Biennial report

Material Information

Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
1991-1992[17th report]
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
Miami metropolitan area ( local )
Suwannee River, FL ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
Gulf of Mexico ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Mineral resources ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
AJG7269 ( ltuf )
22342552 ( oclc )
001754280 ( alephbibnum )
sn 90001622 ( lccn )
1052-6536 ( issn )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report (Florida Geological Survey)

Full Text






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State of Florida
Department of Environmental Protection
Virginia B. Wetherell, Secretary

Division of Resource Management
Jeremy A. Craft, Director

Florida Geological Survey
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief

Biennial Report 17

Paulette Bond

Published for the
Florida Geological Survey

ISSN: 1052-6536

Letter of Transmittal

Florida Geological Survey
August 1993

Governor Lawton Chiles, Governor
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Tallahassee, Florida 32301

Dear Governor Chiles:

The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Management, Department of
Environmental Protection (DEP), herein publishes its Biennial Report for 1991-92. This
report summarizes the professional activities and contributions made by the Survey staff
during this two year period. Most research results are traditionally reported in our various
publication series. These reports are listed here, along with a summary of extended
services and other activities of the FGS.

During 1991-1992, FGS was part of the Florida Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
with Mrs. Virginia B. Wetherell as its Executive Director. In January, 1993 Mrs. Wetherell
left to become Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (DER).
This document was prepared during the first half of 1993, while Mr. Don Duden served
as Acting Executive Director of the DNR. In July, 1993, the proposed merger of the DNR
and the DER became effective creating the DEP, headed by Mrs. Virginia B. Wetherell,

Respectfully yours,

Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief

Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
Functional Organizational Chart
This chart reflects the organization of the FGS as of December, 1992.


Lib. Asst.

Oil and Gas


- Adm. Asst.


Geological Investigations

Asst. State Geologist

Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology

Asst. State Geologist

-- Pet. Eng. Secretary
(Tootle) (Collier)

-- Engineer Core Driller
(Hargrove) (Morrill)

---Res. Asst. Driller Asst.
(Vacant) (Phillips)

Field Office





4 Research -

9 Research

- Petrologist Env. Geol.
(Arthur) (Lane)

- Geologist 2 Research
(Vacant) Assistants

- Geochemist

- Sedimentologist

Sed. Petrology


Lab. Tech.


Ft. Myers
Field Office

Env. Geol.

Econ. Geol.

Env. Geol.




Frontispiece ...........................
Forew ord ... .... ... .... .... .... .... ..
Introduction .... ... ..... ... ..... ..... .
The Role of the State Geological Survey in Envir




Public Service Activities ..........

ronmental P

search and Regulatory Programs ..................
Geological Investigations Section ..................
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology Section .
Oil and Gas Section ...........................
sonnel Changes ..............................
a rd s . . . . . . . . . .
ditional Program s ..............................
Drilling Program ..............................
Research Library ..............................
Geologic Sample Collections ......................
D ata Files . . . . . . . . .
Com puter Services .............................
Student Assistantship Program ....................
Continuing Education ...........................
operative Program s .............................
Radon Assessment Cooperative Program .............
Florida Radon Research Program ...................
Geological Assessment of the Coastal Wetlands Processes
Florida Big Bend .............................
Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Program Publications ...
U.S. Minerals Management Service .................
Sarasota County Intermediate Aquifer System Core Drilling
Cooperative Program ..........................
Southwest Florida Data Collection Cooperative Project ...
Near-surface Geology and Hydrogeology of Myakka River S
Cooperative Program ..........................
Leon County Ambient Ground Water Project ...........
Wakulla Springs State Park Seismic Station ...........

. . . . .
protection .........
. . . . .

. . . . .
. . . .

. . . .
. . . .

of the

and Analysis

tate Park
. . . . .

Suwannee River Water Management District Cooperative Program
Southwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program
South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program .
The Lower Floridan Aquifer System in Brevard County ..........
Budget Sum m ary ........................ ..............
FG S Budget .......................................
Tribute to Parker Turner, by Frank R. Rupert ....................

. . .


Publications ................................
M ap Series ..............................
B ulletins . . . . . . . .
Inform ation Circulars ........................
Special Publications ........................
Biennial Reports ...........................
Fo rum . . . . . . . . .
Leaflets . . . . . . . . .
Posters . . . . . . . . .
Open File Reports .........................
Open File Map Series .......................
M miscellaneous ............................
Papers by Staff Members in Outside Publications ...
Talks by Staff Members to Professional Groups .......
Additional Professional Activities ..................
Sym posia ...............................
M meetings .. ... .. .. ... ... .. ... ..... .. .. ..
W workshops ..............................
C conferences .............................
Fieldtrips . . . . . . . .
Personnel Inform ation .........................
Professional Staff ..........................
Clerical and Technical Staff ...................
Student Research Assistants ..................
Professional Research Associates ..............
A ppendix I .................................
Abstracts for Selected Presentations and Publications
Papers by Staff in Outside Publications ...........
Poster Presentations ........................
Talks by FGS Staff Members to Professional Groups .


The past two years have been busy ones for the staff of the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS). Ongoing population growth in Florida, with its associated development has
created an increased demand for FGS services. Requests for assistance from local
governments, industry, and private citizens have increased as expected. Generally, the
FGS supplies various types of earth-resource information, data, and interpretative services
as input into land-use planning and environmental protection decision-making processes.
The FGS has been greatly aided in data collection efforts by its 1991 acquisition of a new
and upgraded Failing 1500 truck-mounted drill rig, (Frontispiece). This purchase was
supported by the DNR in recognition of geology's vital role in the environmental protection

The FGS has maintained cooperative relationships with the Department of Environmental
Regulation (DER) and Florida's five regional water management districts. Two reports
completed in conjunction with DERs Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program have
been added to the FGS Special Publication Series. The first volume reviews multiple
aspects of Floridas hydrogeologic framework while the second presents background
hydrogeochemical parameters.

Nineteen mineral resource maps have been completed by staff in a publication series
aimed specifically at planning applications. Fifteen Leaflets are now available in an FGS
series which describes geology and geomorphology of selected state parks. The basic
research program at the FGS continues to supply stratigraphic and hydrogeologic data
along with interpretations for a wide variety of end-applications. This information is made
available through various FGS publications and is also presented by staff members in
various professional settings, such as guest lectures, poster presentations, and
conference presentations.

The State Geologist, Walt Schmidt, is an active member of the Florida Board of
Professional Geologists. He has served on several of the board's committees and
chaired the "Endorsement/Provisional License Committee". In addition, Dr. Schmidt is the
current Secretary/Treasurer of the Association of American State Geologists. This group,
composed of the chief executives of the fifty state geological surveys, was instrumental
in the passage of the National Geologic Mapping Act of 1992. This legislation has been
designed to materially assist each state in conservation of its natural resources, location
of materials essential to maintenance or replacement of its infrastructure and protection
of its environment.

Although FGS has identified the need for a near-shore geology program which would
assist with coastal (both submerged lands and uplands) land-use decisions, the Survey
has not been successful in winning state funding for this purpose. The FGS has however

implemented joint working agreements with the U.S. Minerals Management Service and
the U.S. Geological Survey. These cooperative studies involve near-shore research along
the central east coast of Florida and along the Big Bend area of the Gulf Coast.
Cooperative efforts such as these with federal agencies, have provided a cost effective
means of accomplishing coastal research within the FGSs current staffing and funding
constraints. The data, with accompanying interpretation, may then be supplied to the
planning and regulatory communities.

FGS Research Programs were selected to receive a Certificate of Commendation from the
1992 Davis Productivity Awards panel of judges. In awarding the Commendation to the
Survey it was noted that FGS staff increased their output of applied geologic reports by
more than 100% during the last five years. Seventy-eight such reports were produced
in 1987-1991, as opposed to thirty-seven which were published during 1982-1986. The
number of agency assistance programs also increased from one prior to 1985, to several
dozen over the last five years.

The Oil and Gas Section has been revising the six chapters of administrative rules which
govern oil and gas exploration and production. Three workshops have been held, and
a final draft of the revised rules has been submitted for final adoption. Field staff have
spent much of their time overseeing numerous plugging and abandonment operations
which have been going on in south Florida. Staff has also overseen a contract project
designed to assess the pre-1974 abandoned oil and gas wells for potential impact to our
ground-water resources. This work should be completed in mid-1993.

The FGS looks forward to several upcoming events. The proposed consolidation of the
Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Environmental Regulation
promises broadened horizons for the FGS. FGS hopes that the National Geologic
Mapping Act of 1992 will be implemented smoothly and anticipates submitting a proposal
for funding. FGS looks forward to the annual meeting of the Southeastern Section of the
Geological Society of America which will be held in Tallahassee in April, 1993 and co-
hosted by the Florida State University Geology Department and the FGS.


The Role of the State Geological
Survey in Environmental

The dramatic increase in Florida's
population and our legacy (in actuality a
national legacy) of early environmental
carelessness have created a situation
where regulation has come to be syn-
onymous with environmental protection.
Environmentally oriented disciplines
which have no direct regulatory function
are increasingly seen as superfluous in
times of economic uncertainty. In
Florida, regulatory responsibility is
distributed among numerous agencies,
ranging from those which serve the entire
state, to very small agencies dedicated to
the needs of individual municipalities.
These agencies, from the largest and
most complex to the smallest, are estab-
lishing staffs of hydrogeologists to
address their specific needs. It is
important, therefore to clarify the role of
the Florida Geological Survey (FGS)
nonregulatory programs in the environ-
mental protection process.

Ideally, environmental protection
refers to regulatory and nonregulatory
activities that exist in symbiotic
relationship, having as their goal the
oversight and protection of the natural
environment. Thus regulatory actions are
most effective when predicated on ade-
quate data and informed interpretation.
Conversely, the sorts of problems which
spawn the need for regulation, suggest
practical research projects to associated
nonregulatory groups. Historically, the
FGS has been involved in a mixture of

projects, some oriented toward environ-
mental geology (long before that sub-
discipline existed) and some toward
basic research (especially in
paleontology). In recent years, basic and
applied research at the FGS have be-
come focused on projects whose results
are directly applicable to a variety of envi-
ronmental problems. Although two of
three major groups within the FGS have
no regulatory responsibility, all three
groups within the survey (Geological
Investigations, Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology, and Oil and Gas
Sections) are very much a part of the
larger environmental protection process.

It is difficult to describe the
environment (in its extended sense) con-
cisely. Subsurface rock units (aquifers)
contain and transport water while other
layers (confining units) act to prevent or
retard water movement. Materials at the
earth's surface may either allow water to
immediately move into underlying aqui-
fers or function as shallow aquifers if they
are isolated by impermeable layers from
underlying permeable lithologies. The
earths surface itself is a mosaic of rock
units, soils, and surface water bodies
which give rise to a rich variety of wet-
lands and uplands, each with charac-
teristic floral and faunal communities.
Water is continuously cycled between the
earth and its enveloping atmosphere via
precipitation and evaporation and tran-
spiration. The environment is thus a
complex group of systems which are in-
extricably linked. An understanding of
the nature of individual systems, their
interconnections, and the processes
which link them is an essential (though
admittedly, nonregulatory) aspect of the
environmental protection process. Within

the Florida Geological Survey, the
Geological Investigations and Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology
Sections divide their time between a
variety of short- and long-term projects
with direct implications for environmental
protection. The production of a new
geologic map for Florida is a priority pro-
ject for the Geologic Investigations
Section. Draft versions of some counties
are already being used in the prediction
of radon hazard potentials. Special
publications treating the environmental
geology of high-growth areas in Florida
are being prepared by the Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology

Numerous human activities impact
the environment necessitating its pro-
tection. Water is obtained for domestic
use from surface- and ground-water
sources. Waste is disposed into the
shallow ground, incinerated, or even
injected into deep saline (and hence
unusable) aquifers. Soils support agri-
cultural activities while subsurface
aquifers provide a source of water for
irrigation. Mining provides mineral
resources for a large variety of human
needs. Oil and gas are produced from
deep subsurface formations. The
relentlessly expanding human population
continues to encroach on wetland and
upland environments, displacing and
sometimes destroying floral and faunal
communities which inhabit them. These
activities, while essential, have the
potential for great damage to the envi-
ronment and necessitate the regulatory
aspect of environmental protection. The
Oil and Gas Section of the Florida Geo-
logical Survey regulates all aspects of
exploration and production of oil and gas

in Florida.

Perhaps the Florida Geological Sur-
vey's most significant role in the envi-
ronmental protection process is in the
area of prevention. Preventative health-
care in humans is increasingly recog-
nized as a vital and cost effective alter-
native to the treatment of disease. Anal-
ogously, preventative measures provide
a highly desirable alternative to the
extensive and expensive clean-up pro-
cedures required for remediation of sites
which have suffered environmental
damage. Permitting is the regulatory arm
of prevention in its environmental sense.
In order for permitting to act as an
effective preventative tool, it must be
complemented by a strong nonregulatory
arm. The research products of the FGS
have been historically, and remain, an
essential part of nonregulatory envi-
ronmental protection in Florida. These
products are in demand both by regu-
lators and the citizens and consultants
who comprise their regulated consti-
tuency. Through its published research
products, the FGS disseminates un-
biased, quality geologic information which
is directly applicable to a wide variety of
environmental problems. It is especially
significant that this information is
available for the cost of shipping and
handling to counties and municipalities
which require it, but lack the necessary
financial resources to generate such
studies themselves.

In its ideal sense, environmental pro-
tection is a collection of many related
regulatory and nonregulatory tasks.
Geologic research and its published
results are a vital part of these tasks.
Small groups dedicated to specific regu-

latory and permitting problems play an
important part in the solution of those
problems. Such dedicated groups do
not, however, work in a vacuum. Their
consideration of a problem begins with
the evaluation of published accounts of
an area's general geology. The Florida
Geological Survey has studied Florida
and published the results of its work
since 1907. As more data becomes
available, the geologic "picture" is
continuously refined. The types of
studies undertaken have changed as the
needs of Florida have evolved. Pub-
lications of the FGS are widely available
and form the basis for many environ-
mental consultant's reports. Publications
and consultation with FGS geologists are
also available to the private citizens of
Florida, forming the core of a long-term
continuing education effort. The FGS
has been a part of the tradition of envi-
ronmental protection in Florida since
1907 and looks forward to its role in
future efforts.

Public Service Activities

The FGS has mandates in two major
areas related to the geology of the state.
Its first mandate is related to the ac-
quisition and subsequent utilization of
fundamental geologic data. In order to
provide a sound basis for decisions re-
lated to the development and conserva-
tion of Florida's natural resources, the
resources must be clearly defined and
understood. Thus the Survey is man-
dated to collect and interpret geologic
data which then becomes the basis for
published reports. It is the responsibility
of the Survey to store and maintain sam-
ples and data derived from them, so that
the information remains accessible to

various government agencies, industry,
environmental consulting firms, and other
interested parties. The value of the FGS
sample library cannot be overestimated.
Cores and cuttings have been archived
by the Survey since approximately 1921.
This gradual acquisition of subsurface
samples has allowed FGS staff and asso-
ciated researchers to continuously build
their understanding of Floridas geology,
as additional data has become available.
In addition, cores and cuttings from a
single well will sustain multiple studies
under the current FGS system in which
research proposals are carefully
screened to guard against duplicative
efforts or poorly conceived projects.
Based on the expense of drilling, cores
and cuttings from the FGS sample library
are literally irreplaceable.

The Survey's second mandate
addresses issues related to the oil and
gas industry. It is the responsibility of the
FGS to insure the conservation and pru-
dent utilization of the state's oil and gas
resources. At the same time Floridas
fragile natural environment must be pro-
tected from the impacts associated with
the development of these resources. In
order to accomplish these potentially
conflicting goals, the oil and gas ex-
ploration and production industries are
regulated through a series of statutes,
rules, permits, and inspections.

In order to effectively carry out its
mandated responsibilities, the FGS must
communicate with its scientific, industrial,
and lay constituency. Research results
are routinely available through the Sur-
vey's various publication vehicles in-
cluding Map Series, Reports of Investi-
gation, Bulletins, Information Circulars,

Special Publications and Open File
Reports. The Florida Geology Forum,
published twice yearly, includes brief
descriptions of current research, service,
and continuing education activities in the
state. Research results are also pre-
sented in talks prepared for professional
conferences and meetings, field trips,
university colloquia, and meetings of
interested laymen.

The FGS publishes two series which
are planned primarily to function as
educational devices. The poster series is
designed to illustrate various aspects of
Florida's geology in a way that is both
visually appealing and educational. In
1991 the FGS published "Floridas Fossil
Mammals", a poster which illustrates cer-
tain of the states fossil mammals for
which complete skeletons have been re-
constructed. A second poster, "Florida's
Hydrogeologic Environment", shows the
hydrologic and geologic factors which
link a Florida community to its natural
environment. In addition, FGS publishes
a leaflet series which contains descrip-
tions of the general geology of Floridats
most (geologically) interesting state parks
and recreation areas and is distributed
both through the FGS publications office
and through individual parks.

Direct requests for information on
numerous subjects including well data,
sample availability, regional geology,
regional hydrogeology, and paleontology,
among others, are handled by staff ge-
ologists. These requests are screened in
terms of geographic area and topic so
that they may be referred to the most
appropriate staff member. They originate
from state and federal government agen-
cies, consulting firms, universities, and

earth science related industries as well as
concerned citizens.

FGS staff members make presenta-
tions on various aspects of Florida ge-
ology when requests for this service are
received. Staff members have presented
talks on a variety of topics during the
1991-1992 biennium, including rocks and
fossils, dinosaurs, karst geology, envi-
ronmental geology, and Florida geology.
These talks are adapted to audiences
ranging in educational background from
preschool to high school students. Staff
also handles requests for presentations
at the university level. Topics have
included Florida geology, activities of the
Florida Geological Survey, and speleo-
genesis related to local karst features.
Talks on Florida's geology and its envi-
ronment are also presented to various
civic organizations on request.

The staff of the FGS Oil and Gas
Section routinely hold public hearings
and workshops. These meetings are
advertised in the Florida Administrative
Weekly and local newspapers to insure
that interested persons may plan to at-
tend. The activities of the Oil and Gas
Section are discussed more completely
in the section of this document which
deals specifically with the oil and gas


Geological Investigations

The Geological Investigations Section
is involved in a wide range of research

projects covering both onshore and off-
shore areas of Florida. New statewide
geologic and geomorphic maps are in
preparation. A geologic map depicts the
distribution of geological units throughout
the state and provides an invaluable aid
in the environmental decision-making
process. Such a map provides first
approximation solutions to numerous
environmental and resource manage-
ment related problems. The geomorphic
map delineates the distribution of
landforms across the state. These two
maps provide a powerful tool in definition
of problems relating to ground water,
waste disposal, geological hazards, and
mineral resources.

Geologic Investigations Section geol-
ogists are currently working on additional
applied and basic research projects.
Geologic mapping is part of a coopera-
tive effort with the United States Geo-
logical Survey designed to assess the
local potential for radon gas accumu-
lation. The relationship between
uranium-series isotopes and organic
deposits is being examined in an attempt
to better understand the role of organic
deposits in the distribution of metals in
the surficial environment of Florida. The
geologic framework of the Floridan
aquifer system in southeastern Florida,
as it is related to the underground
injection of waste-water is the focus of a
recently initiated project. Lastly, the Plio-
Pleistocene stratigraphy of peninsular
Florida is being examined in order to
clarify the geologic history for that part of
the state.

The section also consults with other
government agencies since the regional
and local geology of a given area are

fundamental in the evaluation of numer-
ous environmental problems. Geologic
Investigations handles inquiries regarding
aquifer recharge and contamination, geo-
logic hazards, geologic mapping, and
problems related to community planning
and development. The group prepares
detailed lithologic logs for wells which are
on file with the FGS. This information is
added to the Surveys computerized data
base which currently contains logs for
approximately 3,600 wells. This data
base and the programs designed to
manipulate it are currently used by other
governmental agencies and a number of
private firms.

Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology Section

Florida ranks first in the nation in the
production of phosphate rock and sec-
ond in the production of peat, crushed
stone and masonry cement. The Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology
Section maintains communication with
the mineral industry in Florida and pub-
lishes biennial status reports related to
industry activity. During the 1991/92
period, the section also completed an
updated industry directory and corre-
sponding map of Florida mineral pro-

Petroleum production is not as
significant as non-fuel mineral production
in Florida, however, petroleum is
produced from a total of 18 oil fields.
Ten fields are productive from the Lower
Cretaceous Sunniland Formation in south
Florida; eight are productive from the
Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation
and Norphlet Sandstone in the western
panhandle of Florida. The Mineral

Resources and Environmental Geology
Section prepares biennial reports on
Florida's petroleum production and
exploration. The biennial report covering
1990 and 1991 was completed in 1992.

Another aspect of the sections work
with non-fuel minerals involves the
preparation of county mineral resource
maps. County mineral resource investi-
gations were initiated to assist counties in
the preparation of this aspect of the com-
prehensive land-use plans mandated by
the state legislature. The goal of these
studies is to identify potential mineral
resource areas and present the results in
a format appropriate for use by Florida's
planning community. The results are
published as 1:125,000 scale maps with
supporting text and figures. The maps
present the major mineral commodities
for use as a guide to resource location.
The supporting text discusses the
county geology and geomorphology as
well as specific mineral commodities
accompanied by inset maps and geol-
ogic cross-sections depicting the near-
surface sediments. A total of 16 of these
county investigations have been com-
pleted; three of these, Clay, Union and
Bradford Counties, were mapped and
published during the 1991/92 biennial
period. An additional three, Hamilton,
Suwannee and Columbia Counties, were
also completed and are in press.

Nearly 900 new residents move to
Florida each day. This phenomenal
population growth stresses the state's
environment and its resources. Geologic
information is essential for environ-
mentally responsible land-use planning
and resource management. Recognizing
this, the Mineral Resources and Envi-

ronmental Geology Section began a
series of special environmental reports
that target specific rapidly-growing urban
areas. These reports integrate cultural,
climatological, geological, and hydro-
logical data to demonstrate the role of
geology in land-use planning. Graphics
are used to present data and geologic
concepts in a format that can be readily
used by the lay-public, scientists, and
planners. These documents are also
conceived as an aid in water manage-
ment and public policy decision-making.

The first two reports in this series
were published during 1991-1992 cover-
ing the cities of Ocala and Gainesville.
Environmental geology and hydrology for
the cities are discussed, emphasizing
topics related to water resources. The
hydrologic cycle, karst geology, surface
water, and underlying aquifer systems
are analyzed in detail, clarifying the
relationships between them. Recom-
mendations for protection of these
resources through appropriate land-use
planning are also presented.

The FGS also recognized the need to
establish a marine and coastal geology
program which would generate resource
maps of offshore areas, as well as
submerged lands (bays and estuaries).
Investigations of geological processes
affecting coastal environments would also
be included in such a program. These
studies would complement the state's
ongoing efforts to control coastal erosion
and manage fragile coastal environments.
To date, the FGS has been unable to
obtain state funds to initiate such a

However, in 1990 the FGS entered

into a five-year cooperative agreement
with the United States Geological Survey
to begin an assessment of the geological
processes affecting Florida's Gulf coastal
wetlands. Extensive data has been col-
lected and analyzed for the Aucilla and
Steinhatchee River estuaries. It is
anticipated that the study will be ex-
panded to include other coastal wetlands
in the "Big Bend" area of Florida's Gulf
coast. The wetlands in this area are
relatively unspoiled and their preservation
depends, in part, on an understanding of
the geological processes affecting them.
Further information concerning this study
is provided in the Cooperative Programs
section of this report.

Oil and Gas Section

The Oil and Gas Section regulates
hydrocarbon exploration and production
in Florida and within state waters pur-
suant to Chapter 377, Florida Statutes
and implementing Rules 16C-25 through
30, Florida Administrative Code. The
section's primary responsibilities are
conservation of oil and gas resources,
correlative rights protection, maintenance
of health and human safety, and environ-
mental protection. These concerns are
addressed when permit applications are
reviewed and are enforced by field in-
spection. The sections main office is
located in Tallahassee and field offices
are located near producing fields in north
(Jay) and south (Ft. Myers) Florida. The
section's key activities include permitting
geophysical, drilling and transport opera-
tions, inspecting operating wells and
geophysical field activities, tracking
activities by the use of production and
other reporting forms, enforcing financial
security requirements, and maintaining a

database on approximately 1300 wells.

Five drilling permits were issued in
1991. Three wildcat wells, all of which
were dry holes, were drilled in northwest
Florida. The state's first horizontal well
permit was issued for a south Florida
prospect, but the well was never drilled.
One saltwater disposal well was permit-
ted and successfully drilled in northwest
Florida. In January, 1991 Shell Western
E&P Inc submitted an application to the
U.S. Bureau of Land Management for a
permit to drill an exploratory well on the
Miccosukee Indian Reservation in Bro-
ward County.

Seven drilling permits were issued in
1992. Four wildcat wells, all of which
were dry holes, were drilled in northwest
Florida. One horizontal well and one
conventional wildcat well were drilled in
south Florida. Both were dry holes. Five
offshore drilling applications were filed in
1992. At the end of the year, the Oil and
Gas Section had submitted a recommen-
dation of denial to the Governor and
Cabinet for all five applications.

Four geophysical permits were issued
in 1991. Three of the surveys consisted
of 14 miles of conventional seismic data
collection in northwest Florida. The
fourth survey consisted of gravity
measurements at 434 stations along 133
miles of survey lines in south Florida.

Four geophysical permits were issued
in 1992. Two of the surveys consisted of
101 miles of conventional seismic data
collection in northwest Florida. Only 54
miles of the 101 permitted survey miles
were completed. One seismic survey of
42 miles using vibratory energy sources

was permitted for south Florida. One
permit for collecting gravity, magnetic,
and seismic data in the Gulf of Mexico
was granted. The offshore permit
allowed for 4665 gravity/magnetic
stations and 1450 miles of seismic testing
using an explosive energy source. None
of the offshore geophysical surveying
was underway at the end of 1992.

The Oil and Gas Section completed
draft revisions to the Oil and Gas Rules,
Chapters 16C-25 through 30, Florida
Administrative Code, which were pre-
viously modified and adopted on June 5,
1989. Revisions reflected changes to the
statutes made during the 1989 and 1990
legislative sessions and input received at
public workshops held October 1990 and
March 1992. At the end of 1992 internal
processing of the rule revisions was near
completion and formal adoption of the
rules was expected shortly thereafter.

The Big Cypress Swamp Advisory
Committee is an ad hoc committee set
up by the Governor and Cabinet to in-
spect drill sites and access routes in the
Big Cypress Swamp of south Florida.
The Committee recommends any neces-
sary changes resulting from environ-
mental concerns in order to mitigate
drilling impacts in sensitive areas. The
Committee is chaired by the State Geol-
ogist and meets quarterly if there are
sites to be inspected. During 1991 and
1992 the committee did not meet or con-
duct field inspections because the FGS
received no applications for permits to
drill in areas considered by committee
members to be environmentally sensitive
or controversial.


A number of personnel changes have
occurred in the FGS during the 1991-
1992 biennium. Mitch Covington, nanno-
fossil paleontologist with Geological
Investigations Section, left the FGS in
July, 1992 in order to pursue paleon-
tologic consulting. Connie Garrett, a
licensed Professional Geologist, joined
the Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section in July, 1991. She was
hired to be part of a project funded by
the United States Geological Survey
aimed at the geological assessment of
coastal wetland processes in Florida's
Big Bend. Joan Ragland, a geologist
with Oil and Gas Section, left the FGS in
April, 1991 to join the Florida Department
of Environmental Regulation. She
worked in mine reclamation application
review, oil and gas permit application
review and also served as an administra-
tive assistant. Ed Garrett, a geologist,
joined Oil and Gas Section in August,
1991 in permit application review.
Barbara McKamey, secretary for Oil and
Gas Section, left the FGS in April 1992.
Scott Hoskins, head of the Oil and Gas
Jay Field Office, left the FGS in June,
1992 to join the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency. Ed Gambrell, a
mechanical engineer, joined the FGS in
November 1992 as head of the Oil and
Gas Jay Field Office. Brenda Brackin, a
secretary at the Oil and Gas Jay field
office, left the FGS in September 1992.


The FGS Research Program received
a Certificate of Commendation in the
1992 Davis Productivity Awards Compe-
tition. These awards are part of a

privately funded program to Florida
Government's "unsung heros in the
trenches" whose work measurably in-
creases productivity and promotes inno-
vation. Survey staff were commended
for increasing their output of applied
geologic reports by more than 100% in
the last five years. The number of
agency assistance programs also in-
creased dramatically in that time.

Frank Rupert, Geologist II, received a
Sustained Exemplary Performance award
from the FGS parent agency, the Florida
Department of Natural Resources (DNR).
Frank is the FGS representative to a
number of professional groups including
the National Association of Cave Diving
and the Florida Paleontological Society.
His special interest in streamlining
response time for sample requests has
led to a more efficient system for
handling these inquiries. Frank was
previously chosen as the 1988 FGS
Employee of the Year.

Peter Dobbins, FGS Administrative
Assistant was chosen by his co-workers
as the FGS Employee of the Year for
1991. Pete was commended by FGS
staff for his dedication to high pro-
fessional standards, cooperation, and
constant commitment to excellence. He
received a certificate and plaque at the
annual FGS Employee of the Year lunch-
eon. In addition, Pete was also selected
by Florida DNR as its Employee of the
Month for September, 1992.

Steve Spencer, a Geologist II with the
Mineral Resources and Environmental
_Geology Section, was chosen as the
DNR Employee of the Month for January,
1992. He coordinates the Section's

mineral resources mapping program. His
ability to design, plan, and implement
research projects has long been recog-
nized by the FGS.

Walt Schmidt, Chief of the FGS, was
recently elected Secretary-Treasurer and
Executive Committee member of the
Association of American State Geologists.
He was also invited to chair a session
titled "Radon Occurrence in the Natural
Environment" at the International Sym-
posium on Radon and Radon Reduction
Technology held in Minneapolis, MN.

Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist
for Geological Investigations was recog-
nized by the Florida Section of the
American Institute of Professional
Geologists at their annual meeting with
the presentation of their "Hero of Industry
Award". This award acknowledges
Tom'b numerous contributions to the
understanding of Floridas Miocene
lithostratigraphy and paleogeography as
they relate to phosphate deposition. He
was also elected President of the
Southeastern Geological Society for

Frank Rush, Lab Technician I, was
chosen by his fellow employees as the
FGS Employee of the Year for 1992.
Frank manages the FGS sample reposi-
tory, a "library" of rock and sediment
samples which covers the entire state
and is essential to the mission and future
of the FGS. Frank also assists the
drilling and augering programs and in the
maintenance of the Scanning Electron
Microscope. Frank's attitude, work ethic,
and team spirit set a standard of
excellence for his fellow employees both
in the FGS and the DNR.


A number of additional programs are
critical to the mission of the FGS. These
programs benefit Survey staff as well as
other state and federal government agen-
cies, industrial representatives, consulting
groups, academic researchers, and inter-
ested citizens. The Surveys drilling pro-
gram acquires cores from various loca-
tions around the state for in-house pro-
jects as well as for cooperative projects.
The Geologic Sample Repository con-
tains storage space for core and cutting
samples, allowing this valuable informa-
tion to be preserved and cataloged in a
systematic fashion. Lithologic and
geophysical logs are filed for ease of
retrieval at the Gunter Building in
Tallahassee. The Surveys computer
system is used to handle the growing
volume of information associated with
geological research and oil and gas
regulation. Currently, most FGS drafting
services are handled by computer.
FGSs research library allows its users
the advantage of computerized database
searches along with traditional library
services geared specifically to geology.
FGS supervises an active student assist-
ant program in which qualified graduate
and undergraduate students assist staff
members in various on-going research
programs. Continuing education at the
Survey, while offering staff some ad-
vanced educational opportunities, has
suffered from continuing budget cut-

Drilling Program

The FGS maintains an active scientific
drilling program. The state is charac-

terized by very low topographic relief and
data obtained from cores is essential to
the understanding of subsurface strati-
graphy. The FGS took delivery of a new
truck-mounted Failing 1500 drill rig late in
1991 (to replace the old drill rig in service
since 1963). The drill rig is deployed on
a full-time basis, to various parts of the
state (depending on research needs),and
is operated by a fully licensed driller with
one assistant. During 1991 and 1992, 28
cores were drilled by the FGS, ranging
from 34 to 701 feet in depth, for a total
cored length of 4980 feet.

Two auger rigs, one truck mounted,
the other trailer mounted are available for
staff use. Both auger rigs are capable of
hollow stem augering as well as solid
stem. Sixty auger holes were drilled in
11 counties during 1991 and 1992.
Depths of auger holes range from 3.5 to
53.5 feet for a total sampled length of
2017 feet. Drilling procedures with the
auger rig are modified to provide the
highest quality samples possible.

Research Library

The Research Library is an integral
part of FGS research and regulatory
programs. It provides access to basic
research materials including books, state
and federal documents, photographs and
periodicals totaling approximately 31,500
volumes. Materials are collected on
various aspects of geology, mining and
mineral resources, environmental studies,
hydrology and related topics. The library
has one of the largest and oldest map
collections in the state of Florida with
over 16,000 maps, including a rather
large collection of 19th century maps.
The library has access to GEOREF, an

international computerized bibliographic
information retrieval system. In addition
to the holdings available at the Survey's
facility, the library participates in a
nationwide Interlibrary Loan Network
through which the staff has access to
other special and academic collections.
The library cooperates with other libraries
through various networking groups on
the local, state and national level. The
librarian participates in the activities of
the Florida Library Association, Pan-
handle Library Access Network, Geo-
science Information Society and South-
eastern Map Librarians. In February,
1992, the Panhandle Library Access
Network awarded the use of a 286 PC to
the FGS Library for a period of one year.
This computer was used to begin the
Bibliography of Theses and Dissertations
on Florida Geology.

The library is used by the public,
private consulting firms, and various
governmental agencies. Circulation is
restricted to Survey staff and personnel
of other state agencies and the Florida
State University Geology Department. In
addition, library materials are available to
libraries throughout the United States via
the Interlibrary Loan System. Many of
the FGS publications are essential to
geologists studying for the Florida Pro-
fessional Geologist Licensing Exam which
is given twice a year. The library is
active in providing these publications and
other information to those studying for
the exam. The library also provides
detailed information on the Surveys 558
published documents and reports and
oversees the distribution of those docu-
ments presently in print. During 1991-
1992 this included over 2,700 requests
for 28,500 documents. In addition, 250

various depository libraries around the
world received some 4,000 documents to
update their depository collections.

Divers have, for a number of years,
provided the FGS with underwater cave
survey maps and video tapes of several
cave conduit systems statewide. These
materials provide non-diving geological
staff with important insight into the cave
network locations as well as the size,
shape and hydrogeology of subaqueous
caves in Florida. Most of these volun-
teered materials are stored in the
National Association for Cave Diving
(NACD) Archives, maintained in the FGS
research library.

Geologic Sample Collections

The FGS maintains separate collec-
tions of well and surface outcrop
samples. The well sample collection
contains approximately 16,900 sets of
samples from research wells as well as
water and oil wells. Most wells are
represented by sets of drill cuttings. Six
hundred and sixty seven wells are repre-
sented by continuous core or core sam-
ples (a total of 148,000 feet). The
sample repository facility occupies about
9,500 square feet, with 17,655 square
feet of shelf space.

A collection of approximately 4800
outcrop samples and mineral specimens
is maintained by the FGS at its head-
quarters in the Gunter Building. These
samples are cross indexed by formation,
lithology, county and location. The
collection is referred to as the "M-Series."
The M-Series is particularly valuable
given Florida's high rate of growth and
development. Surface exposures of

critical lithologies have become inac-
cessible to researchers with the con-
tinued proliferation of roadways,
shopping centers, parking lots and high-
rise housing.

The Survey also maintains a paleon-
tological reference set. This invertebrate
fossil reference set contains over 20,000
specimens of macro-fossils and over
10,000 micro-fossil specimens and is
located at the Gunter Building. The
collection of Florida typical and/or guide
fossils consist of mollusks, echinoids,
ostracodes, foraminifera, bryozoans,
corals, nannofossils and diatoms.

Data Files

Samples from wells which are stored
at the FGS sample repository are indexed
by accession number, county, and sec-
tion, township, and range location.
Lithologic logs, drillers logs, and
information sheets which correspond to
these wells are filed by county and
accession number in a series of looseleaf
binders (the "Green Books"). Information
from the "Green Books" is gradually
being transferred to the Surveys com-
puterized data base which currently
contains data from approximately 3,558
wells. Computer services are discussed
more completely in the following section
of this report.

A file of geophysical logs contains
information for approximately 4,800 wells.
Many of these wells have corresponding
lithologic samples available and are
assigned FGS accession numbers. Geo-
physical logs represented include elec-
tric, (normal, lateral, SP) natural gamma,
caliper, fluid resistivity or conductivity,

temperature, single point resistivity,
acoustic velocity, fluid velocity, neutron
(porosity) and gamma-gamma (density).
In addition, complete suites of geophys-
ical logs accompany most permitted oil
and gas wells.

Computer Services

The primary focus of computer ser-
vices at the FGS is its inventory of geo-
logic logs corresponding to wells ar-
chived at the Survey's sample repository.
The database contains lithologic descrip-
tions of cores and cutting samples, as
well as formational picks. Computer
coding of well data began in 1972. The
database currently contains 66 county
files with approximately 3,558
descriptions. An analogous database of
outcrop descriptions was begun in 1987.
It currently contains descriptions of 50
outcrops from 27 Florida counties. The
software system written to manage and
use this database is called the Well Log
Data System (written by Dr. Robert
Lindquist, GeoSys, Inc., Gainesville,
Florida). Two additional computer data-
bases are maintained by the FGS Oil and
Gas Section. These include an inventory
of oil and gas well data (approximately
1,284 permits) as well as an inventory of
about 151 geophysical permits. In-house
and commercial software packages allow
for sorting and tracking of the data in
both databases.

Valuable computer services are avail-
able to FGS staff through the library.
Using DIALOG information service, the
FGS librarian conducts searches for ref-
erences to geologic and hydrologic
literature on the GEOREF, GeoAbstracts,
Water Resources Abstracts, and Science

Citation Index. The librarian can also
contact the LUIS on-line system. This
system accesses the on-line library
catalog for Florida State University and
other State University Systems (SUS)

Student Assistantship Program

The FGS sponsors an active student
assistantship program which is beneficial
for students and staff geologists. Quali-
fied graduate and undergraduate stu-
dents in geology obtain work experience
in a professional setting while staff
geologists, in turn, are assisted by knowl-
edgeable and motivated individuals. The
assistantship program was begun in
1974 and has run with minor interrup-
tions since that time.

Currently, most students are em-
ployed by contract and grant funded
studies. These students conduct re-
search tasks while under the supervision
of professional geologists on the Survey
staff. As the program has developed, the
FGS and several Water Management Dis-
tricts have provided funding for assist-
ants. Additional funding sources include
the U.S. Minerals Management Service,
the Florida Department of Environmental
Regulation (DER) and the United States
Geological Survey (USGS).

Continuing Education

Opportunities for continuing educa-
tion available to staff at the FGS dwindled
in 1991-1992 as a result of budgetary
cutbacks. The state of Florida continues
to maintain a unique program in which
tuition is waived for state employees en-
rolling in job-related university courses on

a space available basis. A number of
Survey staff members have taken advan-
tage of this program, enrolling in various
courses related to their work.

Attendance at technical short courses
has been severely reduced. Two staff
members attended a field course on
Environments of Modern Carbonate
Deposition. Two other staff members
attended a one-day workshop on
Environmental Auditing and Compliance.
One staff member attended both an
AutoCAD workshop and an additional
workshop titled "Environmental Appli-
cations of Shallow Seismic Reflection.
FGS employees attended a workshop
dealing with sexual harassment in the
workplace. Staff members were encour-
aged to attend courses on first aid, CPR,
and the emergency use of oxygen. Staff
members with appropriate research
interests attended a boating safety class.
Supervisory staff attended Total Quality
Leadership Orientation. The Department
of Natural Resources offered a number of
training sessions related to various
internal administrative procedures.
These were attended by appropriate FGS
staff members.


The FGS participates in cooperative
programs with federal agencies, other
state agencies and water management
districts. In addition, FGS has worked
with Sarasota County and the USGS in a
project aimed at the improved under-
standing of the intermediate aquifer
system. The FGS and administrators of
Myakka River State Park have cooper-
ated on a project which will result in a

reconnaissance study of the geology and
hydrology of the park. The FGS also
drilled a shallow well in conjunction with
the University of Florida, at Wakulla
Springs State Park, in order to allow
installation of a seismic station. FGS is
ideally suited to these collaborative
efforts since it routinely collects and
processes information pertinent to many
geologic subdisciplines on a statewide
basis. This extensive in-house data base
is immediately available as the foun-
dation for various joint studies. Staff
geologists design projects in conjunction
with their collaborators, hire research
associates and supervise student assist-
ants. Each project is continually
monitored by the staff geologist who is in
charge of it.

Two projects aimed at defining heavy-
mineral resources off east coastal
Florida have been undertaken in conjunc-
tion with the United States Minerals
Management Service. FGS has been
actively involved in cooperative projects
with the Suwannee River Water Manage-
ment District (WMD), Southwest Florida
WMD, and South Florida WMD. Suwan-
nee River WMD contracted with the FGS
to provide maps related to the inter-
mediate aquifer system as well as a map
of selected mines and quarries in the
district. Southwest Florida WMD has
contracted with the FGS for the prepa-
ration of lithostratigraphic and hydro-
geologic cross sections throughout a
twelve county area. South Florida WMD
and the FGS are cooperating on a pro-
ject in which an FGS geologist is super-
vising the description of cores and cut-
tings from the area and their entry into
the FGS Well File Data Base. In addition,
FGS and the DER have jointly published

the results of investigations associated
with the Ambient Ground Water Quality
Network. The FGS has also completed
a study of the highly permeable, but
nonpotable portion of the lower Florida
aquifer system, as well as its confining
layer, in Brevard County.

Radon Assessment Cooperative

The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has completed a draft
version of a map of the United States
delineating areas of elevated radon
potential. The geologic data for that
map was prepared by the USGS and re-
viewed by each states geologic survey
through an agreement with the Asso-
ciation of American State Geologists
(AASG). The FGS and Floridas State
Geologist, Walt Schmidt, played an active
role in the review of data for Florida. Dr.
Schmidt has continued to be active in
this program in his capacity as Chairman
of the AASG Environmental Affairs
Committee. In this position he has
served as coordinator and contract
manager for the AASG and the 50 states
in their interactions with the USGS and
the EPA.

Florida Radon Research

The FGS conducted a geological
mapping program in conjunction with the
Department of Community Affairs' (DCA)
Florida Radon Research Program. The
cooperative effort included the FGS,
USGS, DCA, University of Florida, Rogers
& Associates Engineering and other
contractors. This program examined the
radon hazard potential and the asso-

ciated geology in 12 northern Florida

The near surface geology of twelve
counties (Alachua, Citrus, Clay, Duval,
Flagler, Lake, Levy, Marion, Naussau,
Putnam, St. Johns and Volusia) was
mapped by Survey geologists. The
resulting geologic map was used in
conjunction with indoor radon readings,
soil radon measurements and other data
to arrive at a "radon hazard potential" for
the area. The goals of this project were
the development of a strategy for
assessment of radon hazard potential
and the assignment of hazard ratings to
the counties included in the study area.

Geological Assessment of the
Coastal Wetlands Processes of
the Florida Big Bend

The FGS has entered into a cooper-
ative study with the USGS to carry out
geological research on the Florida's "Big
Bend" coastal wetlands. This study
began in 1990 and is continuing, contin-
gent on available funding.

The primary focus of this investigation
is to identify the geologic parameters and
processes affecting Florida's Gulf coastal
wetlands. More than 20 percent of the
nation's wetlands are located in Florida.
Many of these are situated along
Florida's west coast, specifically the
coastal marsh belt of the "Big Bend"
area, between Jefferson County and
Citrus County. These wetlands represent
an invaluable natural resource; serving as
essential spawning, feeding, and growth
areas, and migratory routes for many of
the nation's living marine resources.

The majority of the coastal area of
the Big Bend is relatively undeveloped
and represents an unspoiled ecosystem.
However, today these wetlands are
threatened by a potentially rising sea
level and increased residential develop-

Preservation of these wetlands de-
pends, in large part, on an understanding
of the geological parameters and proc-
esses affecting their fragile ecosystems.
To date, few studies have addressed
these parameters and as a result, inves-
tigative efforts for Year 1 focused on the
Aucilla River estuary and adjacent coastal
marshes, a relatively undisturbed, pristine
marsh environment. Data from this area
provides essential ambient baseline infor-
mation which can be compared to data
from studies of wetlands experiencing
greater development pressures. The ini-
tial site study involved a program of ex-
tensive bottom sampling, coring and
sediment analysis. These analyses in-
cluded total organic, clay mineralogy,
granulometrics, radioactive dating and
data interpretation.

Year 2, the current year, involves a
similar study of the Steinhatchee River
estuary. The study has been enhanced
by the acquisition of a 24' shallow draft
boat, 90HP jetdrive outboard motor and
power winch. This equipment is ideally
suited for taking samples in the shallow
estuarine environment.

Ground-Water Quality
Monitoring Program

The Florida Legislature's Water
Quality Assurance Act of 1983 mandated

the establishment of a Ground Water
Quality Network to aid in the prediction
and detection of contamination of
Florida's ground-water resources. The
resulting Ground Water Quality Moni-
toring Program is administered through
the Florida Department of Environmental
Regulation. The bulk of the hydro-
geologic data acquisition, compilation,
and analysis work is currently being
undertaken by the state's five water
management districts and, in Alachua
County, by the Alachua County Depart-
ment of Environmental Services.

The major goals of the program are:

1. To establish the baseline
ground-water quality of major
aquifer systems in the state;
2. To detect and predict
changes in ground-water
quality resulting from the
effects of various land uses
and potential sources of
contamination; and
3. To disseminate water-quality
data generated by the pro-
gram to local governments
and the public.

The DER contracted with the FGS to
publish the results of these investigations.
Two volumes have been published dur-
ing this biennial period. The first, FGS
Special Publication No. 32, is a series of
maps which portray the basic hydro-
geologic conditions present within the
principal aquifer systems of Florida. An
understanding of the hydrogeologic
framework, as set forth in this publi-
cation, is prerequisite to meeting the
goals of the Ground Water Quality Moni-
toring Program.

The second volume, FGS Special
Publication No. 34, discusses the analy-
sis of the data collected from wells
comprising the background water quality
network and includes a series of maps
portraying this data for Florida's principal
aquifer systems. This initial data will
serve as a baseline from which future
sampling results can be compared.
Future sampling will indicate the extent to
which Florida's regional ground-water
resources are changing in quality. This
data also will serve as a baseline to
determine the effects of specific land
uses and potential sources of contami-

U.S. Minerals Management

The FGS has been involved with two
offshore sand and heavy-mineral recon-
naissance studies in 1991 and 1992.
These studies were conducted in cooper-
ation with the U.S. Minerals Manage-
ment Service, Texas Bureau of Economic
Geology, University of Texas at Austin,
the USGS, University of South Florida
and the Florida Institute of Technology.

The 1991 study was the second and
final phase of a two-year study of the
sediments offshore of the Florida east
coast from Cape Canaveral to the
Georgia border. The abundance of
sand, gravel and heavy minerals in
sediments of the Atlantic inner continental
shelf offshore of Florida were determined
to assess their resource potential. The
data show high variability both laterally
and vertically and preclude definite
statements about resources. Deposits of
sand and gravel with mud content under
2 weight percent are located offshore of

St. Augustine and Fernandina Beach
and, if laterally and vertically persistent,
they may be locally suitable for beach
renourishment projects.

The heavy-mineral assemblage (spe-
cific gravity >2.96) in the study area is
comprised, in decreasing order of abun-
dance, of epidote, ilmenite, (including
altered ilmenite), aluminosilicates
(sillimanite, kyanite and andulusite),
pyroboles (undifferentiated pyroxenes
and amphiboles), zircon, staurolite,
tourmaline, rutile, garnet, phosphate,
monazite, and others sulfidess, uniden-
tified opaques and non-opaques, quartz,
spinel, etc.). The average total heavy
mineral content is .46 weight percent.
The economic heavy-mineral suite con-
sisting of ilmenite, rutile, zircon, monazite
and aluminosilicates comprises 48.2 per-
cent of the total heavy-mineral assem-
blage; on a bulk sample basis the
average is about 0.2 percent. Although
there is a general regional trend of
increasing heavy-mineral content to the
north, high variability is characteristic of
the area. The concentrations of eco-
nomic heavy minerals are, on the
average, an order of magnitude lower
than those found in commercial deposits
onshore in Florida, thus the potential for
offshore placer resources appears to be

In 1992, sand, gravel and heavy
mineral resources of the inner Atlantic
Continental Shelf from Ft. Pierce to Miami
were evaluated. Geologists at the Florida
Institute of Technology, under a sub-
contract with the FGS, analyzed a total of
52 vibracores and 1250 km of high reso-
lution seismic sub-bottom profiles for this

Significant concentrations of shell,
gravel, and mud are present offshore of
Ft. Pierce, Florida. The total heavy
mineral content of sediments in the same
area was .32 percent by weight while the
recovered heavy mineral content was .08
percent by weight. Epidote is the most
abundant mineral species of the re-
covered heavy mineral fraction.

Offshore sediments between West
Palm Beach and Miami contained .31
weight percent total heavy minerals and
.03 weight percent recovered heavy
minerals. Zircon composes nearly 20
percent of the recovered heavy mineral

Sarasota County Intermediate
Aquifer System Core Drilling
and Analysis Cooperative

The FGS in cooperation with the
USGS and Sarasota County, drilled and
analyzed two core holes in Sarasota
County. This investigation focused on
the Neogene stratigraphy of the inter-
mediate aquifer system in the two cores
which were drilled into the Oligocene
"Suwannee Limestone" and the top of the
Floridan aquifer system.

The Carlton Reserve core, FGS W-
16782, 580' TD, is located in the north-
west quarter of the northwest quarter of
section 31, Township 38 South, Range
20 East. The South Venice core, FGS W-
16814, 701' TD, is located in the north-
west quarter of the northwest quarter
section 29, Township 39 South, and
Range 19 East. Both coreholes were
drilled utilizing a Failing 1500 drill rig.
Core samples were collected from the

land surface to the total depth of each
well. Split spoon samples were collected
at selected intervals in the unconsoli-
dated sediments for hydraulic conduc-
tivity analysis. The Carlton Reserve well
was converted to a four inch diameter
monitor well by plugging the hole back to
190 feet and installing casing from the
land surface to 175 feet. The open hole
interval is from 175-190 feet. The South
Venice core was abandoned after coring
in accordance with Southwest Florida
WMD and Sarasota County regulations.

Southwest Florida Data
Collection Cooperative Project

FGS and USGS personnel drilled ten
shallow test holes in Sarasota, Manatee
and Hardee Counties. The high quality
samples collected support the FGS geo-
logic mapping and Myakka River State
Park projects as well as separate USGS

Near-surface Geology and
Hydrogeology of Myakka River
State Park Cooperative Program

This project is an outgrowth of the
FGS regional data collection efforts in
support of the geologic mapping project
and of concerns of Park administrators
that increasing withdrawal of groundwater
in the area around the park may result in
deleterious effects on the park. A total of
eight shallow test holes were drilled on
the park (two drilled for the regional data
base, three in conjunction with the
FGS/USGS data collection and three
specifically for the park project). These
shallow tests along with two deep cores
drilled previously on the park, will provide
the data base for a reconnaissance study

of the geology and hydrology of the

Leon County Ambient Ground
Water Project

The Florida DER contracted with the
FGS to investigate seven sites in Leon
and Jefferson Counties. Core holes were
drilled at each site for analysis and for
FGS database purposes. Split spoon
samples were collected at five foot inter-
vals for hydraulic conductivity testing.
Lithologic logs were generated for each
core, formation picks made and the data
entered into the FGS computer data
base. One or more monitor wells were
constructed at each site for the ambient
ground water monitoring network.

Wakulla Springs State Park
Seismic Station

In late 1992, the FGS drilled a shallow
well at Wakulla Springs for the purpose
of installing a seismic station. The well
was drilled into solid rock and casing
cemented in to directly couple the seis-
mic equipment to the bedrock. After
completion of the seismic station hole a
core was drilled in an adjacent area to
enhance the FGS database (W-16887,
206.5 feet TD).

Suwannee River Water
Management District
Cooperative Program

The FGS and the Suwannee River
Water Management District (SRWMD)
have maintained a successful and mu-
tually beneficial working relationship for
over fifteen years. During much of this
period, the SRWMD funded geology

graduate students to work as research
assistants at the FGS, describing well
samples and cores and entering the
coded lithologic logs into the FGS
computer database. This arrangement
has worked exceedingly well, resulting in
the addition of much new data on the
geology of the District to the data bases
of both agencies.

This cooperative arrangement con-
tinued through the years 1991-1992.
During this period, seven more cores
were taken by the FGS drill rig from the
Waccassassa Flats area of Gilchrist
County. The lithologies of each core
were described, and sieve size analyses
and permeameter tests conducted on se-
lected intervals. Data from these cores
will be utilized in a final report, due out in

In addition, three contract products
were produced: 1) an isopach map of
the Hawthorn Group within the SRWMD;
2) a report on the intermediate aquifer
system in the SRWMD with maps show-
ing the tops and thicknesses of the car-
bonate units within this aquifer system;
and 3) a map showing locations of mines
and quarries of greater than ten acres in
size in the SRWMD. A new contract was
entered into in late 1992 which allows for
completion of a final report on the geol-
ogy of the Waccassassa Flats region as
well as the lithologic description and
computer coding of remaining unworked
well sample sets in the District.

Southwest Florida Water
Management District
Cooperative Program

A cooperative program was devel-

oped between the Southwest Florida
Water Management District (SWFWMD)
and the FGS to construct geologic and
hydrogeologic cross sections throughout
a twelve county area of southwest
Florida. The purpose of the program is
to delineate the extent and interela-
tionship of lithostratigraphic and hydro-
stratigraphic units within the region. To
systematically accomplish these goals,
the project was subdivided into three
phases, each with separate study areas:
Phase I includes the southwest region of
the District, from Pinellas and Hillsbor-
ough to Charlotte counties; Phase II
includes the northwest part of the District,
from Levy and Marion to Pasco counties;
and Phase III includes the eastern half of
the district, encompassing all areas not
covered in Phases I and II. Regional
lithostratigraphy of Eocene through Mio-
cene formations, gamma-ray log charac-
teristics of these formations and aquifer-
system delineation within each study area
are the primary focus of the cross sec-
tions. Most of the data used to construct
the cross sections was collected from
wells drilled as part of the SWFWMD
Regional Observation and Monitoring
Program (ROMP). In areas where ROMP
data were not available, borehole data
from the FGS and USGS are utilized.
Interim reports for each phase will be
released as FGS Open File Reports

South Florida Water
Management District
Cooperative Program

In 1992, the FGS and the South
Florida Water Management District
(SFWMD) began a cooperative project in
Collier, Glades, Lee, Martin, Okeechobee,

Osceola, and St. Lucie Counties. South
Florida is experiencing rapid population
growth and water management practices
must be predicated on an adequate
understanding of the lithologic units
which comprise aquifer systems. Topo-
graphic relief in these counties is
especially low, making reliable sub-
surface data an invaluable asset.

Cuttings and core from approximately
35 wells in south Florida were described
and entered into the FGS Well Log Data
Base contributing to ongoing hydrologic
analysis studies in the SFWMD. Data
characterizing both shallow aquifer
systems as well as the Floridan aquifer
system are being collected. A total of
28,000 feet of samples were described in
1992 as part of this study.

The Lower Floridan Aquifer
System in Brevard County

Geologists at the FGS recently com-
pleted a study of the lower Floridan
aquifer system in Brevard County utilizing
data from eight injection wells. The
purpose of this research was to deter-
mine the geologic framework of the lower
Floridan aquifer system by analyzing and
characterizing rock cutting and cores,
geophysical logs, and ground-water
chemical data acquired from the injection
wells. The impetus for this project, which
was funded in part by a grant from DER,
was the determination that injected waste
fluids were apparently migrating vertically
through the confining beds at several
Melbourne area injection sites. This
investigation will be published by the FGS
as Bulletin 64 and should be available in

Evaluation of the geologic structure
and stratigraphy in the vicinity of the
injection wells indicates that much of the
strata within the injection zone and the
overlying confining beds contained large
cracks (fractures) and at least two of the
injection well boreholes penetrate a
north-south trending fault (a fracture in
which rock on opposite sides of the frac-
ture have moved relative to each other).
The interpreted fault in Brevard County
affects Lower Eocene (Oldsmar Forma-
tion) through the Upper Eocene (Ocala
Limestone) and possibly Miocene
Hawthorn Group stratigraphic sections.
Stratigraphic data suggest the fault has
been inactive for at least 20 million years.
Fractures and faults in the lower Floridan
aquifer system, if vertically extensive, may
act as conduits for the upward migration
of injected waste water through confining
beds and into potable water supplies of
the upper Floridan aquifer system.

Analysis of ground-water chemical
data collected from monitor wells and
hydraulic test results from the injection
wells indicates that injected waste waters
are moving upward through the "confin-
ing beds". The hydrogeological assess-
ment suggests a high probability that this
upward migration of fluid indeed occurs
via fractures in the confining rock and
that the presence and lateral continuity of
suitable confining beds in the lower
Floridan aquifer system in Brevard
County is questionable.


The FGS is funded primarily from
General Revenue each year with addi-
tional funding from the Petroleum
Exploration and Production Bond Trust

Fund to support an Engineer III position
in the Oil and Gas Section. Beginning in
FY 91-92, selected FGS positions con-
cerned with minerals and related re-
source issues were funded by the Land
Reclamation Administration Trust Fund.
Those expenditures and appropriations
are included in the overall totals shown
below. Also included are funds received
from outside contracts.

The requested budget is reviewed by
the Division of Resource Management
and the Executive Director's office of the
Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
before being presented to the Governor
and Cabinet (DNRs Executive Board).
Upon approval of the Board the budget
request is submitted to the Florida House
of Representatives and the Florida
Senate for review by their Budget Com-

Budgets approved for the Survey by
the Florida Legislature for Fiscal Years
1991-1992 and 1992-1993 are summa-
rized below. In general, the overall
budget has received increases similar to
that of the national inflation rate over the
last 15 years. However, due to a short-
fall of state revenues, FY 91-92 saw the
loss of previously approved and appro-
priated General Revenue funds. A similar
situation is quite likely to occur in FY 92-

Included in the figures below is
$100,000 which was contributed by the
oil and gas industry in FY 91-92 and
$200,000 in FY 92-93 for use in the com-
pilation of data and information on
Florida oil wells plugged before 1974.
From this information a way to identify "at
risk wells" shall be proposed and pre-

sented to the Department for review and
further direction in correcting any dis-

FGS Budget



Salaries & Benefits
$1,123,981 $1,110,267

Other Personal Services



262,506 388,248

Operating Capital Outlay



$1,774,881 $2,082,683

The Survey consists of the following
four sections and positions:

Administrative Direction and Support
Section (5 full-time staff and 1 part-
time assistant)

State Geologist and Chief, Administrative
Assistant, Administrative Secretary,
Librarian and 1 part-time assistant,

Geologic Investigations Section (13
full-time staff and 11 part-time

1 Assistant State Geologist, 5 Geologists,
1 Biological Scientist, 2 Engineers, 2
Engineering Technicians, 1 Lab
Technician, 1 Secretary Specialist, 11
part-time research assistants

Mineral Resource Investigations and
Environmental Geology Section (5 full-
time staff and 2 part-time assistants)

1 Assistant State Geologist, 3 Geologists,
1 Environmental Specialist, 2 part-time

Oil and Gas Regulation and
Conservation Section (8.5 full-time
staff and I part-time assistant)

1 Environmental Administrator, 2
Geologists, 3 Engineers, 1 Environmental
Specialist, 1.5 Secretary Specialists, 1
part-time assistant


In November of 1991, the Florida
Geological Survey lost a friend, Parker A.
Turner, in a freak cave diving accident.
While exploring one of the cave tunnels
leading into a local spring, an as yet
unexplained water-flow reversal within the
spring system caused silting and ob-
struction of the cave exit. Confused by
the zero visibility and the apparent
blocking of the tunnel, Parker and his
companion spent much of their remaining
air supply attempting to find the way out.
With his air nearly gone, Parker managed
to force his way through the sediment
pile blocking the tunnel, but drowned
before he could reach reserve air tanks
situated on the other side. His last
minute efforts allowed his companion to
escape unharmed.

Parker was one of the most expe-
rienced cave divers in the world, often
called upon for diving safety and pro-
cedural advice. The freak hydrologic
events leading to his death were ob-
viously something no one could have
been prepared for. Observers at the
surface of the spring reported that in the
minutes leading up to the tragedy, the
spring pool water level dropped rapidly,
and the previously flowing spring began
to siphon. Unconsolidated sediments on
the floor of the sloping cave entrance
slumped into the cave during the event,
blocking the tunnel and badly silting-up
the otherwise crystal clear water. It is still
uncertain whether the sediment ava-
lanche alone was responsible for the
bizarre events or whether some cata-
strophic event elsewhere in the complex

regional conduit system triggered the
spring flow reversal.

Parker was an ardent proponent of
subaqueous cave exploration and map-
ping, and worked closely with Survey
staff on many projects in the unique karst
region known as the Woodville Karst
Plain, south of Tallahassee. He devel-
oped the cave diving curriculum for the
Florida State University Academic Diving
Program, which trained scientists to cave
dive for research purposes. In recent
years, his primary focus was mapping
and exploring the extensive Leon Sinks
cave system, situated south of Talla-
hassee. He had been part of the team
that, in 1988, made a record-breaking
conduit connection between Sullivan Sink
in Leon County and Cheryl Sink in Wa-
kulla County, at that time considered the
worlds longest underwater cave.

Parker was always enthusiastic and
extremely helpful in providing cave loca-
tion and hydrogeologic data to the Sur-
vey from his explorations. He was instru-
mental in setting up the National Asso-
ciation for Cave Diving Archives at the
FGS Research Library. This library con-
tains maps, books, and cave diving publi-
cations used by both FGS staff and inter-
ested visitors.

While Parker's drive and enthusiasm
often annoyed people, especially on first
meeting him, he was extremely adept at
getting people together and getting
things done. Once you got to know him,
it was easy to appreciate his sincerity, his
convictions to his beliefs, and his sense
of humor. Those who worked closely
with him are carrying on the work he
loved. However, his tireless enthusiasm

will never be replaced, and he is missed
as both a colleague and friend.


Map Series

MS 133 Mineral resources of Clay
County, Florida, 1991. By S.M. Spencer,
J.W Yon, Jr., R. W Hoenstine, and B.E.

MS 134 Mineral resources of Union and
Bradford Counties, Florida, 1991. By
B.E. Lane, R.W Hoenstine, FR. Rupert,
and S.M. Spencer.


B 63 Geology of Gulf County, Florida,
1991. By FR. Rupert, 51 p.

Information Circulars

IC 107 Part I 1988 and 1989 Florida
petroleum production and exploration,
1991. By J.M. Lloyd. Part II Petroleum
exploration and development policies in
Florida: response to public concern for
sensitive environments, 1991. By J.M.
Lloyd and J.M. Ragland, 121 p.

IC 108 1990 and 1991 Florida petroleum
production and exploration, 1992. By
J.M. Lloyd, 31 p.

Special Publications

SP 31 Environmental geology and
hydrogeology of the Ocala area, Florida,
1991, by B.E. Lane and R.W Hoenstine,
71 p.

SP 32 Floridas ground water quality
monitoring program Hydrogeologic
framework, 1991. Edited by TM. Scott,
J.M. Lloyd, and G. Maddox, 97 p.

SP 33 Environmental geology and
hydrogeology of the Gainesville Area,
1991, by R.W Hoenstine and B.E. Lane,
70 p.

SP 34 Florida' ground water quality
monitoring program Background
hydrogeochemistry, 1992. Edited by G.
Maddox, J.M. Lloyd, T.M. Scott, S.B.
Upchurch and R. Copeland, 364 p.

SP 36 The Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy
and paleontology of southern Florida,
1992. Edited by T.M. Scott and WD.
Allmon, 194 p.

Biennial Reports

BR 16 Biennial Report 1989-1990, 1991.
By P.A. Bond, 40 p.


The Florida Geology Forum; March 1991,
v.5, no.1. Edited by S. Ray.

The Florida Geology Forum; October
1991, v.5, no.2. Edited by S. Ray.

The Florida Geology Forum; March 1992,
v.6, no.1. Edited by S. Ray.

The Florida Geology Forum; October
1992, v.6, no.2. Edited by S. Ray.


L 16 The geology of Falling Waters State
Recreation Area, 1992. By FR. Rupert
and B.E. Lane.


Florida's Fossil Mammals, 1991. Com-
piled by FR. Rupert.

Florida's Hydrogeologic Environment,
1992. By P.A. Bond.

Open File Reports

OFR 39 Sand, gravel and heavy-mineral
resource potential of Holocene sediments
offshore of Florida, Cape Canaveral to
the Georgia border: phase I, 1991. By
B.W Nocita, L.W Papetti, A.E. Grosz,
and K.M. Campbell, 107 p.

OFR 40 Earthquakes and seismic history
of Florida, 1991. By B.E. Lane, 11 p.

OFR 41 Radon potential study, Alachua
County, Florida: Near surface strati-
graphy and results of drilling, 1991. By
K.M. Campbell and T.M. Scott, 42 p.

OFR 42 Gamma ray profile investigation
of the Upper Pleistocene Miami Lime-
stone of south Florida, 1991. By R.A.
Johnson, 15 p.

OFR 43 The geomorphology and geol-
ogy of Liberty County, Florida, 1991. By
FR. Rupert, 9 p.

OFR 44 Florida's oil and gas reserves for
1991, 1991. By C.H. Tootle, 8 p.

OFR 45 The geomorphology and geol-
ogy of Dixie County, Florida, 1991. By
FR. Rupert, 6 p.

OFR 46 Geology, geomorphology and
hydrogeology of Lafayette County,
Florida, 1991. By J.D. Arthur, 10 p.

OFR 47 Lithology and palynology of cave
floor sediment cores from Wakulla
Spring, Wakulla County, Florida, 1991.
By FR. Rupert, 9 p.

OFR 48 Lithologic variation in the Miami
Limestone of Florida, 1992. By R.A.
Johnson, 26 p.

OFR 49 Not Published

OFR 50 A geological overview of Florida,
1992. By TM. Scott, 78 p.

OFR 51 Geomorphology, geology, and
hydrogeology of the Savannas State
Reserve, Martin and St. Lucie Counties,
Florida, 1992. By FR. Rupert, 7 p.

OFR 52 Editorial preparation of Florida
Geological Survey Publications, 1992. By
B.E. Lane, 29 p.

OFR 53 Guidelines for authors, 1992. By
B.E. Lane, 42 p.

OFR 54 Carbonate units of the inter-
mediate aquifer system in the Suwannee
River Water Management District, 1992.
By M. Groszos, R. Ceryak, D. Alison, R.
Cooper, M. Weinberg, M. Macesich, M.
M. Enright, and FR. Rupert, 22 p.

Open File Map Series

OFMS 1 Mines and quarries greater than
10 acres in size in the Suwannee River
Water Management District, 1992. By M.
Macesich, N. Martinez, M. Groszos, FR.
Rupert and R. White. Scale 1:250,000.

OFMS 2 An isopach map of the Haw-
thorn Group in the Suwannee River
Water Management District, 1992. By M.
Groszos and FR. Rupert. Scale

OFMS 3 Geologic map of Nassau
County, Florida, 1992. By TM. Scott,
(preliminary field mapping by K.M.
Campbell and R.A. Johnson).

OFMS 4 Geologic map of Duval County,
Florida, 1992. By TM. Scott, (preliminary
field mapping by J.D. Arthur and P.A.

OFMS 5 Geologic map of Clay County,
Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott, (preliminary
field mapping by FR. Rupert and R.A.

OFMS 6 Geologic map of Putnam
County, Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott,
(preliminary field mapping by R.A.
Johnson and FR. Rupert).

OFMS 7 Geologic map of Flagler County,
Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott, (preliminary
field mapping by B.E. Lane and J.M.

OFMS 8 Geologic map of Volusia
County, Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott,
(preliminary field mapping by B.E. Lane).

OFMS 9 Geologic map of Lake County,
Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott, (preliminary
field mapping by R.A. Johnson and K.M.

OFMS 10 Geoloc
County, Florida, 199:
and T.M. Scott,
mapping by K.M.

|ic map of Citrus
2. By K.M. Campbell
(preliminary field
Campbell and TM.

OFMS 11 Geologic map of Levy County,
Florida, 1992. By K.M. Campbell,
(preliminary field mapping by R.A.
Johnson and B.E. Lane).

OFMS 12 Geologic map of Alachua
County, Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott and
K.M. Campbell, (preliminary field mapping
by TM. Scott and K.M. Campbell).

OFMS 13 Geologic map of Marion
County, Florida, 1992. By T.M. Scott,
(preliminary field mapping by FR. Rupert
and R.A. Johnson).


Bond, P.A., 1991, Cover illustration with
explanation for Special Publication 32, 2

Bond, P.A., 1992, Cover illustration for
Special Publication 34, 1 p.

Duncan, J.G., Evans, WL., and Taylor,
Koren L., 1992, Geologic framework of
the Lower Floridan aquifer system,
Brevard County, Florida; A report
submitted to the Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation.

Garrett, C.B. and Hoenstine, R.W, 1992,
Assessment of Florida Big Bend coastal
wetlands geological processes Annual
report to USGS -Year 1 Aucilla River:
Cooperative Agreement No. USGS 14-08-
001-A0915/Grant No. F-0270.

Scott, TM., 1991, A geological overview
of Florida, in Scott, TM., Lloyd, J.M., and
Maddox, G., eds., Florida's ground water
quality monitoring program-hydrogeo-
logic framework: Florida Geological
Survey Special Publication 32, p. 5-14.

Scott, T.M., 1992, Hydrostratigraphy, in
Maddox, G., Lloyd, J.M., Scott, TM., and
Upchurch, S.B., eds., Florida's ground
water quality monitoring program Back-
ground hydrogeochemistry: Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication 34,
p. 6-11.

Scott, TM., 1992, Coastal plains stra-
tigraphy: the dichotomy of biostrati-
graphy and lithostratigraphy a philo-
sophical approach to an old problem, in
Scott, TM. and Allmon, WD., eds., The
Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphy and paleon-
tology of southern Florida: Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication 36,
p. 21-25.

Papers by Staff Members in Outside

Campbell, K.M., 1992, Beach ridges, in,
Atlas of Florida, E.A. Fernald and E.D.
Purdam, eds., 1992, p. 38-39.

Cummins, L.E., Arthur, J.D. and Ragland,
P.C., 1992, Tectonic implications of early
Mesozoic basaltic magma-types of the
circum-Atlantic, in Puffer, J. and Ragland,
PC., eds., Eastern North American
Mesozoic magmatism: Geological So-
ciety of America Special Paper 268, p.

Hoenstine, R.W, Lane, B.E., Rupert,
FR., Spencer, S.M., Garrett, C.B. and
Lloyd, J.M., 1992, Gulf coastal programs
at the Florida Geological Survey, abstract
for poster session, Gulf of Mexico Sym-
posium, Tarpon Springs, Florida,
December, 1992.

Hoenstine, R.W and Spencer, S.M.,
1991, Planning and Florida's mineral
resources: Florida Planning, v. Ill, no. 3,
p. 5-6.

Lane, B.E. and Hoenstine, R.W, 1991,
Florida's environmental geology reports:
The Professional Geologist, v. 28, no. 12,
p. 8-9.

Ragland, P.C., Cummins, L.E. and
Arthur, J.D., 1992, Compositional pat-
terns for early Mesozoic ENA diabases
from South Carolina to Central Virginia, in
Puffer, J. and Ragland, P.C., eds.,
Eastern North American Mesozoic mag-
matism: Geological Society of America
Special Paper 268, p. 309-331.

Rupert, FR. and Arthur, J.D., 1992,
Geology and geomorphology of Florida's
Gulf Coast marshes, in Coultas, C.L. and
Hsieh, YP., eds., The intertidal marshes
of Florida's Gulf Coast, (in press).

Schmidt, W, 1991, Geologic mapping A
Florida and national need, in Florida
Board of Professional Geologists
Newsletter, v. 2, no. 1.

Schmidt, W, 1992, Government and the
geologist, in The Professional Geologist,
v. 29, no. 13, p. 6.

Schmidt, W, 1992, Licensure by en-
dorsement: Status report and update, in
Florida Board of Professional Geologists
Newsletter, v. 3, no. 1.

Schmidt, W, in press, Geomorphology
and physiography of Florida, in the
Geology of Florida, University of Florida

Scott, TM., 1991, Depositional patterns
of the Hawthorn Group in Florida
(abstract): Geological Society of
America, combined Northeast-Southeast
Section meeting, Baltimore, Md.

Scott, T.M., 1991, Cenozoic stratigraphy
of Florida: i Salvador, A. (editor),
Geology of North America, Volume J,
The Gulf of Mexico Basin, p. 313-317.

Scott, TM., 1991, Quaternary geology of
the Atlantic Coastal Plain Florida: in
Morrison, R.B. (editor), The geology of
North America, Volume K-2, Quaternary
nonglacial geology: Conterminous
United States, p. 646-647.

Scott, TM., 1991, The geology of the
Santa Fe River Basin, central-northern
Florida: Southeastern Geological Society
Annual Field Trip Guidebook number 32.

Scott, TM., 1992, Neogene lithostrati-
graphy of the Florida peninsula prob-
lems and prospects: in The Third Bald
Head Island Conference on Coastal
Plains Geology, p. 34-35.

White, D.H. and Schmidt, W, 1991, The
mineral industry of Florida, in U.S.
Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook
1989, V II Areas Reports: Domestic.


Arthur, J.D., 1991, Presented "Geology of
Florida" to administrators at a Division of
Resource Management staff meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

Arthur, J.D., 1991, Presented "Sand,
gravel and heavy mineral resources
offshore of Northeast Florida" to the
Minerals Management Service Sympo-
sium, Charlottesville, VA.

Bond, P.A., 1991, Uranium cycling and
peat in Florida, presented to the Brevard
Summer Science Institute, Palm Bay, FL.

Campbell, K.M., 1992, Reconnaissance
study of heavy-mineral and sand dis-
tribution of continental shelf sediments
from Miami to Cape Canaveral: pre-
sented to the MMS Atlantic States
Continental Margins Symposium, Raleigh,

Duncan, J.G., 1992, Geologic framework
of the Lower Floridan Aquifer System,
presented at the Underground Injection
Control Workshop, St. Petersburg, FL.

Hoenstine, R.W, 1992, Geohydrology of
south-central Duval County, presented to
the Jacksonville Restoration Installation
Technical Review Committee, Jackson-
ville, FL.

Rupert, FR., 1992, The geology of the
Silver River Basin, presented to the
Florida Paleontological Society, Ocala,

Schmidt, W, 1991, Review of the pro-
fessional geologist requirements in
Florida, presented to the Florida
Environmental Assessors Association
and the Florida Association of
Environmental Professionals, Orlando,

Schmidt, W, 1991, Florida oil and gas
resources and regulations, presented to
the Joint Meeting of the American
Institute of Professional Geologists and
the American Institute of Mining Engi-
neers, Lakeland, FL.

Schmidt, W, 1991, Geology and ground
water resources of Leon County, pre-
sented to the City of Tallahassee Citizens
Committee on Effluent Waste Disposal,
Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W, 1992, Environmental geol-
ogy for land-use planning in Florida,
guest lecture presented to Environmental
Geology Colloquium at Tallahassee Com-
munity College, Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W, 1992, Leon County hydro-
geology, presented to the City of
Tallahassee Environmental Services
Department, Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W, 1992, The national geologic
mapping act of 1992, presented to the
Florida Growth Management Data Net-
work Coordinating Council, Tallahassee,

Schmidt, W, 1992, New board members
orientation, presented to all newly
appointed Board Members for the
Department of Professional Regulation,
Tallahassee, FL.

Schmidt, W, 1992, Programs and ser-
vices of the Florida Geological Survey,
presented to the Department of Natural
Resources Planning Section, Tallahassee,

Schmidt, W, 1992, Coastal Petroleum,
Inc. offshore drilling application,
presented to the Governor's Outer
Continental Shelf Advisory Committee,
Department of Natural Resources,
Department of Environmental Regulation,
and Cabinet Aides, Tallahassee, FL.

Scott, TM., 1991, The Florida Geological
Survey: Lecture to University of Florida,
Geology of Florida class, Gainesville, FL.

Scott, TM., 1991, Pollution and ground
water: presented to the American
Institute of Chemical Engineers,
Tallahassee Section, Tallahassee, FL.

Scott, TM., 1992, Geology of Florida and
the Florida Geological Survey: Lecture to
University of South Florida, Geology of
Florida class, St. Petersburg, FL.

Scott, TM., 1992, The Cypresshead Fm.
and the Florida Geological Survey:
Lecture to University of Florida, Geology
of Florida class, Gainesville, FL.

Scott, TM., 1992, The geology of Florida:
Lecture to Earth Science Teachers Sum-
mer Institute, University of South Florida,
Tampa, FL.



May 1992, MMS Atlantic States Conti-
nental Margins Symposium, Raleigh, NC.

September, 1992, Fourth International
Radon Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

December, 1992, Gulf Coast Symposium,
Tarpon Springs, FL.


February 1991, Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program Quarterly Meeting,
West Palm Beach, FL.

March, 1991, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists Rules Committee
Meeting: Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1991, Southeastern Geological
Society Meeting: Wakulla Springs, FL.

March 1991, Association of American
State Geologists, Federal Liaison
Committee Meetings, Washington, DC.

May, 1991, Association of American State
Geologists Annual Meeting, Saratoga,

May, 1991, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Endorsement/Professional
License Committee Meeting, Tallahassee,

May 1991, Ground Water Quality Moni-
toring Program Quarterly Meeting, Live
Oak, FL.

May, 1991, Department of Environmental
Regulation/St. Johns River Water
Management District Meeting, Orlando,

June, 1991, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists Meeting, Tallahassee,

June, 1991, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists, Application Review Commit-
tee, Tallahassee, FL.

August 1991, Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program Quarterly Meeting,
Daytona Beach, FL.

September, 1991, Department of Profes-
sional Regulation Board Chairmans
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

September-October, 1991, Association of
American State Geologists, Federal
Liaison Committee Meeting, Washington,

October, 1991, Southeastern Geological
Society Meeting, Lakeland, FL.

October, 1991, Florida Sections of the
American Institute of Professional
Geologists/American Institute of Mining
Engineers Meeting, Lakeland, FL.

October, 1991, Florida Paleontology
Society Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1991, USGS/National Water
Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Meeting,
Valdosta, GA.

November, 1991, Department of Profes-
sional Regulation, Board Financial Chairs
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

November, 1991, Oil and Gas Well
Plugging Committee Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

December, 1991, Florida Board of Pro-
fessional Geologists Professional
Engineers/Professional Geologists
(PE/PG) Joint Board Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

December, 1991, Florida Board of Pro-
fessional Geologists, Application Review
Committee, Tallahassee, FL.

December, 1991, Gulf Coast Section of
the Society of Economic Paleontologists
and Mineralogists Foundation Annual
Research Conference, Houston, TX.

January, 1992, Florida Board of Pro-
fessional Geologists Meeting, Miami, FL.

January, 1992, Pre-Submittal Conference
for Bidding Contractors, Oil and Gas Well
Plugging Project, Tallahassee, FL.

January, 1992, Shell Western E&P,
Inc./U.S. Bureau of Land Management
public meeting to discuss exploration
drilling in the East Everglades, Ft.
Lauderdale, FL.

January, 1992, USGS/National Water
Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

January 1992, Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program, Quarterly Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

February, 1992, United States Geological
Survey/Association of American State
Geologists (AASG), Eastern Region
Cluster Meeting, Atlanta, GA.

February, 1992, Florida Board of Pro-
fessional Geologists PE/PG Liaison
Committee Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

February, 1992, Army Corps of Engi-
neers and Florida Division of Beaches
and Shores Meeting, Jacksonville, FL.

February, 1992, Oral presentation from
"short list" of contractors for the Oil and
Gas Plugging Contract, Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1992, Florida Board of
sional Geologists, Application
Committee, Tallahassee, FL.


April, 1992, Southeastern Geological
Society Meeting, Wakulla Springs, FL.

May, 1992, Association of American State
Geologists Federal Liaison Committee
Meetings, Washington, DC.

June, 1992, Florida Park Service, Uni-
versity of Florida Geology Department
meeting regarding seismic station,
Wakulla Springs, FL.

June, 1992, AASG Annual Meeting, Tus-
caloosa, AL.

June, 1992, DNR Policy Coordinating
Committee, Oil and Gas Rules rewrite,
Tallahassee, FL.

June, 1992, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists, Application Review Commit-
tee, Tallahassee, FL.

July, 1992, Florida Board of Professional
Geologists Meeting, Orlando, FL.

September, 1992, AASG, Federal Liaison
Committee Meeting, Washington, DC.

October, 1992, Geological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, OH.

November, 1992, DNR Oil Well Plugging
Advisory Committee Meeting, Talla-
hassee, FL.

December, 1992, Florida Board of Pro-
fessional Geologists, Application Review
Meeting, Tallahassee, FL.

February 1992, Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program Meeting, Talla-
hassee, FL.

February 1992, Florida Radon Research
Program Meeting, Tampa, FL.

March 1992, Florida Academy of
Sciences, Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

March, 1992, Quarterly Jacksonville
Installation Restoration Meeting,
Jacksonville, FL.

March, 1992, Florida Paleontological
Society Spring Meeting, Ocala, FL.

April 1992, Florida Radon Research
Program Meeting, Tampa, FL.

April, 1992, Georgia-Florida NAWQA
Program Conference, Tallahassee, FL.

June 1992, Ground Water Quality Moni-
toring Program Quarterly Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1992, Meet with Naval Air Station
(NAS) Jacksonville environmental per-
sonnel to evaluate progress of onsite
core drilling, Jacksonville, FL.

September 1992, American Institute of
Mining Engineers American Institute of
Professional Geologists, Technical Con-
ference, Lakeland, FL.

September 1992, Florida Radon Re-
search Program Meeting, Tallahassee,

September, 1992, The Seventh Annual
Regional Phosphate Conference, Bartow,

October, 1992, Meet with National Water
Quality Assessment Liaison Committee to
review Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain
Study, Folkston, GA.

October 1992, Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program, Quarterly Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1992, Florida Paleontological
Society, Fall Meeting, Bartow, FL.

December 1992, Ground Water Quality
Monitoring Program, Quarterly Meeting,
Tallahassee, FL.


July, 1991, Environmental Applications of
Shallow Seismic Reflection, Tulsa, OK.

October, 1991, AutoCAD Levels I and II,
St Augustine Technical Center, St.
Augustine, FL.

December, 1991, Environmental Auditing
and Compliance, Tallahassee, FL.

January, 1992, Florida Bluebelt Com-
mission, Tallahassee, FL.

March, 1992, DNR Oil and Gas Rules
Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

June, 1992, First Aid, Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1992, Florida Sinkhole Summit,
organized by the Department of Insur-
ance, Tallahassee, FL.

August, 1992, Total Quality Leadership
Orientation, Tallahassee, FL.

September, 1992, Sexual Harrassment
Workshop, Tallahassee, FL.

October, 1992, Underground Injection
Control Workshop, St. Petersburg, FL.


January, 1992, The Second Florida
Mercury Conference, A Focus on the
Everglades, West Palm Beach, FL.

November 1992, Third Bald Head Island
Conference on Coastal Plains Geology,
Hilton Head Island, SC.


March, 1991, Modern Carbonates Field
Seminar, University of Miami, Department
of Geology.

May 1991, International Geological
Correlation Program Tallahassee meeting
Field Trip.

May, 1991, Neogene/Quaternary Coastal
and Nearshore Deposits of NE FL, in
conjunction with the Research Confer-
ence on Quaternary Coastal Evolution,
SEPM and IGCP Project 274, Talla-
hassee, FL.

October, 1991, Florida Paleontology
Society Annual Trip, Farley Creek,
Calhoun County, FL.

April, 1992, Panhandle Geology and Core
Drilling Operation, Tallahassee, FL.

May 1992, Southeast Florida Geological
Society Field Trip, Palm Beach and
Martin Counties, FL.


Professional Staff

Jonathan D. Arthur, Geologist II, Geologi-
cal Investigations Section. B.S., Florida
State University, 1982, Ph.D. Candidate,
Florida State University. Research Inter-
ests: Geochemistry, igneous petrology
and hydrogeology. Licensed Profes-
sional Geologist, State of Florida.
Professional Memberships: Southeastern
Geological Soceity, Geological Society of
America and Sigma Xi.

Paulette Bond, Geologist II, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., West Virginia
University, 1971, M.S., University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1974, Ph.D.
Candidate, Florida State University.
Research Interests: Low temperature
geochemistry and environmental geol-
ogy. Licensed Professional Geologist,
State of Florida. Consultant to Florida
Board of Professional Geologists, Geol-
ogy Examination Committee. Profes-
sional Memberships: Geological Society
of America and Southeastern Geological

Kenneth M. Campbell, Geological Super-
visor I, Geological Investigations Section.
B.S., Old Dominion University, 1975,
M.S., Florida State University, 1979.
Research Interests: Cenozoic strati-
graphy, sedimentation and coastal pro-
cesses. Licensed Professional Geologist,
State of Florida. Secretary/Treasurer
Southeastern Geological Society. Con-
sultant to Florida Board of Professional
Geologists, Geology Examination Com-

Robert S. Caughey, Professional Engi-
neer I, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office.
B.S., University of Arizona, 1976.
Research Interests: Cenozoic strati-
graphy and hydrogeology. Licensed
Professional Geologist, State of Florida.
Professional Memberships: Society of
Mining, Metallurgical Engineers of
American Institute of Mining and
Metallurigical Engineers, Association of
Exploration Geochemists, National Asso-
ciation of Geology Teachers and Ameri-
can Association for the Advancement of

Lawrence D. Curry, Administrator, Oil and
Gas Section. B.S., University of South
Florida, 1973. Licensed Professional
Geologist, State of Florida.

Joel G. Duncan, Geologist II, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., University of
Alabama, 1977. Currently working on
Masters Degree at Florida State Univer-
sity. Research Interests: Carbonate
petrology, tectonics and basin analysis.
Licensed Professional Geologist, State of

Ed Gambrell, Environmental Specialist III,
Jay Oil and Gas Field Office. B.S.,
Mississippi State University, 1960.

Connie B. Garrett, Environmental Special-
ist III, Mineral Resources and Environ-
mental Geology Section. B.S., Florida
State University, 1981, M.S., Florida State
University, 1989. Research Interests:
Biochemical sedimentation, coastal proc-
esses, ground water protection/reme-
diation-toxicology, structural geology.
Licensed Professional Geologist, State of

Ed Garrett, Geologist II, Oil and Gas
Section. B.S., Florida State University,
1983. Research Interests: Environ-
mental effects of offshore drilling, regu-
latory computer applications. Licensed
Professional Geologist, State of Florida.

Don L. Hargrove, Engineer III, Oil and
Gas Section. Currently working on
degree in Engineering Program at Florida
State University/Florida A&M University.
Geophysical permits, field observers

Ronald W Hoenstine, Geologist III,
Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section. B.S., University of
Florida, 1967, M.S., University of Florida,
1974, Ph.D., Florida State University,
1982. Research Interests: Hydrogeology
and environmental geology. Licensed
Professional Geologist, State of Florida.
Member: Installation Restoration Envi-
ronmental Cleanup Advisory Committee,
Jacksonville Naval Air Station.

James P. "Jim" Jones, Engineer I, Geo-
logical Investigations Section.

Alice Jordan, Librarian Specialist. B.A.,
Guilford College, 1959, M.S., Drexel
University, 1970.

Burke Edward "Ed" Lane, Geologist III,
Mineral Resources and Environmental
Geology Section. B.S., University of
Delaware, 1966, M.S., Pennsylvania State
University, 1968. Research Interests:
Hydrogeology, environmental geology
and karst. Licensed Professional Geol-
ogist, State of Florida. Member: Solid
Waste Management Advisory Committee,
State of Florida, Strategic Educational
Committee, DNR.

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State
Geologist for Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology, B.S., Florida
Atlantic University, 1976, M.S., University
of Chicago, 1979. Research interests:
Environmental geology and petroleum
geology. Licensed Professional Geol-
ogist, State of Florida. Professional
memberships: Geological Society of
America, American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, Southeastern
Geological Society and Computer
Oriented Geological Society.

John A. Morrill, Engineer I/Drilling
Coordinator, Geological Investigations
Section. A.A., Lake City Junior College,
1973, attended the University of Montana
from 1974-1976. Florida Water Well
Contractor License.

Marycarol Reilly, Geologist II, Ft. Myers
Oil and Gas Field Office. B.A., Franklin
and Marshall College, 1977. Research
Interests: Hydrogeology and Cenozoic
stratigraphy. Licensed Professional
Geologist, State of Florida.

Frank R. Rupert, Geologist II, Geological
Investigations Section. B.S., Florida
State University, 1976, M.S., Florida State
University, 1980. Research Interests:
Cenozoic micropaleontology and biostra-
tigraphy and hydrology. Licensed Pro-
fessional Geologist, State of Florida.
Professional Memberships: Society of
Economic Paleontologists and Mineral-
ogists, Florida Academy of Science, and
Florida Paleontological Society.

Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and
Chief. B.A., University of South Florida,
1972, M.S., Florida State University,
1977, Ph.D., Florida State University,

1983. Research Interests: Cenozoic
stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environ-
mental geology, and paleogeography.
Board Member, Florida Board of Profes-
sional Geologists; Member: Governor's
Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Com-
mittee, Geology and Public Policy Com-
mittee, Geological Society of America,
Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM),
Southeastern Geological Society, Florida
Academy of Sciences; State Represen-
tative and Secretary/Treasurer of the
Association of American State Geolo-
gists; Adjunct Professor, Florida State
University Geology Department; Chair-
man of the Big Cypress Swamp Advisory
Committee. Certified Professional Geol-
ogist, American Institute of Professional
Geologists, Licensed Professional Geolo-
gist in the states of Florida, South
Carolina, and North Carolina.

Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geolo-
gist for Geological Investigations, B.A.,
University of South Florida, 1971, M.S.,
Eastern Kentucky University, 1973, Ph.D.,
Florida State University, 1986. Research
Interests: Cenozoic lithostratigraphy,
geologic history, and hydrogeology.
Consultant to the Florida Board of Pro-
fessional Geologists, Geology Examina-
tion Committee. Member: Geological
Society of America, Southeastern Geo-
logical Society, Society of Sedimentary
Geology (SEPM), Florida Academy of
Science, Sigma Xi. Past-President,
Southeastern Geological Society, 1990.
Research Associate, University of South
Florida. Licensed Professional Geologist,
State of Florida and Certified Professional
Geologist, American Institute of Profes-
sional Geologists.

Steven M. Spencer, Geologist II, Mineral
Resources and Environmental Geology
Section. B.S., Florida State University,
1981. Research Interests: Economic
geology. Licensed Professional Geol-
ogist, State of Florida.

Charles H. Tootle, Petroleum Engineer I,
Oil and Gas Section. B.S., Louisiana
Technical University, 1961, M.S.,
Louisiana Technical University, 1964,
Ph.D., Louisiana Technical University,
1971. Research Interests: petroleum
resources and exploration. Licensed
Professional Engineer, States of Florida
and Louisiana.

Clerical and Technical Staff

Cynthia A. "Cindy" Collier, Secretary
Specialist. A.A.S., Tallahassee Com-
munity College, 1975.

Peter M. Dobbins, Administrative Assis-
tant II. A.A., Santa Fe Junior College,

Joan V Gruber, Secretary Specialist

Jessie L. Hawkins, Custodian

Ted B. Kiper, Engineering Technician III.
A.A., Tallahassee Community College,
1976, B.S., Florida State University, 1988,
Masters Program, Florida State Univer-

Albert E. Phillips, Engineering Technician
II/Driller Assistant.

Sandra "Sandie" Ray, Administrative Sec-
retary. A.A., Chipola Junior College,

Franklin R. Rush, Jr., Laboratory Tech-
nician I

Student Research Assistants

Vanessa Allred
Steve Campbell
Elizabeth Doll
Meryl M. Enright
Will Evans
Bob Fisher
Jim Gagalis
Rick Green
Kent Hartong
Heidi Hertler
Brad Highley
Alexis Howell
Clay Kelly
Deborah Mekeel
Rob Mince
Koren Taylor

Professional Research Associates

Dr. Bruce Nocita (University of South
Florida, HSW Environmental Consulting
Dr. Gary Zarillo (Florida Institute of
Rick Copeland (DER)
Andrew Grosz (USGS)
Dr. Lucy McCartan (USGS)
Dr. Jim Otton (USGS)


Abstracts for Selected Presentations
and Publications

Map Series 133 Mineral Resources of
Clay County, Florida, 1991. By Steven
M. Spencer, J. William, Yon, Jr., Ronald
W Hoenstine and Ed Lane.

In recent years, Florida has ex-
perienced rapid development and tre-
mendous population increases. As a
consequence, Florida's mineral re-
sources have been severely impacted.
Knowledge of the types of minerals pre-
sent and their related usages plays an
integral part in planning for Florida's

At the request of the Northeast
Florida Planning Council, the Florida
Geological Survey initiated a study of
Clay County's mineral resources. The
format includes a 1:125,000 map of the
county, and, on the opposite side, text
and cross-sections relating the area's
geology and mineral resources.

Map Series 134 Mineral Resources of
Union and Bradford Counties, Florida,
1991. By Ed Lane, Ronald W Hoenstine,
Frank R. Rupert, and Steven M. Spencer.

In recent years, considerable atten-
tion has been focused on Florida's rapid
development, the accompanying popula-
tion increase, and their effect on the
state's important mineral resources.
Frequently, this development occurred in
areas underlain by known mineral depos-
its, precluding extraction of the minerals.
This conflict between rapid growth and
utilization of the state's mineral resources

prompted the Florida Geological Survey
to initiate this study of the mineral
resources of Union and Bradford Coun-
ties. A knowledge of Union and Bradford
Counties' mineral resources is basic to
the process of initiating, developing, and
implementing an effective comprehensive
land use plan. This report summarizes
and interprets geological data (i.e., core
and well cutting descriptions, geophysical
logs, and data derived from field recon-
naissance). A large scale map shows
the occurrences of all mineral resources,
in a format that is useful and essential to
planners and government officials in their
analyses of urban and rural development.
Accompanying text explains the counties'
geomorphology and geology and their
relationship to the mineral resources.
Each mineral resource is discussed in
detail. Selected cross sections are
presented to show the occurrence of
geological units in the subsurface.

Bulletin 63 Geology of Gulf County,
Florida, 1991. By Frank R. Rupert.

Florida expects rapid population
growth to continue through the year
2000. Thus the need exists for an under-
standing of the geological parameters
necessary for intelligent growth planning.
This report presents an overview of the
geology of Gulf County in a format suit-
able for use by other governmental agen-
cies, planners, and the citizens of Florida.
Information on the geomorphology, geol-
ogy, hydrogeology, and mineral re-
sources of Gulf County, Florida is pro-
vided through detailed text, maps, geo-
logic cross sections, and tables.

Information Circular 107 Part I 1988
and 1989 Florida Petroleum Production
and Exploration, 1991. By Jacqueline M.

Florida oil production began to de-
cline in 1979 and continued to do so
during 1988 and 1989. Jay field, as the
leading producing field for Florida,
controls the rate of decline.

Onshore exploratory drilling during
1988 and 1989 resulted in the discovery
of McDavid field in Escambia County and
Coldwater Creek field in Santa Rosa
County. Offshore exploratory drilling
included six wells which were completed
in federal waters off Florida during 1988
and 1989; one of these was the second
Norphlet discovery in the Destin Dome
area and was classified by the federal
government as a producible field.

Geophysical exploration during 1988
and 1989 concentrated in the Florida
panhandle and the south Florida penin-
sula. The panhandle exploration in-
cluded the known oil-producing Santa
Rosa and Escambia Counties, an area
offshore from Santa Rosa and Escambia
Counties, and the Apalachicola Embay-
ment area. South Florida seismic explo-
ration was east of the known Sunniland-
producing trend in Broward, Dade, Hen-
dry and Palm Beach Counties.

In addition to 1988 and 1989 data, a
summary of offshore exploratory drilling
in state waters, from 1947 through 1983,
is included in this report. This infor-
mation may be useful in evaluating future
offshore and onshore development and
exploration. Of similar value are descrip-
tions of each of Floridas 22 oil fields.

Descriptions include discovery data, geo-
logic information, and production totals.

Information Circular 107 Part II
Petroleum Exploration and Development
Policies in Florida: Response to Public
Concern for Sensitive Environments,
1991. By Jacqueline M. Lloyd and Joan
M. Ragland.

Floridas oil and gas policies have
evolved in response to its increased
awareness of the economic and aesthetic
value of its other natural resources. The
history of state oil and gas regulations
and policy in Florida can be divided into
three phases. The first phase encour-
aged exploration with no stated concern
for other natural resources. This phase
culminated in the legislative offer of an
award for petroleum discovery. The
second phase began in 1945 with the
passage of the conservation law and
spanned the mid-1940s to -60s. This
period was characterized by economic
concern for tourist trade and commercial
fisheries. Finally, environmental concerns
became an issue in the early 1970s.
The effects of these concerns are
especially apparent in the development of
recent offshore policies and regulations.
The following text describes the history of
oil and gas development and regulation
in Florida as it relates to concerns for the
economic and aesthetic value of Floridas
other (non-petroleum) natural resources.

Information Circular 108 1990 and 1991
Florida petroleum production and
exploration, 1992. By Jacqueline M.

Florida's oil production began to
decline in 1979 and continued this trend

during 1990 and 1991. Jay field, the
largest producing field in Florida, controls
the rate of decline. Two panhandle oil
fields were plugged and abandoned in
1991. These were Bluff Springs and
McDavid fields; both were single-well
fields which produced from the Smack-
over Formation.

Onshore exploratory drilling during
1990 and 1991 concentrated primarily in
the Florida panhandle where 13 wells
were drilled in Escambia, Santa Rosa and
Okaloosa Counties. A single exploratory
well was drilled in south Florida in
Okeechobee County. All 14 exploratory
wells were plugged and abandoned as
dry holes.

Only one exploratory well was com-
pleted in federal waters off Florida in
1990; there were no offshore completions
in 1991. This well was the second to be
drilled in Destin Dome block 56; both
wells drilled in this block are classified by
the federal government as producible
Norphlet discoveries.

Geophysical exploration conducted
during 1990 and 1991 concentrated in
the known oil producing areas of the
panhandle and the south Florida penin-
sula. In addition to this completed
geophysical exploration, an application is
pending for an extensive offshore seis-
mic, gravity, and magnetic survey which
would potentially explore a dense grid off
of Florida's Gulf coast extending from
offshore of Apalachicola, Franklin County
to offshore of Naples, Collier County.

Special Publication 31 Environmental
Geology and Hydrogeology of the Ocala
Area, Florida, 1991. By Ed Lane and

Ronald W Hoenstine.

The Ocala area, one of the fastest
growing urban areas in the nation, is
projected to have an annual growth rate
of 4.64 percent through 1995. Such
phenomenal growth places unusual
stresses on the environment due to the
demands of energy, transportation, con-
struction, water supplies, and waste
disposal. This report integrates and
interprets cultural, climatological,
geological, and hydrological data to
illustrate the relationships between
geology and land-use planning in the
Ocala area. Emphasis is placed on the
intimate relationship among the areas
water resources, its karst terrain, and
potential pollution problems. Graphics
are used in a format that is useful to
planners, scientists, government officials,
and the public.

Special Publication 32 Florida' Ground
Water Quality Monitoring Program;
Hydrogeological Framework, 1991.
Edited by Thomas M. Scott, Jacqueline
M. Lloyd and Gary L. Maddox; Coordi-
nated by Rick Copeland.

The Florida Legislatures Water Qua-
lity Assurance Act of 1983 mandated the
establishment of a Ground Water Quality
Network to aid in the prediction and
detection of contamination of Floridas
ground-water resources. The goals of
the program are: to establish the
baseline ground-water quality of the
principal aquifer systems in the state; to
detect and predict changes in ground-
water quality resulting from various land
uses and potential sources of contami-
nation; and to disseminate the water-
quality data generated by the program to

local governments and the public. An
understanding of the hydrogeologic
framework, as set forth in this publi-
cation, is prerequisite to meeting these

This publication portrays the basic
hydrogeologic conditions present within
the principal aquifer systems of Florida.
A brief geologic overview is followed by
an extensive series of maps. The maps
are presented on Water Management
District base maps and include: isopach
and structure contour maps of the prin-
cipal aquifers; isopach and structure
contour maps of beds acting as aqui-
tards and aquicludes; areas where the
Floridan aquifer system is at or near the
surface and areas where it is under
water-table conditions; areas of recharge
to the Floridan aquifer system; poten-
tiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer
system; areas of saltwater intrusion;
areas of karst development; and ground-
water and surface-water basins.

Special Publication 33 Environmental
Geology and Hydrogeology of the
Gainesville Area, 1991. By Ronald W
Hoenstine and Ed Lane.

The Gainesville area is expected to
experience a significant growth in
population during the 1990s. This urban
growth with its associated construction,
transportation, water supply, and energy
needs, and waste disposal will substan-
tially impact the environment.

The principal objective of this report
is to illustrate the important role of geol-
ogy in land-use planning for the Gaines-
ville urban area by integrating cultural,
climatological, and hydrological data.

The report summarizes and interprets
available cultural information and scien-
tific data. Graphics are emphasized as a
means of presenting data in a format that
can be readily used by the general pub-
lic, scientists and planners.

Special Publication 34 Florida's Ground
Water Quality Monitoring Program -
Background Hydrogeochemistry, 1992.
Edited by G. Maddox, J.M. Lloyd, TM.
Scott, S.B. Upchurch, and R. Copeland.

This is the second volume in a series
on Florida's Ground Water Quality Moni-
toring Program. It presents the results of
extensive research by geologists from the
Department of Environmental Regulation
(DER), the five Water Management Dis-
tricts, the USGS and the FGS. This
volume documents the existing hydro-
geochemical composition of the States
aquifer systems the surficial, inter-
mediate and Floridan.

The data management and collection
methods were established by the DER in
conjunction with the Water Management
Districts and the USGS. In this way
sampling protocol, analytical methods,
data base systems and data validation
procedures for this massive data collec-
tion and interpretation effort were

The hydrostratigraphy of the surficial
aquifer system, intermediate aquifer
system/intermediate confining unit and
the Floridan aquifer system are dis-
cussed. Regional variations in the sys-
tems are noted along with a discussion
of the component lithostratigraphic units
comprising the aquifer systems and con-
fining units.

Chapter IV "Quality of Water in
Florida's Aquifer Systems", provides a
discussion of the factors that control the
water quality of the aquifer system. The
analytes discussed include: general
descriptors (temperature and pH), cat-
ions (calcium, magnesium, sodium, po-
tassium, iron, mercury and lead) anions
(bicarbonate and carbonate, chloride,
sulfate, fluoride, nitrate and phosphate),
other constituents (total dissolved solids,
conductivity, total organic carbon and
synthetic organics. Maps showing the
distribution of many of the analytes in
each aquifer system within the water
management districts were complied and
are presented in the volume.

The data generated for this special
publication describes the present condi-
tion of the ground water in Florida. From
this information, man's influence on the
water quality can be estimated and a
baseline with which future measurements
can be compared is established.

Special Publication 36 Plio-Pleistocene
Stratigraphy and Paleontology of
Southern Florida, 1992. Edited by
Thomas M. Scott and Warren D. Allmon.

The Plio-Pleistocene sequence in
southern Florida has attracted the
attention of paleontologists since the
1800's. These sediments contain an
abundant, well preserved molluscan
fauna. The occurrence of such concen-
trated and diverse accumulations of
mollusks is geologically uncommon and
the origins of these units is poorly

This volume arose from a 1990
Southeastern Geological Society field trip

which focused on these sediments in
southwestern Florida, an area where the
Plio-Pleistocene sediments are often
exposed by mining activities. Papers
presented include discussions of the
molluscan faunas, the avifauna from the
APAC pit, a review of the barnacle fauna
of Florida, surficial aquifer system hydro-
geology in relation to the sediment pat-
terns, lithostratigraphy of the Tamiami
Formation in southwestern Florida, the
sequence stratigraphy of the Plio-
Pleistocene units in southwestern Florida,
the use of an integrated stratigraphic
approach to investigating the Plio-
Pleistocene formations, the origins of the
shell beds and a philosophical approach
to the problems associated with the inter-
pretation of the units.

Open File Report 40 Earthquakes and
Seismic History of Florida, 1991. By Ed

The Florida Geological Survey re-
ceives many requests for information
concerning earthquakes. This illustrated
report explains the physical processes
that produce earthquakes in terms that
are easily understood by government
officials and the public. Scientific terms
are defined and a table lists every known
seismic event that has been reported in
Florida from 1727 through January 1991.

Open File Report 43 The Geomorphol-
ogy and Geology of Liberty County,
Florida, 1991. By Frank R. Rupert.

This report provides a overview of the
geomorphology, geology, hydrogeology,
and mineral resources of Liberty County,
Florida, based on data on file at the
Florida Geological Survey. Descriptions

of the major landforms and the Late
Eocene to Recent stratigraphy are pro-
vided in the text and through a geomor-
phic map and geologic cross sections.
Also provided is information on the
aquifer systems and mineral commodities
present in the county.

Open File Report 45 The Geomorphol-
ogy and Geology of Dixie County,
Florida, 1991. By Frank R. Rupert.

Designed as a general overview of
the geology of Dixie County, Florida, this
report provides information on the geo-
morphology, Middle Eocene to Recent
stratigraphy, aquifer units, and mineral
commodities in the county. The land-
forms and shallow stratigraphy are
illustrated in a geomorphic map and two
geologic cross sections.

Open File Report 46 The Geomorphol-
ogy, Geology and Hydrogeology of
Lafayette County, Florida, 1991. By
Jonathan D. Arthur.

This report on geologic aspects of
Lafayette County has been written for
inclusion into a U.S. Soil Conservation
Service publication as part of the Florida
Geological Survey's efforts to prioritize
studies to meet the needs of multiple
agencies. The report utilized existing
literature and data for the county in
addition to inspection of well cuttings for
refinement of the geologic cross sec-

Lafayette County lies within the Gulf
Coastal Lowlands geomorphic province.
Approximately one half of the county
surface is wetlands, the two most exten-
sive being San Pedro Bay and Mallory

Swamp. These wetlands drain into the
Steinhatchee and Suwannee Rivers.
Twelve artesian springs flow into the
Suwannee River, one of which is a first
magnitude spring.

Water wells located in the county
penetrate Eocene and younger rocks.
Included are the Eocene Avon Park For-
mation and the Ocala Limestone, the
Oligocene Suwannee Limestone and the
Oligocene (?) and Miocene Hawthorn
Group. Undifferentiated sands and clays
comprise the post-Miocene rocks. Two
geologic cross sections included in this
report illustrate the subsurface extent of
these lithostratigraphic units. Surface
outcrops of the Ocala Limestone occur
along the Suwannee River and in limited
areas in the southwest part of the

Floridas three aquifer systems, the
surficial aquifer system, the intermediate
aquifer system/confining unit, and the
Floridan aquifer system, are functional
within Lafayette County. The Floridan
aquifer system is the major source of
drinking water within the county. In
addition to groundwater resources, min-
eral resources occur within the county.
These include sand and clay, lime-
stone/dolostone and peat. Currently,
there is no commercial development of
the mineral resources.

Open File Report 47 Lithology and Paly-
nology of Cave Floor Sediment Cores
from Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County,
Florida, 1991. By Frank R. Rupert.

Five short bottom sediment cores
taken in Wakulla Spring, Wakulla County,
Florida were sampled for palynological

study. Four of the cores were recovered
from sediments at the spring cave en-
trance (130 feet water depth). One core
was taken in a fossil vertebrate bone
bed, 280 feet into the main conduit of the
spring. Green algae cysts were present
in Cores 1 and 2, and Dinoflagellates,
which are typically marine planktonic
microorganisms, were observed in Core

The diatom species present, with the
exception of Paralia sulcata (a brackish
water to marine species), are reported as
common constituents of modern fresh
water bodies (United States Department
of the Interior, 1966). These include
Melosira italica, Gomphonema
herculeana, Epithema irregularis,
Epithema turgida, Navicula amphibola,
Cocconeis placentula, Navicula
cuspidata, Synedra ulna, and Pinnularia

Open File Report 50 A Geological
Overview of Florida, 1992. By Thomas
M. Scott.

A Geological Overview of Florida
provides a generalized, basic description
of the lithostratigraphy and hydrostrati-
graphy of the Florida Platform. Struc-
tures affecting the deposition of Cenozoic
sediments on the platform are discussed.
The geomorphology of the exposed por-
tion of the platform is briefly described.

Open File Report 51 Geomorphology,
Geology, and Hydrogeology of the
Savannas State Reserve, Martin and St.
Lucie Counties, Florida, 1992. By Frank
R. Rupert.

Geological processes have played the
dominant role in the evolution of natural
Florida. Therefore, an understanding of
the geology underlying the many unique
ecosystems now protected in State Re-
serves is integral to formulating effective
land and resource management policy
for these areas. This report presents a
discussion of the geomorphology, the
Middle Eocene to Recent stratigraphy,
and the hydrogeology of the Savannas
State Reserve, situated in Martin and St.
Lucie Counties, Florida. The text is
designed to be incorporated into the
Reserve's management plan, and to
function as a free-standing summary of
the areas geology for use by land
managers, planners, and other interested

Open File Report 53 Guidelines For
Authors, 1992. By Ed Lane.

The preparation of manuscripts and
illustrations by computer has made it
imperative that guidelines be promul-
gated so that prospective authors can
effectively utilize the available technology.
This report provides a standardized
approach to the mechanical processes
that are necessary for in-house and
outside authors' preparation of manu-
scripts for printing by the Florida
Geological Survey. Each type of Survey
publication is discussed, with illustrations
showing their common and different
aspects. Appendices provide examples
of standard formats of typical pages and
letter symbols for names of geological
formations. This report replaces SP 23.

Open File Report 54 Carbonate Units of
the Intermediate Aquifer System in the
Suwannee River Water Management Dis-
trict, 1992. By Mark Groszos, Ron
Ceryak, David Alison, Renee Cooper,
Mike Weinberg, Milena Macesich, Meryl
Martinez Enright, and Frank Rupert.

The intermediate aquifer system or
intermediate confining unit in the
Suwannee River Water Management Dis-
trict is a series of freshwater aquifers and
interbedded confining units. It is used as
a rural domestic and agricultural water
source, and is contained within sedi-
ments of the Miocene age Hawthorn
Group. Five distinct water bearing
carbonate units within the intermediate
aquifer system are defined and de-
scribed. The extent, elevation of the top
of unit, and thickness of each unit are
illustrated in separate contour maps.

Open File Map Series 1 Mines and
Quarries Greater than 10 Acres in Size in
the Suwannee River Water Management
District, 1992. By Milena Macesich,
Nettle Martinez, Mark Groszos, Frank
Rupert and Ron White. Scale 1:250,000.

This map illustrates the locations of
historic, present, and potential future
mine and quarry locations greater than
ten acres in size in the Suwannee River
Water Management District (SRWMD).
Such open pit mines serve as windows
into the local geology and define areas of
known economic mineral deposits. The
major mineral commodities mined or pro-
posed to be mined in the SRWMD in-
clude dolomite, heavy minerals, lime-
stone, peat, phosphate, and sand. Mine
sites are symbol- and number-coded on
the map to a master legend, which in-

cludes commodity type, current owner-
ship, and mining status information.

Open File Map Series 2 An Isopach
Map of the Hawthorn Group in the
Suwannee River Water Management
District, 1992. By Mark Groszos and
Frank Rupert. Scale 1:250,000.

The Hawthorn Group is a lithologically
diverse, predominantly subsurface unit
underlying much of the eastern pan-
handle and peninsular Florida. In the
Suwannee River Water Management Dis-
trict, it is composed of Miocene age
interbedded sands, clayey sands, clays,
and carbonates. It contains economic
deposits of phosphate, an intermediate
aquifer system, and it functions in many
areas as an aquiclude to the underlying
Floridan aquifer system. This map
illustrates the thickness and extent of the
Hawthorn Group in north-central Florida.
Isopleths are constructed on a 20 foot
contour interval utilizing well data on file
at the Florida Geological Survey and the
Suwannee River Water Management Dis-

Biennial Report 16 Biennial Report
1989-1990, 1991. By Paulette A. Bond.

The sixteenth Biennial Report details
the research, regulatory, and service
activities of the Florida Geological Survey
during 1989-1990. Research and regula-
tory programs are discussed for Geologi-
cal Investigations Section, Mineral
Resource and Environmental Geology
Section, and Oil and Gas Section. Addi-
tional ongoing FGS programs are sum-
marized along with cooperative programs
with other agencies. Publications and
other staff professional activities are


Leaflet 16 The Geology of Falling Waters
State Recreation Area, 1992. By Frank
Rupert and Ed Lane.

This leaflet provides a general de-
scription of the geology of one of
Floridas most interesting State Recrea-
tion Areas. Designed primarily for use by
park visitors and classes, the local
geology and the origin and stratigraphy
of the interesting tubular sink for which
the park is named are summarized in text
and illustrations.

Poster Florida's Fossil Mammals, 1991.
Compiled by Frank R. Rupert.

Florida has been home to a unique
succession of mammals for much of the
last 40 million years. Many species no
longer live in the state, or have become
extinct. Most have left behind only
scattered bones, incomplete reminders of
the interesting diversity of mammalian life
that once lived here. This poster illus-
trates some of Florida's extinct fossil
mammals for which complete skeletons
have been reconstructed.

Poster Florida's Hydrogeologic Environ-
ment, 1991. By Paulette A. Bond.

This poster consists of a large color
illustration overprinted with black
explanatory labels showing the complex
relationships which exist between a
Florida community and its natural envi-
ronment. Various components of the
hydrologic cycle are illustrated including
precipitation, runoff, infiltration, recharge,
discharge, evaporation, and transpiration.
A view of the surface shows a number of

cultural activities which may impact water
quality and quantity. The surface view is
contiguous with a cross-sectional view
which shows the underlying surficial,
intermediate, and Floridan aquifer sys-
tems along with the intermediate con-
fining unit. Various hydrologic features of
the subsurface units are also presented.

Papers by Staff in Outside

Classification and Tectonic Impli-
cations for Early Mesozoic Magma
Types -of the Circum-Atlantic, 1992.
By Laura E. Cummins, Jonathan D.
Arthur, and Paul C. Ragland.

Rocks composing an early Mesozoic
basaltic suite (MBS) occur throughout the
Circum-Atlantic region as dikes, flows,
and sheets. Numerous classification
schemes have been proposed for rocks
from specific geographic areas. All of
these rocks, however, can be broadly
classified into one of the two groups -
enriched or depleted based on TiO2-
MgO relations. The enriched group, for
comparable MgO contents, has TiO2 con-
centrations elevated above those of the
depleted group. Most of the classifi-
cation schemes proposed for this group
of rocks can be viewed in the context of
this more general classification. Over
most of the Circum-Atlantic the enriched
r9cks dominate. However, despite the
widespread occurrence of the enriched
rocks, chemical compositions of this
group are remarkably uniform. This is in
contrast to the geographically restricted
depleted rocks, which are quite hetero-
geneous with respect to incompatible-
element content.

Several factors have been described,
any of which could be responsible for
generating the chemical differences
observed between the enriched and de-
pleted MBS rocks. These include en-
riched subcontinental mantle, open-
versus closed-system magmatism, depth
and/or density-controlled partial melting,
and fracture zone or transform influence.
All of these processes are consistent with
our conceptual framework for MBS mag-
matism, the depleted rocks being derived
from shallower, rift-axial source regions.
It is highly possible that all of the factors
discussed may have contributed to some
extent to the generation of the observed
chemical differences.

Planning and Florida's mineral re-
sources: Florida Planning, V. III, No.
3, p. 5-6, 1991. By Ronald W. Hoen-
stine and Steven M. Spencer.

Considerable attention has been
focused on Florida's rapid development,
the accompanying population increase,
and their effect on the states important
mineral resources. In response to these
concerns the Florida Geological Survey
(FGS) has initiated a series of county
mineral resource investigations. These
studies identify potential resource areas
and present the results in a format ap-
propriate for use by Florida's planning

Providing mineral resource informa-
tion in this format has a two-fold benefit.
First, it serves as an effective mechanism
for the identification of important mineral
resources. Secondly, it underscores the
overall significance of geology to envi-
ronmental protection, problem solving,
and the development of sound land-use


Poster Presentations

Gulf Coastal Programs at the Florida
Geological Survey: 1992 Gulf Coast
Symposium, Tampa, Florida, 1992.
By Ronald W. Hoenstine, Ed Lane,
Frank R. Rupert, Steven M. Spencer,
Connie Garrett, and Jacqueline M.

The Florida Geological Survey is
active in studying and interpreting the
geologic processes affecting Florida's
Gulf coast, including coastal erosion,
freshwater-saltwater interactions, coastal
freshwater aquifer studies, and mapping
of mineral resources and surface geol-
ogy. These studies provide essential
baseline geological data for use by
coastal planners and federal state and
local agencies.

The Survey has made a major com-
mitment to increase our understanding of
the geological processes affecting
Florida's Gulf Coastal Wetlands through
a long-term study with the U.S.
Geological Survey. Such information is
essential to wetlands management and

The importance of geology in defining
Florida's coastal environments is empha-
sized in the Surveys on-going public
education program. This program has
included conducting an accredited
course for Florida' secondary teachers,
presentations to school and civic groups,
and providing geological publications on
Florida's Gulf coastal counties.

Talks by FGS Staff Members to
Professional Groups

Uranium Cycling and Peat in Florida,
1991. By Paulette A. Bond. Presented
to the Brevard Summer Science Insti-
tute, Palm Bay, FL.

Florida has a widespread source of
naturally occurring uranium in carbonate
fluorapatite, a mineral which is mined for
phosphate. This mineral occurs in local-
ized economic deposits and is also
widely dispersed in the sediments of the
Hawthorn Group. Uranium from phos-
phate is vulnerable to leaching by ground
and surface waters and can be trans-
ported in solution. Organic matter from
Florida's peatlands concentrates uranium
by absorbing it onto large organic
molecules. Identification of sources,
sinks and transporting mechanisms for
uranium may allow small scale geochemi-
cal cycles for uranium to be identified,
furthering our understanding of the
behavior of that element in Florida's

Geologic Framework of the Lower
Floridan Aquifer System, Brevard
County, Florida, 1992. By Joel G.
Duncan, William L. Evans, III, Koren L.
Taylor. Presented to the Underground
Injection Control Workshop, St.
Petersburg, FL.

Utilization of injection-disposal well
systems for the elimination of liquid waste
products is a common practice in Bre-
vard County, Florida. The liquid waste is
pumped underground into highly perme-
able rocks within the non-potable portion
of the lower Floridan aquifer system.
Ground-water chemical data from monitor

wells at several injection sites suggest
that the presence and/or lateral conti-
nuity of suitable confining rock above the
injection zone is questionable.

Strata of the lower Floridan aquifer
system are characterized by Paleocene
to Middle Eocene, interbedded lime-
stones and dolostones which dip gently
to the east-southeast. Several lines of
evidence suggest the possibility of
faulting in Brevard County.

The "Boulder Zone" is the primary
injection horizon and consists of highly
fractured and cavernous dolostones.
Above the Boulder Zone, there are layers
of carbonates that have confining qual-
ities. Evaluation of geophysical logs,
lithologic samples and borehole videos
from the injection wells indicate that
numerous fractures exist throughout the
lower Floridan aquifer system including
the confining strata.

Analysis of monitor zone ground-
water chemical data showed that several
of the wells in the study exhibit trends in
water quality such as a decrease in total
dissolved solids and/or chloride concen-
trations. These trends are attributed to
the upward migration of injected waste
waters along permeable conduits related
to fractures, dissolutional cavities, and
vertical and lateral lithofacies variations.
The confining layers of the lower Floridan
aquifer system in Brevard County are
probably best described as having a
leaky character.

Geohydrology of South-Central Duval
County, 1992. By Ronald W.
Hoenstine. Presented to the
Jacksonville Installation Technical
Review Committee, Jacksonville, FL.

Three aquifer systems are present
within this area. These include a shallow
surficial aquifer system comprised of Plio-
Pleistocene sands; an intermediate aqui-
fer system within the limestone and sand
layers of the Hawthorn Group and the
underlying Floridan aquifer system asso-
ciated with the carbonate sediments of
the Ocala Group and Avon Park Forma-

The principal source of water to the
area is derived from the Floridan aquifer
system. However, a number of local
wells provide potable water from the
surficial and intermediate aquifer sys-
tems. Drilling now being conducted at
the Naval Air Station, Jacksonville during
the investigation phase of the IR study
will try to determine the local nature of
the contacts between these aquifer sys-
tems and the potential for contamination
of the intermediate and Floridan aquifer

Geology of the Aucilla River Estuary,
1992. By Ronald W. Hoenstine. Pre-
sented to FGS Staff and U.S.G.S.
Project Oversight Group, Tallahassee,

The Aucilla River, with headwaters in
Brooks County, Georgia flows southward
along the eastern edge of Jefferson
County to the Gulf of Mexico. This river
with an approximate drainage basin of
740-square miles is the primary agent for
the introduction of plastic sediments to

the Aucilla River Estuary. Sediment load
is significantly reduced as a result of the
river flowing underground through por-
tions of its course.

Sediment within the estuary consist of
undifferentiated sands, silts and clays
underlain by carbonates of the Suwannee
Limestone. Thicknesses of the surficial
sediments vary from zero to more than
18 feet. Limestone highs are exposed at
low tides in the upper portions of the tidal

The Geology of the Silver River Basin,
1992. By Frank R. Rupert. Presented
to the Florida Paleontological Society,
Ocala, FL.

The Silver River Basin is situated in
the Central Valley geomorphic zone, east
of Ocala, Marion County, Florida. It
contains the Silver River, which flows
eastward from its source at Silver Springs
approximately seven miles, and becomes
a tributary to the Oklawaha River. The
shallow stratigraphy of the region con-
sists of Eocene to Recent limestones and
siliciclastic rocks. The Eocene Ocala
Limestone is a unit of the Floridan aquifer
system, and expels crystal clear regional
ground water at Silver Springs. Overlying
the Ocala Limestone is the Miocene age
Hawthorn Group, comprised of inter-
bedded sandy clays, clayey sands, and
carbonates; this unit is locally fossil-
iferous, and contains commercial fullers
earth deposits. Pleistocene and Recent
undifferentiated sands and clays form the
surface sediments in the Silver River