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DISSEMINATION IEID 'E20100310_AAAABH' PACKAGE 'UF00000224_00003' INGEST_TIME '2010-03-10T02:37:53-05:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
REQUEST_EVENTS TITLE Disseminate Event
REQUEST_EVENT NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2017-03-03T10:46:00-05:00' NOTE 'request id: 310090; E20100310_AAAABH' AGENT 'UF73'
finished' '2017-03-07T14:17:44-05:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILE SIZE '407638' DFID 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADFX' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039.jp2'
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' 88354242f93341a138de2379af940f96
EVENT '2017-02-24T12:10:46-05:00' OUTCOME 'success'
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TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
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TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
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OUR CHANGING NATURAL LANDSCAPE Â– The gray area in the picture above depicts FloridaÂ’s land area during the low sea level stand of the late Pleistocene, about 18,000 years ago. FloridaÂ’s current land area is outlined in white. FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEYBiennial Report 23 2003 2004
Cover design by Tom Greenhalgh. Illustration used with permission of Tasa Graphic Arts.
STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Colleen M. Castille, Secretary DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT Edwin J. Conklin, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief BIENNIAL REPORT 23 2003 Â– 2004 By Tom Greenhalgh, P.G. #1277, Jim Ladner, P.G. #1726, and Frank Rupert, P.G. #0149 Published for the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida 2005
ISSN 1052-6536 ii
PREFACE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida December 2005 The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Department of Environmental Protection is publishing Biennial Report 23, prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the FGS staff during the two-year period January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004. Research results are reported in the Survey's various publication series, professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the FGS. Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G. State Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey iii
TABLEOFCONTENTS PageFOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 FGS CREATES THE HYDROGEOLOGYSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONALOFFICE SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 THIS BIENNIALREPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FGS ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICALDATAMANAGEMENTSECTION . . . . . . . . .9 COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Geographic Informational Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Web Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Information Technologies (IT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Earth Science Week 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Earth Science Week 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 RESEARCH LIBRARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Library Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Library Computer Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Publications Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 SPECIALPROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Leon County School System Leon Advocacy and Resource Center Coopertive Job Training Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 National Geologic Map Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 St. Johns River Water Management District Cooperative Program . . . . . . .13 GEOLOGICALINVESTIGATIONS SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 COASTALRESEARCH PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 On-going Coastal Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Sedimentologic Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Sedimentation Elevation Table (SET) Project . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Cooperative Coastal Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Offshore Sand Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Joint Coastal Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium . . . . . . . .18 FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project . .19 Resistivity Survey Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 GEOLOGIC DATAACQUISITION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 On going Geologic Data Acquistion Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Geologic Sample Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Cooperative Geologic Data Acquistion Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Manatee Springs Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Oleno State Park and River Rise State Preserve . . . . . . . . . . .22 Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer Monitoring Well Construction . . . . . .22 City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Investigation . . . . . . . .22 Northwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program . . .22 South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program . . . .22 MINERALRESOURCES PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 iv
Crushed Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Sand and Gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Heavy Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Crude Oil and Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 SPRINGS PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 STATEMAPPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 HYDROGEOLOGYSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 HYDROGEOCHEMISTRYPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemistry Studies . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Bench-Scale Geochemical Assessment of Water-Rock Interaction: Seminole County ASR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Groundwater Quality of Spring Wells in Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 EDUCATIONPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Development of a Cave Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Â“Explore Florida!Â” Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Karst Short Course and Field Trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 KARSTHYDROGEOLOGYPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Wakulla In-Cave Meter Data Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Tide Gauging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Expansion of the Cave Metering Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Continuation of the Woodville Karst Plain Modeling Efforts . . . . . . . . . .35 Florida Cave Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Wakulla Springs-Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Discharge and Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 PHYSICALAQUIFERCHARACTERIZATIONPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Estimating Ground Water Discharges via Radon Tracing . . . . . . . . . . .36 Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project . . . . . . . .38 AQUIFERVULNERABILITYASSESSMENTPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Sensitive Karst Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Florida Springs Protection Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on the Water Quality of Fanning Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 OTHEROUTSOURCEDRESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 THEHYDROGEOLOGYCONSORTIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 OILAND GAS SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 REGULATORYPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 DRILLING AND PRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 GEOPHYSICALEXPLORATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 OFFSHORE ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 IMPORTED NATURALGAS IN SOUTH FLORIDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 OILAND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 OILAND GAS DATABASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 OILANDGASWEBSITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 SPECIALPROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 SINKHOLE SUMMITII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49REVISION TO HYDROGEOLOGICALUNITS OF FLORIDA . . . . . . . . . .50 v
EQUIPMENTAND FACILITIES ACQUISITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 HYDROGEOCHEMISTRYLAB AND SEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 CORE STORAGE FACILITYEXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 NEWDRILLRIG AND WATER TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 NEWOFFICE SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 FGSPUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 BIENNIALREPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 BULLETIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 FLORIDAGEOLOGYFORUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 INFORMATION CIRCULAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 LEAFLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 MAPSERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 OPEN FILE MAPSERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 OPEN FILE REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 POSTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 SPECIALPUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 VIDEO SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 PAPERS BYSTAFF IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONALACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 PRESENTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 FIELD TRIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 PERSONNELINFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 PERSONNELCHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 FULLTIME EMPLOYEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 RESEARCH ASSOCIATES & ASSISTANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 FULLTIME EMPLOYEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ANDASSISTANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 FGS AWARDS PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 FGS AWARDS FOR 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 FGS AWARDS FOR 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 OUTSIDE AWARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 RETIREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 FGS BUDGETSUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 vi
BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 1 As we entered 2005, the State of Florida was recovering economically and emotionally from one of the worst hurricane seasons our state has ever seen. The people of Florida have been through great trauma and personal loss; however, through it all, many have shown their inner strength and ability to persevere. The Governor and the Secretary of DEP praised and described, on several occasions, the many individuals and volunteer groups that provided assistance, coordinated emergency response and resource follow-up assistance to those in need. We can be proud of our efforts and appreciative of those who donated so much of their time to assist our communities. Our Oil and Gas District Field Offices in Ft. Myers and Jay both escaped with near misses with no major damage, as did our staff's personal homes. Tallahassee was out of harms way from the main paths of destruction, but we had many downed trees and numerous power outages. All in all, we were glad to see the 2004 hurricane season end. During the 2003-2004 biennium, the FGS again proposed modifications to the distribution formula for minerals severance tax revenue to more equitably include the minerals trust fund (MTF) in this distribution. The DEP has agreed with this need each year and put forward the proposal. To date, however, legislative action has not occurred. We have once more proposed modifications to the Oil and Gas statues to update some outdated language and to close down the MTF as a surety option for private industry. We have also proposed language to allow the FGS to maintain certain data from sinkholes, caves, and springs confidential from public records. This is intended to increase our database for resource conservation and ground-water dynamics understanding and protection. These also have not been acted upon yet....we will keep trying until these concerns are satisfactorily addressed. The Florida Geological Survey has been very active and productive during 2003 and 2004. In February 2003, the Department held the Florida Springs Conference "Natural Gems Troubled Waters" in Gainesville, Fl, attended by almost 400 professionals and private citizens. The conference agenda included field trips to the Ichetucknee Springs State Park and the Santa Fe River recharge basin, concurrent speaker sessions, invited guest speakers, and the premier of a new documentary video Waters Journey The FGS was a significant participant with eight presentations, hosting an educational booth, and participating in numerous discussions and planning sessions. Later in 2003, the FGS published the Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary, Special Publication No. 52, compiled by Dr. Rick Copeland. Two staff also presented papers at the annual meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences and published inhouse reports on two projects funded in part by the "Florida Springs Initiative" established by Governor Bush. During this two year period, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) project was completed, and will be published as Bulletin 67. This important contribution to protecting and conserving our valuable ground-water resources was presented at several professional meetings and at planning and elected officials' conferences. We have also contracted with several groups to provide us with targeted research results on selected hydrogeology projects. Contractors FORWARDby Walt Schmidt State Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey
have included leading Professional Geologists from Florida State University, the University of West Florida, the U.S. Geological Survey, and Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. One of the products was an educational DVD in our video series titled Florida's Aquifer Adventure This is a 20 minute video which describes Florida's aquifer systems, springs, caves and environmental issues. We published the transactions of a workshop held in 2002 titled Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida's Springs In cooperation with the Hydrogeology Consortium, the FGS organized, hosted and published the transactions from a workshop held in April of 2003, titled Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida Again in 2004, we teamed with the Hydrogeology Consortium and the American Ground Water Trust to put on the ASR (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) IV Forum in Tampa and published the transactions from this conference. In May 2004, the FGS cooperated with the Cave Diving Section of the National Speleological Society at their workshop The Science of Cave Diving This four day workshop brought together cave divers, scientists, regulators, private landowners, and researchers to explore cooperative opportunities for the cave diving and scientific communities in the management and protection of our karst environment. Finally, we published two educational posters on Florida's Sinkholes and on Florida's First Magnitude Springsheds in 2004. Our Hydrogeology and Geological Investigations staff have also been active cooperators with the Department of Community Affairs, assisting as Technical Advisory Committee members on their "Model Springs Land Development Code" and in preparing various springshed and stream to sink map products. In response to this high level of activity and productivity, the FGS upgraded the Hydrogeology Program to Section status in 2004. Dr. Jon Arthur oversees this section as the Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology. At the beginning of 2003, the Oil and Gas Section moved out of the Gunter Building into its new offices at the DEP Warehouse facility on Commonwealth Boulevard in Tallahassee. About one year later, our Geologic Data Acquisition Program also relocated to the Warehouse. This now puts the core / auger drilling operations staff co-located with our Geology Sample Repository. We built a 1,785 square foot drilling operations "barn" to house some of our equipment on location. Additional core storage space adjacent to the existing geologic sample library was made available to us by DEP. We have begun installing a mobile aisle shelving system in this facility. We have also moved to and expanded several labs at the Warehouse facility. We now operate our Scanning Electron Microscope / Microprobe Lab and our Environmental Geochemistry Lab at the Warehouse site. A visiting scientist lab is available for sample lay-out and description. A computer network station has been installed to allow access to our well log database and data entry on-site. Our "minerals resource review" program to support the DEP Division of State Lands has continued to grow in regards to demands on our time. In response to several conservation lands programs, there are continuing requests for mineral resource potential comments on numerous land parcels the state is considering for acquisition, acquiring a conservation easement, or selling. Our Coastal Research Program continues with its cooperative partnership with the U. S. Minerals Management Service to assess the sand resources offshore of the northeastern coast of Florida for potential beach renourishment use. The Oil and Gas Section, responding to questions about the potential for groundwater contamination from old, abandoned oil wells, designed a project to re-enter a FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 2
selected subset of old, plugged wells, to assess their status and plug them according to modern standards. This pilot program is intended to last five years, at which point a project review will occur to determine if further action is warranted. The section also has been working tirelessly on their Oil and Gas data management and upgrading the database. Much information is now available on the web and the full new capabilities should allow tracking of regulatory deadlines, bonding, descriptive well data, and fluid production. The six chapters of Administrative Rules have undergone a revision and modern upgrade. Public workshops have been held and we anticipate proposing full rule revisions in early 2005. In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the Leon County School System to provide job training for area high schools students with special needs. Our program provided various computer filing / scanning job experiences for the students. This continuing project is helping the FGS work on the backlog of well log data in need of digital entry. Other outreach activities included our annual open-house each Earth Science Week, our participation at the Florida Capitol during Earth Day, Mining Day, and Oceans Day. We cooperated with teachers from the Florida Sheriff's Youth Ranch to provide them with our earth science educational materials and a brief on Florida Geology. Staff also assisted in other interagency projects during 2003, including providing articles and assisting the Tallahassee Museum of History and Natural Science, cooperating with the DEP Office of Environmental Education in the Community Classroom after school program, participating in the Marion County Spring Festival, assisting the Department of Health with one of their workshops, and leading a fieldtrip for the National Ground Water Association. The Florida STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program continues its past successes. We have completed the Marianna 1:100,000 scale Quadrangle and began fieldwork on the Gainesville, 1:100,000 scale quadrangle. Staff held a one week lower Suwannee River expedition using a rented houseboat as their field staging facility. Staff from the Florida Museum of Natural History and Okaloosa-Walton Community College joined our staff for the field work. In the summer of 2004, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, working with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Navy, requested our assistance to investigate the sea floor with our sonar survey equipment. The site, about 36 kilometers southeast of Pensacola, is under consideration for sinking the USS Oriskany, a World War II aircraft carrier, for use as the worlds largest intentionally sunk, artificial reef. In the fall of 2004, we organized and held a meeting titled Sinkhole Summit II This was in response to legislation requesting the FSU College of Business and the Department of Risk Management and Insurance to recommend "uniform standards" to evaluate sinkhole claims. The FGS facilitated the discussion and compiled the results for the university. This is but a small fraction of the activities and projects the staff of the Florida Geological Survey has been involved in these last two years. Details on these and many other projects can be found on the following pages. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 3
FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 4 State Geologist Elias Sellards (left) poses with Roland Harper (middle) and Herman Gunter (right) on the steps of one of the FGSÂ’s early offices (circa 1908 1920). The building was a former wood and coal-storage structure situated just south of the Capitol Building in Tallahassee (anonymous photo).
The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS) Main Office is located on the campus of the Florida State University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter Building, adjacent to the university's Department of Geological Sciences. The FGS's Oil and Gas Section and Geological Data Acquisition Program are co-located in office space in the Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) Warehouse on Commonwealth Boulevard. The FGS has a staff of 65 40 full-time, permanent and 25 part-time OPS employees. Research facilities at the FGS include a geological research library, sample repositories, and laboratories. The library contains an extensive collection of state and federal publications, periodicals, and references. The sample repositories hold cores and well cutting samples from more than 18,585 wells (both onshore and offshore), as well as samples from approximately 5,400 outcrops. The laboratory facilities at the Gunter Building include a permeability lab equipped with 44 falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade rock-saws, drill press corer, and core saw for core processing, sieve shakers, ovens, and balances; sample preparation equipment for clay mineralogy, organic/carbonate content and micro/nannofossil studies; and an alpha spectrometer. A Hydrogeochemistry Lab and scanning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory have been set up at the Warehouse. New equipment includes an alpha spectrometer and a radio-isotope fume hood, a Mega Pure 3A Water Still, and a Jeol JXA-840A SEM and microprobe. Field equipment includes a trailermounted auger rig, a truck-mounted Failing 1500 drill rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted Mobile Drill and CME auger/core rigs with wire-line coring capability, various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive vehicles, two research vessels and six smaller boats used for inland and marine research projects. In addition, the FGS has a side scan sonar, a geopulse subsurface acoustic profiler, a vibracore sediment collection system, a jet probe and a number of water chemistry data loggers, GPS units and sediment core and grab sampling devices. The FGS acquired its "GeoLab" in 1998. The GeoLab is an aluminum step-van that has been outfitted for mobile field and simple laboratory work and can also be used for educational demonstrations at environmental fairs and schools. The FGS also has cooperative agreements with FSU's Department of Geological Sciences to share an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an atomic absorption spectrometer. FGS CREATES THE HYDRODGEOLOGY SECTION In June 2004, in recognition of the increasingly important role of hydrogeology research within the mission of the FGS and DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reorganized to become a formal Section within BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 5 INTRODUCTION FGS Main Office, Gunter Building, FSU Campus, Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom Scott).
the FGS. The new Hydrogeology Section expands hydrogeologic research to further the protection and management of Florida's aquifers, ground-water resources and springsheds. The Section is comprised of Professional Geologists, a Senior Scientist, and several OPS research staff who continue to conduct in-house research, and administer hydrogeological research through outsourcing. Knowledge gained through this research has been applied to rule making, regulatory, and policy decisions that facilitate efficient, science-based protection of the quantity and quality of Florida's water resources. FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL OFFICE SPACE In the summer of 2003, the Geological Data Acquisition Program staff moved to offices in the Warehouse and Core Storage Facility located behind the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex, across the street from the FDEP Douglas Building located just off of Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee. THIS BIENNIAL REPORT Biennial reports have been historically compiled by the FGS to not only chronicle its legacy but to inform the public as to its activities. They also serve to insure accountability of FGS activities to Florida government and the pubic pursuant to FGS mission goals prescribed by Chapter 377, Florida Statutes. Following this introduction, eleven sections provide information about our program, in the following order. Descriptions of the general organization of the FGS are provided in FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. Work conducted by the FGS either on its own or in conjunction with other agencies in the past two calendar years is chronicled in the write ups for the four individual FGS Sections. The four sections are the: ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT, GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, HYDROGEOLOGY and OIL AND GAS Next, the SPECIAL PROJECTS section describes those projects which were not anticipated, but were important enough to garner special attention. FGS scientists strive to maintain stateof-the-art status regarding field support and measurement and laboratory analytical equipment; new additions during the biennial period are described in EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION Florida Statute 377.075 is quite specific about the role of the FGS; specific to its mandate is the dissemination of geologic information forthcoming from investigation in published products. These are listed and abstracted in the PUBLICATIONS section. In addition to written, published products, the FGS is involved in in-house and outside activities described in the PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES section. The PERSONNEL INFORMATION section chronicles personnel changes during the past two-year period, and provides short biographies of FGS personnel. Accolades received by our staff or the Survey are described in the AWARDS section. Finally, a short, one-page tabulated representation of FGS funding is provided in the FGS BUDGET SUMMARY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 6
OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST The State Geologist carries a three-fold responsibility: Chief of the Survey State Geologist and Administrator of Oil and Gas exploration and production operations throughout the State. The Chief exercises the general program leadership, direction, and management authority in planning, scheduling and executing the programs of the Survey. As State Geologist he is the point of contact representing the State of Florida on geoscience inquiries from elected and appointed officials, government agencies, industry, mining companies, oil and gas companies, geologic and hydrogeologic consultants, environmental consultants, academia, land and mineral owners, educators, students, and the public. The responsibilities of the State Geologist and the duties of the Florida Geological Survey have been defined by the Florida Legislature and are generally listed in Section 377.075, Florida Statutes With this guidance and policy input from the Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS has a broad mission. It is described as follows: The mission of the FGS is two fold: First: to collect, interpret, disseminate, store and maintain geologic and earth science data, thereby contributing to the responsible use and understanding of Florida's natural resources; and Second: to conserve the State of Florida's oil and gas resources and minimize environmental impacts from exploration and production operations through regulatory oversight using permits and inspections. The FGS is presently organized into four sections which are administered by the State Geologist as Chief of the Survey. This organizational structure is shown in the organizational chart on the following page. The sections include: the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, the Geological Investigations Section, the Hydrogeology Section, and the Oil and Gas Section. Each of these sections is managed by a Section Administrator. In addition to the overall administration of the FGS, the primary responsibilities of the State Geologist include the historical functions of acting as the chief geoscientist for the State in various capacities and needs, and overseeing the overall production and quality of the geological research produced by the staff. The State Geologist is also ultimately responsible for implementing the State's oil and gas exploration and production regulations. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 7 FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Dr. Walter Â“WaltÂ” Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief, Florida Geological Survey (photo by Harley Means).
ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTIONThe Survey's Administrative and Geological Data Management Section includes the Administrative Secretary to the State Geologist, administrative support staff, the building custodian, the survey librarian, the FGS network administrator, the geological mapping and analysis staff, and the environmental geology and educational outreach staff. This section is responsible for administration (budget, department and interagency liaison, etc.) and personnel management (travel, leave, benefits, etc.), Gunter Building maintenance and repair, computer system management and network administration, web design, development and maintenance, and contract and grant tracking. This group's functions also include graphics design, geological mapping and map interpretation through GIS and CAD analysis, geological research library services, publication production and distribution, geological education and public outreach, and environmental geology research. COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM Geographic Information Systems The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) capability of the FGS consists of a full-time GIS Analyst, a CAD analyst, a general support group who contribute to specific projects, three OPS technicians specifically working on the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Program (FAVA) Hydrogeology project, and the support of BIS/GIS division. Tasks undertaken by GIS include: assistance in map production, development of GIS applications, imagery manipulation support, and technical support to all users of GIS software (ArcView 3.2a, ArcGIS 8.x, ESRI Extensions, ERDAS Imagine and Surfer.) Other tasks include software evaluation, development and maintenance of GIS data on the FGS and DEP Intranet, installation and maintenance of GIS software, scanning, digitizing, map series production and maintenance, image processing, interactive web-based map development and maintenance and development of GIS databases and tools through programming languages such as Avenue and Visual Basic. Major accomplishments for projects during the time period of January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004 include: revision of Florida Oil and Gas maps, completion of the FGS/MMS coastal sand search program years 1 and 2, revision of the FGS GIS data library directory, revision of Wakulla County karst coverage mapping project, addition of quarter/quarter/quarter sections to PLSS boundary data layer, assisted with the development of the State of Florida Geologic Map at 1:100,000 scale program and continued data conversion and program transition to the ArcGIS 8.x format. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 9 Jacqueline Â“JackieÂ” M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist, Administrator of the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section ( photo by Harley Means).
In support of the FAVA program, major accomplishments include: development and revision of a statewide 15m digital elevation model at state level, development of closed topographic depressions (CTD's) coverage, refinement of soil permeability and drainage grid, development of effective karst features coverage for the Floridan Aquifer System, and development of aquifer thickness layers for FAVA. For details on other FAVA maps, see page 38. Web Technologies The web capabilities of the FGS consist of a full-time webmaster, who maintains, enhances and adds to the FGS Internet and Intranet web sites. All content on both sites are supplied to the webmaster by full-time and OPS employees of the FGS. These web sites are part of the larger DEP website, which is made up of all websites maintained by the Department's Bureaus and Divisions. The goal of the FGS Internet is to present available geological information to the citizens of the State of Florida. The goal of the FGS Intranet is to supply forms, graphics, library resources and helpful information to FGS and DEP employees. Tasks undertaken by the webmaster include: preparation of information into web pages for the Internet and Intranet in compliance with ADA section 508 requirements and DEP web standards, development of websites presenting geologic information for CD's and DVD's, burning and label printing of CD's and DVD's intended for mass distribution, graphics for websites, poster presentations and development of CD/DVD labels. Major accomplishments during the time period of January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2004 include: redesign of the Internet and Intranet to comply with DEP's new look and feel and ADA section 508 compliancy requirements. New additions to the Internet include: Florida Rocks and Minerals a subweb with pictures and description of Florida's most common rocks and minerals, an Oil and Gas subweb to supply information to the Oil and Gas industry, Springs of Florida FGS Bulletin 66, education web page to direct teachers and students to educational material provided by the FGS and a page for sinkhole frequently asked questions. Products created for CD's and DVD's include: A Geologic Investigation of the Offshore Area Along Florida's Northeast Coast Year 1 and Year 2 Annual Reports Information Technologies The Information Technologies (IT) capabilities of the FGS include a full-time Systems Programmer and an OPS automation specialist who are supplemented by the Bureau of Information Systems (BIS). Most computer hardware and software issues are addressed by the systems programmer and automation specialist. FGS primarily uses Microsoft operating systems in conjunction with office utilities from Microsoft. Tasks undertaken by IT include: installation of newly acquired software, maintenance and upgrading of all FGS computer hardware systems including installation of new devices, maintenance of networked computer systems capabilities and peripheral devices, equipment storage and support for FGS network servers maintained on-site. Major accomplishments for the IT section from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004 include: All computer systems were protected from virus attacks by McAfee Enterprise virus scan and were updated automatically by the ePo agent in cooperation with BIS. Operating systems in use by the FGS were setup to randomly receive new updates that have been tested by BIS and corresponding IT technical representatives by the Software Update Service server. All data generated by the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 10
FGS is now backed up in house on a Certance DAT 72 Autoloader. Backup strategies and contingency plans have been implemented in compliance with BIS backup standards and retention schedules. PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM As an ongoing public education and outreach effort, FGS staff members give talks on Florida geology to local civic groups, clubs and school classes throughout the year. Resources permitting, we also provide booths and displays at various local festivals and celebrations such as Earth Day. In 2003 and 2004, the FGS hosted day-long open houses at its main office during Earth Science Week of each year. Earth Science Week 2003 October 12-18, 2003 was Earth Science Week (ESW), a national event initiated and sponsored by the American Geological Institute (AGI) to raise public awareness of the earth sciences and their role in our daily lives. The theme for the 2003 event was "Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring our Changing World." In celebration of ESW the FGS hosted its annual Open-House on Wednesday, October 15 at the Gunter Building on the campus of Florida State University. The local home schooling community was invited as well as the general public. The Open-House featured building tours and various interactive activities. FGS staff members also gave talks in local middle schools on earth science topics during ESW. Earth Science Week 2004 On October 13, 2004 the Florida Geological Survey held its annual Open House celebrating Earth Science Week at its main facility, the Gunter Building, on the campus of Florida State University. We especially enjoyed the attendance of families from our local home schooling community. The AGI theme for the 2004 event was "Living on a Restless Earth". Interactive activities appropriate for various age groups were planned. Tours of our facility at the Gunter Building were run throughout the day. For the first time this year, the Department of Environmental Protection's Office of Environmental Education participated with Greg Ira and Jenny Dambek in presenting an interactive ground-water activity. Faith Eidse represented BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 11 Walt Schmidt leading a tour of the FGS building during Earth Science Week, 2004 (photo by Frank Rupert).
Northwest Florida Water Management District, demonstrating various ways by which water is polluted, using their Enviroscape Model. This year, we planned special activities to assist Webelos Scouts in earning their Geology Badges. We extended Open House hours from 6:30 to 8:30 pm so that Scouts who usually meet in the evening could take advantage of Open House activities. Approximately 50 scouts, parents, and leaders joined us for building tours, movies of volcanic eruptions, hands-on identification of volcanic rocks and an introduction to common Florida rocks and minerals. RESEARCH LIBRARY The Research library is an integral part of the Survey's research and regulatory programs. In support of the information needs of staff, students, and researchers from the public sector, the library staff provides access to basic research materials including books, maps, state and federal documents, photographs and periodicals. Materials continue to be collected and purchased on various aspects of geology, including mining and mineral resources, environmental geology, hydrogeology and other related topics. The library has one of the largest and oldest geologic map collections in the state of Florida. Library Services The library is used by the general public, students, other government agencies, and private consulting companies. While circulation is restricted to Survey staff, and the faculty of the Florida State University, Department of Geological Sciences, the library is open to the general public for research. In addition, library materials are available to libraries throughout the world via the Interlibrary Loan system. The library participates in a nationwide Interlibrary Loan network through which the staff has access to other public, special and academic collections. The library cooperates with other libraries through various networking groups on the local, state, and national level. The librarian participates in the activities of the Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN), the Florida Library Network (FLIN), The North Florida Library Association (NFLA), and various other library and geoscience cooperatives. The library has a new automation system and is currently beginning the long project of barcoding all of the holdings to enable more accurate records for circulation and inventory. An assessment of all of the collections is in progress to determine it's value and usefulness to the mission of the survey. Many documents from non-coastal plain states have been returned to those states, or donated to libraries wishing to increase their holdings in geological materials. Library Computer Services The Research Library currently has access to the GEOREF database, as well as FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 12 Florida Geological Survey Library (photo by Jim Balsillie).
more than 25 other major databases, through the State Library. Many of these databases are full-text, expanding our access to periodical literature. Publications Distribution The library is responsible for providing detailed information on the survey's nearly 745 published documents and reports, and oversees the distribution of all documents currently in print. During 2003-2004 this included more than 1,000 requests for a total of approximately 7,000 documents. In addition to individual requests, publications are distributed to more than 130 libraries, throughout Florida, the U.S. and around the world, which maintain depository collections of Florida Geological Survey publications. FGS Publications are requested by students, environmental consultants, government agencies, libraries, schools, geologists studying for professional licensure, and the general public. The List of Publications is also now available online, with many of the Survey's publications available in full text at no charge. Thanks go to the Publication of Archival Library and Museum Materials (PALMM) of the libraries of the State University System's Division of Colleges and Universities, for continuing to scan in many of our publications. This allows the public fast and free access to many titles. The online version of the List of Publications is: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publications/index.htm SPECIAL PROJECTS Leon County School System Leon Advocacy and Resource Center Cooperative Job Training Program In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the Leon County School System to provide job training for local area high schools students with special needs. The FGS program provides various computer filing / scanning job experiences for the students. This continuing project is helping the FGS digitize its extensive collection of older, hard-copy lithologic well logs. National Geologic Map Database During 2003-2004, the Florida Geological Survey continued inputting FGS published geologic maps into the National Geologic Map Database. The National Geologic Map Database is a project sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic Mapping Program in cooperation with the Association of American State Geologists. The goal of the project is to establish a database of all national and state produced geologic maps, both paper and digital, and to provide keyword and geographic searching capabilities for the database. All published maps of the Florida Geological Survey are included in the database on an annual basis. The National Geologic Map Database may be accessed at: http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/. St. Johns River Water Management District Cooperative Program In 1993, a cooperative program was developed between the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) and the FGS. In this program, samples obtained from wells drilled as part of the District Observation Well Network (DOWN) are shipped to the FGS for preparation, description, and entry into an electronic database. SJRWMD funds a student research assistant to describe samples. The work is beneficial to both the District and the FGS. The FGS is able to augment its lithologic coverage of the counties covered by the SJRWMD. SJRWMD obtains descriptions of samples from its observation wells providing it with site specific data vital in understanding local and regional hydrogeologic conditions. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 13
GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION The Geological Investigations Section is comprised of the Coastal Research Program, the Geologic Data Acquisition Program, the Mineral Resources Program, the Springs Initiative Program (created in 2001), Geologic Mapping Program (National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Act Â“STATEMAPÂ”) and the Water Management District Cooperative Program. In 2004, the Hydrogeology Program was elevated to section status and removed from the Geological Investigations Section. The Geological Investigations Section conducts research projects covering a wide range of topics with section scientists being involved in many basic and applied research projects. The projects are designed to produce and interpret geological data to aid in growth planning, resource management and a better understanding of earth systems. Under the auspices of the Governor's Florida Springs Initiative, the 2001 Florida Legislature authorized the inclusion of the Florida Spring's Initiative in the Department of Environmental Protection's budget. The FGS was tasked with creating an inventory of the State's more than 700 springs. The FGS began an investigation of the springs which included land uses around the springs and spring-water quality. In 2003-04, the Survey published FGS Bulletin 66 Springs of Florida by T. M. Scott, G. H. Means, R. P. Meegan, R. C. Means, S. B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland, J. Jones, T. Roberts and A. Willet. Included in Bulletin 66 are chemical analyses of the spring water for 126 springs and maps and descriptions of more than 460 springs. A CD accompanies the printed version and contains all the published information plus the descriptions and photographs of more than 350 springs that were not sampled. The entire volume is also available on the FGS website. The Florida Springs Initiative began funding an investigation of swallets in 2004. Swallets, those sinkholes that capture water from surface streams and rivers, provide direct avenues of recharge to the Floridan Aquifer System and, therefore, are highly susceptible to pollution. FGS teams are locating and describing swallets in order to provide the first comprehensive listing of the features and their distribution. Ongoing cooperative research with the State's water management districts and the FGS Hydrogeology Section is delineating hydrostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units. The FGS is studying potential beach renourishment sands offshore from the state's northeast coast in cooperation with the U.S. Minerals Management Service. Other investigations include mapping funded through the STATEMAP program in the eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000 scale quadrangle (2003), the western portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle (2004), and ongoing mapping for 2004-05 in the eastern portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 14 Dr. Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist for Geological Investigations (photo by Harley Means).
research on the Citronelle Formation in the western Florida panhandle and cooperation with State archeologists on the investigation of Native American sites. Work continues on the development of a new state geomorphic map which will delineate landform distribution throughout the state and aid in understanding the processes that developed the state's land surface. The section also consults with other government agencies because the knowledge of regional and local geology of a given area is fundamental in the evaluation of numerous environmental problems. The Geological Investigations Section responds to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and contamination, geologic hazards, geologic mapping, Florida's geologic history, and problems related to community planning and development. The group prepares detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on file at the FGS. This information is added to the Survey's digital data base which currently contains logs for more than 5,400 wells. This data base and the programs designed to manipulate it are currently used by other governmental agencies and a number of private firms. COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM The Coastal Research Program (CRP) is committed to continuing fundamental research to improve our understanding of Florida's coastal ecosystems and environmental processes. This research provides information that is essential for planning, ecosystem management, conservation, and protection of Florida's valuable coastal and underwater resources. Ongoing Coastal Projects Sedimentological Research A comprehensive comparative study was initiated in 2002 and was published in 2003. In this study, a new type of sieve shaker, the British-designed Meinzer II, was compared to the long-used "industry standard" Rotapshaker. Twenty sandsized sediment sample pair tests were conducted using four different sieving protocols to determine if Meinzer shakers duplicate results from Rotap shakers. It was found, based on qualitative visual assessments of sample pair cumulative probability distributions and on quantitative statistical analyses, that Rotap and Meinzer shakers result in essentially identical outcomes. GRANPLOT, an analytic granulmetry tools software application, was installed on the FGS web site in 2002 and has been viewed over 3,300 times. In addition, various communiqus have been received by the authors. B. A. Cheadle, President of DarkMatter Energy Consulting Corporation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada wrote "Â… with some interest as I have often struggled with devising an appropriate manner to trick EXCEL into faking a probit scale for probability plots". M. J. Johnsson, a coastal geologist with the California Coastal Commission, congratulated the effort by stating "Â… I am impressed with the wonderful job you have done GRANPLOTcertainly far exceeds my humble spreadsheets in utility and design." Professor Jorge Ledesma-Vaczques, Chairman of the Geology Department, Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Mexico, teaches undergrad and graduate sedimentology and was "Â… very much interested in getting a copy of GRANPLOT Â…" for use by his students. Sedimentation Elevation Table Project Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise and an insufficient sediment supply to maintain marsh surface elevation. Local mean sea level is rising at an approximate rate of 1.5 to 2.4 millimeters (mm) per year and the spring-fed or controlled (dammed) rivers of the Florida Gulf Coast do not proBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 15
vide sufficient sediments to maintain longterm health of the marshes. Marsh health is determined by several factors; sediment supply, sea-level rise, storm events, erosion rate of waves and marsh subsidence. Over the last 12 years the Florida Geological Survey's Coastal Research Program, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, installed Sediment Elevation Tables (SET) at a number of sites along the Florida Gulf Coast (St. Joe Bay, Apalachicola River, Ochlockonee River, St. Marks River, Aucilla River, Rocky Creek, Cedar Key area and Waccasassa River area) to measure elevation changes of the marsh surface. SET measurements were combined with feldspar marker horizon measurements to quantify changes in marsh topography. The sediment supply for the majority of these marshes is not sufficient to keep pace with sea level rise, resulting in a marsh surface elevation loss of -0.3 to -15.0 mm/year. As a result, this data suggests that the Big Bend coastal areas are at risk, a finding that points out the dynamic and mobile nature of coastal environments. The Coastal Program continued monitoring SET sites during the 2003-2004 period, evaluating the response of marshes to sea level rise. A report of this data with interpretations will be issued as an interactive report (CD) in 2006. Cooperative Coastal Projects Offshore Sand Investigation In 2002, the Florida Geological Survey and the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered into a second multiyear cooperative agreement with the specific goal of locating and characterizing both the aerial extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. The area of investigation in Year 1 (2003) comprised shallow sediments in federal waters off Nassau and Duval Counties, from three to approximately ten miles offshore, and the sediments on the beaches immediately adjacent to that area. During 2003, over 230 miles of sub-bottom profile data were collected off Nassau and Duval Counties and interpreted to determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition of beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach sampling locations were identified In Nassau and Duval Counties and 106 surface samples collected. A total of 18 offshore seabed grab samples were collected. A total of 10 offshore seabed grab sample locations were visited with grab samples being collected from nine locations. Three push cores were collected on the ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions were made and grain size distributions were determined for all beach and offshore FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 16 Jim Ladner conducts cryogenic coring at a SET site (photo by Dan Phelps).
seabed grab samples and push cores. A preliminary seismic stratigraphic analysis of sub-bottom profiler data collected was completed. As a result of the seismic stratigraphic analysis conducted, several features indicative of high potential for the occurrence of beach restoration quality sand in federal waters off Duval County were identified. This analysis was discussed with representatives of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District Office and a copy of the preliminary work map delineating those features was provided to them. They then selected 45 locations in the study area of particular interest for vibracoring in 2004. The results of the tasks completed in 2003 for this investigation are detailed in A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 1 Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior Minerals Management Service (Phelps et al., 2003). This report will be available on CD, via the MMS web site or from the FGS. In 2004, the CRP continued its second multiyear program of offshore investigations in cooperation with the Minerals Management Service. Data collection in Year 2 of this study concentrated primarily on the areas offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties as well as the northern half of St. Johns County from three to approximately ten miles offshore and the sediments on the beaches immediately adjacent to that area. During Year 2, over 190 miles of seismic data were collected and interpreted to determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition of beach-quality sand A total of 63 beach sampling locations in St. Johns and Flagler Counties were identified and 127 points sampled. Samples collected from the beaches of St. Johns County were analyzed and the results included in the Year 2 Report. Samples collected from the beaches of Flagler County will be included in the Year 3 Report. A total of 52 vibracores were collected offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties. Of that total, 11 vibracores were collected by the FGS and 41 were colBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 17 The 50Â’ RV Geoquest (photo by Dan Phelps).
lected by the FGS's subcontractor Athena Technologies Inc. offshore of southern Duval County. The results of the tasks completed in Year 2 of this investigation are detailed in A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 2 Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior Minerals Management Service (Phelps et al., 2004). This report will be available on DVD via the MMS web site or from the FGS. Joint Coastal Research During 2003, discussions were conducted between the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Coastal Systems Station, the Coastal Operations Institute and the FGS Coastal Research Program resulting in a new memorandum of agreement between these three groups in July, 2003. The purpose of this agreement provides a mechanism to develop a working relationship between the three participating organizations and was established to facilitate cooperative efforts, and to leverage mutual expertise in the broad areas of coastal science, engineering and technology. Investigations involving common needs of the state and federal agencies will be carried out in Florida's near-shore and OCS waters. Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium A memorandum of agreement of State Geologists, representing the five states bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, forms the Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium. This association was formed to provide for joint cooperation in investigations and scientific exchanges concerning earth sciences (including geology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysical, and geotechnical studies) on subjects of mutual interest. This cooperation strives to advance the understanding of the Gulf of Mexico onshore and offshore and promote cooperation on regional studies. An improved understanding of the geologic processes impacting the Gulf of Mexico is essential for the formulation of wise decisions regarding the use and preservation of the region's natural resources. In 2003, the consortium met to develop a framework of identified needs and areas of cooperation for future research in the Gulf of Mexico. These were formalized in a report that was given to the USGS and congressional staff for potential funding. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 18 Jim Balsillie and Jim Ladner procure a vibracore in the Atlantic Ocean (photo by Dan Phelps).
FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project In 2004, the FGS CRP and the Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) conducted an investigation of the offshore area off Port Canaveral using an established control-grid to monitor the health of scallops and associated biota (Calico Project). The established research grid was located in an area 15 to 30 miles offshore in water depths ranging from 50 to 250 feet. Utilizing the 50' FGS RV GeoQuest 60 trawl samples were collected. In order to accomplish this task, it was required that the RVGeoQuest be fitted with a stern-mounted fastretrieval winch, which was built and installed by Wade Stringer, the ship's captain. The cruise was conducted on November 20 24, 2004. Scallop collection was accomplished using a mesh-bag attached to a tethered trawl frame and dragged on the ocean bottom a speed of one to four knots. Upon retrieval, the contents were sorted and weighed and the scallop tissue sampled. FGS personnel included Wade Stringer and James H. Balsillie. FMRI personnel for this Calico Project included Steve Geiger (Assoc. Research Scientist, Principal Investigator for the Calico Project), Janessa Cobb (research staff), Carla Beals (research staff), Bill Arnold (fisheries supervisor), and Brett Pittinger (research staff). Resistivity Survey Project In the spring of 2003, staff from the FGS Coastal Research Program and the FGS Hydrogeology Section conducted a resistivity survey of eleven coastal and estuarine areas around Florida. Using two boats and a 400-feet-long towed cable, resistivity data were recorded in the surveyed water bodies up to 90 feet deep. The method measures differences in conductivity between saltwater and freshwater and between polluted water and clean water. Physical parameters such as temperature, pH, and salinity were concurrently measured. In some locations a side-scan sonar record of bottom features was also obtained. The acquired data showed that the method is a feasible and economical initial step in locating areas of ground-water discharge that can be Â“ground truthedÂ” at a later date. The survey suggests that remote-sensing techniques such as thermography, satellite imaging and resistivity may be practical approaches to estimating ground-water contribution over large areas of surface water. Quantification of ground-water contribution as base flow to surface water is essential to regulatory programs such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) and others. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 19 Dan Phelps examining Volusia County beach erosion (photo by Jim Ladner).
GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION PROGRAM The FGS maintains an active scientific drilling program. Very low topographic relief characterizes the state and data obtained from cores is essential to the understanding of subsurface stratigraphy, hydrogeology and hydrology. During 2003-2004, the FGS operated three rigs; a Failing 1500, a Mobile Drill B31 and a CME 75. The Failing 1500 was taken out of service in 2004 and the full time crew (a licensed driller and an assistant), is now operating the CME 75, pending delivery of a new Schramm T450M11A drill rig. The Mobile Drill and CME auger/core rigs have been outfitted for continuous coring in rock or unconsolidated sediments. These two rigs are utilized for shallow (about 230 feet) and intermediate (about 800 feet) depth coring. During 2003-2004, the FGS drilling program drilled 20 core holes in six counties in support of five different projects. Core holes ranged from 29.5 to 900 feet in depth for a total of 4592 feet cored. Monitor wells were constructed in 13 of these core holes in cooperation with Collier County, the Northwest Florida and Suwannee River Water Management Districts, Florida Department of Health and the Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Watershed Management. Ongoing Geologic Data Acquisition Projects Geologic Sample Collection The FGS maintains separate collections of well and surface outcrop samples. The well sample collection contains more than 18,585 sets of samples from exploration, water and oil wells. Most wells are represented by sets of drill cuttings. Approximately 1100 wells are represented by continuous core or core samples (a total of approximately 200,500 feet). The FGS, USGS, Water Management Districts and geologic consultants drill new core sample sets and add them to the archives. The sample repository facility occupies 12,090 square feet, with almost 30,000 cubic feet of shelf space, with room for expansion. A collection of approximately 5,750 outcrop samples and mineral specimens is maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in the Gunter Building. These samples are cross-indexed by formation, lithology, county and location. The collection is referred to as the "M-Series." The M-Series is particularly valuable given Florida's high population growth and development. Surface exposures of critical lithologies have become inaccessible with the continued proliferation of roadways, shopping centers, parking lots and high-rise housing. These sample archives and the data base they represent are utilized by geoloFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 20 FGS's new Schramm T450 drill rig installing monitoring wells for Southeast Sprayfield Investigation (photo by Ken Campbell).
gists at the FGS, other state, federal and local governmental agencies, universities (both in and out of the state), geological consultants, well drillers, and the public. Cooperative Geologic Data Acquisition Projects Manatee Springs Investigation The Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, contracted with the FGS to investigate four sites in and around Manatee Springs State Park. Ten shallow core holes and monitor wells were drilled in each of two campgrounds within the park during 2002 to investigate the operation of septic systems in a karst environment. The remaining two sites outside the park had a total of three cores drilled and monitor wells constructed during 2003. Core samples were examined, lithologic logs generated, formation picks made and the logs were entered into the FGS database. Hydraulic conductivity analyses were also conducted on selected samples from each core. Manatee Springs State Park, Suwannee River Water Management District and Florida State University were also cooperators. Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment In this cooperative agreement, the FGS agreed to drill three 1000-foot holes at locations specified by Collier County to be established as monitoring wells for continuous aquifer monitoring and to obtain core to determine hydrostratigraphy. The second well was completed and the third well drilled during this period. Lithologic descriptions were generated for the FGS computer database. Collier County decided not to install monitor wells at these sites. This project is complete. Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation Three core holes were drilled intersecting the Main, Blue Water and Sewer tunnels (conduits). Drill sites were selected utilizing cave divers to set up radio beacons in the spring conduits and using a radio receiver at the surface to locate the surface location directly over the beacon. Four inch monitor wells were constructed with open completions in the spring conduits. The SRWMD has installed dedicated instrumentation thru these wells to collect conduit specific water quality and quantity information previously available only by sending a cave diving team to physically collect the water samples. Lithologic descriptions of the core samples were generated for the FGS wells database. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 21 Installation of Manatee Springs conduit monitoring wells (photo by David Paul).
Oleno State Park and River Rise State Preserve Two core holes were drilled and monitor wells constructed in support of an ongoing investigation into the hydrogeology of the Oleno/River Rise area. These cores were also in support of the ongoing STATEMAPproject. Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer System Monitor Well Construction Three coreholes were drilled proximal to the water filled conduits comprising the Sullivan Sink portion of the Leon Sinks Cave System within the Apalachicola National Forest. Monitor wells were installed in each borehole with the screened/open hole portion of the wells corresponding to the same depths as the adjacent conduit. Lithologic logs were generated, formation picks made and hydraulic conductivity analysis made on selected samples of each core. City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Investigation The FGS is participating in an ongoing investigation to determine whether the sprayfield is contributing to the nutrient load being delivered to springs in the area (including Wakulla Spring). A series of wells will be drilled to monitor leachate from the sprayfield and serve as dye injection points for tracing studies. Each drill site will have two wells (125-feet and 250feet deep). The deep hole will be continous core. Drilling commenced in late 2004, and the first of two wells at the initial drilling site was completed by the end of that year. Cuttings from this 125-foot well were described and the lithologic log added to the FGS wells database. Northwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program During fiscal years 2003 and 2004, FGS staff described well cuttings and entered the data into the FGS wells database under a purchase order agreement with the Northwest Florida Water Management District. Kenji Butler and Harley Means worked on the project. In 2003, Kenji described 180 cuttings samples from NWFWMD. In fiscal year 2004, Kenji described another 902 samples. The data from this project helped to refine knowledge on the lithostratigraphy of Walton County and vicinity. South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program South Florida is experiencing rapid population growth and water management practices must be predicated on an adequate understanding of the lithologic units which comprise aquifer systems. In 1992, the FGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) began a cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades, Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties to provide geologic information in support of this need. Several OPS staff members described samples for the SFWMD during 2003-2004, resulting in an addition of over 60,000 feet of new descriptions from the district. MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM The Mineral Resource Program maintains communication with the mineral industry in Florida. The section publishes a biennial status report related to industry activity. The program is also responsible for providing mineral resource assessments on parcels of land that are targeted for purchase by the state. These assessments are completed on an as-needed basis. We are continuing to provide geologic input into the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 22
mineral lands transfer between the Federal Bureau of Land Management and the state of Florida. For the year 2003, the USGS ranked Florida fifth in the U.S. with an estimated non-fuel mineral production value of $2 billion. Following is a description of mineral resources. Phosphate Florida supplies approximatelyonequarter of the world's phosphate needs and three-quarters of US domestic needs. Nearly all of the phosphate rock that is mined in Florida is used to manufacture fertilizer which, in turn, is used for agricultural purposes. What is not used in the manufacture of fertilizer is typically used in a number of products including feed supplements, vitamins, soft drinks, and toothpaste. In recent years, fertilizer exports from Florida have exceeded a billion dollars in value, making it another one of Florida's leading export commodities. Crushed Stone Florida rose to second in the United States in the production of crushed stone (limestone and dolostone). Most of the stone that is mined in Florida is used for road construction. Limestone of high purity can undergo calcination (heating) and, together with other ingredients, be used to manufacture portland and masonry cement. Florida ranked seventh in the production of portland cement and is first in the production of masonry cement. Sand and Gravel Florida ranks in the top one-third of states in the country in sand and gravel used and produced. Sand and gravel is subdivided into construction and industrial sand, the bulk of which is, in Florida, construction grade. Heavy Minerals These are mineral grains with specific gravities generally in excess of 2.9. They include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucoxene. Ilmenite and rutile are primary ingredients in the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments, used in the manufacture of paint, varnish and lacquers, plastics, and paper. Florida is the top heavy mineral producer in the nation. Peat Peat isan organic-rich accumulation of decaying plant material. Although peat departs from the inorganic definition of a mineral, it is generally considered an economic mineral. Florida ranked first in the nation in the production of horticultural peat. Clay Fuller's earth, common clay, and kaolin are mined in a few locations in Florida. Fuller's earth is typically used as an absorbent material, while kaolin is used in the manufacture of paper and refractories. Common clay, mined in small quantities from various locations throughout the state, is used in the manufacture of brick, cement and lightweight aggregate. The state led the nation during 2003 in production of phosphate rock, titanium concentrates, and peat. Florida tied for first in masonry cement production, fourth in production of Fuller's earth, second in crushed stone, third in magnesium compounds, and seventh in Portland cement. Florida continues to produce substantial quantities of sand and gravel and ranks approximately 13th in sand and gravel used by producers in 2003. (The USGS prepares state ranking information every two years based upon confidential data returned to them from Florida mine operators.) BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 23
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Oil and gas are produced from two primary oil field areas of Florida. Production began in 1943 in south Florida near Fort Myers, where the Cretaceous Sunniland Formation yields oil from depths between 11,000 and 13,000 feet. In northwestern Florida, near Jay, oil has been produced since 1970 from the Jurassic Smackover and Norphlet Formations at depths between 14,000 and 17,000 feet. Production peaked in the late 1970s at 48 million barrels of crude oil and 52 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year. For additional, detailed information see the section on the Oil and Gas Regulatory Program. SPRINGSPROGRAM The Florida Springs Initiative, established by Governor Bush in 2001, continued to receive legislative funding in 2003/04. Of the $2.5 million dollar per year allocation the Initiative received, the Florida Geological Survey was granted over $400,000 to continue research and monitoring of springs through several projects. Those projects include the revision of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida Quarterly Water Quality and Discharge Monitoring, and the Swallet Inventory Project. In 2003, work continued on the revision of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida Field teams visited and described 463 springs across the state almost doubling the number of springs listed in Bulletin 31, Revised (1977). Water quality and discharge measurements were also taken at 126 springs. This work culminated in the publication of a new volume, Bulletin 66, Springs of Florida which was released in September of 2004. This work was the third iteration in the Springs of Florida series and the most comprehensive to date. The volume includes color photos, maps, water quality tables and a CD in the back cover that contains the entire document in digital format. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 24 Jackson Blue Spring (Photo by Tom Scott).
The entire volume is also available online at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/springs/bulletin66.htm Springs field teams continued to sample water quality and measure discharge of most of Florida's first magnitude springs and some selected second magnitude springs in 2003/04. The work is done on a quarterly basis starting in January. Samplers Ryan Means and Rebecca Meegan sampled springs as part of an ongoing project that will look at water quality and quantity trends through time. James McClean and Brie Coane began measuring the discharge at sampled springs in 2004. The water samples are analyzed by the FDEP lab and the data are uploaded into an internet accessible database. In July 2004, the Florida Geological Survey started the Swallet Inventory Project. Swallets are karst features that receive surface water. These features are important because they provide direct access to the aquifer system without any possibility for filtering out contaminants. Many swallets exist in spring basins and may be contributing contaminated water to springs. Ed Chelette and Diana ThurmanNowack were hired to conduct an inventory of major swallets in first magnitude spring basins. Their work includes inspecting topographic maps, aerial maps and other sources to locate potential swallets then visiting the site to record data about each swallet. The data are stored in a database which is used to create maps. These maps are useful to local land managers and planners who make decisions about land use in these vulnerable areas. STATEMAP PROGRAM The STATEMAP Program is a cooperative project funded jointly by the FGS and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program under the State Geologic Mapping Component (STATEMAP). For each of the last ten years, staff members from the FGS have performed detailed geologic mapping of 1:100,000 scale USGS quadrangles and published the results as part of the FGS Open-File Map Series (OFMS). BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 25 T. Scott, R. Green and H. Means in Brooks Cave (photo by Sean Roberts). W. Evans and J. Halfhill identifying fossils in rock quarry (photo by Rick Green).
In 2002-2003, FGS staff geologists Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave Paul, and Jake Halfhill, together with John Bryan, a professor with Okaloosa-Walton Community College, with the help of Roger Portell, a paleontologist from the Florida Museum of Natural History, produced a geologic map, a surficial sediments map, and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000 Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections are available through the FGS Open File Map Series ( OFMS No. 92 ). In 2003-2004, Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave Paul, John Bryan, and Roger Portell, produced a geologic map for the western portion of the 1:100,000 scale Gainesville Quadrangle. The project included a bedrock geologic map, a poster showing descriptions and key fossil for the units, and several geologic cross sections. These maps and cross sections are also available through the FGS Open File Map Series ( OFMS No. 93 ). As part of the field mapping for the 2003-2004 western portion of Gainesville 1:100,1000 Quadrangle, STATEMAP Project staff from the FGS STATEMAP, Coastal Research Program, and Hydrogeology Section, together with Jon Bryan, and Roger Portell completed an extensive geologic mapping expedition of the lower Suwannee River system within the study area. Utilizing two scout/support boats and a live-aboard vessel as a base of operations, expedition geologists mapped over 100 miles of the lower Suwannee River and approximately 10 miles of the Santa Fe River. This included the collection of numerous geologic samples and the rescue of a young Barred Owl that had been hopelessly snared in an abandoned catfish line along the banks of the Suwannee River. In September, 2004, the FGS began working on production of a bedrock geologic map, and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale Gainesville Quadrangle. Field mapping began in October, with a planned completion date of October, 2005. The maps and cross sections for this area will be available through the FGS Open File Map Series beginning in November of 2005. After input and an October workshop with the Florida Geological Mapping Advisory Committee, the USGS 1:100,000 Lake City Quadrangle in north-central Florida was selected for the next area to be mapped under the STATEMAP program. If the National STATEMAP Advisory Committee approves the project, mapping will begin in this area in November of 2005. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 26 Will EvansÂ’ rescue of a Barred Owl (photo by Rick Green). Live-aboard house boat utilized during the lower Suwannee River mapping project (photo by Rick Green).
HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION In June 2004, in recognition of the increasingly important role of hydrogeology research within the mission of the FGS and DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reorganized to become a formal Section within the FGS. The mission of the Hydrogeology Section is to disseminate hydrogeologic information, conduct hydrogeologic research, and administer such research through outsourcing in support of the need for unbiased, scientific knowledge of FloridaÂ’s water resources with specific emphasis on aquifer system dynamics and the sustainability of ground water and watersheds. This knowledge is applicable to rule making, regulatory, and policy decisions that facilitate efficient, science-based protection of the quantity and quality of FloridaÂ’s water resources Â– a critical component of FloridaÂ’s environment. Five interrelated program areas comprise the Section: 1) hydrogeochemistry, 2) physical aquifer characterization, 3) aquifer vulnerability assessment, 4) karst hydrogeology and 5) education. HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY PROGRAM Laboratory facilities and research within Hydrogeochemistry Program has significantly expanded in response to the increasing need for understanding water-rock interactions, especially with regard to aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) practices. Research on water quality changes during ASR continue at the field scale (i.e., cycle testing) and at the bench scale. The bench-scale studies focus on developing a predictive tool for potential water-rock reactions in the field. The following are hydrogeochemistry projects worked on during 2003-2004. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Studies Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a cost-effective, viable solution to address drinking-water shortages in Florida. ASR wells are Class 5 injection wells regulated by the Underground Injection Control Program of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Division of Water Resource Management (FDEP-UIC). Twenty-six ASR facilities are in operation in Florida and more than 15 sites are under development. Some of the sites include reclaimed water ASR facilities, which are also cost-effective solutions to local water shortages. The FGS is working with the FDEP-UIC Program, the University of South Florida, SWFWMD, SFWMD and consulting firms to characterize water rock geochemistry during ASR at the bench scale and in the field. The Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing investigation by the FGS to examine waterrock geochemical interactions that take place during ASR cycle testing. Waterquality variations and aquifer system characteristics at five ASR facilities are the focus of the current study. In addition, geoBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 27 Dr. Jon Arthur, Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology ( photo by HarleyMeans).
chemical and mineralogical data from cores taken within and outside the influence of an ASR storage zone are currently being collected. FGS research funded by the FDEP-UIC Program has confirmed that understanding water-rock geochemical interactions is important to the continued success of ASR in Florida. Results of this investigation indicate the following: 1) chemical (including isotopic) variability exists within ground water and carbonates of the Floridan Aquifer System, 2) this variability may result in site-specific geochemical processes affecting ASR wells and water quality, 3) in some localities, oxygen-rich surface waters, once injected into the Floridan Aquifer System causes the release of trace metals such as arsenic (As), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), uranium (U) and perhaps nickel (Ni) into the recharged (and eventually recovered) waters, 4) the design of recharge-storage-recovery cycle tests and the location of monitor wells are important aspects of understanding these geochemical processes. Of the nine cycle tests investigated to date, most recovered samples exceed the new maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As (10 ug/l). Research on the source of As in the Floridan Aquifer System matrix, results of cycle testing in different hydrogeological settings and the effects of repeated cycles tests continues. The FGS is also engaged in research as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan to conduct a geochemical reconnaissance of the Floridan Aquifer System carbonates in southern Florida. This investigation will focus on carbonate mineralogy, mineral chemistry, rock geochemistry (including a series of isotopic analyses), and bench-scale studies. Two types of bench scale studies are planned: sequential extraction, which identifies associations between minerals and metals, and leaching studies that assess solubility of metals during simulated cycle tests under high-dissolved oxygen conditions in the laboratory. Similar experiments are being conducted for consulting firms, who have recognized the expertise and the unique analytical capabilities of the FGS hydrogeochemistry lab (see below). Results of this research underscore the need for continued research on the geochemistry of ASR in Florida, especially in consideration of the 300+ ASR wells proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. There exists a need to improve our understanding of the water-rock dynamics in different hydrogeological settings in which ASR may be applied. Bench Scale Geochemical Assessment of Water-rock Interaction: Seminole County ASR The purpose of this study is to characterize bench-scale leachability of Floridan Aquifer System carbonate rocks in response to high concentrations of dissolve oxygen (DO), and identify sources of metals in these rocks. This study is divided into five main parts: 1) lithological descriptions of the ASR well rock samples of Avon Park Formation, Seminole County, 2) permeability study for both vertical and horizontal core samples of the ASR well, 3) geochemistry of the water samples (leachate) when exposed to aquifer rocks under high concentrations of dissolved oxygen, 4) geochemistry of the aquifer rocks to identify sources of metals in these rocks, and 5) sequential extraction of the storage-zone carbonates to identify mineral and non-mineral phases in the aquifer matrix that may be leachable under ASR conditions. Four hundred sixty five water samples, seven whole rock samples, and seven sequential leaching samples have been analyzed for 64 elements at a commercial laboratory using inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometer and optical emission spectrometer analytical techniques. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 28
Water-quality changes during four bench-scale cycles have been evaluated. Time-series graphs allow comparison of water chemistry changes during periods of aeration and non-aeration for each cycle. The graphs of water quality changes during bench-scale cycles (see following figure) also clearly define concentrations and mobilization, depending on the initial concentrations of the source rock. Mobilization of As, U and other trace metals during four cycles for the Seminole ASR aquifer rocks are evident. Comparable results for leached As were evident in all four cycle tests. Leachates collected from cycle test 1 displayed greater As concentrations compared to the other three cycles. During this cycle, leachates collected during pump off showed an increase of As concentrations with time whereas during pump on, As peaked, then showed decrease in concentrations with time. On the other hand, other samples showed more than one As peak. From the whole-rock geochemistry data, trace metals such as As, Cr, Ni, V, Mo, U, Zn, Sb, S, Sc, Th, La, and Sm showed high concentrations. When compared to global averages for limestone, these selected trace metals far exceed global averages. The linear co-variations of As and Mo suggest that Mo is possibly associated in Asbearing phases such as arsenian pyrite. Other minerals or phases containing As in these carbonate rocks include organic material and Feand Mn-oxyhydroxide coatings. Arsenian pyrite is among the sources of As in the ASR aquifer rocks; however, sequential extraction studies suggest other phases (e.g., Fe-oxides and organics) may contain As and associate metals as well. Organic material may contain U, which is also thought to be associated with carbonate phases. Sequential extraction bench tests suggest that dominant As-bearing phases reside within the "organic plus insoluble residue" fraction of the matrix, which includes sulfide minerals (see Results of sequential extraction figure). The results also demonstrate that the "organic plus insoluble residue" fraction is strongly associated with Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and U whereas Zn is associated with carbonate minerals. Organic material is recognized as a source/sink for uranium. The sources of arsenic may also include organics in addition to pyrite. These extraction results also provide evidence for presence of As and other mobilized metals in "non-sulfide" fractions of the aquifer matrix (e.g., the carbonate and Fe-oxide fractions). In summary, four different chemical forms of As were extracted from the core samples. The extracted chemical forms are as follows: (1) soluble form, (2) acid soluble form (As mainly fixed in carbonates), (3) reducible form (As fixed in Fe and/or Mn-oxides), (4) insoluble form (As fixed mainly in sulfides and rarely in silicates). Arsenic occurs predominantly in the reducible form, organic form and insoluble form. Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Ground-water Quality of Springs and Wells in Florida For decades, Floridians have been interested in the quality of spring and well water. By the early 1900s, only a handful of springs had been analyzed for their chemical constituents. However, the number of springs sampled and the chemical constituents analyzed increased through the first half of the 20th century. In 1947, the FGS published an inventory of springs in Florida, which included water quality analyses (Ferguson et al., 1947). The publication was revised in 1977 (Rosenau et al., 1977), and in 2004, a third publication regarding the springs of Florida, including water quality analyses, was published by the FGS (Scott et al., 2004). It should be noted that nitrate (nitrate BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 29
FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 30 Water-quality changes during bench-scale cycles. Leachate Samples
BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 31 Results of sequential extraction.
plus nitrite as N, but referred to as nitrate) concentrations have been increasing in springs for the past several decades. Although this has been an impetus in recent years for increased spring monitoring, the state is interested in many chemicals, not only from springs, but also wells. Over the years, the water management districts and other organizations began sampling and analyzing the water quality from both springs and wells. Although today it can be said that many springs and wells have been sampled, only a few have been monitored consistently for an entire suite of chemicals for more than a decade. However, by the early 1990s, over 70 springs and about 50 wells were being monitored for water quality on a fairly regular basis. The purpose of this project is to statistically evaluate data collected from the springs and wells for the period 1991 2003. Before the evaluation can be conducted, the data needs to be obtained. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS collected the water-quality and flow data from these springs and wells. In addition, the data was compiled and prepared for statistical analyses. The anticipated completion date of the trends report is 2006. EDUCATIONPROGRAM The Education Program within the Hydrogeology Section emphasizes development of workshops, posters and curriculum materials that promote a better understanding of FloridaÂ’s complex hydrogeologic systems. Intended end-users vary by project and range from elected officials, secondary school students, private industry and the general public. Development of a Cave Glossary In April 2003, the FGS co-sponsored a workshop ( Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida ) in which the theme was to provide a forum to facilitate discussions among scientists, resource managers, cavers and the public regarding the significance of caves and springs in Florida. During the workshop, it was pointed out that caves: (1) contain archeological and cultural artifacts; (2) can act as laboratories for medical, biological, geological, hydrogeological, and other scientific studies; (3) are valuable tools for understanding ground-water flow and contamination transport in karst terrains; and (4) because of 1-3, can significantly impact local and statewide economies. Because of the importance of caves, and because cavers spend a considerable amount of time inside caves, it is imperative that cavers communicate their considerable knowledge of caves in a standardized protocol with each other and with the scientific community. For these reasons, it was recommended that a cave glossary be developed, emphasizing terms used in and near Florida, including the Caribbean. FGS took the lead in developing the glossary. It organized a committee to assist it in generating the glossary. The committee, ( The Florida Committee for the Terminology for Cave and Karst System s), consisted of representatives from the dry caving, cave diving communities and FGS geologists. The committee decided that the two major purposes in publishing the glossary were to improve: (1) the overall understanding of wet and dry caves in and near Florida, and (2) consistency in the usage of terms associated with caves. The draft version of the glossary contains over 1500 terms. The final document should be completed in 2006. "Explore Florida!" Website Explore Florida! is a Web-based curriculum that integrates multidisciplinary lesson plans with the use of maps and images such as satellite and airborne FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 32
imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps, and other special-purpose cartographic products (e.g., 3D anaglyph maps). These materials allow middle and high school students to visualize earth-system processes and human impact while relating them to disciplines beyond earth science, such as mathematics, history, social science and language arts. Student and teacher manuals contain site-specific background information and sets of "hands-on" and "minds-on" interdisciplinary activities keyed to the state science standards. All materials can be used in the classroom straight from the Web, or can be downloaded and printed in black and white, or color. A series of workshops will be held to familiarize teachers with these resources. By the end of fiscal year 2004, four units of Explore Florida! have been made available: The Woodville Karst Plain study area features a comparison of topographic maps with infrared aerial photographs to identify karst features, infer recharge and discharge of aquifers, and examine land use, both historical and modern. Several archeological sites are included. The Florida Peninsula study area highlights the contrasting land use exemplified by such diverse features as Cape Canaveral, the Disney Complex, the interior phosphate mining area, and paleo-shoreline features such as the Lake Wales Ridge. Satellite images and topographic maps enable students to relate these land uses to the geologic framework of the peninsula. The South Florida study area focuses on the unique habitats of the Everglades, the Florida Keys, and the impact of population pressure from the Miami area, which threatens to over-run these distinctive natural areas. Historic photos and sketches are compared with modern infrared aerial photographs to document changes in land use through time. Explore Florida! is designed for consistent expansion and versatility. Each unit is framed around a template that includes the following components: Purpose, Student Learning Objectives, Goals, Rubrics for Assessment, Sunshine State Standards, Background Material (may be written for both student and teacher or separate material for teacher and student), resources such as places to visit, references, web sites, glossary, and newspaper articles. Each student activity includes a materials list and worksheets. Enrichment activities and answer keys are also included. This task was conducted by the Florida Resource and Environmental Analysis Center in cooperation with the FGS; we anticipate using the same contractor to develop additional Florida units in the 2005-2006 time-frame. For more detailed information about this project one may log on to: http://www.exploreflorida.org. Karst Short Course & Field Trip The fundamental problem associated with effective hydrogeologic characterizations of karst settings in Florida is a lack of available formal education on karst hydrogeology at the academic and professional levels in Florida. To address this problem a short course (including a field trip) on karst in Florida was developed and tested in 2003/2004. We anticipate continuing these activities in upcoming years in cooperation with the Hydrogeology Consortium KARSTHYDROGEOLOGYPROGRAM Ground-water flow in karst hydrogeologic settings is difficult to characterize. This program focuses on field studies and modeling techniques to facilitate this characterization. Multifaceted field investigations address the nature of ground-water flow through conduit systems by employing dye tracing and tide gauging (along coastal karstic areas), as well as monitoring spring BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 33
discharge, rainfall, and water-quality parameters within subsurface conduits systems. These field studies provide calibration and validation for complex groundwater flow models. Moreover, a cave database has been established to serve as a reference for these modeling efforts as well as characterization of highly valuable and vulnerable natural resources.Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility StudyThe quantitative ground-water tracing program, conducted by the FGS in collaboration with private sector firms, over the past three fiscal years has been a success. Key flow paths in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP) have been successfully documented between disappearing streams, the Leon Sinks and Wakulla cave systems, and Wakulla Spring. The quantitative aspect of the tracer tests has permitted the calculation of ground-water velocities and other hydraulic parameters that will be crucial to future ground-water modeling efforts. The purpose of these studies was two-fold: (1) to characterize and identify the key karst features in the Woodville Karst Plain that have a probable influence on water flow in the watershed; (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting quantitative ground-water tracing experiments in the basin aimed at identifying flow direction and velocities along karstic flow paths to Spring Creek springs system. The study was also to assess the effect of tides and associated hydrogeology in Spring Creek on the Wakulla Spring system. While significant progress was made in achieving these goals in 2003-2004, work is on going using similar approaches.Wakulla In-cave Meter Data ManagementSeven oceanographic meters, manufactured by Falmouth Scientific, were deployed in the Wakulla cave system and began recording in late 2003. The meters will be continually recording velocity, temperature, and specific conductance at 15minute intervals. The data was stored onboard the devices then manually downloaded on-site by FGS staff at approximately 30 to 60-day intervals. Drs. Tim Hazlett and Todd Kincaid who are on the staff of GFDI at FSU have developed a preliminary website for the dissemination of the data which is updated at approximately 60 to 90day intervals. The dataset that was developed is one-of-a-kind and represents the most detailed characterization of a karst aquifer anywhere in the US, if not the world. In order to capitalize most fully on the expanding dataset and consequently foster multidisciplinary research efforts, effort to make the data more readily available to researchers world-wide was begun in 2004. This effort included steps to automate the data collection and dissemination processes by: 1) installing cabling and radio telemetry systems at the on-site data stations that will continuously communicate the data from the meters to a local computer server; 2) constructing a local computer server to collect the data, store it on local hard drives, and communicate it to a global computer server via the Internet; 3) developing a computer program that will automatically receive the data, process it into a desired set of graphical output, and post the output regularly to a project website; and 4) archiving the data, with enough redundancy (i.e. backups), such that it can be retrieved, in raw format, at will via an Internet interface. The complexity of the telemetry system will necessitate continuation of these and similar activities into the 2005/2006 fiscal year. Tide Gauging One of the most interesting insights that have come out, thus far, from these activities is the potential correlation FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 34
between regular small-scale discharge fluctuations at Wakulla and the tides in the Gulf of Mexico. In late 2004, the FGS installed two tide gauges close to Spring Creek that will be periodically harvested. We anticipate exploring this possible relationship further in 2005/2006 to obtain additional data on tidal fluctuations in the Gulf of Mexico south of Wakulla Spring. Expansion of the Cave Metering NetworkThe existing cave meter network effectively characterizes the flow to the spring from four most significant known conduit sources; however, the results of the last two ground-water tracing experiments have demonstrated that the Wakulla cave system is directly connected to the Leon Sinks cave system and that ground-water flows between the two in approximately seven days. Given this connection, and the stated goal of the metering project, which was to characterize the source waters for Wakulla Spring, we believe that additional meters are needed in the Leon Sinks cave system. Continuation of the Woodville Karst Plain Modeling Efforts In 2004, the FGS outsourced an investigation to predict ground-water movement and contaminant transport in karst using finite-element models. The contractors used existing and accepted finite-element numerical strategies but employed the detailed characterization data gleaned from the field studies to more accurately articulate karst features in the model domain and calibrate the model simulations to realworld conditions. Currently, the model contains all of the key karst features in the northern part of the WKP and calibrates fairly well to velocities measured through ground-water tracing and historical head levels published in the literature. This model has been sufficiently developed to warrant continuation of field testing and full-scale calibration, and validation in the 2005/2006 time-frame. Florida Cave Database The Florida Cave Database was initially developed with funding from the Hydrogeology Program in FY 2001-2002 and augmented, revised, and refined in FYs 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The database currently contains details from more than 30 underwater caves, each of which are represented by two ESRI GIS shape-files and associated datasets: one representing the survey points or significant turning points in the caves, which contains sufficient data, when available, to render a 3D model of the cave; and one that represents the 2D trend of the cave passages. All the files are projected to a custom FDEP Albers conformal conic projection. These files can be downloaded from a project website and immediately included in a GIS. Currently the data base is being populated with additional data available to state or local government staff as well as the private sector. This activity is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Wakulla Springs Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Discharge and RainfallIt is reasonable to characterize this task as the heart of past and on going research in the "Wakulla Project." Understanding the hydrogeological complexity of Wakulla Spring, its interaction with surface water sources and with land use activities, has begun to yield information that can be applied to serve an overarching goal of effective management, and protection of water within the entire Woodville Karst Plain Watershed. The data is being used to calibrate the finite element model previously mentioned with an ultiBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 35
mate deliverable being a model which can accurately simulate ground-water flow and contaminant transport in karst settings. With support by the FGS's Hydrogeology Program, beginning in 2002, a prototype of such a model, called KARSTMOD, has been developed by two members of our research team: Drs. David Loper and Tim Hazlett. The method utilizes a statistical scheme to define probable pathways between discrete sources of recharge such as sinkholes or sinking streams and spring discharges. Once a probabilistic network of pathways has been established, a combination of statistical and deterministic methods is used to simulate the travel-time between any point in a basin and a spring. To date, the model has been developed to the point where testing is appropriate. The next step is to calibrate KARSTMOD, using data on flow, temperature and electrical conductivity. In this context, temperature and conductivity are to be used as proxies for contaminants. During 2004, calibration of the flow and transport characteristics of KARSTMOD was initiated using data collected (over the past 6 years) by the S-4 meter (installed by the NWFWMD) in the main vent of Wakulla Spring. In subsequent years, we intend to expand this calibration process to include the data currently being harvested from the seven Falmouth meters deployed in the conduits leading to Wakulla Spring. The S-4 data contains a surprisingly rich spectrum of variations in discharge and other variables, on all timescales from hourly to (at least) annual. This variability, when properly analyzed and cross-correlated with rainfall and flow in sinking streams, can shed considerable light on how the Wakulla Springs flow system responds to events and activities on the land surface. This in turn will provide the basis for the calibration of KARSTMOD model that will eventually serve as a tool to protect and manage the quality of the spring system and the entire watershed. PHYSICALAQUIFER CHARACTERIZATIONPROGRAM Characterization of FloridaÂ’s hydrogeological framework is of paramount importance with regard to the protection, conservation and management of FloridaÂ’s ground-water resources. Aspects of this characterization include developing physical models of aquifer systems, development of physical aquifer property databases, and completion of applied research to assess surface-water ground-water interactions. Two projects, described below, were in progress during 2003-2004. Estimating Ground-Water Discharges via Radon Tracing This project builds on previous work by scientists from the FSU Department of Oceanography and the FGS. That project investigated the area around Lanark Reef using a continuous radon monitoring system and side scan sonar to search for areas of point source discharge (springs) as well as diffusive seepage. Lines were run parallel to the shore and one transect was made several kilometers out to sea. Radon inventories (Rn 222 activity correlated to water depth) and salinity trends clearly confirmed the location of the previously known Lanark and Sulfur Springs. Additionally, a nearshore area just west of the FSU Marine Laboratory (FSUML) was also investigated and shown to display lower salinity and elevated radon levels. This area was used to investigate diffusive seepage since there was no visible surface drainage anywhere nearby. During the same period that these surveys were performed, the researchers FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 36
deployed a stationary continuous radon monitor at a station about 100 meters off FSUML and collected time-series data for approximately 24 hours. These results were used to estimate diffusive seepage using a modeling approach that generally relies on solving mass balance equations. Estimates showed ground-water velocities ranging from 5-40 cm/day with increased seepage rates at low tide. Such trends of enhanced seepage during lower tidal stages have now been seen in several areas including the area around FSUML and in the Florida Keys. This is apparently due to a modulating effect caused by increased hydrostatic pressure at higher tides resulting in diminished ground-water discharge flow rates because the hydrostatic pressure acts in the opposite direction than the effects of the hydraulic gradient coming off the land. The isotopic results from Sulfur Spring all showed essentially the same result for all parameters measured (salinity, radon, and radium), indicating that there is little mixing going on at the spring vent. Lanark Spring, on the other hand, showed internal consistency in the conductivity/salinity results but a wide variation in the radon and radium results. The most likely explanation is that there was mixing of at least two fresh ground-water end-members in the vent sampled. The high-radon sample in Lanark was fairly similar in composition to all samples in Sulfur Spring. The FSU/FGS team also worked on an assessment of flow rates and isotopic concentrations in waters from several vents at Spring Creek Spring on April 14, 2004. FGS researchers made measurements using continuous side scans surveys and FSU investigators collected a total of 20 samples for isotopic analysis at two transects and four individual spring vents. Five additional offshore samples were analyzed for Rn 222 and Ra 226, after collection by FGS researchers. The samples show the general decreasing trend in radon activity as one moves farther offshore, away from groundwater-spring inputs. These preliminary findings would seem to justify continuation of the effort to better quantify ground-water discharge in the Spring Creek and other vents using Radium isotopes In FY 2002-2003 the FGS funded some of the effort to develop and construct the Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter to replace the old-fashioned metal drum meters previously used in detecting and measuring ground-water discharge. That effort was interrupted due to some difficulties with Dr. TaniguchiÂ’s travel from Japan to the US. In the latter parts of 2004 the researchers acquired the final components needed to construct the Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter without the need to have the inventor physically present in the US. One of six meters was constructed and tested successfully. The researchers also worked with Dr. Paul Lee of DEP who had designed and built, together with personnel from the FSU-FAMU School of Engineering, an automatic seepage meter based on ultrasonic sound (the Taniguchi meter is based on the flow of heat). These meters were deployed in environments where more disseminated flow is expected, including the area around Lanark Reef, Lake Barco (a site of another DEP project involving ground water-surface water interaction), and other locations of potential interest to the DEP and the FGS. The result of these studies will be significant to planned research (in 2005/2006 time-frame) supported by the Hydrogeology Program which seeks to account for ground water contribution in calculating Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) to surface waters. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 37
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project Begun in 1995, the Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project has been a collaborative effort between the FGS and SWFWMD to create a Microsoft Access database of wells within the district for the mapping project. The creation of this database, FGS_Wells, lead to state wide implementation in 2000 which included Oil and Gas regulatory data and ArcGIS well location interfacing. The mapping project culmination in 2004 has generated 20 surface and thickness maps and 34 cross-sections illustrating the lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic framework of the southwest Florida region. These maps were created using ArcGIS and AutoCAD. Mapped lithologic units include the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation to the Miocene/Pliocene Peace River Formation. Mapped hydrologic units include the Middle Floridan Aquifer Confining Unit, the Floridan Aquifer System, the Intermediate Aquifer System, and the Surficial Aquifer System. A database of 1065 wells is the basis for the generated maps. Of these 1065 wells more than 60 percent have been inspected to determine lithostratigraphic contacts. Detailed lithologic descriptions have been made of approximately one-quarter of those wells. Where gaps exist, wells with geophysical logs are included in the analysis to provide adequate coverage for the generated maps and cross-sections. The maps were generated using the Geostatistical and Spatial Analyst extensions in ArcGIS 8.3. All regions of the SWFWMD including a ten-mile buffer zone were analyzed. The production of these maps provides the most detailed lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic data in the state to date, and will provide the basis for further improvement. The end product is set for review in 2006 and publishing soon thereafter. The final product will be in both paper and digital formats. AQUIFERVULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM This program area focuses on continued modeling of the contamination potential of FloridaÂ’s aquifer systems at the state and local scale. In addition, areas that are susceptible to the formation of sinkholes have been delineated in a pilot study of Â“sensitive karst areas.Â” Knowledge of these areas is important with regard to land-use planning and construction criteria for retention ponds. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment During the 2003-2004 calendar year, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) project was in full swing. The assessment is based on an analytical method adapted for GIS-based mineral-potential mapping. The method, known as Weights of Evidence (WofE), combines evidence from known occurrences of a phenomena with spatial data to calculate a predictive response based on Bayesian theory with an assumption of conditional independence. Prior probabilities are calculated by dividing the number of known occurrences (training points) by the study area producing a probability of occurrence without the benefit of relevant data. Weights are calculated for independent GIS data coverages (evidential themes) based on the spatial relation between each evidential theme and training points. Results are reflected as posterior probabilities on an output map FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 38
known as the response theme. The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) applies the WofE method to the three principal aquifer systems in Florida through the use of the Arc Spatial Data Modeler within the ArcView 3.x platform. This extension facilitates assessment of spatial datasets, conditional independence, response theme uncertainty and validation, and provides other modeling techniques and statistical tools. Results of the project include maps that predict the relative contamination potential of Florida's principal aquifer systems. In FAVA models, training points consist of data from wells reflecting background water quality. Parameters used in the models to reflect known occurrences of aquifer vulnerability in the natural hydrogeologic system include dissolved oxygen and total dissolved nitrogen. Evidential themes include combinations of several improved or newly created statewide coverages: depth to water table, hydraulic head difference, thickness of confinement, distance to karst features, soil permeability, and aquifer system overburden. To maximize scientific defensibility of the response themes (relative vulnerability maps), models were validated using independent training data sets, training-point subsets and by demonstrating lack of correlation between land use and posterior probability. Aquifer vulnerability maps are an important resource for planners, developers, resource-management professionals and policy makers to facilitate protection of Florida's ground-water resources at the regional and local level. Among the strengths of the FAVA methodology is the ability to scale the study area to better meet the needs of local government agencies. For example, Alachua County funded the FGS in 2004 to complete a vulnerability assessment for that county. A draft of the report has been completed and the county is now considering additional funds to refine input geologic data layers, which may serve to refine the response theme.Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment In 2004, the bulk of the work for the Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (WAVA) and a draft report was completed. The study was initiated due to water quality concerns in Wekiwa spring and the Wekiva River. Hydrogeology of the Wekiva River study area is characterized by moderate to no confinement and a multitude of karst features. Ground water recharges the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) by infiltration through these sediments or directly through sinkholes. The Wekiva River Coordinating Committee Final Report identifies numerous studies by Florida's water management districts and the USGS that clearly demonstrate contamination attributable to changes in land use. Therefore, the FGS was authorized under the Springs Initiative and the Wekiva River Coordinating Committee to identify zones of aquifer vulnerability, for the Floridan Aquifer System, within the Wekiva River study area. WAVA utilizes a model that applies existing geographic information system data to predict relative vulnerability of the Floridan Aquifer System in the Wekiva study area. The vulnerability zones are based on the weights of evidence (WofE) modeling technique used in the statewide Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Use of WofE requires the combination of diverse spatial data which are used to describe and analyze interactions and genBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 39
erate predictive models. In WAVA the spatial data is composed of a training point theme and evidential themes. The training point theme consists of locations of known occurrences. In WAVA these are wells that exceed a certain concentration of dissolved oxygen. Wells with high dissolved oxygen concentrations are indicative of areas where a good connection exists between the top of the aquifer and land surface. The evidential themes include soil permeability, buffered effective karst features, Intermediate Aquifer System (IAS) thickness and head difference between the Surficial Aquifer System and the Floridan Aquifer System. These themes act as evidence in the model by either protecting the aquifer from contamination or allowing contamination to move quickly from land surface to the top of the aquifer system (i.e., areas of thick IAS sediments versus areas of thin IAS sediments). The WofE technique quantifies relationships between these evidential themes and the training point theme in order to predict zones of vulnerability. These zones are classified into a primary protection zone, a secondary protection zone and a tertiary protection zone. These protection zones will be used in decision making, development of rules, or policies regarding environmental conservation, protection, growth management and planning. Sensitive Karst Areas The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a thick sequence of Paleogene carbonates, is a major fresh water resource in Florida. Overburden comprised of Surficial Aquifer System and/or Intermediate Aquifer System sediments may act to protect the FAS from potential contamination sources where it is present. This overburden can be several hundred feet thick where it provides variable confinement for the FAS, or it can be thin to absent in areas where carbonate units comprising the FAS are exposed at or near land surface. In areas where the overburden is thin to absent, the potential for karst terrain development such as sinkholes and collapse features is increased. Karst terrain provides preferential flow paths for surface water to enter the underlying aquifer system and, therefore, places them at a greater risk of contamination from the surface. To develop the sensitive karst areas (SKA) boundary, the FGS utilized a Geographic Information System incorporating spatial data layers such as the state geologic map, land surface topography and overburden thickness maps. Land surface topography is comprised of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the FAVA project. The DEM was created by digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale Quadrangle maps, converting these arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 40 Conceptual model of the FAS. The top four layers are evidential themes and the bottom layer is the response theme divided into zones of relativevulnerability.
GRID along with a GRID of the top of the Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS overburden GRID. This was accomplished by subtracting the FAS overburden from the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of FAS overburden were then identified and overlain on areas affected by karst topography in the NWFWMD. Based on the combination of these two maps the SKA limits were identified for the NWFWMD. This methodology was created for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management and was inserted in the FDEP Environmental Resource Permit Applicant's Handbook Volume II, Engineering Requirements for Stormwater Treatment and Management Systems Water Quality and Water Quantity. The delineated SKA maps are used when sighting proposed stormwater holding ponds and establishes additional design criteria for these structures including minimum thickness of sediment between the surface and limestone, total depth of holding pond, vegetation requirements, sediment traps, liners and potentially ground-water modeling. For more information on this project please refer to the American Geological Institute website: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf Please hit refresh if figure does not appear the first time. Florida Springs Protection Areas In response to a request by the Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) in 2004, the FGS developed a map delineating areas where Florida's springsheds and springs are susceptible to land use activities. The resulting map will be available in digital form as FGS Open File Map Series No. 95, and can be referenced when state growth and land use issues are addressed. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 41
The purpose of the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida's springs and provide land use decision-makers with a published resource to assist them in protecting and restoring the quantity and quality of Florida spring discharge. Utilizing data from Florida water management districts, the U.S. Geological Survey and Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS utilized geographical information systems (GIS) software, expert knowledge and interpretation to generate a map delineating springs protection areas in Florida. This updatable map will be periodically revised as on-going and future research improves our understanding of springsheds.Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on the Water Quality of Fanning SpringsFanning Springs is a first-magnitude spring located within Fanning Springs State Park on the Suwannee River in Levy County. The spring consistently discharges nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite as N) in excess of 3.0 mg/L. This is the highest concentration of nitrate discharging from any of the first-magnitude springs that reside in Florida's State Parks. In a cooperative effort with the Department's Division of Recreation and Parks and the USGS, the FGS is assessing the source of nitrate discharging from the spring. The goals of the project are to estimate: (1) the aerial extent of the springshed (recharge basin); (2) the sources of nitrate originating within the springshed and their respective contribution to the loading of nitrate; (3) the groundwater travel times for the various sources of nitrate; (4) the dilution rates that occur between the sources and the spring; and (5) establish a nitrate monitoring network for Fanning Springs. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS obtained pertinent data from the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD). In addition, the SRWMD and the FGS worked together to delineate the Fanning Springshed. The delineation was based on a one-foot potentiometric surface obtained from over 100 SRWMD wells. The anticipated completion date for the project is 2006. OTHEROUTSOURCEDRESEARCH The Hydrogeology Program and the Outsourcing Program have been described elsewhere in this and in the last biennial report. The following is an update of projects developed in the 2003/2004 period and those ongoing in 2005. The following projects, funded by the Hydrogeology Program for FY 2003/2004, were completed and reports delivered: -The utility of foraminifera (forams) as indicators of environmental degradation or salinity changes in coastal waters. This project was a continuation of an initial study supported in FY 2001. The first phase of the study focused on natural changes in salinity profiles, while the second phase focused on foram's response to pollution. The current report is being developed for publication as an FGS Special Publication. A CD ROM for the Proceedings of the Workshop Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 42
Florida was finalized. An adequate number of CDs were produced by the FGS for distribution to all the workshop participants and other interested parties; it is available at the FGS library for purchase by the public. A report on the evaluation of remote sensing methods for the identification of areas of ground-water interaction with surface water has been finalized. It is being peerreviewed internally and externally for publication as an FGS Special Publication. -A report on the dye tracing studies in the Woodville Karst watershed project has also been completed. This study was conducted in an effort to generate data on groundwater movement in karst for the ultimate purpose of developing a model to predict such movement. The study was conducted by Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. under contract with FSU and the FGS. This report is also being developed into an FGS publication. In the interim; the report is available for review on the Hydrogeology Consortium and HazlettKincaid, Inc. webpages ( http://hydrogeologyconsortium.org/ and http://www.hazlettkincaid.com/) A report on the evaluation of remote sensing techniques for the identification of submarine springs was also completed. This study was funded by a grant from NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab. The report has been delivered to and accepted by NASA in satisfaction of the grant requirements. The grant allowed the purchase of satellite "scenes" of areas of the Gulf of Mexico being studied for thermal signatures. These signatures would indicate possible discharge of ground water to surface waters of the Gulf as well as inland waters. -The first phase of a study that was conducted by FSU, in cooperation with FGS and the Springs Initiative Program at DEP, has also been completed. This project seeks to understand the dynamics of water flow in the Wakulla Spring system and how it is influenced by interaction with surface waters. Flow meters deployed by divers in the tunnels and caves of the spring system have been generating data that will be statistically analyzed and correlated with other data, such as rainfall and hydraulic heads in wells, in an effort to locate the sources of surface water input into the spring system. Wells have also been drilled directly into conduits using transponders purchased for the purpose. Power sources and tubing have been threaded through these wells to allow for continuous data recording and water quality sample collection and analysis without the need to dive into these conduits. During 2005, efforts will be focused on developing a telemetry system that will allow for direct input of data into computers of the scientists involved. Similar studies are being conducted in the Manatee Spring System by the Suwannee River Water Management District in cooperation with FGS and the Springs Initiative Program. Other projects that were conducted by FSU, UWF and the USGS and funded by the Hydrogeology Program in FY 2003/2004: 1. Evaluating the impact of ASR projects on native microbial communities. 2. Identifying the sources of bacterial contamination of springs using genetic typing and bio-film cultures. 3. Quantifying ground-water discharge into surface waters using radon and radium along with seepage meters. 4. Developing a workshop to address scientific and regulatory issues associated with ASR projects in Florida. 5. Continuation of dye tracing studies in the Woodville Karst watershed for the ultimate purpose of developing models to predict ground-water movement and contaminants behavior and transport in karstic settings. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 43
THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM Large areas of Florida, as well as other areas of the US, are underlain by karst geology, which is riddled with conduits and cavities of differing diameters and orientations resulting in ground-water flow under multi-porosity conditions. Under such conditions the classical equations (such as Darcy's Law) for depicting ground-water flow and contaminant transport are not operative. Karstic conditions also allow for significant volumes of ground water to flow rapidly through watersheds with increased potential for interaction with surface water. Ground-water models based largely on Darcy's Law and traditionally used in homogeneous aquifers are, therefore, not applicable in karst. New approaches must be developed to conceptualize flow and transport in multi-porosity aquifers. Based on such conceptual models, analytical and numerical models could eventually be developed that would, more accurately, predict water flow in karstic aquifers. The use of such models will be essential if the behavior and ultimate fate of natural and man-made contaminants on ground-water quality are to be evaluated. Ground-water quality data will in turn be critical in making correct decisions in efforts to clean up and/or manage karst-dominated watersheds. To help in achieving this goal, scientists from state and federal agencies, as well as universities and the private sector, under the leadership of Drs. Rodney S. DeHan of the FGS and David Loper of FSU, met in November 1997 and established the Hydrogeology Consortium. The steps taken and parties involved were discussed in earlier biennial reports that can be found on the FGS's Webpage. More details about the Consortium, including how to join in, can also be found at: http://hydrogeologyconsortium.org or by telephone at (850) 644-5625 Fax: (850) 644-8972. Currently, the Consortium is in the process of being classified as a not-forprofit organization for federal taxing purposes. In 2004, the Consortium co-sponsored a workshop on ASR in cooperation with the FGS and the American Ground Water Trust. Since its establishment, the Consortium, in cooperation with the Hydrogeology Program, has been involved in organizing and or co-sponsoring several workshops including the following for which CDs for the proceedings have been developed and are currently available for purchase from the FGS's library: 1) Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida Springs (May 8-9, 2002) in Ocala, Florida, FGS Special Publication 51. 2) Workshop on the Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection (April 16-17, 2003) in Ocala, Florida, FGS Special Publication 53. 3) Workshop on Aquifer Storage & Recovery IV: Science, Technology, Management and Policy The workshop was held on April 1516, 2004 in Tampa, Florida, FGS Special Publication 54. The Consortium also co-sponsored several other public education activities aimed at educating the public about the significance and vulnerability of the Wakulla Springs System to degradation from activities on the land surface. This effort consisted of presentations made by Consortium members and other FGS scientists and contractors in "town hall" type meetings in Woodville and subsequently in Tallahassee followed by a "Walk for Wakulla" in November of 2004. A more detailed description of these events can be found on the Consortium's Webpage mentioned above. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 44
OIL AND GAS SECTION The Oil and Gas Section regulates petroleum exploration and production within the state and state waters pursuant to Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and implementing Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30, Florida Administrative Code. The Section's primary responsibilities are environmental protection, safety, conservation of oil and gas resources, and correlative rights protection. These concerns are addressed when permit applications are reviewed and permit conditions are enforced by field inspection. The Section's home office is located in Tallahassee and the field offices are in Jay and Ft. Myers near the oil and gas fields. The Section's key activities include permitting geophysical, drilling, and transport operations, inspecting field operations, tracking activities by the use of production and other reporting forms, enforcing financial security requirements, and maintaining databases for well and geophysical permits. Approximately 6.1 million barrels of crude oil and 7 billion cubic feet of natural gas were produced in Florida during 2003 and 2004. During the last 2 years, the state's oil and gas production rates have fallen by 21% and 8% respectively. On December 31, 2004, the state's cumulative production totals reached approximately 595 million barrels of oil and 628 billion cubic feet of gas. In 1978, Florida's annual petroleum production rates peaked at 48 million barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic feet of gas, which ranked Florida 8th among oil producing states. Since 1945, the state has received approximately 1382 drilling permit applications, of which 319 wells were never drilled, 716 were dry holes, and 346 became producers. The state currently has 59 producing wells operating within eight active oil and gas fields. One field, with three wells, is currently shut in and 12 formerly producing fields have been permanently plugged and abandoned. REGULATORY PROGRAM During the state's production decline over the last 26 years, the Oil and Gas Section's focus has gradually shifted from permitting and inspecting drilling and geophysical operations to regulation of well maintenance, plugging/abandonment, site restoration, and decommissioning of oil and gas field facilities. Over the last two years, 23 wells were plugged and abandoned and 5 well sites were restored. Approximately 72 of the state's 180 permitted oil and gas wells are currently inactive and may need to be plugged and abandoned over the next several years. Many of the existing producing wells are approaching profitability threshold as the statewide water cut (percentage of produced water mixed with the produced crude oil) has climbed to 96%. Currently 58 of the state's 180 permitted wells are dedicated to reinjecting produced water that has been separated from produced crude oil. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 45 Ed Garrett, Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section (photo by David Taylor).
DRILLING AND PRODUCTION Southwestern Florida: Collier Resources Company, the major mineral rights owner within the Big Cypress National Preserve, agreed to sell its drilling rights on 765,000 acres to the Department of Interior, but Congress failed to fund the transaction. The two parties are now considering renegotiating the arrangement pending another study of petroleum reserve estimates. If the two parties ultimately come to an agreement, the likelihood of near-term exploration or development of new fields in southern Florida will be substantially reduced. One drilling permit for a wildcat well was issued during the 2003-2004 period in southwest Florida. Drilling operations for the well, the Bob Paul #20-4 in Highlands County, began November 8, 2004 and was still underway at the end of 2004. The target is the Deep Lake Sands Formation at a total vertical depth of 12,800 feet. Although the closest productive well is approximately 40 miles southwest of the Bob Paul #20-4, a dry hole drilled 12 miles to the west in 1955 under Permit 225 yielded shows of crude oil in core samples taken from the Fredericksburg Â“BÂ” Formation from depths between 8,822 and 8,890 feet. The operator intends to test Bob Paul #20-4 for hydrocarbons at various depths. If the well is successful, the operator plans to drill up to eight additional wells from the same pad which lies in an orange grove south of Lake Placid. Permit applications have been submitted for three of these wells. Although no new drilling permits were issued for established fields in the Sunniland Trend, five existing operating permits were recertified, one producing well was drilled to a deeper target, 20 wells were worked over to perform downhole maintenance and secondary recovery techniques, five wells were plugged and abandoned, and four restored well sites passed final inspection. Production from the nine fields in the southwest Florida dropped from approximately 3,300 to 2,600 barrels of oil per day. Oil and Gas staff at the Fort Myers field office conducted 5,696 inspections of wells and related facilities. Northwest Florida: Production at Jay Field was suspended for 10 days in response to Hurricane Ivan during September 2004. The shut down cost Exxon-Mobil approximately 100,000 barrels of oil. Nevertheless, Jay field continues to dominate state production with approximately 73% of the state's total oil and 78% of the gas. Jay Field has now produced 416 million barrels of oil. Although no new wells were drilled in Jay Field during 2003-2004, Exxon-Mobil submitted four drilling applications in 2004 and was preparing to begin drilling this series of infield wells at the end of 2004. During March 2004, Petro Operating Company resumed production at the Blackjack Creek Field after a two year shut down to reconfigure the field's separator plant for reinjection of acid gas byproduct. Production has since averaged approximately 170 barrels of oil and 0.54 million cubic feet of gas per day. McLellan Field, which lies approximately 20 miles east of Jay has not produced any oil or gas since 2003 and may be decommissioned when its current operating permits expire in October FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 46 Southwest Florida Oil and Gas Inspectors Bob Caughey and Paul Attwood (timer photo by Paul Attwood).
2005. Oil and Gas staff at the Jay field office conducted 2,285 inspections of wells and related facilities during the 2003-2004 period. During 2003, one wildcat well was drilled in northwest Florida near Crestview. The Permit 1315 well was directionally drilled by Zinke and Trumbo, Inc. underneath Interstate 10 in Okaloosa County to a Smackover Formation target at a total vertical depth of 15,500 feet. Production flow testing was not conducted because well logs indicated the well was a dry hole. Zinke and Trumbo, Inc, applied in 2003 for drilling permits to three additional targets, but chose to terminate the drilling project when the first well proved unsuccessful. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION One geophysical survey was conducted by Mayne and Mertz, Inc. under Permit No. G-160-03 from January through March 2004 in northern Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties. The survey method was threedimensional seismic reflection/refraction covering 13 square miles. The energy source was 5.5 pound charges detonated from within approximately 950 shallow shot holes. All drilling, detonations, and plugging operations were witnessed under the Oil and Gas Section's observer program. The section's geophysical engineer supervised and coordinated the inspection duties of 23 observers. OFFSHORE ACTIVITY In June 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court chose not to hear an appeal by Coastal Petroleum Company to reconsider lower court rulings against Coastal's claim that the State of Florida's denial of offshore drilling Permit Application 1281 constituted an illegal taking of Drilling Lease No. 224-A. Permit Application 1281, which proposed drilling south of St. George Island, was submitted to the Oil and Gas Section in 1992 and was ultimately denied in 1998. The U.S. Supreme Court ruling culminated several years of legal dispute between Coastal and the State of Florida over numerous offshore drilling applications and Coastal's Gulf of Mexico offshore leases which extend along a 425-mile tract from Apalachicola to Naples. IMPORTED NATURAL GAS IN SOUTH FLORIDA Prior to 2002, the only major natural gas delivery system to southern Florida was the Florida Gas Transmission Pipeline which extends from southern Texas to southern Florida with mainline capacity of 2.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/day). During 2002, Duke Energy Gas Transmission and Williams completed construction of the Gulfstream Pipeline, which crossed the Gulf of Mexico along a 581-mile path from south Alabama to Manatee County. A 110-mile extension across the Florida peninsula was added in 2004. The extension will ultimately deliver 1.1 Bcf/day to nine counties in southern Florida. During April 2004, the Governor and Cabinet approved plans by Tractebel North America and AES to build two additional natural gas pipelines to south Florida with a combined total capacity of approximately two Bcf/day. The gas will be imported via liquefied natural gas tanker ships from around the world, offloaded and revaporized at port/pipeline facilities in the Bahamas, and delivered through undersea pipelines to Broward and Palm Beach Counties. Completion of these pipeline systems will dramatically increase southern Florida's natural gas supply and may ultimately create a strong demand for large scale gas storage systems in south Florida. Oil and gas operators in southwestern Florida have already directed inquiries to BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 47
the Oil and Gas Section concerning permitting procedures for modifying depleted oil and gas fields for use as large scale gas storage facilities. The oil and gas rules, Sections 62C-25 through 62C-30, Florida Administrative Code, are currently being revised to address gas storage permitting. OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM During 2003 and 2004, the Oil and Gas Section's petroleum engineer launched a program approved by the legislature to conduct remedial plugging on improperly plugged and abandoned old oil and gas wells throughout the state. These wells were generally drilled before the state's formal regulatory system of rigorous permitting and inspection. The targeted wells were prioritized on the basis of potential threat to potable ground water. The section's petroleum engineer directed a contracted drilling service to plug six wells in Levy County and one in Putnam County. During 2004, plugging operations were cut short on a 12,000 foot well in Collier County because of unexpected metal debris found in the original cement plugs. As the program continues, this well and up to ten others are slated for plugging and abandonment over the next two years. OIL AND GAS DATABASE In 2004, the section's primary well permit database was upgraded to track, archive, and make monthly reports for all oil and gas well production data in the state. This new tool provides section staff with the capability of performing such tasks as evaluating wells and fields, reconciling production data with other records, conveying to mineral owners the oil and gas production of a specific area, providing packaged information for the website, and other tasks. OIL AND GAS WEBSITE The Oil and Gas Section's website was expanded in 2004 to publish monthly production data from all of the stateÂ’s active oil and gas wells. The new system provides raw and summarized production data to the industry, the public, and to other government agencies. The system supplants bulk mailing, gives users the information faster, and provides it in a digital format. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 48
INTRODUCTION From time-to-time certain issues arise in addition to planned and budgeted activities, to which the Florida Geological Survey is asked to respond. In 2004, the FGS participated in a legislative request to assess insurance coverage of sinkhole damage and commenced a project to update the hydrostratigraphic unit names in Florida. SINKHOLE SUMMIT II In 1992, the Florida Geological Survey hosted a Sinkhole Summit in response to legislation that requested the Florida State University Center for Insurance Research, under the direction of the Florida Department of Insurance to address numerous issues dealing with insurance coverage of sinkhole damages. One small part of that effort dealt with what competent professionals do to determine if karst processes are the likely or probable cause of observed damage. In addition, the legislation requested input on recommendations for a continuing research facility on sinkhole science. The summit was a brainstorming and consensus building session among a crosssection of Professional Geologists, geotechnical engineers and other associated experts to compile such a listing and address the questions. A summary of those deliberations was included in the final legislative report and those specific sections were reproduced by the FGS as Open File Report No. 72 (available online, see FGS web site, List of Publications). The 2004 legislative session again requested an assessment of insurance coverage in response to sinkhole damage. A study was requested to be done by the FSU College of Business, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, in consultation with the Florida Geological Survey to provide recommendations on the feasibility of creating a Sinkhole Insurance Facility, and to recommend "uniform standards" to evaluate sinkhole claims (among numerous other things). In this regard, the FGS convened Sinkhole Summit II to essentially update the 1992 effort. Many technologies and the understanding of subsurface karst processes have advanced during the last twelve years and a modern update was in order. The intent was to gather a group of experts in one place to discuss the currently accepted practices used by the professional geoscience community. Another intent was to compile a listing of those technologies and activities that a competent professional would utilize in an assessment of a site to determine if karst processes are present or responsible for observed features. The meeting was held in the conference room of the FGS Headquarters at the Gunter Building in Tallahassee on September 28, 2004. Twenty five Professional Geologists, geotechnical engineers, and other experts representing private industry / consultants, regional, state and federal governmental agencies, academia, and agency insurance program experts participated. A final submittal to the FSU Department of Risk Management and Insurance for incorporation into their report to the Financial Services Commission and the Legislature was completed in November 2004. The report is titled: Geological and Geotechnical Investigation Procedures for Evaluation of the Causes of Subsidence Damage in Florida compiled by W. Schmidt, with contributions from the participants of Sinkhole Summit II. The report will be available online as an FGS Special Publication. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 49 SPECIAL PROJECTS
REVISION TO THE HYDROGEOLOGICALUNITS OF FLORIDA (FGS SPECIAL PUBLICATION 28) In 1986, FGS published a document, Hydrogeological Units of Florida It was published for the Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, under the auspices of the Southeastern Geological Society. The document addressed the issue of consistency of nomenclature within the hydrogeologic community in Florida. It was an important step in assisting both governmental agencies and the private sector regarding the proper and consistent use of hydrogeology terms throughout the state. Recently, based on discussions by staff from the FGS, the USGS, and the private sector, it was noted that since 1986, there had been a considerable increase in the understanding of the Florida's hydrogeological units. For this reason, in 2003, a committee was formed to discuss potential revisions to the document. The committee ( The Second Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition ) consists of representatives from the FGS, the USGS, the water management districts, private hydrogeological consultants, and the Florida university system. The committee met in August, 2003 to discuss potential revisions. It was decided that a revised publication should be made. The FGS took the lead. The revised publication will consist of a minimum of text and will emphasis a series of hydrogeological cross sections from around the state published in poster format. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS began making a series of hydrogeological cross sections traversing the state with using updated hydrostratigraphic terminology. The revisions will be reviewed by the AD Hoc committee and the expected completion date is 2006. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 50 FGS geologists Frank Rupert and Walt Schmidt examine a large sinkhole in Tallahassee (photo by Tom Scott).
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY LAB AND SEM The Hydrogeology Section acquired new lab space at the DEP Annex for a hydrogeochemistry lab and sample storage. Part of the space is occupied by a radio-isotope lab, equipped with an alpha spectrometer, a radio-isotope fume hood, and a Mega Pure 3A water still. This lab will be used for uranium isotope studies of ground water. Of particular interest will be the water-rock interaction processes, including sequential leaching and mobility of trace metals, that occur during ASR. From this, future geochemical models may be able to predict water-rock interactions and movement of the As front. Experiments will look at the effects of lowering DO once As is in solution, and the effects of SO4and Fe in the water. Also being considered is magnetic separation of the carbonates to concentrate the potentially As-rich phases. The Hydrogeology Section has also acquired a used Jeol JXA-840A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM lab is located adjacent to the hydrogeochemistry lab. This instrument can be used for many applications. The current study will utilize its high performance electron probe microanalyzer and its capability as a high resolution scanning microscope. Preand-postleaching samples will be examined. The electron probe micro analyzer measures constituent elements of a specimen and their distribution. The EDX utilizes 4 Pi Revolution software. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 51 EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION New Scanning Electron Microscope (photo by Cindy Fischler).
CORE STORAGE FACILITY EXPANSION Additional space within the FDEP Warehouse building (where our existing sample repository is located) became available to the FGS and has been utilized for additional core storage and for a new sample preparation lab. Well samples will now be delivered, processed and archived in the same building. The first phase of mobile aisle shelving has been installed. This expansion, when all shelving is installed, will handle core storage needs for the next 12-15 years. The FGS is grateful for financial support from the SWFWMD in the effort. NEW DRILL RIG AND WATER TRUCK The Florida Legislature provided funds to procure a new, state of the art drill rig to replace the very tired and inefficient Gefco 1500. The new rig (Schramm T450M11A) will provide significant improvements in crew safety, productivity and depth capability. A new water truck/support vehicle was also purchased. NEW OFFICE SPACE Drilling operations staff moved to office space in the Warehouse and Core Storage Facility located behind the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex. Both buildings are south and across the street from the FDEP Douglas Building located just off of Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 52 New Ford F450 water/support truck (photo by Ken Campbell). New Schramm T450M11A drill rig (photo by Frank Rupert).
FGS PUBLICATIONS The following reports in the FGS publication series were published during the period from January 2003 through December 2004: BIENNIAL REPORT Balsillie, J. H. 2003, Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report 22, 2001-2002: Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report 22, 115 p. BULLETIN Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P., Means, R.C., Upchurch, S.B., Copeland, R.E., Jones, J., Roberts, T., and Willet, A., 2004, Springs of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66, 377 p. plus CD. In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published the first Springs of Florida bulletin which documented the major and important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947). This publication was revised in 1977, with many previously undocumented springs and many new water-quality analyses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Florida Geological Survey's report on first magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was the initial step in once again updating and revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. The new bulletin includes the spring descriptions and water-quality analyses from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly 300 springs were described in 1977. As of 2004, more than 700 springs have been recognized in the state and more are reported each year. To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second or approximately 64.6 million gallons of water per day) have been recognized in Florida, more than any other state or country (Rosenau et al., 1977). Our springs are a unique and invaluable natural resource. A comprehensive understanding of the spring systems will provide the basis for their protection and wise use. FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM The Florida Geology Forum newsletter is designed to reach a wide range of readers interested in geology and natural resources of Florida. Each issue includes current events and activities at the FGS, as well as meeting announcements and contributed articles from other geoscience organizations and University geology departments. March 2003, v. 17, no. 1,edited by Paula Polson October 2003, v. 17, no. 2,edited by Paula Polson. March 2004, v. 18, no. 1,edited by Paula Polson. October 2004, v. 18, no. 2, edited by Paula Polson. INFORMATION CIRCULAR Armstrong, Carol (ed.) 2004, List of Publications. Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 87, 56 p. LEAFLET Rupert, F. 2004, This is the Florida Geological Survey: Florida Geological Survey Leaflet 17. This color tri-fold brochure summarizes the history, mission and services provided by the Florida Geological Survey. Inside, the brochure details the present administrative structure of the Survey along with listings of current projects and activities. Contact information and a map to the main offices are provided on the back panel. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 53 PUBLICATIONS
MAP SERIES Marella, R.L., and Sepulveda, A.A ., 2004, Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map Series 149. Printed by the FGS, this report is the seventh in a series of USGSmap reports describing the potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer System in Florida. It differs from the earlier reports, because it emphasizes the highly permeable Upper Floridan Aquifer. Data were collected as part of a continuing program that monitors ground-water resources in Florida in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the state water management districts, and local government agencies. This report illustrates and describes the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer based on water levels from more than 1,200 wells measured in May 2000 (mostly in Florida). Discussions regarding water levels or water-level changes in 2000 refer to those measured in May 2000; similarly, 1995 water levels refer to May and June 1995. The potentiometric surface is a spatial representation of the levels in which water would rise in tightly cased wells open to the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The potentiometric surface was developed from the altitude of water levels in the wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude above mean sea level. To depict the dynamic condition of the aquifer, this report includes a map of changes in water levels between 1995 and 2000 and hydrographs from five wells across the State with longterm records. OPEN FILE MAP SERIES Green, R.C., Evans, W.L., III, Bryan, J., and Paul, D. 2003, Geologic map of the eastern portion of the USGS 1:100,000 Scale Marianna Quadrangle, northwestern Florida: Florida Geological Survey OpenFile Map Series 92, 2 plates. The near surface geology of the eastern half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quadrangle is composed of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging from Eocene to Holocene. Within this area, geologic influences are a combination of fluvio-deltaic and marine deposition, erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic changes in sea level, dolomitization, and dissolution of underlying carbonates. These factors, combined with the fact that there is a transition zone between the primarily siliciclastics sediments of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the Mississippi Embayment to the west and the predominantly carbonate sediments of the Florida Platform within the study area can make differentiation of formations difficult (Green et al., 2001). Several relict Neogene coastal terraces have been recognized in the area and surface topography has been incised by numerous streams, often creating a dendritic drainage pattern. Some streams emerge from steep sided ravines, called steepheads. These features, unique to western Florida, reflect the interaction between ground water and thick, siliciclastics which sit atop impermeable clays of the underlying Alum Bluff Group. Evans, W. L., III, Green, R. C., Bryan, J., and Paul, D. 2004, Geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville Quadrangle, north-central Florida: Florida Geological Survey OpenFile Map Series 93, 2 plates. The near surface geology of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle is composed of a complex mixture of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging from Eocene to Holocene. A combination of factors, including fluvio-deltaic deposition, marine deposition, dissolution of underlying carbonates, erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic changes in sea level, and structural feaFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 54
tures, have influenced the geology of the study area. Much of the western portion of the Gainesville quadrangle is located within the Suwannee River and Santa Fe River basins. In this area, the Suwannee River, the Santa Fe River, and their tributaries contain at least 55 documented springs, including 9 first magnitude springs (defined as having a minimum average flow of 100 cubic feet per second, or 64.6 million gallons per day). Of a total of 33 first magnitude springs in the state, approximately 27 percent are located within the study area. Many of these springs have evidenced significant increases in pollutants in the last few decades, particularly nitrate (Scott et al., 2002). Detailed geologic mapping of lithostratigraphic units in this area provides critical data needed to help in future assessments of the vulnerability of these aquifer systems to contamination. OPEN FILE REPORTS Rupert, F. 2003, Geology of Suwannee County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Report 86, 9 p. This publication presents an overview of the geology of Suwannee County. Included are sections on: 1) geomorphology, describing the shape and origin of the land surface; 2) stratigraphy, describing the underlying rock strata; 3) ground water, providing an overview of the aquifer systems in Suwannee County; and 4) mineral resources present in the county. Balsillie, J. H., and Dabous, A. A. 2003, A new type of sieve shaker; the Meinzer II comparative study with Rotap technology: Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report No. 87, 93 p. A new type of sieve shaker, the Britishdesigned Meinzer II, is compared to the long-used "industry standard" Rotap shaker. Twenty sand-sized sediment sample pair tests were conducted using four different sieving protocols to determine if Meinzer II shakers duplicate results forthcoming from Rotap shakers. It was found, based on qualitative visual assessments of sample pair cumulative probability distributions, and on quantitative statistical analysis, that Rotap and Meinzer II shakers result in essentially identical outcomes. Furthermore, this conclusion is reached for samples tested with soft or friable sandsized particles, wherein the Meinzer II was found to be gentler than the Rotap machines. Balsillie, J. H., 2003, A mechanically simple and low cost subaqueous surface sediment sampler: Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report No. 88, 19 p. Over the years, the author has developed a subaqueous surface sediment sampler that is simple to operate and inexpensive to construct. It is designed to be operated in water ranging from wading depths to a water depth up to 20 feet when operated from a boat. This paper describes (1) sampling rational of the sedimentation unit for which the device has been designed, (2) sample size constraints for which the sampler has been configured, (3) sampler specifications, dimensions and construction tips, and (4) sampler operation. POSTERS Spencer, S., and Rupert, F. 2003, Florida's industrial minerals: Making modern life possible: Florida Geological Survey Poster 9. Since pre-historic times man has utilized the natural materials from the earth for constructing shelters, tools, utensils, and weapons. The earliest mining in Florida was carried out by Native BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 55
Americans, who quarried the mineral chert from limestone for use in points and tools. Alluvial clay deposits were also utilized for pots and other cooking utensils. Today minerals from the earth are the building blocks of our modern society. Florida ranks among the top ten states in the nation in industrial mineral production. Florida's minerals are utilized both locally and worldwide. This poster illustrates and describes Florida's common industrial minerals and shows the mining areas for each within the state. Bond, P. A., 2003 Land use and spring protection: Florida Geological Survey Poster 10. This poster illustrates geohydrologic aspects of a springshed and cultural features that have the potential to affect water quality and quantity, with special emphasis on protective practices. Rupert F., and Spencer, S. 2004, Florida's sinkholes: Florida Geological Survey Poster 11. Sinkholes are a natural component of Florida's landscape. In the simplest sense, sinkholes are depressions in the land surface resulting from the dissolution of underlying bedrock. Their size depends on the local geology. Two broad types of sinkholes occur in Florida. Collapse sinkholes form quickly and tend to develop in areas with clayey sediments overlying the bedrock. They typically are the result of an underground cavity enlarging to the point where its ceiling no longer supports the weight of the overlying sediments. Solution sinkholes form gradually and commonly occur in areas with sandy sediments overlying bedrock. These typically form by gradual infilling of cracks and voids in the underlying bedrock by cover sediments. The land surface over the in-filled bedrock subsides in response. This poster illustrates the locations of reported sinkholes in Florida, the primary sinkhole zones statewide, types of sinkholes, and the processes that form them. Greenhalgh, T. 2003, FloridaÂ’s first magnitude springsheds: Florida Geological Survey Poster 12. The Florida Geological Survey in conjunction with the Northwest Florida, Suwannee River, St. Johns River and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts, as well as the United States Geological Survey are working together to develop a preliminary map of Florida's first magnitude spring recharge basins (springsheds). This map is a compilation of the readily available first magnitude springshed boundary maps. The purpose of the map is to inform decision makers (e.g., county commissioners, legislators, and local and state agency personnel) and citizens about the importance of appropriate land use within a springshed and to establish a baseline for the further refinement of the springshed boundaries. As on-going and future research improves the understanding of the ground-water hydrology of these springsheds, more accurate maps of the individual springsheds will be available at the Florida Geological Survey. Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc ., 2003, Karst educational posters: to be available as Florida Geological Survey Poster 13 (CD). This is a series of eight color posters depicting ground water surface water interaction, aquifers, hydrologic cycle, karst, distribution of the earthÂ’s water, porsity and permeability, and how you can help. REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS Balsillie, J. H., and Donoghue, J. F. 2004, High-resolution sea-level history for the U. S. Gulf of Mexico since the last glacial maximum: Florida Geological Survey, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 56
Report of Investigations No. 103, 65 p. Comprehensive, high-resolution, composite sea-level curves for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico since the last glacial maximum have been developed based on all available radiocarbon and calibrated absolute age-data. They are based on sea-level elevation indicators that, on the average, were measured once every 60 years for the past 20,000 years. The data sets consist primarily of geological sea-level indicators (some are archaeological). Published sea-level histories of the Gulf of Mexico exhibit significant variability. While there is error associated with the 14C age dating methodology, the bulk of error is undoubtedly associated with the indicator material chosen to represent sea-level elevation. It is the latter that must be judicially treated. Such error has, perhaps, been inflated to such an argumentative and defeatist extent among researchers that comprehensive compilation and analysis of sea-level data for the Gulf, until now, has been avoided. SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS Copeland, R. E. (Compiler), 2003, Florida spring classification system and spring glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 52, 17 p. In May 2002, a Florida Springs workshop was held in Ocala, Florida sponsored jointly by the Hydrogeology Consortium, the Florida State University, and the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to facilitate discussion among scientists, resource managers and the public regarding the significance of springs as valuable natural systems. Included among the recommendations of the workshop was the need for the development of consistent terms as applied to spring usage in the state of Florida. As a result, the Florida Geological Survey agreed to form a committee to address spring nomenclature. The Florida Springs Nomenclature Committee was formed in the fall of 2003 and was made up of representatives from the Florida Geological Survey, the state's water management districts, the state university system, the hydrogeological consultant community, and the general public. In addition to developing a glossary of terms, the committee developed a spring classification system in order to allow the citizens of Florida to easily classify springs into one of a minimum number of categories. It is believed that the classification system, as well as the glossary, will assist Floridians in improving their overall understanding of springs and to increase consistency in the usage of terms associated with Florida's springs. Dehan, R. (compiler), 2003, Significance of caves in watershed management and protection in Florida: Workshop Proceedings, April 16-17, 2003, Ocala, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 53, CD. The workshop on the Significance of caves in watershed management and protection in Florida was designed to bridge the gap between cavers and the public at large on the one hand and scientists involved in water resource protection research and regulatory activities on the other. Ideas and discussions were exchanged on ways for cavers to contribute to scientific data gathering while practicing their sport/hobby. The workshop delved into the significance of cave system maps and morphology data in understanding karstification processes and ultimately in understanding the dynamics of ground water flow in saturated caves. Interaction between surface and ground water was of special interest to the participants since this interaction is thought to play a critical role in ground water contamination, thus the health and integrity of watersheds. Finally, discussions were directed to the significance of BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 57
these types of data in the development of conceptual and numerical models for ground water flow and contaminant transport in karstic settings. Special Publication 54 2004, Proceedings, Aquifer Storage Recovery IV: science, technology, management and policy, Tampa, Florida April 15-16, 2004: Florida Geological Survey CD. This CD contains a compilation of the oral and poster presentations and discussion summaries from the Aquifer Storage Recovery IV, science, technology, management, and policy held in Tampa, Florida April 15 & 16, 2004. The Forum was sponsored and organized by the American Ground Water Trust, the Florida Geological Survey, and the Hydrogeology Consortium. Additional co-sponsors included: the US Geological Survey, the Florida Ground Water Association, the South Florida Water Management District, the St. Johns River Water Management District, the Florida Association of Professional Geologists, and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) technology is a well established method of conserving water resources and has been used in numerous parts of the world for many years. It has also been used successfully in Florida, and in recent years has received much attention in regard to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, in which ASR is proposed to play a significant role. This Forum addressed "Science and Technology" issues on the first day and "Management and Policy" issues the second day with numerous experts presenting papers and responding to questions. In addition, several excellent research projects were summarized in poster sessions during the meeting. These presentations and posters are compiled in this CD to make this important information available to the professional community, interested government officials and the public. This information will assist government agencies, land owners, environmentalists, hydrogeologists, and engineers, in better conserving and protecting Florida's precious water resources. Special Publication 56 2004, Wakulla Springs scientific symposium, May 13, 2004: Florida Geological Survey CD, Wakulla Spring has long been a draw to wildlife and ancient human inhabitants. What we see today as the Woodville Karst Plain had itÂ’s beginnings after the original deposition of the marine sediments (during the Oligocene and Miocene, (35 through 5 million years ago). Marine, coastal and fluvial processes alternatively deposited and reworked successive layers of younger rocks. In this area, most of these are now missing due to subsequent erosion and redeposition further offshore. We now have residual quartz sands, with included shell material and sporadic silts and clays, overlying the irregular karstic surface of the lithified limestone. Numerous fluctuations in sea-level occurred throughout the Neogene and several during the Pleistocene have been welldocumented, using many lines of evidence. This relentless "pumping" caused by ongoing fluctuations in sea-level and the continuous dissolution of the carbonate rocks from aggressive surface and ground water has resulted in one of the most prolific groundwater aquifers in the world, what we call the Floridan Aquifer System. The last major episode of sea-level change probably resulted in the formation of the cave / conduit system we see today. The professional cave diving community has utilized the Wakulla Cave system FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 58
and surrounding area for training, equipment testing, and exploration of the system. They have mapped the resource and assisted land managers with conservation planning and environmental protection. Cave diving exploration has occurred sporadically since 1955 and in the mid 1980's the US Deep Caving Team came to the area for exploration and equipment testing. Most importantly, also, the mid1980's saw the beginning of the Woodville Karst Plain Project ( a NSS sanctioned project in cooperation with Global Underwater Explorers), which has resulted in continuous diving exploration and research in the system for over 20 years, providing invaluable data, information, and scientific cooperation with the hydrogeologic community. Partially as a result of this collaboration between the cave diving community and the hydrogeologic community, a workshop was held in 2003 in Ocala, titled: Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida The proceedings of that meeting are now published in CD format as FGS Special Publication No. 53. The Wakulla Springs scientific symposium assembled local experts to summarize their recent activities and current research. These presentations include the Florida Springs Initiative; a general hydrogeologic overview of the area; a review of wetland ecosystems; information on some new cave and conduit flow measurements; and dye tracing studies; a bio-reconnaissance overview; a review of some studies that are part of the Woodville Karst Plain Project; a review of local aquifer recharge studies, and several other projects in the region. VIDEO SERIES Singer, M., Jablonski, J. and Arthur, J. (co-producers), 2004, Florida's Aquifer Adventure: Florida Geological Survey Video Series No. 2 produced in cooperation with Global Underwater Explorers and HazlettKincaid, Inc., DVD/VHS, 20 minutes. FloridaÂ’s Aquifer Adventure! is a 20 minute educational film describing FloridaÂ’s aquifer systems, springs, underwater caves, cave diving and environmental issues through spectacular videography. The lead producer and editor of the film was Marc Singer (Global Underwater Explorers), winner of the Sundance Film Festival award. The project, funded by the FGS Hydrogeology Program, was lead by Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc. The film has been aired on Florida Public Television and is available in VHS and DVD formats from the FGS. MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS Miscellaneous reports include contract progress reports and deliverables, or other special reports prepared in-house, in hard copy or digital format. They are not part of the regular FGS publication series but, because they commonly represent extensive data gathering, compilation, and analysis projects, they are included here as scientific reports. Balsillie, J. H. 2004, Native sediment composite statistics for Alligator Spit beach sands, Gulf of Mexico Coast, northern Florida: Unpublished report to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, 94 p. Beach restoration and maintenance renourishment design protocols require knowledge of the granulometry of borrow material and native beach material. Comparative numerical statistics of borrow and native materials are then used to quantitatively determine overfill ratios and maintenance renourishment schedules (Krumbein, 1957; Krumbein and James, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 59
1965; James, 1974, 1975: Hobson, 1977; etc.). Granulometric statistics can be viewed as either suite statistics or composite statistics. For the former, suite means are determined by averaging moment measures to yield the mean of the means, the mean of the standard deviations, mean of skewness, mean of kurtosis, etc. For the latter, frequency or cumulative frequency percentiles of all sample distributions are averaged and then analyzed to produce the composite mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, etc. The two approaches result in different statistical outcomes. Composite statistics are those used in beach design work. Composite and suite statistics have been discussed in detail by Krumbein (1957), Dwass (Krumbein, 1957, Appendix B), Balsillie and Tanner (1999), and Balsillie (2002). Parker, W. C., Arnold, A. J., Balsillie, J. H., and Hiller, W. C. 2003, The application of benthic foraminifera to environmental analysis of coastal habitats of the Florida Panhandle: Contract deliverable to the Florida Geological Survey, June 30, 2003, 18 p. Preliminary work as part of a previously DEP-funded Springs project demonstrated that foraminiferal assemblages in the Spring Creek and St. Joseph Bay regions are particularly sensitive to spring outflow induced changes in salinity and anthropogenic pollutants. However, timing of the original research funding did not permit exploration of temporal changes in the foraminiferal assemblages being studied. In order to demonstrate a robust and reliable relationship between the micro/meiofauna of these environments and salinity/pollution, natural temporal and spatial variation of the fauna must be recorded. This was the fundamental goal of the present project. The primary study areas included the St. Marks River estuary and the Spring Creek estuarine system. A secondary goal of the project was to survey samples taken in 1996-1998 in the Cedar-Ortega River above its confluence with the St. John's River, as part of a separate project. This survey was intended to assess the suitability of those stored cores for further historical foraminiferal analysis. Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie, J.H., Dabous A., LaChance M., and Fischler C. 2003, A geological investigation of the offshore area along Florida's northeast coast, Year 1: Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service: 2002-2003: Florida Geological Survey, unpublished report, CD. The FGS and the U.S. Minerals Management Service entered into a multiyear cooperative agreement with the specific goal of locating and characterizing both the areal extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. In Year 1 of this study, over 230 miles of seismic data was collected and interpreted to determine locations thought to have been favorable for the deposition of beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach sampling locations were identified and 106 surface samples collected and a total of 10 offshore seabed grab sample locations were visited. Grab samples were collected from 9 offshore locations. Three push cores were collected on Bird Island, an island in the ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions were made and grain size distributions were determined for all beach and offshore seabed grab samples and push cores. All of the above referenced data are accessible within this report. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 60
As a result of the seismic stratigraphic analysis several features indicative of high potential for the occurrence of beach restoration quality sand in federal waters off Duval County were identified. This analysis was discussed with representatives of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District Office and a copy of the preliminary work map delineating those features provided to them. Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie, J.H., Ladner, L.J., Dabous A., LaChance M., Bailey K., and Fischler C. 2004, A geological investigation of the offshore area along Florida's northeast coast, Year 2: Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service: Florida Geological Survey unpublished report, DVD. The FGS and the U.S. Minerals Management Service have continued a multi-year cooperative agreement to locate and characterize both the areal extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. One-hundred-and ninety miles of seismic data were collected offshore of Nassau, Duval and Flagler Counties in Year 2. The seismic data collected in Years 1 and 2 are provided as processed images. A total of 127 beach samples were collected from the beaches of St. Johns and Flagler Counties. Photographs and granulometric analyses of the beach samples collected from St. Johns County are provided. Fifty two vibracores were collected offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties and three vibracores were collected in the mouth of the St. Johns River. Vibracores directly acquired by the FGS are provided as photographs and granulometric analyses. Vibracores acquired by a contractor are provided as penetration curves, drilling diagrams and, with exceptions, as granulometric curves. Analysis of these vibracore data infers potential reserves of up to 198.5 million cubic yards of restoration-quality sand offshore of southern Duval County. Analysis of the sub-bottom profiler data indicate the presence of areas of anomalous dip offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties a well as three clearly identifiable buried depressions which are interpreted to be dissolution collapse features. These three conjectured collapse features lie six to seven miles offshore, are vertically persistent to the base of the seismic data recorded and are not expressed bathymetrically. Based on age-date analysis of woody material present in one of the vibracores, the calculated sedimentation rate for the first 16.8 feet of sediments in this core is 0.3621 mm per year +\.0015 mm. This figure would set an approximate lower limit on the average Holocene sedimentation rate locally. Schmidt, Walter 2004, Geologic and geoechnical investigation procedures for evaluation of the causes of subsidence damage in Florida: A report submitted to the Florida State University, College of Business, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, in response to requirements of Chapter 627.7077 Florida Statutes, 21 p. PAPERSBYSTAFFIN OUTSIDEPUBLICATIONS Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A. and Cowart, J.C. ,2003, Water-rock geochemical considerations for Class V aquifer storage and recovery wells: Florida case studies, 2003: Abstract, Second International Symposium on Underground Injection Science and Technology Symposium, Berkeley Laboratories, CA, Symposium Abstracts, October 22-25, 2003, p. 63-64. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 61
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an effective method of meeting increasing water-supply demands by injecting available water into confined or semi-confined permeable formations for later withdrawal as needed. Not only does ASR meet increasing demands for drinking water, but it has several applications in industry, agriculture and environmental restoration. A prime example of the latter application is the role of ASR in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). More than 300 ASR wells are proposed in South Florida to capture ~1.7 billion gallons of water per day and store it in the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) for later use. The planned CERP effort alone comprises an order of magnitude increase in ASR applications in Florida within the next two decades. Many scientific and engineering issues need to be addressed in the design, construction, testing and operation of an ASR facility. Some of these issues include the fate and transport of microorganisms, algal toxins, and changes in water chemistry (and thus quality) due to ASR practices. Our research focuses on the characterization of water quality changes during ASR activities in Florida. Long-term goals of our project include: 1) investigation of waterrock interaction during ASR with an emphasis on identifying the source and mechanism for trace metal mobilization into injected and recovered water; 2) assessment of these interactions within varying hydrogeologic settings (i.e., different aquifer systems and matrix compositions [chemical/mineralogical]); 3) evaluation of the effect of repeated ASR cycle testing and other ASR practices (e.g., borehole acidization) on these interactions; 4) exploring the application of U isotopes to identify source waters (injected, native and interstitial) and mixing; and 5) providing the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and CERP with scientific knowledge on which to base ASR design, regulatory and operational decisions. At present, ASR wells in five facilities located in southwest Florida comprise the focus of our research. Results summarized herein are based on our work at two of these facilities, which are located more than 120 km apart: Rome Avenue ASR, Hillsborough County and Punta Gorda ASR, Charlotte County. Combined results from multiple cycle tests at these facilities suggest that As, Fe, Mn, Ni (?), V (?) and U are mobilized from the aquifer system matrix into the injected waters. This mobilization is most apparent during the recovery phase of a cycle test at the ASR well. Arsenic and U mobilization are the most consistent and well-documented trends, with concentrations exceeding 85 g/l and 6 g/l, respectively. Three pairs of cycle tests indicate that maximum observed As concentrations decrease during successive cycle testing. This preliminary observation holds true only where both cycle-test injection volumes are similar and exposure of "new" aquifer matrix to the injected water is minimal. This result is not only desired, but expected assuming that the As source is a fixed and consistently depleted concentration within the aquifer matrix and not replenished due to changes in redox conditions (e.g., pH-adjusted cycle tests), mixing or changes in flow paths. In contrast, data from paired cycle tests where the second injection input volume is greater reveal different results. In this scenario, As concentrations in the second cycle test are equal to or greater than those of the first cycle test due to the exposure of input waters to a larger volume of previously unaffected (e.g., un-leached) aquifer matrix. A further observation relevant to the design and monitoring of cycle tests is that maximum As concentrations are observed during recovery after 50 percent or more of the input waters are recovered (as measured by total recovery volume). Data also indicate that different geochemical processes or reactions govern the relative mobility of metals. For example, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 62
during recovery U concentrations peak earlier than those of As and other metals. The activity ratio (AR) of 234U/238U is also useful for identifying mixing and evolution of waters during ASR. Moreover, the AR is useful to demonstrate heterogeneity that exists among wells in a single wellfield (Rome Avenue) or between ASR facilities located kilometers apart (Rome Avenue [Tampa] and Punta Gorda). Various models are proposed to account for the observed trends in AR including mobilization of thin234U-depleted U carbonate grain coatings, and mobilization of homogeneously distributed 234U-depleted U from within grains by aggressive, oxic waters. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of storage zones in the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) at both ASR facilities has been determined through a variety of analytical methods. Average compositions for FAS limestones are similar to global averages, except for Cr, which is higher in the FAS rocks. Maximum concentrations of some metals (e.g., As, Ni, and U), however, far exceed global limestone averages. Mineralogy of the ASR storage zone carbonates is dominantly calcite and dolomite with minor clay minerals and organic material, and trace amounts of quartz, gypsum, and pyrite. Semiquantative microprobe analyses of pyrites tentatively suggest that As concentrations vary up to more than two weight percent. Although additional As-bearing phases (i.e., Fe-Mn grain coatings, organics) are suspected, they were not detected in our preliminary microprobe study; however, another analytical technique suggests that trace metals are more widely dispersed within the aquifer matrix. Limestone samples from an ASR storage zone were analyzed by a sequential extraction technique designed to identify the concentration of As, U, and other trace metals in four mineral/phase groups: total soluble heavy metals, carbonates, Feand Mn-oxides, and organics plus sulfides. Preliminary results indicate that although most of these trace metals are concentrated in the "organics plus sulfides" fraction, trace metals are also associated with the other mineral-bound fractions. In closing, the Floridan aquifer system matrix is chemically heterogeneous, which is not only exemplified by carbonate geochemical data, but by variable geochemical responses observed in cycle tests data from wells only a few hundred meters apart (Rome Avenue ASR wells). Mobilization of As, Fe, Mn, U and other metals is observed during ASR activities. A principle mechanism of this mobility is likely the input of oxygen-rich surface waters into a reduced aquifer, thereby oxidizing trace-metal rich phases (e.g. pyrite) and releasing metals into solution. Other variables affecting this mobility include: 1) native and input water chemistry and related parameters, 2) aquifer matrix chemistry/mineralogy, 3) input water matrix contact time and number of cycle tests, and 4) site-specific hydrogeology (e.g., pore/conduit geometry, dynamic pathways). In addition to U being mobile, U activity ratios are useful toward understanding ground water evolution during ASR activities. Due to concerns regarding maximum contaminant levels, the design, construction and operation of ASR facilities, including monitor well placement and monitoring schedules should take into account the possibility of water-rock interaction and mobilization of metals into recovered waters. Arthur, J.D., DeHan, R.D., Kincaid, T.R., and Bond, P. 2003, Education and outreach efforts toward better management and protection of Florida springs: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 1. The Florida Legislature authorized the Florida Department of Environmental BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 63
Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological Survey (FGS), in Fiscal Year 2001/2002, to enhance the new FGS Hydrogeology Program with funds from the Water Quality Assurance Act trust fund. These funds are largely applied to hydrogeologic research activities through "outsourcing" to universities and the private sector. Needs identified by FDEP programs stressed that an improved understanding of the interaction between ground and surface water, especially in Florida's unique karstic geology setting, would be valuable toward watershed resource protection and management. As such, most of the scientific research and education/outreach activities funded by the Hydrogeology Program focus on springs and related karst systems. Outreach and education activities are summarized below. Descriptions of scientific research coordinated by the program are on-line at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/programssections/hydrogeology.htm 1) Establishment of a Florida karst database: An Internet-accessible database is being developed to provide access to locations, depths and dimensions of Florida caves. This data is essential for accurate delineation of watershed or springshed boundaries, and is important regarding ground-water flow modeling efforts in karst aquifers. Upon completion of this application, qualified users will be able to input, store and retrieve karst-related data. The web-site also provides educational information about Florida karst geology. 2) Construction of educational models and exhibits: Karst and hydrogeologic-cycle concepts are presented in a series of posters and a short video within the framework of a "traveling kiosk." This display is intended to be a resource for middle and high school students, their teachers and the general public to help them become aware of issues associated with living in, managing and protecting ecosystems dominated by karst geology. 3) A Workshop titled "Blueprints for the management and protection of Florida's springs:" This two-day workshop, held in May of 2002 in Ocala, was framed around three invited panels of experts and a plenary session. The workshop focused on both the science and policies of managing and protecting springs. The findings and recommendations of the panels, including significant input from workshop participants, have been published as "workshop proceedings" in a CD ROM format that is available to the public. To obtain a copy, contact the FGS, or visit our website at the Internet address listed above. 4) Springshed posters: Two posters pertaining to springsheds are being prepared by the FGS: 1) In response to a request by One Thousand Friends of Florida, the FGS recently prepared a graphic illustrating various factors involved in springshed basin planning. This graphic will be expanded as an educational poster relating land use to underlying karst geology. 2) In accordance with ideas stemming from the Springs workshop in Ocala (see #3 above), the FGS is leading a multi-agency effort to compile existing knowledge of springshed boundaries. This preliminary information will be the central focus of a poster designed to inform decision makers and citizens about the location and significance of these areas that are highly vulnerable to ground-water contamination. For more information, please see the abstract presented at this conference by Tom Greenhalgh, FDEP/FGS). 5) "Florida MAPS:" This is a developing curriculum project centered on hands-on use of satellite and airborne imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps, and other special-purpose cartographic products. Classroom activities will focus on Florida hydrogeology and will allow middleand high-school students to visualize natural processes and relate them to other disciplines (e.g., mathematics and history). FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 64
Student and teacher manuals contain sitespecific background information (e.g., Woodville Karst Plain) and sets of handson' and 'minds-on' interdisciplinary activities keyed to the national and state science standards. Baker, A., Cichon, J., Arthur, J., and Wood, H.A.R., III, 2003,Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment model, a step by step approach to predicting aquifer vulnerability at the springshed level using weights of evidence: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 2. Water flowing from Florida's springs originates from within the Floridan aquifer system. Water quality degradation can be attributed to land-use activities occurring within a spring's catchment area or "springshed". The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) involves the development of a GIS model to estimate the relative vulnerability of Florida's aquifer systems. Model development is currently in the preliminary stages and consists of five countywide projects (four of which appear in this poster). Weights of Evidence quantifies relationships between spatial layers with measured contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. Using these calculated relationships, interactions can be analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive model or relative probability map. The model currently involves utilization of the following spatial layers: thickness of confining unit, soil drainage, and spatial distribution of karst features. The model is designed to be easy to update as well as scaleable, thereby enabling evaluation of individual springsheds. The model will also allow for the incorporation of additional data layers including karst features (e.g., hole type, sinks, conduits, etc.), detailed potentiometric surface maps and lineament features. Further, land use and nutrient loading could be added as inputs to produce a susceptibility model. Balsillie, J. H., Dunbar, J.D., Means, G.H., and Means, R.C. 2003, Stratigraphic integrity of the Middle Paleoindian Ryan-Harley Site (8Je1004): abstract, Florida Anthropological Society 55th Annual Meeting, Florida Underwater Archaeology Conference 3rd Annual Meeting, Abstract Volume, 15p. Based on the seriation and chronological placement of Suwannee points and a correlation to a regional event stratigraphy, the Ryan-Harley site is relatively placed from 10,900 14C BP to ~10,500 14C BP. The Suwannee point level was determined to be intact under the river bank and was actively eroding in the Wacissa River channel. Distribution and taphonomic analysis of specimens from the Suwannee point level suggest the assemblage, including the faunal remains, represents an undisturbed site. Geologic granulometric analysis of clastic sediments and other evidence indicates the Suwannee point level of the RyanHarley site is intact with little or no postdepositional reworking. Bond, P.A., 2003 A picture of spring protection-posters in education and outreach: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Abstracts with Program, v. 34, no. 7, p. 19. Florida's springs are a treasured part of the state's environmental heritage. The state's population growth (estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 new permanent residents per week) and overwhelming use of ground water (about 93% of the population depends on it) are coupled with the innate vulnerability of its hydrogeologic setting. In support of an innovative spring protection campaign initiated by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has published two BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 65
posters that illustrate different aspects of spring protection and ground-water resources in a karst environment. The FGS uses illustration as a visual bridge between hydrogeology and various human activities that impact water resources in Florida's karst terrain. Florida is characterized by low topographic relief so that even common features such as layered rocks and fractures are rarely observed by lay people. Sinkholes often contain slump material obscuring their relationship to rock layers and the ground-water resources they contain. The surficial expression of a spring is shown both in its hydrogeologic (cross-section view) and environmental context (plan view). This juxtaposition of hydrogeologic and environmental/cultural information provides Floridians of all ages with an understanding of ways in which their actions impact springs. Posters are an important part of the education and outreach effort at the FGS. They are used successfully as part of presentations to groups of all ages and are easily used in unconventional venues. A short text with references allows stand-alone use in class rooms, state parks and municipal and state offices. Digital versions of the illustrations are regularly incorporated into talks allowing the presenter maximum flexibility in commentary. Visually appealing posters that convey clear, positive, and accessible information are a cost-effective means of reaching diverse audiences. Bond, P.A., 2004 A picture of spring protection-posters in education and outreach: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Geoscience Information Society, v. 34, 5 p. Florida's springs are a cultural and environmental treasure. The motivation to protect them is widespread. Two posters have been produced at the Florida Geological Survey as part of a spring protection effort led by the Department of Environmental Protection. Both posters have as their focus a large color illustration of a Florida landscape with a cross-section view of the hydrogeology that is associated with the landscape. A spring is a prominent feature of both the landscape and the crosssection. This format was chosen so that the relationship of surface water to ground water and the subsurface movement of ground water could be illustrated. Illustration is used in an attempt to overcome the difficulty that non-geoscientists experience in conceptualizing subsurface rock layers and the ground-water resources they contain. Protecting Florida's Springs presents fundamental elements of the hydrogeology of springs. Land Use and Spring Protection emphasizes a distribution of land use activities that planners expect will provide maximum protection for the spring and was based on the technical illustration, Overlay Protection District Because of their versatility and popular appeal posters remain a valuable part of education and outreach efforts at the Florida Geological Survey. Cichon, J. R., Arthur, J. D., and Baker, A. E., 2003, An application of the Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment model to springshed protection: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 8. The quality of water flowing from Florida's springs is directly related to the dynamic interaction between land use, recharge and the hydrogeology of a particular spring catchment area, or "springshed." As defined in the Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida's Springs held in Ocala in May, 2002, a springshed is "those areas within ground-water and surface-water basins that contribute to the discharge of the spring." Land use within a springshed can have FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 66
an impact on water quality flowing from the spring system. Due to variable hydrogeologic settings within the springshed, water quality changes due to land use practices may be observed weeks to decades after the application of the contaminant. As such, it is important to identify relative aquifer vulnerability within a springshed to limit the impacts on water quality in the spring system. Best Management Practices designed to improve and protect the quality of ground water (including springs) are enhanced when this science-based knowledge is considered. The Florida Geological Survey is currently developing a GIS model to estimate the relative vulnerability of Florida's aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Model development is currently in the preliminary stages consisting of five countywide projects. The overall intent of FAVA is the development of a tool for environmental, regulatory and planning professionals to facilitate the protection of Florida's groundwater resources. FAVA differs from the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC model in that the newer technique is GIS-based and accounts for Florida's karstic terrain. Current methods employed in FAVA model development include Weights of Evidence, Fuzzy Logic and a Travel Time method. Of these geostatistical methods, Weights of Evidence holds the most promise. Weights of Evidence quantifies relationships between spatial layers with actual contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. Using these calculated relationships, interactions can be analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive model. The model currently utilizes the following spatial data layers (evidential themes): thickness of confining unit, depth to water, soil drainage, and the percentage of an area covered by karst features. Although the FAVA model will be produced as a statewide model, it is scalable for application within study areas of varying sizes, such as a springshed. The resolution of evidential themes is dependent upon the quantity and accuracy of data collected. Data collection can be designed to yield a more highly resolved vulnerability model, especially for local-scale needs. Moreover, due to flexibility of the FAVA design, evidential themes specifically relevant to local karst terrains (e.g., conduits, lineaments, etc.) can be added to the model to significantly enhance its application as a predictive tool on the scale of a springshed. Cichon, J.R., Arthur, J., Baker, A., and Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment: Abstract, 67th Annual Meeting, Florida Academy of Sciences, Orlando, FL, Florida Scientist, v. 66, supplement 1, p. 54. The Florida Geological Survey is currently developing a model to estimate the relative vulnerability of FloridaÂ’s aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Model development is currently in the preliminary stages consisting of five county wide projects. The overall intent of FAVA is the development of a tool for environmental, regulatory and planning professionals to facilitate protection of FloridaÂ’s ground-water resources. Weights of Evidence, the current method employed in the FAVA model, quantifies relationships between spatial layers with actual contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. The model currently utilizes the following spatial layers (evidential themes): thickness of confining unit, sold drainage, and spatial distribution of karst features. Cichon, J.R.., Baker, A.E., Arthur, J.D., and Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment (FAVA) utilizing geologic mapping data to predict aquifer vulnerability: Abstract, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program, v. 34, no. 7, p. 65. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 67
The relative vulnerability of an aquifer to contamination is dependent upon the thickness and composition of sediments overlying it and the rate at which contaminants travel through these sediments. To predict the vulnerability of FloridaÂ’s major aquifer systems to contamination the Florida Geological Survey is currently developing the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model. FAVA differs from the Environmental Protection AgencyÂ’s DRASTIC model in that the newer technique is GIS based and accounts for FloridaÂ’s karst terrain. Current methods employed in FAVA model development include Weights of Evidence, Fuzzy Logic and Travel Time. Of these methods, Weights of Evidence best utilizes new and available data sets to predict relative vulnerability since it is statistically validated on the front end, easily updateable, uncertainties can be calculated and the model avoids preconceptions. Weights of Evidence quantifies relationships between spatial layers with actual contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. Contaminant source data (i.e., training points) is obtained from the Florida Department of Environmental ProtectionÂ’s Background Water Quality Network of wells. Spatial layers (i.e., evidential themes) consist of existing and newly developed GIS data and include depth to water, soil drainage, distance to karst features, thickness of confinement and vertical leakage rates. Different evidential themes are utilized based on the aquifer being modeled. The evidential themes included in the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) model, for example, are thickness of confining unit, distance to karst features and soil drainage. To aid in the creation of these themes, data collected during geologic mapping projects (e.g., cores, well cuttings, and wireline logs) are utilized. By calculating the statistical significance between training points and evidential themes, interactions can be analyzed to yield a datadriven predictive model. The output is a grid-based probability map that can be used by environmental, regulatory and planning professionals to facilitate the protection of FloridaÂ’s ground-water resources. Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E., and Arthur, J.A. 2004, Application of geologic mapping and geographic information systems to delineate sensitive karst areas for land-use decisions: American Geological Institute website, http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf, 2004 The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a thick sequence of tertiary carbonates, is a major fresh water resource in the Florida panhandle. Overburden comprised of Surficial Aquifer System and/or Intermediate Aquifer System sediments may act to protect the FAS from potential contamination sources where it is present. This overburden can be several hundred feet thick where it provides variable confinement for the FAS, or it can be thin to absent in areas where carbonate units comprising the FAS are exposed at or near land surface. In areas where the overburden is thin to absent, the potential for karst terrain development such as sinkholes and collapse features is increased. Karst terrain provides preferential flow paths for surface water to enter the underlying aquifer system, and therefore places them at a greater risk of contamination from the surface. To develop the sensitive karst areas (SKA) boundary the FGS utilized a Geographic Information System incorporating spatial data layers such as the state geologic map, land surface topography and overburden thickness maps. Land surface topography is comprised of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the FAVA project. The DEM was created by digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale Quadrangle maps, converting these FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 68
arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM GRID along with a GRID of the top of the Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS overburden GRID. This was accomplished by subtracting the FAS overburden from the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of FAS overburden were then identified and overlain on areas affected by karst topography in the NWFWMD. Based on the combination of these two maps the SKA limits were identified for the NWFWMD. This methodology was created for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management and was inserted in the FDEP Environmental Resource Permit Applicant's Handbook Volume II, Engineering Requirements for Stormwater Treatment and Management Systems Water Quality and Water Quantity The delineated SKA maps are used when sighting proposed stormwater holding ponds and establishes additional design criteria for these structures including minimum thickness of sediment between the surface and limestone, total depth of holding pond, vegetation requirements, sediment traps, liners and potentially ground-water modeling. For more information on this project please refer to the American Geological Institute website: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf Copeland, R. E., 2003, Development of a spring glossary and classification system for use in Florida: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 9. In May of 2002, the Florida Geological Survey and the Hydrogeology Consortium co-sponsored a workshop to "Develop Blue Prints for Managing and Protecting Florida's Springs." The workshop was interactive and the attendees were asked to participate in the discussions. Many did and they expressed the belief that if the state is to efficiently protect its springs, then a firm understanding of Florida's springs is critical. If we are to understand our springs, then our knowledge begins with a definition of terms. With this in mind, participants at the meeting requested that the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) take the lead in developing a glossary of terms to be used by both the scientific community and the public of the state with regard to springs. As a response to the workshop, the Spring Nomenclature Committee was established. In addition to the FGS and the Hydrogeology Consortium, the committee consists of representatives from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the state's Water Management Districts, the United States Geological Survey, the state university system, the hydrogeological consulting industry of the state, and the public. The goal of the committee was to define terms commonly used in Florida regarding springs. The glossary consists of the most commonly used spring terms, along with their synonyms. Whenever possible, terminology was taken from professional dictionaries and glossaries. During the development stage of the glossary, it became apparent that a spring classification system should also be developed. A spring classification system can act as a model that enables one to envision the relationship of one spring to the others within the state. In effect, a classification system assists us in better understanding our springs. For this reason, the committee decided that a spring glossary and classification system go hand-in-hand. They took it upon themselves to develop a spring classification system in addition to the glossary. As it turns out, all of Florida's springs can be grouped into only a handful of different BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 69
classes. This was fortunate in that it greatly reduces the complexity in the way we think of our springs. Copeland, R.E., and Upchurch, S.B. 2003, Use of indices in evaluating Florida's ground-water quality: Abstract, Final Program (with abstracts), 19th Annual Environmental Monitoring Conference, Arlington, VA., p. 158. In the late 1990s, Florida re-designed its statewide surfaceand ground-water quality monitoring networks, and based the design on random sampling. There was a desire to develop water quality indices that indicate, in defendable but simplistic terms, the overall quality of water in: (1) an individual sample and (2) over an entire basin. The Ground-Water Quality Index is based on whether one or more sampled analytes exceeds a Guidance Concentration Level (GCL) in a sample. Each GCL is based on known or suspected human health hazards. The logic is that if only one such chemical exceeds its GCL, then the water cannot fully support its designated use. For ground water the designated use is drinking water. The Basin Resource Index is based on the proportion of ground-water samples from an area that have at least one analyte that exceeds a GCL. The redesigned network commenced operations in 2000 and during the first year it sampled approximately 25% of the state. It was found that 89% ( 4%) of the wells in the sampled portion of Florida meet standards. For the first time, Florida has a key indicator that can be used to estimate the overall quality of its ground water with known confidence. Copeland, R.E. 2003, Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Florida spring water quality: Abstract, Program Issue, Florida Academy of Sciences, 67th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL., Florida Scientist, v. 66, Supplement 1, p. 51. Copeland, R.E. 2003, Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Florida spring water quality: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 10. Florida has over 700 recognized springs. Unfortunately, chemicals produced by man's land use activities that enter aquifer systems through natural recharge processes can negatively impact the quality of spring water. In addition, because of the high demand of ground water, heavy pumping can potentially lower aquifer water levels. This can result in a negative impact on both the flow rate and the water chemistry of springs. Thirteen, first-magnitude springs were sampled for 17 common chemicals by governmental agencies in 1948, the early 1970s, 1985, and 2001. These fours sets of consistent data were used for long term trend detection. Results indicate that between the early 1970s and 2001, nitrate concentrations have increased in 13 first-magnitude springs almost 20-fold. The increase is tied to land use activities in the vicinity of the springs and is adversely affecting aquatic life in several of the associated spring runs. Between 1985 and 2001, the total dissolved solids (TDS) have significantly increased. This could be related to the recent decrease in Florida's rainfall since the late 1990s, which has lowered ground-water levels and discharge from springs. Evidence suggests that mineralized ground water, originating from the deeper portion of Florida's aquifers and migrating upward due to excessive ground-water pumping, could be the reason for the increase in TDS. Currently, this theory is being checked by analyzing water quality data collected either quarterly or bimonthly from the states' water management districts since the 1980s. Denizman, C., Kincaid, T., Arthur, J., and DeHan, R. 2004, Karst Development in Florida: Spatial analyses based on subsurface and surficial karst databases in GIS: Abstract, Geological Society of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 70
America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 134. Most research on karst geomorphology of Florida has been based on surficial karst features primarily because cave data has not been easily accessible especially in digital format. In order to provide a centralized repository for cave data in Florida, the Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology Section (FGS-HS) initiated the Florida Cave Database project in 2001. The purpose of the project is to compile and synthesize all available maps and data for caves in Florida into a centralized GIS-compatible database. To date, the Florida Cave Database includes 31 of the largest underwater caves in Florida that constitute more than 130km of conduits. The cave files were digitized from maps and survey data provided by the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section and the Global Underwater Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project. Location, conduit trend, conduit dimension, water quality, flow direction, ownership, and land use include some of the data fields underlying point and line based shapefiles fully documented by metadata. The water quality component of the database will be rendered compatible with the Florida Springs database (also being developed by the FGS-HS). This paper explains the database structure; shows the results of conduit trend analyses; and presents the extent of subsurface karst development in Florida by statistical summaries of morphometric data on cave passages such as length, width, and depth. Comparing the cave distribution to the previously prepared GIS database of some 25,000 sinkholes, this study also attempts to investigate the connection between subsurface and surficial karst development. Further information about the Florida Cave Database can be obtained from www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/ Green, R.C., Evans, W.L. III, Bryan, J., and Paul, D. 2004, Surficial and bedrock geology of the eastern portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quadrangle, northwestern Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America, Northeastern Section Southeastern Section Joint Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 61. The near surface geology of the eastern half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quadrangle, which was mapped by the Florida Geological Survey as part of a two-year STATEMAP project, is composed of Eocene to Holocene carbonate and siliciclastic sediments. Within this area, geologic processes include a combination of fluviodeltaic and marine deposition, erosion, dolomitization, and karstification. Several structural, sedimentological, and geomorphic variables are unique to the area and have affected the near surface expression and interpretation of the geology of the region. Two important structural features are recognized: the Chattahoochee Arch Â– a northeast/southwest-trending high that exposes Eocene and Oligocene carbonates, with younger strata thinning around the arch; and the Apalachicola Embayment/Gulf Trough an elongated basin that widens southwestward, towards the Gulf of Mexico, and narrows to the northeast into Georgia. Gulf water moved through this strait from the Middle Eocene through Oligocene, flowing across the eastern panhandle of Florida, through southern Georgia and to the Atlantic Ocean. This structure crosses through the southeastern part of the study area, and noticeably influenced sedimentation patterns in the region. The Eocene to Miocene carbonate units exposed in the area have regional stratigraphic significance, and historically have been identified, correlated, and interpreted in many different ways. Some previous investigators relied heavily on fossils to establish formations and correlate facies BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 71
within this region, a practice which has led to some lithostratigraphic confusion. Detailed mapping of the carbonate units allows for a better understanding of the relationships between cave development, karstification, ground-water quality, and regional geology in the area. In the northeastern portion of the study area, where the siliciclastics thin and the carbonates are near the surface, numerous karst features, springs, and caves are present. These karst features often allow for direct recharge of surface water to the Floridan Aquifer System. This infiltration of surface water influences the groundwater quality of springs in the area as recognized by increased nitrate concentrations in the spring water. Kincaid, T.R., Denizman, C., Arthur, J.D., and Hazlett, T. 2004, The Florida Cave Database: A GIS of underwater caves for hydrogeological characterizations: Abstract, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 85. Caves are one of the most hydrologically important but least understood and documented physical features in the Floridan aquifer. Though there are currently more than 50 mapped underwater caves in Florida and perhaps as many as 4000 above water caves in Florida that have either been mapped or located, these features are rarely included in hydrogeological investigations. The primary limiting factor has is access, particularly in Florida where many caves, and all of the longest caves, are fully saturated (underwater). Though very few professional hydrogeologists have actually been in an underwater cave in Florida, explorers have traditionally surveyed the trends and dimensions of the cave passages they explore and those maps now represent the most significant and extensive record of Florida's underwater caves available to the professional hydrogeologist. As with direct observation of the underwater cave environment, the problem with using the maps has been access, because the maps do not reside in a centralized location nor are they typically in a suitable format for inclusion in a hydrogeologic investigation. The Florida Cave Database project was initiated by the Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology Program (FGS-HP) to compile and synthesize all available cave maps and cave location data into a centralized GIS compatible database. Ultimately, the purpose is to make cave maps more accessible to professional hydrogeological investigations, and to encourage their use in such endeavors. To date, the Florida Cave Database includes 26 of the largest underwater caves in Florida digitized from maps and survey data provided by the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section and the Global Underwater Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project. Location, conduit trend, conduit dimension, water quality, flow direction, ownership, and land use include some of the data fields underlying point and line based shapefiles fully documented by metadata. The water quality component of the database will be rendered compatible with the Florida Springs database (also being developed by the FGS-HP). Though specific access issues remain to be addressed, all of the shapefiles are intended to be made available to hydrogeologists via the WWW. Further information on the Florida Cave Database is available at: www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/cave-db/ Kincaid, T.R., Schmidt, W., Cook, S.A., Loper, D., Davies, G.J., and McKinlay, C ., 2004, Collaborating for a better tomorrow: research and community outreach aimed at protecting Wakulla Spring: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 421. Florida's Wakulla Spring is a unique FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 72
natural and cultural resource. It is the largest single-vent spring in Florida, and perhaps the world. The 37 m deep 60+ m wide spring vent regularly discharges more than 15 m3/s of water per day and at times exceeds 90 m3/s. Cave divers have explored more than 16 km of underwater cave passages that connect to the spring and average 10-80 m in diameter. The spring is the center piece for Edward Ball Wakulla Springs State Park, which is regarded as the "Crown Jewel" of the Florida State Park system. Every year nearly 200,000 people visit the park to take glass bottom boat tours, observe alligators, birds, and fish in their natural setting, or simply swim in the crystal clear spring water. Unfortunately, Wakulla Spring is threatened from increased surface-water runoff and nitrate contamination. Hydrilla verticillata and species of algae have nearly taken over the spring basin and the water clarity has diminished to the point where the glass bottom boats cannot run for months to years on end. Spring protection in Florida has received considerable attention in recent years, where numerous groups attack the problem from various angles. The problems at Wakulla have led to an exciting collaboration between state agencies, non-governmental organizations, and private companies aimed at arresting the declines in quality, and protecting the spring for future generations. The Hydrogeology Consortium, Florida Geological Survey, Global Underwater Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project, Wakulla Springs State Park, Florida State University, Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc., Cambrian Ground Water Co., and others have joined forces to conduct focused research to determine the causes for spring degradation, identify possible solutions and disseminate the resulting data and knowledge to the public and the key decision makers. The results to date have been groundbreaking accomplishments in instrumenting and characterizing the karst watershed, expanding community involvement, and increasing political awareness that landuse decisions can have a real and nearly immediate impact on spring-water quality. The purpose of this talk is to demonstrate how the key component of these successes has been the collaborative nature of the endeavors. McClean, J.A.R., DeHan, R.S., and Donoghue, J.F., 2003, Investigation of the feasibility of remote sensing technologies in locating submarine springs: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 33. This project evaluated the suitability of aerial thermography and boat-towed electric resistivity as remote sensing methods to identify submarine ground-water discharge in the Gulf of Mexico. A more general objective of the study was to develop reliable and cost effective methods of quantifying interaction between ground water and surface water in karst settings. Such data are necessary for the development of analytical and numerical models capable of predicting and quantifying ground water and water-borne contaminants movement and fate in Florida's watersheds. Aerial thermography relies upon the ability to detect variations in emitted surface temperature between ground water and surface water. The option exists for space based sensor platforms or airborne units to collect thermography data, with a trade off between ground resolution and cost of data acquisition. Both space based and aerial data collection methods were under evaluation in this study. Boat towed electric resistivity generates a graph of specific conductance as a function of salinity or the presence of electrically conductive contaminants throughout the water column and bottom sediments by modelling observed resistance between antennae BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 73
pairs. This method therefore has the ability to identify the presence of fresh ground water in shallow submarine sediments, or contaminates in fresh surface waters, from equipment towed at the water's surface. The equipment configuration under investigation has a theoretical maximum sensing range of 20 meters below the surface of the water under ideal conditions. Such conditions include sediments low in clay minerals, which attenuate or absorb the induced electrical signal, thereby reducing sediment penetration. During 2001, FGS personnel conducted a study to identify thermal anomalies in the northern Gulf of Mexico using Landsat 7, Band 6 thermal imagery having 60-meter ground resolution and two degree Celsius radiometric resolution (McClean 2002, in press). A basic assumption of this study is that ground water typically discharging at a constant 20 degrees Celsius will be detectable as warmer water mixing with the ambient cold water of the Gulf of Mexico in winter. During the period of data collection, surface temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico ranged from 11 degrees along the coast to 17 degrees further offshore. The inverse situation occurs during summer months when ground-water discharge should appear as colder water mixing with the warmer Gulf waters, which can reach as high as 28-30 degrees Celsius during July and August. Results of this preliminary investigation, in conjunction with locations of offshore springs and limestone outcrops as reported by local divers and fishermen, were compiled into database format and analyzed using Arc View Geographic Information System software. This GIS study enabled the establishment of study areas identified as having a high probability of submarine springs. FGS contracted SenSyTech, Inc. Imaging Group to collect high-resolution thermal imagery (1-4 meter ground pixel size with 0.2 degree Celsius resolution) over eleven test sites during May 2002. In addition, Zonge Engineering Research Organization Inc. conducted boattowed electric resistivity surveys at nine sites during June 2002. Five of these surveys were along transects for which thermography data was also collected. This paper summarizes areas of submarine ground-water discharge identified by these remote sensing methods and preliminary results of ground truth evaluation. Ground truth verification methods include water quality analysis, seismic profiling, Doppler acoustic discharge measurements, depth sounding and sidescan sonar to map submerged karst features typically associated with ground-water discharge. Sidescan sonar data collection occurred in tandem with the towed resistivity surveys, as well as continuously recorded water depths and surface temperatures linked to GPS positions within four meters horizontal accuracy. Additional in situ water quality samples, taken in conjunction with follow up seismic surveys, can augment these geophysical methods to identify ground-water discharge based upon temperature, pH and salinity values both at the surface and at depth. The results of these ground truth investigations as presented in this paper will determine the feasibility and level of success achieved by the remote sensing methods described above. The Hydrogeology Program established at FGS by the Florida Legislature provided primary funding for this investigation. Means, G.H. andScott, T.M. 2003, Status of the Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31 update: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 34. The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published Bulletin 31, The Springs of Florida in 1947, which was the first comprehensive report ever produced on Florida's springs. This volume contains water chemFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 74
istry data, flow measurements, map locations, and other pertinent information on 76 major springs along with some information on other springs. The Bulletin was updated in 1977, and many newly discovered springs were added to it. In 2001, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Springs Initiative in response to recommendations made by the Florida Springs Task Force. This initiative authorized funding to the Department of Environmental Protection for springs related projects. The Florida Geological Survey received funding in 2001 from the Florida Springs Initiative to make a second revision to Bulletin 31. Within four months of funding, the FGS had sampled and compiled data on the 33 first magnitude springs of Florida. These data were published in FGS Open File Report 85, First Magnitude Springs of Florida, in January, 2002. Currently, survey staff are sampling water quality and gathering data on second magnitude springs. A similar Open File Report will be published on selected second magnitude springs, and by July of 2004, a complete revision to Bulletin 31 will be published. Means, G.H., Copeland, R., and Scott, T.M. 2003, Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthCentral and Southeastern Sections Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50. Florida's more than 700 springs are natural treasures which provide recreation and enjoyment to millions of people each year. Over the past 55 years, the FGS has periodically sampled and analyzed water from selected springs across the state. As part of the Florida Springs Initiative, the FGS has recently sampled spring water from Florida's 33 first magnitude springs and published the newly acquired data in comparison to historic data in order to document changes in water quality over time. The FGS documented increasing trends in nitrate levels in the first magnitude springs when compared to historic nitrate levels. Following the sampling effort of the first magnitude springs, the FGS sampled selected second magnitude springs. Data from second magnitude springs were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall and the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. Both tests are nonparametric. The first was used to check for a monotonic trend over time for nitrate from an individual spring. The second was used to compare nitrate data from all sampled second magnitude springs during any time step (e.g. 2002) to a previous step (e.g. 1985). As with the first-magnitude springs, nitrate trends similar to those seen in the first magnitude springs were observed. The documenting of increasing nitrate levels in Florida's springs by the FGS, and other state and federal agencies has prompted research efforts aimed at pinpointing nitrate sources. The Florida Primary Drinking Water standard for nitrate is currently 10 mg/l. However, concentrations of as little as 1 mg/l of nitrate have caused significant alteration in the ecology of some springs and spring runs. Currently, the Florida Springs Initiative is funding further research into nitrate trends and sources and is working to develop best management practices for springsheds that have been impacted by elevated nitrates. Means, G. H., Means, R., Balsillie, J. H., and Dunbar, J. 2003, Geoarchaeological consideration of the Ryan-Harley site (8JE1004) in the Wacissa River, northern Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 7, p. 35. The inundated Ryan-Harley site (8Je1004) is located in a swamp forest dissected by channels of the spring-fed Wacissa River in northern Florida. The Ryan-Harley site is thought to represent an undisturbed BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 75
Middle Paleoindian Suwannee point site (~10,900 14C BP to ~10,500 14C BP) (Anderson et al., 1996, Goodyear, 1999, Dunbar, 2002). The site consists of sandy to silty organic rich, unconsolidated sediments overlying the Oligocene Suwannee Limestone. Distribution and taphonomic analyses of the artifacts and vertebrate faunal remains recovered from the Suwannee point horizon suggests the artifact assemblage and the faunal remains represent an archaeological site component that has remained relatively intact since its time of deposition. Additional conformation of site integrity beyond the artifact suite is also necessary. To accomplish this, granulometric analyses of unconsolidated sediment samples were performed. Samples were collected from the artifact-bearing horizon and from horizons immediately above and below. Arithmetic probability plots of grainsize distributions suggest that most but not all of the sandy sediments were originally transported and deposited as point bars by fluvial processes. Evidence presented shows that the artifact assemblage, fossil vertebrates, and fine grain fraction eolian sand recovered from the Suwannee point horizon were deposited after the deposition of the point bar during a subaerial event. The Suwannee point horizon then became inundated and buried. The granulometric analyses as well as other lines of evidence indicate the Suwannee point horizon at the Ryan-Harley site is essentially intact with little or no post-depositional reworking. Pichler, T., Arthur, J., Price R., and Jones, G. 2004, The arsenic problem during Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, Issue 11, Supplement 1, p. 520. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 76 Rock Springs, Orange County, Florida (photo by Tom Scott).
the process of artificially recharging and storing treated surface water in a confined aquifer, then recovering that water at a time of need, such as during a drought or dry season. Some concerns exist regarding widespread utilization of ASR in Florida due in part to the discovery that some recovered water samples from the upper Floridan Aquifer System (Suwannee Limestone) in southwestern Florida contain more than 100 ppb arsenic, while the injected water is virtually arsenic free. To investigate this problem we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of regional groundwater and aquifer matrix. Our study shows that groundwater in the region is virtually arsenic-free (<0.5 g/L) and oxygen depleted. The average arsenic concentration for 306 samples of the aquifer matrix is 3.5 ppm, which is higher than the global average for limestone of 2.6 ppm. Maximum arsenic concentrations for limestone samples range up to 54 ppm. Our combined geochemical, lithologic and mineralogical study of the Suwannee Limestone shows that: (1) The arsenic in the Suwannee limestone is primarily concentrated in trace minerals, particularly framboidal pyrite. (2) Framboidal pyrite contains arsenic at concentrations in excess of 1000 ppm, (3) Other trace minerals and organic material contain arsenic in much lower amounts when compared to framboidal pyrite. (4) Framboidal pyrite is ubiquitous throughout the Suwannee Limestone, but is most abundant in high porosity zones. (5) Previously suggested iron oxyhydroxide minerals are apparently not an important source of arsenic. The breakdown of pyrite and mobilization of arsenic during ASR could be caused by a change in redox. In most Florida ASR operations, water rich in dissolved oxygen (DO) is introduced into the storage zone. Thus, the injection of oxygen-depleted water could be an alternative to the current practice in order to mitigate potential arsenic mobilization. With respect to the world-wide operation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) facilities that intend to store water in lowDO limestone aquifer systems, it is important to carry out a detailed mineralogical/chemical investigation of the aquifer matrix prior to construction and operation. If arsenian pyrite is present, the injection of oxygen-rich water will most likely cause a release of arsenic. Portell, R. W., Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M ., 2003, Exceptional preservation and concentration of whole body Ranilia (Decapoda: Raninidae) in the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthCentral and Southeastern Sections Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50. In Liberty County, Florida over 500, nearly complete to complete, carapaces of a new species of Ranilia were collected from the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation. The low degree of disarticulation of the crabs indicates that they were buried rapidly, most likely during a severe storm event(s). At least six other decapod genera occur in association with Ranilia but all were much less abundant (and still await study). The Intracoastal Formation, first described by P. Huddlestun in 1976, is primarily a subsurface unit, occasionally cropping out along streams and riverbanks from western-most Okaloosa County eastward to southwestern Wakulla County. However, recent excavations in Liberty County exposed nearly 5 m of Intracoastal section; the upper 3 m dominated by Ranilia fossils. The crab-bearing unit is slightly phosphatic, loosely cemented, carbonate sand, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 77
easily removed by precipitation and runoff. At several locations in the quarry, Ranilia carapace density averaged six per m2. Given that the quarry is approximately 0.3 km2and that the Ranilia fossils occur throughout the quarry wherever the Intracoastal Formation is exposed, rough estimates indicate that many thousands of Ranilia may have been present prior to mining. Previous reports of Florida Pliocene crabs are limited to Petrochirus bouvieri Rathbun 1918, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson 1859, and Parthenope charlottensis Rathbun 1935, and were based solely on chelae and fingers. The only Florida Pliocene whole-body crab was Petrolisthes myakkensis described by Bishop and Portell in 1989, thus the total known species diversity of Florida Pliocene crabs prior to this report was a meager four. Rolland, V.L. and Bond, P.A. 2003, The search for spiculate clays near aboriginal sites in the lower St. Johns River region, Florida: The Florida Anthropologist, v. 56, no. 2, p. 91-111. The identification of St. Johns cultural occupations is based largely on the presence of ceramic vessels with pastes containing abundant quantities of sponge spicules. Spicules represent the bio-silicate remains of freshwater sponges: Class Demospongiae, Family Spongillidae. While many thousands of spiculate St. Johns shards have been recovered, no raw spiculate-clay sources have been located that contain the quantity of spicules observed within St. Johns paste. The focus of our study has been to explore this contradiction and to consider a possible alternative hypothesis that the presence of spicules in St. Johns vessels reflects a cultural tradition involving the purposeful addition of spicules as a tempering agent. In other words, the assumption that the clay sources targeted by St. Johns potters naturally contained abundant sponge spicules may be incorrect. In the following discussion, we describe Florida clay deposits, offer ethnographic and archaeological evidence from the Amazon basin and Africa that reveal a long history of the use of sponges as temper, report the analysis of 136 well samples and 45 shallow clay samples, and discuss the possibility of spiculate mucky soils as a source of St. Johns paste. Rupert, F. 2003, Fossils: a glimpse into Florida's underwater past: Tallahassee Museum of Science Newsletter, July, 2003. Florida has a rich fossil heritage, and our state's long association with the sea is evidenced in the abundant marine fossils found here. For much of the past 200 million years, Florida was under water. Through the reign of the dinosaurs and up until the middle Oligocene Epoch, 30 million years ago, the area of present day Florida was sea bottom. A myriad of creatures flourished in these ancient seas. Many left their remains in the sea floor sediments, which ultimately became the rocks we see today. Mollusks, or seashells, are typically abundant. In some deposits the shells are well-preserved because their hard, lime shells remained after the death of the animal. Sometimes only molds and casts of the original shells remain in the rock. Other shelled creatures, such as microscopic foraminifera, corals, algae, sand dollars and sea biscuits, are also common constituents of Florida's rocks. Dugongs, the marine mammal relatives of the modern manatee, frequented the lagoon and coastal waters, grazing on sea grasses. Rib bones and vertebrae from these creatures are common finds in Miocene Epoch rocks. And always lurking nearby were the sharks, predators to dugongs and fish alike. Sharks lose and replace teeth frequently throughout their lives, resulting in the deposition of many more fossil teeth than other animals. Small to medium shark teeth are common fossils in Miocene Epoch sediments. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 78
The new fossil dig display at the museum provides visitors with a hands-on exploration of one moment in Florida's geologic past. Featured in the exhibit are fossilladen boulders of a rock called the Torreya Formation. The Torreya Formation was deposited in the Early Miocene Epoch, about 20 million years ago. Geologists characterize these boulders as sandy, clayey, phosphatic limestone and dolostone. This means the boulders are principally carbonate, with impurities consisting of quartz sand, clay, and phosphate grains. The Torreya Formation underlies portions of the eastern Florida panhandle and southwestern Georgia. Primarily a subsurface unit, the Torreya is exposed in the Fullers Earth mines near Quincy, Florida, and Attapulgus, Georgia, where its Attapulgite (Palygorskite) clays are extracted for commercial use. Natural exposures of the Torreya Formation may be seen at Torreya State Park in Liberty County, Big Dismal Sink in Leon County, and along the Sopchoppy River in Wakulla County. Schmidt, Walter, 2003, Measuring geologic research projects as productive outputs towards the desired outcome of natural resource conservation: American Institute of Professional Geologists, The Professional Geologist, March 2003, p. 11-12. Schmidt, Walter 2003, Professional Geology Not Just for Scientists Anymore! ThinkÂ…. "Marketing": American Institute of Professional Geologists, The Professional Geologist, May / June 2003, p. 7. The professional geology community is classically comprised of individuals who tend to keep to themselves and don't socialize and attend large meetings often. They like solitary field work and they enjoy the outdoors where they can do "hands-on geology" and maybe take samples back to the lab or office to contemplate or write-up their field notes. Too often when we do gather together, we solicit validation from our peers and we "preach to the choir" on earth science and environmental conservation issues when we are already in the same corner. Geoscience issues so often serve as a critical foundation to environmental regulatory decisions, land-use decisions and planning, geologic hazards mitigation, contamination and waste clean-up, water resources protection, minerals exploration and production, sustainable development or environmental conservation. Geologists have much to offer and they must become more proactive to share their knowledge and offer their insight. Not only can it be financially rewarding, it will increase the odds of various environmental engineering projects being successful if they are based on competent geoscience. Involvement increases the professional respectability and personal self-worth of those offering such assistance. We live in a state where the environment and our pristine natural resources are extremely visible in public policy and significant to our economic well-being. The geoscience community must step up and offer what we can, timely and on task when appropriate. Our apathy as a profession must change! Scott, T.M. and Means, G.H. 2003, Geologists' role in defining public policy The Florida Springs Initiative: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthCentral and Southeastern Sections Meeting, v. 35, no. 1. p. 49. In September 1999, the Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Geological Survey's parent agency, mandated the initiation of the Florida Springs Task Force in response to the declining health of the state's springs. The task force was composed of geologists, biologists, planners and others. The task force met monthly for a year and compiled a series of recommendations which were presented to the Governor and Legislature. Geologists guided the task force in learning about the subsurface enviBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 79
ronment, the interaction between the surface and subsurface environments and in developing portions of the final report. The mounting challenges of accommodating Florida's rapid population growth demanded effective tactics to protect the state's world-renowned springs. The need for hydrogeological research, the development of best management practices and careful land use planning was recognized. The 2001 Florida legislature provided $2.5 million for the first year of the Florida Springs Initiative. A large portion of the allocation was used to fund a number of geological projects including: 1) Water sampling and analyses, description of Florida's largest springs and publication of the results; 2) Delineation of springsheds for selected first magnitude springs; and 3) Investigations of the nitrate sources affecting the spring waters. Geologists are tasked with determining the problems, the sources of the problems, and educating not only the Governor, Legislature, and other governmental officials but also the public. Only through understanding the problems and enlisting the informed assistance of others can the State's valuable resource of springs be saved from further degradation. Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Greenhalgh, T., Campbell, K.M., DeHan, R., and Hornsby, D., 2003, Innovative investigative approach to assessing the culturallyinduced water-quality changes in Wakulla and Manatee Springs, Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, v. 34, no. 7, p. 200. Florida is one of the fastest growing states in the country. Karst terrain predominates in much of Florida where the carbonate Floridan aquifer system is at or near the land surface. Geologists have inventoried more than 700 springs in Florida. A trend of declining quality of water emanating from many of Florida's springs was recognized. With funding from the Florida Springs Initiative, two first magnitude springs, Wakulla and Manatee, were selected for a unique investigative approach to waterchemistry provenance. Both springs have on-going water-quality sampling programs. The springsheds of these springs are being delineated based on extensive water-level data, chemical and physical parameters. Both springs have extensive underwater cave systems with multiple conduits. Individual conduits have different water quality indicating different source areas. As such, cultural activities may affect the water quality in one portion of the system but not another. Through water-quality monitoring and springshed delineation, the effects of cultural activities on ground water and the springs can be better understood. Historically, water samples gathered from individual conduits had to be taken by cave divers, a time-intensive and dangerous undertaking. Discussions between scientists and managers concluded that drilling wells into selected conduits at Wakulla and Manatee Springs would provide a new and innovative way to access the conduits for periodic sampling and monitoring instrument placement. Wells were drilled into three conduits at Manatee Springs during May and June 2003. Placement of the wells was accomplished by divers placing an oriented radio beacon in a conduit and a surface receiver pinpointing the vertical location. The FGS drill rig cored each hole approximately 23 meters deep. Wells up to 100 meters deep will be drilled into the conduits at Wakulla Springs in July and August 2003. Probes to continuously measure flow, temperature, nitrate and other parameters will be placed in the conduits by divers and will be connected to the surface through the wellbore. Water-quality samples can now be obtained to study shortterm responses to storm events and for comparison to long-term data sets. This data FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 80
will allow geologists to assess the degradation of Florida's springs and assist the State in developing BMPs. Scott, T.M., 2004, The new geomorphic map of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, Abstracts with Program, v. 36, no. 5, p. 578. The last state-wide geomorphic map published by the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) at a 1:2,000,000 scale was released in 1964. Brooks published a geomorphic map of the state at a scale of 1:500,000 in 1982 but it was not widely utilized. The new geomorphic map is a combination of an upgrade of the 1964 map and a reinterpretation of the state's physiography. Utilizing a combination of old-fashioned geological mapping techniques and modern, digital techniques, a new geomorphic map of Florida has been produced by the Florida Geological Survey. Initial mapping employed visual inspection of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps to identify physiographically similar areas then transferring those areas to a 1:750,000 scale map by hand. The resultant map was digitized. The digital outlines of the geomorphic features were overlain on to topography and aerial photography layers to aid in the resolution of boundary issues. Field checking of boundaries is occurring during travel for other FGS projects. The new map better identifies the karstic areas of Florida. This allows for a more complete understanding of the water resource issues surrounding Florida's springs and the continuing intense development in the state. Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004,The Florida Springs Initiative the results of the Florida Geological Survey's three year investigation and the impacts on public policy: Abstract, Northeastern and Southeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, Tysons Corner, VA, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 41. Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004,The Florida Springs Initiative the results of the Florida Geological Survey's three year investigation and the impacts on public policy: Abstract, Florida Scientist v. 67, Supplement 1, p. 54. The Florida Springs Initiative, funded by the Florida Legislature since the 2001-02 fiscal year, was the result of the efforts of a diverse mix of geologists, biologists, other scientists and citizen representatives that comprised the Florida Springs Task Force. The Task Force was formed in response to the perception that Florida's springs were becoming degraded. The Florida Geological Survey was tasked with revising the Survey's 1977 bulletin "Springs of Florida" which included locations, descriptions and, in some cases, water-quality data. It is now known that more than 700 springs exist in the state. Survey teams visited, described and collected water samples at all the first magnitude springs (33) and approximately 60 second magnitude springs. The teams also visited other lower magnitude springs, inspecting and describing them. Nearly 500 springs have been described by the teams. The descriptions of the spring boils and runs have noted that many springs have been degraded compared to historical accounts and have had abundant algal blooms caused by changes in the spring-water quality. Waterquality analyses reveal increases in several analytes most notably nitrate. The natural nitrate levels in the Floridan Aquifer System are below 0.05 mg/l. Today, some water from first magnitude springs exceeds 5.0 mg/l nitrate. Water from some lower magnitude springs contains more than 30 mg/l nitrate. Increased nitrate levels have been linked to human activities and land-use changes. Best Management Practices are being developed in order to prevent further degradation of the springs and to help return the springs to a more natural state. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 81
PRESENTATIONS 2003 Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery: Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Florida Springs Task Force, Ocala, FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2003. What geologists really do or has a spouse, loved one, friend ever said "You get paid to do that?!!! Lecture to the Everglades Geological Society, Ft. Myers, FL, by Tom Scott, February, 2003. Education and outreach efforts toward better management and protection of Florida springs. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, February, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment model, a step by step approach to predicting aquifer vulnerability at the springshed level using weights of evidence. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Alan Baker, February, 2003.An application of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model to springshed contamination. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by James Cichon, February, 2003. Investigation of the feasibility of remote sensing technologies for locating submarine springs. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by James McClean, February, 2003. Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Florida spring water quality. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Copeland, February, 2003. Development of a spring glossary and classification system for use in Florida. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Copeland, February, 2003. Status of the Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31 update. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, February, 2003 The Hydrogeology of Lake County. Presented to National Wildlife Federation Habitat Stewards Training Class, Clermont, FL, by Paulette Bond, March, 2003. Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida. Southeastern/ South-central Section, Geological Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, Rick Copeland, and Tom Scott, March 2003. Exceptional preservation and concentration of whole-body Ranilia (Decapoda: Raninidae) in the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation of Florida (poster). Geological Society of America meeting, Denver, CO, by Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, March, 2003 Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida. Southeastern/South-central Section, Geological Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, March, 2003. Geologists' role in defining public policy. The Florida Springs Initiative. Southeastern/South-central Section of the Geological Society of America, Memphis, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 82 PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
TN, by Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, March, 2003. Assessment of long term trends (Decades) in Florida spring water quality. Presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences, Orlando, FL, by Rick Copeland, March, 2003. Earth Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, Paulette Bond, Steve Spencer, Frank Rupert, Dave Taylor, April, 2003. Mining Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, Fl., by Walt Schmidt, Steve Spencer, Frank Rupert, April, 2003. The Florida Springs Initiative and cave management. Florida Cave Management Workshop, Ocala, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, April, 2003. What geologists really do. Northwest Florida Water Management District, by Tom Scott, May, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Fl., by Jon Arthur, May, 2003. Florida Springs Initiative. Florida Local Environmental Resource (FLERA) Agencies Conference, Jupiter Beach, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, July, 2003. Use of indices in evaluating Florida's ground-water quality. Presented at the 19th Annual Environmental Monitoring Conference, Arlington, VA, by Rick Copeland, July, 2003. FAVA and the Hydrogeology Program. Suwannee River Water Management District, Live Oak, FL, by James Cichon, August, 2003. FGS Role in the Florida Springs Initiative. American Institute of Professional Geologists Florida Section Meeting, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, August, 2003. Florida Springs Initiative update. Presented to the Department of Environmental Protection, Quarterly Monitoring Meeting, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, September, 2003. The Florida Springs Initiative and where does our spring water come from?. Presented at the Marion County Springs Festival, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, September 2003. Florida during the Pleistocene. Tallahassee Museum of History and Natural Science, Tallahassee, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, September, 2003. Lecture to FSU Geohazards graduate class. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, September, 2003. Interview for WFSU Public TV show on sinkholes and karst. By Walt Schmidt, September, 2003. Florida geology and professional geology. FIU Geology Department., Miami, FL, by Walt Schmidt September, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Wekiva River Basin Workgroup, Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, September, 2003. Offshore sand source investigations off the northern Florida east coast. 47th Annual Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association, Amelia Island, FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2003. Earth Science Week FGS Open House. Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October, 2003. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. American Institute of Professional Geologists Annual Meeting, Lakeland, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2003. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 83
Florida Geology. Classroom lectures at Fairview Middle School, Tallahassee, FL, by Dave Taylor, Brie Coane, and Tom Greenhalgh, October, 2003. Springs of Marion County. Presented to the Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, October, 2003. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. EPA Director's Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. Hydrology of Florida's karst regions. Florida Department of Health Regional Meeting, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, November, 2003. Innovative investigative approach to assessing the culturally-induced water quality chages in Wakulla and Manatee Springs, Florida. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by Tom Scott, November, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA): utilizing geological mapping data to predict aquifer vulnerability (poster). Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by James Cichon, November, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. 35th Annual National Association for Cave Diving Seminar, Gainesville, FL, by James Cichon, November, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. Water-rock Interactions During Aquifer Storage and Recovery. EPA Director's Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. FGS Hydrogeology Program briefing for FDEP Secretary Struhs. Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. Florida's aquifers: vulnerable and vital. 1000 Friends of Florida forum on Water Issues facing the Florida Panhandle, Tallahassee, FL by Jon Arthur, December, 2003. The human history of the upper Apalachicola River valley. Florida Paleontological Society, Bristol, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, December, 2003. Springs Initiative funded projects at the Florida Geological Survey. Hernando County Springs Workshop, Brooksville, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, December, 2003. The FGS; its research and other activities. Geology of Florida Class at UF, Gainesville, FL, by Tom Scott December, 2003. 2004 The hydrogeology of Wakulla Springs. Environmental Science Class of Wakulla High School, at Wakulla Springs, FL, by Paulette Bond, January, 2004. Lecture to Florida State Parks Annual Biologists Meeting. Wekiwa Springs, FL, by Walt Schmidt, March, 2004. The Florida Springs Initiative the results of the Florida Geological SurveyÂ’s three year investigation and the impact on public policy. Geological Society of America Annual meeting, TysonÂ’s Corner, VA, by Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, March, 2004. Ocean Day at the Capitol.: Poster presentation and static display. Tallahassee, FL, by Dan Phelps and Jim Ladner, April, 2004. Hydrogeology of northern Florida and other geologic topics. Westminster Oaks, Tallahassee, FL, by Tom Scott, April, 2004. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 84
Mining Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL., by Walt Schmidt, Steve Spencer, and Frank Rupert, April, 2004. Earth Day event. Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, April, 2004. Duval County geology. Duval County Commission, Jacksonville, FL, by Rick Green, April, 2004. Earth Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, April, 2004. Windows into our aquifers. Annual Meeting of the Florida Groundwater Association, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, May, 2004. The geologic history of the Dunnellon area. Desoto's River of Discord Celebration, Dunnellon, FL, by Paulette Bond, June, 2004. Opening for the Wakulla Springs Scientific Symposium. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Sinkholes in Florida Seminar. Tampa, FL, by Steve Spencer and Walt Schmidt, August, 2004. Lecture to Geohazards Graduate class at FSU. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, August, 2004. Briefing for DEP Press Secretary. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, September, 2004. Marion County's precious springs. Marion County Springs Festival, Silver Springs, FL, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, September, 2004. Offshore sand source investigations off the northern Florida east coast. 48th Annual Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association. Marco Island, FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2004. Townhall meeting, Wakulla Springs watershed research activities. R.A. Gray Building, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. A brief discussion of the geology of Duval County, Florida. Duval County Commission. Jacksonville, FL, by Rick Green, October, 2004. FGS Open House for Earth Science Week. Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October, 2004. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Daytona Beach, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2004. The geology of Wakulla County. Annual Meeting of The Wakulla County Historical Society, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Hydrogeology Program Briefing for the Governor's OPB Staff. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Hydrogeology '101'. Governor's Office of Planning and Budget, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2004. Geoarchaeological consideration of the Ryan-Harley site (8JE-1004) in the Wacissa River, northern Florida. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, November, 2004. Presentation to the "Walk for Wakulla Springs" participants, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, November, 2004. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. EPA Director's Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2004. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 85
DEP Division of Resource Assessment & Management annual awards luncheon. Tallahassee, FL,. by Walt Schmidt, November, 2004. Water quality issues in the Floridan Aquifer System. American Water Works Association conference, Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2004. The new geomorphic map of Florida. Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, by Tom Scott, November, 2004. Diagnostic Fossils in Florida Stratigraphy. Everglades Geological Society, Ft. Meyers, FL, by Frank Rupert, November, 2004. Hydrogeology of Florida Â‘101Â’. Water Matters! A joint conference of the Florida League of Cities and Florida Association of Counties, Orlando, FL, December 2004. FIELD TRIPS 2003 STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Field Trip to Marianna, Florida, Area, by Rick Green, October 2003. Field Trip for Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers meeting, Orlando, FL, by Tom Scott, December, 2003. Alum Bluff, Liberty County. Florida Paleontological Society, by Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, December, 2003. 2004 STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Field Trip to Gainesville, FL., Area, by Rick Green, October, 2004. MEETINGS 2003 DEP NW District Office to discuss agency/operator consent order regarding Petro Oil Co. as operator of Blackjack Oil Field. Pensacola, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2003. Southeastern Geological Society Meeting. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN), Town Meeting. Panama City, FL, Carol Armstrong, January, 2003. Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, January, 2003. Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, January, 2003. FGS Management Retreat. Tallahassee, FL, Ron Hoenstine, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd, Dave Curry, Carolyn Stringer, January, 2003. Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. The Florida Springs Conference, Natural Gems Troubled Waters. Gainesville, FL, James Cichon, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, Walt Schmidt, and Tom Scott, February, 2003. DEP Activities and Performance Measures Assessment. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003.DEP NW District Office to discuss agency/ operator consent order regarding Petro Oil Co. as operator of Blackjack Oil Field. Pensacola, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 86
Meeting with FSU to discuss building needs at Innovation Park. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. USF Geology Alumni Society annual banquet. Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. Meeting with DBPR / FBPG to discuss Professional Geology Legislation. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Technical Advisory Committee. Camp Weed, FL, Jon Arthur, Alan Baker, Alex Wood and James Cichon, February, 2003. 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences. Orlando, FL, Alan Baker, James Cichon, Rick Copeland, and Alex Wood, March, 2003. Southeastern/South-central Section of the Geological Society of America. Memphis, TN, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, March 2003. Meeting with FSU to discuss their plans for use of the Gunter Building. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, March, 2003. Meeting with DEP State Lands regarding Oil Co. Leases. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2003. Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop. Ocala, FL, Rodney DeHan, Jon Arthur and James Cichon, April, 2003. Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida. Ocala, FL, Tom Scott, Rick Copeland, Walt Schmidt, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, and Jon Arthur, April, 2003. C-Boom seismic equipment demonstration. St. Petersburg, FL, Dan Phelps, April 2003. Annual Meeting of Cave Diving Section of the National Speleological Society (NSSCDS). Gainesville, FL, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, May, 2004. Board of Professional Geologists. Cape Canaveral, FL; Tom Scott, July, 2003. Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, May, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Spring Conference. Niceville, FL, Carol Armstrong, May, 2003. Coastal Sediments 2003. Clearwater Beach, FL, Dan Phelps, May 2003. Florida Groundwater Association Meeting. Cape Canaveral, FL, Tom Scott, May, 2003. Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists. Lincoln, NE, Walt Schmidt, June, 2003. Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, June 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, June, 2003. Coastal Management Program Clearinghouse meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003. Gas Storage Wells meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003. Coastal Operations Institute Meeting. Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.The Florida Local Environmental Resource Agencies, Inc. (FLERA) Conference. Jupiter Beach, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, July, 2003. Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 87
The Florida Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists meeting. Lakeland, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, August, 2003. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature meetings Altamonte Springs, FL, and several other meetings at the FGS, Tallahassee, FL, Rick Copeland, Jon Arthur, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, and Tom Scott, August, 2003. City of Alachua City Commission. Alachua, FL, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, August, 2003. Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium. Mobile, AL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2003. FAPG Executive Committee Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2003. Wekiva Basin Coordinating Committee Public Meeting. Altamonte Springs, FL, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, September, 2003. Naval Air Station Jacksonville Restoration Advisory Board Meeting. Jacksonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, September, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2003. The Department of Environmental Protection, Quarterly Monitoring Meeting. St. Augustine, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, September, 2003. STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Meeting. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick. Green, Tom Scott, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, Will Evans, and David Paul, October, 2003. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission Annual Meeting. Reno, NV, Ed Garrett, October 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2003. 18th Annual Phosphate Conference. Lakeland, FL, James Cichon, October, 2003. Florida Water Data Center discussion meeting. FSU, Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2003. National Cave and Karst Symposium. Gainesville, FL, Rick Copeland and Jon Arthur, October, 2003. The Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, October, 2003. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, October 2003. 35th Annual National Association for Cave Diving Seminar. Gainesville, FL, James Cichon, November, 2003. Annual meeting of the Geological Society of America. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, November, 2003. American Association of State Geologists, mid-year meeting. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott, November, 2003. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2003. PERC Administrative Hearing. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd and Jim Balsillie, November, 2003. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2003. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 88
Florida Department of Health Regional Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, November, 2003. Florida Paleontological Society. Bristol, Florida, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, December, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2003. Hydrogeology Consortium / FSU President Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. Orlando, FL, Tom Scott, December, 2003. Godby High School Science Fair Judging. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. Coastal Operations Institute Meeting. Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. Panhandle Water Issues Workshop. Tallahassee City Hall., Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. 2004 Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery Team. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, January, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa Springs, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney DeHan, January, 2004. Meeting with Bob Hughes Drilling re/ Highlands County Drilling Applications. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists. Jacksonville, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, February, 2003. Meeting with DMS to assess Gunter Building facilities. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. PERC Administrative Hearing. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Meeting with FSU Dean of Arts & Sciences regarding Geology Department. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Office Inspection of the Jay Field Office. Jay, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. ROSS Data Base Workshop. Dan Phelps, February 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, March 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium meeting. NWFWMD, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 89
March, 2004. Geological Society of America combined Northeastern and Southeastern Sectional meeting. Tyson's Corner, VA, Rick Green, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, March, 2004. Meeting with Shell Oil Co. re/ Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal Waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, March, 2004. Career Day Oakridge Elementary School. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, April, 2004. Florida Association of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, April, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur, April, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2004. Aquifer Storage and Recovery IV Forum. Tampa, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur and Dan Phelps, April, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, May, 2004. National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section, Science of Cave Diving Workshop. High Springs, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, May, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, May 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Water Data Center meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Rodney DeHan, and Jon Arthur, May, 2004. Annual Meeting of the Florida Groundwater Association. Orlando, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, May, 2004 Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, May, 2004. Meeting with Murphy Oil Company regarding Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal Waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004.. Meeting with DCA regarding FGS mapping of Springs Areas for the use in the model code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Hydrologic Observatory Meeting with UF, FSU, USGS, and the Hydrogeology Consortium. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists. Stevenson, WA, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Meeting with DEP State Lands, State Parks regarding potential acquisition of limestone caves area in Jackson County. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Meeting with DCA to discuss Florida Springs Area Map. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Facilities inspection of Jay Oil Fields with Governors OPB representative. Jay, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004 Gunter Building and Warehouse Facilities / Program review by Governors OPB repreFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 90
sentative. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting, Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2004. Meeting with Anadarko Oil Company regarding offshore drilling plans in Federal waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, September, 2004. Marion County Springs Festival. Ocala, FL, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means and Tom Scott, September, 2004. Sinkhole Summit II. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, September, 2004. ASC / LNG Pipeline Tunneling meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2004. STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Meeting. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick Green, October, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Tom Scott, Jon Arthur and Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Oil & Gas Administrative Rules Public Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott, November, 2004. Seven Hills Regional Users Group Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, James Cichon, November 2004. Olesya Lazareva Thesis defense at USF. Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur, November, 2004. Association of American State Geologists, mid-year meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott, November, 2004. FGS Oil & Gas Section program planning retreat. Maclay Gardens, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004 Meeting with DEP Inspector General Staff to formulate audit plan Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004. Godby High School Science Fair judging. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2004. Springs Task Force meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, December, 2004. Meeting with DCA representatives to discuss Columbia County "stream-to-sinks" mapping. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2004. Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association Conference. .Jacksonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, December, 2004.. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney DeHan, December, 2004 TRAINING 2003 Making the Connexion. Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, January, 2003. Technology Special Interest Group. Mariana, FL, Carol Armstrong, March, 2003 First Aid/CPR Training for selected FGS employees, Tallahassee, FL, March, 2003. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 91
Copyright Law in the Digital Age. Marianna, FL, Carol Armstrong, April, 2003. Portals: Beyond the Hype. Panama City, FL, Carol Armstrong and Paula Polson, August, 2003. Information Literacy. Marianna, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2003. Certified Public Manager Training. Tallahassee, FL, Ed Garrett, two-year program beginning September 2003. Geochemist's Workbench. Denver, CO, Jon Arthur, November, 2003. PowerPoint Training Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. 2004 Management 101. Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, January-May, 2004. Florida Groundwater Association Convention: Water well contractors continuing education courses. Craig Berninger, Lee Booth, Ken Campbell and Eric Harrington, May, 2004. Critical Computer Care. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, July, 2004. People First Training. FGS staff, August, 2004. Short Course on Carbonate Stratigraphy. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Greenhalgh, Will Evans, Cindy Fischler, Clint Kromhout, Jon Arthur, Guy Â“HarleyÂ” Means, Dave Paul, Tom Scott and Rick Green, September, 2004. Wireless Technology in Libraries. Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2004. Schramm Drill Rigs Maintenance and Operation Training, Craig Berninger and Lee Booth, November, 2004. BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) 2003 Wakulla Springs Birding and Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2003. Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, April, 2003. Marion County Springs Festival. Rainbow Springs State Park, Dunnellon, FL, September, 2003. Innovation Park Open House. Tallahassee, FL, October, 2003. Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2003. 2004 Florida State University Earth Day Event. Tallahassee, FL, April, 2004. Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2004. Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, April, 2004. Desoto's River of Discord Celebration. Dunnellon, FL, June, 2004. Wild Florida Festival at the Tallahassee Museum. Tallahassee, FL, September, 2004. Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2004. Where in the volcano is that? Front Porch After School Program. Tallahassee, FL, October, 2004. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 92
INTRODUCTION At the time of publication of this biennial report, the FGS has met its mission to study and assess geological attributes and conditions of surface, subsurface, and subaqueous environments, both terrestrial and marine, pursuant to mandated constraints of Chapter 377, Florida Statutes, with 40 full time employees (FTE's). Within the State of Florida governmental structure, this is not a large staffing contingent. Many of the basic research and administrative tasks at the FGS are accomplished by hiring additional staff under the Other Personal Service (OPS) system. It differs from FTE employment status because individuals so employed do not receive Florida medical and retirement benefits, but must seek such coverage personally. In the FGS, OPS employees are classified as Research Assistants, Research Associates, and Outside Research Associates. Research Assistants encompass those employees who are just starting their professional careers. They are usually students in college or university programs assessed to have talents of useful value to the mission of the FGS. Research Associates are those who have the educational backgrounds and established experience that is considered essential toward FGS mission goals. They are considered as experienced professionals, performing work as consultants. Outside Research Associates include those individuals employed external to the FGS who, from time-to-time provide valuable consultation or cooperative service-oriented contributions to the mission of the FGS. We consider, here, the contribution of Research Assistants and Research Associates toward the realization of goals of the FGS, because they are co-workers in day-to-day operations essential toward realization of successful mission goals. It is to be noted that over the years and field data collection seasons this percentage of OPS contributions can be as large as 50% of the total FGS staff strength. Hence, it is to be recognized that OPS contributions have been historically essential towards FGS success. We first describe personnel changes that have occurred within the FGS during the biennium because their presence might not be otherwise historically chronicled. After that, personnel attributes at the time of this biennial report are listed. PERSONNEL CHANGES Personnel changes at the FGS during this biennial period have been due to additional programs being added and routine moving brought about by refocusing career objectives or lifetime goals. FULL TIME EMPLOYEES Karen E. Achille Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section resigned her position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. David S. Anderson joined the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section as an Environmental Specialist II (GIS Analyst) in December, 2004. Jon Arthur was promoted to Professional Geologist Administrator and Assistant State Geologist in June, 2004, in charge of the Hydrogeology Section of the FGS. Wanda Bissonnette Administrative BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 93 PERSONNEL INFORMATION
Assistant, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, resigned her position in July, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Dorothy Black Secretary Specialist, joined the Oil and Gas Section's Tallahassee office in October 2004. Lawrence D. Curry Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section retired in November, 2004. Ed Garrett Professional Geologist I, was promoted to Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section in November, 2004.Ed Gambrell Environmental Specialist III, retired February 2004 after 12 years managing the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office. Mr. Gambrell had previously worked 32 years in the oilfield services industry. Dave Files Engineer IV, joined the Oil and Gas Section September 2004 to serve as the section's general technical advisor and to manage the section's old well plugging program. Cara H. Gowan Administrative Secretary, Administrative and Data Management Section resigned her position in August, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Al Keaton Engineer III, resigned from the Oil and Gas Section in April 2004 to take a position with Whiting Oil Corporation as Regional Director of Michigan Basin Operations. Ted B. Kiper Engineer I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section, position was eliminated in August, 2003. John Marquez Computer Programmer/ Analyst II and Cartographer. Administrative and Geological Data Management Section resigned his position in January, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Tracy Phelps Secretary Specialist, Oil and Gas Section, Jay Field Office resigned her position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Sarah Ramdeen joined the Geological Investigations Section's Drilling Operations as a Lab Technician I in June, 2004. Andrew Rudin GIS Analyst, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section resigned his position in July, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Franklin R. Rush, Jr ., Laboratory Technician III, Geological Investigations Section, resigned his position in July, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Debbie Westberg joined the Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section of the FGS as the Administrative Secretary in November, 2004.RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ANDASSISTANTSDavid Arthur Database Programmer, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Brandon N. Ashby GIS Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in May, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Kristen Bailey Granulometrics Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in May, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Kristy L. Baker FAVA Research Assistant, Geological Investigations FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 94
Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in June, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Jon Bryan STATEMAP Research Associate, Geological Investigations Section, STATEMAP Program resigned his position in October, 2004. Kenji Butler NWFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Ed Chelette joined the Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiative's Swallet Inventory project as a Laboratory Technician in October, 2004. Brett Cimbora Database Technician, Oil and Gas Section resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue a career in the USAF. Brian Cross Coastal Research Assistant, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in April, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Roberto Davila FAVA GIS Analyst, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section, resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Kevin DeFossett SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in January, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Erin Dorn SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned her position in October, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Colin (Brent) Fain Driller's Assistant, Geological Investigation Section, Drilling Operations resigned his position in August, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Brian Farrell Research Assistant, resigned his position in September, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Fran Flores SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in May, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Beth Forrest Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Coastal Program resigned her position in September, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Jake Halfhill Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Drilling Operations was deployed (US Marine) in to North Africa and will be rehired upon return to the States. Robbie Jones Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, reductions in Springs Initiative funding eliminated this position in February, 2004. Christa Kinyon SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned her position in April, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Mat Mayo, SWFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in June, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Michael H. Miller GIS Analyst, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section resigned his position in July, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Lori L. Millonzi Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in May, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 95
Tracy Phelps Secretary Specialist at the Jay Field Office, Oil and Gas Section, resigned in August, 2004 to begin a career as a registered nurse. Anthony Priesta SJRWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in March, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Tina Roberts Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiative resigned her position in August, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Rupa Sharma FAVA Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in December, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. James Sparr joined the Geological Investigations Section's Coastal Program as a Lab Technician I in July, 2004. Diana Thurman-Nowak joined the Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiative's Swallet Inventory project as a Laboratory Technician in November, 2004. Jack Ward Driller's assistant, Geological Investigation Section, Drilling Operations resigned his position in January, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Joel Webb Database Manager, joined the Oil and Gas Section April 2003 to design and maintain the section's comprehensive well permit database. Alan Willett Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, reductions in Springs Initiative funding eliminated this position in February, 2004. Hauqi Yin Programmer, Oil and Gas Section resigned her position in February, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. FULL TIME EMPLOYEES David S. Anderson Environmental Specialist II (GIS Analyst), Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. A.A. (2002), B.S. Environmental Studies/Natural Sciences (2004), Certificate in Geographic Information Systems (2003), University of West Florida. Research Interests: Geomorphology, Coastal morphology, Internet mapping and application services, Environmental and urban spatial analysis. Professional Memberships: American Geophysical Union, Geospatial Information and Technology Association, Florida Association of Environmental Professionals (Northwest chapter), Florida Society of Geographers. Carol J. Armstrong Librarian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.A. Art (1986) and History (1989), Brenau University; M.L.I.S. Florida State University (1993). 2001 and 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award. Completed SOLINET's Management 101 Series, 2004. Currently serving on the Board of Directors for the Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN). Jonathan D. Arthur Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology and Administrator of the FGS Hydrogeology Section. He received his B.S. with Honors from Florida State University (1982) and his Ph.D. from Florida State University (1994). Research interests: hydrogeology, geochemistry and environmental education. Dr. Arthur is a licensed Professional Geologist (Florida) and member of several state committees including the FDEP Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping Committee, and three aquifer storage and recovery Project Development Teams (Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan). He also holds a Courtesy Faculty Appointment in the Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 96
University and is on the Board of Representatives of the Hydrogeology Consortium. Professional memberships include the Florida Association of Professional Geologists (he currently serves as President of the Association), Southeastern Geological Society, Geological Society of America, National Ground Water Association, and International Association of Hydrogeology. Awards include 1996 FGS Employee of the Year; 1997 Governor's Environmental Education Award for "Florida's Geology Unearthed," New York Festivals, 1997 Finalist for Non-Broadcast Film and Video for production of "Florida's Geology Unearthed," April 1997 DEP Employee of the Month; 1997 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance Award, 1999 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Most recently, Jon was confirmed as a committee member as inorganic geochemist on the National Academy of Sciences project titled: "Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water." Paul Attwood Professional Geologist I, Oil and Gas Section, Ft. Myers Field Office. B.S. Denison University (1974); M.S. University of Kansas (1981). Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Bonita Springs Utilities Board of Directors, 2001 to present. Past President, Everglades Geological Society. James H. Balsillie Senior Research Scientist and Coastal Engineering Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Portland State University (1970). Graduate studies, Florida State University (19751977). Research interests: structural geology, sedimentology including design of core laboratory processing tools and sampling devices, and sedimentologic standards, statistics in geology, numerical computer modeling, La Nina associated karst responses of periodic lacustrine drawdown events, geological applications to archaelogical problems, and coastal engineering geology including hurricane and tropical storms, storm and long-term coastal erosion, astronomical tides, wave mechanics and theory, longshore bar dynamincs, seasonal beach changes, sea level changes. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). He served with the Coastal Engineering Research Center as a principal investigator for five years, with the Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as a coastal engineer for 18 years (including Chief of the Analysis/Research Section), and has served with the Florida Geological Survey as a coastal engineering geologist and sedimentologist for the past ten years. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists. 1998 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, FGS 2003 Extra Effort Award, and FGS 2003 Team Extra Effort Award, and the FGS 2004 Team Extra Effort Award. He has written over 95 published papers and numerous computer programs and numerical models. Craig Berninger Engineer I, Geological Investigations Section. Area of specialization: well drilling and coring, licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). Research interests: Water well and core drilling. Professional Memberships: National Drillers Association, Florida Groundwater Association. Dorothy Black Secretary Specialist, Oil and Gas Section, Business management training at Lively Vocational-Technical School. Professional background includes administrative secretarial work and management of family owned business. Paulette Bond Research Geologist, Administrative and Geological Data BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 97
Management Section. B.S. West Virginia University (1971); M.S. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1974). Research interests: environmental geology, geologic hazards and environmental education. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Member: Geological Society of America, Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Davis Lee Booth Geological Investigations Section. Area of specialization: core drilling and well construction, licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Kenneth M. Campbell Professional Geologist III, Geologic Investigations Section. B.S. Old Dominion University (1975), M.S. Florida State University (1979). Geologic Interests: Core drilling, monitor well construction, Cenozoic stratigraphy, sedimentation and coastal processes. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). Professional Memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Robert S. Caughey Professional Geologist II, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. B.S. University of Arizona (1976). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and the "boulder zones" of south Florida. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., Association of Exploration Geochemists, New Mexico Geological Society, Everglades Geological Society, 1997 FGS Employee of the Year Award, commendation letter from Governor Bush for "job well done" (June 28, 2002). Brett Cimbora Meteorologist and Database Technician, resigned August 2004 to begin a career as a US Air Force officer. Mr. Cimbora had performed data entry and quality control for 1.5 years. Rick Copeland Professional Geologist III, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigation Section. B.S. University of Florida, Geology (1972). M.S. University of Florida, Geology (1974). Ph.D. Florida State University, Geology (1998). His research interests include: the theory of water quality and quantity monitoring, interpretation of ground-water quality and its relationship to land use and geomorphology, and interpretations of trends in ground-water quality and quantity. He was a hydrogeologist with the Suwannee River Water Management District for nine years where he established and maintained several ground-water quality monitoring networks. He was the administrator of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's statewide ground-water quality network for 18 years and was instrumental is re-designing and integrating the Department's combined surface-water and ground-water quality monitoring network into one based on randomized sampling. He has served as a hydrogeologist with the Florida Geological Survey for the past three years. Professional memberships: Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President, 2001 2002), the Florida Academy of Sciences (Program Chair Coordinator, 2003 2004; Chairman Geological and Hydrological Section, 2001 2002), the American Association of Professional Geologists, the National Ground Water Association, the American Water Resource Association, Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President, 2003), and the Southeastern Geological Society (Vice President, 20042005). He received the Department's Division of Water Resource Management's Employee of the Month award in August, 1998, the Sustained Exemplary FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 98
Performance award in 2000, and 2001 Extra Effort Award. Dave Curry Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, B.A. Geology, University of South Florida, 1973, completed 2-year University of Texas drilling technology program 1979. Retired November 2004 after 31 years with the Oil and Gas Section. Served as an inspector in the Jay Field Office 1977-79, geologist in the Tallahassee office and section administrator since 1979. Rodney S. DeHan Senior Research Scientist, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section. Dr. DeHan initiated his undergraduate and professional education in the United Kingdom which culminated in earning the degree, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. His graduate work continued in the United States where he earned the degrees, Master of Science in Microbiology/Virology from the University of Kansas, and a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from Florida State University. He continued his association with the University as a member of the research faculty of the Department of Biological Sciences until 1980. He is currently an adjunct professor in the Department of Geological Sciences of the Florida State University. Dr. DeHan joined the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in 1974 and worked in the Treatment Process Technology and Biology Sections. He established the Florida Ground Water Program in 1979 and helped guide its development into a leader in ground water protection in the country. He joined the Florida Geological Survey in 1997 where he is currently a Senior Research Scientist. His research interests and current projects are focused on the role of ground water as a component of watersheds with special interest in the characterization and dynamics of interaction between ground and surface water in the coastal environment. Dave Files Engineer IV, joined the Oil and Gas Section September 2004 to serve as the section's general technical advisor and to manage the section's old well plugging program. Mr. Files worked since 1972 as a drilling engineer for various independent and major oil companies in Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, California, and offshore. Ed Gambrell Environmental Specialist III, Oil and Gas Section, B.S. Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University 1960. Licensed explosives and radioactive materials handler, retired February 2004 after 12 years managing the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office. Mr. Gambrell had previously worked 27 years for Schlumberger Oilfield Services and 5 years as an oilfield consultant. Ed Garrett Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, B.S. Geology, Florida State University (1983). Promoted December 2004 to section administrator after 13 years as a geologist for the Oil & Gas Section. Research interests: Energy policy, environmental effects of offshore drilling, oil and gas regulatory database applications. Florida Certified Public Manager. Licensed professional geologist (Florida). Richard C. Green Professional Geologist I, Geologic Mapping, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (1986); M.S. Geology, Florida State University (1993). Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Research Interests: Uranium /Thorium geochemistry, environmental hydrogeology, and stratigraphy. Principal Investigator, USGS STATEMAP Program. Member of the National Groundwater Association. 1997 FGS Extra Effort Award. 2003 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award (STATEMAP). BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 99
Thomas H. Greenhalgh III Professional Geologist I, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Florida State University (1984). Research interests: hydrogeology, ground water contamination, and environmental education. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Member: FDEP Springs subcommittees, Hydrogeology Consortium. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists, National Ground Water Association. Eric P. Harrington Engineer Technician IV, Geological Investigations Section, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award. 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Promoted to Engineer Technician IV, 2004. Jessie L. Hawkin s, Custodian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Ronald W. Hoenstine Coastal Geologist, Supervisor Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. University of Florida (1967); M.S. University of Florida (1974); Ph.D. Florida State University (1982). Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal geology and environmental geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Installation Restoration Environmental Cleanup Advisory Committee, Jacksonville Naval Air Station. 1995 FGS Employee of the Year. Lucien James Ladner Coastal Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. University of Southern Mississippi (1970). Research interests: hydrogeology, environmental and coastal geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), 1st runner up DEP Safety Awareness Event, 2004 Team Extra Effort Award STATEMAP Project John L. Leccese Engineer IV, began working for the Oil and Gas Section December 2002 as assistant inspector in the Jay Field Office. He was promoted to the role of chief inspector in April 2004. Mr. Leccese's oilfield experience over the previous 36 years includes production management and the drilling of wildcats, workovers, development wells, and gas storage wells for independent oil companies in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, California, Alaska, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Alaska. Professional training included drilling technology, well control, petroleum production technology, H2S safety, and oilfield firefighting. Jacqueline M. Lloyd Assistant State Geologist for Administration and Administrator of the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Florida Atlantic University (1976); M.S. University of Chicago (1979). Research interests: environmental geology and public management. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Florida Certified Public Manager. Professional memberships: Geological Society of America, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Southeastern Geological Society (Secretary/Treasurer, 1984), and Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President-1999; President-2000; Past President-2001-2002), 1995 DEP Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Extra Effort Award. Guy Harlan (Harley) Means ProfessionalGeologist I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Florida State University in Geology (1996), M.S. candidate (Geology), Florida State University. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, molluscan and vertebrate paleontology, Florida prehistoric underwater archaeology. Professional memberships: Southeastern Geological Society (Vice President 2002, President 2003), Geological Society of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 100
America, Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Florida Paleontological Society. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 1998 FGS Extra Effort Award, 1999 DEP Team Performance Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 Extra Effort Award, 2004 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2004 Team Extra Effort Award. Daniel C. Phelps Professional Geologist I, Coastal Research Program. B.S. Campbell University, 1974, M.S. (Geology) Duke University, 1979, M.S. (Environmental Management) University of Houston-Clear Lake, 1990, post graduate work (Karstic Hydrogeology) University of Arkansas, 1996. Research Interests: applied geophysics, seismic stratigraphy, continental shelf sedimentation, coastal processes, environmental geology and coastal zone resource management. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida) Christopher J. Poarch Systems Programmer I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Information Studies, Florida State University (2002). Concentration in Network Administration, Database Administration, and Web Development. 2003 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), 2003 Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), 2003 Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP), 2003 FGS Employee of the Year, 2002; 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Paula Polson Environmental Specialist I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Web Master, Florida Geology Forum Editor, Graphic Design. Training in graphic arts, drafting and Web Design, Florida State University Center for Professional Development, Tallahassee, FL.; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Tidewater Community College, Virginia Beach, VA; John Tyler Community College, Richmond, VA. Interests: computer graphics/illustrations and web design. Awards: 2001 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2002 Employee of the Year, September 2003, DEP Employee of the Month, 2003 Team Extra Effort Award. Sarah Ramdeen Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (2003). B.A. Humanities, Florida State University (2003). Currently Graduate Student in Information Studies: Florida State University. Research Interests: Archives, cataloging processes, and record management. Frank R. Rupert Professional Geologist II, Paleontologist and Publications Coordinator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Florida Atlantic University (1976); M.S. Florida State University (1980). Research Interests: Cenozoic micropaleontology and biostratigraphy and environmental hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Florida Paleontological Society (Past President, Board Member, and Newsletter Editor), 1988 FGS Employee of the Year, July 1989 DEP Employee of the Month, Co-recipient GSA John C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental Geology, October, 1999; 2000 and 2004 FGS Team Extra Effort Award; 2000 Davis Productivity Award; 2001 and 2003 FGS Extra Effort Awards. Walter Schmidt State Geologist and Chief of the Florida Geological Survey. A.S. Florida Institute of Technology (1970); B.A. University of South Florida (1972); M.S. Florida State University (1977); Ph.D. Florida State University (1983). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environmental geology, paleogeography, petroleum geology, economic geology, geology and public policy. Licensed Professional Geologist in Florida, Alabama, Pennsylvania, North Carolina (inactive), and South BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 101
Carolina (inactive). Professional memberships: Geological Society of America (Fellow), Southeastern Geological Society (Past President), American Institute of Professional Geologists (Member, CPG), Florida Board of Professional Geologists (Legislative appointment, Past Chair), Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Committee Association of American State Geologists (Member and Past President, current Chair of Coastal Processes Committee, current Chair of the John C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental Geology Committee, current Statistician, current member of Awards, Continental Margins, Environmental Affairs, Honorary Members, Liaison, Professional Affairs, and Water Policy committees), Southeast Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (Advisory Committee Member), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Ground Water Protection Council, Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Founding Member), Florida Academy of Sciences (Past Chair of Geology / Hydrology Section), Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee (Legislative Appointment and Chair), National Research Council Oceans Studies Board (Past Member). Adjunct Professor, Florida State University Department of Geological Sciences.Thomas M. Scott Assistant State Geologist for Geological Investigations. B.A. University of South Florida (1971); M.S. Eastern Kentucky University (1973); PhD Florida State University (1986). Research interests: Cenozoic lithostratigraphy, geologic history, and hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), Certified Professional Geologist (American Institute of Professional Geologists). Professional memberships: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Geological Society (Past-President, 1978 and 1990-92), Society of Sedimentary Geology (Past President, Southeastern Section, 1996-97), Florida Academy of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 102 Brett Cimbora and Joel Webb work on the Oil and Gas database. OPS staff are an important component of the FGS scientific workforce (photo by Ed Garrett).
Sciences, Florida Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists (PastPresident, 1985-86), Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President and Board Member 1996), Research Associate, University of South Florida. Serving on DBPR Board of Professional Geologists, chairman in 2004. More than 150 publications, maps, abstracts. Recently completed new geological map of Florida. Awards "Hero of IndustryÂ” Award from Florida Section of American Institute of Professional Geologists, 1992; Donald C. Haney Outstanding Alumnus Award, Eastern Kentucky University, 1996; Florida Geological Survey Employee of the Year 2001; Outstanding Alumni Award from the University of South Florida Geology Alumni Society, March 2002; elected as a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, 2004, Research Associate, University of South Florida. Steven M. Spencer Professional Geologist I, Oil and Gas Section. B.S. Florida State University (1981). Research interests: petroleum geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), January 1992 DEP Employee of the Month Award, 1994/95 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance Award, January 2003 Leon County Schools/FGS Cooperative Program Team Extra Effort Award. Sharon Sroka Financial Coordinator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Finance and Marketing, University of Maryland (1981). Carolyn Stringer Management Analyst, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section. B.S. University of Alabama (1970). FGS Extra Effort Awards 2001 and 2003. Wade Stringer Engineer I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. Certified Yamaha Motors and Honda Marine Corporation Outboard Mechanic, U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain, FAA Airframe and Power plant License, PADI Certified Open Water Diver and First Aid Medic. 2000 FGS Extra Effort Award. Dave Taylor Geophysical Operations Engineer, Oil and Gas Section. A.A. Miami Dade Community College (1985). University of Michigan, Aeronautical Engineering School (1970-73); Florida International University, Business Management candidate. Commercially rated aircraft pilot. Coast Guard licensed captain. Susan B. Trombley Executive Secretary, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Susan has nine years State service which include working for Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Department of Labor, and Department of Environmental Protection. In her years of State service, Susan has attended several seminars such as: Microsoft Windows 2000 Introduction, Microsoft Access 2000 Introduction, Mistake-Free Grammar and Proofreading, and Outstanding Receptionist. Tim Walker Environmental Specialist II, joined the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office in September 2004 to conduct inspections and enforcement. Mr. Walker previously worked eight years as a petroleum exploration geologist for various independent oil companies in the Illinois Basin. He also worked 16 years for various environmental consulting firms and owned his own environmental firm which specialized in contamination assessment and remediation of soil and ground water. Debbie Westberg, Adminstrative Secretary, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section. A.A., Gulf Coast Community College (1975). BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 103
RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ANDASSISTANTS Alan E. Baker OPS Professional Geologist I, Hydrogeology Section, B.S. Geology (1994), Florida State University (FSU). Worked four years with the FSU Department of Oceanography as a Research Associate and Lab Technician for the Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Facility. Spent three years at the Northwest Florida Water Management District working as a Hydrogeologist in the Bureau of Resource Regulation and then one year as a Geographic Information Systems Analyst supporting the Districts' Groundwater Bureau. Employed by the Florida Geological Survey as part of the Hydrogeology Program/Section in June of 2001 to work on the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model. Research interests include water resource protection, environmental geology, geomorphology, karst hydrogeology, GIS analysis and spatial modeling. Edward Chelette OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, B.S. Geology (1990), Florida State University. Worked as a research assistant and teaching assistant at the University of Hawaii while doing post-graduate work in volcanology and hydrogeology (1990-1993). Worked part time at the Northwest Florida Water Management District while doing post-graduate work in chemical hydrogeology at Florida State University (1993 -1995). Worked as full-time IS support and then as a hydrogeologist with the Northwest Florida Water Management District working on a joint project with DEP and DOH to identify, permit, test and regulate construction of wells in EDB contaminated areas, primarily in Jackson County, FL. Worked as IS administrator for the Professional Development Center, Tallahassee Community College from 1997-2004. James R. Cichon OPS Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Geology, Florida Atlantic University (1998), B.A. Chemistry, Florida Atlantic University (1998). Worked two years at the Northwest Florida Water Management District as a Hydrogeologist in the Bureau of Resource Regulation. Employed by the Florida Geological Survey as part of the Hydrogeology Program/Section in June of 2001 to work on the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model. Research interests: hydrogeology, GIS analysis and spatial modeling, karst processes, data management, water resources. Brie Coane OPS Laboratory Technician I, Drilling Operations and Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Environmental Studies with a minor in Geology from Florida State University (2003). Research interests: St. JohnÂ’s River Water Management District stratigraphy with a focus on Oldsmar and Cedar Keys Formations, springsheds water quality and its effects on the Floridan Aquifer System. Other interests include: Water-well drilling and core drilling. Recipient of 2003 Extra Effort Team award. Adel Dabous OPS Geochemistry Research Associate, Hydrogeology Section, Geological Investigation Section. B.S. (1968) and M.S. (1973), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; Ph.D. (1981), Florida State University. Research interests: environmental geochemistry and environmental radioactivity; applications of uranium and other uranium-series nuclides in hydrology and Quaternary geochronology; water/rock interactions. Professional memberships: Geochemical Society of America, Geological Society of Egypt, Geological Society of America, and Mineralogical Society of Egypt. William L. Evans III OPS Professional Geologist I, Geological Investigations Section. Dual B.S. Zoology and Biology, University of Central Florida (1979); M.S. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 104
Geology, Florida State University (1996). Research interests: hydrogeology, lake hydrology, aquifer storage and recovery system geochemistry and hydrogeology, environmental geology, stratigraphy and heavy mineral deposition. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). DEP Scientific Diver (in training). Co-Principal Investigator, USGS STATEMAP Program. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologist (Past Board of Directors Member), National Ground Water Association, Southeastern Geological Society. August 1999 DEP Employee of the Month, 1997, 1998, and 1999 DEP Extra Effort Awards, 1999 DEP Division of Waste Management Appreciation Award, 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award, and 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Cindy Fischler OPS Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Environmental studies, Florida State University (2002). Research interests: geochemistry and hydrogeology especially water-rock interaction; coastal geology and processes, and carbonate petrology. Frances C. Ijeoma OPS Fiscal Assistant II, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. in Geology University of Calabar, Nigeria (1998). A.S. in Computer Programming and Analysis Tallahassee Community College (2002). B.S. candidate, Management Information Systems, Tallahassee Community College/ University of Florida. Projected graduation: Summer 2006. Candidate, Certification in Oracle9i Certified Professional. (OCP) (2005). Interest: Systems management and administration. Amy Jensen OPS Laboratory Technician I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, B.S. candidate, Department of Geoscience, Florida State University (2005), Research Interests: structural geology, planetary geology, igneous environments, GIS analysis and remote sensing. Clint Kromhout OPS Geologist II, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (2003). Research Projects: Southwest Florida Sub-surface Mapping Project, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project, STATEMAP Program, Floridan Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Research interests: hydrogeology, groundwater issues, karst, GIS applications, applied geostatistical analysis and modeling, remote sensing, structural geology, cartography, drilling processes, and well construction. 2003 Manatee Springs Extra Effort Team Award Recipient. 2004 Southwest Florida Sub-surface Mapping Project Extra Effort Team Award Recipient. Robert Kurtz, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. in Geology, Florida State University, May, 2004. Currently at Florida State University as a graduate student in geology. FGSresearch assistant working on analysis of sample cuttings and cores for STATEMAP and South Florida Water Management District. Ryan C. Means OPS Biological Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Zoology, University of Florida (1996), M.S. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida (2001). Research Assistant working on springs-related topics. Research interests: biological inventorying and monitoring, herpetology, temporary pond metapopulation dynamics, environmental geology, prehistoric archaeology, vertebrate paleontology. Rebecca P. Meegan OPS Biological Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Biology, Virginia Tech (1996). M.S. Forestry, Texas A&M (2000). Research assistant working on springs related topics. Research interests include landscape ecology, environmental geology, ephemeral pond ecology, and amphibian metapopulation dynamics. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 105
James McClean OPS Environmental Specialist II, Hydrogeology Section, B.A. (Art) and B.A.. (Anthropology), University of New Mexico (1994). M.S. (Anthropology), Florida State University (2002). Research interests: Remote Sensing and GIS for marine resource management, karst, sea level change and scientific diving. Professional memberships: American Academy of Underwater Sciences, National Association of Underwater Instructors, and National Speleological Society. Michelle Lachance OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. M.S. candidate; B.S. in Civil Engineering, Geology and Social Science, Florida State University (2002); Certificate in Urban and Regional Planning (2002). Research interests: Geophysics, Structural Engineering and Geographical Information Systems. Professional memberships: American Society of Civil Engineers. Aaron Lower OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Geology, Purdue University (2004); M.S. candidate, Geology, Florida State University. Research interests: Coastal Geology, Sedimentology, Geophysics. Professional memberships: Geological Society of America. Elizabeth Moulton OPSEnvironmental Specialist I, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (2001). M.S. candidate, Geology, Florida State University. Research interests: geochemistry, hydrogeology, and GIS applications. David T. Paul OPS Geologist II, Geological Investigations Section, B.S. Geology, Florida State University (1999). USGS STATEMAP Program; Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation cooperative project, FGS/Suwannee River Water Management District; O'Leno State Park and River Rise State Preserve cooperative project, FGS/UF Geology Department; Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer cooperative project, FGS/Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc./FSU Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute. Research interests: GIS analysis, remote sensing, and cartography; core drilling and monitor well construction. 2002 Extra Effort Award, 2003 Manatee Springs Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 STATEMAP Team Extra Effort Award. Jeremy Poarch OPS IT Assistant, Geological Data Management Section. B.S. candidate, Management Information Systems, Tallahassee Community College / Florida State University. Projected graduation: Summer 2006. Interest: Computer network systems management. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Sean Roberts, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Research Assistant with the Swallet Team (Florida Springs Initiative project). A.A. Santa Fe Community College in general science and engineering. Research interests include: cave mapping and exploration, photo documentation. Current president of the Florida Speleological Society, member of the Florida Paleontological Society, National Speleological Society. Christie Seale, OPS Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, B.S. candidate, College of Business, Florida State University (2007) James (Jim) Sparr OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Earth Science, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas (1994). Research interests: X-ray diffractometry, geophysical instrumentation, coastal dynamics, ecology and aquaculture of hermatypic corals, sea level fluctuation, and astroblemes. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 106
Rob Stoner OPS Environmental Specialist I, Computer data input. BA in business management, Florida State University (1990). Interests and experience in database programming and management and managing administrative services. Diana M. Thurman-Nowak OPSLaboratory Technician I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.A. University of North Carolina at Charlotte (1990). Post-graduate studies in Environmental Biology, Western Carolina University and Florida International University (1996). Research Assistant on preliminary studies for the Southern Everglades Restoration Project (1996). Prior to coming to FGS, worked as a Hydrogeology Specialist for the Northwest Florida Water Management District, for two years. State of Florida licensed Drinking Water Plant Operator with five years of experience in ground water treatment. Professional Memberships: Florida Water PollutionControl Operator Association. William "Bill" Walker, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Swallet team (Florida Springs Initiative funded). A.A., Business, Central Florida Community College. Research interests: subaerial cave exploration and mapping. Founder of the Karst Conservancy, member of the Florida Speleological Society. Joel Webb OPS Database Manager, Oil and Gas Section, B.S., Economics, Florida State University (1996); B.S., Management Information Systems, Florida State University (2000). Programming specialization in creating customized software for billing and inventory tracking. Certified Professional for MS Access. Alan Willett OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiatve. B.S., University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (1987); B.S., Georgia Southwestern University (1996); M.S. candidate, Florida State University. Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal and environmental geology. Professional membership: Geological Society of America. Alex Wood OPS Environmental Specialist II, Hydrogeology Section, B.A., Geology: Hanover College, Hanover, Indiana (1996), M.S., Auburn University, Alabama (1999). Research interests: hydrogeology, ground water supply issues, GIS applications, geostatistical analysis and three-dimensional subsurface characterization. Hauqi Yin OPS Programmer, Oil and Gas Section. B.A. in English, Sichuan International University (1992), M.S. in Information Studies, Florida State University (2001). OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Hal Davis (USGS) Dr. Joe Donoghue (FSU) Kendall Fountain (UF) Robin Hallbourg (Alachua County) Harmon Hardin (FSU) Dr. Timothy Hazlett (Hazlett Kincaid Inc.) Jeff Herr (SFWMD) Mark Hooks (FL Dept of Health) David Hornsby (SRWMD) Dr. Todd Kincaid (Hazlett-Kincaid Inc.) Chris Langevin (USGS) Jody Lee (SJRWMD) Dr. David Loper (FSU) Carole Maddox (SFWMD) Gary Maddox (DEP) Dr. Jon Martin (UF Dept of Geology) Dr. Katherine Milla (FAMU) Carole Milliman (SFWMD)Dr. Thomas Missimer(Groundwater Science, Inc.) Ed Oaksford (USGS) John Passehl (USGS) Roger Portell (UF) Thomas Pratt (NWFWMD) Ron Reese (USGS) Koren Taylor (City of Tallahassee) Warren Zwonka (SRWMD BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 107
FGS AWARDSFOR2003 The 2003 Employee of the Year was Cris Poarch. Cris consistently has a positive attitude and record for prompt, cheerful service. He seeks out learning opportunities that apply to effective and improved administration of the FGS computers. Cris handles all staff requests and troubleshooting in record response time. He works independently and shows excellent judgment in setting priorities. There were nine Extra Effort Awards presented at the 2003 Awards Luncheon. Jim Balsillie, Professional Geologist III, has successfully captained several expeditions for field sampling for the STATEMAP program. His attention to detail and concern for safety make him a top choice for the field mapping expeditions. Erin Dorn, Research Assistant, willingly and cheerfully helped train other OPS staff, and took on new assignments and new responsibilities without complaint. She has shown a high degree of professionalism and reliability in her work ethic. Rick Green, Professional Geologist I, leads the STATEMAP crew, making a better product every year. He keeps pace with new technologies and uses every possible resource to map the geology of Florida. His initiative, hard work, and forward thinking have led to the completion of nine STATEMAP products to date. Jim Ladner, Professional Geologist I, has excellent captain skills in handling the boats, and assisting the field crews for the STATEMAP expeditions, under difficult circumstances. He provides the expertise of a geologist and a boat captain and works well with the field teams. Harley Means, Professional Geologist I, has worked hard with the Springs Initiative in addition to his duties as District Geologist for northwest Florida. His outgoing personality and dedication to educating the public have made him a fine representative of the FGS. Rebecca Meegan, Research Assistant, represents the FGS very well in the field by talking to and educating citizens about springs when out sampling. Frank Rupert, Professional Geologist II, always make himself available to assist other staff members in everything from desktop computer situations, to paleontology, to any geologic question which comes up. He is a friendly and knowledgeable person who is always ready to help others. Carolyn Stringer, Management Analyst, is always ready to help staff members with their paperwork, which can get very tricky when you work for any large entity, such as the State. She keeps abreast of the many changes taking place in the procedures, has a great attitude, and puts in extra hours when needed to accomplish the task. Wade Stringer, Engineer I, is greatly appreciated for his seamanship, boat maintenance and cheerful attitude. His efforts in the outfitting and repair of the FGS research vessels, which were often completed under extreme conditions of weather, confined spaces, and limited resources, were instrumental in fulfilling obligations to contracts. Four teams won Extra Effort Awards: LCS/FGS Cooperative Program Team is an arrangement between the Leon County Schools and the FGS for special needs students to come to our library and learn a skill that may be useful to them in order to make a living one day. They helped us by scanning in the "Green Books" which are the well descriptions for each county in Florida. We are grateful for the help with this project, while being of benefit to the local school system. The team leader was Steve Spencer, and team members were Paula Polson, Cris Poarch, and Jeremy Poarch. The FGS Springs Team was in the field for about three weeks out of each month sampling the water quality of the many FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 108 FGS AWARDS PROGRAM
springs in Florida and making spring descriptions. They were working on the revision of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida. The team members were Robbie Jones, Ryan Means, Rebecca Meegan, and Alan Willet. A 2003 Extra Effort Award was presented to the Manatee Springs Conduit Team. Core drilling and monitor well construction team consisting of Harley Means, Ken Campbell, Eric Harrington, Brie Coane, Robby Jones, Clint Kromhout, Tom Greenhalgh, Dave Paul, Lee Booth and Alan Willet. Three cores were drilled intersecting the Main, Blue Water and Sewer conduits which feed Manatee Springs. Four inch monitor wells were installed with open completions in the conduits for sampling ports. The STATEMAP / Suwannee Team sampled the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers for data to complete the STATEMAP project for this area. This group showed how cooperation between sections of the FGS and with other agencies, is an ideal combination of skills of individuals. The crew included Captains Jim Ladner and Jim Balsillie, Rick Green, Will Evans, Tom Greenhalgh, Dave Paul, Jon Bryan, and Roger Portell. Paula Polson was honored as the Department of Environmental Protection's September 2003 Employee of the Month. Paula is one of the hardest working behindthe-scenes workers at the FGS. She has done an excellent job of converting FGS publications to online availability, has improved the appearance and functionality of our web site, and designs and edits our newsletter, the Forum. The Forum now has a very polished, professional appearance since Paula took it over. Jackie Lloyd graduated from the Florida State University, Florida Center for Public Management (CPM) Program on June 13, 2003. This is a nationally recognized program which includes comprehensive training and development for public sector managers at all levels of state and local government. It is a rigorous course involving eight four day class sessions and extensive homework covering a time period of two and a half years. FGS AWARDSFOR 2004 The FGS Employee of the Year for 2004 was Carolyn Stringer. During the year she took on, not only her own job, but two others as well. She helped with the duties of the Financial Coordinator and the Administrative Secretary, when those positions were vacant. She also helped find excellent replacements for those positions and helped train them. Carolyn has also become the resident expert with People First, not an easy task!! She cheerfully drops what she is doing and helps with problems that are brought to her on a regular basis. Because of her hard work and dedication to the FGS, her colleagues recognized her as Employee of the Year for 2004. There were five Individual Extra Effort Awards. Sarah Ramdeen, Lab Technician I, was nominated due to her initiative and hard work getting the core storage area cleaned up and organized. She is always ready to help out when help is needed. Jackie Lloyd, PG Administrator, has a management style that encourages employees to do their best. She is knowledgeable of the many administrative rules and changes and keeps the FGS current in these areas. She keeps the FGS Employee Handbook updated with all of these issues as well. Eric Harrington, Engineering Technician IV, seems to be always able to get things, and get things done. He is cheerful and willing to help in many areas, besides his own. Harley Means, Professional Geologist I, does an excellent job representing the FGS to the public and to other agencies. He has worked on the Florida Springs Initiative BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 109
and assisted the current coordinator. He lectures at schools and to professional groups educating his audiences in the natural sciences. Wade Stringer, Engineering Specialist I, is knowledgeable in marine maintenance and seamanship, and works hard to keep our marine vehicles up and running with limited time and resources. His efforts have made many of the projects able to be completed on time. Four teams received Team Extra Effort Awards in 2004. The Vibrocoring Team, of the Coastal Program, did an outstanding job under difficult conditions to attain the data essential to the offshore beach renourishment investigation. They worked in high seas, high winds and strong currents and still got the job done. The team includes Wade Stringer, Jim Balsillie, Jim Ladner, Steve Spencer, Dan Phelps, and Ron Hoenstine. The FGS Springs Initiative Team, including Rick Copeland, Harley Means, Ryan Means, Rebecca Meegan, Paula Polson, Frank Rupert, Tom Scott, Robby Jones, Tina Roberts, Sam Upchurch, and Alan Willet, represented the FGS to the public while out sampling springs, and creating presentations and the publication, Bulletin 66, "Springs of Florida". The Southwest Florida Mapping Team, Clint Kromhout and Cindy Fischler, have taken on more and more responsibilities and maintained their excellent attitudes to get this multi-year project completed. They have demonstrated more than average effort over and over to ensure the project is their best work. The FAVA Team, of the Hydrogeology Program, consisting of Jon Arthur, Alan Baker, Jim Cichon and Alex Wood, worked long, hard hours on this very important project concerning aquifer vulnerability. They have truly gone the extra mile with the project itself, and presentations all over the state regarding the project. OUTSIDE AWARDS Ryan Means and Rebecca Meegan, received the Springs Protection Award from the Florida Springs Task Force in May, 2004. Dr. Thomas Scott was elected as a Fellow of the Geological Society of America in 2004. Dr. Scott was elected to fellowship because of his exemplary record of publishing on Florida geology, administering geological programs, promoting public awareness of geology, serving in leadership roles in professional organizations, and for his editorial work. He is highly motivated and loves training the next generation of geologists. Dr. Scott was inducted as a Fellow of GSA at the Annual Meeting November 7th in Denver, Colorado. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 110 Dr. Tom Scott, 2004 Geological Society of America Fellow (photo by Harley Means)
L. David Curry, Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section, retired on November 30th, 2004 after 31 years with the Florida Geological Survey. Dave joined the FGS in 1973 as a Geologist I, soon after graduating from the University of South Florida with a BA in Geology, and after having served four years in the U. S. Marines. He initially was assigned to the Tallahassee office, but after just two years he was transferred to the Oil and Gas Northwest Florida District Office in Jay, FL where he worked for three years. In 1979, he was transferred back to the Tallahassee office having gained field and Oil and Gas operations inspections procedures experience. Within six months of his return to Tallahassee he was promoted to Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section, a position he held for 25 years, until his retirement. Dave had completed a four year home study course issued by the Petroleum Extension Service of the University of Texas, and he obtained his Professional Geologists' License in Florida. Over his career, Dave was involved with inspection procedures revisions, administrative rule reviews and updates, and he has witnessed decades of litigation between the State and various offshore oil exploration interests. His knowledge, corporate memory, and easy going style will be missed by all who worked with him and relied on his judgment for so many years. We wish him good luck and congratulate him on his retirement. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 111 Dave Curry (photo by Ed Garrett). RETIREMENT
FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 112 FGS BUDGET SUMMARY AGENCIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST FUND THROUGH COOPERATIVE CONTRACTS WITH THE FGS AgencyFY 02/03FY 03/04 Association of American State GeologistsX California Institute of TechnologyXX Collier County GovernmentXX Florida Department of Environmental ProtectionXX Florida Department of HealthX Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc.X Missimer and AssociatesX Northwest Florida Water Management DistrictXX St. Johns River Water Management DistrictXX Suwannee River Water Management DistrictX South Florida Water Management DistrictX Southwest Florida Water Management DistrictXX U. S. Geological SurveyXX U. S. Minerals Management ServiceXX University of TexasX Camp, Dresser and McKee, Inc.X