms. Unless there has been a break in sedimentation or a distinct ecological change, in all probability the "index fossils" will show a continuous gradation. Splitting of such gradational forms on nothing better than their stratigraphic occurrence has made paleontologic spec ie s unnatural and imaginary "stratigraphic" s pecie s which more often than not serve to confuse the nom enclature. Since the distinctiveness of the horizon of marked faunal changes increases with the number of s pecie s simultaneo u sly affected, such a distinctiveness becomes more effective for abundantly occurring s pecies than for those that occur less com monl y or rarely. Sets of assemblages of larger Foraminifera, smalle r Foraminifera and Ostracoda are u se d here. Larger Foraminifera are known to occur in a restricted environment, livin g in

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48 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT a depth range of 125 to 200 feet, and in calcareous mud, on bio stromes and bioherms. Since they are definitely more specialized than most smaller Foraminifera, they are more susceptible to relatively smaller changes in salinity, lime content and temperature of sea water as well as depth. These factors are reflected in their abundance, size and preservation, which make them u eful for recognition of faunizones. Smaller Foraminifera on the other hand are u seful in erecting small faunizones because of the different environments that various assemblages inhabit. Ostracoda and Bryozoa furnished supplementary evidence to check the validity of such faunizones. The following faunizones are recognized in the Ocala group: L epi docyclina (N eph1olepi dina) chaperi faunizone ) ) Aste1"ocyclina-Spi ' rolaea ve1noni faunizone ) Crystal ) Nummulites vanderstokiH emicytheTe faunizone ) River ) L epidocyc lina-Ps eudophTagntina faunizone ) Formation ) Spiroloc u lina faunizone ) Op erculinoides moodyb1"anch ensis faunizone ) Willi ton ) Op eTcu linoid e s iacksonensis fa unizone ) Formation P e1"iaTchus ly e lli fio1idanus) Ingli ) Plccto frondiculaTia? ing lisiana faunizone ) Formation 1. Pe1'ia1chus ly e lli flo?idanus-Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana faunizone: Peria1"chus lyelli fioTidanus, and Plecto[1ondicula1"ia? in,qlisiana are by far the mo .... t common species of fossils found throughout Figure 8 Typical sediment of the Inglis formation from borrow pit, three mile s south of Gulf Hammock (R. 0. Vernon collection). Note the abundance of Periarchus lyelli fio1 .. idanus which appear a cross sections. Fabiania cubensis i s another guide fossil for the P eria1 chttS lyelli floridanus faunizone. Natural size.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 49 Figure 8

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50 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT the Inglis formation and h e n ce this biostratigraphic portion of the Ocal a group i s named after these s pecies . Other s peci es of micro fossil vvhich are restricted to this horizon are A Tchaias luithlacoo chensis, Episto?naTia semi1narginata, A mntOSJJiTata? l ev y en sis, Quinqu elocu lina ocalana and Spongicyth ere caudata . Some of the m ost common and easily recog ni zab le forms as Fab iania cubensis, D isco1inopsis gunteri, Camagu eyia petplexa, Spirolina coryensis , fio?idana, Cyth e 1etta infiTma and Bai rdoppi lata ve?"noni also occur in the Ingli s formation. All these forms were originally d escribed from the middle Eoc e ne, but are also abundant in the Ingli formation. The fauna of the Ingli s formation i s transitiona l between the middle and the upper Eocene; hence so m e of the middle E oce n e forms occur in the Inglis in association with definite Jackso n fauna lik e T ex tulaTia diboll ensis, T extularia Tecta, Textula?"ia adalta, T extula1ia ocalanus, R eusse lla eocena , R eusse lla scu lptilis and Rotalia cushmani . 2 . 0 p e rculiuoide s jacksonensis faunizone (Will. 1) : Thi faunizone c on s ists of 15 to 50 feet of basal Williston sediment . Ope?'culina ma1ia11nensis (in the Newberry se ction, localit y PA-l) and Ope 1culinoides .iacksonensis (in Polk County well W38 1) are its markers . The write r has not ob served Opercu li no ides iackson ens is in any ot her part of the section in the Ocala group and i t eems to be confined to this faunizon e . The basal 15 feet of the section at Newberry (locality P A-1) belongs to this fauniz on e, which i eas il y recognized by the marker pecies . Its top i s marked by t h e upp ermost occurrence of eith e r OpeTculina mariannensis or Ope 1culinoides iacksonensis in Peninsular Florida. In West Florida, h owever, Opet--culina ma1iannensis occurs in the Aste1ocyclina fauni zone . This faunizon e as s u c h cannot be recognized in West Florida. 3. 0 p c rculinoides 1noodybrctnchensis faunizone (Will. 2) : The upp ermost occurrence of Operculinoides iac k sonensis overlain by an abund a nc e of Ope1culinoides moodybranchensis, Arnphist egi?la pina1ensis cosdeni and t h e occasional occurrence of SJJi?'oloculina se1nino l ensis and tvillistonensis mark the ba e of t hi s faunizone. L epidocyc lina ocalana and its varietie are uncommon and the top of the faunizone i s marke d by the di s appearance of OpeTculinoides moodyb?"anc hensis, together with the gradu al increase in number of arenaceo u s forms (various s pecie s of T ex tula1ia, Val vulina and N eoclavu lina), Miliolid ae (species of

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i ure 9 Typical rock specimen of the Willi ton foi'rnation, locality PL7, Levy County. Note large pecirnen of 01Je 1c1tlinoid e s i (Heil prin) in the lower right quarter. X2.

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52 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL 'SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Spi1oloculina and Quinqueloculina) and L epidocyc lina ocalana and its varieties. At so me place s vanderstoki i associated with OpeTcul inoides moodyb1 anchensis but occurs only in s m all quantities. Relatively large individual s of Ope?"cul inoides fioTi densi and Ope?'culinoides are associated with OpeTculi noides ntoodyb?" anchensis and A rnphistegina pinarensis cosdeni and make it easy to id entify this zone in the field. The Ope ?"cul inoides moodyb?"anc h ensis faunizon e varies in thickness from 14 feet at Bell (locality PG-5) to 25 f ee t in the Polk County well (locality W -381). At Newberry (PA-l) it i s 30 fee t thick while at Kendrick (locality PM-3) it i s only five feet. 4. Spi1oloculina newb er1yensis faunizone ( CR-1 ) : Spi1oloculina ne'lvbeT?'' y en sis is the mo s t common miliolid s p ec i es in thi faunizone. The ba se of the zone i s marked b y the uppermo s t occurrences of 0JJe1"cul inoides moo dyb ' ranc h en sis and A 1nphistegirza pina1en.sis cosdeni, and by the relative abundance of arenaceou Foraminifera such a s various species of T ex tula1ia, Valvul ina and N eoclavuli na, and Spiroloculina ne1vb er1"yensis . The top of this zone i s marked by a distinct change in ecology. S everal new form make their appearance here, e.g., at Zuber (locality PM-2) the top of thi zone is marked by the presence of Hi rsutocyt h ere spi nosa, E c h inoc ytheTeis nuda.., J ugosocythe1 eis trica1inata, A bsonOC1Jthe ca?'inata, Textula1"ia subhau erii and R otalia cus h mani. Similar changes in other sec tion s are see n by a total increase in the number of s pecies at the top of this zone. The fauna i s u g ge tive of hallow warm-water co ndition s, not ove r 60 feet i n d epth, in an open sea. The fauna o f the overlying se dim ents inhabite d a relativel y deeper water, the f auna being s u gges tive of a m odern bioherm or reef facies in which larger Foraminifera thrived a t a depth between 60 to 150 feet. The thickness of the Spiroloculina netvbe? ' Tyensis faunizon e varie between 25 feet (at Kendrick, localit y PM-3) to 48 feet (at Crystal Riv er, localit y C-64). Forty feet of se dim ents in the Polk County ect ion (locality W-381) a nd at Zub e r (locality PM-2) and 40 feet of se dim ents at Newberry (l oca lit y PA-l) belong to thi zone. The corre lati o n of the various sect i o n s exa min ed i s ho\v n i n t h e accompa n y in g correlation chart (pl. 3) (in pocket). 5 . L e piclocyclina-Ps eudophragntina faunizone ( CR-2) : The base of this faunizone i s m arked by the upp ermos t occur rence of Spi?"oloculina ne1vbe1ryensis and b y the abundance of

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 53 Figure 10 Typical sediment of the L epidocyclina-Pseudoph1"agmina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PS-3, bed no. 9. Note the larger foraminiferal coquina dominated by species of L epi docyc lina. Natural size.

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54 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Figure 11 Typical rock specin1en of Nummulites vanderstoki faunizone, locality PL-1 , bed no. 3. Note the coquina with scattered specimens of Lepidocyclina. Xl1j2 .

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 55 species of and Pseudophragmina. Several species like Jugosocythereis tricarinata, Absonocytheropteron carinata, Valvulina jacksonensis, Textularia Nonion planatum, Caner-is sp., and Bulimina sp., occur at the base of this zone and help to delineate it. The top of the zone is marked by the uppermost occurrence of H emicythere punctata in the Polk County section (locality W-381) and the incoming of Nummulites vanderstoki in epidemic occurrences in the Crystal River section (locality C-64). The thickness of the Lepidocyclina-Pseudophragmina faunizone varies from 10 feet (at Kendrick locality PM-3) to 6 ' 0 feet (in the Polk County section W-381) . . _Thirty-two feet of sediments at Crystal River (locality C-64) and at Newberry (locality P A-1) and 10 feet 0f sediments at Kendrick (locality PM-3) are referred to this zone. 6. Nu1nmulites vanderstoki-H emicythe1t"e faunizone ( CR-3) : The base of this faunizone is marked by the epidemic occurrence of Nummulites vanderstoki in the Crystal River section (locality C-64)" and is indicated by-the occurrence of Hemicythere punctata in the Polk County section (locality W-381). This composite zone, which by geologists may be considered as two distinct bathymetric zones, is essentially contemporaneous. There is a sugges tion of relatively dee .per water conditions in the sediments referred to this faunizone in the Polk County section (locality W-381). The top of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost occurrence of H emicythere punctata. Twenty-seven feet of sediments in the Crystal River section (locality C-64) and 30 feet of sediments in the Polk County section (locality W-381) are referred to this zone. 7 . Aster ocyclina-Spi?"olaea vernoni faunizone ( CR-4) : The base of this faunizone is taken at the uppermost OCG11rrence of H emicythere purtctata. The top is marked by an unconformity and the zone is overlain by beds of the Oligocene or younger age in Peninsular Florida and by Lepidocyclina (N ephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone in Jackson County. The species confined to this zone are: Asterocyclina americana, Asterocyclina chipolensis, Asterocyclina georgiana, Asterocyclina mariannensis, and Spirolaea vernoni. The smaller Foraminifera are dominant over larger species and the sporadic occurrences of Uvigerin.a suggest deeper water conditions than those prevalent during the deposition of the Lepidocyclina Pseudophragmiria zqne.

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56 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Figure 12 Typical sediment of the Asterocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PJ-1, bed no. 7. Note the larger foraminiferal coquina chiefly made of test of Asterocyclina and Lepidocy clina X2j 3.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 57 Correia tion of the various zones recognized in the sections ex a m ined i s shown in the accompanying correlation chart (pl. 3). 8. L epidocyc lina (N chaperi faunizone ( C R-5 ) : This faunizone represents the youngest upper Eocene sediments in Florida which contain abundant specimens of L e pidocyclin a ( Nep h roleJJidin a) chap er i Lemoine and Douville. This faunizone i s represented by 14 feet of sediments at locality PJ-4, 10 feet of sediments at locality PJ-5 and 15 feet of sediments in W-276. Valv ulin a ocalana Cushman is a very distinctive form that occurs in the shallow warm-water facies of the Crystal River formation. It i s restricted to lower 50 feet of the section and is generally v e r y well preserved, although other species that accompany it are in a poor state of preservation. This form is relatively large en ough to be easily recognized and should prove to be an excellent marker for the lower portion of the section. Another facies fossil that generally occurs in association with V. ocalana is a relatively large form referred by Cushman (1935, p. 55) to R u p ertia fioridana Cushman. This elongate attached form i s e a s ily recognized by its loose spiral chambers that are columnarly arra nged. It is very abundant in the shallow water facies of the Crystal River formation and should prove to be a good ecologic m arker because of its attached nature. These two species generally associated with an assemblage con si sting of L e pidocyclina ocalana, L. ocalana pseudomarginata, L. ocal an a fio?" idana, L. ocala n a atte n u ata, H e t er ost e gina ocala n a , O percu linoid e s moodybranch e nsis, 0 . ocalanus, 0 . w illco x i, 0. vau ghani, N ummu lit e s v and e rstoki, T ex t u la r ia adalta, T . re cta, T. o calan a , T. ho wei , Ga u dryi n a gardn er a e , Rotalia cushma n i, Eponides i a c k s o ne nsis, among other smaller Foraminifera species. This a sse mblage is typically shallow water with depth not more than 30 meters . LOCALITIES Li sted belovv are the localities from which samples used were c o ll ec ted. This list is divided into parts: outcrop samples and well s e c tion s . All locations of outcrop samples and well sections are li s t e d alphabetically under counties; reference to locations contained in the text are indicated by the index number which preced es ea c h entry. Florida Geological Survey accession numbers preced e each well location. The locality map (fig. 13) (in pocket) sho w s their exact location.

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58 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT OUTCROP AMPLES ALACHUA COUNTY Locality P A-1: Newberry Corporation pits, SW % , SE 1"Sec. 13, T. 9 S., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida. Measured on the southern wall of quarry. Elevation 91.91' Bed D escriJJtion Thickness Crystal River forn1ation 5 A 1nusiu11t bed. Shell coquina of Foraminifera, Mollusca and abun-dant A musiunt well ce m ented in a granular n1atrix, nodular weathering 16' 4 Moderately hard, granular limeston e, with several holothurian-like concretion s and Mollusca, grades into a foraminiferal s h e ll coquina toward the upper portion _ _________ ______ _ __ _ __ -4' 3 Modiolus bed. Soft, chalky limestone, with molluscan, echinoid and foraminiferal skeletal material; first smooth oval Antusiu1n sp. at 812' 712' 2 Soft, granular limeston e , with Spondylus s p. and holothurian-like co ncretion s __________ __ -----------21h ' 1 Foraminiferal s h ell coquina. Holothurian-like concretions --------__ _ 5' Total thickness 35' T\vo more section were al o measured; one on the ea t \vall and the other on the west wall of the quarry. The s ucce ion of beds throughout the quarry is the s ame. Section on the \ve t \vall mea ured 36 feet. Locality PA-2: S.M. Wall quarry, SW%, NE1,4 S ec . 36, T. 9 S., R. 1 E., Alachua County, Florida. Section measured on northwest wall of quarry. Elevation 108.62' Crystal River formation 4 A nntsium bed. White, coarsely gTanular, chalky limeston e \vith abundant A1nusiumt sp. (flat, smooth, oval sp.) ____ _ __ __ _ _ 21' 3 A coquina of large fora1niniferal shells in a chalky matrix with om e Amusi-wrn sp. ( fiat, smooth, oval sp. ) present ______ ________ __ 10' 2 Soft, chalky, limestone matrix cementing a l epi docyclinic can1erinid shell coquina. Spondylus sp. and P ecten (striated) common. H olo -thurian-like co n c r etions present in low e r portion of section 30' 1 Modiolus bed. Soft, granular limestone with pockets of Modiolus s p. 5' Total thickness 66' Water percolating through Modiolus bed ha formed beautiful talactites around individual Modiolus. Toward the top of the ection, boulders of chert occur. These boulders are round and un lik e the trunk-shaped boulder around Kendrick, Marion ounty, locality PM-3. The upper portion in thi quarry carrie some boulder of hert. Depo ition of silica eemed to have started around grain of quartz and graduall y built up to chert boulders which are over ix feet across. Some Mollusca in these boulders are also replaced ( .. ee fig . 5).

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Fi 14 Pano1ama at lo alit P A-1 ho in th ewb 11 • o1poration pit .

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60 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY -EIGHT Locality PA-3: Buda Pit of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE NE 14 Sec. 32, T. 8 S ., R. 17 E., Alachua County, Florida. Composite section. Elevation 63.23 ' Crystal River formation 7 Soft, chalky, friable limestone, studded with Foraminifera and Moil u sea sp. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------_____ 14 '8' ' 6 Soft, chalky limestone , questionably glauconitic, with abundant Spondylus sp.; upper portion contains striated Pecten sp. _________________ 9' 5 Cream-colored, moderately hard, granular limestone, with some holothurian-like concretions; partially dolomitiz ed -----------------------__________ 3 ' 4 Soft, granular limestone, with very little chalk, thin streaks of foraminiferal shell coquina; striated P ecten sp. ------------------------------------------------5' 3 Larger foraminiferal shell coquina in a granular matrix; abundant Mollusca; some holothurian-like concretions ---------------------------------------_____ 5 ' 2 Cream-colored, soft, granular, somewhat chalky lim estone; with abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus; somewhat chalky --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2'()'' 1 Cream-colored, granular, pasty limestone; nodular weathering; abundant holothurian-like concretions and Spondylus sp. , poorly 4' b edded; dolomitiz e d ledges up to %' thick with casts of mollusks (lowest 15-20' Cream-colored, granular limestone Total thickness expo sure) 15 '-2 0 ' (dredged) 58'2"-63'2'' GILCHRIST COUNTY Lo cality PG-1: Abandoned quarry, 0.9 mile north of northern city lin1its of B e ll, SE1A., S ec . 24, T. 8 S., R. 14 E . , Gilchrist County, Florida. Section measure d on east wall of quarry. Crystal River formation 6 Cream to white-colored, granular limestone, with abundant Lepidocyclinas. Limestone is filled with pockets of gray clay and pink to brown sand of Hawthorn and post-Hawthorn age; s olution funnels common ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7.7' 5 Hard, granular limeston e, with molds of Spondylus sp. and other M o 11 u sea ______________ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------_ ----_ ------1' 4 Crea.m to white-colored, granular limestone, almost a foraminiferal coq u 1 n a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3' 3 Hard, white, chalky limes tone, with abundant Foraminifera and Mollu sca; so m e of the Foraminifera and Mollusca are of brown i s h color and are embed d ed in a white chalky matrix ---------------------------------2' 2 White, chalky, granular limeston e, with occasional L e 1Jidocyclina sp. ____ 6 . 5' Williston formation 1 White to cream-colored, chalky limeston e , with abundant Foraminifera and Mollusca; almost a foraminiferal coquina in places; abundant P ecte n s p., Sole n sp. in lower 3' __________________ --------------------------7' Total thickness 27 . 2' Locality PG-2: Gordon Philpot's quarry, 1.9 miles south of bridge on Santa Fe River on Florida Highway 49, on section line, between S ees . 12 and 1 3, T. 7 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Section measured on north wall of quarry. Crystal River formation 2 Hard, white, foraminiferal coquina; weathers yellowish-brown, P ecte n sp.; solution funnels common, fill e d with gray and brown, waxy clay and sand -----------------------------------------------------------------------------7'1 0 " 1 White, granular, foraminiferal limeston e , soft and friable; lower portion at the base of quarry with large Ost? e a sp. ---------------------------------6' Total thickness 13'1 0"

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15 Entran to . i\1. ;all qua1ry locality P -2 Ha\vthorn clay back round ov rli the rv tal Riv r forn1ation un onformablv . ., i ur 16 anorama at locality PA-2 howin th S. M. Wall quarry.

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0 ....... > GJ t:%.1 0 L4 0 Gi (J > t'-4 UJ. c < t':j I eo 0 t%.1 z • • 8 ......... Fi u1 17 ano1ama at locality P A-3 howin th uda pit of th Willi ton Sh ll Rock Company. I txj ......... C1

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1 Pano1an1a at locality P A-4 howin the Dt1val on t1uction on1pany pit . Fiotlie 1 Pano1 ama at locality PG-1.

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64 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Locality PG-3: Marvin Stancel's pit, SW 1;4, NE 1t4, S ec. 11, T. 8 S., R. 14 E . , Gilchrist County, Florida. Crystal River formation 5 White to cream-colored , hard, granular, fossiliferous limeston e ; many L epidocyclina s p. and Bryozoa. Spondylus sp. ____ ____ _ __ 3' Williston formation 4 Coarsely granular limestone; in places almost a coquina of la1ge fora min if e r s ________ _____ _______ _______ _ _ ----------------______ ________ ____ ______ _ __ ____ 3'6 " 3 Cream-colore d, granular limeston e , with very little smaller Fora-minifera. M odiolus s p., X enopho1 a sp. present _ _ _ __ _____ ___ ---4' 2 M odiolus b ed . Cream-colored, large foraminiferal coquina, loosely ce m ented --------------------------------------__ -----------_ _______ ____ __ __. __ _ 2' 1 Soft, granular lim estone with fewer larger Foraminifera than b e d no. 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------2' Total thickness 14'6" . I Figure 20 Panorama at lo cality PG-2 showing Gordon Philpot quarry. Solution funnels filled with clays of Hawthorn age have riddled this quarry. Solution pipes and natural well s are common at t he top of the quarry where the sand overburden has been removed. Locality PG-4: Bill Ru sh's pit, NE%, SWtt4, S ec. 15, T. 8 S., R . 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Composite section. Crystal River formation 4 Cream to white colo1ed, granular, chalky, pure limestone; lovver 6" to 9" with some calcite l e nses; larger Foraminifera abundant _ 4' 3 Cream to white-colored, granular limeston e , with some foraminiferal and molluscan cast s --------------------------------______ ____ _ 4 ' 7 " Williston formation 2 Modiolus bed. Hard, granular lim estone, with abundant L e piclo cy-clina and Mollusca; Modiolus sp., T u1Tit e lla sp., X enopho1a sp. ______ 2' 1 White, granula r limestone, very few larger Foraminifera, f evv Lepidocyclinas _____ _ _____________ _ ___ _____________ ------------------___ __ __ 4'1 0 " Total thickness 15 ' 5"

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 65 Locality PG-5: Abandoned quarry, SE 1,4 SE 1;4 Sec. 23, T. 8 S., R. 14 E., Gilchrist County, Florida. Composite section. Crystal River formation 6 C r eam-colored to white foraminiferal limestone -----------------------------5' 5 Hard, well cemented, granular limestone with casts of Mollusca __ _____ 1 ' 4 Cream-colored, coarsely granular, chalky lin1eston e with abundant larger Foraminifera and Mollusca, L epidocyclina sp., P ecten sp. ____________ 2' 3 Modiolus bed. Creamcolored, gTanular limestone, with few larger Foraminifera and Mollusca, molds of 1nollusks and L epidocyclina sp. 16' Williston formation 2 Cream-colored foraminiferal limestone, studded with larger Foraminifera, holothurian-like concretions, P ecten sp. and Spondylus sp.; has a characteristic nodular weathering; echinoids common ______ _ 8' 1 Cream-colored granular limestone, few larger Foraminifera __ _______ ___ 6' Total thickness 38' JACKSON COUNTY Locality PJ -1: Abandoned quarry near Springfield Church, SE 1,4 NE Sec. 32, T. 6 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida. Crystal River formation Elevation 115' 8 White, very hard, questionably dolomitic limestone, with rounded solution cavities. (2'-3' behind the hill, hardening due to solution). Back of the hill several pinnacles of hard limestone occur with the softer part eroded a way --------------------------------------------------------------------------____ 2' -3' 7 A musium-Asterocyclina bed. Hard, white limestone, well cemented, calcitic, with abundant specimens of A 1nusium sp. Top bed has crystals of calcite, horizontal pocket and veins of calcite 11h' to 2' thick -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------___ 5'6" 6 White, chalky limestone, composed of broken pieces of echinoid frag-ments, Bryozoa, Mollusca, and larger Foraminifera, L epidocyclina sp. common, occasional specimens of AsteTocyclina sp., on weathered exposures. It almost looks like a shell coquina; bedding not apparent. Specimens of Lepidocyclinas oriented in all directions; geodes of calcite common -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9'2'' 5 Hard, white, calcitic limestone composed of tests of Foraminifera, s kel etal remains of Bryozoa, and some specimens of L epidocyclina, A musium s p., P ecten sp., and Spondylus sp. Weathered exposures pink to brown ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3' 4 White, chalky limestone, coarsely granular, specimens of L e pidocyclina, Spondylus sp. and Pecten sp., and echinoids common on weathered exposures. The limestone has a nodular appearance __________ 1' 3 White, chalky limestone, with occasional specimens of Aste ' rocyclinct g e orgiana, abundant tests of Foraminifera and skeletal remains of Bryozoa, P ecten sp. and Amusium sp. fairly common (also Spon -dy lus sp.) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------___ 2' 2 Hard, cream to white limestone, pink on weathered exposures, almost microcoquina, lower portion calcitic, L epi docyclina sp. frequent, P ecten sp ., Spondy lus sp., A musium sp. -----------------------------------------------1'6" 1 White, granular, fossiliferous limestone, composed mostly of rounde d calcium and tests of smaller Foraminifera. Bryozoa and L e pidocyclina sp., L e pidocyclina ocalana rare -----------------------------3' Total thickness 27'2" Lo cality PJ-4: Sam Smith's quarry, SE1,4 NE%, S ec. 23, T. 5 N., R. 11 W., Jackson County, Florida. Marianna limestone Soft granular pure limestone -----------------------------------------------------------------__ + 6 0 '

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Fi (1noran1a a lor litv P t-5 . ..

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Figur 22 Abandoned qtlari'Y nea Springfield Chu1ch locality P J -1.

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68 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Crystal River formation 5 Lepidocyclina chaperi zone. Hard, white, granular limestone with L. chaperi and some Pecten sp.; some Lepidocyclinas as large as half a dollar. Glauconitic in places; oysters and echinoids common ___ 4"%' 4 White, granular limestone with microforaminiferal coquinas and Lepidocyclina sp. Abundant Xenopho? " a sp. and Conus sp. -------------------4'9" 3 White, granular limestone with abundant L e pidocyclina chaperi ________ 9"-1' 2 White, granular limestone, with microforaminiferal coquina in places, and L epidocyclina sp. ---------------------------------------------------------------------4' 1 Cream to brown, soft limestone ----------------------------------------------------8" (base) Total thickness (Ocala) 14'8" The Limerock Company mined the Marianna limestone as a building stone up to the second level before mining the Crystal River formation. The present operations are in the Crystal River formation. In this general area the Crystal River formation is penetrated below 60 feet of Marianna limestone. The top portion of Crystal River (chaperi zone) is exposed wherever the outcrop exists and also occurs in wells. This section may as well be of Oligo cene age, being an equivalent of Red Bluff of the western Gulf states ( see MacNeil, 1944 , pp. 1324, . 1325). The Marianna generally is finer grained and yields purer lime and was quarried mostly as building s tone. Ocala limestone, however, yields around 80-85 percent of calcium (as against over 95 percent in Marianna limestone) and has been quarried as agricultural fertilizer. JACKSON COUNTY Locality PJ-5: On the west side of Chipola River, under bridge on U. S. Highway 90, about one mile east of Marianna, Jackso n Cou nty, Florida. Byram formation 6 Buff-colored, dense, finely crystallin e dolomite -------------------------------------3' Marianna limestone 5 Hard, white to cream-colored granular limestone, L e pidocyclina 1na n t e ll i common -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3' 4 Soft, white , massive limestone with abundant L e pidocyclina mante lli 15' 3 White limestone with glauconite; L e pidocycli n a mante lli and P ec-ten p ouls o n i common ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------6' Cover e d ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6' Crystal River formation 2 V ery hard, cream-colored limestone with abundant L e pidocycli n a ( N ephto l e p i dina) chaperi --------------------------------------------------------------------1 0' 1 Soft, cream-colored microcoquinoid limestone with Asterocyclina sp. , L e pidocyclina ocala n a , H eteroste gina ocala n a and Operc u li n a ocala n a 1' Total thicknes s 44' LAFAYETTE COUNTY Locality PL-1: D e ll Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Company, NE%, NW1 4 S e c. 32, T . 4 S., R. 11 E., Lafayette County, Florida. Crystal Rive r formation Elevation 56.17' 9 White , chalky limestone -------------------------------------------------------------------------------114'

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Figure 23 Sam Smith Quarry, locality PJ-4.

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70 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT 8 P ecte n bed. White, chalky limestone ---------------------------_______ -------------9"1' 7 White, chalky limes tone ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1' 6 P ecten bed with Nummulites sp. in a chalky n1atrix ------------------------9'' 5 Nummulitid coquina in a chalky matrix _ __ _____ ____ ____ ____ _____ ____ ___ 2' 4 White, granular, chalky limeston e with abundant L eJJi docyclina sp. and so m e molluscan casts ------------------------------------------------------------_____________ 11' 3 White to pink, hard limeston e ; abundant A 1nusi u m sp. numerous Mol-lusca and Foraminifera _______ ___________ ____ ______ __ ________ _______ __ __ ___ ___ ____ 12' 2 Cream to pink, soft, nummulitid coquina with s om e P e ct e n and holo-thu rian-like c oncretions ________________________ _________ ---------------------------_________ 6" -2' 1 Cream to pink, granular limeston e with holothurian-like concretion impressions and numn1ulitids -------------------------____ _______________ ____ ___ _____ 5' Total thickness 33.25'-34 . 0' LEVY COUNTY Locality VG L-3, Williston forn1ation. Road cut one-quarter mile northeast of Sumner, Levy County. Collected by Vernon and Gunter. Locality VGL-5 Inglis formation, Wylis quarry, north of Road 13, about two miles northeast of Rosewood, Levy County, Florida. Collected by Vernon and Gunter. Locality VGL-13 Inglis formation, quarry, one mile west of Road 15, NE%, NE % , S ec. 3, T. 17 S., R. 16 E . , Levy County, Florida. Collected by Vernon and Gunter. MARION COUNTY Locality PM-1: Dixi e Limestone Products Company pit at R eddick, Marion County, Florida. Composite section. Elevation 15 6 .83' ?Hawthorn (marine) facies 3 Cream-colored molluscan li1neston e, cross-bedded in places, lo wer portion honeycombed with molds of large TuTrite lla s p., manatee ribs, upper three feet beach rock facies ________________ --___ ____ _ 8' UnconformityCrystal River formation 2 A 1nusium bed. White chalky limestone with abundant specimens of A 1nusium sp. ____________ ____ ------------------------------------------------------------------------2 0' 1 White chalky lin1estone, a coquina of larger Foraminifera n1ostly L e pidocyclina ocalana and vars. ______ ____ ___ ___ _______ _________ __ _ __ __ ____ 22' Total thickness 50' Locality PM-2: Zuber pit of the Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Co mpany near Martin, SE1,4 SW1,4 S ec. 11, T. 14 S ., R. 21 E., Marion County, Florida. Crystal River fonna tion Elevation 1 34 .67 ' 6 5 4 3 A ?nusium bed. White chalky limestone with abundant A 1 nusiu1n sp., upper portion with several horizontal b eds of s ilicified limestone _ __ White, soft, chalky lin1estone with occasional specime n s of Sponclylus sp. and Pecten sp. ----------------------------------__________ ____ ____ ___ _ _____ _____ ____ __ Cream-co lored, soft, chalky limestone, in places a coquina of larger Foraminifera; s p ecime n s of Pecten sp. and Tu?'?'"ite lla s p. common _ Pale granular limestone, in places almost entirely a larger Foran1ini-f era coquina, with casts and molds of mollusks _________ _ ___ __ _ _ __ __ 3 1' 5' 1 0' 9'

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Figure 24 Panorama at locality PL-1, showing the Dell Mine (Mayo) of the Williston Shell Rock Company.

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72 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT 2 Very hard, consolidated limestone, a s h ell bed of 0 trea sp., Spondy-lu sp., and several gastropod casts and molds _ _ __ _ ____ -------5' 1 Pale, oft, granular limestone, in places a coquina of Lepidocyclina ocalana and nummulitids; specimen of Xenophora sp., Cardiu1n sp., and OstJea sp. common __ -__ -----10' Total thickness 70' Locality PM-3: K endrick pit of the Cum mer Lilne and Manufacturing Com pany, Kendrick, Marion County, Florida. Composite section. Elevation 115.39' ?Hawthorn ( n1arine) facies 5 Pale to creamcolored hard molluscan limestone with abundant, large Tunite lla sp. ____ __ ____ _ ____ _ __ ___ ____ 10' UnconformityCrystal Rive r formation 4 Am u iu m bed. White chalky limeston e with beds of calcite and c hert. L epiclocyclina ocala?ta and vars. common; abundant specime n s of A ntusiu m sp. __ __ _______ _ _ --------------___ _ _____ ---------_ 22' 3 White chalky limeston e, in places a larger Foraminifera coquina, abundant large specime n s of Lepidocyclina ocalana and vars., H e tero-stegiHa ocalana and Ope)culinoides ocalanus __ 15' 2 Cream to \vhite, soft limestone, chalky in places, with large specimens of Lepidocyclina ocalana very comn1on 3' Williston fottnation 1 Crean1 to white, g-ranular limeston e with dwarfed L epidocyclina ocala na Operculinoides 1noody b 'ranchensis, Operculinoides tuillcoxi 5' Total th i ck n e s 55' SUWANNEE COUNTY Locality PS-1: Abandoned quarry, SElA, SE'-4 S ec. 18 and NE%, NE14 S ec . 19, T. 6 S., R . 15 E., Suwannee County, Florida. S ection measure d on north wall, parallel with U. S. Highway 29. Crystal Rive r forn1ation Elevation 52.72' 4 A nut illm bed. White, soft, chalky lin1e tone, \vith two p ec i es of Pec ten. Am usium s p. (smooth oval form, probably same horizon a s PL-1) Spoudylu.c; s p. __ 13' 3 White, granular limestone; large foraminiferal coquina and Pecten sp. (smooth type ) toward bottom, somewhat chalky; increases in chalkiness toward top 11' 2 White , granular limestone , chalky in places _ 1 '-2' 1 Hard, \vhite limeston e, firmly cemented with molluscan cast s ________ 21h '-3' Total thickne 2 '-29' Locality PS-2: Abandone d quarry, SW%_ SE14 Sec. 14 and NW%, NE1,4 S ec . 23, T. 6 S . , R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida. Crystal Riv r forn1ation Elevation 45.72' 7 r an1-colored, foraminiferal coquina; \vith Pecte n sp. and A mn -ilun sp.; weathered exposures are ferrugineous and brown in color 3'-312' 6 A uut ium bed. Foran1iniferal coquina, \vith abundant A musiunt sp. ( s1nooth oval) ; pondylus sp. harder than underlying b ed 7Ih ' 5 Foran1iniferal coquina cemented in a granular matrix with abun-dant Lepidocyclina sp. 7'

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4 Figure 25 ... Panorama at locality PM-1 Dixie Lime PI--oducts Co., Reddick, Florida. Figure 26 Panorama at locality PM-3 Kendrick pit of the Cum1ner Lime and Manufacturing Co.

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7 . Pano1an1a at locality PS-1 . • Fi 2 anotama at localit P -2 . • 1

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 75 Figure 29 P anoran1a at lo cality PS-3 showing the Suwannee Limeroc k Company quarry. ' Figure 30 Crushing Plant at locality PS-3, Suwannee Lin1ero c k C on1pany. 4 C r e an1colore d, granular, s om ewhat chalky limestone , with s om e larger Foran1inifera and A s p. ________ _ 1112' 3 Coarse , f oran1iniferal coquina, ce m ente d in a granular limestone n1atrix _ _ _ _ __ _______ _ _ _ _____ _________ 2'9" 2 C r e an1colore d, granular limestone , compo se d mostly of Foran1inifera and o cc a sional P ec t en s p . and A 1nus i u1n s p. _ __ _________ _ 2' 1 P ecten -A mnsiunt b e d . Cream-colore d, hard, w e ll ce m ente d limestone , nodular, w eathering , with striate d Pect en sp.; in places it i s a larger f o 1a1ninif e r a l coquina ________ __ ___________ 7 ' 1 " Total thickness L ocality PS-3: Suwannee Limerock Company quarry , SE S ec. 3 2 , T . 5 S . , R. 14 E., Suwannee County, Florida. Crystal Rive r f ormat ion Elevatio n 38 . 8' 9 Foraminife r a l and mollu scan coquina, c e m ente d in a hard lin1estone matrix. Larger Foraminifera are of Ocala age _ _ _ _ __________ _ 5' 8 V ery hard, questionably dolomitize d, brownis h limestone , with n1old s of Foran1inifera and Mollu sc a _____ ___ 2 ' 7 TtuTitella b e d . Soft, granular, cream-c olor e d limestone , with abun-dant Tn>Tit e lla s p . , Conu s sp., P ecten s p., and othe r Mollusca ( oys-ter s c on11non) ; no L epi docyclina note d __ ____ ______ _____________ _ ___ 3'

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76 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT 6 Cream-colored, granular limestone, with occasional P ecten sp. and --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------i>' 5 P ecten bed. Very hard, partially dolomitized limestone with abundant P ecten sp. (stria ted) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------5' 4 Soil zone consisting o1: limonite and weathered specimens of minifera and Pecte n s embedded in a ferrugineous matrix -------------------2" 3 White, granular limestone, with some tests of and molds o1: G ly cymeris sp. --------------------------------------------------------------------------_____________ 2' 2 Cream-colored foraminiferal coquina, well cemented, with occasional P e ct e n sp. (stria ted) ---------------------------------------------------(lowest exposure) 5' 1 Cream-colored, granular limestone, moderately hard, massive; tests of larger and P ecten sp., Pecten bed (striated) is also r epresented in the dredged rock; Turrite lla sp. common ________ 15' (dredge d) Total thickness 42 ' 2" The company removes all of the Hawthorn clay from solution pipes and fills them back up with Crystal River formation in order to blast the quarry effectively . This is the reason why no "pipe" or sinkholes exist around the quarry. WELL SECTIONS Total W e ll No. Desc ription ' Elevati o n D e1Jt h ALACHUA COUNTY W-324 700' from E line, 525' from N line, Sec. 14, T9S, R19E 78.28' 447'6" W-505 2250' from Eline, 300' from N line, SW14 SE 14 Sec. 23, T9S, R20E 159' 446 '8" W-1379 NE corner SW14 NE 14 S e c. 3, T8S, R17E 70.82' 243' W-1773 1350' N and 750' W o1: SE corner of S e c. 6, T10S, R20E 163 . 20 ' 418' W-1894 SE corner o1: Sec. 4, T10S, R20E 141.06' 464 ' BAKER COUNTY W-1500 660' S and 660' E of NW corner NE 1 4 Sec. 21, T1N, R20E 124' 334H' COUNTY W-263 2568' from N line, 1056' 1:rom W line, Sec. 28, T6S, R22E 166.56 ' 610' W-264 200' from N line, 100' from W line , Sec. 28, T6S, R22E 168. 77' 503' W-531 550' from N line, 2190' 1:rom E line, NW 1 4 NE 14 Sec. 30, T7S, R22E 145.57 ' 235 ' W-1466 Center of NE 14 SE 1 4 S e c. 15, T6S, R20E 132' 3167' BREVARD COUNTY W-9 2 3 50' from S line , 2325' from W line, Sec. 21, T27S, R37E 17.58' 511'

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 77 Total W e ll No. Description Elevation Depth W-104 2515' from N line, 1740' from E line, Sec. 28, T29S, R38E, 1000' NE of Grant P. 0. 3.59' 872' W-604 1600' from N line, 665' from E line, NW 1,4 NW1,4 Sec. 31, T24S, R37E 2.66' 180' W-638 2460' from W line, 2090' from N line, NE Sec. 33, T27S, R36E 24.2' 457' W-1365 NW1,4 NW1,4 Sec. 1, T20S, R35E 11.17' 230' W-1380 NW1,4 Sec. 3, T24S, R36E, 6 mi. NE of P. 0. 2.46' 335' CALHOUN COUNTY W-1103 785' Nand 660' W from SE corner of Sec. 2, T1S, R11 W 140' + 3580' CITRUS COUNTY W -720 Back side of Crystal River Rock Company quarry, Sec. 6, T19S, R18E, center 210' W-78 W-136 W-321 W-522 W-534 W-535 W-536 W-537 W-538 W-539 W-540 W-611 W-613 W-617 W-634 W-635 W-1590 CLAY COUNTY 1 663' from E line, 17 42' from S line, S of normal Sec. 9, T4S, R26E, Kingsley Grant 22.32' 1980' from N line, 240' from W line, NW part of Sec. 16, T6S, R25E 82.8' 150' from S line, 2160' from E line, Sec. 1, T8S, R23E 135' Municipal Airport, Green Cove Springs 13.14' 660' from S line, 2480' from E line, Sec. 14, T6S, R23E 160' 1635' from N line, 90' from W line, Sec. 24, T6S, R23E 151' 1510' from E line, 2460' from S line, Sec. 26, T6S, R23E 162' 730' from W line, 615' from S line, Sec. 26, T6S, R23E 197' 210' from W line, 1350' from S line, Sec. 27, T6S, R23E 228' 1180' from N line, 1920' from W line, Sec. 34, T6S, R23E 188' 300' from W line, 1285' from S line, S e c. 13, T6S, R23E 149' 891' from S lin e, 1320' fron1 W line, Sec. 8, T8S, R23E 132.9' 820' from W lin e , 930' from N line, S e c . 36, T7S, R23E 214.2 ' 840' from S line, 560' from E line, Sec. 23, T6S, R23E 161' 825' from N line, 1520' from W line, NE NW1,4 Sec. 6, T8S, R23E 160.8' 790' from W line , 395' from S line, SW1,4 SW1,4 Sec. 31, T7S, R23E 180' 1980' N of S line, 1980' E of W line, NE 1,4 SW1 ,4, Sec. 4, T5S, R25E 105.1' 300' 550' 202' 650' 700 ' 680' 580'6" 58 1 ' 718' 695' 685' 395' 560' 765'9" 474' 535' 5862'

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78 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Total W ell Description Eleva tio n D epth COLUMBIA COUNTY Vv. 34 1612' fron1 W lin e , 1558' from S lin e , Sec. 29, T3S, R17E 196.07 ' 400 ' W-26 1425 ' from line , 2140' fron1 E lin e , S ec . 5, T4S, R17E 101.49 ' 360' W-299 1420' from N lin e, 2135' fron1 E lin e, Sec. 5, T4S, R17E 101.47 ' 1016 ' W-65 6 S ec . 1, T4S, R17E 181' 372' W-702 50' from S line , 1770' from W lin e , SW % , SE 1,4 SW1,4 S ec . 28, T2S, R18E 133.53' 234' DADE COUNTY W-215 3 00' from W line , 3095' from S lin e, Sec. 12, T55S, R40E 9.91' 5535' W-44 3 3900' from N line, 40' from E line, Sec. 15, T53S, R42E 6.9' 950' W-466 260' from W line, 210' from S lin e , Sec. 31, T53S, R35E 8.20' 1280' W-4 6 2375' from N line, 1500' from E lin e, Sec. 30, T52S, R40E 7 . 63' 223.4' W-8 89 Cente r of N E 1,4 NW 1,4 S ec . 30, T55S, R36E 15' 11789' DESOTO COUNTY W-383 240' from E line, 2420' from N lin e, Sec. 23, T38S, R24E 46.84' 541 ' DIXIE COUNTY W-504 S ec . 29, T9S, R10E, SW 1,4 NE1,4 7' 95' W-59 3 140' from S line , 2330' from W line , NW 1,4 S ec . 31, T9S, R12E 42.58' 118' W-59 100 ' from N lin e, 1870' from E line, Sec. 9, T10S, R12E 41.9 3' 100' W-67 1 1420' from S lin e , 1250' from E lin e , S ec . 10, T10S, R12E 42' 215' DUVAL COUNTY W-48 972' fron1 E lin e, 2567' fron1 S lin e , S ec . 20, T2S, R26E 24' 900' W-304 1540 ' from W line , 750' from S line, Sec. 12, T2S, R26E 8 .87 ' 1249' W-322 2560' from N line , 205 ' from E line , S ec . 25, T2S, R26E 19.72' 1278 ' W-392 1440' from S line, 1620' from W lin e, S ec . 21, T2S, R29E, N1h SW1,4 11.69 ' 622' W-513 1765 ' from W lin e , 3 40 ' from S lin e, S ec. 23, T 3 S, R26E 8 .9' 1005 ' W-514 352 0 ' from W line , 350' from S lin e , S ec. 39, ( Wn1. Trave rse Grant) SW1,4 SE%. S ec . 22, T3S, R26E 22.3' 1015' W-532 1460 ' from W line , 1905' from S line, S ec . 31,

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 79 Total W e ll No. D escription Elev atio n D epth T1N, R26E 10.50 ' 690' W544 2710' from N line, 600' from E line , near W line of NW%, S ec . 13, T1S, R26E 13.73' 1019' 1 6 10 ' from E line , 1612' from N line, SW corn er, NE 14 NE 14 S ec . 22, T3S, R24E 75' 990' vV-610 1785 ' from S line, 1160' from W line, S ec . 31, T2S, R26E 19.79 ' 730' W649 842' from W line, 4850' from N line, S ec . 1 8, T2S, R27E 3 .61' 1074. 6' W661 2870' from S line , 2760' from E line, S ec . 21, T3S, R26E 15 .5' 987'5" W73 1 850' from S line, 840' from E line, S ec. 9, T 3S , R24E 79.6' 780' W741 2100' from S line, 64 0 ' from W line, S ec. 13, T2S, R27E 60.17' 1050' W-826 2544' from E line, 2286' from N line, Sec. 3, T2S, R26E 28.90' 1064' GADSDEN COUNTY W-4 2305' from S line, 470' from W line , S ec . 6, T2N, R 3 W 149 .72' 1395' W-226 12 9' from N line , 1510' from W line, S ec. 7, T2N, R3W 253.51' 1001' GILCHRIST COUNTY W-318 1875 ' from W line, 13 35' from N line, S ec . 16, T10S, R15E 53.04' 234' HARDEE COUNTY vV-2894 NE%, NE%, S ec . 29, T35S, R24E 88.86' + HERNANDO COUNTY W-274 19 8 0' fr01n N line , 396' from W line, S ec. 36, T21S, R19E 261.4' 804' W-707 785 ' from W line , 7 40' from S line, S ec. 18 , T23S, R19E 68' 340' HIGHLANDS COUNTY W-2859 SE % , NW14 S ec . 18, T34S, R29E 1400' HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY W-119 330' from E line, 1320 ' fron1 N line, NE corner of SE % , NE % , S ec . 18, T30S, R22E 66.43' 776' W-267 2140' from W line , 2150' from N line, S ec . 6, T30S, R22E, 300' W and 600' N of the center line 84.18' 805' W-1448 Sec. 16, T30S, R22E 57' 820' W-1504 NE corner NE%, NE%, S ec . 6, T29S, R19E 65.57' 62 0 '

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80 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Total W e ll No. D e scription Elevati o n Depth W-1604 SE% , SW 1,4, S ec. 19, T29S, R18E +5' 720' W-1627 SE 1,4 SE 1,4 SW1,4 S ec. 19, T29S, R18E 5.2' 704' W-2007 Sec. 35, T28S, R16E 5' 1805' W-2 008 S ec. 28, T29S, R21E 77.97' 1700 ' HOLMES COUNTY W-2301 2 block s east of test well No. 1, at dead end of street running east of Courthouse 120.4' 615 ' JACKSON COUNTY W-220 860' from S line , 940' from W line, Sec. 3, T4N, R10W 117.47 ' 408 ' W-235 1090' fron1 S line , 1990' from W line, Sec. 18, T4N, R10W 154.23' 250 ' W-276 490' from N line , 1290' from W line, Sec. 36, T4N, R7W 82.28' 477 ' W-654 1170' from S line , 2440' from W line , Sec. 18, T5N, R9W 117.50 ' 297'8" W-687 370' from S line, 160' from E line, S ec . 13, T5N, R10W 107.50' 240 ' W-706 870' from S line, 790' from W line , Sec. 3, T4N, R10W 115.75 ' 744' W-1360 660' N and 1160' E of SW corner, Sec. 15, T3N, R9W 96' 1 3 00 ' W-1364 2079' N and 3293' W of SE corner, S ec . 8, T4N, R8W 122 ' 1478 ' W-1824 SE corner NE 1,4 Sec. 7, T4N, R10W 171.84' 36 2' JEFFERSON COUNTY W-19 775' from S line , 560' from W line, S ec . 17 , T2N, R5E 217.94 ' 3838' LAFAYETTE COUNTY W-44 1490 ' from N line, 420' from W line , NE corner NW1,4 NW1.4 S ec. 13, T5S, R11E 67.81' 2 0 2' W-968 143 ' N 60 W of center of SW1,4 NE 1,4 Sec . 25, T6S, R12E 65' 4133' W-15 66 600' N and 50' E of SW corner, S ec . 3 4, T7S, R13E 59' 1308 ' LAKE COUNTY W-275 535' from S line , 895' from E line, SE 1,4 SE 1,4 S ec. 17, T24S, R25E 113 .66' 6129' W-309 1187' from E line, 1190' from N line, NE corner SW1,4 NW1,4 NE1,4 S ec . 11, T23S, R25E 107.5' 210' W-515 NW1,4 SW1,4 NE1,4 S ec. 26, T19S, R24E Leesburg a t City Pumping Plant 93 . 90' 425' W-998 About center of NW 1,4 SW 1,4 Sec. 13, T20S, R26E 84.61' 2 45 '

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 81 W e ll No. D escdption W 1658 NW c o r ner SE 1"-SE 1"S ec . 9, T19S, R25E W -166 0 NW corn e r SE 14 S ec . 21, T19S, R24E W -1 711 NW corne r SE 14 S ec . 17, T18S, R24E \V 2 011 Cente r of W half o f NE 14 NE S ec. 27, T19 S, R24E LEON COUNTY W -453 1435 ' from S line , 32 0 ' from W lin e , S ec . 30, T1N, R1E LEVY COUNTY W -17 0 2320' from N line , 750' from W line , S ec . 3 0, E l evation 77 . 69' 82 .51 ' 79.83' 8 0.36 ' 18 6 . 66' T otal D epth 191 ' 10 8' 1 69' 32 0 ' 413'6 " T12S, R19E 83 . 9' 1 25' W 171 1340 ' from S line , 1750 ' from W line , S ec . 35 , T12S, R1 8 E 73.63' 114 ' W -8 14 1885' fro m W line , 20 47 ' from S lin e, S ec . 16, T15S, R13E 8.7' 385' W 1537 99 0 ' from W line and 1 650' from S line , SW1"S ec. 16, T15S, R1 3 E 5' 5850' W -1699 NE%, NW14 S ec . 6 , T13 S , R19E 76' + 1 58' W 1846 2000' S and 1200 ' W from NE corne r S ec . 23, T13S, R13E 4 1 9' MADISON COUNTY W -1596 Cente r of SW 1,4 SE %. S ec . 6 , T1S, R10E W -23 W-18 W -2 0 3 W2 04 W6 50 W -65 1 W -888 W89 1 W892 W-901 W -19 04b MANATEE COUNTY 1080 ' frmn N line , 160 ' from W line , W1h of NW 14 NW 1"S ec . 15, T 34S, R17E MARION COUNTY 2900' from W line , 2520' fron1 S line , cente r of S ec. 10, T16S, R20E 3 15' from S line , 10 ' from W line , SW14 S ec. 7, T16S, R23E 262 5 ' from S line , 190 ' from W line, S ec . 29, T16S, R22E 552' from W line , 29 5 ' fron1 S line , S ees . 25, 26, 35, 36 , T16 S, R19E 6 12 ' from W line, 38 2' from N line , S ec . 36, T16S, R19E 398' from W line , 1700' from S line, S ec . 17, T15S, R 22 E 1 9.7' from N line , 1 8.4' fron1 E lin e , S ec. 2, T13 S, R21E 1 320' from S line , 1 32 0 ' from E line , S ec . 35, T13S, R 21E 33 0 ' from N line , 66 0 ' from W lin e , NE S ec . 25, T13S, R20E Center of NE % . SE S ec . 24, T14S, R22 E 10 2' 4.7' 75.5 ' 75.4' 64 .2 ' 62 .0 ' 63 .5' 110.11 ' 83 . 24' 111.23' 1 65' 69' 538 1 ' 1265 ' 618 0 ' 1 25' 100 ' 1 74' 455 ' 375 ' 400' 4334 ' 1 95'

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82 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Total W ell No. D esc 'ription Elevation De7Jfh MARTIN COUNTY W-28 60 SE % , S ec . 31, T38S, R38E 1155 ' W-2861 NE 1,4 Sec. 9, T 38 S, R40E 20' 95 I MONROE COUNTY W-2 2380' from W line , 1320' from S line , Sec. 9, T66S, R32E 6.50' 2555' W-445 Center of NW1,4 S ec . 6, T55S, R34E 14' 1000 6' NASSAU COUNTY W-33G 2310' fr01n S line , 2475' from E lin e, NW corner of NW1,4 SE1,4 S ec. 19, T4N, R24E 99.02' 4824 ' OKALOOSA COUNTY W-3550 NE1,4 NW1,4 S ec . 8, T3N, R23W, in SE corner 264' 920 ' OKEECHOBEE COUNTY W-5 0 1500' from W line, 360' from N line, S ec . 22, T37S, R35E 24.6' W-51 2490' from W line , 540' fron1 S lin e , S ec. 16, T37S, R35E 3 1.3 ' 810 ' ORANGE COUNTY W -26 82 0 ' from E line, 715 ' from S lin e , S ec . 9, T21S, R28E 147.32' W-57 5 n1iles SW of Orlando 89' 417 ' W-3 1 2 SE corner of South Street and Chapman Street, S ec. 35, T22S, R29E 107' 566 ' W-3287 Magnolia Ranc h, S ees . 3 and 4, T23S, R31E 81' OSCEOLA COUNTY W-696 1815' fron1 E line , 175 ' from N line , S ec . 30, T25S, R29E, 1 800' W and 200' S of NE corner 77.7' 398' W697 1825 ' from E line, 415' from S line , S ec . 19, T25S, R29E 79.5' 394' W-1014 710 ' N of S line and 660' W of E line, Sec. 10, T27S, R34E 62 ' 8044'6" W-1411 660' N and 1980 ' W of SE corner, S ec . 12, T 31S, R33E 72.02 ' + 8798' W-1749 201' N and 83.5' E, SW corne r SE 1,4 S ec . 27, T25S, R34E 38.3' 1460 ' W-1770 SW corne r SE 1,4 S ec. 27, T25S, R34E 44 ' 5856 ' W-18 33 45' Sand 310' W of NE corner, SE1,4 SW1,4 S ec . 4, T27S, R32E 69' 6510 '

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S TRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 83 Total TT" e ll 1. o. D escription Elevat ion D e7Jth PALM BEACH COUNTY W2 0 1305' from S line, 1920 ' from W line , S ec . 3, T44S, R37E 14.1 ' 1 332' PASCO COUNTY W -658 975' from W line, 1200' from N line, S ec. 1 3, T26S, R21E 79.0 ' 325' W662 1220 ' from W line , 500' from N line , S ec . 1 3, T26S, R21E 8 0.7 ' 33 0 ' \ V-1545 200' S and 25' E of NW corner, S ec . 6, T24S, R18E 79 ' 440' PINELLAS COUNTY \ V-60 545' fron1 E line , 2040 ' from S line , S ec . 6 , T29S, R16E 68.26' 845'+ \V -2007 S ec . 35, T 28S, R16E 5 . 56 ' 1 8 05' POLK COUNTY W -5 S ec . 30, T31S, R25E 131.2' 838' W 11 690' from N line , 480' from W line , S e c. 3, T27S, R27E 121.88' 365' \V -24 260' from S line, 720' from W line , S ec . 12, T28S, R23E 217.85 ' 753' \V -40 1733' from W line, 335' from N line, NW %, NW1 4 S e c. 3 1, T27S, R25E 125.82 ' 752 ' W -1 10 SE1 4 NW%, NE1 4 S ec . 6, T 30S, R 24 E 136.0 ' 778' \V -3 41 1440' from N line and 103 5' from W line , S ec . 24, T29S, R27E 222 . 0 ' 732' \V-34 4 8 00 ' W and 600' S of N E corn e r Sec. 17, T29S, R24E 250.7' 757' \V -345 1013' from N line, 1080 ' from E line , S ec . 9, T29S, R27E 1 30.0' 545' \V -38 1 26 00' from S line, 8' from E line, S ec . 31, T 32 S, R 30E 6 1.0 ' 1035 ' W -382 1944' fron1 N line , 1944 ' from E lin e , S ec . 32, T27S, R26E 179.40' 505' \f\T -40 2 1 38 0 ' from N line, 85' from W line , S ec . 28, T27S, R27E 177.60' 8 02'6" \V-448 410' from S line , 1920' fron1 E line , S ec . 25, T27S, R23E 158.18 ' 550' \ V-457 1728 ' fron1 S line , 45 9' fron1 E line , S ec . 32, T27S, R26E 179 .86' 559' \ V -458 256 0 ' from S line, 1350 ' from E line , S ec. 12, T28S, R27E 100. 66' 600' \V -459 2360' fron1 S line , 840' from E line , S ec. 35, T27S, R23E 220. 09' 708 ' \V-500 11 60' from N line, 1510 ' from E line , E 1h of S ec . 2, T 30S, R27E 242.44 ' 1063' W -503 1540 ' from S line, 3 00 ' fron1 E line , NE 1 4 SE 1 4 S ec . 32, T28S, R24E 114.0 ' 10 30' W -5 18 1 3 00 ' from E line , 1350 ' from S line , S ec. 18, T 28S, R26E 140 .5 7 ' 55 0 '

PAGE 83

84 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Total W e ll No. D e scrir>tion Ele v atio n D epth W-519 2100' from S line, 740' from W line, S ec . 33, T31S, R28E 93.0' 10 60' W-61 6 1800' from N line, 345' from W line, S ec. 1, T28S, R26E 151.93 ' 592' W-623 450' from S lin e , 1400' from W lin e , SE % , S ec . 28, T30S, R28E 161.65' 967' W-639 1860' from N line, 1455' from W line , S ec . 10, T31S, R25E 115.35' 800' W-668 1850' from S line, 40' from E line , S ec . 31, T32S, R30E 61.50' 1055' W-672 2520' from E line, 7 40' from N line, S ec . 23, T29S, R25E 127.5' 601' W-67 3 2520' from E line, 45' from N line , Sec. 23, T29S, R25E 129.0' 600' W-928 500' S and 100' W of NE corner NW%, SW14 Sec. 23, T30S, R26E 163.4' 658' W-951 SW%, SW%: NW%: Sec. 33, T27S, R26E 170.81 ' 555' W-956 1400 ' W and 900' N of SE corner, S ec. 1, T30S, R24E 118.90 ' 635' W-965 Center of SE % , NW 1 4 Sec. 9, T32S, R28E 140.09' 1023 ' W-974 NE%, NE14 NW%, Sec. 19, T30S, R26E 175.8' 781.6' W-995 889' Nand 59' W of SE corner SW1 4 NW%, S ec . 10, T31S, R25E 110.18' 747. 6' W-1006 SE 1 4 NW % , Sec. 24, T30S, R25E 170.7' 717' W-100 8 98' S and 483' E of SW corner NE 1 4 S ec. 9, T31S, R25E 131.02' 801'6" W-1050 657' N, 96' W of SE corner SW%, NW%, S ec . 10, T31S, R25E 110.14' 797 ' W-105 9 Center of NW1 4 SE%, Sec. 17, T28S, R25E 160' 613' W-1060 N W 1 4 SE1 4 Sec. 10, T28S, R25E 146.28' 639' W-1111 N W corner of SW1 4 SW14 S ec. 10, T30S, R26E 500' E and 50' S 159.4 ' 824' W-1389 400' N and 200' E of S W corn e r of N E % , S ec. 17, T28S, R25E 155.9' 609' W-1395 111 ' N and 94' E of SW corner of NW1A, NE 1 4 S ec. 30, T30S, R25E 135.5' 776'10" W-1441 SW 1 4 Sec. 13, T29S, R24E 116.9' 605' W-1445 NW14 SE1 4 Sec. 5, T29S, R26E 135.7' 662' W-147 6 210' N and 1198' E of SW corner of Sec. 23, T30S, R23E 135.04' 888'9" W-1589 NW%, NW1A, SE1 4 Sec. 19, T28S, R24E 200.86' 1111' W-1754 SW corner SW 1 4 Sec. 18, T30S, R28E 146.7' 990' W-17 60 125' W and 100' N of SE corner Sec. 2, T30S, R23E 116.24' 764 ' W-1800 1500' E and 300' S from NW corner S ec . 10, T28S, R24E 140.81 ' 570' W-1801 S 1h NE%, S ec . 2, T30S, R25E 146.83' 1085' W-1802 S 1h NE 1 4 Sec. 2, T30S, R25E 146.31' 772' W-1864 1000 ' S and 900 ' W of NE corner of NW14 S ec. 11, T29S, R24E 122.72' 619' W-18 87 Center of NE 1 4 NW1 4 SE 1 4 S ec . 8, T32S, R28E 154.56 ' 1113' W-1949 NW corner NW1 4 NE1 4 SE1 4 Sec. 12, T30S, R28E 225.9' 743 ' W-1997 120' from N line and 1050' from W line , S ec . 24, T29S, R27E 201.32 ' 1100 ' W-200 3 SE corner of NW1 4 SE 1 4 S ec . 32, T28S, R26E 147.3' 677' W 2013 SW corner of NW 1 4 Sec. 3, T27S, R27E 130.8 ' 577 ' W-2014 SE 1 4 SW 1 4 S ec . 31, T28S, R26E 141.7' 625'

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 85 Description Elevation ,, .. -2127 \ V corner " ' 14 SE 11 4 S ec. 30, T 30S, R 28 E 187 .9' W -2129 enter of S ec . 3, T29S, R23E 142. 79' PUT TAM c ou TY 'V -619 0' from line, 1940 ' from W lin e , S ec . 3 , T10S, R27E W -1514 150 ' SE of cente r of NW1,4, NW1A, S ec. 19, T9S, R25E ST. JOHNS COUNTY \ V -236 15 3 0' from E lin e , 2 1 20' from S lin e , S c . 18, T7S, R 30E SANTA ROSA COU ITY W -454 1 2 5' fron1 S line , 350' from W lin e, S ec. 5, T1S, R26 W SARASOTA COU TY W -106 1800 ' f1om E line , 1420 ' fl'om N line , S ec. 34, T36S, R19E W -337 W347 W356 W -357 W -594 WSEMINOLE COU TY 1750 ' fron1 lin e , 2160' fron1 E lin e , S ec . 19, T19S, R 30E 2310' from N line , 1980 ' from E lin e, E 1-1 S ec . 28, T19S, R30E 237 0 ' from lin e , 610' from W line, S ec . 33, T19S, R 31E 10' from S lin e , 1 640' from E lin e , SE 7.._ S ec . 28, T19S, R 31E 380' from S lin e , 1750 ' from E line , S ec . 30, T1 9 S, R31E SUWANNEE COUNTY 2300' from S line, 530' from E lin e, S ec. 23, T2S, R13E TAYLOR COU TY 1 6.18' 19 6' 6.51' 11.5 9' 27.10' 26.32' 29. 11 ' 23.42' 15.19' 25.13' 104.58 ' \ V -1065 S ec. 12, T 6 S, R5E, 15 miles SW of P erry 1.59 ' W -2106 50' 1 and 750' W of SE corn e r S ec . 1 8, T4S, R9E 85' VOLUSIA COUNTY W -582 1670' from W line , 2200 ' from N line , S ec . 3, T otal Depth 825' 698'6" 247' 331' 1440 ' 1063' 73 5' 1 95' 164 ' 195 ' 183' 655' 10 .7' 5243'

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86 FLOR IDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT To teLl W e ll N o . D e sc 1 iptio n Elevation Depth T16S, R33E 4.7' 139.6' W-923 100' from N line, 2080' from E line , Sec. 34, T14S, R28E 75 ' + 145' W 1717 C enter of NE 14 Sec. 2, T15S, R30E 35' 158 ' W 3125 120' WAKULLA COUNTY W-12 1900' from E l i n e , 2050' from N line , Sec. 16, T3S, R1E 15.79' 2169' W 440 680' from N line, 710' from W line , near center of NW 14 NW 14 Sec. 14, T3S, R1E 18.13' 5766' WALTON COUNTY W-148 1425' from N line, 2440' from W line, Sec. 12, T1N, R19W 214.51' 5375 ' W-249 About center of SW14 Sec. 9, T2N, R21 W 227.41 ' 625' W-499 660' from N line, 2210' fron1 E line, NW 14, NE 14 Sec. 11, T1S, R20W 58.31' 2757' W-739 720' from N line, 2340' from E line, NE :14, Sec. 5, T2S, R18W 23.43' 756'9" WASHINGTON COUNTY W-1 680' from N line, 875' from W lin e , NW 14, NW14, S e c. 27, T4N, R13W 198.02' 4912' \V-2884 Center of NE14 NE1A, Sec. 29, T1N, R6W 77.4 ' 4993 ' GEORGIA-Decatur County W-709 6 miles NW of Bainbridge, D ecatur Co. 425 ' GEORGIA-Bac on County W-372 South side o f RR, :14, mil e e a s t of Station Alma, G eorgia 199 . 7 ' 626' BIBLIOGRAPHY Applin, E sthe r R . (als o see Applin, Paul L., 1944) 1945 (and Jordan, Louise) Diagnost i c j?ont subsu?'faee in Flo,ida: Jour. Pale ontolo gy, vol. 19, no. 2 , p p. 129-14 8. Applin, Paul L. 1944 (and Applin, E sthe r R.) R e gional sub suTjace s tratig T a p h y and s t Tuc tu1 e o f Flo1 i d a and G eo1g i a : Am. Asso c . P etroleun1 G e olo g i s t s Bull., vo l. 28, no. 12, pp. 167 31753. Bandy, O rville L. 194 9 Eoce n e and O ligoc e n e F o1an tini! era jro1n Little S t ave C1ee k, Cla1k e C ou nty, A l a b a1na : Bull. An1. Paleontology , vol. 3 2, no. 1 31, 2 10 pp., 2 7 pis.

PAGE 86

STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 87 Barker, R. W. 1 939 Spe ci e s of t h e fo 1 a1nini fe?al fa?nily Ca1nerinidae in the Te>tiary and C1 etace ous of Mexico: U. S. Nat. Mus . Proc. , vol. 86 , no. 3 052 , p . 3 25 . Clapp, F. G . (als o see Matson, 1 9 09) 1 9 41 St1 a t i g 1 aphic a n d pale ontolo g ic studie s of wells in Flo>ida: 1 9 4 2 1 944 Florida G e ol. Surve y Bull. 1 9, 91 pp. St1 atig1aphic and paleontol o gic studie s of wells in Florida: F l o r ida G e ol. Survey Bull. 20, 89 pp. Stratig1aph ic and pale ontolo g ic stud i e s o f wells in F lorida : Florida G e ol. Survey Bull. 26 , 1 68 pp. Cole , W. Storrs 1 938 St1at i g raph y and mic1 opal eontolog y o f two deerJ wells in F lol'icla : Florida G e ol. Sur v e y Bull. 16, 77 pp. Cooke , C. Wythe 1915 The a g e o f t h e O ca l a limestone : U. S . G e ol. Survey Prof. Pape r 1 929 19 39 1 9 4 3 9 5 , pp 107-117. (and Mossom, S tuart) G e ology of F lo1ida : Flor ida G e o l. S urve y 20th Ann. R ept., pp 29-227. Equivalenc e o f t h e G ospoTt sand to t h e M oody ' s 1na 1'1: J o ur. Pale ontology, vol. 3, no. 3 , pp. 33 7-340. (and Gardner, Julia, and Wood ring, W endell P.) Co?Telation o f t h e C e nozoic o f t h e Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and t h e Ca'ribb ean R e gion: Ge ol. Soc . Americ a Bul l., vo l. 54 , pp. 171 3 -17 23 . 1 9 4 5 G e o l o g y o f Florida G e ol. Surve y Bull. 2 9, 339 p p . Cushman, Joseph A. 1 9 17 01bitoid Foraminife? a of t h e genus Orthophragmina fro' n t G e o?19 2 0 1 92 1 1 93 4 gia and U . S. G e ol. Surve y Prof. Pape r 10 8-G, p p . 115 1 2 4. The A meric a n specie s o f Orthophragmina and L epidocyclina: U. S . G e ol. Sur v e y Prof. Paper 125 D , pp. 3 9 105. A1ne 1ican specie s o f Ope r culina and H e t eros tegina: U. S . Ge ol. Survey Prof. Pape r 128-E, pp. 125 142 . E ocene Fo1'a ?nin i f e 'ra o f t h e southeaste1n Unite d tates : U. S. Ge ol. Survey Prof. P a p e r 1 8 1, 181 pp. Dall, Willian1 Harr i s 1 8 901 9 0 3 Cont?'i butions to t h e Te1 tia1y fauna o f Flo1ida : Wag n e r F r ee Inst. S ci. T rans. , v ol. 3 , pts . 16 , pp. 1-1 6 54. F i sc h e r , A . G. 1 9 51 The ec hinoid fauna o f t h e I nglis 1nembe1, M oodys Branch fo 1na 195 3 tion: Florida G e o l. Surve y Bull. 3 4 , pt. 2 , pp. 4 5 101 , 7 p l s. P e tro l o g y o f Eocene limestone in a n d a1ound t h e Citrus-Levy Count y a r e a , Flo1ida : Florida G e ol. Surve y R eport o f Investi-gations , no. 9, pt. 2, pp. 41-70, 15 figs . , 6 tables. Gardner, Julia (see C ook e , 1943) Gravell, D . W . 1 935 (and Hanna, M. A . ) Larget F o?amini fet a f?'O?n the Moodys 1938 B 1anc h ma?'l, J ackson E oc ene , o f Texas, Louisiana ancl Mississippi: Jour. Paleontolog y, vol. 9, pp. 327 3 40 . (and Hanna, M. A. ) Sttb sU'rfac e zon es of con e latio n t h1oug h Mississippi, A l a b a t na, and F lorida : An1. Assoc. P e t r ol eum G e olo g i s t s Bull., v ol. 2 2 , pp. 9 8 4-101 3 . Gunter, H e 1 n1an (see S ellards, 1 9 18 ) Hanna , M. A . (see Gravell) Harris, G. D. 1951 P re li1ni n a 1 y notes on Ocala bivalves : Bull. Am. Paleo n to logy, vol. 33, no. 1 38 , 5 5 pp. , 1 3 pls. H e ilprin, Angelo 1 882 O n t h e o f Nu11t1nulitic d eposits in F lorida, ancl t h e associa tion o f Nummilites with a fauna: A cad. N at. S c i. Philade lphia P r o c ., pp. 18 9 -1 93 .

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88 FLOR IDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT 1887 on the west coast of Flo Tida and in the Okeechobee wilderness: Wagner Free In st. Sci. Trans., vol. 1, 134 pp. Howe, H enry V. 1951 New T e1tiat y ostracode fauna from Levy County, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 1, pp. 1-43, 5 pls. Jordan, Louise (see Applin, Esther R., 1944) MacNe il, F. Stearns 1944 Oligoc ene of Unite d States: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, pp. 1313-1354, 1 fig. 1947 chart of the outcropping TeTtiaTy formations of the easte1 n Gulf r egion: U.S. Geol. Survey, Oil and Gas Investig ation Preliminary Chart 29. Matson, G. C. 1909 (and Clapp, F. G . ) A preliminary repo1 t on the g e ology of Flo ' r ida with spe cial to the stratig1aphy: Florida Geol. Survey 2nd Ann. Rept., 1908-1909, pp. 25-173. 1913 (and Sanford, S.) Geology and ground wate1' of Flo 1 ida : U. S. Geol. Survey Water-Supply Paper 319, 445 pp. Moor e, Wayne E . 1955 The g eology of Jackson County: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 37, 101 pp. Mo ssom, Stuart (see Cooke, 1929) Murray, G. E. 1950a Lithological facies of Jacksonian stage, a n d easte>n Gulf coast: Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Annual Meeting, Chicago (abstract). 1950b (and Wilbert, L . J.) Jacksonian stage : Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geo logists Bull., vol. 23, pp. 1990-1997. 1952 Geology of Beauregard and Alle n Louisiana Dept. Cons. Geol. Bull. 27 (stratigraphy, pl. 13) . Palmer, K. V . W. (see Richards, 1953) Pressler, E. D. 1947 Geology and occu1renc e of oil in FloTida: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 31, pp. 1851-1862 . Puri, Harbans S. (also see Vernon, 1956) 1953 Zonation of the Ocala in Peninsular (abstract): Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, vol. 23, p. 130. Richards, Horace G . 1953 (and Palmer, K .V.W.) Eocene mollusks j?om and L ev y counties, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 35, 95 pp., 13 pis. Roberts, Henry B . (in Richards and Palmer) 1953 A new species of D ecapod C1ustacean j1om the Inglis membe?" : Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 35, pp. 64-67. Rutten, M. G. 1932 (and Vermunt, L. W. J.) The Serce di Cueba limestone /?"om Curacao : K. Aka d. W etensch. Amsterdam, Proc. Sect. Sci., Amsterdam, Nederland, vol. 35, p. 240. Sanfol'd, Samuel (see Matson, 1913). Sellards , E. H. 1918 (and Gunter, Herman) G e ology between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola ?"ivers in Flo1 ida: Florida Geol. Survey 10th-11th Ann. R epts., 1917-1918. 1919 Review of the g eology of Florida, with spe cial refeTence to structural conditions: Florida Geol. Survey 12th Ann. Rept. , 1918-1919, pp. 105-141. Swain, Frederick M. 1946 Ost?acoda from the Tertia1y of Flo1ida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 20, pp. 374-383, pis. 54, 55. Vaughan, T. W. 1928 New speci e s of Operculina and Discocyclina the Ocala limestone: Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155-165. 1933 Studie s of American spe cies of Foraminifera of the genus Lepidocyclina: Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 89, no. 10, 53 pp., 32 pis.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 89 Vermunt, L. W. J. (see Rutten, 1932) Vernon, Robert 0. 194 7 Te1tia1y fo?--mations cToppi?tg in, Cit?'"US and Levy Fifth Field Trip Guidebook, Southeastern Geol. Soc., Tallahassee, Florida, pp. 1-54. 1951 G eology of CitTus an d Levy CO' U1tties, Flo?"ida: Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 33, 256 pp., 2 pls. 195 (and Puri, Harbans S.) A of the g eology of Pa' nhandle Florida and a to the surface exposu?"es: Florida Geol. Survey, G.S.A. Field Trip, 83 pp. Wilbert, L. J. ( ee Murray, 1950b) W oodri ng, Wen dell P. (see Cooke, 1943).

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Part II STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP FORAMINIFERA

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PART II TABLE OF CONTENTS AND TAXONOMY The following foraminiferal associations are ascertained in the Ocala group: Page Systematic Treatment -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------FAMILY R up erti ida e ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------G ENDS Rupertia Wallich, 1877 --------------------------------------------------------------SPECIES Rupertia fioridana Cushman --------------------------------------------FAMILY Textu lari i dae -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------S DB FAMILY Tex tu lari inae ---------------------------------------------------------------------G END S T ex tu la 1ia Defrance, 1824 -----------------------------------------------------SPECIES Textula1ia adalta Cushman -------------------------------------------Textula 'ria 1ecta Cushman ---------------------------------------------100 Textula'ria ocalana Cushman --------------------------------------100 Textulatia howei Puri, n. sp. _ --------------------------------------100 Textula 'ria t1iangulata Puri, n. sp. ------------------____ _ ___ 101 Textula1 ia cf. T. hockle y en sis Cushman and Applin ____ 101 Textula1ia dibollensis Cushman and Applin _______ _ _______ 101 Textularia subhauerii Cushman -------------------------------------102 SDBF AMIL Y Spiroplectammininae _______ ----------------------------------------------102 GENUS Ammobaculites Cushman, -----__ -------------------------_ --------102 SPECIES A mmobaculites hockl e yensis Cushman and Applin ______ 102 G ENDS A mmospirata Cushman, ___ ---------------------------------------------102 SPECIES A mmospirata? levyensis Puri, n. sp. ------------------------------102 FAMILY V ern e u il in idae ---------------------------------------------------------------------------10 GENUS Verneuilina d'Orbigny, 1840 ________ ----------------------------------SPECIES ?Verneuilina p?--opinqua H. B. Brady -----------------------GENUS Guadtyina d '0 r b ign y, 18 ------------------------------------------________ 1 0 SPECIES Gaud'ryina gatdne1ae Cushman -----------------------------------G ENDS Pseudogaudryina Cushman, ___ --------------------------------SPECIES Pseudogaudryina cf. P. jacksonensis Cushman ____________ 10 3 FAMILY Valvulinidae _______________________ ------------------------------------------------------104 G ENDS V alvulina d 'Orbigny, 1826 ----------------------------------------------------104 SPECIES Valvulina ocalana Cushman ------------------------------------------104 V alvulina fioridana Cole -------------------------------------------------104 GENUS L ie bus e lla Cushman, 1 -----------_ ---------------------------------------104 SPECIES Lie bus e lla byramensis turgida (Cushman) ------------------104 G ENDS Textulariella Cushman, 1927 ------------------------------------------105 SPECIES Textula' riella ba?Tetti (Jones and Parker) -----------------105 G ENDS Dictyoconus Blanckenhorn, 1900 -------------------------------------------105 SPECIES Dictyoconus cookei Moberg -----------------------------------------105 G ENDS Lituonella Schlumberger, 1905 ---------------------------------------------106 SPECIES Lituone lla s p. ___ __ ------------------------------------------------------------106 G ENDS N eoclavulina Puri, n. ge n. ______ _ ____ -----------------------------------106 SPECIES N eoc lavulina 1obusta Puri, n. sp. ----------------------------------106 FAMILY Miliolidae _____________ ___ _ __________ -------------------------------------------107 GENUS Quinque loculina d'Orbigny, 18 26 __ ------------------------------------107 SPECIES Quinquiloculina newbe?"?"y ensis Puri, n. s p. ------------------107 Quinque loculina ocalana Puri, n. sp. -----------------------------107

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GENUS Miliola Lamarck, 1801 -----------------------------------------------------------107 SPECIES Miliola cf. M . saxorum Lamarck -------------------------------107 Miliola jacksonensis Cushman ---------------------------------------108 GENUS M assilina Schlumberger, 1893 ----------------------------------------108 SPECIES Massilina cf. M. jacksonensis Cushman ---------------------108 GENUS Spiro loculina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------------------------------------108 SPECIES SpiToloc u lina bidentata Hadley -------------------------------------108 SpiToloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan ______________ 108 Spiroloculina newbet?yensis Puri, n. sp. ----------------------109 GENUS A rticulina d 'Orbigny, 1826 -------------------------------------------------109 SPECIES A 11ticulina zubet' ensis Puri, n. sp. ---------------------------------109 GENUS P yTgo Defrance, 1824 -----------------------------------------------------------110 SPECIES Pyrgo cf. P. ino?'nata ( d'Orbigny) -------------------------------110 FAMILY Lageni dae -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------110 SUBFAMILY Nod osariinae ----------------------------------------------------------------------110 GENUS Robulus Montfort, 1808 ---------------------------------------------------------110 SPECIES Robulus alatoli1nbatus (Gumbel) ----------------------------------110 R o bulus dan villensis (Howe and Wall ace) ------------------110 Rob u lus limbo sus (Reuss) ----------------------------------------110 Robu lus gutticostatus (Gumbel) --------------------------------110 R o bulus a11cua tost1 ia tus (Han tken) ------------------------------111 Robulus cf. R . propinquus (Hantken) ----------------------------111 Robulus dumb lei W einzierl and Applin --------------------------111 GENUS Mat 'ginulina d'Orbigny, 1826 -------------------------__________________ 111 SPECIES Ma11ginulina j1aga1ia texasensis (Cushman and Ap-Plin) ----------------____ --------------------------------------------------111 M arginulina cf. M. ka1T e 1iana Cushman ----------------------112 GENUS D entalina d'Orbigny, 1826 __ --------------------------------------------11 2 SPECIES Dentalina vert e b r alis albatrossi (Cushman) ________________ 112 Dentalina coopetensis Cushman ------------------------------------112 GENUS Nodosaria Lamarck, 1812 ----------------------------------------------------113 SPECIES ? Nodosaria ewaldi Reuss -------------------------------------------------113 N o dosaria latejugata Gumbel -----------------------------------------113 Nodosaria fissicostata (Gumbel) ------------------------------113 GENUS Saracena?'ia D efrance, 1824 -----------------------------------------------113 SPECIES Saracena11ia hantkeni Cushman -------------------------------------113 Sar ac en aria italica Defrance -----------------------------------------114 Saracenaria mo1esiana Howe and Wallace -----------------114 GENUS Lingulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ------------------------------------------------114 SPECIES Lingulina ocalana Puri, n. sp. ------------------------------------114 SUBFAMILY Lagen inae ________ ---------------------------------------------------------------115 GENUS L a gena Walke r and Jacob, 1798 ----------------------------------------115 SPECIES Lag en a laevis ( M on tagu) -------------------------------------------------115 Lag en a acu ticos ta Reuss -------------------------------------------------115 GENUS Planula'ria Defrance, 1824 ---------------------------------------------------115 SPECIES Planularia t?'uncana (Gumbel) --------------------------------115 FAMILY Po 1 ym orp hini d a e __ -----------------------------------------------------------------116 SUBFAMILY P olymorp hin inae --------------------------------------------------------------116 G ENDS Polymorphina d'Orbigny, 1826 ----------------------------------------116 SPECIES Pol ymo?,.p h ina s p. -------------------------------------------------------116 GENUS Gut tu lin a d '0 r b igny, 18 2 6 -------------------------------------------------116 SPECIES Guttulina i ' r ' re gularis ( d'Orbigny) --------------------------------116 Guttulina spicaeformis (Roemer) -------------------------------116 GENUS Globulina d'Orbigny, 1826 --------------------------------------------------116 SPECIES Globulina gibba d'Orbigny ---------------------------------------116 Globulina gibba globosa (Von Munster) ---------------------117 GENUS Sigmomotphina Cushman and Ozawa, 1928 ----------------------117 SPECIES Sigmomo11phina jacksonensis (Cushman) --------------------117 FAMILY Heterohelicidae ________ ----------------------------------------------------------------118 SUBFAMILY Plectofron diculariinae -----------------------------------------------------118 94

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GENUS Ple cto / Tondicula?ia Lie bus, 1903 -------------------------------------------118 SPECIES Plecto/r ondicularia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp. _____ _____________ 118 FAMILY B uliminidae -------------------------------------------------------------------------118 SUBFAMILY Tu rril in i nae -------------------------------------------------------------------118 GENUS B u limine lla Cushman, 1911 -------------------------------------------------118 SPECIES Bulimine lla sp. --------------------------------------------------------------1 J 8 SUBFAMILY B u lim ini n ae ---------------------------------------------------------------------118 GENUS Bulimina d '0 r b igny, 18 2 6 -------------------------------------_ ____ _______ 118 SPECIES Bulimina jacksonen sis Cushman -------------------------------118 SUBFAMILY V irgu lin i nae _____ _ -------------------------------------------------------119 GENUS Bolivina d '0 r b igny, 18 2 6 ---------------------------------------119 SPECIES Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin ---------------119 Bolivina ad vena Cushman -----------------------------------------------119 GENUS Bitubulogenerina Howe, 1934 _____ -----------------------------------------119 SPECIES Bitubu logenerina vickbu1gensis Howe ----------------------119 SUBFAMILY R eussellinae 119 GENUS R euss e lla Gall ow a y, 19 3 3 ----------------------------------------------119 SPECIES R eu ss e lla e ocena (Cushman) ---------------------------------------119 R eu ssella sculptilis (Cushman) ----------------------------------120 SUBFAMILY U vigeri n inae ---------------------------------------------------------------------120 GENUS Uvigerina d '0 r bign y, 18 2 6 --------------------------------------------------12 0 SPECIES Uvigerina g lab rans Cushman --------------------------------------------1 20 Uvig erin a jacksonensis Cushman -----------------------------------120 U vig ga rdne1ae Cushman ----------------------------------------120 U vige?"ina cf. U. cookei Cushman --------------------------------121 GENUS TrifaTina Cushman, 1923 --------------------------------------------------121 SPECIES Trifarina b radyi adven a Cushman ------------------------------121 GENUS A ngulogerina Cushman, 1927 -------------------------------------------------121 SPECIES A ngulogerina ocalana Cushman --------------------------------121 FAMILY Cassidulinidae -----------------------------------------------------------------------------121 GENUS Cassidulina d'Orbigny, 1826 ---------------------------------------------121 SPECIES Cassidulina cf. C. moodyensis Cushman and Todd ______ 121 SUP E RF A MIL Y Rotaliidea -----------------------------------------------------------------------------122 FAMILY Rotal iidae --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------122 SUBFAMILY Rotaliinae --------------------------------------------------------------------122 GENUS Camagueyia Cole and Bermudez --------------------------------------------122 GENUS Camagueyia Col e and Bermudez, 1944 ---------------------------------122 GENUS Rotalia Lamarck, 1804 ----------------------------------------------------------122 SPECIES Rotalia cushmani Applin and Jordan ------------------------------122 SUBFAMILY Discor bisinae ------------------------------------------------------------122 GENUS D iscor bis Lamarck, 1804 --------------------------------------------------122 SPECIES D iscor bis bulla Cushman ------------------------------------------------122 Dis cor bis ocala na Cushman ---------------------------------------------12 3 GENUS DiscorinoJ:)Sis Col e, 1941 ------------------------------------------------------123 SPECIES Discorinopsis gun teri Cole -----------------------------------------------12 3 GENUS Mississippiana Howe, 1930 ----------------------------------------------------123 SPECIES Mississippiana monsouri Howe ---------------------------------------123 GENUS Stomatot bina Dorreen, 1948 ---------------------------------------------------123 SPECIES Stomator bina k endricken sis Puri, n. sp. ________________________ 123 GENUS V er n on ina Pu ri, n. gen. -------------------------------------------------------124 SPECIES Vernonina tuberculata Puri, n. s p. ------------------------------124 SUBFAMILY V alvu lineriinae -------------------------------------------------------------124 GENUS Gyt oidina d '0 r bigny, 1 826 -------------------------------------------------124 SPECIES Gy r oidina crystalriverensis Puri. n. sp. -----------------------124 Gyroidina nassauensis Cole ---------------------------------------------125 Gyroid ina so lda n ii d '0 r b igny -----------------------------------125 Gyr oi-dina spring fie ld en s i s Puri, n. sp. -------------------------125 GENUS V alvulineria Cushman, 1926 -------------------------------------------125 SPECIES Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellisor ____________________ 125 V alvulineria jacksonen sis Cushman --------------------------------125 95

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GENUS E ponides M on tf ort, 1808 ----------------------------------------------------------126 SPECIES Eponides jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin) ------------126 Eponid es ocalana Cushman ----------------------------------------126 Eponid e s budensis planata Cushman -------------------------Eponide s cocoaensis Cushman --------------------------------------12 6 FAMILY G 1 o borotal i i dae --------------------------------------------------------------------------------126 GENUS C r ib ' r oglobo?otalia Cushman and Bermudez, 1936 ________ __ 126 SPECIES C?" i b Toglobo rotalia matielina Cushman and Bern1ud ez 126 GENUS Globo t otalia Cushman, 1927 --------------------------------------------____ 127 SPECIES Globo 1otalia c?ysta1ive1ensis Puri, n. sp. -------------------127 Globo1otalia cocoa ensis Cushman -----------------------------------127 FAMILY Han tkeninidae -----------------------------------------------------------------------------127 GENUS H antkenina Cushman, 1924 --------------------------------------------------127 SPECIES H antkenina alabamensis Cushman ---------------------------------127 FAMILY Epistomininae __ --------------------------------------------------------------------------128 GENUS Alabamina Toulmin, 1941 ------------------------------------------------------128 SPECIES Alabamina obtusa (Burrows and Holland) -----------------128 GENUS Epistomatia Galloway, 193 3 -------------------------------------------------128 SPECIES Epistomaria semimarginata ( d'Orbigny) ----------------------128 FAMILY C ym hal oporidae ---------------------------------------------------------------------------128 GENUS Fabiania A . Silve stri, 1926 ------------------------------------------------128 SPECIES Fabiania cu bensis (Cushman and B ermudez) _________ ._____ 128 SUBFAMILY Planulin i nae -----------------------------------------------------------------------129 GENU S P la nul ina d 'Orbigny, 18 2 6 ------------------------------------------------------12 9 SPECIES Planulina cocoaensis Cushman --------------------------------------129 Planulin a kend1ic k ensis Puri, n. s p . --------------------------------129 SUBFAMILY Sip h oni nae -------------------------------------------------------------_____ _____ 12 9 GENUS Siphon ina Reuss, 1850 _______ ------------------------------------------------129 SPECIES Siphonina jacksonen sis Cushman and Applin ______________ 129 FAMILY Ceratobuliminidae ---------------------------------------------------------------------120 SUBFAMILY Ceratobulimininae ________ -----------------------------------------------130 GENUS La?na 'rckina B erthelin, 1881 -----------------------------------------------------13 0 SPECIES Lamarckina s p. --------------------------------------------------------------130 FAMILY A nomalinidae _ 130 SUBFAMILY Anomal in in ae ----------------------------------------------------------------------130 GENUS A nomalina d'Orbigny, 1826 __ -----------------------------------------------130 SPECIES A nomalin a bilateralis Cushman --------------------------------------j 30 A nomalina cocoaensis Cushman -----------------------------------SUBFAMILY Cibicidinae ----------------------------------------------------------------130 GENUS Cibicid e s Montfort, 1808 __ ----------------------------------------------------130 SPECIES Ci b icides pseudounge1ianus (Cushman) -----------------------130 Ci bicide s cf. C . yazooensis Cushman _____________ -----------------131 Cib i cid es c f. C . mississippiensis (Cushman) _______________ 13 1 Cibicid es cf. C . coope?"ensis Cushman -----------------------------13 1 Ci b icides mississippiensis ocala nus (Cushman) ____________ 131 GENUS D yoci bicid e s Cushman and Valentine, 1930 -----------------------131 SPECIES Dyoci b icid e s sp. _______ ____ ----------------------------------------------131 FAMILY Amp histeginidae ____________________________________________________________________ _{______ 132 GENUS Amphistegina d'Orbigny, 1826 ____________________ -----------------------____ 13 2 SPECIES pin a 1 ensis cosdeni Applin and J orclan __ 132 FAMILY N onionidae _________ -------------------------------------------------------------------------132 SUBFAMILY N onioninae ------------------------------------------------------------------------132 GENUS N onion M o n tf ort, 1808 ----------------------------------------------------------132 SPECIES N onion advenu1n (Cushman) ----------------------------------------132 96

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N onion planatum Cushman and Thomas _ ----------------------13 3 GENUS Nonione lla Cushman, 1826 ---------------__ _ __________ ----------------------133 SPECIES N onionella sp. __ --------------------------------------------------------133 SUBFAMILY Elphidiinae -----------------------------------------------------------------------133 GENU S E l p h id iu m Montfort , 18 08 _________ ---------------___________ ______ _____ _____ 1 3 3 SPECIES E l1:> h idiu m s p. ----------------------------------------------------------------13 3 FAMILY N ummulitidae _ ___ __ __ -------------------------------------------------------------GENUS N'lt?n?nulit es Lamarck, 1801 ______ ____ ___ ______ __ _____ _ ________ _ SPECIES N nm?nulites vanderstoki Rutte n and Vermunt -------------GENUS O pe1culina d'Orbigny, 1826 ____ _ __ _ ____ __ _ ___________ _ SPECIES Operculina 1na1iannensis Vaughan ------------------------------GENUS Ope?'culinoid e s Hanzawa, 1935 ___ ------------------------------------SPECIES Op etcu li noides ocala nus (Cushman) -----------------------------Op et cu lino ides .floridensis ( H eilprin) _____________ ___ --------O petculinoides moodyb r anch ensis (Gravell and Hanna) _ __ _________ ____ _ _ __ ____ _______ _ O pe1culinoides vaughani (Cushman) ---------------------------O pe?culinoicles willcoxi (Heilprin) _ ____ __ _ ___________ _ O petculinoicles jacksonensis (Gravell and Hanna) _____ _ SUBFAMILY H e terostegininae ______________ __ __ _________ ____ __ _ ______ _ GENUS H e te1ost e gina d'Orbigny, 1826 _ _ ------------------------------------SPECIES H e t eroste gina ocalana Cu shman -----------------------------____ _ FAMILY L e pido cyclinidae _ __ --------------------------------------------------------------GENUS L ep iclocyclina Gumbe l, 1870 _________ __ _ ------------------------------SPECIES L epi docyclina ocalana Cu shman __ __ ___ --------------------L e pidocyclina ocalana fioridana Cushman -----------------L epidocyclina oca lana attenuata C u shman _ _ __ L epi docyclina ocalana pseu doma1ginata C u shman ____ _ L epi docyclina mottoni Cushman ______________ __ __ _ ______ _ SUBGENUS N e1:>htolepidina H. Douville, 1911 _ ___ _ ___ __ _ ____ _ SPECIES L epi docyclina (Nep h 1olepidina) c h apeTi L e moin e and R. Douvill e _ ---------------___ __ ____ ___ __ L epidocyclin a sp. -------------------------------------------------------SUPERFAMILY Discocyclinidea -------------------------------------------------------------FAMILY Di scocyclinidae _ ---------------------------------------------GENUS P seudo1Jhtag1nina H. Douvill e , 192 3 ------------------------------SUBGENUS P ropo1ocyclina Vaughan and Col e, 1940 __ _ ________ _ SPECIES P seudop h 1agmina (P1oporocyclina) fiintensis ( Cushman) _________ ------------------P seudop hrag 1nina (Propo1ocyclina) floriclana ( Cus hman) --------------------------_ P seudop h 1agntina ( Ptoporocyclina) cittensis (Vaughan) -------------------------------__ -____ -------------------FAMILY A s t eroc y c l in idae __ ---------------------------------------------------------------GENUS A stetocyclina Gumbe l, 1870 ________________ ---------------------------------SPECIES Aste1ocyclina g e o1giana (Cushman) --------------------______ _ Aste1ocyclina ame1icana (C u shman) --------------------------Aste1ocyclina 1na1iannensis (Cushman) -----------------------A sterocyclina chipolensis (Vaughan) __ ----------------------Aste?ocyclina vaughani (Cushman) ---------------------------AsteJocyclina aff. A. nassauensis Col e ---------------------------FAMILY P e nerop 1 i dae __ -------------------------------------------------------------------------SUBFAMILY Spirolininae -----------------------------------------------------------GENUS Spi1olina Lamarck, 1 804 ----------------------------------------------------SPECIES Spi1olina co1yensis Cole ----------------------------------------______ _ SUBFAMILY ArchaiasinaEl 97 133 133 1 33 134 134 134 134 134 135 135 135 136 136 13G 136 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 138 138 1 39 139 139 139 139 139 139 140 140 140 140 140 141 141 141 142 14') .... -J l42 142 142

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GENUS A rc ha ias M on tf ort, 18 08 -------------------------------------------------------142 SPECIES A rchaias withlacoochensis Puri, n . sp. ------------------------142 FAMILY G ypsininae ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------143 GENUS Sphaerogypsina Galloway, 1933 -------------------------------------------143 SPECIES Sphaerogypsin a globula (Reuss) ----------------------------------143 FAMILY Plan orb u 1 in ida e -----------------------------------------------------------------------143 GENUS P la n or b u l ina d 'Orbigny, 18 2 6 ----------------------------------------------14 3 SPECIES P Zan o r bulina s p . ---------------------------------------------------------------143 GENUS Linderina Sc hl u m berger, 18 9 3 ----------------------------------------------143 SPECIES Linderina s p . ---------------------------------------------------------------------143 ILLUSTRATIONS Plates 1-15 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14 5 Tables 1 Stratigraphic distribution of the Foraminifera of the Ocala group ____ 176 98

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Part II Description of Species Family RUPERTIIDAE Gen u s RUPERTIA Wallich, 1877 Rupertia floridana Cushman Plate 8, figs. 7, 8; plate 12, fig . 8 R upe1 t i a fto1ida n a Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Fora1n. Research Contr., vol. 9, p. 21, pl. 2, figs. 1 3, 14. Rupertia fto ? iclan a Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r 181, p . 55, pl. 23, figs . 6, 7. Thi attached, e longate, cylindrical form with inflated chamber in a loo e piral can be easil y identified by it large size, tapering te t with lightly depressed and di tinct utures and a multiple aperture. The typical pecimen i figured on pl. 12, fig. 8. There are a number of variations with thi pecie , and orne of the variant are figured on pl. 8, figs. 7, 8. Thi s species i s common in the Spi1 ''0loculina is and the Aste1ocyclina faunizones of the Crystal River formation. Doubtl e , thi pecies occurs throughout the Crystal River. Since it o ccur attached on the valve of mollu k and te t of larger Foraminifera, it i difficult to pot in well cuttings. Family TEXTULARIIDAE Subfamily TEXTULARIINAE Genus TEXTULARIA Defrance, 1824 Te xtularia adalta Cu hman Plate 1, figs. 1a, b Textularia aclalta Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foran1. Research Contr., vol. 2, p. 29, pl. 4, fig. 2. Text n la ? i a aclalta Cushman . Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r 181, p . 8, pl. 1, figs. 11, 12. T e tula1ia aclalta Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. An1. Paleontology, vol. 3 2, no. 131,p. 35,pl. 4,figs. 13a, b, 14a, b. Text ula1ia ad alta Cushman. Todd, 1952, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pape l' 241, p . 5, pl. 1, fig. 6. Thi pecie can easily be identified by its elongate, lender, tapering and compressed form with 5 or 6 chambers making up rnore than half of the test. The periphery is subacute except in the last fe'v chambers where it i s subrounded. 99

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100 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Thi pecie occur throughout the Ocala g roup but i m ore abundant in the SJJi' roloculina nel be1yensis faunizone of the r y -tal River formation. Textula?"ia ?"ecta Cu hman Plate 1 , fig . 2a, b T e . tula Jict J'ecta Cu hman, 192 3 , U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 133, p. 17 pl. 1, fig. 2 . tula ria r ecta C u shman. C u shman, 19 35, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, pp. 7, 8, pl. 1, fig s . 8, 9 . Thi species can be easil y identifi ed by its e longate, s lightl y compre eel test, which in it earl y portion increases rapidly but in the later portion increa e lowly. Thi cau e the adult to how parallel ide . Thi pecie occurs throughout the Ocala group, but i abundant in the Spi1oloculina be1yensis faunizone of the ry tal River formation. T e xtula1a ocalana C u hman Plate 1 , fig . 3a, b; plate 2, fig. 1 tula da ocalana C u shman, 19 26, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 2, p. 30, pl. 4, fig s . 3a, b. T e . tnlaJia ocalana Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p . 7, pl. 1, figs. 7a, b. Thi pecie could be ea ily identified by it nearly flat te t with uninfiated chamber pre ed uture . Thi p ec ie ha only been noticed in the b e?Tye nsis faunizone of the C r y tal River and \ V h e r e it occa ionally occur at mo t location . T extularria hou e i Puri, n. p. Plate 1, fig. 4 mall, compre e d \vith li ghtly depi?"oloculina n ezc Ingli formation T e t s mall, average size 0.7 mm. , short, broad, lightly compre eel; periphery rounded, initia l end acute, apertural end broad. C hamber few, eli tinct, increa ing in height and breadth a added, \vith early portion of the te t triangular, later two chamber a high a \vide, making up half of the te t. Suture di tinct, curved, depre ed. Aperture arched, at the inner margin of the l a t forme d chamber. Average height 0.7 mm.; breadth 0.5 mm. Named in honor of Dr. H enry V. H o,ve, Loui iana State Univer ity. Thi pecie co uld ea il y be identifi ed from the r e t of the Gulf coa s t pecies by it short, broad te t. T. diboll e nsis C u hma n and

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 101 Applin i about the arne s i ze a T. hozcei but the uture in T. dibollensis are at right angl es to peripheral margin. Thi pecie i common in the Spiroloculina neu:berryensi fauni zone of the Cry tal River formation. T extula1ia t?'"iangulata Puri, n. p. Plate 1, fig. 5; plate 2, figs. 2-5 large, adult about 2.00 mm. in height; trongl y triangular in the yo ung, upper portion cylindrical in the adult. Periphery har p and ubacute. Number of chambers 11-20; c hambers a lm o t twic e a. " ide a high; suture lightly depres ed and wavy. La t 4-6 chamber in the adul t les er in width than the earlier chamber thu making the later portion of the test look cylindrical. Aperture an arched lit in the inner margin of the chamber. Thi pecie omewhat resemble T. hockleyensis Cushman and Applin, but differ from it in having fewer chamber . T. hockley ensis ha a compressed test but T. t1iangulata i on l y li g htly compre eel. T. triangulata in the later tages of the test is cy lindri cal. The uture in T. h ock l eyensis are trongl y curved toward the periphery while the sutures in T. tTiangulata are notic eably l es curved. T. hockl e yensis in the end v i ew i rhomboi d \\ ' hile T. t1iangulata is s ubrounded. Thi., pecie .. occur in abundance in the Ingli , the Willi ton and the l o\ver portion of the Crystal River formations. T ex tularia cf. T. hockleyensis Cu hman and Applin Plate 1, fig . 6a, b hockleyensis Dumble (nont en nudum), 1924, Am. Assoc. P etroleum T G eologis t s Bull., vol. 8, p. 443. e,,fularia hockleyensis Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc. Petroleum T G eolog; i s t s Bull., vol. 10, p. 164, pl. 6, figs. 3-6. e.,tularia ho ckleyensis Cushman and Applin. Ellisor, 1933, An1. A ssoc. Petroleun1 G eologists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 1, fig. 7. T e .rtula l'ia hockleyeusis Cushman and Applin. Cushn1an, 19 35, U.S. G eo l. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 9, pl. 1, figs. 20, 21. A fe\v pecimens of thi spec ie vvere found in the A s t ero-cycfiua fauni zone of the C r y tal River formation at locality PJ-1 exposed . Most spec imens are poorly pre erved and hence cannot be identified more specifically. diboll ensis Cushman and Applin Plate 1, fig ... 7a, b Tc.,tulari a di boll ensis Dumble (nomen nudum), 1924, A1n. A ssoc. P fltroleun1 r Bull., vol. 8, p. 443. ( ,l'fnla ria dibollensis C u shman and Applin, 1926, An1. Assoc. Petroleun1 r G eolog ists Bull., vol. 10, p. 165, pl. 6, fig s. 12-14. ria dibolleusis Cushn1an and Applin. Ellisor, 1933, Am. A ssoc . P e tl' oleun1 Geologists Bull. , vol. 17, pl. 11 , fig. 4.

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102 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT dibollensis Cushman and Applin. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Sur vey Prof. Paper 181, p. 8, pl. 1, figs . 13-16. T e . tularia diboll en is Cushman and Applin. Cushman and Herrick, 1945, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 21, p. 56, pl. 9, fig. 4. Te. tularia diboll e n sis Cushman and Applin. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Pale on tology, vol. 32, no. 131, p. 36, pl. 4, figs. 12a, b. This specie can be identified by its small, hort, subtriangular, moderately compre ed test with a subacute periphery and fe\v chamber . This specie occurs throughout the Ocala group but i more abundant in the Spi1oloculina faunizone of the rystal River formation. Te x tulaTia subhaue1ii C u hman T e . tulal'ia subhall e rii ushman, 1922, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r 12 9 -E, p. 89, pl. 14, fig. 2. Te. tularia subhaue rii Cushman. Cushman, 1927, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 1, p. 148, pl. 23, fig. 2. T e . tula1ia subhauerii C u shman. Cush1nan, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 8, pl. 1, fig. 10. Tea tula1ia subhaue n'i Cushman. Davis, 1941, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 15, p. 152, pl. 25, fig. 15. Textularia su.bhau e1ii Cushman. Cushman and Todd, 1946, Cushn1an Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 22, p. 77, pl. 13, fig. 14. T e . tula1ia subhaue1'ii Cushman. Todd, 1952, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 24 1, p. 5, pl. 1, fig. 5. This specie occa ionally occurs in the Spiroloculina faunizone of the Crystal River formation at localit y PM-3, 30 feet belo\v the top. Subfamily SPIROPLECTAMMININAE Genus Al\1MOBACULITES Cushman, 1910 A mmobaculites hockleyensis C u hman and Applin Ammobaculite s hockl e y ensis Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc. P etrole u m Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 16 3, pl. 6, figs. 2a, b. A nunobaculites hockl e y ensis Cushman and Applin. Ellisor, 1933, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 7, fig. 11. A ' ntnwbaculites hockleyensis Cushman and Applin. Cushman, 1935 , U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pape1 181, p. 6, pl. 1, figs. 2a, b. This s pecie i represented by a few pecimens in the pi?o loculina ?Lezcbe?Tye nsis faunizone of the Cry tal River formation at locality PM-3, 30 feet below top. Genu AMMOSPIRATA C u hman, 1933 A mmospi?"ata? levy e nsis Puri, n. s p. Plate 3, figs. 12 , 13 T e t large, about 1.6 mm. in hei ght in the adult, comp r e s ed, tapering; early portion plani piral, broken in most pecimens; later biserial, then uniserial. Early stages broken off in most

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 103 pecimens; only later uniserial tage \vell pre erved in the ma terial examined; 8 to 9 chamber in the final tage. Early cham bers of the uniserial stage lightly arched, later chamber.. trongly arch ed . Chamber uniform in height, except the final chamber which i conspicuou ly higher. Aperture terminal, multiple, in a ro" . Thi pecie i .. very commonly found in the Ingli formation and wa not observed in any other portion of the ection . Al though most individuals are poorly pre erved, this specie hould neverthel ess prove to be a good marker for the Inglis formation because of its characteristic hape which renders easy recognition. Family VERNEUILINIDAE Genu VERNEUILINA d'Orbigny, 1840 ? Verneuilina propi1zqua H. B. Brady l'c rucuilina p1opinqua H. B. Brady, 1884, Challenger Rept., Zoology, vol. 9, p. 387, pl. 47, figs. 8-12 (not 13, 14). l'ctn ruilina propinqua H. B. Brady. Goes, 1895, K. svensk. vet. akad. Handl., vol. 25, p. 33, pl. 7, figs. 264-266. rrrucuilina p1opinqua H. B. Brady. Flint, 1899, U.S. Nat. Mus. Rept. for 1887' p. 285, pl. 31, fig. 2 . l'cTn euilina propiuqua H. B. Brady. Cushman, 1922, U . S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, p. 56, pl. 9, figs. 10, 11. l ' rntenilina ]Jropinqua H. B. Brady. Cushman, 1935, U . S . Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 9, pl. 2, figs. 3a, b. A few broken tests referred to this species were found in the Ast erocyc lina faunizone of the Cry tal River formation at locality PJ-1, bed no. 6. Genus GAUDRYINA d'Orbigny, 1839 Gaud1yina ga1dnerae Cu hman Plate 1 , figs. 8a, b Gcoulryina garduerae Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research ontr., vol. 2, p. 33, pl. 5, figs. 2a, b. Gaudryina ga1dnerae Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. C Paper 181, p. 10, pl. 2, figs. 7a, b . ga1dnerae Cushman. Cushman, 1937, Cushman Lab. Foram. Re G !=iearch Special Pub. 7, p. 51, pl. 8, figs. 2, 3. Cllt(lJyiua ga1clnerae Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131, p. 29, pl. 3, figs. 9a-c. This species occasionally occur in the C ry. tal River formation and is particularly common in the Aste rocyclina and Spiroloculina tteube1'ryensis faunizone. Genu. PSEUDOGAUDRYINA Cushman, 1936 P seudogaud1yina cf. P . .facksonensis Cu hman Plate 1, figs. 9a, b GcoulJyi11a jacksonensis Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foran1. Research Contr., vol. 2, p. 33, pl. 5, figs . 1a, b.

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104 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Gauclr yina jacksonensis Cushman. Cushman, 1 935, U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Pape r 1 8 1, pp. 9, 10, pl. 2, figs. 4-6. Gau d ryina (Pseudogaud?'yina) jacksonensis Cushman. Cushn1an, 1946, Cush n1an Lab. Foram. Research Special Pub. 16, p. 4, pl. 1, fig. 5. Ga uclJyina (Pseudogaud1yina) jacksoneusis Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131, pp. 29, 3 0, pl. 3, figs. lOa, b. Thi pecie occasionally occurs in the Crystal River formation and i particularly common in the Aste tocyc lina faunizone. Family V ALVULINIDAE Genus V AI.J VULIN A d 'Orbigny, 1826 V alvulina ocalana Cushman Plate 2, figs. 7, 8 Valvuli n a ocalana Cushman, 1926 , Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 2, p. 34, pl. 5, figs. 4a, b. Valvuli n a ocalana Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, pp. 10, 11, pl. 2, figs. 11, 12. Thi pecie could easily be identified by its large, elongate te t, vvhich in the early portion i s triangular in section, but in the later portion becomes loo ely coiled. The chambers are numerous, indi tinct in the early tri erial portion, but in the later portion the chambers are inflated and distinctive. The sutures are depre ed in the later portion of the test. Aperture rounded vvith an inwardly projecting large tooth. Valv ulina o calana is a very distinctive form and occurs abundantly in the lower 50 fePt of the Cry tal Rive r formation. Thi relatiYely large form hould be an excellent marker for thi portion of the section becau e of it abundance, and better pre ervation. Seve r a l specimen found toward the top of the Williston forma-tion may belong to thi pecie . They are lender and l e com -mon than the typical form. V alv ulina fio?"idana Cole Plate 3, figs. 9a, b Valv llliHa fi,o1iclana Cole , 1941, Florida G e ol. Surve y Bull. 19, p. 21, pl. 1, fi g . 1, 2 . Thi pecie wa ori gina ll y de cribed from t h e middle Eoce ne and occur commonly in the ba a l portion of the Ingli formatio n. Genu LIEBUSELLA C u shman, 1933 Lie bus e lla byTct n1 e n sis t u Tgida ( C u hman) Plate 2, fig . lOa, b Cla vu lina b y ra1nensis C u shman var. t1og i d a Cus hn1an, 1923, U. S. G e ol. Sur vey Prof. Pape r 1 33 , p. 22, pl. 2, figs. 4, 5. L i e buse lla byra m e nsis ( C u shman) var. t1ogicla (Cushman). Cu shman, 1 935, U.S. Ge ol. S urvey Prof. Pape r 1 8 1, p. 11, pl. 2, fig . 9.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 105 by1a mens is (Cushman) var. tu1gida (Cushman). Cushman and E11isor, 1945, Jour. Paleo ntology, vol. 19, p. 549, pl. 71, fig. 16. Li e b usella by1 am . ensis (Cushman) var. turgida (Cushman). Cushman, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Special Pub. 16, p. 5, pl. 1, figs . 8-10. Li e bu sella by1amensis (Cushman) var. tu1'gida (Cushman). Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Pale ontology, vol. 32, no. 131, p. 30, pl. 3, figs. 12a, b. Liebusella byramensis (Cushman) var. tzngida (Cushman). Todd, 1952, U.S. Gcol. Survey Prof. Paper 241, p. 6, pl. 1, fig. 10. Thi variety could be identified by it large, elongately cylin drical te t which i triserial in the early portion while the later adult tage is uniserial. The test is round in the cross section. Thi variety occasionally occurs in the Crystal River formation. Several pecimens were found at the Cry tal River Rock Compan y quarry (locality C-64), 70-85 feet above base. Genus rrEXTULARIELLA Cu hman, 1927 bar1etti (Jones and Parker) Plate 2, figs. 6a, b Tc.,tularia barretti Jones and Parker, 1863, Report British Assoc. New Castle l\1eeting, pp. 80, 105. T e.,tula 1ia baJ'J'etti Jones and Parker, 1876, Ann. Soc. Malac. Belg., vol. 11, p. 79, wood cut. baJTetti H. B. Brady, 1884, Challenge1 Rept., vol. 9, p. 367, pl. 44, figs. 6-8. T e.,tulariella banetti (Jones and Parker). Cushman, 1937, Cushman Lab. Forarn. Research Special Pub. 8, p. 66, pl. 7, figs. 5-8. Thi.. pecies occurs throughout the Crystal River formation. Genu DICTYOCONUS Blanckenhorn, 1900 Dictyoconus cookei Moberg ('oskiuol i ua cookei Moberg, 1928, Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. o lGG-168, pl. 3, figs. 1-5, 7, 8 (not fig. 6). lcfyoconus cookei (Moberg). Co l e , 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 26, 27, pl. 3, figs. 11-13; pl. 5, figs. 6-10, 12, 13; pl. 16, figs. 1-8; pl. 18, . fig. 12. lhctuocouus cooJ..:ei (Moberg). Cole, 194 2, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 20, pp. [)' 24, 25, pl. 3, fig. 10; pl. 4, fig. 8 . lctyoconus cookei (Moberg). Applin and Jordan, 1945, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 19, pp. 135, 136, text fig. 1. Thi s pecies commonly occurs in the upper portion of the Avon Park lime tone. Occa ionally, it also occur in the Ingli formation. Some of the Ingli s s pecim ens are eroded and appear to be re\vorked. Such a revvorking i s po ible in ce the top of the Avon Park is marked by an unconformity. The advancing ea e roded and redepo ited of the A von Park fauna tn th e ba al portion of the Ingli s .

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106 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Genus LITUONELLA Schlumberger, 1905 Lituonella s p. Erode d specimens of a Lituonella , which may as well represent Lituonella fioTidana Cole , occur in the Inglis formation. Genus NEOCLA VULINA Puri, n. gen. T y p e spec ie s : Valvulina inteTmedia Applin and Jordan, 1945, J our. Paleontology , vol. 19, p. 134, pl. 18 , fig . 4. Test free, c onical to cylindrical, early chambers triseria l , later chamber arranged in an elongate s p iral, rounded in cross section; sutures d ep r esse d, chambers di stinct, two to several in a coil, wall arenaceo u s, aperture terminal, irregularly rounded to broadly e llipti ca l , with or without a valvu lar tooth. Range : Eocene Remarks : This genus i s represented by three s pecie s in t he Florida Eocene : Valvulina 1:ntermedia Applin and Jordan, Valvu lina avonpaTkensis Applin and Jordan and N e oclavulina ro bust a Puri, n. sp. This genus i s related to Valvulina d'Orbig n y, 1826 (type s p ec ie s : V alv u lina t1"iangu la 1is d'Orbigny). V alvulina i s triserial, strongly triangular in shape, generally umbili cate, with typically three chambers throughout. N eoc lavulina i s triserial in the early stage onl y and later chambers are two to several to a co il with an elongate spiral test. The aperture in Valvulina i s with a distinct, valvular tooth, while N e oclavulina has a faint valvular tooth. Valvulina ocalana and V. fioridana are typical e x amples of the Valvulina in the Florida T ertiary. N eoclavulina f'Obusta Puri, n. s p. Plate 2 , figs. 11-13 Test s l ende r , elongate, early portion triserial and triangular in outline ; later portion, about three-fourths of the test, cylindrical, more or l ess uniform in diameter, subrounded in cross sectio n . Early chambe r s triserial, l ater spiral in a coil, two to three in a coil; sutures depressed, chambers large and distinct, gently i n fla ted, wall arenaceous, moderately s mooth, aperture rounded with a suggestion of an incon s picuou s valvular tooth. Average h eight 1.5 mm.; average diameter 0.5 mm. This spec i es i s about the sam e s i ze and shape as Valvulina in te1'"media Applin and Jordan, but could easily be disting uished from V. intermedia by fewer number of chambers in a coil. T he individua l chambers in N eoclavulina 1'>obu,sta are much larger a nd a r e also differently shaped .

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 107 This spec i es commonly occurs in the SpiToloculina neLvbetry ensis and lower portion of L epi docyclina-Ps eu dophragmina faunizones of the Crystal River formation. Family MILIOLIDAE Genus QUINQUELOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Quinqueloculina ne?.vbeTryensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, figs. 6a, b Te t medium, average height 1.0 mm., almost one and one hal f times as l ong as broad, periphery rounded, chambers distinct, infl ated, nearly uniform in diameter, the ends rounded, sutures distinct, depressed. Surface of the test finely pitted. Aperture terminal , rounded. This spec i es cou ld be easily identified by medi urn size and evenl y but fine l y pitted surface. This species is common in the Spi?"Oloculina ne, wbeT?'yensis faunizone of the Crystal River formati on . Quinqueloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, figs. 3a, b Test large, average height 1.5 mm., nearly one and one-half tim es as long as broad. Chambers large, distinct, inflated, bicari na te, of nearly uniform d iameter, the ends slightl y rounded. Su tur es distinct and depressed. Surface of the test very coarse l y pitted, pits parallel the doub l e carinae. The carinae mark the Peripher y of the chamber, space between the carinae occupied by four rows of pits, area between the pitted striated. Aperture terminal and rounded. Thi s pecies cou l d easily be identified from other species of Quinquelocu lina by its large size, doub l e carinae and coarse l y pitted test. This spec ies is common in the Inglis formation. Genus MILIOLA Lamarck, 1801 Miliola cf. M. saxo?"U?n Lamarck Plate 3, figs. 10a-c Miliola (Miliolites) saxo?'um , Lamarck, 1804, Annales du Museum, vol. 5, p. M 352. iliola (Miliolites) saxo1um Lamarck, 1807, Annales du Museum, vol. 9, pl. ;, ..... 17, figs. 2a, b . 1 "11lwla (ll1iliolites) saxorum, Lamarck. Defrance, 1824, Atlas de conchylio-Q . log-ie, pl. 15, fig. 1. lt1nqueloculina saxorwrn (Lamarck). D'Orbig-ny, 1826, Annales sci. nat., vol. M . . 7, p . 301, pl. 16, figs. 10-14. llzola saxoru1n Lamarck. Cushman, 1935, U. S . Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, pp. 12, 13, pl. 3, figs. 1-3.

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108 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Thi pecies commonly occurs in the Ope1culinoides b?anchensis faunizone of the Williston formation and the Spiro loculina faunizone of the Cry tal River formation. Most individual s are either leached or otherwise poorl y pre served. Miliola jacksonensis Cushman illiliola jacksonensis Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Con tr., vol. 9, p. 2, pl. 1, figs. 2, 3. Miliola jacksonensis Cushn1an. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 13, pl. 3, figs. 4-6. Miliola jacksonensis Cushman. Cushman and Todd, 1945, Cushman Lab . Foram. Research Contr., vol. 21, p. 83, pl. 13, fig. 13. Miliola jacksonensis Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleo ntology, vol. 32, no. 131, p. 22, pl. 2, figs. 6a-c. Several specimen of this species were noticed at locality PM-3, 10 to 20 feet below the top, in association with Mil iola cf. ll 1 . saxo1um in the Spi1oloculina n elvbe1yensis faunizone of t h e Crystal River formation. Genu MASSILINA Schlumberger, 1893 Ma ssilina cf. llt/. jacksonensis Cushman Plate 3, fig . 2a, b Massilina jacksonensis Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Co ntr., vol. 9, p. 2, pl. 1, fig. 4. 1llassilina jacksonensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, pp. 13, 14, pl. 3, figs. 7-10. This species commonly occur in the Spi1oloculina nenberry ensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation and in the Oper culinoides moodyb1anchensis faunizone of the Williston forma tion. It is more abundant in the Spi?"oloculina ne?cbe7'1"!Jensis faunizone. Genus SPIROLOCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 oculina bidentata Hadley Plate 3, figs. 8a-c Spiroloculina bidentata Hadley, 1935, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 22, no. 74, p. 5, pl. 1, fig. 4. Thi species was originally de cribed from the Moody Branch marl, Jackso n, Mis i ippi. In Florida, this pecie occur in the Spi1oloculina ne1vbe1'1'yensis faunizone of the Cry tal Riv e r forma .. tion. Spi1oloculina sentino l ensis Applin and Jordan Plate 3, fig . 4a, b Spi, oloculi1za sem.inolensis Applin and Applin, 1944, Am. Assoc. Petrol eull1 Geologists Bull., vol. 28, pl. 2, figs. 1a, b ( no1nen mulum). Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan, 1945, Jour. Paleontology, vol 19, p. 137, pl. 18, figs. 11a, b.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 109 This species, originally described from "lower" member of the Ocala, occasionally occurs in the Willi ston formation. A few pecimens were noticed in the Ope?'"culinoides moodyb1anch ensis faunizone of the Williston formation, 145-175 feet in W-337. It is associated with Opercu l inoi d es moodyb? " anchensis (Gravell and Hanna), Rotalia cushmani (Applin and Jordan), Miliola cf. M. sa.ro?um Lamarck, A mphistegina pina?'"e nsis cosdeni Applin and Jordan, Ope?'"culinoides ocalanus (Cushman) and SphaeTogypsina globu la (Reuss). This, however, is one of the most common miliolid s pecies in the Inglis formation and is a good marker for it. Spi1oloculina nezvbe?Tyensis Puri, n. p. Plate 3, figs. 1, 5 Test medium, average height 1.2 mm., broadly oval, much com pres ed, periphery rounded, apertural end slightly projecting, early chamber quinqueloculine, later in a single plane; sutures indi tinct, urface of the test smooth, only the last two chamber clearly vi ible. Apertural end with a short neck, no lip noticed. This species averages 1.2 mm. in height and 0.8 mm. in \vidth. Nearly all the specimens of this species are poorly preserved; orne have a thick coating of calcium carbonate around them. The two spec imens here illustrated were polished on one side to notice the chamber arrangement. Since this species is very abundant in the Inglis, Williston and lower portion of the Crystal River formations, it seemed best to place it under a new name. Until so me Well-preserved specimens could be found that will show the orna mentation of the test, its relationship with other specie cannot be established. Genus ARTICULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 A 1ticulina Z'ltbe1ensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, fig. 7 Te t medium, average height 0.9 mm., quinqueloculine tage 0.3 rnm. high, two large chambers in the rectilinear stage, about 0 . 3 mm. high. First rectilinear chamber slender, the second and la t rectilinear chamber conspicuously wider. The chamber are -'tnooth and are devoid of any ornamentation. Aperture r ounded. . Thi s peculiar species occurs in the Spi1oloculina ne1vbe1T1Jensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation.

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110 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Genu PYRGO Defrance, 1824 Py1go cf. P. inoruata (d'Orbigny) fliloculiua inonzata d'Orbigny, 1846, Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 266, pl. 16, figs. 7-9. everal young specimens a signed to this specie occur at locality PM-3, 45 feet below highest exposed. Family LAGENIDAE Subfamily NODOSARIINAE Genus ROBULUS Montfort, 1808 Robuius alatolimbatus (Gumbel) Robuliua alatolimbata Gumbel, 1868 (1870), K. bayer. Akad. Wiss ., Munchen, Cl. 2, Abh., vol. 10, p. 641, pl. 2, figs. 70a, b. Robulus alatolimbatus (Gumbel). Bergquist, 1942, Mississippi Geol. Survey Bull. 49, p. 26, pl. 3, fig. 7. olatolimbatus (Gumbel). Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 1 31, p. 58, pl. 8, figs. 1a, b. Thi pecies occur in the dovvndip facies of the Cry tal River formation (W -4, 650-1370 feet). Robulus danvillensis (Howe and Wallace) Robulus? danvillensis Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bu ll. 2, p. 39, pl. 5, fig. 7. This s pecies was originally from the upper Eocene at Danville Landing, Loui iana, and it al o occur in the downdip facies of the Crystal River formation (W -4, 650-1370 feet). Robulus lintbosus (Reu s) Crist llaria (Robulina) limbosa Reuss, 1863, K. Akad. Wiss., Math.-naturh. Cl., Sitzungsber Wien, Bd. 48, Abt. 1, p. 55, pl. 6, fig. 69. Robulu limbosus (Reuss) Cushman, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Special Pub. 16, p. 6, pl. 1, fig. 13. Robulus limbosus (Reuss). Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131, p. 61, pl. 8, figs. Sa-c. Thi. pecies occasionally occur in the downdip facie of t h e Crystal River formation (W -4, 650-1370 feet; W -276 , 290-430 feet). Robulus gutticostatus (Gumbel) Robuliua gutticostata Gumbel, 1868 (1870), K. bayer. Akad. Wiss., Miinchell Cl. 2, Abh., vol. 10, p. 643, pl. 1, fig. 74. . Robulina gutticostata Gumbel. Hantken, 1875 ( 1876), Magyar kir. foldt. tnt Evkonyve, vol. 4, p. 48, pl. 6, fig. 10. 1 Robuliua gutticostata Gumbel. Hantken, 1875 ( 1881), K. ungar. geol. Anstn t l\I itt. J ahrb., vol. 4, p. 57, pl. 6, fig. 10. f Rob a/us gutticostatus (Gumbel). Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey pro Paper 181, p. 15, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2. Thi keeled, compressed, close-coiled specie with 9-12 c hart1 ' hers in the final whorl in the adult, raised costae on the surface

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 111 br oke n into beads, occasionally occurs in the Williston and the l ower portion nelubeTTyensis faunizone) of the Cr y tal River formation. Robulus (Hantken) Cristellaria (Robulina) a1cuatostriata Hantken, 1868, Magyar foldt. Tars ., Munk. , P est, Magyar, kot. 4, p. 93, pl. 2, figs. 30ac . This s pecie s originally de scribed from the Oligocene of Hungary a l so occurs in the downdip facies of the Crystal River formation (W -276, 29-430 feet; W -1103, 566-1000 feet). Rob u l us cf. R. pTopinquus (Hantken) Plate 4, fig s . 7a-c Cristellaria p1opinqua Hantken, 1 875 ( 187 6) , Magyar kir. foldt. int. Evko n yve, vo l. 4, p. 45, pl. 5, fig . 4. Criste lla1 ia JJropinqua Hantken. Hantke n , 1876 ( 1 88 1), K. ungar. geol. Anstalt Mitt. J ahrb., vol. 4, p. 52, pl. 5, fig . 4. CristellaJ'ia propinqua Hantke n. Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Asso c . P etroleum G e ologi sts Bull., vol. 10, p. 172, pl. 8, fig . 9 . Robulus }JJ'O ]Jinquus ( Hantken). Elliso r , 19 33, Am. A ssoc. P etroleun1 G e olo g i s t s Bull., vol. 17, pl. 7, figs . 12a, b. Robulus pJoz;inquus (Hantken). Cushman, 1 935 , U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Pape r 181, pp. 16, 17, pl. 6, figs. 1a, b. Broken tes t s of specimens referred to this speci es are com mon in the Aste?'OCJJClina faunizone (localities PJ-1, bed no. 6; PJ-5, bed no. 1). Rob u lus d untb l e i Weinzierl and Applin Plate 5, fig. 9 Robulus dumblei W einzierl and Applin, 1929, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 3 , p. 396 , pl. 4 3 , figs . 3a, b. This fairly large , strongly biconvex, pecie co uld be easily identified b y its prominent sutures which are outlin ed by low rib s . These ribs narrow toward the umbo and toward the Periphery but thicken in the area b etween the periphery and the um bo . This spec i es first reported from the Claiborne sediment of the Gulf Coa tal Plain a lso occasionally occurs throughout the Crystal Ri ve r formation, but i s very common in the A ste1ocyc lina zo n e . Genus MARGINULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 lVJ arginulina j1aga1ia t exasen sis ( C u hman and Applin) Plate 5, fig s . la-c Cr istellaJ ia jraga1ia Gumbel var. texasensis Cushman and Applin, 19 26, Am. P etroleum Geo lo g ists Bull., vol. 10, p. 171, pl. 8, fig s. 5-7. Lentwulina j1'aga1 ia (Gumbel) var. texasensis (Cu shman and Applin). Howe and Wallace , 1932, Louisian a G e ol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 32, pl. 5, figs . 3-5.

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112 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Marg i nulina j? a g a ria (Gumbe l ) var. texase n sis (Cu shman and Applin ) . E lli s o r , 19 3 3, Am. Asso c . P etroleum G e olo g i s t s Bull., v ol. 17, pl. 2, fig . 4. j r a g a1ia (Gumbel) var. texa s ensi s (Cu shman and Applin). C u shman, 1935, U.S. G e ol. Surve y P r of. Paper 181, p . 19, pl. 7, fig s . 8 -10. The Florida s pecimens from the Aster o cyc l ina faunizon e of the Crystal River formation at localit y PJ-1, bed no. 6, are smoother than the t y pical variety . Most s p e cimen s are b r o ken and apparently are eroded. A1ar ginulina cf. M. karreriana Cu shman Plate 5 , fig s. 3a-c M a 1 ginulina abb1 eviata Ka1Te1 (not N e ugeboren, 1 8 51), 1 86 1 ( 1 8 6 2 ) , Akad. Wiss. Wie n , Sitzungsb er, vol. 44, pt. I, p. 445, p l. 1, fig . 7. M a r g i nulin a kar1 e 1 ian a C u shman, 19 3 5 , U . S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Pape r 181, p . 1 8 , pl. 7 , figs. 1 , 2 . The Florida specimen reported here from the A s t e rocyclin a faunizone of the C rystal River formation, lo cality P J -1, hig hest e xpo s ed, have fewer chambers than the t y pi c al f orm and have t heir chambers inflated throug hout. Genu s DENTALINA d'Orbigny, 1826 D en talina verte b r ali s albatross i ( C u shman) Plate 4, figs. 2a, b Nodosa1ia veTt e b ? alis (Batsch ) var. al b at1 ossi C u shman, 19 23, U.S. Nat. Mus . Bull. 104, p . 8 7, pl. 15, fig. 1. Nodosa1 ia (Batsch ) var . C u shman. C u shma n a n d Tod d, 1945, C u shman Lab. Foram. Research Special Pub. 15, p. 2 2 , pl. 3 , fig . 21. Nodosaria vert e b r alis (Batsch) var . albatr ossi C u s h1nan. C u shman, 1946, C u shman Lab. Foram. Researc h Special Pub. 1 6 , p . 1 3 , pl. 3, fig s . 10-12. Dentalin a v e r t e b Talis albatt os s i ( C u shman). Bandy , 1 9 49, Bull. A1n . P a l e on t o logy, vol. 32, no. 131 , p. 54 , pl. 7 , fig . 4. This variety c ommonl y oc curs in the A s t e rocyc lina f a uni z one o f the Crystal Rive r formation. Broken t es t s, h ere r eferred to this var iety, occasionall y oc cur throughout the Ocala g r o up. This variety c ommonl y occur s in the Pachuta and Shubuta of the w estern Gulf c oa s t . C u shma n and Todd (1945) report i t f rom t h e Mio cene of J amaica. D ental i n a coop erensis C u shman Plate 4, fig. 4 Dentalin a coop et ensis Cushman, 1 933, C u shman Lab. Foram. Resea r c h C ontr. , vo l. 9, p . 8, pl. 1 , fig. 17. Dentalina coope1ensis C u s h man. C u shman, 1 935, U.S . Ge ol. Surve y Prof. Paper 1 8 1 , p. 20, pl. 8, figs. 3, 4 . This s p ec i es de scri be d from the C oop e r m arl i s abundant in t h e Astero cycli n a faunizon e of the C rystal Riv e r formatio n. T his s pec i es was not ob served a nywh e r e e l s e in the se ction.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 113 Genu NODOSARIA Lamarck, 1812 ?Nodosaria ezualdi R eu Plate 4, figs . 1a, b .\'odoscuict e'Waldi Reuss, 1851, Deutsch. g-eol. Gesell. Zeitschr., vol. 3, pl. 3, fig-. 2 . Yod osa ria e'Waldi Reuss. Von Schlicht, 1870, Di e Foraminifere n des Septarienthone s von Pietzpuhl, pl. 6, fig. 28. Yod osaria ewaldi Reuss? Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 22, pl. 9, fig. 2. Several fragments sho,ving two to four chambers from PM-3, 2 0 feet below the top, appear to belong to N odosa?"ia ezcaldi Reuss. Since no complete tests were found, these fragments could best be referred to Reu ' pecie tentatively. N odosaTia late.i11gata Gumbel Xodosa >ia la tejugata Gumbel, 1868 ( 1870), K. bayer. Akad. Wiss., M iinchen, Cl. 2, Abh., vol. 10, p. 619, pl. 1, fig. 32 . .\'odosa1'ia latejugata Gumbel. Hantken, 1875 (1876), Magyar kir. foldt. int. Evkonyve, vol. 4, p. 21, pl. 2, figs. 6a-d . .\'odosaria buclensis Hantken, 1875 (1876), Magyar kir. foldt. int. Evkonyve, vol. 4, p. 23, pl. 2, fig. 10; pl. 16, fig. 4. Xodosa1ia latejugata Gumbel. Cushman, 1925, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 1, p. 66, pl. 10, fig. 7 . .\'odosa1ia latejugata Gumbel. Cushman, 1935 , U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper . 181, p. 21. .\odosada latejugata Giimbe l. Berg-quist, 1942, Mississippi Geol. Survey Bull. 49, p. 45, pl. 4, figs . 12, 13 . Yodosaria latejugctta Gumbel. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131, pp. 54, 55, pl. 7, figs. 13a, b . Thi pecie occa ionally occur (un differentiated) in the downdip feet; W-226, -476 to -1001 feet). throughout the Ocala group section (vV -4, -528 to -1220 Nodosa1ia fissicostata (Gumbel) Dottal ina fissicostata Giimbel, 1868 (1870), K. bayer. Akad. Wiss., Munchen, V Cl. 2, Abh., vol. 10, p. 626, pl. 1, fig. 46. odosa 1ia fissicostata ( Giimbel). Cushman, 1925, Cushman Lab. Foram. Re \ ' search Contr., vol. 1, p. 66, pl. 10, fig. 8. odosa 1ia fissicostata ( Giimbel). Cushman and Parr, 1926, Linnean Soc . \' London Jour., Zoology, vol. 36, p . 384, pl. 19, fig . 45 . oclosaria jissicostata (Gumbel). Cushman, 1927, Jour. Paleo ntology, vol. 1, \ p. 154, pl. 24, figs. 10, 11. (}do.al'ia fissicostata (Gumbel). Cushrnan, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 22, pl. 5, figs. 8, 9. pecimens referred to this , pecie common l y occur in the Lepidocyclina clzape1i faunizone of the Crystal River formation at l ocalities PJ-4 and PJ-5. Genus SARACENARIA Defrance, 1824 a1acena1ia Jzantk eni Cu .. hman . Plate 4, fig . 5a-c ( ri f I 8 .e la>'ia a1cuata Hantken (not d'Orbigny), 1875 (1876), Magyar kir. foldt. tnt. Evkonyve, vol. 4, p. 45, figs. 5, 6.

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114 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT C1istella1ia Hantken (not d'Orbigny), 1875 ( 1881), Mitt. J ahrb. ungar. geol. Anstalt, vol. 4, p. 53, pl. 5, fig s. 5, 6. SaJac en a t ia a1cuata d'Orbigny var. hantkeni Cushman, 19 33, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 9, pp. 4, 5, pl. 1, figs. 11, 12. This long form with subacute periphery and truncate apertural face i s triangular in cross section. The early portion of the tes t i s planispiral but the later and the larger portion of the test is straight and uncoiled with about 8 chambers. The chambers are di stinct, the angles are subacute and the last chamber i s s lightly keel ed. The sutures are slightly depresse d and distinct. The aperture i s peripheral. C u shman (1933) described this s pecie s from the Cooper marl. It occasionally occurs in Florida toward the upper part of the Crystal River formation (Asterocyclina faunizone). Sarac en aria italica Defrance Plate 4, figs. 6a-c Sa1acen a 1 ia italica Defran ce, 1824, Dictionnaire des Sciences N aturelles , p. 176, pl. 13, fig . 6. A few well-preserved specimens of this species were found in the A sterocyclina faunizone (locality PJ1, bed no . 6). Sara.cen a ria moresiana Howe and Wallace Sa1 acenaria ?notesiana Howe and Wallace , 1932, Louisiana G eo l. Survey Bull. 2, p. 42, pl. 2, figs. 8a-c. This s pecie s was originally described from the upper E oce ne at Danville Landing, Loui siana. It also occurs in the downdip facies of the Crystal River formation (W-4, 650-1370 feet). Genus LINGULINA d'Orbig n y, 1826 L ingulina ocalana Puri, n. sp. Plate 5, figs. 7 , 8 Test large, adult about 2 .1 mm. in h e i ght. Early portion o f t he test planispiral; adult uniserial, only three chambers visible from the outside. Firs t chamber triangular in shape, holotype about 0.676 mm. high, 1.2 mm. in width; secon d chamber rectangular, 0.591 mm. high, 1 .3 85 mm. in width; final chamber strongly arched on the top, 0.760 mm. high, 1 .453 mm. in width. Sutures distinc t , very slightly depresse d. Aperture at the end of the fina l chamber large and e lliptical. Plate 8, figure 8, shows an etched s pecimen that s hows the earl y chamber arrangement.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 115 Thi pecie re embles Lingulina zcilcoxensis Cushman and Ponton but i much maller and has fewer chambers. Thi .. pecies is very common in the Spi1oloculina nezcberry ensis faunizone and the A sterocyc li11a faunizone of the Cry tal River formation. Subfamily LAGENINAE Genu LAGENA Walker and Jacob, 1798 Lag ena laevis (Montagu) Plate 4, figs. 8a, b " erpula (Lagena) lacvis ovalis" Walker and Boys, 1784, Testacea n1inuta, p. 3, pl. 1, fig. 9. l 'umiculzon lcuve Montagu, 1803, Testacea Britannica, p. 524. LCLgena lac vis (Montagu). Williamso n, 1848, Annals and Mag. Nat. History, 2nd ser., vol. 1, p. 12, pl. 1, figs. 1, 2. l ... age na laevis ( Montagu)? Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 22, pl. 9, figs. 3, 4. Thi specie commonly occur in the lower portion of the C r y tal River formation (Spiroloculina HfU berryensis faunizone). Lag en a acuticosta Reu s Plate 4, fig . 9a, b Lagena acuticosta Reuss, 1861 (1862), Akad. Wiss. W ei n, Sitzungsber, vol. 44, p. 305, pl. 1, fig. 4. L(tgena acuticosta Reuss. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 23, pl. 9, figs. 5, 6. A few pecimen of this pecies were found in the Asterocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation (locality P J -1, bed no. 6) It doubtless occur in the lower portion of the ection but deposition of calcium carbonate around the te t make pecific identification difficult. Genus PLANULARIA Defrance, 1824 Pla?ntla ' ria t1uncana (Gumbel) Plate 5, figs. 2a-c Cristellaria tnowana Gumbel, 1868 (1870), K. Akad. Wiss. Munchen, Cl. 2, /Jf Abh., vol. 10, p. 639, pl. 1, figs. 68a, b. (l''pla)ia truncana (Gumbel). Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. aper 181, p. 17, pl. 6, figs. 7a, b. Thi s pecies wa.. originally de sc ribed from the upper Eocene the Bavarian Alps. It occasionally occur in the Asterocyc lina 11aunizone of the Cry tal River formation at locality P J -1, bed .. 0 5-8; PJ-4, bed no. 1, and PJ-5, bed no. 1.

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116 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Family POLYl\tiORPHINIDAE Subfamily POLYMORPHININAE Genu .. POLYMORPHINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Polyn1orphina p. \Vorn pecimen .. of a P o lyozorphina occur throughout the tal River formation but are too poorly pre erved to be id entified more .. pecifically. Genus GUTTULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Gultulina i?Tegularis (d'Orbigny) Plate 5, figs. lOa-c Globnliua ineglllaris d'Orbigny, 1 846, Foram. Foss. Vienne, p. 226, pl. I:J, 9, 10. Guttulina irrcgularis d'Orbigny. Cushman and Thomas, 1929, Jour. Paleon tology, vo l. 3, p. 177, pl. 23, figs. 2a-c. Gnttuliua irrcgularis d'Orbigny. Cushman and Ozawa, (part) (not d'Orbigny), 1930, U.S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 77, art. <>, p. 25, pl. 3, tigs. 4, 5 ; p 1. 7, figs. 1, 2. Guttuli11a irrcgularis d'Orbigny. Howe and Wallace, 19:32, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 4 , pl. 8, fig. 8. Gu ttnliua irrcgula ,is d 'Orbigny. Cushn1an, 19 35, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 24, pl. 9, figs. 13-16. Gnttuliua incgularis d'Orbigny. Howe, 1939, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 14, p. 52, pl. 6, fig. 20. Gutt nliua inegularis d'Orbigny. Puri, 1954, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. :3H, p. 107, pl. 9, fig s . 8, 9, 10. This pecie.. occur throughout the Cry .. tal River formation. Guttuliua spicaeforrnis (Roemer) Poly nwrph ina spicacform is Roe1ner, 1838, N eues J ahrb., p. 386, pl. 3, fig. ;31. plancii d'Orbigny, 1839, Voyage dans l'An1erique n1eridionale, vol. 5, pt. 5, Foraminiferes, p. 60, pl. 1, fig. 5. P olymorph ina ll vifonllis Reuss, 1855, Deutsch. geol. Gesell. Zeitschr., vol. 7, Jl 2 9, pl. 11, fig. 5. PoliJmorphina austrica d'Orbigny var. io Cushman and Applin, 192>, Al11 • Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 174, pl. 9, figs. 6, 7. Gnttulina spicacformis (Roemer). Cushn1an and Ozawa, 1930, U. S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 77, art. 6, p. 31, pl. 5, figs. 1, 2. GuttuliHa spicae form is (Roemer). Ellisor, 1933, Am. Assoc. Petroleun1 Gcolo gists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 7, fig. 3. f Guttulina spicacfonnis (Roemer). Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Pro Paper 181, pp. 24, 25, pl. 9, fig. 17; pl. 10, figs. 9, 10. Thi .. pecie.. occa .. ionall y occurs throughout the Cry tal Rher formation and i .. often accompanied by G. irre,qula ris ( d'OrbignY) and Globulina gibba cl'Orbigny. Genus GLOBULI A d'Orbigny, 1826 Globulina gibba d'Orbigny Plate 5, fig. 6 Globulina gibba d'Orbigny, 1826, Annales sci. nat., vol. 7, p. 266, no. tO, Modeles, no. 63.

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STRATIGRAPH Y AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 117 Globulina gibba d'Orbigny, 1846, Foraminiferes fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Yienne, p. 227, pl. 1 3, figs. 13, 14. gibba d'Orbigny. Cushn1an and Ozawa, 1930, U .S . Nat. Mus. Proc . , vol. 77, art. 6, p. 60, pl. 16, figs. 1-4. Globnlina gibba d'Orbigny. Todd , 1952, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 241, p . 17, pl. 3, fig. 4. Thi pecies occur throughout the Ocala group. Globuliua gibba globosa (Von Mlin.:ter) Polymorph ina globosa Von Munster, in Roe1ner, 1838, Neues J ahrb., p . 386, pl. 3 , fig . 33 . P olymoJph iua acuta Rocn1 er, 1838, N eues J ahrb., p. 386, pl. 3, fig. 36. Polymorphina globosa Von Munster. Reuss, 1845, Versteinerungen der boh nlischen Kre ideformation, p. 40, pl. 13, fig. 82 . Globulina e qualis d'Orbigny, 1846, Foraminiferes fossiles du bassin tertiaire de Vienne, p. 227, pl. 1 3 , figs. 11, 12. Globulina acuta Ro e mer. R euss, 1855 (1856), Akad. Wiss. Wie n, Sitzungs ber, vol. 18, p. 245, pl. 6, fig. 62. Globulina gibba var. aequalis d'Orbigny. H. B. Brady, Parker and Jones, 1870, Linnean Soc. London Trans., vol. 27, p. 216, pl. 39, figs. 2c, d. Globulina e qualis d'Orbigny. Cushman, 1922, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129, p. 132, pl. 31, fig. 3 . Globulina e qualis d'Orbigny. Cushman, 1923, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 104, p. 149, pl. 40, fig . 3. Globulina gibba d'Orbigny var. globosa (Von Muns ter). Cush1nan and Ozawa, 1930, U.S. Nat. Mu s . Proc., vol. 77, p . 64, pl. 17, figs . 8, 9. Giobnlina gibba d'Orbigny var. globosa (Von Munster). Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p . 46, pl. 8, fig . 10. Globlllina gibba d'01bigny var. globosa (Von Munster). Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181 , p. 26, pl. 9, fig. 21. Thi variety common l y occurs throughout the Ocala group in Florida. Genu SIGMOMORPHINA Cu hman and Oza,va, 1928 Signlornorphina .facksonensis ( Cu hman) Plate 5, fig. 5 Polymo,phina jacksonensis Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 2, p. 36, pl. 5, figs. 5a, b. PolylllOI'}Jhiua co1np1 essa Nuttall (not d'Orbigny), 1928, Geol. Soc. London, S. Quart. Jour., vol. 84, p. 93, pl. 6, fig s . 18, 19. 'IYmomorphina jacksonensis (Cushman). Cushman and Oza\va, 1930, U .S . S. Nat. :\I us. Proc., vol. 77, art. 6, p. 123, pl. 32, figs. 2a, b. ' 1Umomorphina jacksonensis (Cushman). Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana s Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 49, pl. 8, fig. 2. • 1U11lomorph iua jacksonensis (Cushman). Cushtnan, 1935, U .S. Geol. Survey .. Prof. Paper 181, p . 28, pl. 10, figs. 1-4. • 1YHwmorph ina jacksonensis (Cushman). Cushman, 1946, Cushman Lab. .. Foram. Research Special Pub. 16 , p. 19, pl. 4, fig. 17. • 1YJnomo, phina jackson ensis (Cushman). Bandy, 1949, Bull. An1. Paleon tology, vol. 32, no. 131, pp. 67, 68, pl. 9, figs. 13a, b. Typica l pecimens of this pecie occur in the lower portion O f the Cry tal River formation (lo cality PM-3, highest expo ed). everal pecimen vvere found in bed no. 6, P J -1, that belong here, bnt are poor l y prese rved.

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118 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Family HETEROHELICIDAE Subfamily PLECTOFRONDICULARIINAE Genus PLECTOFRONDICULARIA Liebus, 1903 Plectoj1'ondicula1ia? inglisiana Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, figs. 14a, b Test medium, average height 1.00 mm., young triangular , strongly compressed and thin, periphery irregular. Early portion planispiral, then biserial, then uni serial and flarin g . The uniser ial stage is predominant and covers three-fourths of the test. S ur face of the test granular; granules made up of clear s hell material and are arranged regularly in single rows on the chambers. Later 12-14 chambers which make up most of the test are uni.. erial. There is a faint suggestion of chamberlets on etched spec im ens . Average adult measures 1.00 mm. in height; 1.00 mm. in width. This species is common in the Inglis formation and it could be easily identified by its characteristic shape and ornamentation . It was not observed in the Willi ston and Crystal River formations. Family BULil\1INIDAE Subfamily TURRILININAE Genus BULIMINELLA Cushman, 1911 Buliminella sp. Several poorly preserved specimens of a Buliminella were en countered in the Spi? " oloculina ne1.vber1"yensis faunizone of t h e Crystal River formation. Subfamily BULIMININAE Genus BULIMINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman Buli1nina jacksonensis Cushman, 1925, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 1, p. 6, pl. 1, figs. 6, 7. Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman. C u shman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 168, pl. 7, figs. Sa, b. Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman. Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 59, pl. 11, fig. 5 . Bulintina jacksonensis Cushman. Ellisor, 1933, Am. Assoc . Petroleum Geolo gists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 7, fig. 5. f Bulimina jacksonensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Pro Paper 181, p. 35, pl. 13, figs. 7-9. This species occasionally occurs in the lower portion of t h e Crystal River formation at localities PM-2, highest exposed to 20 feet below top; PM-3, 5-30 feet below top; PS-1 , PS-2, PS-3 and PA-l.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 119 Subfamily VIRGULININAE Genu BOLIVINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Bolivina ,iacksonensis C u shman and Applin Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc . Petroleun1 Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 167, pl. 7, figs. 3, 4. Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin. Cushman, 1935, U. S . Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p . 37, p l. 14, figs . 11-13. Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin. Cushman and Todd, 1945, Cushnlan Lab. Foram. Research Contr. , vol. 21, p. 95, pl. 1 5, fig. 14. Bolivina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleon tol ogy, vol. 32, no . 1 3 1, p. 1 27, pl. 25, figs. 2a, b. Thi spec i es wa originally de crib ed from the upper Eocene of Texas. It ha been reported from the M oody Branch formation in Miss i s ippi (Cu hman and Todd , 1945). In Florida, it occasionally occur in the downdip facies of the C rystal River formation (W -4 , 650-1370 feet). Bolivina adve na C u shman Plate 8, fig . lOa , b Boli vina advena Cushman , 1925, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 1, p. 29, pl. 5, fig. 1. A few s pecimen s of thi. s pecie s occur in the C rystal Riv e r f ormation at locality PM-3, 10 feet below top. Genu BITUBULOGENERINA H owe, 1934 Bitubulog eneTina vickbu1gensis H owe Plate 8 , figs. 9a, b Bitubulogenerina vicksburgensis Howe, 19 34 , Jour. Paleontology, vol. 8, p . 420, . pl. 5 1, figs. 7a, b. Bltubulog ene1'ina vicksburgensis Howe. C u shman, 1 937, Cushman Lab. Foram. . Research Special Pub. 9, p. 212, pl. 24, figs. 9, 10 . vicksb1ogensis Howe. Cushman, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 22, p. 94, pl. 16, fig. 3. This pecies commo nl y occur in the Aste 1ocyclina faunizone o f the Crystal River formation. Previous occurrences of this species have been from the Oligocene and it i s considered to be a good marker for the Vicksburg. Subfamily REUSSELLINAE Genu REUSSELLA Galloway, 1933 Reusse lla eocena ( C u shman) lfeussia eocena Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Conh., vol. 9, p. 13, pl. 1, fig. 25. cussclla eocena (Cushman). Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p . 38, pl. 15, figs. 4, 5. This spec ie s could easil y be identified from R. scu l ptilis ( C u h ll'lan) in its short form and muc h deeper concavity of the ides.

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120 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT R. sculptilis also exhibits raised suture lines and the center of each s ide i s marked by a raised costa. This spec ie s commonly occurs in the Inglis, Williston and Crys tal River formations and is abundant in the Spiroloculina b er1" yensis faunizone. Reus sella sculptilis (Cushman) Plate 9 , figs. 1, 3 Ve1neuilina sc u lptilis Cushman, 1926, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Con t r., vol. 2, p. 34, pl. 5, fig. 3. Reuss e ll a sc u lptilis (Cushman). Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, pp. 38, 39, pl. 15, figs. 6, 7. This species commonly occurs in the Inglis, Williston and Crystal River formations. Subfamily UVIGERININAE Genus UVIGERINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Uvigerina glabrans Cushman Plate 8, figs. 5, 6 Uvig erin a glab r a n s Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 9, p. 13, pl. 1, fig. 28. Uvigerina Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 81, p. 40, pl. 15 , fig. 21. This specie s occasionally occurs throughout the Williston and Crystal River formations. Uvigerina iacksonensis Cushman Uvig e ' rin a jacksonensis Cushman, 1925, Cushman Lab. Fol"am. Research Contr. , vo l. 1, p. 67, pl. 10, fig. 13. U vigerina jacksonens i s Cushman. Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana G e ol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 65, pl. 12, figs. 7, 8. Uvige1ina jacksonensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof . .Pap e r 181, pp. 40, 41, pl. 16, figs. 1-3. This spec ies occasionally occurs in the downdip facies of the Crys_tal River formation (V\' -4, 650-1370 feet; W -1103, 566-1000 feet). Uvigerina gardnerae Cushman Uvig e1ina gatdnera e Cushman, in Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc. P etroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 175, pl. 8, figs. 16, 17. Uvige1ina gar dnera e Cushman. Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana Geol. Sur v e y Bull. 2, p. 63, pl. 12, fig. 6. Uvig e1ina Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 8 1, p. 40, p l. 15, figs. 18, 19. Specimens referred to this species frequently occur in the Spir oloc ulina nw" v berry ensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Cushman ( 1935 , p. 40) reported it from the "Ocala" near Inverness.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 121 [ T vi,qeriua cf. U. cookei u hman ClliU riua cookei Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 39, pl. 15, figs. 14-16. SeYeral poorly preserved pecimen of thi pec1e \Yere encountered in the \Villiston formation at locality PM-3, 40-45 feet belo" the top and in the Ocala group undifferentiated in the dO\Yndip section in vV -4, -528 to -1220 feet; and vV -226, -476 to -1001 feet. Genus TRIFARINA ushman, 1923 Trifa rina bradyi advena u hman Plate 8, figs. 11a, b Trifa duo b1'Ctdyi Cushman var. aclvena ushman, 1926, Cushn1an Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 1, p. 87. T,ifcuiua bradyi Cushman. Cushn1an, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 1, p. 42, pl. 16, figs. lOa, b. A single pecimen of thi pecie. i reported from the Aste ro cycliua zone of the rystal River formation, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6. Genu ANGULOGERINA Cushman, 1927 Angl'log erina ocalatut Cushman A,yulogcriua ocalana Cushn1an, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 9, p. 14, pl. 1, fig. 30. A,yulogcriua ocalaua ushman. Cushn1an, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 1, pp. 41, 42, pl. 16, figs. 7, 8. Cu hman (1933) de thL pecie from the "upper Eocene, pring Creek, Jenkin County, Georgia," and reported it from two "Ocala" localities in Florida: Duncan, 7 mile outh,ve t of C'hipley, 'Va hington ounty, and 11 t. mile outh,ve t of In Yerness Citrus County ( Cu hman, 1935, p. 42). Thi pec1e \Va .. not found in the material examined by the writer. Family CASSIDULINIDAE Genu ASSIDULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Cassidulina cf. C. Jnoodyeusis Cu hman and Todd Plate 10, figs. 1la, b CaR8idulioa cf. C. moodycnsis Cushntan and Todd, 1945, Cushtnan Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 21, p. 102, pl. 16, figs. 9, 10. ThL spec ie \va originally de cribed from the Moody .. Branch marl. It commonly occur to,vard the ba e of the ry tal River formation at locality Pl\1-3, 30-45 feet belo\\r the top. The peci tnens are abundant but are in a poor , tate of preservation.

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122 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Superfamily ROTALIIDEA Family ROT ALIIDAE Subfamily ROT ALII AE Genu CAMAGUEYIA Cole and Bermudez, 1944 Ca1nagueyia p er pl ex a Col e and B ermudez Plate 10, fig . 1-4 Ca magueyia perplexa Co l e and B ermudez, 1944, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 28, no. 113, p. 5, pl. 1, figs. 2, 3 . This s pecie s was originally d escribed from the middl e Eocene of Cuba. It occur occasionally in the Operculi110ides nzoodylnanch e nsis faunizone of the Willi sto n formation. It i s common at W -652, 45 feet below the top and at localit y PM-3, 45 feet belo w the top. It is generall y .. ociated with A rnphist egi7la pinarr 11sis cosdeui, Applin and Jordan, and Ope rculinoides u :illco.1i (Heilprin). Genu ROT ALIA Lamarck, 1804 Rotalia cus lunan i Applin and Jordan Plate 11, fig . la-c Rotalia sp. ? Cushman, 19 35, U. S. Geol. Surve y Prof. Paper 181, p. 4G, pl. 19, figs. 4-11a-c. Rotalia cushntani Applin and Jordan, 1945, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 1 9, pp. 143, 144. Thi pecie commonly occur throughout the Ocala g r oup in Florida. It i more abundant in the Ingli and Willi ton forn1ation . Applin and Jordan (1945, p. 143) de ignated holot ype .. N.M. 55972 and paratype U.S.N.M. 55722 from Orange County, \V-601. 195-200 feet, but they failed to figure the e type . u .. hman's figured pecimen i from an outcrop near Newberry, Alachua County. Subfamily DISCORBISINAE Genu DISCORBIS Lamarck, 1804 Di scorbis b1tlla C u .. hman Plate 10, fig . 8a-c Discorbis bulla Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foran1. Research ontr., ,•ol. 9, p. 16, pl. 2, figs. 6a-c. Disco1bis bulla Cushman. ushn1an, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 1. pp. 43, 44, pl. 17, figs. 6a-c. Several s pecim e n of this pecies were found in the ry tal Riv e r formation, locality C-64, 40 feet above base. Mo t of thes e s pecimens are heavily coated with calcium carbonate.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 123 Disco rbis ocalana Cushman D i sco tbi s ocala n a Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 9, p. 15, pl. 2, figs. 5a-c. D i scotb i s ocalana Cushman. Cushman, 19 35, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 44, pl. 16, figs. 15a-c . A few s pecimens of this s pecie s were found in the Asterocy c lina faunizone of the Crystal River formation, localitie s P J -4 , bed no. 1 and P J -5 , bed no. 1. Genus DISCORINOPSIS C ole, 1941 Dis corinopsis gunteri Cole Plate 12, figs. 5a-c D i s c o Tin ops i s gunteTi Co l e, 1941 , Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, p. 36, pl. 1, fig s . 7-9. Cole (1941) originally described this s pecies from the "middle Eocene" Dictyoconus cookei zone. It is one of the most common s pecies encountered in the Inglis . It was not observed in any other portion of the Ocala group. Genus MISSISSIPPIAN A Howe, 1930 Mississippiana monsouri Howe Plate 10, fig s . 12a, b Miss i ssippia n a monsouri Howe, 19 3 0, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 4, p. 33 0, p l. 27, figs. 4a-c. This s pecie s originally described from the Oligocen e of Mississippi, occurs at locality C -64, 65-70 feet above base. Genus STOMATORBINA Dorreen, 1948 Stomatorbina kend rickensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 10, figs. 10a-c Test plano-convex, dorsal s ide with a low rounded spire, ventral s id e flat, slightly concave in the center. Six to se ven chambers in the adult whorl, periphery subacute with a rounded keel, strongl y developed on the dorsal s ide. Dorsally sutures raised, strongl y curved toward the periphery, ventral sutures straight to s li ghtly c urved. Dorsal sutures thickened and raise d ; obscure in earl y whorls . Aperture a low opening on the ventral portion of the last formed whorl; supplementary apertures spirally elongate, and covere d with clear s hell material. This spec ie s differ s from S. torrei (Cushman and Bermudez ) in hav in g six to seve n chambers in the adult whorl as compared with five to six in S. torrei . It i s a l so somewhat larger than S. toTrei , and a l so exhibits very stron g l y curved dorsal sutures . The

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124 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT chamber in S. k endrickensis are much higher than the on es in . torre i. Thi pecie i common in the Spi1oloc ulina n eu:be rry e nsis faunizone of the Cry tal River formation. Genu VERNONINA Puri, n. gen. Type pecie : V e rnonina tub e rc1tlata Puri, n. p. Te t trochoid, plano-convex, the ventral ide flattened \Yith an umbilical plug that often break up into five or more granule .. , wall calcareous, perforate, aperture umbilical, extending midway toward the base of the last formed chamber on the ventral ide. Named in honor of Dr. Robert 0. Vernon. V e 1nonina tub e 1'culata Puri, n. p. Plate 10, fig. 5-7 Te t plano-convex, ventral ide flattened, dor al ide a low .. pire. Surface of the dor al ide covered vvith rounded granule .. Ventral ide vvith even to eight chamber in the adult \vhorl; dor ally, these chamber are covered \Vith granules and are not vi ible except the la t tvvo chamber . Sutures on the ventral ide are depre sed and they radiate from the umbilical region toward the periphery. Aperture umbilical extending halfway to\vard the ba e of the la t formed chamber on the ventral ide. Thi pecie i very common in the Inglis, Williston and the piroloculina n c nb errye usis faunizone of the Cry tal River for mation. Subfamily VAL VULINERIIN AE Genu GYROIDINA d'Orbigny, 1826 G yroidina crystal?iv e r ensis Puri n. p. Plate 9, fig . 10, 11 Te t large, average ize 1.5 mm. in diameter, dor al ide flat, ventral side much convex, umbilicate, 10 to 11 chamber visible in the last coil, chamber large, sutures distinct, much rai ed; dor al ide with about three whorl , chamber.. indi tinct; ,,,all finely perforate, aperture an elongate arch toward the v e ntral ide of the periphery leading into the umbilicu .. , vvith a di s tinct lip . Thi pec1e could ea ily be identified by it large ize and rai ed uture . Thi specie i.. about tvvice the ize of G. orbicularis planata Cushman, v.' hich is similarly .. haped but h a s de pre .. ed uture . This i.. one of the mo t common species in the AsterocycliJI(l faunizone of the Crystal River formation.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 125 Gy1oidina nassaue1z is o le Plate 12 , fig . 6a-c Gyroidina nassauensis Cole, 1944, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, pp. 53, 54, pl. 2, fig. 12. Thi pecie vvas ori g inall y de. cribed from the middle Eocene, Li bon formation, vV -336. It occa ion ally occur throughout the Crystal River formation and i particularly abundant at locality PJ-1 , beds no. 7, 8, and PM-3, 10 feet below top. GyToidina soldanii d'Orbigny Gyroidina sold au ii d'Orbigny, 1826, Tableau methodique d e la <:lasse de Cephalopodes , Annales sci. nat., ser. 1, tome 7, p. 278, mod. no. 36. Gyroidina soldanii d'Orbigny. D'Orbigny, 1846, Foran1. Foss. Vi enr.e, pl. 8, figs. 10-12. Thi pecie rarely occur .. in the downdip facie of the Cr) tal River formation (W -1103, 566-1000 feet). G y1'oidina sp1ing fielclensis Puri, n. p. Plate 9, fig . 8a-c Te t mall, greate t diameter 0.6 mm.; dorsal ide flattened, ventral ide much convex, umbilicate, ix petal-shaped chamber in the last co il visible; periphery arcuate; chambers distinct, s u tures di tinct, much depressed, almo t traight, on the dor a l s id e lig htly depre ed, radial. Aperture e longate, arched, from the periphery to the umbilicus . Six petal-haped chamber on the ventral s ide of thi specie ea ily di tingui h thi pecie from the other speci e of G yroidina. Thi pecie commonly occur in the Asterocyclina faunizone of th e Cry tal River formation. Genus V ALVULINERIA Cushman, 1926 V alvulineria texan a Cushman and Ellisor Valvulineria texana Cushman and Ellisor, 1931, Cushman Lab. Foram. R e sealch Contr., vol. 7, p. 56, pl. 7, figs. 9a-c. l'alvulineria te. ana Cushman and Ellisor. Howe and Wallace, 1932 , Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 2, pp. 70, 71, pl. 13, figs. 6a, b. This pecie occasiona ll y occurs in the downdip facie of the Crystal River formation (W -4, 650-1370 feet). Valvulineria iacksonensis Cu hman l'alvuliH eria jacksonensis Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr. , vol. 9, p. 18, pl. 2, figs . 9a-c. l 'alvnli n eria jacksonensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U . S . G eol. Survey Prof. Pape r 1 81, pp. 44, 45, pl. 1 8, fig s. 2a-c. Thi pecie occa ionally occur in the downdip facie of the Crystal River formation (W-1103, 566-1000 feet).

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126 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Genus EPONIDES Montfort, 1808 Eponides iacksonensis ( Cu hman and Applin) Pulviuulina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin, 1926, A1n. Assoc . Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 181, pl. 9, figs. 24, 25. Eponidcs jacksonensis (Cushman and Applin). Cushman, 1935 , U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p . 46, pl. 19, figs. 4-8. Epon ides jackson en sis (Cushman and Applin). Cushman, 1946, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Special Pub. 16, p. 34, pl. 7, figs. 1, 2. Eponides jacksoneusis (Cushman and Applin). Bandy, 1949, Bull. A m . Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131, p . 87, pl. 14, figs. la-c. This species occurs throughout the Crystal River formation in Florida. It i common at localitie PM-1, PM-2, PM-3, PJ-1, PJ-4, PJ-5, PS-1, PS-2, PS-3 and PG-5. Eponides ocalana Cushman Epouides ocalana Cushman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Co ntr., vol. 9, p. 17, pl. 2, figs. 7a-c. Eponides ocalana Cushman. Cushn1an, 19 35, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 8 1, p. 47, pl. 18, figs. 5a-c. Thi s s pecie frequently occur throughout the C rystal Rive r formation at mo t location . It was, however, not observed in t h e L epidocyclina chapeTi faunizone. Eponides budensis JJlanata Cushman Eponides budensis (Hantken) var. planata Cushman, 19 35, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 47, pl. 18, figs. 6a-c. Thi pecie occasionally occur throughout the Crystal Rive r formation (localitie C-64, PM-1, PM-2, PM-3, PJ-1, PG-5). Eponides cocoaensis Cushman Eponides cocoaensis Cushman, 1928, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 4, p. 73, pl. 10, figs. 2a-c. Eponides cocoaensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p . 47, pl. 19, figs. 1, 2 . This s pecie s occasionally occur in the downdip facies of t h e Crystal River formation (W -4, 650-1370 feet). Family GLOBOROTALIIDAE Genu CRIBROGLOBOROTALIA Cushman and Bermudez, 1936 C1ibroglobo1otalia 1na1'ielina Cushman and Bermudez Plate 11, figs. 2-4 C1ibJogloborotalia mal'ielina Cushman and Bermudez, 1936, Cushman Lab Foram. Resear c h Contr., vol. 12, p. 63, pl. 11, figs. 17-19. Thi s pecies with a plano-convex, trochoid test with f o ur c han1bers making up the la t whorl was de cribed from the uppe r Eocene of Cuba. The Florida pecimens from the A ste1ocyclilla faunizone of the Crystal River formation, locality PJ-1, bed

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 127 no. 6, how a greater variation ( ee pl. 11, figs. 3, 4) but have the arne general characteristic a the Cuban form. The aperture in thi pecie i very distinctive, the ventral face of the l a t c hamber being ieved with large circular pores. Genus GLOBOROTALIA Cushman, 1927 Globototalia c1ystal1iverensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 11, fig . 5a-c Te t plano-convex, dor al ide slightl y convex, ventral id e flat to slightly concave, umbilicate, periphery thin, ke e led , chambers six to even in the adult whorl, lightly inflated, suture limbate above, curved below. Aperture normal to the genus. Thi pecie i very close to G. 1nena1dii ( d'Orbigny) but cou ld be di tingui hed from it by the shape of it chambers in the adult \\'hor I. In G. crystal1"ive1ensis, the chamber are less high than they are in G. ntena?dii. Thi pecie is common in the Spitoloculina ne1vbe-rryensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Globo1otalia cocoae nsis Cu hman Plate 9, figs, 9a, b Globo1otalia cocoaensis Cushman, 1928, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research ontr., vol. 4, p. 75, pl. 10, figs. 3a-c. GioboJotalia cocoaensis Cushman. Howe and Wallace, 1932, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 2, p. 75, pl. 14, fig. 4. GioboJotalia, cocoaensis Cushman. Ellisor, 1933, Am. Assoc . Petroleum Geolo gists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 4, figs. 6a, b. Giobo1'ota lia cocoaensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U .S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 50, pl. 21, figs . 1-3. Thi pecie i frequently encountered in the Aste-roc yclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation at localities P J -4 and PJ-5. Family HANTKENINIDAE Genus HANTKENINA Cushman, 1924 H antkenina alabanlensis Cu hman Plate 12, figs. 7 a-c Hcnztkc>uiua alabamensis Cushman, 1924, U.S. Nat. Mus. Proc., vol. 66, art. H 3, p . 3, pl. 1, figs. 1-6. ntkcnina alabamensis Cushman. Cushman, 1925, Cushman Lab. Foram. 11 Research Contr., vol. 1, p. 7, pl. 1, fig. 11. 01ifkeuiua ala bcon ensis Cushman. Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc. /f Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 177, pl. 10, fig. 3. ctntkeniua alabamensis Cushman. Howe and Wallace , 1932, Louisiana Geol. II Survey Bull. 2, p . 54, pl. 10, fig. 3. '11lt/a nina a lctba mens is Cushman. Ellisor, 1933, An1. Assoc. Petroleum II Geologists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 6, fig . 5. ' 0tfheniua alabam e nsis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, pp. 49, 50, pl. 13, figs . 1-5.

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128 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT H antkenina alabamensis C u shman. Cushman, 1946, Cushn1an Lab. Foram. Researc h Special Pub. 16, p. 37, pl. 7, fig . 17. Hantkenina alabamensis Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Pale ontology, vol. 32, no. 131, p. 76, pl. 11, figs. 9a, b. This species has only been noticed in the AsteTocycli n a faunizone of the Crystal River formation. It common l y occurs at l o cality PJ-1, bed no. 6. Family EPISTOMININAE Genu s ALABAMINA Toulmin, 1941 Alabamina obtus a (Burrows and Holland) Plate 10 , figs. 9a, b Pulvinulina exigua (Brady) var. obtusa Burrows and Holland, 1897, G e ologists Assoc. London Proc., vol. 15, pt. 1, 2, p . 49, pl. 2, fig. 25. exigua (Brady) var. obtusa Burrows and Holland. Bagg, 190 1, Maryland Geol. Survey, Eocene Rept., pp. 151, 152, pl. 11, fig s . 2a-c. This spec i es is common in the Aste?" ocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Genus EPISTOMARIA Galloway, 1933 EpistomaTia semimaTginata (d'Orbigny) Pia te 12, figs. 3ac Rotalia ( Tu1binulina) semimarginata d'Orbigny, 1826, Annales sci. nat., v o l. 7, p. 110 (276), mod. no. 53. This species is abundant in the Inglis formation. I t was n o t observed in any other portion of the upper Eocene. Family CYMBALOPORIDAE Genus F ABIANIA A. Silvestri, 1926 Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez) Plate 9, figs. 7a, b Pseudo1 bitolina cubensis C u shman and Bermudez, 1936, Cush1nan Lab. Foram. R esearch Contr., vol. 12, p. 59, pl. 10, figs. 27-30 . Pseudo1bitolina cub en s is Cushman and B ermudez . Cole, 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 22, 23, pl. 2, figs. 5-11. Pseudotbitolina c u b en sis Cushman and B ermudez. Cole, 1942, Florida G e ol. Survey Bull. 20, pp. 18, 19, pl. 3, fig. 4; pl. 5, fig. 1. Pseudor bitolina c u bensis Cushman and Bermudez. Cole, 1944, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, pp. 35, 36, pl. 2, fig. 7; pl. 8, figs. 14, 15; pl. 1 3, fig s . 1, 2. This flatten e d domeshaped form, often with a deepl y excavated umbilical area, was first reported by Cole (1941) from the Avon Park limestone. It commonly occurs in the Inglis formation a nd is associated with PeTiaTchus lye lli jlo1(lidanus. Its large s iz e and characteristic shape easily identifies this s pecies and it sho uld prove to be a good marker for the Inglis formation.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 129 In the Panama Canal Zone and vicinity it occurs in association with H elico l epidina spiralis Tobler, Asterocyc lina g eorgiana and Lepidocyclina (N ep h rolepidina ) chape1 " i Lemoine and R. Dou ville (Cole, 1952) but this species occurs lower in the section in Florida. Subfamily PLANULININAE Genus PLANULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Planulina Cushman Plate 12, figs. la-c Planuli n a cocoaensis Cushman, 1928, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 4, p. 76, pl. 10, figs . la-c. Planulina cocoaensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935 , U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 52, pl. 22, figs. 7ac. This species frequently occurs in the Crystal River formation and is particularly common in the Asterocyc lina faunizone (locality PJ-1). Planulina kendrickensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 12, figs. 2a, b Test small, very compressed, slightly keeled, dorsal side with a very low spire with seven to eight chambers in the adult whorl; sutures well developed, raised, with clear shell material which obscures the early chambers; periphery subacute. Aperture in the adult extends over the dorsal side of the test, e longate, narrow. This peculiar little species is common in the Asterocyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation (locality PJ-1, bed no. 6). Subfamily SIPHONINAE Genus SIPHONINA Reuss, 1850 Siphon ,ina jackso1tensis Cushman and Applin Plate 9, figs. 6a, b Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin, 1926, Am. Assoc. Petroleum . Geologists Bull., vol. 10, p. 180, pl. 9, figs. 20-23. Stphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin. Ellisor, 1933, Am. Assoc . Pe . troleum Geologists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 3, fig. 21. jacksonensis Cushman and Applin. Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 48, pl. 20, figs . 2-8 . This species commonly occurs throughout the Crystal River. formation. Most of the specimens are either poorly preserved or are heavily coated with calcium carbonate.

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130 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Family CERATOBULIMINIDAE Subfamily CERATOBULIMININAE Genus LAMARCKINA Berthelin, 1881 Lama?flclcina sp. Several poorly preserved s pecimens of a Lamarckina occur in the A steTocyc lina fauni zone of the Crystal River formation. None of these specimens, however, are we ll enough preserved to afford a specific identification. Family ANOMALINIDAE Subfamily ANOMALININAE Gen u s ANOMALINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Anomalina bilate? " alis Cushman A nO?nalina b ilate?alis Cushman, 1922, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129-E,. p . 97, pl. 21, figs. 1, 2 . A no ?nalina bilatetalis Cushman. Cushn1an, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 50, pl. 21, fig s. 4, 5. A no?nalina b ilateralis Cushman. Cushman and Todd, 1945, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr. , vol. 21, p. 103, pl. 16, figs. 14, 15. A no?nalina b ilate?alis Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. A1n. Paleontology, vol. 32, no. 131, pp. 100, 101, pl. 17, figs. 7a-c. This was originall y described from the Oligocene of Mi ssis s ippi and is reported to occur in the Yazoo group and Moodys Branch formati on. In Florida, it occurs in the downdip facies of the Crystal River formation (W -4, 650-13 70 feet). Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman Anomalina cocoaensis Cushman, 1928, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr.,. vol. 4, p. 75, pl. 10, fig. 4. A nontalina cocoaensis Cush1nan. Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 51, pl. 21, fig. 1 3. A no ntalina cocoaensis Cushman. Bandy, 1949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vo l. 32, no. 131, pl. 17, fig . 5. This species occasionally occurs in the downdip facies of the Crystal River formation (W -276, 290-430 feet; W -1103, 566 1000 feet). Subfamily CIBICIDINAE Genus CIBICIDES Montfort, 1808 Cibicides pseudounge?"ianus (Cushman) T ruHcatulina nnge1iana H. B. Brady, 1884, Challenge? Rept. , Zoology, vo l. 9, p. 94, figs. 9a-c (not Rotalia ungeTiana d'Orbigny). T?' unca tulina ungetiana H. B. Brady. Cushn1an, 1918, U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 103, p. 69, pl. 24, fig. 1. Truncatulina pseudounge?"iana Cush1nan, 192 2, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129, pp. 97' 98, 136, pl. 20, fig . 9. Cibicides pseu dounge1ianus (Cushman). Co l e and Gillespie, 1930, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vol. 15, no. 57b, p. 15, pl. 3 , figs. 10, 11. Cib icides pseudoungerianus (Cushman). Ellisor, 1933, Am. Assoc. Petrole um Geologists Bull., vol. 17 , pl. 5, figs. 3, 4. Ci b icides pseudounge Tianus (Cushman). Cushman, 1935, U.S. G e ol. Surve y Prof. Paper 181, pp. 52, 53, pl. 23, figs. la-c.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 131 Thi pecie frequently occur in the downdip ection of the Ocala group undifferentiated at W -4, -528 to -1220 feet, and W -226, -476 to -1001 feet. Cibicides cf. C. yazooensis Cu hman Cibicides yazooensis Cushman, 1931, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research ontr., vol. 7, p. 59, pl. 7, figs. 12a-c. Cibicides yazooensis Cushman. Ellisor, 1933, Am. A ssoc. Petroleun1 Geologists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 5, fig s . 2, 5. Cibicicles yazooensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 53, pl. 23, fig s . 2a-c. Thi species, originally de cribed from the Yazoo formation, al o occur in the upper portion of the Cry tal River formation. Specimen referred to thi pecie are from the A terocyclina faunizone (locality PJ-1, bed no.1). Cibicides cf. C. 1nississippiensis ( u .. hman) Anomalina mississippien i Cushman, 1922, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 129, pp. 98, 137, pl. 21, fig s. 6-8. Cibicides mississippiensis (Cushman). Ellisor, 1933, Am. A oc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 17, pl. 5, figs. 6, 7. Cibicides 1nississippiensis (Cushman). Cushman, 1935, U.S. Geol. Surv y Prof. Paper 181, p. 54, pl. 22, figs . 3a-c. Thi pecies i commo nl y encountered throughout the ry tal River formation except LeJJidocyclina chape1i faunizone. It i particularly common at l oca liti e PM-2, PM-3, P J -4 and P J -5. Cibicide cf. C. coopeTensis Cu hman Cibicides cooperensis Cu hman, 1933, Cushman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., , .. vol. 9, p. 20, pl. 2, fig s . 11a-c. ( zbzcides coope1ensis Cushman. Cushman, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 53, pl. 23, figs. 3a-c. Thi pecie wa originall y de cribed from the upper Eocene, Cooper marl. A few poorly pre erved te t from the Asterocyc lina faunizone (localit y PJ-1, bed no. 1) are referred to thi pecie . Cibicides 1nississi1Jpiensis ocalanus ( Cu hman) Plate 12, fig . 4ac Cibicides mississippiensis (Cushman) var. ocalanus Cushman (nomen nu dum) 1935, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181, p. 54. Thi pecie frequently occur in the Cry tal River formation at l ocalitie PM-1, PM-2, PM-3, P A-1, P A-2 and PS-1. Genus DYO IBICIDES C u hman and Valentine, 1930 Dyocibicides p. A few poorly pre erved specimen of thi pecie occur in the .PiJoloculina nen be?Tyens is faunizone of the Cry .. tal River forma han (locality PM-3, 25 feet below top) .

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132 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Family AMPHISTEGINIDAE Genu s AMPHISTEGINA d'Orbigny, 1826 A mphistegina pina?"ensis cos deni Applin and Jordan Plate 8 , figs . 13 A 'mphistegina pina1ensis cosdeni Applin and Applin, 1944 (no1n en nudum), A1n. A ssoc . Petroleum G e o logists Bull., vo l. 28, pl. 2 , figs. 2a, b, 3 . A 1nphist egina pinarensis cosdeni Applin and Jordan, 19 45, Jour . Paleontology, vol. 19, p . 145, p l. 1 8, fig. 8. A rnp histegina pinatensis was ori ginally from the C ub a n Eo ce n e and it very c l o e l y related variety cosdeni was reported by Applin and Jordan f r om the " lower" Ocala. Thi variety ha few c h ambe r ( 15-18 in the fina l coil) ; i s flatter on t h e ventral ide, and the uture on t h e dor a l id e are sharply recurved about two third of t h e di tance from the umbo. Thi i the most common s pecie s in the Ing li and Willi ton formation and occur in a soc iati on with Ope1cul inoides moody b ?anch en sis (Gravell and Hanna) and 0. iack sonensis (Gravell and Hanna). In well in We t Florida, how eve r , it occurs in the l o wer portion of t h e Cry t a l River and i commonly assoc iated w ith Nurn mulit es van , d e ? stoki (Rutten and Vermunt). Neverthele ss, i t i s an exce llent marker for the Willi ston formation in central and northern Florida. Family NONIONIDAE Subfamil y NONIONINAE Gen u s NONION Montfort, 1808 Nonion adtenu?n (Cu shman) Plate 9, fig s. 4a-c Nonioninct advena C u s hn1an, 1 922 , U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Paper 1 29-F, P 1 39, pl. 32, fig. 8. N onion ina advena C u shman. C u shn1a n and Applin, 1 926, Am. A ssoc. P e troleun1 G e ologi s t s Bull. , vo l. 10, p . 181, p l. 10 , figs . 1 6, 17. Nonion advena (Cushman). Howe , 1928, Jour . Pale ontology, vol. 2, p . 175 . N onion ad venus (Cushman). Co l e and Gillespie, 19 3 0 , Bull. Am. P aleontology, vol. 15, no. 57b, p. 10, pl. 2, fig. 1 5 . . N onion advenu1n (Cushman). Cushman, 19 35, U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Papel 181, p. 30 , pl. 11, fig s . 1-4. N o1zion aclve1lU11t (Cushman) . Cushn1an, 19 3 9, U . S . Geo l. Survey Prof. P aper 191, p . 9, pl. 20, figs. 3 , 4 . 11 N onion adveHu?n (Cushman). B ergquist, 1942, Mississippi G eo l. Survey Bu 49, pl. 6 , fig . 20. 1 Nonion advenum, (Cushman). Cushn1an and M cGlamery, 1942, U.S. Gco Survey Prof. Paper 197-B, p. 69, pl. 5, fig. 8 . . N onion aclvewu1n ( Cush1nan). Cush1nan and Ellisor, 1945, Jour. vol. 19, p. 560, pl. 7 5, fig. 1. b N onion advenunt ( C u s h1nan ) . Cushtnan and Herric k, 1945, Cushman La Foram. Researc h Contr., vol. 2 1, p . 61 , pl. 10, fig. 9. b Nonion aclvenunt (Cushman) . C u s h1nan a n d Todd, 1945, Cushman La Foran1. Research Contr., vol. 2 1 , p. 91, p l. 15, fig. 1. 3. J Noniou culvena (Cushma n). Bandy, 1 949, Bull. Am. Paleontology, vo l. .... no. 1 3 1, pp. 71, 7 2, pl. 10, figs. Sa, b.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND Z ONATIO N O F THE OCALA GROUP 1 33 S onio?l cul ven1on (Cushman). Todd, 1 952, U . S. G e ol. Surve y Prof. Pape r 24 1, p. 21, p l. 3 , fig. 20. T hi pec i e common l y occur throug hout t h e Willi ton and Cr ystal River formati o n s . Nonion planatu?n C u hman and Thoma Plate 8, fig . 13a, b Nonion planatum Cushman and Thomas , 1930, Jour. Paleontology, vo l. 4, p . 3 7, pl. 3 , figs . 5a, b . Nonion planatuntCushn1an and Thon1a s . Cushman and Dusenbury, 1 934, Cushman Lab. Foram. R esearc h Contr., vol. 10, p. 60 , pl. 8 , fig s . 6a, b. f\Tonion plallatum Cushman and T homas . Cush1nan and Applin, 194 3, C u shman Lab. Foram. Research Contr., vol. 1 9, p . 37, pl. 7, fig. 24 . Nonion plallatu n t Cushn1a n and Thomas . Bandy, 1949, Bull. An1. Paleontolooy, v ol. 32, no. 1 3 1, p. 74, p l. 11 , fig s . 1a, b. T hi pec i es occurs throughout t h e A ste1ocyclina fauni zone (loca li t i e PJ-1, PJ-4 a n d PJ-5) of the C r y tal River formati on. Genu s NONIONELLA C u shma n , 1 826 N onionella p. Plate 9 , figs. 5a, b Several poo rl y preserved pecimen s of a Nonionell a occur in the Spi1oloculina ne'l t be1Tyensis and L epidocyclin a-PseudOJJhTag mina faunizo n es of the C r ystal River formati on . The material i not vvorthy of a m ore s p ec ific id e ntificati on . Subfamily ELPHIDIINAE Genu ELPHIDIUM Montfort, 1 808 Elphidium p. S everal brok en s pecimen s of an Elphidium \ ve r e found in the I ngli formati o n. Family NUMl\1ULITIDAE Genu s NUMMULITES L a marck, 1 801 Nummulite s vande1stoki Rutten a nd Vermunt Plate 6, fig . 1; plate 7 , fig . 12-15 Nurnm.ulites vande1stoki Rutten and V e rn1unt, 19 32, P roc. K onink. Akad. C Wet. An1s t erdam, vol. 35, p. 2 40, pl. 1, fig. 8 ; p l. 2, figs. 6 , 12 . ctmeJiua vanderstoki Rutte n and V ermunt. Barker, 19 39, U.S. Nat. Mus . P roc., vo l. 86 , no. 3 052, pp. 322 , 323; pl. 13, fig . 7; p l. 1 8 , fig . 3; p l. 22, (' fig s . 10 12. cwteJiua vanclerstoki Rutte n and V ermunt. Cole , 1941, Florida G e ol. Survey B u ll. 19, pp. 28, 29, pl. 8, figs. 210 . Thi s pecies was origin ally de scrib e d from t h e upper Eoce n e Of Serce d i C ueba, Curacao, We t Indie . In Florida i t occur throug hout t h e Willi ton and C r y tal River formation . The be t

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134 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT development of this s pecies i s in the Nummulites vancle1stoki faunizone of the Cry tal River where it form a nummulitid coquina rock 27 feet thick (locality C 64) . The West Indies representatives of this spec ies have 3.75 to 5 whorls with 18 24 chambers in the 5th whorl. The Florida specimens have 4V2 to 5lh whorls with 24-31 chambers in the last whorl. Genu OPERCULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Operculina rna?"iannensis Vaughan Plate 6, fig . 12 0]Jerculina 1nariannensis Vaughan, 1928, Florida G e ol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., p. 158, pl. 1, figs. 1-4 . This spec ie s was de scribed from the upper portion of the Crystal River formation and is abundant in exposures along the Chipola River. In Peninsular Florida, it is associated with Ope1' culinoides moodyb1anchensis and 0. jacksonensis and occur in the Williston formation. Genus OPERCULINOIDES Hanzawa, 1935 Opetc u linoid es ocala nus (Cushman) Plate 6, figs. 7 9 Ope1culina ocalana Cushman, 1921, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r 128-E, p. 1 29, pl. 19, figs. 4, 5. 0]Je?culinoid es ocalana (Cushman). Gravell and Hanna, 1935, Jour. Paleon tology, vol. 9, p. 353. 01Je1culinoid es ocalana (Cushman). Hanzawa, 1935, Sci. Rept. Tohoku Imp. U niv., ser. 2, ( Geol.), vol. 18, no. 1, p. 18. Ope1culina ocalana Cushman. Vaughan, 1937, in Sheppard "Th e G eo logy of Southwestern Ecuador," pp.158, 159, figs.113 (1-5), 114 ( 1-3). 01Jercu linoides ocalanus (Cushman). Barker, 1939, U. S. Nat. Mus . Proc., vol. 86, no. 3052, pp. 316, 3 17, pl. 12, fig. 5; pl. 15, fig. 5. Ope1culinoi d es ocala nus (Cushman). Vaughan and Co l e , 1941, G eol. Soc. America Special Paper no. 30, pp. 38-40, pl. 8, figs. 8, 9; pl. 9, figs. 1-4; pl. 10, fig. 11. Ope1culin oid es ocalanus (Cushman). Co l e, 1949, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 23, p. 270; pl. 52, figs. 1, 2. Opercu linoides ocalanus (Cushman). Co l e , 1952 , U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 244, p. 10, pl. 2, figs. 5-11. This spec ie s occurs throughout the Crystal River formation. Opetculinoides floTid ensis (Heilprin) Plate 6, fig. 5; plate 7, figs. 4, 5 Nunt1nulit es floridensis H eilprin, 1885, Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc., pp. 321, 322, text fig. 01Jercu lina {lo1idensis (Heilprin). Cushn1an, 1921, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128, p. 130, pl. 20, fig. 12. Operculinoides floridensis (Heilprin). Cole, 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 30, 31, pl. 9, fig. 8; pl. 10, figs . 1-3. OpeYcu linoid es flo1idensis (Heilprin). Cole, 1949, J ou1. Paleontology, vol. 23 , p. 270, pl. 52, fig. 3.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 135 This spec i es could be easil y identified by its medium t o large s i ze and the thinner last whorl than the rest of the tes t. It ha rai se d, limbate septa commonly seen in the las t whorl. The r e are 3 1 /8 to 41 / 2 whorls with 29 to 32 septa in the last whorl. This species occurs in abundance in the Willi ston formation and t h e lower portion of the Crystal River formation, where its microspheric form i s quite common. The megalo spheric form occur throughout the Crystal River formation and are very e l dom accompanied b y t h e micro spheric form. 01:;e rculinoides mooclyb?" anch ensis (Gravell and Hanna) Plate 6, figs. 2, 3; plate 7, figs. 7-11 Ca1nerina 1noody branchensis Gravell and Hanna, 1935, Jour. Pale ontology, vol. 9, pp. 332, 333, pl. 29, figs. 15, 22-24 . CanteJina ?noody b -ranchensis Gravell and Hanna. Barker, 19 39 , U.S. Nat. Mus . Proc., vo l. 86 , no. 3 0 52 , pp. 323 , 324, pl. 1 3 , fig . 5; pl. 2 0, fig. 2; pl. 22, fig. 2. Cam,erina 1noody b 1anc hensis Gravell and Hanna. C ol e , 1941, Florida Geo l. Survey Bull. 19, p . 28 , p l. 9, fig . 9; pl. 11, figs. 9-15. Ope1culinoides 1noody branch ensis (Grav e ll and Hanna). Co l e, 1952, U.S. Geo l. Survey Prof. Paper 244, p. 10, pl. 1, figs. 10-19. Thi s s pecie s ori ginally de scribed from the lower Jackso n Moodys Branch marl i s abundant in the Williston formation. At most exposures it forms coquina in which it represents over 50 per cent of the coquina rock. Ope?"cul inoi des vaug hani (Cushman) Ope1culina vaughani C u shman, 1921, U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Paper 128 -E, p. 128, pl. 1 9, figs. 6, 7. 07Je1culina vaughani C u shman. Gravell and Hanna, 19 35, Jour. Paleontology, vo l. 9, p. 33 4 , pl. 29 , figs. 6, 9, 12 , 1 6, 21. Operculinoi d es vaughani (Cushman). Cole , 1945, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 28, pp. 104, 105 , pl. 1 6 , figs. 11 13. 01Je1culinoi d es vaughani (Cushman). Co l e, 1952 , U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Paper 244, p. 11, pl. 2, figs. 12-1 6. C u shman (1921) describe d this s pecie s from the C r y tal River form a tion, Muckafoonee Creek, Alban y, Geor g ia. Complete test Were not noticed during this study, but few weathered specimen from the Aste?"ocyclina fauni zone, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, belong to this s p ec i es. Ope1culinoides (Heilprin) Plate 6, figs. 4, 6; plate 7, fig s . 1-3, 6 Nummulites willcoxii H eilprin, 1882, A cad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc . , vol. V 34, p . 191 , figs. 1, 2 . " willcoxii H eilprin. H eilprin, 1884, Acad. Nat. S ci. Philadelphia 0 Proc. , vol. 36 , pp. 32 1, 322, figs. 1, 2 . J Je1culina willcoxii ( H eilprin). Cushman, 1 921, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 128-E, p. 1 29, pl. 20, figs. 9-11.

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136 FLOR IDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Op r1culinell a willco x ii ( H eilprin). Vaughan, 1928, Florida G eo l. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., p. 1 58. 0 p c rculi 1coictes ( H eilpl'in). Hanza wa, 19 35, Tohoku Imp. Univ. Sci. R Ept ., 2d ser. (Geol.) vol. 18, no. 1, p. 18 . 0 p r J'CHlinoicles willcoxii ( Heilprin). Barker, 1 939, U.S. Nat. Mus . Proc ., vol. 8o, no . 3 052, pp. 309, 3 10 , pl. 1 3 , fig . 3; pl. 1 6 , fig. 1; pl. 21, fig. 13 . 0 p e rculinoides wtllcoxii ( H eilprin). Cole , 1941, Florida G eo l. Survey B ull. p. 32 , pl. 9 , fig s . 1-7. 0 p r J'culuwicles willco . i ( H eilprin). Cole, 1945, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. pp. 106 , 107, p l. 13, figs. 10, 11, 1 3 , 14; p l. 15, fig. 7 . Thi pec i e i s abundant in the Willi ton formati on \ v here the mi c r o pheric s p ecime n frequ ently are found a ociated w ith 0. jio1idensi s . This p ec ie doe occur in the Spi1oloc ulina n ewbe?'1'1Jen is faunizone of the 1r y tal River formati on w h ere i t i rather uncommon. l t vva not e ncounte r e d in t h e L e pidocyclina -P seuclo ph1'a g faunizone or oth e r faunizone of the C r y tal R iver. Ope 1culinoide .iackson e nsi s (Gravell and Hanna) Callluiua jacksonensis Gravell and Hanna, 1935, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 9, p. pl. 29, figs . 1-5, 7, 8, 10 , 11. Came1iJta )acksonensis Gravell and Hanna . Barker, 19 39, U.S. Nat. Mus . .Proc ., vol. 86, no. 3 0 52 , p . 324, pl. 1 3 , fig . 6 ; pl. 2 0, fig . g; pl. 22, fig . 9 . Camel'iJla jac kson ensis Grave ll and Hanna. Cole , 19 42 , Florida G eo l. Survey Bull. 2 0, pp. 26, 2 7 , p l. 8 , figs. 3-5 . Ca meJ'ina jacksonensis G1av el1 and Hanna. Co l e , 1 945, Florida Geol. Surv e y Bull. 28 , pp. 10 1, 10 2, p l. 13, figs . 3-6. Op e r cHliuoi d e s jacksonen sis Grave ll and Hanna. Cole, 195 2, U . S. G eo l. Sur vey Prof. Pape r 244, p . 9, pl. 1 , figs. 1-9, 2 0, 21; pl. 3 , fig. Thi pec i es i s c haracteri tic of t h e bed s of Mood y Branch age and occur in the M oodys Branch marl throughout the central and we tern G ul f tate . In Florida, it i com m on in the Willi ton formation. Subfamily HETEROSTEGININAE Genu s HETEROSTEGINA d 'Orbig n y, 1 826 H e t e 1 ostegina oca!ana Cushman Plate 6, fig . 10 , 11 ; p late 7 , fig . 16 H etc 1ostegina ocalana Cushman, 1921, U.S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Paper 128 -E , pp. 1:.10, 131, pl. 2 1, fig s . 1 5-18 . H e t eroste g in a ocalana C u shman var. glab1'a Cushn1an, U .S. G eo l. SurveY Prof. Pape r 128-E, p . 131, pl. 21 , fig . 19. H e trrostcgina ocalana Cushman. Vaughan, 1924, Geo l. So c . An1erica Bull.. vol. 35 , p. 789. H ete,os t eginc t ocalana Cushn1a n . C u shtnan, 1935, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof . .Paper 1 8 1, p. 33. H etrJos t cgin a ocalana Cushman. Co l e, 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 3 2, 33, pl. 11 , fig s . 3-ti. H e t eJostr g ina ocalana Cushman. Cole, 1952, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 244, pp. 13, 14, pl. 4, figs . 21 8 . Thi pec 1 es occur throughout the C rystal River and Willi s ton formation .

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONAT IO N OF THE OCALA GROUP 1 37 Family LEPIDOCYCLINIDAE Genu s LEPIDOC Y CLINA Gumbel, 1870 L epidocyclin a ocalana C u shma n Plate 14, fig s . 1 , 9, 11; p late 15, fig s . 2, 7 L epiclocyclinct ocalana C u s hn1an, 1919 , U . S . Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r 1 25, pp. 71 , 72 , pl. 28, figs. 3 , 4; pl. 29, fig s . 1-3 . Lepidocyclina ocalana C u shman. Vaug han, 1924 , Geol. So c . An1erica Bull., vol. 35, pp. 796 , 797, text fig . 2 . L epidocyclinct ocalana Cushman. Douville , 1924, So c . Geol. France Mem. , n.s ., vol. 1, lVIem. 2 , pp. 38 , 39 , text figs. 19-21. Lepidocyclina ocalana C u shn1a n . Vaughan, 19 28 , Florida G eo l. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155, 156. Lepidocyclina ( Lepidocyclina) ocalana C u shman. Co l e , 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 41-43, p l. 1 3 , figs. 1-7; pl. 1 6, figs. 1-4, 6-10, 15. L epidocyclinct ocalana C u shn1an. Cole, 1944 , Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, p. 72, pl. 8, figs . 2 1, 22; p l. 12, fig. 12; pl. 14, fig . 8; p l. 1 6 , fig. 6 ; pl. 1 7, figs . 6-12; p l. 18, fig. 4. Thi pec i es occurs throughout the C r ystal Rive r formation in Penin ular and W e t Florida. In Gad den and Jacks on co untie it i s rather uncommon in d eeper water facies of the Crystal Rive r formati o n w here maller Foraminifera are abundant. It a l o occur in dv varfed form throughout the Willi ston formati on where it i s carce. L epidocyc lina oca lana floTida n a C u shman Plate 14, figs . 3, 4; plate 15, figs. 4, 5, 6, 8 L epiclocyclina fl01idana Cushman, 1 919, U . S . G e ol. Survey Prof. Pape r 125, pp. 67 , 68, pl. 25, fig s. 1, 2. L epiclocyclinct :ftoTidana Cushman. Vaughan, 19 24, Geo l. Soc. America Bull., vol. 35, pp. 796, 797, text fig . 3. L epidocyclinct ocalana Cushman var . .floridana Cushman. Vaughan, 1 928 , Florida G eo l. Survey 19th Ann. R ept., pp. 155, 156 . Lepidocyclina (Lepidocyclina) ocalana Cushman var. fio1iclana Cushman. Co l e, 1941, Florida G eo l. Survey Bull. 19, p. 44, pl. 14 , figs . 1 -3 ; pl. 1 6, fig. 17. Thi variety could be eas il y identified b y its ste llate form. It l common throughout the C r ystal River formation, but i s abundan t in the L epidocyc li n a-Pseu doph? , ' agmina faunizone. L epidocyc lina ocalana attenuata C u shman Plate 14, fig. 2 ; plate 15, fig. 1 L epidocycli1la attenuata C u shman, 1919, U . S. Geol. Survey Prof . Paper 1 25 , L p . 67, pl. 24, figs . 7, 8 . epidocyclina ocalana Cush1nan var. attenuata C u shman. Vaughan, 1 928, Florida G e ol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155-157. L epidocycli1la ( Lepidocyclina) ocalana C u shman var. attenuata Cushman. Cole, 1941, Florida G eo l. Survey Bull. 1 9, pp. 43, 44, pl. 15, figs. 1-5; pl. 16, fig . 5 . Thi variety i s common throughout the Crystal River forma tio n, b u t abundantly occur in the L e pidocyclina -P seudoph1agmina fauni zone .

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138 FLORIDA GEOLOGI C AL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT L epidocyc lina ocalana u hman Plate 14, fig . 5, 6, ; plate 15 , fig. 3 L epidocyclina pseudomarginata Cushman, 1919, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 125, p. 69, pl. 26, figs. 2-4. L epidocycliua ocalana Cushman var. pscudomarginata Cushman. Vaughan 1928, Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 155, 156. L epidocyclina (Lepidocycliua) oca/ana Cu hman var. pscudomargiua fa Cu hman. ole, 1941, Florida Geol. Surv y Bull. 19, pp. 44, 45, pl. 14, figs. 4-7. Thi variety could be ea ily identified by it fat te t \\'ith a thin m a r g in. It com m o nl y occur throughout the C r y tal River formation and i abundant in the ! Jepidocyc l inaP seudo1Jh?ar; nzina faunizone. L epidocyc lina ;nortoni C u hman L cpidocyclina mortoni u shman, 1920, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Papc1 125, pp. 70, 71, pl. 27, fig . 1, 4; pl. 28, figs. 1 -3 . Lepidocyclina ( L epidocyclina) mo>toni ushman. Co l e, 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, p. 41, pl. 1 5, figs. 9-13; p l. 16, fig . 11, 12, 14; pl. 18, fig . 13, 14. L epidocyclina ( L epidocyclina) morto1li Cushman. Col e, 1944, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, p. 71, pl. 8, fig . 6; pl. 16, figs . 3, 10. Thi pecie occa i onally occur.. in t h e upper portion of the C r y tal Riv e r formation and i u u ally associated with the various peci es of Aste1ocyclina (W 336, 540-548 feet; P J 1 , bed no. 1-8; PJ-4, bed n o . 1; PJ5 , b ed n o . 1). Subgenu L epidocyclin a ( EPHROLEPIDI A H. D o u ville, 1911 ephrol epi dina) clzape1i Lem o in e and R. DouYille L epidocyc lina chape>i Lemoine and R. Douville, 1904, Soc . geol. France i\1em., vol. 12, pp. 14, 1 5 , p l. 2, fig. 5. L epidocyc lina subraulinii Cushman, 1919, Carnegie Inst. Was hington Pub. 291 , pp. 62, 63, pl. 11, fig s. 6, 7. L epidocyclina pencudosa ushman, 1919, arnegie Inst. Washington Pub. 291, p. 63, pl. 11, fig. 8. L epidocyc lina fragilis Cushman, 1920 , U.S. Geo l. Survey Prof. Paper 125, pp. 63, 64, pl. 22, figs . 1, 2 . L epidocyclina ( ep h rolepidina) haddin gtou e nsis Vaughan, 1928, Jour. Pal co n tology, vol. 1, pp. 292-29 4, pl. 50, fig s . 1, 2. L epi d ocyc l i na ( N eph 1olepidina) se?nntesi Vaughan and o l e . Vaug-han, 1933 , Smithsonian Misc. Coli., vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 29, 30, pl. 15, figs . 3-5; pl. 30, fig. 1 ; p l. 31, figs. 1, 1a; pl. 32, figs. 2, 3. L epidocyclina (Nepl uo/epidina) semmesi var. g>anosa Vaughan and Cole. Vaughan, 1933, Smithsonian Misc. oil., vol. 89, no. 10, p. 30, pl. 30, 2. L epidocycliua ( N cphrolepiclina) ta ntoyucen is Vaughan and Col e. Vaug-ha n, 1933, Smithsonian Misc. Coli. , vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 30, 31, pl. 15, 1, 2 . L epiclocyclina ( ep l uo/epidina) fragilis C u s hman var. cubcnsis Thiadens, 1937, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 11, p. 104, pl. 17 , fig. 6; pl. 1 8, fig. 7. Le pidocyclina ( L epiclocyclina) tschoppi Thiade ns, 1937, Jour. Paleontolog-Y• vol. 11, pp. 103, 104, pl. 17, figs . 1, 3; pl. 18, fig. 6; pl. 19, fig. 1; fig. 3 h. Le pidocyclina ( ephro/epidina) sanfcnw nclensis Vaughan and Cole, 194 Geol. Soc. America Special Paper 30, pp. 73, 74, pl. 42, figs. 1-G; pl. 4 , figs. 1-3; pl. 44, fig. 1. L epidocyc liua (N e7;h rolepiclina) sa?l/e1"na ncle11sis Vaughan and Cole va r

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TRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATIO N OF THE OCALA GROUP 139 ta/lalwsseensis Cole, 1945, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 28, pp. 34-39, pl. 1, figs. 16, 17; pl. 2, figs. 5-7; pl. 3, figs. 1-6. Lcp idocyclina ( e phrol e pidina) chaperi Lemoine and R. Douville. Cole, 1952, U . S. G e ol. Survey Prof. Paper 244, pp. 23-27, pl. 8, figs. 5-8; pl. 9, figs. 3 -19; pl. 10, figs. 1-10; pl. 11, figs 1-8; pl. 12, figs . 1-15; pl. 20, fig . -10; pl. 23, fig . 8, 11, 12. Thi pecie i abundant in the Lepidocyclina (N ephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone . Lepidocyclina p. Specimen of a mall, noded L epidocyclina pecie are common in the Ingli formation. Further tudy may e tabli h their exact identity. Superfamily DIS OCY LINIDEA Family DISCOCYCLINIDAE Genu PSEUDOPHRAGMINA H. Douville, 1923 Subgenu PROPOROCYCLINA Vau ghan and Cole, 19 40 P eudoph1ag ntina (PTOJJO?"OC?Jclina) .flintensis (Cushman) Orth op luugmina fiintensis Cushman, 1918, U . S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G, p. 115, pl. 11, fig. 12. D iscocyclina (D1'scocyclina) fiint ensis (Cushman). Vaughan, 1928 , Florida Geol. Survey 20th Ann. Rept., pl. 2, figs. 6, 7 . P seudop/uagmina ( P1oporocyclina) /lin t en sis (Cushman). Vaughan, 1945, Geol. Soc. America Mem. 9, pp. 89-92, pl. 36; pl. 37, fig. 1. P scudop l uagm ina ( Propo1ocyc/ina) flin t e n sis ( u shman). Cole, 1946, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, p. 84, pl. 25, figs. 7-9. P scltdop/uagm ina (Propotocyclina) flin t e ns is (Cushman). Cole, 1949, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 23, p. 274, pl. 54, figs. 1-4. P seudopluagm ina ( Proporocyclina) flint ensis (Cushman). Cole, 1952, U . S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 244, p. 35, pl. 28, fig s. 7-16. Thi pecie.. wa originally de cribed from the "Ocal a limetone" on the Flint Ri ver, Lee County, Georgia, in a soc iati on With Ope 1culino1:des vaughani ( C u .. hman 1935, Georgi a di tribution chart). Col e (1946) report it from W-336, 575-585 feet belo\v the top. It wa not observed in t h e Florida material ex amined by the writer. A c l o ely a lli ed pecie , P. (P.) citTensis ' aughan, doe occur throughout the ry .. tal River formation and there i a po ibilit y that these pecie are o clo ely related that th ey may later on have to be combined. P eudophragnlina (Proporocyclina) fiorida11a (Cu hman) 01fhop h ragmiu a floridana Cushman, 1918, U. S. G eol. Surve y Prof. Pape r 108-G, p. 116, pl. 40, fig. 3. Thi pec i es was originally de c ribed from locality P J -5, bed no. 1, and it al o occurs at PJ-1, bed no. 1, and PJ-4, bed no. 1.

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140 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Pseudophragmina (Pro porocyc lina) citrensis (Vaughan) Plate 14, fig. 10; plate 15 , figs. 10, 11 Discocyclina (Discocyclina) citrensis Vaughan, 1928, Florida Geol. Survey 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 159, 160, pl. 2, figs. 1-5. Pseudophragmina (Propo ' rocyclina) citrensis (Vaughan). Cole, 1941, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 19, p. 47, pl. 17, figs . 6, 7. This species can be easily identified by its small, lenticular, densely papillate test. Specimens of this species are co mmon throughout the Crystal River formation. Family ASTEROCYCLINIDAE Genus ASTEROCYCLINA Gumbel, 1870 Asterocyclina georg1:ana (Cushman) Plate 13, figs. 2-9 Orthophragmina g eorgiana Cushman, 1918, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G , p. 117, pl. 41, figs. 2, 3; pl. 42, fig. 3; pl. 43, figs. 2, 3. Asterocyclina georgiana Cushman. Cole, 1952, U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 244, p. 31, pl. 27, figs. 6-12. This species cou ld be identified by its square outline with diagonals of the square occupied by thin radial areas that taper toward the center. The umbonal tubercle is inconspicuou s and the rest of the test is flat and thin. The adults reach a measurement of 6 to 7 mm. Some of the adults are almost a centimeter in diameter. There is considerable variation of size and shape in this species. Some individuals tend to be trapezoid in shape, while others show a tendency to faintly develop one or two additional ribs besides the prominent diagonal ribs (see pl. 11, figs. 5, 7). This species occurs commonly with Asterocyc lina A. mariannensis, and A. chipolensis. Asterocyclina americana (Cushman) Plate 13, figs. 12-14 Q-;thophtagmina ame?icana Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G, p. 116, pl. 40, fig. 4; pl. 41, fig. 1; pl. 42, fig. 1. This is the largest species of Asterocyclina in the Crystal River formation. It could easily be identified by its large ( 45-55 mm. in diameter) size and about 20 radiating ribs that run from the raised umbo to the periphery. This species is very common in the A sterocyclina fa unizone of the Crystal River. Crumbly nature of the sediments makes it hard to obtain complete specimens but weathered surface exhibits some beautifully preserved individuals .

PAGE 140

STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 141 Aste1ocyclina nta?iannensis ( Cu hman) Plate 13, figs. 10, 11, 15 Orthophragmina nw1iannensis Cushman, 1918, U. S. Geol. SurY e y Prof. Paper 108-G, pp. 116, 117, pl. 40, fig . 5; pl. 42, fig. 2; pl. 44. Orthophragntina mariannensis Cushman var. papillata Cushman, 191 , U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 108-G, p . 117, pl. 43, fig . 1; pl. 44. Orthophragmina 1nariannensis Cushman. Cushman, 1920, U . S. G eo l. Surve y Prof. Paper 125, p. 46, pl. 11, fig . 1. Ortho]Jh rag?nina mariannensis Cushman var. papillata Cushman. Cushn1an , 1920, U . S . G eol. Survey Prof. Pape1 125, p. 47, pl. 11, fig. 2. Discocyclina (Aste1ocyclina) ntariannensis (Cushman). Vaughan, 1945, Geol. Soc . America Mem. 9, pp. 80-82, pl. 28; pl. 29. Asterocyclina 1na1'iannensis (Cushman). Cole, 1952, U.S. Geol. Surve y Prof. Paper 244, pp. 31, 32; pl. 27, figs. 1-5; pl. 28, figs. 1-3. This species could easily be identified by it stellate outline, medium size ( 15-25 mm. in diameter) with 8-12 rib that radiate from a con picuous umbo toward the periphery. B oth the umbo and the ribs are finely papillate. This is the mo t common specie of Aste1ocyclina in the Aste ? 'O cyclina faunizone of the Crystal River formation and i a ociated w ith A . ame1icana and A. chipolensis. Aste1ocyclina chipolensis (Vaughan) Discocyclina (Aste1ocyclina) chipol ensis Vaughan, 1928, Florida Geol. Surve y 19th Ann. Rept., pp. 161, 162, pl. 1, figs. 6, 7. This species could be identified by it mall test ( 4-5 mm. in d iameter), having about 8 radial ribs with pitted area bet\Yeen the ribs and in the umbonal region. This species is common throughout the Aste 1 ocyclirza fa unizone and occurs with A. ameTicana and A. nta1iannensis in the upper Part of the faunizone. Scattered individual al o occur throughout the Crystal River formation. Aste , rocyclina vaughani (Cu hman) P late 1 3, fig. 1 0Jthoph1agntina vaughani Cushman, 1918, U. S . Geol. Survey Prof. Pape r 108-G, p. 118, pl. 43, figs . 4, 5. Thi species could easily be identified from A. geoTgia n a by it coarsely papillate test and larger ize . Mo t adults in A. georOiana reach 6-8 mm. in diameter, as compared with 8-10 mm. for 11. vaughani . The radiating ribs in thi pecies are al o broader; they increase in height and width toward the periphery. Intermediate paces bet\veen the radiating rib how a central, strongly papillate, tubercle surrounded by a mooth U-shaped de P J 'e sse d area. (1918) reported this pec i es from the Crystal Rive r

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142 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT formation at R ed Bluff, on Flint River, Decatur County, Georgia, in association with Aste1 ocyclina ameTic ana, A. maTiannensis and Atkinocyclina geo1giana . This species rarely occurs in Florida and is here reported from a lower level in the Astetocyclina faunizone from PS-3 and PS-4, where it is not associated with any of the above named pecies. It s hould, however, occur toward the top of A ste1ocyclina faunizone sediments in West Florida. Astet ocyclina aff. A. nassauensis Cole Plate 8, fig. 12 D iscocycli 'na (Aste1ocyclina) nassauensis Cole, 1944, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 26, pp. 79-81, pl. 1, fig. 16; pl. 2, fig s . 1, 2, 5, 6; pl. 12, figs. 5, 6; pl. 24, figs. 1-8. This s pecies typically occurs in W 336, 505-548 feet. Specimens here tentativel y referred to this species are from locality PA-2, bed no. 4, and P J -5, bed no. 1. These specimens are s maller than the type, have four well-developed rays and s ubdued papillate ornamentations. They occur in association with chipolen sis in PJ-5, bed no. 1. A. chipolensis specime n s that accompany this s pecies are fat, robust, bigger forms with a greater number of rays and a pitted surface of the test. Family PENEROPLIDAE Subfamily SPIROLININAE Genus SPIROLINA Lamarck, 1804 Spit olina C01"1fensi. Cole Plate 5, fig. 4 Spi1olina coryensis Cole, 1941, Florida G e ol. Survey Bull. 19, pp. 33, 34, pl. 1, figs. 5, 6. Spi1olina coryensis Cole. Applin and Applin, 1944, Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., vol. 28, pl. 2, figs. 10, 11. Col e ( 1941) described this spec ie s from the middle Eocene sediments of Florida. It is abundant in the Avon Park formation. It also occasionally occurs in the upper Eocene, Inglis formation . Subfamily ARCHAIASINAE Genus ARCHAIAS Montfort, 1808 A 1chaias Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, figs. 11a, b Tes t medium, average diameter 1.2 mm. Early portion plani cpiral and lenti cular; later portion flaring and even annular; chambers s ubdivided by chamberlets, about 27 in the last flaring chamber. The adult is annular. The flaring stage has 10 chambers. The c hambers are strongly arched; chamber lets rectangular in

PAGE 142

STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 143 hape, about 11/2 time as high as broad. The aperture is multiple, in several rows on the apertural face. Thi compressed species is common in the Inglis formation and ' vas not observed in any other portion of the section. Family GYPSININAE Genus SPHAEROGYPSINA Galloway, 1933 Sphae 1flogypsina globula (Reuss ) Plate 14, fig. 7; plate 15, fig. 9 Ce1io1J01'a globu lus R e u ss , 1847, Haidinger's N aturwiss. Abh., vol. 2, p . 23, pl. 5, fig. 7. GyzJsina glo b ula ( R e uss). Cushman, 1935, U .S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 181 , p. 54, pl. 23, figs. 4, 5. Gypsina globula (Re uss). Cole, 1944, Florida G e ol. Surve y Bull. 26, p. 33, pl. 7' fig . 23. Thi s pecies commonly occurs in the Ocala group, but is abundant in the Crystal River formation. Family PLANORBULINIDAE Genus PLANORBULINA d'Orbigny, 1826 Pla nor b u lina sp. Specimens of a s mall Planorb?.,tlina are common in the Spiro laea faunizone of the Crystal River formation in wells in central and southern Florida. Genu s LINDERINA Schlumberger, 1893 L inderina sp. Plate 8, fig. 4 A few s pecimen of a Linderina were encountered in the faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Most of the pecin1ens found are heavil y coated with calcium carbonate.

PAGE 143

PLATES 1-15

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Explanation of Plate 1 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. a, side view; b, apertural view. Figures !-Tex tularia adalta C ushman, localit y PM-3 , 15 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5060. X80 2-Tex tularia recta Cushman, locality PJ-1, highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5061. X40 3-T ex tularia ocalana C u shman, locality PM-2, 60 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5062. X50 4-Textularia Puri, n. sp., locality PM-2, 50 feet below top, holotype no. S-5063. X40 5-Textularia triang u lata Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 15 feet below top, holotype no. S-5064. X20 6-Tex tularia cf. T. hockl eyens is C u shman and Applin, locality PJ-1, highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5065. X40 7-Tex tularia dibollensis Cushman and Applin, localit y PJ-1, highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5273. X80 8-Gaudttyina gardne1"a e Cushman, localit y PJ-1, highest ex posed, plesiotype no. S-5066. X40 cf. P. jacksonensis Cushman, localit y PJ-1, highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5067. X40 146

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 1 147

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Explanation of Plate 2 Specime11 numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. a, side view; b, apertural view. Figures !-Textula ria ocalana Cushman, locality PM-3, highest expo se d, plesiotype no. S-5068. X50 Puri, n. sp. , locality PM-3, 20 feet below top. 2, para t ype no. S-5069; 3, para type no. S-5070; 4, para type no. S-5071; 5, para type no. S-5072. X20 6-Tex tula rie lla barretti (Jones and Parker), localit y PM-3, 40 feet below top, plesiotype no . S-5073 . X40 7, ocalana Cushman, locality PM-3, lowest exposed, 7, plesiotype no. S-5074; 8, plesiotype no. S-5075. X20 cf. P. iacksonensis Cushman, localit y PM-3, 40 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5077. X40 10-Liebussella by ramensis turgida (Cushman), locality C-64, 70-85 feet above base, plesiotype no. S-5076. X20 Puri, n. gen., n. sp. 11, localit y PM-3, highest exposed, holotype no. S-5078; 12, locality PM-3, 15 feet below top, para type no. S-5079; 13, locality PM-3, highest exposed, para type no. S-5080. X20 148

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 2 149

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Explanation of Plate 3 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1, 5-Spirolocu li na Puri, n. sp., localit y PM-3, 15 feet below top. 1, holotype no. S-5081; 5, para type no. S-5085. a, side view; b, apertural view. X20 2-M assilina cf. M. jacksonensis Cushman, localit y PM-3, 40 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5082. X20 3-Quinqueloculina ocalana Puri, n. sp., localit y W-347, 100-105 feet below top, holotype no. S-5083. a, side view; b, apertural view. X20 4-Spiroloculina seminolensis Applin and Jordan, locality VGL 13, plesiotype no. S-5084. a, s ide view; b, apertural view . X20 6-Quinqueloculina Puri, n. sp., localit y PM-3, 10 feet below top; holotype no. S-5086. a, side view; b , apertural view. X40 7-A?"ticu lina zube?"ensis Puri, n. sp. , locality PA-l, 47-50 fee t below top, holotype no. S-5087. X40 8-Spi?,.oloculina bidentata Hadley, locality PM-3, 25 feet belovv top, plesiotype no. S-5088. a, b, opposite side views; c, apertural view. X40 9-Valvulina fioTidana Cole, locality VGL-13, plesiotype no. S-5089. a, side v iew; b, dorsal view. X40 10-Miliola cf. M. saxo rum Lamarck, locality PM-3, highest e x posed, plesiotype no. S-5090. a, b, oppo site side views; c, apertural view. X40 11-A ?"chaias Puri, n. s p., locality VGL-13, holotype no. S-5091 . a, side view; b, apertural vie\v. X20 12 , 13-Ammospi?,.ata? l ev yensis Puri, n. sp., locality VGL-13. 12, holotype no. S-5092; 13 , para type no. S-5093. a, side view; b, dorsal view. X20 14-Plectofrondicu laria? inglisiana Puri, n. sp., locality VGL-13, holotype no. S-5094. a, s id e view; b, dor al view. X40 150

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 3 151

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Explanation of Plate 4 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lectio n, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1 ?NodosaTia Reuss, locality PM-3 , 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5095. a, side view; b, apertural view. X20 2-Dentalina vertebra lis albatrossi (Cushman), locality PJ-1, highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5096 . a, side view; b, apertural view . X20 3-Dentalina cf. D. vertebralis (Gumbel), localit y PJ-1, hig hest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5097. X20 4-Dentalina cooperensis Cushman, locality P J -1, highest ex posed, plesiotype no. S-5098 . X20 5-SaTacenaria hantkeni Cushman, locality P J -5, bed no. 1, plesiotype no. S-5099. a, b, opposite side views; c, apertural view. X20 6-Saracena ria italica Defrance, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, pl esio type no. S-5100. a, side view; b, dorsal view; c, apertural view. X40 7-Robulus cf. R. propinq u ,us (Hantken), locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, plesiotype no. S-5101. a, b, opposite side views; c, apertural view. X40 8-Lagena la e vis (Montagu), locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5102. a, side view; b, apertural view. X80 9-Lag ena acuticosta Reuss, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, plesiotype no. S-5103. a, side view; b, apertural view. X80 152

PAGE 151

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 4 153

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Explanation of Plate 5 Specimen number refer to the Florida Geological Survey ollection, Tallaha ee, Florida. Figure 1-Marginulina j1agar i a te., asensis ( u hman and Applin), locality P J -1 , bed no. 6, plesiotype no. S-5104 . a, b, oppo , ite ide view ; c, apertural view. X40 2-Pla1tula1ia t1uncana (Gumbel), locality PJ-1, highe t ex po ed, ple iotype no . S 5105. a, b, oppo ite ide view ; c, apertural view. X40 cf. M . ka1eria11a Cu hman, localit y PJ1, hi g h e t expo ed, plesiotype no. S-5106. a, b, oppo ite ide vie\v ; c, apertural view. X40 4pi1olina co1ye1lsis ole, localit y VGL-13, ple iotype no. S-5107 . a, b, oppo ite ide view ; c, peripheral view. X40 5-Sigmomo?phina jackso1t ensis C u hman, localit y PM-3, hioh e t expo ed, pie iotype no. S-5108. X20 6-Globulina gibba d'Orbigny, l ocality PL-1, hiO'h e t expo eel, ple iotype no . S-5109. X40 7-8-Lin g u lina ocalana Puri, n. p., locality PJ-1, hiO'he t ex po ed. 7, holotype no. S-5110; 8, paratype no. S-5111, etched pecimen howing the earl y chamber . a ide vie\v; b, apertural vievv. X20 9-Robtt lus dumblei Weinzierl and Applin, locality PJ-1, highest exposed, p l e iotype no. S-5112. X20 10-GuttruJina irr gulari ( d'Orbigny), locality P A-1, 20 feet be low top, ple iotype no . S-5113. a, b, oppo ite ide vie\' ; c, apertural vie,v. X40 1 54

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 5 155

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Explanation of Plate 6 All figures Xl5. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geo logical Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures l-Num1nulites vande?'"stoki Rutten and Vermunt, locality C-64, 72 feet above lowest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5114. 2, 3-0per-culinoides moodybra?ttchensis (Gravell and Hanna). 2, locality P A-1, 77-82 feet below highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5115; 3, localit y PM-3, 45 feet below highest ex posed, pie iotype no. S-5116. 4, 6-0peYculinoides 1villcoxi (Heilprin). 4, locality P A-1, 7277 feet below lowest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5117; 6, locality C-64, 66 feet above lowest exposed, plesiotype no . S-5119. 5-0pe?"Cu . linoides floTiclensis (Heilprin), locality PM-3, 45 feet below lowest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5118. 7-9-0perculinoides ocalanus (Cushman). 7, locality PA-l, 6267 feet below highe t exposed, pie iotype no. S-5120; 8, lo cality P A-1, 67-72 feet below lo,ve t exposed, plesiotype no . S-5121; 9, locality P A-1, 102-107 feet belovv highest expo s ed, plesiotype no. S-5122. 10, 11-Hete ?ostegina Cushman. 10, locality C -6 4 12 feet above lowest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5123; 11, locality PM-3, 40 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5124. 12-0pe?,culina Vaughan, locality PA-l, 102-1 07 feet belo'v highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5125. 156

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 6 157

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Explanation of Plate 7 All figures X15. Specimen number refer to the Florida Geo logical Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1, 2, 3-0pe?culinoides (Heilprin). 1, locality PM-3, 20 feet below highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5126; 2, locality C-64, 10 feet above base, plesiotype no. S-5127; 3, locality C-64, 10 feet above base, ple siotype no. S-5128 (microspheric forms). 4, fioridensis (Heilprin). 4, localit y PM-3, 20 feet below highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5129; 5, locality PA-3, 87-92 feet below highest exposed, plesiotype no. S-5130. Heilprin, lo cality C-64, 10 feet above base, plesiotype no. S-5131 (megalospheric form). moodybranchensis (Gravell and Hanna), locality PM-3, 40 feet below top. 7, plesiotype no. S-5132; 8, plesiotype no . S-5133; 9, plesiotype no. S-5134; 10, plesiotype no. S-5135; 11, plesiotype no. S-5136. 12-15-Nummulites vandeTstoki (Rutte11 and Vermunt). 12, locality W -381, 405-410 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5137; 13, locality P A-1, 92-97 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5138; 14, locality P A-1, 102-107 feet belovv top, plesiotype no. S-5139; 15, locality C-64, 72 feet above base, plesiot ype no. S-5140. 16-H ocalana C ushman, locality C -64, 66 feet above base, ple iotype no. S-5141. 158

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY j 7 8 13 BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 7 14 159 . . 9 10 IS 2 5 /6 .

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Explanation of Plate 8 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Co l lection, TallahasRee, Florida. Figures 1-3-A mphistegina pina?"en. sis cosdeni Applin and Jordan, lo cality W-601, 195-200 feet below top. 1, plesiotype no. S5142; 2, plesiotype no. S-5143; 3, plesiotype no. S-5144. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view. X-20 4-Linde1"ina sp., locality PJ-1, highest expos ed, plesiotype no. S-5145. a, b, opposite side views. X20 5, 6-Uvigerina glabrans C u shman, locality PM-3, 10 feet below top. 5, plesiotype no. S-5146; 6, plesiotype no. S-514 7. a, side view; b, apertural view. X20 7, 8-Rupe?" tia fioridana C u shman, locality PJ-1, highest exposed. 7, plesiotype no. S-5148; 8, plesiotype no. S-5149. a, s ide views; b, apertural views. X10 9-Bitubulogener ina vicksburge ' nsis Howe, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, plesiotype no. S-5150. a, side view; b, apertural view. X80 10-Bolivina advena Cushman, locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5151. a, side view; b, apertural view. X80 11-Trifarina bTadyi advena C u shman, locality PJ-1, bed no. 1, plesiotype no. S-5152. a, side view; b, apertural view. X80 12-Asterocyclina aff. A. nassauensis Cole, locality P A-2, bed no. 4, plesiotype no. S-5153, side view. X20 planatum C ushman and Thomas, locality PJ-1, l ov;est exposed, plesiotype no. S-5154. a, side view; b, peripheral view. X40 160

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 8 161

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Explanation of Plate 9 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1, 3-Retts sella sculptilis (Cushman). 1, localit y PM-2, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5155; 3, locality PM-3, 15 feet be low top, plesiotype no. S-5156. a, b, side views. X50 2-Cibicidella sp., locality PM-3, 35 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5157. a, ventral view; b, dorsal view; c, peripheral view. X30 4-N onion advenum (Cushman), localit y PM-2, 60 feet below top, plesiotype no . S-5158. a, b, opposite side views; c, peripheral view. X 50 5-N onion e lla sp., localit y PM-2, 50 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5159. a, b, opposite side views. X-50 6-Siphonina jacksonensis Cushman and Applin, locality P A-1, 30 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5160. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view. X50 7-Fabiania cubensis (Cushman and Bermudez), locality W-347, 140-160 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5161. a, dorsal view; b, peripheral view. X20 8-Gyroidina springfieldensis Puri, n. sp., locality PJ-1, bed no. 1, plesiotype no. S-5162. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral view. X40 9-Globorotalia cocoaensis Cushman, localit y P J -1, bed no. 1, plesiotype no. S-5163. a, ventral view; b, peripheral view. X40 10, 11-Gy1,.oidina crysta l riverensis Puri, n. sp. 10, locality PJ-1, bed no. 1 , holotype no. S-5164; 11, para type no. S-5165 . a, ventral view; b, dorsal view; c, peripheral view. X20 162

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FLOR IDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 9 163

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Explanation of Plate 10 All figures X40, unless otherwise indicated. Specimen number refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-4-Ca?nagueyia peTple x a Cole and Bermudez, locality W -652, 45 feet below top. 1, plesiotype no. S-5166; 2, plesiot y pe no. S-5167; 3, plesiotype no. S-5168; a, b, side views. 4, locality PM-3, 45 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5169; a, dorsal view ; b, side view. 5-7-V e1nonina Puri, n. gen., n. sp. 5 , locality P A-1, 30 feet below top, holotype no. S-5170; 6, locality PM-3, 35 feet below top, paratype no. S-5171; 7, paratype no. S-5172. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral view. 8-Discorbis Cushman, locality C -6 4, 40 feet above base , plesiotype no. S-5173. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral view. 9-Alabamina obtusa (Burrow and Holland), locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, ple s iotype no . S-517 4. a, ventral view; b, peripheral view. 10-Sto?nato?'"bina k end?'"icken sis Puri, n. p., locality PM-3, 25 feet below top, holotype no. S-5175. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral view. 11-Cassidulina cf. C. 1noodyensis Cushman and Todd, localit y PM-3, 30 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5176. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view. X80 12-Mississippiana monsoU?'"i Howe, localit y C-64, 65-70 feet above base, plesiotype no. S-5177. a, dorsal view; b, ventral . view. 164

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 10 165

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Explanation of Plate 11 Specimen number refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral view. Figure 1-Rotalia Applin and Jordan, locality PM-3, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5178. X50 2, 3, ma1'tielina Cushman and Bermudez, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6. 2, plesiotype no. S-5179, X40; 3, pie iotype no. S-5180, X40; 4, plesiotype no. S-5181, X20. 5-Globo1otalia c1ystalrive1'tensis Puri, n. sp., locality PM-2, 50 feet below top, holotype no. S-5182. X50 166

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 11 167

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Explanation of Plate 12 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lect ion, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures cocoaensis Cushman, locality PJ-1, bed no. 6, plesiotype no. S-5183. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral vie\v. X40 2-Planulina Puri, n. sp., locality P J -1, bed no. 6, holotype no. S-5184 . a, dorsal view; b, peripheral view. X60 3-EpistomaTia semimarginata (d'Orbigny), locality C-7, top 18 inches, plesiotype no . S-5185. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view; c, peripheral view. X20 4-Cibicides 1n. ississippiensis Cushman, locality PM-3, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5186. a, dorsal view; b, ventral view ; c, peripheral vievv. X60 5-Di scor-ino]Jsis g ttn te?"i Cole, localit y C -7, top 18 inche s, plesiotype no. S-5187. X20 6-GyToidina nassattensis Cole, localit y PM-3, 10 feet below top, holotype no. S-5188 . X25 7-Hantkenina alabamensis localit y PJ-1, bed no. 6, plesiotype no. S-5189. a, b, opposite side vievv ; c, apertural view. X60 8-Rupe'tti a fioridana Cushman, locality PM-3, 45 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5190. a, s id e view; b, apertural X20 168

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 12 169

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Explanation of Plate 13 Specimen number refer to the Florida Geological urvey ol Iection, Tallaha ee, Florida. Figure l-Ast 1ocycli za ( u hman), lo aiity P -2 heel 110. 2, pie iot J>e no. -5191. X4 2-9-A t 1ocycli11a g o1gia11a ( u hman), Io ality P J -1, becl 110. 6. 2, pie iot pe no. S-5192, , ple iot, pe no. S-5193 .• "r, ; 4, pie iotype no. S-5194, X4; 5, ple iotype no. S-5195, X3; 6, plesiotvpe no. S-5196, X4; 7, pie iotype 110. S-5197, X3; 8, ple iotype no. -5198, X4; 9, pie .. iotype no. S-5199. X4 10, 11, 15-Ast roczJclina 1 l .,i ( u hma11), localit\r PJ-1 bed no. 6. 10, pie iotype no. S-5200, X3; 11, pie iotype 110. S-527 4, 2; 15, ple iotype no. S-5278. llh 12, 13, 14-A t 1o ycli ta a nL rica11a ( u hma11) locality P J -1 b d no. 6. 12, pie iotype no. S-5275 (A. Hzarianne1z i 011 lo,ver right), 1; 13, ple iotvpe no. S-5276 .L 1 14 pie l) 110. -5277. X 1 170

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN TIIIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 18 171

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Explanation of Plate 14 All figures X15, unle s otherwise indicated. Specimen number refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallaha ee, Florida. 1, 9, 11-Le ]Jidocyclina ocalana C u hn1a11. 1, locality PM-3 10 feet below top, pie iotype no. S-5279; 9, locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5280, X5; 11, locality P A-1, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5281. X5 2-Le ]Jidocyclina ocalana atten ' uata Cushman, l ocality PM-3, 10 feet below top, ple iotype no. S-5282. 3, 4-Lepi docyclina ocalana Cushman. 3, locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5283; 4, locality PM-2, 5 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5284. 5, 6, 8-Le1Jidocyclina ocalana psettdoma1'"ginata Cushman. 5, locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no . S-5285; 6, locality PlVI-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5286; 8, locality PA-l, 67-72 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5287. X5 glob'Ltla (Reu ) , locality PA-l, 67-72 feet belo,;v top, pie iotype no. S-5288. lO-Pseu dophrag1nina (PTopoTocyclina) Vaughan, locality PM-3, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5289. 172

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 14 173

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Explanation of Plate 15 All figures X15, unless otherwise indicated. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-Lepidocyclina ocalana Cushman, localit y PM3, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5290. 2, 7-Lepidocyc lina ocalana Cushman, locality P A-1. 2, 30 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5291; 7, 30 feet below top, ple siotype no. S-5292. 3-L epidocyc lina ocalana pseudomarginata Cushman, localit y PM-3, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5293. 4, 5, 6, 8-Lepidocyclina ocalana jlo?,.idana Cushman, localit y PM-3. 4, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5294; 5, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5295; 6, 10 feet below top, plesi otype no. S-5296 ; 8, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5297. 9-Sphaer ogy1Jsina globula (Reuss), locality PM-3, 20 feet be low top, plesiotype no. S-5298. 10, 11-Pseudophragmina citrensis Vaughan, locality PM-3, 20 feet below top. 10, plesiotype no. S-5299 ; 11, plesiotype no. S-5300, X-45. 174

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY I 4 7 9 ... . . . . •.,. 10 BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 15 _.. t ... . .. .. .. •• • • . .t .,., . • .. .i •-. ' .,._._.. .. . . . 5 175 J 6 8 I I

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Table 1 STRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE FORAMINIFERA OF THE OCALA GROUP . Inglis Williston Crystal River Will. 1 Will. 2 CR-1 CR-2 CR-3 I A mmobaculites ltockleye??sis xxxx Ammospirata? levyensis . xxxx -A 1nphistegina cosdeni x xxx xxxx xxxx ?. ? ? ? -A ngulogerina ocala11a ??? • • • --A nomalina bilateral is xxxx xxxx xxxx A nomalina cocoaensis xxxx xxxx xxxx . A rchaias withlacooc hensis xxxx l A rticulina zuberensis xxxx americana \ Asterocyclina c hipolensis xxxx xxxx Asterocyclina g eor giana Asterocyclina mariannensis ??? ??? • • • • • • --Asterocyclina aff. A. nassauensis . Asterocyclina vaughani -Bolivina jacksonensis xxxx xxxx xxxx -Bulimina jacksonens i s xxxx xxxx xxxx Camagueyia perp lexa ??? xxxx xxxx xxxx • • • . -Cassidulina cf. C . moodyens i s xxxx --Cibicides cf. C . mississippiensis xxxx xxxx xxxx -Cibicides mississippiensis ocalanus I xxxx xxxx xxxx ' --I CR4 CR-5 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx I xxxx xxxx xxxx . xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx I

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Tab I T TH ..J • I I ntintt d -lngli illi ton t a l • ry 1ver , _ . i 11. 1 ill. 2 I , ' R --5 ---C"ib. (ze (/.o tngt • I 7J • •t( 1l •• • • X .. " ' • • • r xxxx " " .. ' .. . ... ibi "cl f. • I • JJll I • • '"X "' ib oglobo " "Jtalio 1l(l i :Jli lC ,. • A .. . y lG • I ll l G }) . .. " .. I .. 4 • • -D ali la • I ll oo J • 1 s .. I x .. • I I I I D , I a l" 1a bJ tli alba t o . I ? • t ... . . ,. xxxx x ,. " ,. xxxx ,. "' "' "' .. "' .. Di 0 J/\' • () 1lt ,. X .. J I Di. o b i. bulla I "' X Di. o b i ' o _c lana "XX Di • igtlt' • o . 0 x .. x ... I Dyo "b ill t. • 1 . .. r,.. _.X E l1Jh i(li1 11 }) . • .. .. "' .. E1Ji. • n i no gi za ta 0 1(l • (I • X .. r I E1JO icl • bz cl • 1 la la l. '1 a ;x x .. xxxx ,. ,. ,. • .. .. .. E1J0 z icl • 0 00 I 'l. • X .. ..,r • X " XXX X " .. • .. .. ,J E1JO l l(l ' . a /(, ( . l l. • . . " . "XXX ,. ,. .. .. ,. ' "" .. . ... ,_. 4 A ...-"' _. .,. 4 • E JO cl ala za x ... ,. .. r .. XXX x,. • '4P' A I .. .. .

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• ?tia cub Fabia Gattd Globt Globo Globo Glob Globu G1ttt1 G 1 ttt1 Gyro Gy1o Gy1o Gy1o Ha1 t H e t e L a g e 1181 -1y na gard? t 1ae • • sp. ' rotalia cocoae?'lsis -1otalia c1ystalriver ensi gibba -li1ta gibba globosa . tlina i1e g1tla1is tlina spicae jo1mis idina crystal1-.ive1ensis idi?ta ?tassa t e ? tsi idina solda1 tii idi1 1 a S]J1i1tg fie ld e11.sis k enina alabame ? tsis 1 ost egina ocalana na laevis Lage 1a actt ticosta -Table 1 STRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIO OF THE FORAMI.r IFERA OF THE OCALA GROUP (Continu d) -Inglis Williston Crystal River ---Will . 1 Will. 2 CR-1 CR-2 CR-3 l ??? xxxx • • • xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx ... ??? ??? ??? ??? • • • • • • • • • • • • ' ----CR-4 ' CR-5 xxxx xxxx I xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx I

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T lngli" 'illi ill. I La nc /{ i Ill ., . L 1Jiclo ll li 1(1 • 1 h . 0 l '7) i (l i H C ha1 . 'l L 1J iclo y l i l a no to • l L 1Jiclo .'/ lina o ala (l x .. .,. _. 4 L 1Jiclo y l 1a o ala 1r, (( tt zua ta L 1 iclo '.J li za o ala a (to icla 1 a . L 1J i cl o 11 l i l a 1 ala 1 a 11 ) lt (l (J Jl a 1' {j I I (l t ll L 1Jiilo ,I lina p. n1all nod d • .. " Li b lla b11 an< l. i. tl g icla XX • Li zcl • '1 l (l p. Li 1g ,z c o ctla 1a Lituon llc l . X .. ., • ' 'A1 a 1 .9 in t l i 1 fJ f a g a r i a t . . '(l.. JL. l JV/ a g n tl i l o . f. . ka reria la ----cc_ _ _____ .,j, .1a .ili lO f. rl1. j ll /, •• :) l . I.' • • -111 ' l l i o la j a /,. o l • 1. •• l. Tab!) 1 TIO RO ton ' ill. xxxx x.Jxx 2 ntinu -1 "' X" "' "' .. • • "X ., .. ., .. .. X ... .. . . .. ., ., . ... . . ... I ,. .J "" r "' " ., .. .. .. "' ,. .. .. .. x ,. ? ? ., • • • R --ry t a l • IV 1' I R . 'I I -5 , .. . :X, xxxx "' "' .J .. I X X xxxx " I . "' .. xxxx ,. r ,. . xxxx ,. r • ... "' • xxxx X.,"., xxxx ., " • 4 .. ??? • ., • • • .. X. -X.

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T . Ingli Pla zor b tl. lG • J • PI a 1 u la i c f. '1tnca na Pla ll' l . o . (t I z. P la , ll l i 1 a I ' 1 (l i /, ' 1. • • l tofo t(li lc . i 1 {Jl i. ia n a "l(l • .. X X Po n 1 o J h z a .. 1 . P. e u clo gau ll .1 • f . I . l(l j (. /\. 0 l . l. 'l.' p ) u ( / o J J h 1 a g ' J n in a J> ' 01)0 1' 0 -Jl l l ')l {l it 1 e ' n . i s p td07Jh rr, g 1 l in a I ) o7JO o-I y la jti l t • l I t I • ] > . ? (l01Jh r . J:> o1 o1o-gn 1na '.1 li 1(1 flo i cl a 1 a . P,l go f. I . . HO 'Jl(tlt Q u l q t 'lo l i l a b . ,. . .. '1 Jl,"l. Q t • lo ,z z o t la <1 a • R l • • • lla o l(l X R . e lla (; ( l1 i li .. I I TH I T I L illi ill. 1 ---J • , p . a I 1 ton ill. 2 • X r-.. .. T ontintt d -1 I .. X I X I i X X XX .. -X .. .. IF tal . ry IV r -2 R-3 I X XXX XX ??? • • • XXX ' X .. J r X • -XX .. X X XX X 4. X X X X ??? • • • X .. XX .. I I .. ' ' .. 5 X .4 4 .. en > t-3 ....... C) ,., > > z t:; 0 z > P-3 ,...... 0 z 0 to:rj ..-3 t%.1 0 0 > > 0 0

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Tabl 1 STRATI APHI DISTRIBUTIO F THE FO AMI IF OF THE OCALA ROUP ( ontinu d) Ingli Willi ton ry tal Riv r ---Wil l . 1 Will. 2 CR-1 R-2 CR-3 CR-4 I CR-5 Rob ul u.. ala to l J z b a tit xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Robulu a J'C1t, a to t 1ia (.. xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx claHvillen • 1 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Robult d 1 bl i ??? xxxx X XX xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx I xxxx • • • Robulu gzt.. tico t tu x9"xx xxxx --Rob?l lu li n b OS1l xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx f. R. )JJ.O]Ji1lQ11l xxxx Ro a ,lia, c sit 1 XXX X XX XXX XXX XXX xxxx xxxx xxxx R1<1Jer ia , ftoJidana xxxx ??? ??? "XXX • • • • • • hantk • Jl'l xxxx a1ac ' UaJia ita,lica xxxx I • . I a 1a,ce n a 1a o 1 za n a xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx ig nz o 111 o J']Jlti?za iackso?l . ??? }1 l xxxx xxxx • • • i1JI i n a jack i xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx Jlta 1og Y1J ina glob ula XX " X XX XX XXX X X xxxx xxxx I xxxx 1J i t () l i (l c 0 ' • l u t. itt xxxx c= J>irolo uliuo bid ' Htett(( xxxx I

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Tab I TR T I Ill I B T I O T H I T L 0 • d on tntt Ul lngli ton tal Riv r > ill. 2 R 3 R-5 .-j ....... C) . l' l' XX > X X XX o 1 a to r b i 1 o /\ ) n ll i I\ e 1 , , > T . t t I a 1 • i a a lla l t a xxxx X xxxx X z t::1 T . l 0 ia oalaua ??? z X • • • > t-j T . t la i l"boll X .. XXX 0 T . t ula ia tu z • .... XX • xxxx X 0 .ubha1 e1ii X X t-3 T . t Llc r l(J X XXX." ::x= t%j T . tula ia f. T. h o Al .I 0 0 T .. tla i llc. ba r " t t X P' "XXX > t-4 > Trifa ina , b1acl11i afl ') lll X G1 X 0 i Ill ,qlab a IS "X fT .,. . .. .. .. XXX .. X , . / XX ... XXX I 00

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Tabl TRATI HI I T I TI F TH I I T 0 P ontintt d ton 1y tal Riv r ill. 1 ill. 2 -1 -2 R-3 -5 al tl i 1 a .flo i cl t 1 a X t l i 1 a o ala na ??? • • • al ia ja ch.: on . 1l l, xxxx XX xxxx XX X XX X al . }'t(l ct na XX X XXX xxxx XX X xxxx --?V rn • }J J o }Jtn a XXX rnon ua tub c tlata xxxx XX XXX X ??? • • •

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PART III TRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATIO OF THE OCALA GRO P 0 TRA ODA

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PART III TABLE OF CONTENTS AND TAXONOMY The following ostracode associations are ascertained in the Ocala group in Florida: S ys tern a tic T 1ea tmen t ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 7 Description of Species ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------18 9 SUBORDER Podocopa Sars, 1865 ( 1866) -----------------------------------------------------189 FAMILY B airdiidae Sars, 188 7 ----------------------------------------------------------------------18 9 SUBFAMILY Bairdiinae Sars, 1923 ------------------------------------------------------189 GENUS B ai1dia M 'Coy, 1884 -----------------------------------------------------------------189 SPECIES BaiTdia nagappai Puri, n. sp. -------------------------------------------189 ocalana Puri, n. sp. -------------------------------------------189 GENUS Bythocyp?"is Brady, 1880 __ ----------------------------------------------------190 SPECIES BythocypTis ? gibsonensis Howe and Chambers --------------190 FAMILY Cytheridae Baird, 1850 -------------------------------------------------------------------190 SUBFAMILY Cytherideinae Sars, 1925 -------------------------------------------------190 GENUS ClithTocythe' ridea Stephenson, 1936 -------------------------------------190 SPECIES Clitht--ocytheTidea sagittaTia Howe -------------------------------190 GENUS H aplocytheTidea Stephenson, 1936 -----------------------------------------190 SPECIES H aplocythetidea blanpiedi (Stephenson) -----------------------190 GENUS A ul ocy the?"idea Howe, 1951 ______ ------------------------------------------191 SPECIES A ulocytheTidea mat"godentata Howe ------------------------------191 SUBFAMILY Paracytheridinae, Puri, n. subfam. ------------------------------191 GENUS Pa>acythe ride a Muller, 1894 ---------------------------------------------------191 SPECIES ParacytheTidea scoTpiona Howe -------------------------------------191 SUBFAMILY Loxoconchinae Sars, 1926 --------------------------------------------------191 GENUS Loxoconcha Sars, 1865 _ -----------------------------------------------------------191 SPECIES Loxoconcha marionensis Puri, n. sp. ---------------------------------191 Loxoconcha kendtickensis Puri, n. sp. --------------------------192 SUBFAMILY Brachycytherinae Puri, 1954 -------------------------------------------192 GENUS Alexander, 1933 -------------------------------------------192 SPECIES B1achycytheTe gigantea Puri, n. sp. -----------------------------192 SUBFAMILY N eocytherideidinae Puri, 1957 -------------------------------------193 GENUS Cuch?nanidea Blake, 1933 _ ---------------------------------------------------19 3 SPECIES Cushmanidea? gunteti Puri, n. sp. ------------------------------193 Cushmanidea laevigata Puri, n. sp -------------------------------194 SUBFAMILY Xestoleberinae Sars, 1928 ----------------------------------------------194 GENUS X estoleberis Sars, 1866 ___ ---------------------------------------------------194 SPECIES X estoleberis zube'tensis Puri, n. sp. ---------------------------------194 X es tole b etis gun teti Howe ------------------------------------------------19 5 SUBFAMILY Cytherettinae Triebel, 1952 ----------------------------------------------195 GENUS G. W. M tiller, 1894 -----------------------------------------------195 SPECIES Cytheretta alexandeti Howe and Chambers ____________________ 195 C y th eTe t ta day tonensis Swain -----------------------------------------19 5 Cytheretta infiTma Howe ---------------------------------------------195 SUBFAMILY Trachyleberidinae Sylvester-Bradley, 1948 ___________________ 196 GENUS T1achy leb e1is Brady 1898 __ -----------------------------------------------------196 SPECIES citTusensis Puri, n. sp. ---------------------------196 GENUS E chinocytheTeis Puri, 1954 --------------------------------------------------196 SPECIES Echinocythereis okeechobiensis (Swain) -----------------------196 Echinocythe1eis nuda Puri, n. sp. ----------------------------------197 GENUS H i1 su to cy there Howe, 19 51 --------------------------------------------------19 7 SPECIES HiTsutocyth eTe spinosa Puri, n. sp. ----------------------------197 GENUS Pseudocyther omo1pha Puri, n. gen. -------------------------------------198 187

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SPECIES Pseu docythe?'O?no1'pha elongata Puri, n. sp. ------------------1 98 Pseudocythet omo?pha 1 eticulata Puri, n. s p. ------------------19 9 Pseudocythetomorpha st1'iata Puri, n. sp. ----------------------199 GENUS J u gosocyth e ' reis Puri, n. gen. _________ ___ ---------------------200 SPECIES J ugosocyth e r eis b ica1inata (Swain) _ ----------------------200 J u gosocyth ereis t tica?inata Puri, n. s p. ----------------------201 J t tgosocythe1 eis l e banonensis Howe __ _ ----------------------201 SUBFAMILY Hemicytherinae Puri, 1953 __________ ----------------------------202 GENUS H e rnicythe1e Sars, 1925 _______ _ ----------------------------------------202 SPECIES H e ?nicyth e ' re polken sis Puri, n. s p . ___ ----------------------202 H emicytheTe c1ysta l1ive r ensis Puri, n. sp. --------------------202 H emicythere punctata Puri, n. s p. _ _ ______ ------------------203 H er n icy there sculpturata Puri, n. sp. ----------------------203 H e ?nicyth ere mota How e _ _ _______ -------------------------204 SUBFAMILY Cytherurinae G. W. Muller, 1894 ---------------------------------204 GENUS A bsonocythe1opte1on Puri, n. gen. __ ____ _ ----------------________ 204 SPECIES Absonocyth eto1:>te1o n ca tinata Puri, n. g e n., n. sp. ______ 205 GENUS Cythe1opter on Sars, 18 65 ______ _ ________ _ ------------------_ 205 SPECIES Cythe1opte1on jansoni Puri, n. sp. ------------------------------205 SUBFAMILY Cytherinae Dana, 1852 _ _ ____ --------------------------------206 GENUS Spongicythere How e , 1951 __ _ _ _ _____ __ __ -----------------------206 SPECIES Spongicythe ' r e willistonensis Puri, n. s p. --------------------------206 Spongicythe T e caudata Puri, n. s p. _ -----------------------20 6 GENUS Occultocythe r eis Howe, 1951 _ _ ___ ---------------------------207 SPECIES Occultocythe?eis d ehonbata Howe --------------------------------207 SUBORDER Platycopa Sars , 1866 _______ _ ______________ -------------------------------207 FAMILY Cytherellidae Sars, 1866 ---------------------------------------------------------------207 GENUS Cythe1e lla Jones, 1849 207 SPECIES Cy the1 e lla s p. --------------------------------------------------------_________ 2 0 7 Cyth ere lla sp. B __________ _ ---------------------------------------207 GENUS Cythe 1 elloi d e a Alexander, 1929 ___ _ __ -----------------------------208 SPECIES Cytherelloidea ocalana Puri, n. s p. ------------------------------208 B i bli ogra ph y ______________ _ ---------------------------------____ -------------------------------209 Plates 1-15 Tables ILLUSTRATIO S 211 1 Stratigraphic distribution of the Ostracoda of the O cala group ----242 188

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PAR T III Description of Species Suborder PODO COP A Sar , 1866 F a mil y BAIRDIIDAE Sar , 1887 Subfamily BAIRDIINAE Sar , 1923 Genu BAIRDIA M' Coy, 1884 BaiTdia nagappai Puri, n . s p. P late 1 , fig s . 6-9 Ca rapace large e l o ngate, bluntly pointed behind, more broadly p ointed in front. D o r al margin arched, ventral margin li ghtly concave in t h e middle, curving toward the end . Valve ineq u a l , left valve large r than right and overlapping along the dor a l m arg i n and the middl e of the ventral marg in. Margina l areas narrow, m o t narrow near t h e middle at the venter. Interna l feature ob . cured by rna trix. Dimen i o n of the h o lot y p e n o . S-5005, a right valve f r o m l o cality PM-2, 50 feet below top: l ength .884 mm. , hei ght .527 mm. Named in honor of Mr. Y . Nagappa. Thi pe c i e occur in the Willi ton and the Cry tal River for mati o n . Bai1 dia ocalana Puri, n . p. Plate 1 , figs. 1-5 Ca r apace m edium, m oot h , inflated . Valve highe t at t h e cen ter, ge ntl y l opi n g toward the anterio r but the po terior l ope i arc uate. Ventral margin nearl y traight. Anteri o r end broadly r ounded belo'v; ob liqu e above; po terior e nd ubangulate. Left v alve larger than the right and overlap the right valve all the way around. Viewed from ins ide, the valves are deep. Othe r in ternal detail not ob erve d because of the poor pre ervation of material. Dim e n i o n s of holotype no. S-5003, a complete carapace from l ocality P J -1, bed no. 6: length .932 mm. , h e i g h t .626 mm. ; parat ype no. S-5004, a left valv e from l ocality P J -1 bed no. 6: length .826 mm., h e i ght .542 mm. This pecie differ from B. nagappai in the general hape and outl in e of t h e carapace. Thi pecie commo nl y occur in the A ste1ocyc lina faunizone of the Cry tal River formati o n. 189

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190 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Genus BYTHOCYPRIS Brady, 1880 Bythocypris? gibsonensis Howe and Chambers Plate 1 , figs. 10-13 Bythocyp1 is? gibsonensis Howe and Chambers, 1935, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 5, p. 9, pl. 3, fig. 10; pl. 4, fig. 3. Bythocypris ( ?) gibsonensis Howe and Chambers. Howe and Law, 1936, Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 7, p. 26, pl. 1, figs. 34-37. Bythocyp1is ( ?) gibsonensis Howe and Chambers. Swain, 1946, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 20, p. 375, pl. 54, figs. 4a-e. Bythocyp1is gibsonensis Howe and Chambers. Van d e n Bold, 1950, Jour. Pale ontology, vol. 24, p. 108. This species, originally described from the Louisiana Jackson Eoce ne , commonly occurs in the Williston and Crystal River formations . Dimensions of plesiotype no . S-5006, a right valve from localit y PM-3, 10 feet below top: length .960 mm., height .450 mm. Family CYTHERIDAE Baird, 1850 Subfamily CYTHERIDEINAE Sars, 1925 Genus CLITHROCYTHERIDEA Stephenson, 1936 ClithrocytheTidea sagitta ria Howe , Plate 2, figs. 5-12 ClithJocythericlea sagitta1ia Howe, 1951, Florida G eol. Survey Bull. 34, pp. 5, 6, pl. 2, figs . 5-7. This spec ie s, originally described from the middle Eocene A von Park lime tone of Florida, also occurs throughout the Ocala group . Dimensions of plesiotype no. S-5009, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 20 feet below top: length .659 mm. , height .371 mm. Gen us HAPLOCYTHERIDEA Stephenson, 1936 Haplo cytheridea blanpiedi (Stephenson) Plate 2, figs. 1-4 Cythe1idea blan7Jiedi Stephenson, in Howe and Law, 1936, Louisiana Geol. Sur vey Bull. 7, p. 31, pl. 2, fig. 15. Cytheride a (Haplocythe?'idea) blanpiedi Stephenson. Stephe nson, 1936, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 10, p. 701, pl. 94, figs. 11, 12, text figs. 1 e , f, m, n. Cythe ride a ( H a7Jlocythe1idea) b lanpiedi Stephenson. Stephe n s on, 1937, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 11, p. 147, pl. 26, fig. 10. Cytheride a (Ha7Jlocythe1idea) blanpiedi Step h enson. Swain, 1946, Jour. Paleontology, vo l. 20, p. 379, pl. 54, figs. 6a-c; pl. 55, fig. 6. Thi species, originally described from the Byram marl Oligo cene of Mississippi, also occurs in the Williston and Crystal River formations. Dimen s ions of the plesiotype no. S-5007, a left valve from locality PM-3 , 15 feet below top: length .608 mm., height .357 mm.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND Z ONATIO N OF THE O CALA GROUP 191 Genus AULOCYTHERIDEA H owe, 1951 Aulocytheridea margodentata Howe Plate 6, figs. 13 Aulocyth e 1idea ma1godentata Howe, 1951, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, p . 8, pl. 2, figs. 11-16. This spec ie s was originally described from the upper portion of the Avon Park lim esto n e. It a l so occurs throughout the Ing li s a nd Williston formations. Dime n sions of ple sioty p e no. S 5020, a complete carapace from the Inglis formation, locality VGL-5: length . 591 mm. , height .321 mm. Subfamil y PARACYTHERIDINAE Puri, new subfamily T y pe genus: PARACYTHERIDEA G. W. Muller, 1894 Carapace e longat e, so lid, inner margin nearl y parall e l t o outer margin. Surface of the carapace strong l y alate, with a distinct win g and posteroventral a l a. Both the anterior and the posterior elements of t h e hingement crenula t e. The subfamil y inc lude s the following genera: P a1cwyt herid e a G. W. Muller, 1894 (type s p ec ies P. depressa G. W . Muller). Pa ?acyt h eroptero n Ruggieri, 1 952 (type specie s Cytheroptet o n Segu enza, 1880). Genus P ARACYTHERIDEA Muller, 189 4 Par acyth eri dea scorpiona Howe Pa1acytheri d e a scorpiona Howe, 1951, Florida G eol. Surve y Bull. 34, pp. 8, 9, pl. 1 , figs . 15-17 . This s pecies was originally described from the upper part of the Avon Park limestone. I t a l so occasionally occurs in the Inglis forma tion. Subfamily LOXOCONCHINAE Sars, 1926 Genus LOXOCONCHA Sars, 1865 L o x oconcha marionensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 3 , figs. 7-10 Carapace small, inflated, oblong -ovate in dorsal v iew. Dorsal margin nearly straight; ventral margin s li ghtly co n cave in the middle. Anterior end oblique in the dorsal h a lf, ob liquely rounded in t h e ventral half. Posterior acute, pointe d , compresse d. Surface of the carapace reticulate; pit rectangular, s h a llo w. The ventral portion of the test infl a t ed and s li ghtly keeled in the po stventral a rea. The reticulate pattern parallels the ventral bulge. Internal detail s not studied s ince a ll carap aces are complete .

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192 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Dimensions of holotype no. S-5014, a complete carapace from l ocality PM-3, 30 feet below top: length .350 mm., height .225 mm. This specie s commonly occurs in the Spiroloculina ne1vbe1"ryen sis faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Loxocon cha k en drick ensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, figs. 11-14 Carapace small , e longate. Dorsal margin nearly straight; ventral margin slightly concave in the middle. Anterior end broadly rounded ventrally; oblique dorsally. Posterior end subacute, com pressed, broadly rounded ventrally, oblique dorsally. Surface of the carapace reticulate. Carapace inflated ventrally and a con spicuo u s keel present at the posteroventral region. Surface reticulation generally parallels the ventral keel. Internal details not availabl e since all carapaces are comp lete. Dimensions of holotype no. S-5015, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 25 feet below top: length .392 mm., height .208 mm. This species differs from L. marionensis in being generally longer and having a different shape. This species commonly occurs in the Spittoloculina nezubet'TY ensis faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Subfamil y BRACHYCYTHERINAE Puri, 1954 Genus BRACHYCYTHERE Alexander, 1933 Brachycythere gigantea Puri, n. sp. Plate 4, figs. 1-6; plate 5, figs. 1-8 Carapace large, e l ongate. Dorsal margin arched, ventral margin convex; anterior end broadly rounded ; posterior end subangular with a tuft of six to seven spines. Surface of the carapace smooth, except for four longitudinal ridges below the ventral ala. The ala runs parallel to the ventral margin and at its posteroventral end has two short spines . Viewed from the inside the valves are deep. Marginal areas wide, marginal pore canals numerou s. Hinge well developed and normal to the genus. Dimensions of the paratype no. S-5016, a comp l ete carapace from localit y PM-3, 5 feet below top: length 1.190 mm., height .663 mm.; paratype no. S-5017, a right valve from localit y PM3, 35 feet below top: length 1.210 mm., height .620 mm.; holotype no. S-5018 , a left valve from lo cality PM-3 , 5 feet below top: length 1.122 mm., height .7 46 mm.; paratype no. S 5019, a right valve from locality PM3, 15 feet below top: length 1.256 m m., height .668 mm.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 193 This s pecies could be easily distinguished from the rest of the species of this genus from the Gulf coast by its characteristic ala and four longitudinal ridges below it. This s pecies commonly occurs in the lower portion of the Crys tal River formation. Subfamily NEOCYTHERIDEIDINAE Puri, 1957 Type genus: NEOCYTHERIDEIS Puri, 1952 Sylvester-Bradley and Harding (1953) designated CytheTideis unicotnis as type species of Cythetideis. C. unicoTnis Jones == Cy pridea spinigeTa Sower by by Jones and Sherborn ( 1887 , p. 386) ; hence Cythe?"ideis Jones is a synonym of Cypridea Bosquet, 1852 . Puri ( 1952) erected the subfamily Cytherideidinae to include a natural group of genera like Cytherideis Jones, Copytus Skogsberg, Pontocythere Dubov s ky, Krith e Brady, Crosskey and Robertson, Cushmanidea Blake, Sahnia Puri and N eocytherideis Puri. Since the name Cytherideis is to be abandoned, Sylvester-Bradley and Harding (1953) have recommended that the genus Hemicytherideis Ruggieri, 1952, replace Cytherideis Jones. H emicytherideis unfortunately is a synonym of Cushmanidea Blake. Species formerly included in the genus Cytherideis should now be either classified under Cushmanidea or be placed under other related genera and these cytherideid genera be placed under N eocytherideidinae Puri, 1957, which i s to replace Cythet--ideidinae Puri, 1952. Genus CUSHMANIDEA Blake, 1933 Cushmanidea? gunteri Puri, n. sp. Plate 6, figs. 4, 5 , 7, 8 Carapace elongate, approximately two to one, oblong in lateral v iew. Dorsal margin arched, ventral margin almost straight. Anterior end broadly rounded in the ventral half, oblique in the dorsal half; posterior margin oblique in the dorsal half, broadly rounded in the ventral half. Surface of the carapace finel y pitted, otherwise s mooth. Internal characters not observed since most of the specimens are closed articulated valves. Dimensions of the holotype no. S-5022, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 10 feet below top: length .680 mm., height .340 mm. Named in honor of Dr. Herman Gunter, Director, Florida Geo logical Survey, Tallahassee, Florida. This spec ie s i s tentatively referred to the genus Cush1nanidea until the internal structures are carefully studied. In outline and

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194 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT ge neral external morphological characters, it resembles Cushmani dea. This species occasionally occurs in the Lepidocyclina-Pseudo phragmina faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Cushmanidea laevigata Puri, n. sp. Plate 6, figs . 9 -12 Carapace elongate, almost two to one; oblong in lateral view. Dorsal margin arched, ventral margin almost straight. Anterior end broadly rounded, posterior end obliquely rounded in the dorsal half, broadly rounded in the ventral half. Surface of the carapace with very fine pits, otherwise smooth and polished. Marginal areas broad, anterior more so. Marginal pore canals few, straight and elongate. Hinge normal to the genus. Dimension of the holotype no. S-5023, a right valve from localit y PM3, 15 feet below top: length . 850 mm., height .37 4 mm. This spec ie s occurs in the Crystal River formation. Subfamily XESTOLEBERINAE Sars, 1928 Genus XESTOLEBERIS Sars, 1866 X estolebe1 " is zuberensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 6, figs. 13-16 Carapace large, ovate in lateral view. Dorsal margin strongl y arched, ventral margin slightly concave near the middle, other wise almost straight. Greatest thickness slightly below the middle. Posterior end more inflated than the anterior end. Surface smooth and polished. Internal characters not observed since all valves are closed, complete carapaces. Dimensio n s of the holotype no. S-5024, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .557 mm., height .357 mm. This spec ie s i s closely related to X. gunteri Howe, from the Avon Park limestone. It resembles X. gunteri in the s ide view but differs from it in the lateral view, in being considerably flatter at the ventral portion. It i s also more elongate than X. gunteTi. The anterior half of the dorsal margin in X. gunteri i s strongl y oblique while it i s very gently oblique in X . zuberensis . This spec ies commonly occurs in the Crystal River formation.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 195 X es tolebeTis gunte1i Howe X es t o l e be1is gunteri Howe, 1951, Florida G e ol. Survey Bull. 3 4, pp. 30, 3 1, pl. 2, fig s . 17-19 . Howe (1951) de cribed this spec ie s from the upper portion of the Avon Park lime .. tone. It also occasionally occur in the Ingli formation. Subfamily CYTHERETTINAE Triebel, 1952 Genus CYTHERETTA G. W. Muller, 1894 Cythet etta Howe and Chamber Plate 7, fig . 1-4 Cytheretta ale xanderi Howe and Chambe r s , 1935, Louisiana G e ol. Surve y Bull. 5, pp. 45, 46, pl. 5, fig s . 17-21; pl. 6, fig s . 27, 28. Cythereis ( ?) catahoulana Howe and Pyeatt, in Howe and Chambe r s , 19 35 , Louisiana Geol. Surve y Bull. 5, pp. 25, 26, pl. 3, fig . 7; pl. 6, fig s . 25, 26. Cythe1eis ( ?) catahoulana var. pyeatti Howe and Chambers, 19 35, Louisiana G e ol. Survey Bull. 5, pp. 26, 27, pl. 3, fig s . 20, 21. Cyt he1etta alexanderi Howe and Chambers. B ergquist, 1 942, Mississippi G eo l. Survey Bull. 49, p . 109, pl. 11, fig. 20 . Cythe1etta alexande1i Howe and Chambe r s . Monsour, 19 37 , Am. A ssoc . P e troleum G e ologi s t s Bull., vol. 21, pp. 90, 95. Cytheretta alexanderi Howe and Chambe r s . Blake, 1950, Jour. Paleo ntology, vol. 24, p. 177, pl. 30 , figs . 1-3 . Cythe?etta alexande?i Howe and Chambe r s. Puri, 1952a, Jour. Paleo ntolog-y , vol. 26, pp. 208, 209, pl. 40, fig s. 1, 2 . This species occur in the Williston formation and the Spi1olo culina ne1.vbe1Tyensis faunizone of the Cry tal River formation throughout Florida. In the we tern Gulf state , it i restricted to the Moodys Branc h formation and the Gosport sand. Dimensions of ple siotype no. S-5025, a comp lete carapace from locality PM-3, 45 feet below top: length .860 mm., height .459 mm. Cythe1ett a daytone n sis (Swain) Plate 8, fig . 1-3 CytlzeJetta? daytoneusis Swain, 1946, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 2 0, p. 38 0, pl. 54, fig s . 15a, b; pl. 55, fig s . 9a-c. Swain ( 1946) described this s pecie s from the u lower" Ocala limestone. It is common in the Ingli s and Williston formations. Dimen s ions of plesiotype no. S-5028, a comp lete carapace from the Ingli formation, locality VGL-13: length 1.014 mm., h e i ght .507 mm. CytheTetta infi,1ma Howe Plate 8, fig s . 4-6 Cytheretta infinna Howe , 1951, Florida G eol. Survey Bu II. 34, p . 10, pl. 2, fig s . 1, 2. This spec i es wa originally described from the upper p a r t o f

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196 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT the Avon Park lime s tone. It also commonly occurs in the lowe r portion of the Inglis formation. Dimens ions of plesiotype no. S-5029, a complete carapace from the Ing li s formation, locality VGL-13: length .980 mm., height .507 mm. Subfamily TRACHYLEBERIDINAE Sylvester-Bradley, 1948 Genus TRACHYLEBERIS Brady, 1898 Trachyl eberis cit11'usensis Puri, n. sp. Plate 10, figs. 1-12 Carapace elongate-subquadrate, oblong in side view. Greatest height at the anterior cardinal angle. Dorsal margin nearly straight, ornamented with long, sharp, tapering spines; ventral margin slightly convex and similarly ornamented. The dorsal and ventral margins are subparallel and tend to converge at the po sterior end. Anterior end broadly rounded, the greatest curvature being just below the middle; upper portion oblique with a distinct marginal rim ornamented with a row of short and sharp spines. Posterior end compressed, angular and denticulate; dorsal portion oblique. Suriace of the carapace ornamented with sharp, irregularly arranged spines of varying s ize. Marginal area broad, broadest at the anterior. Radial pore canals numerous, long, wavy, so m etimes thickened in the middle, more numerou s in the anterior than at t h e posterior margin. Hinge normal to the genus. Dimension s of the holotype no. S-5034, a complete carapace from l ocality PM-3, 45 feet below top: length 1.047 mm., height .542 mm.; para type no. S-5035, a complete carapace from locality PJ-1, bed no. 5, length 1.002 mm., height . 501 mm.; paratype no. S-5036 , a complete carapace from locality PL-1, hig hest expo sed: length .893 mm. , height .517 mm. This s pecies commonl y occur s in the Williston and the C rystal Rive r formations. This s pecie s i s c lo se to T rachyle b eris montgomeryensis (Howe and Chambers). It differs from it in having its spine s arranged roughly concentrically. In the s id e view it differs in being more e longate and slender. In its outlin e , it differs from T. montgomery ensis in having its dorsal h a l f of the posterior margin more obliqu e. Genus E CHINOCYTHEREIS Puri, 1954 E chinocythereis o keecho biensis (Swain) Plate 8, fig s. 7-10, plate 9, figs. 1-4 Cythereis? okeecho biensis Swain, 1946, Jour. Paleontology, vo l. 20 , p . 378, pl. 54, figs. 1 Oa, b; pl. 55, figs . 3a, b.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 197 Echinocyth erei s okee chobi en sis (Swain). Puri, 1954, Florida Geol. Su1vey Bull. 3 6, p. 260. This species, originally described from the "Ocala limestone," i s very common throughout the Williston and Crystal River formations. Dimensions of plesiotype no. S-5030, a right valve from locality W -381, 370-375 feet below top: length . 835 mm., height .517 mm.; plesiotype no. S-5031, a complete carapace from locality PM-2, 20 feet below top : length .960 mm., height .584 mm. Echinocyth e T eis nuda Puri, n. sp. Plate 9, figs. 5-8 Carapace subquadrate; greatest height at the anterior cardinal a ngle. Dorsal and ventral margins nearly straight; tend to converge at the posterior end. Anterior end broadly rounded, the greates t curvature being just below the middle; upper portion o blique with a distinct rim. Posterior end compressed, narrow, angular; dorsal portion almost straight; ventral portion broadly rounded with about seven spines. Surface of the carapace smooth except for some very subdued echinose spines. Viewed from inside the valve s are shallow and thick. Marginal area broad; broadest at the anterior. Radial pore canals numerous, long, more numerous at the anterior marginal area than at the posterior. Hinge and mus cle scar pattern normal to the genus. Dimen s ion s of holotype no. S-5032, a complete carapace from localit y PM-2 , 50 feet below top: length .799 mm., height .510 mm. This s pecies occasionally occur s throughout the Ocala group. It i s o ften accompanied by Echinocyth ereis okeechobi ensis but could be ea s ily identified from it by its rather smaller surface and smaller s ize. Genus HIRSUTOCYTHERE Howe, 1951 Hirs u tocyth ere spinosa Puri, n. sp. Plate 9, fig. 9; plate 11, figs. 1-8 Carapace medium, elongate, subovate in side view. Dorsal margin n early straight, covered with long, sharp tapering spines ; ventral m argin slightly convex and similarly ornamented with s pines. D o r s al and ventral margins subparallel and tend to c on verge a t the po sterior end. Anterior end broadly rounded, covered \vith a double row of spine s . Posterior end slightly compres sed, narrowe r than the anterior end, subangular, and denticulate; dors al half almo s t straight. Surface of the carapace studded with c lo s el y set, sharp vertically tapering s pines of varying s ize. Viewed

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198 FLORIDA GEOLOGI C AL SURVEY -BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT from ins id e the valv es are s hallow. Marginal area broad, broadest at the anterior. Radial pore canals numerous, wavy, sometim e s branching and thickened in the middl e . Hinge and musc l e scar pattern norma l to the genus. Dimens ion s of paratype no. S-5033 , a right valve from l ocality PM-3, 25 feet below top: length .714 mm. , hei ght .408 mm; bolo type no . S-5037, a complete carapace from localit y PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .69 3 mm., height . 375 mm.; para type no. S-50 38, a comp lete carapace from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .709 mm. , height . 417 mm. This s pecies differ s from H. h or-notina in the l ack of the ventral s pine which i s so prominent in H. hornotina, in having a smaller test with short, rounded spines. This spec i es co mmonl y occurs in the Spiro loc u lina ne1cbeTry ensis faunizone of the C rystal Riv e r formation. Genus PSEUDOCYTHEROMORPHA Puri, n. gen. Type spec ie s : P seudocytheromorpha e longata Puri, n. sp. Carapace elongate, nearly twice as lon g as high. Anterior e n d o bliquel y rounded, denticulate, po s terior end ob liqu ely rounded with a tuft of four ventral spines. Dorsal margin nearly str a i g ht, ventral margin concave in the middle . Surface of the carapace smoot h , pitted or reticulate. Marginal areas very wide; posterior marginal area more so . Marginal pore ca n a l s numerous, lon g a n d str a i ght. Mu sc l e scar s situated in s ubcentral pit, arranged in two lon gitudinal rows, three in eac h row. Middle scar of the ventral row s h ows a tendency to divide into two. Hinge in the right valv e co n s ists of a n anterior crenulate tooth, a po stjacent soc ket and a posterior soc ket connected b y a median bar. Hinge of the left valve complementary . Range: Upper Eocene. Ps eu docytheromorpha e longata Puri, n. s p. Plate 14, figs. 1-8 Carapace elongate, over twice as long as hig h, sulcate, oblong in s i de view. Greatest h eig h t at the anterior cardinal angle. D orsal margin nearly straight, sinuous toward t h e anterio r ; ventral margin s li ghtly concave near the middle. Anterior end denticulate, broadly rounded in the ventral half; ob li que l y rounded in the dor sal half. Posterior end rounded with a tuft of four ventrally situated spines. Surface of the carapace ornamented with 10-1 1 sinuous ribs which are oblique in the anterior half of the carapace

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 199 but swing ventrally in the posterior half. Area between the ribs faintly reticulate. Marginal areas wide, posterior marginal area more so. Marginal pore canals numerous, long and straight. Hinge and muscle scar pattern normal to the genus. Dimensions of the paratype no. S-5052 , a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .668 mm., height .308 mm.; holotype no. S-5053, a right valve from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top : length .693 mm., height .334 mm. This species commonly occurs in the lower portion of the C r ys tal River formation. Ps eudocytheromorpha 1"eticulata Puri, n. sp. Plate 15, figs. 13-16 Carapace elongate, over twice as long as high; greatest height at the anterior cardinal angle. Dorsal margin slightly convex in the middle, ventral margin slightly concave in the middle , otherwise almost straight. Anterior end broadly rounded and finely denticulate, denticulations numerous, small and pointed. Posterior end oblique in the upper half; obliquely rounded in the lower half, with a tuft of seven to eight spines. Surface of the carapace coarsely reticulate, reticulations subeven. Subcentral tubercle and eye spots conspicuous. There is a ventral ridge starting near the anterior ventral margin and disappearing one-quarter the distance from the posterior end. Internal structures not observed s ince most valves are closely articulated. Dimensions of the holotype no. S-5059, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .782 mm., height .391 mm. This spec ies occurs in the lower portion of the Crystal River formation. Ps eudocytheromorpha striata Puri, n. sp. Plate 3, figs. 3-6 Carapace elongate, approximately two and one-half times as long as high, oblong in dorsal view. Dorsal margin slightly concave behind the middle; ventral margin conspicuously concave in the middle. Anterior end broadly rounded, doubly rimmed; posterior end compressed, subacute, denticulate, ventrally, with eight short spines. Surface of the carapace longitudinally striated, about 11-12 well-developed striations visible. Areas between striations reticulate. Internal details not observed since most carapaces are comp lete.

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200 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL URVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Dim en .. io n of holot ype no. -5013 a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 10 feet belo\Y top : length .6 4 mm., height .300 mm. Thi. 8pec ie.. could ea ily be identified by it .. , noticeably triated carapace. ThL ' .. p cie.. commonly occur in the lo\\ er portion of the ry tal Riv r formation. G nu .. JUGOSO YTHEREIS Puri, n. gen. Type .'pecies: Cythe1eis bica1inata Swain arapace .. ubquadrate, elongate. Anterior end broadly rounded, trongly denticulate, \vith a \vell-developed marginal rim; po. terior end com pre ed and ubtriangular, \vith a tuft of .. ix to .. even . pine.'. Dor al margin broken into a jagged line; ventral margin irregularly " avy. urface of the carapace ornamented " ith t"o to three .. trong longitudinal ridge .. ; .. urface bet,veen the longitudinal ridge.. mooth, pitted or r ticulate. Marginal areas broad, \Yith a lipline marginal pore canals numerou lon g and .. traight. Muscle scar pattern con .. L t of three oval car arranged in an arcuate manner; three additional s ar in front. Hinge of the left valv with a mooth anterior tooth, a po tjacent soc k et and a po,'t rior socket connected by a thick bar with the eleme n ts of the anterior hingement. Right valve complementary \vith an terior and posterior teeth imple. Range : Eocene to Recent. Thi: genus i .. ' ba .. ed on J. bicarinata ( \vain) and J. trica ri11ato Puri, n. sp. everal of the e nozoic , p cies from the Gulf coast referred to the genu . Cytlz er i J one .. really belong to thi ge nus. Thi..' genu,' clo,'ely re .. emble B radleya H ornibroo k , but differ fron1 it in ha,ing a . ' mooth anterior and po .. terior e lement of the hinge ment. Bradl eya i.. re tricted to form. with a .:' imple anterior tooth and a denticulate po terior tooth . Jugosocythe1eis a l so exhibit.. H different muscle scar pattern. J ugo. ocytherei bica rinato ( \vain) Plate 12, fig ... 11-2 C11tlu ,ds biccu iuafet Swain, 1946, Jour. Paleontology, vol. 20, p. 37G, pl. 54. fig::,. -a-d; pl. 55, fig--. la-e. ."pecies, originally de .. cribed from the ' Ocala lim es tone • • of P eninsular Florida occur.. in great abundance in the localiti e .. examined by the \\Titer. It o curs throughout the cain group. Din1ensions of the pie iotype no. -5043, a comp lete carapHce from locality PM-2, l 0 feet below top: l ength .7 31 mm. , heig-h t

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 201 .408 mm. ; plesiotype no. S-5044, a left valve from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top : length .684 mm., height .392 mm. ; plesiotype no. S-5045, a left valve from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .850 mm., height .408 mm. J u gosocythereis tricarinata Puri, n. gen., n. sp. Plate 12, figs. 1-10 Carapace elongate, subquadrate; greatest height at the anterior cardinal angle. Dorsal margin nearly straight, ventral margin slightly concave, greatest convexity slightly posterior to the middle. Anterior end broadly rounded, denticulate; posterior end very compressed, angular, with a tuft of eight to ten spines. Surface of the carapace ornamented with three longitudinal ridges. The dorsal longitudinal ridge is sinuous and starts at the posterior cardinal angle and merges into the subcentral tubercle slightly anterior to the center. The ventral ridge is alate posteriorly and runs parallel to the ventral margin and disappears gradually at the anterior end. The median ridge is the least conspicuous of the three and faces into the subcentral tubercle. The three ridges are connected together by an arcuate-transverse ridge at the posterior end. The convexity of the transverse lies toward the posterior end. The subcentral tubercle is very prominent and fine costae radiate outward from the middle. The area between the costae is sunken and gives the appearance of small pits. Larger pits surround the longitudinal ridges. Internal structures are obscured by matrix. Dimen s ions of holotype no. S-5040, a complete carapace fro1n localit y P J -1, bed no. 5: length .567 mm., height .334 mm., paratype no. S-5041, a complete carapace from localit y PM-3, 25 f eet below top : length . 592 mm., height .308 mm. ; para type no. S-5042 , a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 10 feet below top: length .561 mm., h e ight .323 mm. This s pecies is much smaller than J. bica r inata, is less sculptured, and cou ld be identified by its prominently alate ventral rib. This s pecie s occurs throughout the Crystal River formation. J u goso cythereis l e ba n on ensis (Howe) Plate 14, fig s . 13, 14 Cythe?eis? lebanonensis Howe, 1951, Florida G e ol. Survey Bull. 34 , pp. 2 7, 28, pl. 5, figs . 10, 12. This spec ie s was originally de scribed from the upper portion of the A von Park limestone. It also common l y occurs in the Inglis formation. Dimension s of plesiotype no. S-5055, a left valve from the Inglis locality VGL-5: length .878 mm., height .490 mm.

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202 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Subfamily HEMICYTHERINAE Puri, 1953 Genus HEMICYTHERE Sars, 1925 H e1nicythe1"e polkensis Puri, n . sp. Plate 13, figs . 17-20 Carapace subovate, highest in front of the center. Dor al mar gin sinuous, ventral margin concave. Anterior end broadly rounded and distinctly rimmed; posterior end pointed and bearing three ribs. Surface of the carapace reticulate. Reticulate pattern consists of alternating sinuous ribs and pitted furrows. The pit are coarse and subquadrate and are located in the furrow . These alternating pits and furrows converge in front of the middle and merge into the anterior rim. Fourth dorsal rib from the center i s alate, at the posterior, and this ala is joined with the ventral ala by a rib that runs roughly parallel to the posterior margin. Mar ginal areas of regular width except at the venter. Marginal pore canals numerous in both anterior and posterior margin . Hinge strong and developed. Dimensions of the holotype no. S-5050, a complete carapace from locality PM-2, 50 feet below top: length .544 mm., hei ght .340 mm. This species re embles H emicyth ere mota Howe, but i mailer than H. mota and also has a very conspicuous ventral ala \vhich connec t s with the postdorsal ala through a rib. This s pecies occurs in the Crystal River formation. H e micythe1 " e crystal'tiverensis Puri, n. s p. Plate 13, figs. 21-24 Carapace small, subrectangular, highes t at the anterior cardinal angle. Both dorsal and ventral margins sinuous. Anterior end broadly rounded in the lower half, strongly oblique in the upper half. Posterior end strongly compressed and triangular with three well-developed ribs, the median rib being the stoutest. Surface of the carapace reticulate, ornamented with two sets of alternating ribs and pits. The ventral set consists of four to five sinuous ribs v vith alternating pits. The dorsal set is oblique and consists of four to five rows of alternating ribs and pits trending diagonally from the anterior cardinal angle toward the posteroventral marg in. Marginal areas regular in except at the venter \Yhere the margin is sinuated. Hinge normal to the genus. Dimensions of holotype no. S-5051, a left valve from localit y PM-2, 60 feet below top: length .510 mm., hei ght .189 mm.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 203 This species is close to H emicythere lemniscata Howe in its out line, but i s much smaller and has a finer reticulate ornamentation. This spec ie s is common in the Spiroloculina faunizone of the Crystal River formation. It occasionally occurs higher up in the Crystal River formation. H emicythere punctata Puri, n. sp. Plate 13, figs. 1-8; plate 15, figs . 1-4 Carapace medium, subtriangular, thickest near the middle. Dor sal margin very much arched; ventral margin sinuous; convex behind the middle. Anterior end broadly rounded below; oblique above; ventral margin acute, triangular, compressed. Surface of the carapace finely pitted through; three faint striations that roughly parallel the ventral margin present in the lower portion of the ventral half of the carapace. Hinge musc le scars and pore canals normal for t h e genus. Dime n s ion s of paratype no. S-5046, a complete carapace from locality PT-1, highest exposed: length .625 mm., height .439 mm. ; holotype no. S-5047, a complete carapace from locality PT-1, highest exposed: length .642 mm. , height .456 mm.; para type no. S-5056, a left valve from W 38 1, 415-420 feet below top: length .639 mm., height .425 mm. This s pecie s i s similar in s ize to H. conradi Howe and McGuirt but i s finely pitted and larger than H. conradi. H. punctata also lacks the ventral alate ridge that i s so prominent in H. con?"adi. H. mota Howe i s probably the ancestor of this species. H. mota i . keeled ventrally, has a postdorsal ala and i s smaller in s ize. This s pecie s abundantly occurs in the Nummulites vanderstoki fauni zone of the Crystal River formation. H emicythere sculpturata Puri, n. sp. Plate 13, fig s. 9-16 Carapace medium, subtriangular, inflated; thickest behind the middle. Dorsal margin sinuous, ventral margin convex in the middle; anterior end broadly rounded; posterior end compressed and angular. Surface of the car a pace very coarsely reticulate ; pits large, rectangular, moderatel y deep. A sharp ventral ala traverses the carapace parallel to the ventral margin and extends upward near the anterior end paralleling the anterior end about half way toward the middle. Subcentral tubercle very prominent with three to four prominent ridges fanning out from the subcentral tubercle

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204 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT toward the anterior e nd. Hinge, musc le scar s and pore ca n a l normal to the genus. Dimens ion s of paraty pe no . S-5048, a complete carapace f r om P J -1, bed no . 6: length .684 mm., height .425 mm.; h o l otype no. S-5049, a complete carapace from PJ-1, bed no . 6: length . 608 mm., height . 3 75 mm. Thi pe c ie s i s close to H. li enosa Howe , but i s larger i more coarsel y reticulate, and has a more prominent s ub ce n t r al tuber cle and ridges that radiate from it. H. lienosa i s, moreover, more inflated than H. sculpturata. This s pecies i s very common in the Aste1 " ocyc lina fa unizone of t h e C r y tal River formation. H emicythe1e ?nota Howe H e1nicy the1 e 1nota Howe, 1951, Florida Geol. Survey B u l l. 34 , p. 15 , pl. 3, figs. 1 61 8. This s pe c ie s was ori g inall y described from the AYo n Park limesto n e . It also occurs in the Ing li s formation. Subfamily CYTHERURINAE G. W. Mull e r, 189 4 Genus ABSONO CYTHEROPTERON Puri, n . ge n . Type s pecies : A bsonocythe1 "opteron ca1"inata Puri, n. p. Carapace oblong-ovate, in s id e view spear-s h aped . Anterior end broadl y rounded, posterior end compressed and triangular. Dor al margin s li ghtly co n cave, greatest concavity s li ghtly po terior to the anterior cardina l angle. Ventral margin sinuous, greate t con cavity near the middle. Surface of the carapace ornamented w ith tv1o types of concentric, pitted furrows around the ubcentral t u berc le. The anterior and ventral set of concentri c furrovv are arranged with their center near the subcentr a l tubercle. The po -terodorsal set of concentric, pitted furrows are arran ged \ vith t heir center near the subcentra l tubercle. The po sterodorsal set of concentric, pitted furrows are arra n ged with their center a\vay from the posterior cardinal angle. A we ll-d eve lop ed ventral ala run approximatel y parallel to the ventral margin; its greate t height i toward the posterior end. Anterior marginal area \Yide, po -terior marginal area very narrow. Marginal pore canal few, straight and long. Mu sc le scar pattern arranged concentri cally, the dor al set consists of four scar s, three dorsal scar and be l o\v them a fourth; ventral set consi ts of s i x scars, four concentricall y arranged and above them another two, makin g an obl iqu e line with the second posteroventral scar. An additional po terior car comp lete s the pattern. Hinge in the right valve con i t of an

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 205 obscurely denticulate anterior tooth, a postj acent socket and an ob long anterior tooth connected by a median bar. Hinge of the left valve complementary. Name derived from Latin Absonus, adjective meaning di cordant, out of tune, and the generic name Cythe1--opte1on. A bsonocythe1"opte1"0r1 caTinata Puri, n. gen., n. sp. Plate 14, figs. 9-12; plate 15, figs. 9-12 Carapace elongate-ovate, greatest height at the anterior cardinal angle. Dorsal margin slightly concave near the anterior cardinal angle, otherwise nearly straight; ventral margin inuous , s lightl y concave near the middle. Dorsal half of the anterior end obliquely rounded, ventral half very obliquely rounded. Po terior end compressed, triangular and pointed; dorsal half straight; ventral half sinuous. Surface of the carapace ornamented \Yith two sets of concentric furrows, the anteroventral set with four to five furrows with their center toward the subcentral tubercle; the posterodorsal set consists of seven to eight furrows with the center away from the posterior cardinal angle. Ventral ala i s \Ye ll de veloped and contains five to six large, subquadrangular pit alternating with raised, subequal, tubercles . Hinge and muscle scar pattern normal to the genus. Dimensions of the holotype no. S-5054, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 40 feet below top: length .629 mm., height .425 mm.; paratype no. S-5058, a right valve from W-381, 475-480 feet below top: length .595 mm., height .357 mm. This species occasionally occurs in the Crystal River formation. Genus CYTHEROPTERON Sars, 1865 Cythe?"opfe1"0n jansoni Puri, n. sp. Plate 7, figs. 9-12 Carapace small, elongate. Dorsal margin almost straight, ventral margin convex. Anterior end broadly rounded in the dorsal half, protruded in the ventral half; posterior end triangular, acutely pointed. Carapace strongly alate ventrally. Ventral ala marked by two ridges ; the dorsal ridge joins the ventral ridge to\vard the posterior. Surface between these ridges reticulate; pit small, ubquadrate. At the confluence of these ridges near the posterior end there is another ridge that traverses dorsally and then deflects toward the posterior making a loop with the ventral ridge of the ala. A fourth ridge starts near the dorsal margin, traverses obliquely toward the anterior and then deflects toward the venter and joins the dorsal ridge of the ala. Surface of the carapace

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206 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT punctate. Internal details not studied since all specimens are com plete carapaces. Named for l\1r. Andrew R. Jan on, who ably assisted in making the illustrations of this report. Dimensions of holotype no. S-5027, a complete carapace from locality PM-3, 5 feet below top: length . 501 mm., height .217 mm. Thi specie occasionally occurs in the Lepidocyclina-OrthoJJh rag n ti1za faunizone of the Crystal River formation. Subfamily CYTHERINAE Dana, 1852 Genus SPONGICYTHERE Howe, 1951 Spongicyth e1e Puri, n. sp. Plate 11, figs. 9-12 Carapace medium size, elongate, oblong-ovate in dorsal view; greate t height at the anterior. Dorsal margin almost straigh t, ventral margin concave in the middle. Anterior end broad l y rounded; posterior end subacute and compressed. Surface of t h e carapace pitted, pitting pattern concentric, pits subquadrate, coarse . Internal feature not noticed since all specimens are complete carapaces. Dimensions of holotype no. S-5039, a complete carapace from locality VGL-3: length .709 mm., height .405 mm.; para type no. S-4999, a complete carapace from locality VGL-3: length .811 mm., height .439 mm. Thi pecies differs from Spongicyth e r e spissa Howe in its smaller size and compressed posterior. Average length of S. spissa is .845 mm., as against .726 mm. for S. average height of the posterior in S. spissa is . 490 mm.; for S. sis it is .354 mm. S. spissa is subquadrate in shape and has both the anterior and the posterior ends broadly rounded while in S . zcilli s ton e nsis, the posterior end has a tendency toward angulation. Thi species occurs in the Williston formation. Spongicyth e1e caudata Puri, n. sp. Plate 15, figs. 5-7 Carapace medium, elongate, almost twice as long as wide, flattened lightly dorsally and ventrally. Surface of the carapace wit h a thick, sponge superstructure. Dorsal margin sinuous, ventra l margin lightly concave. Anterior end broadly rounded; po steri o r end acute, pointed and compressed. There is a well-developed ven tral ala present. In addition to the ventral ala, there is a con s pic u ou node in the posterodorsal region. The marginal areas are very wide, pore canals numerous. Line of concrescence and the

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 207 inner margin coincide and are sinuous in the anteroventral region. Hinge normal to the genus. Dimensions of holotype no . S-5057, a complete carapace from the Ingli s formation, locality VGL-5: length .777 mm., height .405 mm. This species differs from Spongicythe1'e spissa Howe in the possession of a sharp ventral ala and a blunt node dorsally near the posterior end. Thi s s pecies commonly occur s in the Inglis formation. Genus OCCULTOCYTHEREIS Howe, 1951 Occ u ltocyth ereis delumbata Howe Plate 7, figs. 5-8 Occ ultocythe reis d elumbata Howe, 1951, Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pp. 20, 2 1 , p 1. 1, figs. 7-10. This s pecies could easily be identified by its very small, very co mpressed, angular form with very prominent angular tubercles a t the po sterior cardinal angle. It was originally described from the Avon Park limestone, but it also occurs in the Crystal River formation. Dimensions of plesiotype no. S-5026, a complete carapace from locality PL-1, lowest exposed: length .57 4 mm., height . 253 mm. Suborder PLATY COP A Sars, 1866 Family CYTHERELLIDAE Sars, 1866 Genus CYTliERELLA Jones, 1849 Cytherella sp. Plate 2, fig s. 17-20 Carapace s mall, elongate, greatest length about the middle. Anterior end broadly rounded, posterior end obliquely rounded in the do rsal portion, broadly rounded in the ventral portion. Dorsal margin straight, ventral margin concave . Both val ves with a dis tinct marginal rim. Dimension of plesiotyp e no. S-5011 , a right valve from locality PM-3, 15 feet below top: length .408 mm., height .272 mm. This s pecies occasionall y occurs in the Williston and Crystal River formations. Cytherella s p. B Plate 3, figs. 1, 2 Ca rapace elongate, over twice a s long as wide; valves very s h a l low. Dorsal margin almost straight; ventral margin slightly con-

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208 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT cave in the middle. Anterior end broadl rounded; po terior end oblique. Surface of the carapace mooth, punctate. Dimen ion of pie iotype no. S-5012 a right valve from localit y PM-3 25 feet belo\\ top: length .734 mm. heigh .350 n1m. Genu THERELLOIDEA Alexander 1929 1 lloidea ocalana Puri, n. p. Plate 2, fig . 13-16 arapa e medium elongate, wedge-haped in dor al view. Dor-al margin nearly traight; ventral margin lightly concave in the middle. Anterior end broadly rounded, po teriorly truncated. The entire carapace bounded by a marginal rim. There are two prominent rib on the carapace; the one run rough parallel to the dor al margin in the anterior half of the t e t, then it deflect to ard the venter a it approache the po terior end. The dor al rib i joined toward the po terior cardinal an le by an ob lique rib. The ventral rib parallel the dor al rib and join i near the po terior end through a hort oblique rib, thtl both dor-al and ventral rib make a hairpin loop. There i a hallow ulcu in the ventral half of the carapace. There i a ugge tion of a ... mall upward exten ion of the ventral marginal rim toward the middle of the ulcu . Surface of the carapace finely pitted. Dimen ion of holot pe no. S-5010, a complete carapace from l ocality PJ-1, highe t expo ed: length .718 mm., height .392 mm. Thi pecie differ from Cyth 1 elloid a flo?idana Howe in ha -in two Ion itudinal rib . C. flo1ida11a hoV\ three \\7ell-developed rib . Thi pe ie commo11l occur in the A t rocy c li1za fauniz one of the Cr tal River formation.

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STRATIGRAPHY AND ZONATION OF THE OCALA GROUP 209 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, C. I. 1929 Osttacoda of the Cretaceous of noTt h Texas: T exas Univ. Bull. 2907, pp. 1-137, pls. 1-10. 1933 Shell of the g enus Cytheropteron, and species /?om the CTetaceous of Texas: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 7, pp. 181-214, pls. 25-27. Baird, William 1850 The histo 'ry of the B1itish Entomost1aca: Royal Soc. London, vol. 18, viii, 364 pp., 36 pls. ( Ost1acoda, pp. 138-182, pls. 18-23). Bergquist, H. R. 1942 Scott County fossils; Jackson Fo tamini f e 'r-a and Ost1acoda: Mississippi Geol. Survey Bull. 49, 146 pp., 11 pls. Blake, C. 1933 Ost1acoda: in Biological Survey of the Mt. Desert Region, conducted by William Proctor, pt. V, pp. 229-241, figs. 39, 40. Blake, Daniel B. 1950 Gospo tt Eocene Ost? "acoda from Little Stave C1, eek , A laba1na: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 24, pp. 174-184, pls. 29, 30. Bosquet, J. 1852 D esctiption des Entomost1 , aces fossil es des tettains tettia?'ies de la F Tance et de la B e ligiqu e : Mem. couronnes et Mem. Sav. Etr. Acad., Belg., t. 24, 142 pp., 6 taf. Brady, G. S . 1880 1898 Report on the Ost?acoda d1edged by H.M.S. Challenger du1ing the yea1s 1873-1876: Report Sci. Results Voyage H.M.S. Chal lenger ... Zoology, vol. 1, pt. 3, pp. 1-184, pls. 1-44. On new or imperfectly-known species of OstTacoda, chiefly f?om New Z ealand : Zool. Soc. London Trans., vol. 14, pt. 8, pp. 429452, pls. 43-4 7. Chambers, Jack (see Howe, 1935) Harding, J. P. (see Sylvester-Bradley, 1954) Howe, H. V. 1935 1936 1951 Jones, T. R. 1850 1887 (and Chambers, Jack) Louisiana Jackson Eocene Ost1acoda : Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 5, pp. 1-65, pls. 1-6. (and Law, John) Louisiana Vicksbu1g Oligoc ene Ost1acoda : Louisiana Geol. Survey Bull. 7, 96 pp., 6 pls. New T ertiaty osttacode fauna / Tom Levy County, Flotida : Florida Geol. Survey Bull. 34, pt. 1, pp. 1-32, 5 pls. A monogtap h of the Entomost?' aca of the C1etaceous for?nation of England: Paleont. Soc. London, 1849 (1850), viii, and 77 pp., 4 pls. (and Sherborn, C. D.) Further notes on the TeTtiary E nto?nostraca of England with special 'reference to those /?om the London clay: Geol. Mag., dec. 3, vol. 4, pp. 385-392, pl. 9, pp. 450460. Hornibrook, N. de B. 1952 T et tiary and R ecent ma?, i ne Ost1acoda of New Zealand: New Zealand Geol. Survey Paleont. Bull. 18, 82 pp., 18 pls. Law, John (see Howe, 1936) M'Coy, Frederick 1844 A synopsis of the cha1acte1s of the ca1bonife1ous limeston e fos sils of ! Teland: Duplin Univ. Press, 207 pp., 29 pls. Muller, G. W. 1894 Fauna und des golfe s von N eapel : Mon. 21, Zoo I. Station of Naples, pp. 1-404, 40 pls. Pokorny, V. 1955 ContTi bution to the mo1phology and taxonomy of the subfa?nily H emicythetinae Puri: Acta U niv. Carolinae, Geol., 36 pp., 19 figs.

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210 FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT Puri, Harbans S. 1952a O stracode g enera Cytheretta and Paracytheretta in America: Jour . Paleo ntology, vol. 26, pp. 199-212, pls. 39, 40, 16 text figs., 1 table, 2 charts. 1952b Ostraco d e g enus Cytherideis and its allies: Jour. Pale ontology, vol. 26, pp. 902-914, pls. 1 3 0, 131, 14 text figs., 1 table , 1 chart. 1953a The ostracod e g enus Trachy leberis a n d its ally Actinocythereis : Am. Midland Naturalist, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 171-187, 2 pls. , text figs . A G. 1953b The ostracod e genus Hemicythere and its alli e s : Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 169-179, pls. 1, 2. 1953c Tax ono??tic co??tment on "Ostracoda /?"Om wells in North Ca?" olina, Par t I: Cenozoic Ost?" acoda" by F. M. Swain: Jour. Paleontology, V0l. 27, pp. 750 752. 1954 Contribution to the study of the Mioc ene of the Florida Panhandle : Florida Geol. Survey ,Bull. 36 (1953), pp. 1-345 (Pa? " t 111-0stTacoda, pp. 217-345, pls. 1-17, text figs. 1-14). 1957a Postscript no t e s on the ostr acod e s ubfamily Brachycythe ?'"inae : Washington Acad. Sci. Jour. , vol. 47, pp. 305, 306. 1957b Note s on the ost? ' 'ac od e sub family Cytherideidinae , Puti , 1952 : Wash. A cad. Sci. Jour., vol. 4 7, pp. 306-308. Ruggieri, Giuliano 1952 Nota preliminare sugli Ostr acodi di alcune spiagg ie ad1iatich e : Sars, G. 0. Note Lab. Biologia Marina di Fani, Ann. Inst. Zool. Univ. Bologna, vol. 1, pp. 57-64, 1 text fig. 1865 ( 1866) Oversigt of NoT g es marine Vide nsk. selsk. Oslo (Christiania) For h . , pp. 1 130. 1922-1928 An account of the Crustacea of Norway: Bergen Museum, Bergen, Norway, vol. 9, Crustacea; in 16 parts: Pt. 1, 2 ( 1922) ; 3, 4 (1923); 5-12 (1925); 13, 14 (1926); 15, 16 (1928)' 227 pp., 119 pls. Sherborn, C. D. (see Jones, 1887). Stephenson, M . B . 1936 ' She ll structure of t h e ostracode genus Cytheridea: Jour. Paleon tology, vol. 10, pp. 695 707. Swain, F. M. 1946 Ost?"acoda from the Tertiary of Florida: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 20, pp. 374 383, pls. 54, 55. Sylvester-Bradley, P . C. 1948 The ost? " acod e genus Cythereis: Jour . Pale ontology, vol. 22, pp. 792-797, pl. 122, 1 t ext fig. 1954 Trie b e l, E. 1952 (and Harding, J . P.) Postscript notes o n the ost?acode Trachyleberis: Jour Paleontology, vol. 28, pp. 560-562. Ostracoden der Gat tung Cytheretta a us dem Te?"t i ii r des Main zer B eckens: Notizbl. h ess . L. -Amt. Bodenforsc h, ser. 6, vol. 3, pp. 15-30, pls. 2-5. Van den Bold, W. A . 1950 Miocen e Ost?n acoda f r om V enezue la: Jour. Paleontology, vol. 24, pp. 76-88.

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PLATES 1-15

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Explanation ofPlate 1 All figures X50. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geo logical Survey Collect ion , Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-5-Bairdia ocalana Puri, n. sp., locality PJ-1, bed no. 6. 1-4, holotype no. S-5003, a complete carapace (1, right valve view; 2, left valve view; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral view). 5, paratype no. S-5004, a left valve, inside view. 6-9-Bairdia nagappai Puri, n. sp., locality PM-2, 50 feet below top, holotype no. S-5005, a right valve. 6, external view; 7, internal view; 8, dorsal view; 9, ventral view. l0-13-Bythocypris? gibsonensis Howe and Chambers. 10, locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5006, a right valve. 11-12, loeality PM-3, 35 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5021, a left valve ( 11, inside view; 12, dorsal view). 13, locality PM-3, 35 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-4998, a complete carapace, dorsal view. 212

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 1 213

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Explanation of Plate 2 -All figures X50. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geo logical Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-4-Haplocytheride a blanpi e di (Stephenson), locality PM-3 , 1 5 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5007, a left valve. 1 , externa l view; 2, internal view; 3, dorsal view ; 4, ventral view. 5-12-Clithr ocyth e 1ftide a sagittar ia Howe. 5-8, locality PJ-1, bed no. 5, plesiotype no. S-5008, a complete carapace ( 5, left val ve view; 6, right valve view; 7, ventral view; 8, dorsal vie w). 9-12, locality PM-3, 20 feet below top, ple.siotype no. S-5009 , a c omplete carapace (9, right valve view; 10, left valve vie w ; 11 , dorsal view; 12, ventral view). 13-16-Cythere lloid e a o c ala n a Puri, n. sp., localit y PJ-1, hig hest exposed , holotype no. S-5010, a complete carapace. 13, left valve view; 14, right valve view; 15 , dorsal view; 16 , ventral • VIeW. 17-20-Cyth ere lla s p., localit y PM-3, 15 feet below top, ple siotype no. S-5010 , a right valve. 17, external view; 18 , interna l view; 19, dorsal viev v ; 20, ventral vie w . 214

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 2 215

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Explanation of Plate 3 All figures X50, unless otherwise indicated. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figure 1, 2-Cythere lla sp. B, locality PM-3, 25 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5012, a right valve. , outside view; 2, inside view. 3-6-Pseudocytheromorpha striata Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, holotype no. S-5013, a complete carapace. 3, left valve view; 4, right valve view; 5, dorsal view; 6, ventral • VIeW. 7-10-Loxocon, cha marionensis Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 30 feet below top, holotype no. S-5014, a complete carapace. 7, right valve view; 8, left valve view; 9, dorsal view; 10, ventral view. X100 11-14-Lox oconcha kendrickensis Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 25 feet below top, holotype no. S-5015, a complete carapace. 11, left valve view; 12, right valve view; 13, dorsal view; 14, ventral view. X100 216

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 3 217

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Explanation of Plate 4 All figure X50. Spe imen number to the Florida eo lo ical Surve Collection Tallaha ee Florida. Fi ure gigant e a Puri, n. sp. 1-4, locality PM-3, 5 feet below top, paratype no. S-5016, a complete carapar.e ( 1, left valve view; 2, right valve view; 3, dor al vie ; 4, ventral view). 5-6, localit PM-3 35 feet below top, pat--a t pe no. S-5017 a ri ht alve ( 5 out ide ie'' 6, ide 2 18

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 4 219

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Explanation of Plate 5 All figure X50. Specimen number refer to the Florida Geo logical Surve Collection, Tallaha Florida. Figure 1-8-B?Jachycythe' re gigant a Puri, n. sp. 1-4, locality PM-3, 5 feet below top, holotype no. S-5018, a left valve ( 1, outN ide view; 2, in ide view; 3, dor al view; 4, ventral view). 5-8, lo cal it PM-3, 5 feet below top, paratype no. S-5019, a 1,.io-ht valve ( 5, out ide view; 6, in ide view; 7 dor al view; 8 ventral ie ) . 220

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 5 221

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Explanation of Plate 6 All figures X50 unless otherwise indicated. Specimen number r efe r to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Fiaures l-3-Att locythe ' rid e a Howe, locality VGL-5, ple s iotype no. S-5020, a complete carapace. 1, right valve view; 2, ventral view; 3, dor al view. X100 4, 5, 7, 8-Cushmanidea? Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 10 feet below top, holotype no. S-5022, a complete carapace. 4, right valve view; 5, left valve view; 7, dorsal view; 8, ventral • VIeW. 9-12-Cushmanide a la evi gata Puri, n. sp., localit y PM-3, 15 feet below top, holotype no. S-5023, a right valve. 9, externa l view; 10 , internal view; 11, dorsal view; 12, ventral vie w . zu be?"ensis Puri, n. sp., localit y PM-3, 15 feet below top, holotype no. S-5024, a complete carapace. 13, right valve view; 14, left valve view; 15, dorsal view; 16 , ventral • VIeW. 222

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 6 223

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Explanation of Plate 7 pecimen number refer to the Florida Geological ur e ollection, Tallaha ee, Florida. Fi ure 1-4-Cyth ' r etta al a d r i Ho e and Chamber localit PM-3 45 feet below top, pie iot pe no. S-5025, a complete carapace . 1, left valve view; 2, right valve view; 3, dor al view; 4, ventral view. X50 5-8-0ccultocythe r e is d elu. 1nbata Howe, locality PL-1, lowe t ex posed, plesiotype no. S-5026, a complete carapace. 5, left valve view; 6, right valve view; 7, dor al view; 8, ventra l X100 j a n 011. i Puri, n. p., localit PM-3, 5 feet belov.r top, holotype no. S-5027 a complete carapace. 9, left valve view; 10 , right valve view 11, dor al iew; 12 ventra l view. 100 224

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 7 225

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Explanation of Plate 8 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-3-Cythe1r-etta daytonen/sis Swain, locality VGL-13, plesiotyp e no. S-5028, a complete carapace. 1, left valve view; 2, dorsal view; 3, ventral view. X65 inji1/lma Howe, locality VGL-13, plesiotype no. S-5029, a complete carapace. 4, right valve view; 5, dorsal view; 6, ventral view. X65 7-1 0-E chinocythe1r-eis o keecho biensis (Swain) , locality W -381 , 370-375 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5030, a right valve. 7, external view; 8, internal view; 9, dorsal view; 10, ventral view. X50 226

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 8 227

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Explanation of Plate 9 All figures X50. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-4-Echinocythereis ok eec hobiensis (Swain), locality PM-2, 20 feet below top, plesiotype no. S-5031, a complete carapace. 1, left valve view; 2, right valve view; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral view. 5-8-Echinocythereis nuda Puri, n. sp., locality PM-2, 50 feet below top, holotype no. S-5032, a complete carapace. 5, right valve view; 6, left valve view; 7, dorsal view; 8, ventral • view. I spinosa Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 25 feet below top, paratype no. S-5033, a right valve. 228

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 9 229

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Explanation of Plate 10 All figures X50. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geo logical Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures l-12-T?achylebeTis cit1usensis Puri, n. sp. 1-4, localit y PM-3, 45 feet below top, holotype no. S-5034, a complete carapace ( 1, right valve view; 2, left valve view; 3, ventral view; 4, dorsal view) . 5-8, locality P J -1, bed no. 5, para type no. S5035, a complete carapace ( 5, left valve view; 6, right valve view; 7, dorsal view; 8, ventral view) ; 9-12, locality PL-1, highest exposed, paratype no. S-5036, a complete carapace (9, left valve view; 10, right valve view; 11, dorsal vie\v; 12, ventral view) . 230

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 10 231

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( Explanation of Plate 11 Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Col lection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-8-HiTsutocytheTe spinosa Puri, n. sp., locality PM-3, 15 feet below top. 1-4, holotype no. S-5037, a complete carapace (1, left valve view; 2, right valve view; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral view). 5-8, paratype no. S-5038, a complete carapace ( 5, left valve view; 6, right valve view; 7 , dorsal view; 8, ventral view) . X 50 9-12-Spongicythe're Ivillistonensis Puri, n. sp., locality VGL-3. 9, para type no. S-4999, a complete carapace, left valve view; 10, holotype no. S-5039, a complete carapace, dorsal view; 11, ventral view of the same specimen; 12, right valve view of the same specimen . X60 232

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 11 233

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Explanation of Plate 12 All figures X50. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Ge o logical Survey Collection, Tallaha see, Florida. Figures 1-10-Ju gosocyth e 1'"eis tTica1,.inata Puri, n. sp. 1-4, locality PJ-1, bed no. 5, holotype no. S-5040, a complete carapace ( 1, left valve view; 2, right valve view; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral view). 5-7, locality PM-3, 25 feet below top, paratype 110. S-5041, a complete carapace (5, right valve view; 6, left valve view; 7, dorsal view). 8-10, locality PM-3, 10 feet be low top, paratype no. S-5042, a complete carapace (8, left valve view; 9, dorsal view; 10, ventral view). 11-20-Ju gosocyth e 1'teis (Swain). 11-14, locality PM-2, 10 feet below top, ple iotype no. S-5043, a complete carapace ( 11, left valve view; 12, right valve vievv; 13, dorsal view; 14, ventral view). 15-16, locality PM-3, 15 feet below top, ple iotype no. S-5044, a left valve ( 15, outside view; 16, in ide view). 17-20, locality PM-3, 15 feet below top, ple ioty p e 110. S-5045 , a left valve ( 17, outside view; 18, in ide view; 19, ventral view; 20, dor al view). 234

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 12 235

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Explanation of Plate 13 All figures X50. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Ge o logical Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Florida. Figures 1-8-Hemicyt he?'"e punctata Puri, n. p., locality PT-1, t exposed. 1-4, para type no. S-5046, a complete carapace ( 1, left valve view; 2, right valve view; 3, dor al view; 4, ventral view). 5-8, holotype no. S-5047, a complete carapace (5, ventral view; 6, dor al view; 7, left valve view; 8, right valve view). 9-16-H emicythe1'"e sculpt1trata Puri, n. sp., locality PJ-1, bed no. 6. 9-12, paratype no. S-5048, a complete carapace (9, left valve view; 10, right valve view; 11, dorsal view; 12, ventral view). 13-16, holotype no. S-5049, a complete carapace ( 13, right valve view; 14, left valve view; 15, ventral view; 16, dorsal view) . 17 -20-H emicythe?'e JJOlkensis Puri, n. p., locality PM-2 , 50 feet below top, holotype no. S-5050, a complete carapace. 17, right valve view; 18, left valve view; 19, dor al view; 20, ventral . v iew. 21-24-H e micythere Puri, n. p., locality PM-2, 60 feet below top, holotype no. S-5051, a left valve. 21, external view; 22, internal view; 23, dorsal view; 24, ventral • VIeW. 236

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 1 3 237

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Explanation of Plate 14 All figures X50, unless otherwise indicated. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallaha ee, Florida. Figures 1-8-Pseu docythe?/)omorJJha elonga a Puri, n. gen., n. sp., PM-3, 15 feet below top. 1-4, paratype no. S-5052, a complete carapace ( 1, right valve view; 2, left valve view; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral view). 5-8, holotype no. S-5053, a right valve (5, external view; 6, internal view; 7, dorsal view; 8, ventral view) . 9-12-Absonocythe?/topt er o n carinata Puri, n. gen., n. sp., locality PM-3, 40 feet below top, holotype no. S-5054, a complete carapace. 9, left valve view; 10, right valve view; 11, dorsal view; 12, ventral view. 13-14-Jugosocythereis l e banon ensis Howe, locality VGL-5, plesiotype no. S-5055, a left valve. 13, outside view; 14, in ide view. X60 238

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 14 239

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Explanation of Plate 15 All figures X50, unle ss otherwise indicated. Specimen numbers refer to the Florida Geological Survey Collection, Tallahassee, Flor ida. Figures 1-4-H emicythe1e punctata Puri, n. sp., locality W -381, 415-420 feet below top, paratype no. S-5056, a left valve. 1, external view; 2, internal view; 3, dorsal view; 4, ventral view. 5-7-Spongicythe'le caudata Puri, n. sp., locality VGL-5, bolotype no. S-5057, a complete carapace. 5, ventral view; 6, left valve view; 7, dorsal view. X60 9-12-Absonocythe?opte'l'On carinata Puri, n. ge n. , n. sp., locality W -381, 4 75-480 feet below top, para type no. S-5058, a right valve. 9, external view; 10, internal view; 11, dorsal v1ew; 12, ventral view. 13-: 6-Pseudocythe1omoTpha 1eticulata Puri, n. gen., n. sp. , locality P M-H, 15 feet below top, holotype no. S-5059, a com plete carapace. 13, left valve view; 14, right valve vie\v; 15, ventral view; 16, dorsal view. 240

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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN THIRTY-EIGHT, PLATE 15 241

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---A bsonocythe1"0]Jt ero?t A id a nta1gode1ttata Bai1dia ?taga]:>]Jai Bai1 dia ocala?ta B giga11t ea Bythocy]Jris? gibsoTte?zsis Clith1ocythe1id a sagittaJia C1tsh1nanidea ? C1tsh1na1tidea la igata sp. Cythe1ella sp. B Cyth r e lloid ea ocala 1a Cyth ?'opte?o?t janso?ti Cythe1 tta al . a1tde1i Cytheretta daytone11.si Cytheretta irt. fir11ta E ch i11 ocut h 1 is -Tabl 1 STRATIGRAPHI DISTRIBUTIO OF THE OSTRA ODA OF THE OCALA GROUP lng li Williston Crystal River -----_ ... -Wil l. 1 Will. 2 CR-1 CR-2 CR-3 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx \ _ xxxx xxxx ' xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx CR-4 I CR-5 xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -

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I 1 1 J T

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Tabl 1 STRATIG PHI ISTRIBUTIO r OF THE OSTR ODA OF THE 0 ALA G OUP (Continued) Ingli Williston Cry tal River -Will. 1 Will. 2 R-1 -2 R-3 -4 R-5 p 1tclocyt It J'0111 01'1Jita t 1ia ta xxxx XXX 1JOngicyth eJe t u illi ton e n . 'lS xxxx XXX ]Jo1zgicyt he 1 caztdata XX" X XXX xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -T1achyl be1i . JiSl xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -X tol b e 1i Z1tbe r n . l xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx -e tol b • g U , Jl t 1'' l l"l xxxx

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I DEX rumbers in bold face type indicate figure . A b o nocyth e r opteron carin a ta, 204, Clay County, w e ll ections, 77 239, 241 li t hrocyth eridea agittaria, 190, 215 A labamina obtu a, 12 , 165 olumbia County, well sections, 7 lachua ounty ribrogloborotali a mari elina, 126, 127, Outcrop ection , 5 -60 167 W e ll ection s , 76 rystal Rive r formation Ammo b aculite h oc kleyen i , 102 Amu ium b e d, 37 mmo pi r a ta? levyen i , 102, 103, 1 5 1 C h ert boulde r s , 33 mphi tegin a pinare n i c o d eni, 132, C l assi fication, 24, 28 1 6 1 D efi n i t i on, 31 n g ulogerina oca l ana, 1 21 Di tribution, 38 n o m a lin a bilaterali , 130 Downdip facies, 3 n o m a lin a cocoaen i , 130 Fauna, 36, 37 A r c h a i a w i t hl acooc h e n i , 142, 143, Faunizone , 3 1 , 4 15 1 Solution pipes, 32 A rtic ulin a zube r e n i , 109 , 1 5 1 Surface occurrence , 39 A t e r ocyclina aft' . • \ . n a a u e n i , 142, Thickness, 37 16 1 Type locality, 35 A terocyclin a a mericana, 140, 171 Cry tal River lime tone (formatio n ) A ter ocyc lin a chipo l e n i , 141 Bumpno e lime tone member, 33 A , ter ocycli n a faunizone, typical sedi-ry tal River Rock ompany quarry, n1ent, 56 35 . \ t e r ocyc lin a georgiana, 140, 1 7 1 Cru shing Plant, limeston e, 75 A t e r ocyc lin a m a r ianne n i , 141, 1 7 1 Cummer Lime and Manufacturing A t e r ocyc lina-piro laea vernoni fauniCompany pits, 70, 72, 7 3 zon e, 48, 55 u hm a nidea? gunteri, 193, 223 A t e r ocyc lin a vaughani, 141, 1 7 1 u hmanide a laevigata, 194, 223 A ul ocythe rid e a m a rgod enta ta, 191, 223 yc l amina s p., 27 Bairdia nagappa i , 1 89 , 2 1 3 Cyth e r e ll a sp., 207, 2 1 5 Bairdia oca l a na, 1 9, 2 1 3 yth e r e ll a sp. B, 207, 2 1 7 Baker ounty, well ection , 76 ythe r e ll o idea oca l a na, 20 , 215 Bill Ru h's pit, 64 yth e retta a lexande ri , 195, 225 Bitubulogenerina v i ck burgen , 119, ytheretta dayton e n i , 195, 227 161 yth e retta infirma, 195, 227 Bo li v in a a dv e na, 11 9, 16 1 yth e r opte r o n j a n o ni , 205, 225 Bo li vina jack o n e n i , 119 Dade County, well ections, 7 Brachycyth e r e g igantea, 1 92 , 2 1 9, 221 Dell l\fine (Mayo), 68, 70, 7 1 Bradford County, well ection s , 76 Denta lin a coop e r e n i , 112, 153 Brevard ounty, well ecti o n , 76, 77 De ntalin a vertebra li albatro 112, Buda pit, 60, 62 1 53 Bulimina j ac k o n e n i , 11 8 D eSoto County, well ections, 78 Bulimine ll a s p., 118 D ictyoconu coo k e i , 105 B ythocypri ? gibs on e n i , 190, 2 1 3 D i cocyclina ( A t e r ocyclina) zone, 4G Ca lhoun County, w e ll sections, 77 Di corbi bulla, 122, 16 5 Ca magueyi a p erplexa, 122, 1 65 D i corbi oca l a na, 123 '' a m erina" jack o n e n i zo n e, 4 6 D i c orinop i gunte r i, 12 3, 169 Ca idulina cf. . m oo d y e n i , 121 165 Dixie County, well secti o ns, 78 ibi c id e ll a p., 163 ' Dixie Limestone Product Company ib i ci d e cf. . coop e r e n i , 1 3 1 pit, 70, 73 ib i cide cf. . m i i ippie n i , 131 Duval Co n truction on1pa n y quarry, Cibi c id e cf. . yazooen i , 1 3 1 panorama of, 63 ibi c id e mi i ippie n i ocal anu Duval Cou nty, we11 ections, 7 1 3 1 , 169 Dyoci b icide sp., 131 ib i c id e p e ud oungeri anu , 130, 131 Ech i nocytherei n u da, 197, 229 Citru ou nty okeechobien i , 196, Outcrop section , 34 227, 229 \V e ll ection s , 77 245

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INDEX (Cont.) Elphidium s p., 13 3 Epi tomaria emimarginata, 128, 169 Eponide buden i planata, 126 Eponide cocoaen i , 126 Eponide jack onen i , 126 Eponide ocalana, 126 Fabiania cuben i , 128, 129, 163 Gadsden County, \veil sections , 79 Gadsden limestone , 34 Gaudryina gardnerae, 103, 147 Georgia, Bacon County, well sections, 86 Georgia, Decatur County, well sec tions, 86 Gilchris t County Outcrop sections, 60, 64, 65 Well sections, 79 Globorotalia cocoa en i , 127, 163 Globorotalia cry talriveren i , 127, 167 Globulina gibba, 116, 117, 155 Globulina gibba globo a, 117 Gordon Philpot's quarry, 60, 64 Guttulina irregulari , 116, 155 Guttulina picaeformi , 116 Gyroidina cry talriveren i , 124 , 163 Gyroidina na auen i , 125, 169 Gyroidina oldanii , 125 Gyroidina pringfieldensi , 125, 163 Hantkenina alabamensis, 127, 128, 169 Haplocytheridea blanpiedi, 190, 215 Hardee County, well sections, 79 Hemicythere crystalriveren is, 202, 237 Hemicythere mota, 204 Hemicythere polken i , 202, 237 Hemicythere punctata, 203, 237, 241 Hemicythere culpturata, 203, 237 Hernando County, \veil sections, 79 Hetero tegina ocalana, 1 36, 157, 159 Highlands County, \vell sections , 79 Hillsborough County, w e ll sections, 79, 80 Hir utocythere pi no a, 197, 229, 233 Holmes County, well sections, 80 Inglis formation D e finition, 24 Fauna,25, 26,27 Faunizo nes, 48 Type locality, 24, 25 Typical sediments, 48, 49 Inglis member, foraminiferal fauna, 21 Jackson County Outcrop sections, 65, 68 Well sections, 80 Jackson formation, 19 Jackson group, 19, 22 Jackson stage, 17, 20 Jefferson County, well sections, 80 Jugo ocytherei bicarinata, 200, 235 J ugo ocythereis lebanonens i , 201, 239 Jugo ocytherei tricarinata, 201, 235 K endrick pit, 72, 73 Lafayett e County Outcrop sections, 68, 70 W e ll sections, 80 Lagena acutico ta, 115, 153 Lagena laevi , 115, 153 Lake County, well sections , 80 , 81 Lama rckina s p., 1 3 0 Larger Foraminifera, notes on, 41-4G L eo n County, well sections, 81 Lepidocyclina fragilis faunizone , 34 Lepidocyclina mortoni, 138 Lepidocyclina (N ephrolepidina) chap-eri, 138, 139 Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) chaperi faunizone, 48, 57 Lepidocyclina ocalana, 1 3 7, 173 , 175 Lepidocyclina ocalana attenuata, 137, 173, 175 Lepidocyclina ocalana floridana, 137, 173, 175 Lepidocyclina ocalana p eudoma rgi nata, 1 38 , 173, 175 Lepidocyclina-P eudophragmina faunizone,48, 52, 53,55 Lepidocyclina s p. (small noded), 1 39 Levy County Outcrop sections , 70 Well sections , 81 Liebu ella byramensis turgida, 104, 105, 149 Linderina sp., 143, 161 Lingulina ocalana, 114, 115, 155 Little Stave Creek, 19 Foraminifera fauna, 19 Zon e A, 19 Zon e B, 1 9 Lituonella sp., 106 Loxoconcha kendricken i , 192, 217 Loxoconcha marionens i s, 191, 217 Madison County, well sections, 8 1 Manatee County, well sections, 81 Marginulina cf. M. karreriana, 11 2, 155 Marginulina fragaria texasen i , 111 , 112, 155 Marianna limestone , 17 Marion County Outcrop sections, 70, 72, 73 W e ll section s, 81 Martin County, well section s, 82 Ma ilina cf. M. jack onensis, 1 08, 151 Miliola cf. M. axorum, 107, 108, 151 Miliola jack onen i s, 108 "Miliolitic limestone", 17 Mi i ippiana monsouri, 123 , 165 Monroe County, \veil section s, 82 Moodys Branch formation, 20, 31, 33 Inglis member, 20 246

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INDEX (Cont.) Williston member, 20 Moodys Branch marl "member", 19 Nassau County, well sections, 82 Neoclavulina robusta, 106, 107, 149 Newberry Corporation pits, 58, 59 ?Nodosaria ewaldi, 11 3, 153 Nodosaria fissicostata, 11 3 Nodosaria latejugata, 113 Nonion advenum, 132, 133, 163 Nonion planatum, 133, 161 Nonionella sp., 133, 163 Nummulites guayabalensis, 43 Nummulites vanderstoki, 43, 133, 134, 157 , 159 Nummulites vanderstoki-Hemicythere faunizone,48, 54,55 "Nummulitic beds", 17 Ocala group, 22 Cave1n, 32 Classification, 22 Faunizones, 48 Larger Foraminifera, 41 Localities, 57-76 Nummulites, and Operculinoides, comparison of septa, 45 Co type locality, 24 Zonation, 46-57 Well section s, 76-87 Ocala limestone Age, 17, 18 Historical review, 17 Lower member, 1 8, 22 Upper member, 1 8, 22 Zonation, 46 Ocala limestone (restricted), 20, 22 Foraminiferal fauna, 21 Ocala, Marion County, 22 Occultocythereis delumbata, 207, 225 Okaloosa County, well section s, 82 Okeechobee County, well sections, 82 Operculina mariannensis, 134, 157 Operculinoides ftoriden s is, 134 135 157, 159 ' ' Operculinoides jacksonens i s, 136 Operculinoides jacksonens is faunizone 3 1, 48, 50 ' Operculinoides mariannensis zone 46 Operculinoides moodybranchensis' 135 157, 159 ' ' Operculinoides moodybranchensis faunizone, 48,50, 52 Operculinoides moodybranchensis (Gravell and Hanna), 43 Operculinoides ocalanus, 134 157 Operculinoides vaughani, 135 Operculinoides willcoxi, 135, 136, 157, 159 Orange County, well sections, 82 "Orbitoides limestone", 17 Osceola County, well sections, 82 Pachuta formation, 20 Palm Beach County, well sections, 83 Paracytheridea scorpiona, 191 Pasco County, well sections, 83 "Peninsular limestone", 17 Periarchus lyelli ftorid anus-Plecto-frondicularia? inglisiana faunizone,48,50 Pinellas County, well sections, 83 Planorbulina sp., 143 Planularia truncana, 115, 155 Planulina cocoaensis, 129, 169 Planulina kendrickens is, 129, 169 Plectofrondicularia? inglisiana, 118, 151 Polk County, well sections, 83, 84, 85 Polymorphina sp., 116 Preface, 7 Pseudocytheromorpha elongata, 198, 239 Pseudocytheromorpha reticulata, 199, 241 Pseudocytheromorpha striata, 1 99, 200,217 Pseudogaudryina cf. P. jacksonensis, 103, 104 , 147, 149 Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) citrensis, 140, 173, 175 Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) ftintensis, 139 Pseudophragmina (Proporocyclina) ftoridana, 139 Putnam County, well sections, 85 Pyrgo cf. P. inornata, 110 Quarry near Bell, 60 Quarry near Springfield, 65, 67 Quinqueloculina newberryens i s, 10 7, 151 Quinqueloculina ocalana, 107, 1 51 Reddick, pit at, 70 Reussella eocena, 119, 120 Reussella sculptilis, 120, 163 Robulus alatolimbatus, 110 Robulus arcuatostriatus, 111 Robulus danvillensis, 110 Robulus dumblei, 111, 155 Robulus gutticostatus, 110 111 Robulus limbosus, 110 ' Robulus cf. R. propinquus 111 153 Rotalia cushmani, 122, 167 ' Rupertia ftoridana, 99, 161, 169 Sam Smith's quarry, 65, 68, 69 Santa Rosa County, well sections 85 Saracenaria hantkeni, 113, 153 ' Saracenaria italica, 114 153 Saracenaria moresiana,' 114 Sarasota County, well sections 85 Seminole County, well sections' 85 Shubuta formation, 20 ' Sigmomorphina jacksonensis, 117 155 Siphonina jacksonensis, 129, 163 ' 247

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INDEX ( ont.) S . M. W a ll quarry , 58, 61 phaerogyp ina globula, 14 3, 173 , 175 pirolina coryen i , 14 2, 155 piroloculina bidentata, 108, 151 piroloculina newberryen i , 1 09, 151 piro l oculi n a newberryen " i faunizone,48 , 52 pirolocu lin a em inolen i , 1 08, 109, 151 pongicythere caudata, 206, 207, 241 pongicythere willi tonen i \ 206, 233 St. J ohn Cou nty, well secti o n , 85 tomatorbina kendricken i , 1 23 , 1 24, 16 5 Suwannee County Outcrop sectio n s, 72, 7 5, 7 6 W e ll sec t ions, 85 Suwannee Lime R ock Co mpan y, rush i n g Plant, 75 S u w annee Lime R ock Company quar-ry, 75,76 Tay lor County, well ecti o n , 85 Textularia adalta, 99 , 147 Textularia dibollen i , 1 0 1 , 1 02, 14 7 Textularia h O\\ ei, 1 00 , 1 0 1, 117 Textularia ocalana, 1 00, 147, 149 Textularia recta, 1 00, 117 Textularia ubhauerii, 1 02 Textularia c f. T. h oc kleyen i , 1 0 1, 147 Textularia triangulata, 101, 147 , 1 49 Textulariella barretti , 105, 149 Trachyleberi. citru e n i s , 196, 231 248 Trifarin a bradyi advena, 1 2 1, 161 Types, depo sitory of, 10 vigerin a cf. . cookei, 1 2 1 vigerina gardnerae, 1 20 vigerin a glabran , 1 20 , 161 vigerin a jack onen i , 1 2 0 Valvulina ftoridana, 1 0 4 , 151 Valvulina ocalana, 1 04 , 149 alvulineria jack o nen i , 1 25 alvulineria te ant, 1 25 ? Verneuilina propinqua, 103 Vernonina tuberculata, 1 24, 165 V o lu s i a County, well secti o n s , 85, 6 Wakulla County, well section s , 86 Walton County, well sections , 86 Washing t o n County , well sections, 8() Willi ton formati o n D efi ni t i o n , 2 Fauna,29,30 Faun izo n e , 4 Type locality, 29 Typical rock specim e n, 5 1 Willis t on, L e v y County, 29 W i ll i ton member, foram i niferal fauna,21 \Vithlacoochee River, exposures on, 2 4 \ Vy li s quan y , 70 Xe .. toleberi gunteri, 195 Xe toleberi zuberen i , 1 94, 2 23 Yazoo c lay " m e mber", 1 9 Yazoo gToup, 20 Zube r pit, p a n o rama of, 23