Citation
Biennial report

Material Information

Title:
Biennial report
Uniform Title:
Biennial report (1988)
Cover title:
Florida Geological Survey biennial report
Abbreviated Title:
Bienn. rep. - Fla. Geol. Surv. (1990)
Creator:
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee
Publisher:
Florida Geological Survey
Publication Date:
Frequency:
Biennial
regular
Language:
English
Edition:
2003-2004[23rd report]
Physical Description:
v. : ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
City of Gainesville ( local )
Wakulla Springs ( local )
Gulf of Mexico ( local )
Miami metropolitan area ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
Geology ( jstor )
Aquifers ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Hydrogeology ( jstor )
Caves ( jstor )
Genre:
serial ( sobekcm )

Notes

Dates or Sequential Designation:
1987/1988-
Numbering Peculiarities:
Vols. for <1991/1992-1993/1994> called also: <17-18>.
Statement of Responsibility:
State of Florida, Division of Resource Management, Florida Geological Survey.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
AJG7269 ( LTUF )
22342552 ( OCLC )
001754280 ( AlephBibNum )
sn 90001622 ( LCCN )
1052-6536 ( ISSN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report (Florida Geological Survey)

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Full Text
OUR CHANGING NATURAL LANDSCAPE The gray area in the picture above depicts Florida's land area during the low sea level stand of the late Pleistocene, about 18,000 years ago. Florida's current land area is outlined in white.
COLOGI,
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Biennial Report 23
2003 2004




Cover design by Tom Greenhalgh. Illustration used with permission of Tasa Graphic Arts.




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Colleen M. Castille, Secretary
SFLORIA
DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
Edwin J. Conklin, Director
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief
OOLOC/C
BIENNIAL REPORT 23 2003 2004
By
Tom Greenhalgh, P.G. #1277, Jim Ladner, P.G. #1726,
and Frank Rupert, P.G. #0149
Published for the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida 2005




ISSN 1052-6536
ii




PREFACE
C)OLO01ig
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida December 2005
The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Department of Environmental Protection is publishing Biennial Report 23, prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the FGS staff during the two-year period January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004. Research results are reported in the Survey's various publication series, professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the FGS.
Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G. State Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey
III




TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
F O R E W O R D .. .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... 1
INTRODUCTION ................................... ................................5
FGS CREATES THE HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION ....................................... 5
FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL OFFICE SPACE ......................................... 6
TH IS BIEN N IA L REPO RT ............ ................................................6
FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ............ ...........................................7
OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST..................................................7
ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION ................. 9
COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM ............................................ 9
Geographic Informational Systems ........................................ 9
Web Technologies ...............................................10
Inform ation Technologies (IT) .......................................... 10
PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM ............. ................................11
Earth Science W eek 2003 .............................................. 11
Earth Science W eek 2004 .............................................. 11
RESEARCH LIBRARY .................................................12
Library Services.................................................12
Library Com puter Services ............ .................................12
Publications D istribution ............ ...................................13
SPECIAL PROJECTS ........................................................13
Leon County School System Leon Advocacy and Resource Center Coopertive Job Training Program ...................................... 13
National Geologic Map Database .....................................13
St. Johns River Water Management District Cooperative Program .............. 13
GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION .......................................... 14
COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM ............. ...............................15
O n-going Coastal Projects ............ ..................................15
Sedimentologic Research ....................................... 15
Sedimentation Elevation Table (SET) Project ....................... 15
Cooperative Coastal Projects ............ ................................16
Offshore Sand Investigation ..................................... 16
Joint Coastal Research ........................................18
Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium ................ 18
FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project .... 19 Resistivity Survey Project ....................................... 19
GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION PROGRAM .................................. 20
On going Geologic Data Acquistion Projects ............................... 20
Geologic Sample Collection ..................................... 20
Cooperative Geologic Data Acquistion Projects ............................. 21
M anatee Springs Investigation ................................... 21
Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment .............................. 21
Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation ............................ 21
Oleno State Park and River Rise State Preserve ..................... 22
Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer Monitoring Well Construction ........... 22
City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Investigation ................ 22
Northwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program ..... 22 South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program ........ 22 MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM .......................................... 22
Phosphate .....................................................23
iv




Crushed Stone ..................................................23
Sand and Gravel.................................................23
Heavy Minerals .................................................23
Peat..........................................................23
Clay ........................................................23
Crude Oil and Natural Gas ............................................. 24
SPRINGS PROGRAM ..................................................24
STATEMAP PROGRAM .................................................25
HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION ..................................................27
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY PROGRAM ......................................... 27
Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemistry Studies ........................ 27
Bench-Scale Geochemical Assessment of Water-Rock Interaction:
Seminole County ASR ................................................ 28
Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Groundwater Quality of Spring
Wells in Florida ................................................29
EDUCATION PROGRAM ...............................................32
Development of a Cave Glossary ........................................ 32
"Explore Florida!" W ebsite ............ .................................32
Karst Short Course and Field Trip ............. ...........................33
KARST HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM ........................................ 33
Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility Study ................................... 34
Wakulla In-Cave Meter Data Management ................................. 34
Tide Gauging ........................ ...........................34
Expansion of the Cave Metering Network ................................. 35
Continuation of the Woodville Karst Plain Modeling Efforts ................... 35
Florida Cave Database...........................................35
Wakulla Springs-Statistical Analysis and Modeling of
Discharge and Rainfall ...................................... .........35
PHYSICAL AQUIFER CHARACTERIZATION PROGRAM ........................ 36
Estimating Ground Water Discharges via Radon Tracing ...................... 36
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project ................ 38
AQUIFER VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM ......................... 38
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment ................................. 38
Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment ................................. 39
Sensitive K arst A reas ............. .....................................40
Florida Springs Protection Areas .............. ...........................41
Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on the
Water Quality of Fanning Springs ....................................... 42
OTHER OUTSOURCED RESEARCH .......................................... 42
THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM ....................................... 44
OIL AND GAS SECTION......................................................45
REGULATORY PROGRAM ............ ......................................45
DRILLING AND PRODUCTION ............ ..................................46
GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION ............ ..................................47
OFFSHORE ACTIVITY ....................... .........................47
IMPORTED NATURAL GAS IN SOUTH FLORIDA .............................. 47
OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM ........................................ 48
OIL AND GAS DATABASE..............................................48
OIL AN D GA S W EBSITE ............ ........................................48
SPEC IA L PR O JEC T S ............ ...................................................49
INTRODUCTION ................................... ..................49
SINKHOLE SUMMIT II...............................................49
REVISION TO HYDROGEOLOGICAL UNITS OF FLORIDA ................... 50
V




EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION ............ ...................................51
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY LAB AND SEM ............................................ 51
CORE STORAGE FACILITY EXPANSION ............ .................................52
NEW DRILL RIG AND WATER TRUCK ............ ...................................52
NEW OFFICE SPACE.........................................................52
PUBLICATIONS ...................................................................53
FG S PU B LIC ATIO N S ............ ...................................................53
BIENNIAL REPORT ...................................................53
BULLETIN ................................................. . .... .....53
FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM ............ ....................................53
INFORM ATION CIRCULAR ............. .....................................53
LEAFLET ...........................................................53
MAP SERIES ........................................ .................54
OPEN FILE M AP SERIES ............ ........................................54
O PEN FILE REPO RTS ............ ...........................................55
POSTERS ................................. .........................55
REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS ............................................. 56
SPECIAL PUBLICATION S ............ .......................................57
VIDEO SERIES .......................................................59
M ISCELLANEOUS REPORTS ............. ...................................59
PAPERS BY STAFF IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS ...................................... 61
PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES .................................. 82
PRESENTATIONS ...........................................................82
2003 ...............................................................82
2004 ...............................................................84
FIELD TRIPS ...............................................................86
2003 ...............................................................86
2004 ...............................................................86
MEETINGS ................................................................86
2003 ...............................................................86
2004 ...............................................................89
TRAINING .................................................................91
2003 ...............................................................91
2004 .......................... .....................................92
BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) ............ ..................................92
2003 ...............................................................92
2004 ...............................................................92
PERSONNEL INFORM ATION ............ ..................................................93
INTRODUCTION ............................................................93
PERSONNEL CHANGES..........................................................93
FULL TIME EMPLOYEES .......................... ....................93
RESEARCH ASSOCIATES & ASSISTANTS .................................... 94
FULL TIME EMPLOYEES .............................. ......................96
RESEARCH ASSOCIATES AND ASSISTANTS ........................................ 104
OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ............ ....................................107
FGSAWARDSPROGRAM ..........................................................108
FGS AWARDS FOR 2003.....................................................108
FGS AWARDS FOR 2004.....................................................109
OUTSIDE AWARDS .........................................................110
RETIREMENT ................................................................... 111
FGS BUDGET SUMMARY ..........................................................112
vi




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
FORWARD
by
Walt Schmidt
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey
As we entered 2005, the State of vation and ground-water dynamics underFlorida was recovering economically and standing and protection. These also have emotionally from one of the worst hurricane not been acted upon yet....we will keep tryseasons our state has ever seen. The people ing until these concerns are satisfactorily of Florida have been through great trauma addressed. and personal loss; however, through it all,
many have shown their inner strength and The Florida Geological Survey has been ability to persevere. The Governor and the very active and productive during 2003 and Secretary of DEP praised and described, on 2004. In February 2003, the Department several occasions, the many individuals and held the Florida Springs Conference volunteer groups that provided assistance, "Natural Gems Troubled Waters" in coordinated emergency response and Gainesville, Fl, attended by almost 400 proresource follow-up assistance to those in fessionals and private citizens. The conferneed. We can be proud of our efforts and ence agenda included field trips to the appreciative of those who donated so much Ichetucknee Springs State Park and the of their time to assist our communities. Santa Fe River recharge basin, concurrent Our Oil and Gas District Field Offices in Ft. speaker sessions, invited guest speakers, Myers and Jay both escaped with near and the premier of a new documentary misses with no major damage, as did our video Waters Journey. The FGS was a sigstaffs personal homes. Tallahassee was out nificant participant with eight presentaof harms way from the main paths of tions, hosting an educational booth, and destruction, but we had many downed trees participating in numerous discussions and and numerous power outages. All in all, we planning sessions. Later in 2003, the FGS were glad to see the 2004 hurricane season published the Florida Spring Classification end. System and Spring Glossary, Special Publication No. 52, compiled by Dr. Rick
During the 2003-2004 biennium, the Copeland. Two staff also presented papers FGS again proposed modifications to the at the annual meeting of the Florida distribution formula for minerals severance Academy of Sciences and published intax revenue to more equitably include the house reports on two projects funded in part minerals trust fund (MTF) in this distribu- by the "Florida Springs Initiative" estabtion. The DEP has agreed with this need lished by Governor Bush. During this two each year and put forward the proposal. To year period, the Florida Aquifer date, however, legislative action has not Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) project occurred. We have once more proposed was completed, and will be published as modifications to the Oil and Gas statues to Bulletin 67. This important contribution to update some outdated language and to close protecting and conserving our valuable down the MTF as a surety option for private ground-water resources was presented at industry. We have also proposed language several professional meetings and at planto allow the FGS to maintain certain data ning and elected officials' conferences. We from sinkholes, caves, and springs confiden- have also contracted with several groups to tial from public records. This is intended to provide us with targeted research results on increase our database for resource conser- selected hydrogeology projects. Contractors
1




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
have included leading Professional Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology. Geologists from Florida State University,
the University of West Florida, the U.S. At the beginning of 2003, the Oil and Geological Survey, and Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. Gas Section moved out of the Gunter One of the products was an educational Building into its new offices at the DEP DVD in our video series titled Florida's Warehouse facility on Commonwealth Aquifer Adventure. This is a 20 minute Boulevard in Tallahassee. About one year video which describes Florida's aquifer sys- later, our Geologic Data Acquisition tems, springs, caves and environmental Program also relocated to the Warehouse. issues. We published the transactions of a This now puts the core / auger drilling operworkshop held in 2002 titled Workshop to ations staff co-located with our Geology Develop Blue Prints for the Management Sample Repository. We built a 1,785 square and Protection of Florida's Springs. In foot drilling operations "barn" to house cooperation with the Hydrogeology some of our equipment on location. Consortium, the FGS organized, hosted and Additional core storage space adjacent to published the transactions from a workshop the existing geologic sample library was held in April of 2003, titled Significance of made available to us by DEP. We have Caves in Watershed Management and begun installing a mobile aisle shelving sysProtection in Florida. Again in 2004, we tem in this facility. We have also moved to teamed with the Hydrogeology Consortium and expanded several labs at the and the American Ground Water Trust to Warehouse facility. We now operate our put on the ASR (Aquifer Storage and Scanning Electron Microscope / Microprobe Recovery) IV Forum in Tampa and pub- Lab and our Environmental Geochemistry lished the transactions from this confer- Lab at the Warehouse site. A visiting scienence. In May 2004, the FGS cooperated tist lab is available for sample lay-out and with the Cave Diving Section of the description. A computer network station National Speleological Society at their has been installed to allow access to our workshop The Science of Cave Diving. This well log database and data entry on-site. four day workshop brought together cave
divers, scientists, regulators, private Our "minerals resource review" prolandowners, and researchers to explore gram to support the DEP Division of State cooperative opportunities for the cave div- Lands has continued to grow in regards to ing and scientific communities in the man- demands on our time. In response to severagement and protection of our karst envi- al conservation lands programs, there are ronment. Finally, we published two educa- continuing requests for mineral resource tional posters on Florida's Sinkholes and on potential comments on numerous land Florida's First Magnitude Springsheds in parcels the state is considering for acquisi2004. Our Hydrogeology and Geological tion, acquiring a conservation easement, or Investigations staff have also been active selling. Our Coastal Research Program cooperators with the Department of continues with its cooperative partnership Community Affairs, assisting as Technical with the U. S. Minerals Management Advisory Committee members on their Service to assess the sand resources off"Model Springs Land Development Code" shore of the northeastern coast of Florida and in preparing various springshed and for potential beach renourishment use. stream to sink map products. In response to
this high level of activity and productivity, The Oil and Gas Section, responding to the FGS upgraded the Hydrogeology questions about the potential for groundProgram to Section status in 2004. Dr. Jon water contamination from old, abandoned Arthur oversees this section as the oil wells, designed a project to re-enter a
2




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
selected subset of old, plugged wells, to Water Association. assess their status and plug them according
to modern standards. This pilot program is The Florida STATEMAP component of intended to last five years, at which point a the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping project review will occur to determine if fur- Program continues its past successes. We ther action is warranted. The section also have completed the Marianna 1:100,000 has been working tirelessly on their Oil and scale Quadrangle and began fieldwork on Gas data management and upgrading the the Gainesville, 1:100,000 scale quadrangle. database. Much information is now avail- Staff held a one week lower Suwannee able on the web and the full new capabili- River expedition using a rented houseboat ties should allow tracking of regulatory
ties should allow tracking of regulatory as their field staging facility. Staff from the deadlines, bonding, descriptive well data,
Florida Museum of Natural History and
and fluid production. The six chapters of lo a o u iy a Okaloosa-Walton Community College
Administrative Rules have undergone a
revision and modern upgrade. Public work- joined our staff for the field work. shops have been held and we anticipate proposing full rule revisions in early 2005. In the summer of 2004, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, working with the
In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the US Environmental Protection Agency and Leon County School System to provide job the US Navy, requested our assistance to training for area high schools students with investigate the sea floor with our sonar surspecial needs. Our program provided vari- vey equipment. The site, about 36 kilomeous computer filing / scanning job experi- ters southeast of Pensacola, is under considences for the students. This continuing eration for sinking the USS Oriskany, a project is helping the FGS work on the World War II aircraft carrier, for use as the backlog of well log data in need of digital worlds largest intentionally sunk, artificial entry. Other outreach activities included reef. our annual open-house each Earth Science
Week, our participation at the Florida In the fall of 2004, we organized and Capitol during Earth Day, Mining Day, and held a meeting titled Sinkhole Summit .
held a meeting titled Sinhhole Summit II.
Oceans Day. We cooperated with teachers
Oceans Day. We cooperated with teachers This was in response to legislation requestfrom the Florida Sheriffs Youth Ranch to
provide them with our earth science educa- ing the FSU College of Business and the tional materials and a brief on Florida Department of Risk Management and Geology. Staff also assisted in other inter- Insurance to recommend "uniform stanagency projects during 2003, including pro- dards" to evaluate sinkhole claims. The viding articles and assisting the FGS facilitated the discussion and compiled Tallahassee Museum of History and the results for the university. Natural Science, cooperating with the DEP
Office of Environmental Education in the This is but a small fraction of the activCommunity Classroom after school pro- ities and projects the staff of the Florida gram, participating in the Marion County Geological Survey has been involved in Spring Festival, assisting the Department these last two years. Details on these and of Health with one of their workshops, and many other projects can be found on the folleading a fieldtrip for the National Ground lowing pages.
3




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
State Geologist Elias Sellards (left) poses with Roland Harper (middle) and Herman Gunter (right) on the steps of one of the FGS's early offices (circa 1908 1920). The building was a former wood and coal-storage structure situated just south of the Capitol Building in Tallahassee (anonymous photo).
4
State Geologist Elias Sellards (left) poses with Roland Harper (middle) and Herman Gunter (right) on the steps of one of the FGS's early offices (circa 1908 1920). The building was a former wood and coal-storage structure situated just south of the Capitol Building in Tallahassee (anonymous photo).




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
INTRODUCTION
The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS) bonate content and micro/nannofossil studMain Office is located on the campus of the ies; and an alpha spectrometer. Florida State University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter Building, adjacent to A Hydrogeochemistry Lab and scanthe university's Department of Geological ning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory Sciences. The FGS's Oil and Gas Section have been set up at the Warehouse. New and Geological Data Acquisition Program equipment includes an alpha spectrometer are co-located in office space in the and a radio-isotope fume hood, a Mega Pure Department of Environmental Protection's 3A Water Still, and a Jeol JXA-840A SEM (DEP) Warehouse on Commonwealth and microprobe. Boulevard. The FGS has a staff of 65 40 full-time, permanent and 25 part-time OPS Field equipment includes a traileremployees, mounted auger rig, a truck-mounted Failing 1500 drill rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted Mobile Drill and CME auger/core rigs with wire-line coring capability, various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive vehicles, two research vessels and six smaller boats used for inland and marine research projects. In addition, the FGS has a side scan sonar, a geopulse subsurface acoustic profiler, a vibracore sediment collection system, a jet probe and a number of water chemistry data loggers, GPS units and sediment core and grab sampling FGS Main Office, Gunter Building, FSU devices. Campus, Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom Scott). The FGS acquired its "GeoLab" in 1998.
Research facilities at the FGS include a The GeoLab is an aluminum step-van that geological research library, sample reposito- has been outfitted for mobile field and simries, and laboratories. The library contains ple laboratory work and can also be used for an extensive collection of state and federal educational demonstrations at environmenpublications, periodicals, and references. tal fairs and schools. The FGS also has The sample repositories hold cores and well cooperative agreements with FSU's cutting samples from more than 18,585 Department of Geological Sciences to share wells (both onshore and offshore), as well as an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluoressamples from approximately 5,400 out- cence spectrometer, and an atomic absorpcrops. tion spectrometer.
The laboratory facilities at the Gunter FGS CREATES THE
Building include a permeability lab HYDRODGEOLOGY SECTION equipped with 44 falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology lab containing dia- In June 2004, in recognition of the mond-blade rock-saws, drill press corer, and increasingly important role of hydrogeology core saw for core processing, sieve shakers, research within the mission of the FGS and ovens, and balances; sample preparation DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reorequipment for clay mineralogy, organic/car- ganized to become a formal Section within
5




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
the FGS. The new Hydrogeology Section Work conducted by the FGS either on expands hydrogeologic research to further its own or in conjunction with other agenthe protection and management of Florida's cies in the past two calendar years is chronaquifers, ground-water resources and icled in the write ups for the four individual springsheds. The Section is comprised of FGS Sections. The four sections are the: Professional Geologists, a Senior Scientist, ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL and several OPS research staff who contin- DATA MANAGEMENT, GEOLOGICAL ue to conduct in-house research, and INVESTIGATIONS, HYDROGEOLOGY administer hydrogeological research and OIL AND GAS. through outsourcing. Knowledge gained
through this research has been applied to Next, the SPECIAL PROJECTS secrule making, regulatory, and policy deci- tion describes those projects which were not sions that facilitate efficient, science-based anticipated, but were important enough to protection of the quantity and quality of garner special attention. Florida's water resources.
FGS scientists strive to maintain stateFGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL of-the-art status regarding field support OFFICE SPACE and measurement and laboratory analytical equipment; new additions during the bienIn the summer of 2003, the Geological nial period are described in EQUIPMENT Data Acquisition Program staff moved to AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION. offices in the Warehouse and Core Storage
Facility located behind the Florida Florida Statute 377.075 is quite specifDepartment of Environmental Protection's ic about the role of the FGS; specific to its (FDEP) Annex, across the street from the mandate is the dissemination of geologic FDEP Douglas Building located just off of information forthcoming from investigation Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee. in published products. These are listed and abstracted in the PUBLICATIONS section.
THIS BIENNIAL REPORT
In addition to written, published prodBiennial reports have been historically ucts, the FGS is involved in in-house and compiled by the FGS to not only chronicle outside activities described in the PREits legacy but to inform the public as to its SENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESactivities. They also serve to insure SIONAL ACTIVITIES section. accountability of FGS activities to Florida
government and the pubic pursuant to FGS The PERSONNEL INFORMATION mission goals prescribed by Chapter 377, section chronicles personnel changes during Florida Statutes. the past two-year period, and provides short biographies of FGS personnel. Accolades
Following this introduction, eleven sec- received by our staff or the Survey are tions provide information about our pro- described in the AWARDS section. gram, in the following order. Descriptions
of the general organization of the FGS are Finally, a short, one-page tabulated provided in FGS ORGANIZATIONAL representation of FGS funding is provided STRUCTURE. in the FGS BUDGET SUMMARY.
6




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST
The State Geologist carries a three-fold responsibility: Chief of the Survey, State Geologist, and Administrator of Oil and Gas exploration and production operations throughout the State. The Chief exercises the general program leadership, direction, and management authority in planning, scheduling and executing the programs of the Survey. As State Geologist, he is the point of contact representing the State of Florida on geoscience inquiries from elected and appointed officials, government agencies, industry, mining companies, oil and gas companies, geologic and hydrogeologic consultants, environmental consultants, academia, land and mineral owners, educa- Dr. Walter "Walt" Schmidt, State Geologist tors, students, and the public. The respon- and Chief, Florida Geological Survey sibilities of the State Geologist and the (photo by Harley Means). duties of the Florida Geological Survey have been defined by the Florida Legislature four sections which are administered by the and are generally listed in Section 377.075, State Geologist as Chief of the Survey. This Florida Statutes. With this guidance and organizational structure is shown in the policy input from the Department of organizational chart on the following page. Environmental Protection, the FGS has a broad mission. It is described as follows: The sections include: the Administrative and Geological Data The mission of the FGS is two Management Section, the Geological
fold: First: to collect, interpret, dis- Investigations Section, the Hydrogeology
seminate, store and maintain geo- Section, and the Oil and Gas Section. Each gicna t senc matai tee- of these sections is managed by a Section logic and earth science data, there- Administrator. In addition to the overall
by contributing to the responsible administration of the FGS, the primary use and understanding of Florida's responsibilities of the State Geologist natural resources; and Second: to include the historical functions of acting as conserve the State of Florida's oil the chief geoscientist for the State in variand gas resources and minimize ous capacities and needs, and overseeing environmental impacts from explo- the overall production and quality of the ration and production operations geological research produced by the staff.
through regulatory oversight using The State Geologist is also ultimately permits and inspections, responsible for implementing the State's oil and gas exploration and production regulaThe FGS is presently organized into tions.
7




Chief & State Geologist FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (Walt Schrnidt) FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART AS OF DECEMBER 2004
I I I I Oil and Gas Administrative and Geological Data Mngmnt Hydrogeology Geological Investigations
Environmental Administrator PG Administrator PG Administrator PG Administrator
(David Curry) (Jackie Lloyd) (Jon Arthur) (Tom Scott)
Admin & Technical GIS & Map Geological Mapping Program Geological Data Coaslal Research Eng I PG I support Analysis PGIII En Mngr Program Spings Program Acquisition Program Program (Taylor) (Garrett) Computer GIS Anal (Copeland)G(Deran System Mgr ilyst PG I PG I PG III PG Supervisor Sys Prr I EnSpec (Green) (H. Means) (Campbell) (Hoenstine) s Wl R s st(P) GC. PIarh) (Anderson)
SDatabRes Ast (P) Res Asst IT Asst (P) Artl (P) SFWMD (Chelette) Engineer I PG I Engineer I See Spec (.5) (J. Poarch) (Stoner) Ros Asst (P) G(Kurtz) (lerninger) (Phelps) (W. Stringer) O
(Black) (Ijeoma) (Spencer) Res Asst (P)
Opea CADAnalyst ATEMAP (Coasne) Eng Tech II P P I Opatios& CAD Analyst
M an e Ren t (P) >
Jay Office Ft Myers Office onulta Env Spec I Env Spec Ill Rs AsI(P) ReAs R Ass ( ) (Ldner) (Baillie)
SNowak) g ech I (Lower) (Donoghue) m Env Geology &I ( (Harringtor) A Admin Educational Outreach ES II Res Ast (P) Res Asst SSecretary FAVA SWFWMD (Paul) Springs Initiative Re Asst (P) Res Assoc (P) (Westberg) e (Wood) (Moulton) Res Ans () Lab Tech I (SpaR ) (Dabous) Librarian (R Means) (Raneen)I 0 SeSpec(S) (Armstrong) Env Specll ResAst)(P Res Asst(P) > (Trombley) FAVA SWFWMD C PGII (A. Baker) (Kromhout) R eAut () (Coane Sec Spec (P) (Rupert) (Seale) < ( lResAsst (P) I
PG II UIC-ASR CURRENT FTE Adist11(Bond} (Dabous) (Sroka)
o., .EIAdmin Aunt II L(Bond)
Res Asst (P)
CURRENT OPS (Coane) Custodian
(Hawkins)
r i Res Asst(P)
I WAREHOUSE (Jensen)
OFFICE
(P): PART TIME
Note that (P) indicates part time in a particular position. Some of our OPS employees serve in multiple positions
and. although they are par-time in each particular position, they may be equivalent to full-lime overall.




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTION
The Survey's Administrative and Geological Data Management Section includes the Administrative Secretary to the State Geologist, administrative support staff, the building custodian, the survey librarian, the FGS network administrator, the geological mapping and analysis staff, and the environmental geology and educational outreach staff.
This section is responsible for administration (budget, department and interagency liaison, etc.) and personnel management (travel, leave, benefits, etc.), Gunter Building maintenance and repair, computer Jacqueline "Jackie" M. Lloyd, Assistant system management and network adminis- State Geologist, Administrator of the
systm mnageentAdministrative and Geological Data tration, web design, development and main- Administrative and Geological Data tenance, and contract and grant tracking. Management Section (photobyHarleyMeans). This group's functions also include graphics design, geological mapping and map interpretation through GIS and CAD analysis, Surfer.) Other tasks include software evalugeological research library services, publi- ation, development and maintenance of GIS cation production and distribution, geologi- data on the FGS and DEP Intranet, instalcal education and public outreach, and envi- lation and maintenance of GIS software, ronmental geology research. scanning, digitizing, map series production and maintenance, image processing, interCOMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM active web-based map development and maintenance and development of GIS dataGeographic Information Systems bases and tools through programming languages such as Avenue and Visual Basic. The Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) capability of the FGS consists of a Major accomplishments for projects full-time GIS Analyst, a CAD analyst, a during the time period of January 1, 2003 general support group who contribute to through December 31, 2004 include: revispecific projects, three OPS technicians sion of Florida Oil and Gas maps, complespecifically working on the Florida Aquifer tion of the FGS/MMS coastal sand search Vulnerability Assessment Program (FAVA) program years 1 and 2, revision of the FGS Hydrogeology project, and the support of GIS data library directory, revision of BIS/GIS division. Wakulla County karst coverage mapping project, addition of quarter/quarter/quarter Tasks undertaken by GIS include: sections to PLSS boundary data layer, assistance in map production, development assisted with the development of the State of GIS applications, imagery manipulation of Florida Geologic Map at 1:100,000 scale support, and technical support to all users program and continued data conversion and of GIS software (ArcView 3.2a, ArcGIS 8.x, program transition to the ArcGIS 8.x forESRI Extensions, ERDAS Imagine and mat.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
In support of the FAVA program, major Minerals a subweb with pictures and accomplishments include: development and description of Florida's most common rocks revision of a statewide 15m digital elevation and minerals, an Oil and Gas subweb to model at state level, development of closed supply information to the Oil and Gas topographic depressions (CTD's) coverage, industry, Springs of Florida FGS Bulletin refinement of soil permeability and 66, education web page to direct teachers drainage grid, development of effective and students to educational material prokarst features coverage for the Floridan vided by the FGS and a page for sinkhole Aquifer System, and development of aquifer frequently asked questions. Products creatthickness layers for FAVA. For details on ed for CD's and DVD's include: A Geologic other FAVA maps, see page 38. Investigation of the Offshore Area Along Florida's Northeast Coast Year 1 and Year 2
Web Technologies Annual Reports.
The web capabilities of the FGS consist Information Technologies of a full-time webmaster, who maintains,
enhances and adds to the FGS Internet and The Information Technologies (IT) Intranet web sites. All content on both sites capabilities of the FGS include a full-time are supplied to the webmaster by full-time Systems Programmer and an OPS automaand OPS employees of the FGS. These web tion specialist who are supplemented by the sites are part of the larger DEP website, Bureau of Information Systems (BIS). Most which is made up of all websites maintained computer hardware and software issues are by the Department's Bureaus and addressed by the systems programmer and Divisions. The goal of the FGS Internet is to automation specialist. FGS primarily uses present available geological information to Microsoft operating systems in conjunction the citizens of the State of Florida. The goal with office utilities from Microsoft. of the FGS Intranet is to supply forms,
graphics, library resources and helpful Tasks undertaken by IT include: instalinformation to FGS and DEP employees. lation of newly acquired software, maintenance and upgrading of all FGS computer
Tasks undertaken by the webmaster hardware systems including installation of include: preparation of information into new devices, maintenance of networked web pages for the Internet and Intranet in computer systems capabilities and periphcompliance with ADA section 508 require- eral devices, equipment storage and supments and DEP web standards, develop- port for FGS network servers maintained ment of websites presenting geologic infor- on-site. mation for CD's and DVD's, burning and
label printing of CD's and DVD's intended Major accomplishments for the IT secfor mass distribution, graphics for websites, tion from January 1, 2003 through poster presentations and development of December 31, 2004 include: All computer CD/DVD labels. systems were protected from virus attacks by McAfee Enterprise virus scan and were
Major accomplishments during the updated automatically by the ePo agent in time period of January 1, 2003 to December cooperation with BIS. Operating systems 31, 2004 include: redesign of the Internet in use by the FGS were setup to randomly and Intranet to comply with DEP's new look receive new updates that have been tested and feel and ADA section 508 compliancy by BIS and corresponding IT technical reprequirements. New additions to the resentatives by the Software Update Internet include: Florida Rocks and Service server. All data generated by the
10




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
FGS is now backed up in house on a Wednesday, October 15 at the Gunter Certance DAT 72 Autoloader. Backup Building on the campus of Florida State strategies and contingency plans have been University. The local home schooling comimplemented in compliance with BIS back- munity was invited as well as the general up standards and retention schedules. public. The Open-House featured building tours and various interactive activities.
PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM FGS staff members also gave talks in local middle schools on earth science topics durAs an ongoing public education and ing ESW. outreach effort, FGS staff members give
talks on Florida geology to local civic Earth Science Week 2004 groups, clubs and school classes throughout
the year. Resources permitting, we also On October 13, 2004 the Florida provide booths and displays at various local Geological Survey held its annual Open festivals and celebrations such as Earth House celebrating Earth Science Week at Day. In 2003 and 2004, the FGS hosted its main facility, the Gunter Building, on day-long open houses at its main office dur- the campus of Florida State University. We ing Earth Science Week of each year. especially enjoyed the attendance of families from our local home schooling commuEarth Science Week 2003 nity. The AGI theme for the 2004 event was "Living on a Restless Earth". Interactive
October 12-18, 2003 was Earth Science activities appropriate for various age Week (ESW), a national event initiated and groups were planned. Tours of our facility sponsored by the American Geological at the Gunter Building were run throughInstitute (AGI) to raise public awareness of out the day. For the first time this year, the the earth sciences and their role in our daily Department of Environmental Protection's lives. The theme for the 2003 event was Office of Environmental Education partici"Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring our pated with Greg Ira and Jenny Dambek in Changing World." In celebration of ESW presenting an interactive ground-water the FGS hosted its annual Open-House on activity. Faith Eidse represented
Mir-.
A,
Walt Schmidt leading a tour of the FGS building during Earth Science Week, 2004 (photo by Frank Rupert).
11




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Northwest Florida Water Management ogy, hydrogeology and other related topics. District, demonstrating various ways by The library has one of the largest and oldest which water is polluted, using their geologic map collections in the state of Enviroscape Model. Florida.
This year, we planned special activities Library Services to assist Webelos Scouts in earning their
Geology Badges. We extended Open House The library is used by the general pubhours from 6:30 to 8:30 pm so that Scouts lic, students, other government agencies, who usually meet in the evening could take and private consulting companies. While advantage of Open House activities, circulation is restricted to Survey staff, and Approximately 50 scouts, parents, and lead- the faculty of the Florida State University, ers joined us for building tours, movies of Department of Geological Sciences, the volcanic eruptions, hands-on identification library is open to the general public for of volcanic rocks and an introduction to research. In addition, library materials are common Florida rocks and minerals, available to libraries throughout the world via the Interlibrary Loan system.
RESEARCH LIBRARY
The library participates in a nationThe Research library is an integral part wide Interlibrary Loan network through of the Survey's research and regulatory pro- which the staff has access to other public, grams. In support of the information needs special and academic collections. The of staff, students, and researchers from the library cooperates with other libraries public sector, the library staff provides through various networking groups on the access to basic research materials including local, state, and national level. The libraribooks, maps, state and federal documents, an participates in the activities of the photographs and periodicals. Materials Panhandle Library Access Network continue to be collected and purchased on (PLAN), the Florida Library Network various aspects of geology, including mining (FLIN), The North Florida Library and mineral resources, environmental geol- Association (NFLA), and various other
7 -_ library and geoscience cooperatives.
- The library has a new automation system and is currently beginning the long
project of barcoding all of the holdings to
, .enable more accurate records for circulation and inventory. An assessment of all of the
collections is in progress to determine it's
value and usefulness to the mission of the
survey. Many documents from non-coastal
plain states have been returned to those
states, or donated to libraries wishing to
increase their holdings in geological materials.
Library Computer Services
Florida Geological Survey Library (photo The Research Library currently has by Jim Balsillie). access to the GEOREF database, as well as
12




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
more than 25 other major databases, with special needs. The FGS program prothrough the State Library. Many of these vides various computer filing / scanning job databases are full-text, expanding our experiences for the students. This continuaccess to periodical literature. ing project is helping the FGS digitize its extensive collection of older, hard-copy
Publications Distribution lithologic well logs.
The library is responsible for providing National Geologic Map Database detailed information on the survey's nearly
745 published documents and reports, and During 2003-2004, the Florida oversees the distribution of all documents Geological Survey continued inputting FGS currently in print. During 2003-2004 this published geologic maps into the National included more than 1,000 requests for a Geologic Map Database. The National total of approximately 7,000 documents. In Geologic Map Database is a project sponaddition to individual requests, publica- sored by the U.S. Geological Survey's tions are distributed to more than 130 National Geologic Mapping Program in libraries, throughout Florida, the U.S. and cooperation with the Association of around the world, which maintain deposito- American State Geologists. The goal of the ry collections of Florida Geological Survey project is to establish a database of all publications. FGS Publications are national and state produced geologic maps, requested by students, environmental con- both paper and digital, and to provide keysultants, government agencies, libraries, word and geographic searching capabilities schools, geologists studying for professional for the database. All published maps of the licensure, and the general public. Florida Geological Survey are included in the database on an annual basis. The
The List of Publications is also now National Geologic Map Database may be available online, with many of the Survey's accessed at: http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/. publications available in full text at no
charge. Thanks go to the Publication of St. Johns River Water Management Archival Library and Museum Materials District Cooperative Program (PALMM) of the libraries of the State
University System's Division of Colleges In 1993, a cooperative program was and Universities, for continuing to scan in developed between the St. Johns River many of our publications. This allows the Water Management District (SJRWMD) public fast and free access to many titles. and the FGS. In this program, samples The online version of the List of obtained from wells drilled as part of the Publications is: District Observation Well Network http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publi- (DOWN) are shipped to the FGS for prepacations/index.htm ration, description, and entry into an electronic database. SJRWMD funds a student
SPECIAL PROJECTS research assistant to describe samples. The work is beneficial to both the District and
Leon County School System Leon the FGS. The FGS is able to augment its Advocacy and Resource Center lithologic coverage of the counties covered Cooperative Job Training Program by the SJRWMD. SJRWMD obtains descriptions of samples from its observation
In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the wells providing it with site specific data Leon County School System to provide job vital in understanding local and regional training for local area high schools students hydrogeologic conditions.
13




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
SECTION
The Geological Investigations Section
is comprised of the Coastal Research
Program, the Geologic Data Acquisition
Program, the Mineral Resources Program,
the Springs Initiative Program (created in
2001), Geologic Mapping Program (National Cooperative Geologic Mapping
Act "STATEMAP") and the Water Management District Cooperative Program.
In 2004, the Hydrogeology Program was
elevated to section status and removed from
the Geological Investigations Section. The
Geological Investigations Section conducts research projects covering a wide range of Dr. Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist topics with section scientists being involved for Geological Investigations (photo by in many basic and applied research proj- Harley Means). ects. The projects are designed to produce
and interpret geological data to aid in
growth planning, resource management The Florida Springs Initiative began and a better understanding of earth sys- funding an investigation of swallets in tems. 2004. Swallets, those sinkholes that capture water from surface streams and rivers,
Under the auspices of the Governor's provide direct avenues of recharge to the Florida Springs Initiative, the 2001 Florida Floridan Aquifer System and, therefore, are Legislature authorized the inclusion of the highly susceptible to pollution. FGS teams Florida Spring's Initiative in the are locating and describing swallets in Department of Environmental Protection's order to provide the first comprehensive budget. The FGS was tasked with creating listing of the features and their distribuan inventory of the State's more than 700 tion. springs. The FGS began an investigation of
the springs which included land uses Ongoing cooperative research with the around the springs and spring-water quali- State's water management districts and the ty. In 2003-04, the Survey published FGS FGS Hydrogeology Section is delineating Bulletin 66 Springs of Florida by T. M. hydrostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic Scott, G. H. Means, R. P. Meegan, R. C. units. The FGS is studying potential beach Means, S. B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland, J. renourishment sands offshore from the Jones, T. Roberts and A. Willet. Included in state's northeast coast in cooperation with Bulletin 66 are chemical analyses of the the U.S. Minerals Management Service. spring water for 126 springs and maps and Other investigations include mapping funddescriptions of more than 460 springs. A CD ed through the STATEMAP program in the accompanies the printed version and con- eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000 tains all the published information plus the scale quadrangle (2003), the western pordescriptions and photographs of more than tion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quad350 springs that were not sampled. The rangle (2004), and ongoing mapping for entire volume is also available on the FGS 2004-05 in the eastern portion of the website. Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle,
14




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
research on the Citronelle Formation in the shaker, the British-designed Meinzer II, western Florida panhandle and cooperation was compared to the long-used "industry with State archeologists on the investiga- standard" Rotap shaker. Twenty sandtion of Native American sites. Work contin- sized sediment sample pair tests were conues on the development of a new state geo- ducted using four different sieving protocols morphic map which will delineate landform to determine if Meinzer shakers duplicate distribution throughout the state and aid in results from Rotap shakers. It was found, understanding the processes that developed based on qualitative visual assessments of the state's land surface. sample pair cumulative probability distributions and on quantitative statistical
The section also consults with other analyses, that Rotap and Meinzer shakers government agencies because the knowl- result in essentially identical outcomes. edge of regional and local geology of a given
area is fundamental in the evaluation of GRANPLOT, an analytic granulmetry numerous environmental problems. The tools software application, was installed on Geological Investigations Section responds the FGS web site in 2002 and has been to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and viewed over 3,300 times. In addition, varicontamination, geologic hazards, geologic ous communiques have been received by the mapping, Florida's geologic history, and authors. B. A. Cheadle, President of problems related to community planning DarkMatter Energy Consulting and development. The group prepares Corporation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on wrote "... with some interest as I have often file at the FGS. This information is added struggled with devising an appropriate to the Survey's digital data base which cur- manner to trick EXCEL into faking a probit rently contains logs for more than 5,400 scale for probability plots". M. J. Johnsson, wells. This data base and the programs a coastal geologist with the California designed to manipulate it are currently Coastal Commission, congratulated the used by other governmental agencies and a effort by stating "... I am impressed with number of private firms. the wonderful job you have done GRANPLOT certainly far exceeds my humCOASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM ble spreadsheets in utility and design."
Professor Jorge Ledesma-Vaczques,
The Coastal Research Program (CRP) Chairman of the Geology Department, is committed to continuing fundamental Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, research to improve our understanding of Mexico, teaches undergrad and graduate Florida's coastal ecosystems and environ- sedimentology and was "... very much intermental processes. This research provides ested in getting a copy of GRANPLOT ..." information that is essential for planning, for use by his students. ecosystem management, conservation, and
protection of Florida's valuable coastal and Sedimentation Elevation Table Project underwater resources.
Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the
Ongoing Coastal Projects Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise and an insufficient sediment supply to
Sedimentological Research maintain marsh surface elevation. Local mean sea level is rising at an approximate
A comprehensive comparative study rate of 1.5 to 2.4 millimeters (mm) per year was initiated in 2002 and was published in and the spring-fed or controlled (dammed) 2003. In this study, a new type of sieve rivers of the Florida Gulf Coast do not pro15




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
vide sufficient sediments to maintain long- The area of investigation in Year 1 term health of the marshes. Marsh health (2003) comprised shallow sediments in fedis determined by several factors; sediment eral waters off Nassau and Duval Counties, supply, sea-level rise, storm events, erosion from three to approximately ten miles offrate of waves and marsh subsidence. Over shore, and the sediments on the beaches the last 12 years the Florida Geological immediately adjacent to that area. During Survey's Coastal Research Program, in 2003, over 230 miles of sub-bottom profile cooperation with the United States data were collected off Nassau and Duval Geological Survey, installed Sediment Counties and interpreted to determine locaElevation Tables (SET) at a number of sites tions thought to be favorable for the deposialong the Florida Gulf Coast (St. Joe Bay, tion of beach-quality sand. A total of 34 Apalachicola River, Ochlockonee River, St. beach sampling locations were identified In Marks River, Aucilla River, Rocky Creek, Nassau and Duval Counties and 106 surCedar Key area and Waccasassa River face samples collected. A total of 18 offarea) to measure elevation changes of the shore seabed grab samples were collected. marsh surface. SET measurements were A total of 10 offshore seabed grab sample combined with feldspar marker horizon locations were visited with grab samples measurements to quantify changes in being collected from nine locations. Three marsh topography. The sediment supply push cores were collected on the ebb tidal for the majority of these marshes is not suf- delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions ficient to keep pace with sea level rise, were made and grain size distributions resulting in a marsh surface elevation loss were determined for all beach and offshore of -0.3 to -15.0 mm/year. As a result, this data suggests that the Big Bend coastal areas are at risk, a finding that points out the dynamic and mobile nature of coastal environments.
The Coastal Program continued monitoring SET sites during the 2003-2004 period, evaluating the response of marshes to sea level rise. A report of this data with interpretations will be issued as an interactive report (CD) in 2006...
Cooperative Coastal Projects
Offshore Sand Investigation
In 2002, the Florida Geological Survey Fl and the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered into a second multiyear cooperative agreement with the specific goal of locating and characterizing both the aerial extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state sub- ;k merged lands off the northeast coast of Jim Ladner conducts cryogenic coring at Florida. a SET site (photo by Dan Phelps).
16




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
seabed grab samples and push cores. A pre- In 2004, the CRP continued its second liminary seismic stratigraphic analysis of multiyear program of offshore investigasub-bottom profiler data collected was com- tions in cooperation with the Minerals pleted. As a result of the seismic strati- Management Service. Data collection in graphic analysis conducted, several fea- Year 2 of this study concentrated primarily tures indicative of high potential for the on the areas offshore of Nassau and Duval occurrence of beach restoration quality Counties as well as the northern half of St. sand in federal waters off Duval County Johns County from three to approximately were identified. This analysis was discussed ten miles offshore and the sediments on the with representatives of the U.S. Army beaches immediately adjacent to that area. Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District During Year 2, over 190 miles of seismic Office and a copy of the preliminary work data were collected and interpreted to map delineating those features was provid- determine locations thought to be favorable ed to them. They then selected 45 locations for the deposition of beach-quality sand A in the study area of particular interest for total of 63 beach sampling locations in St. vibracoring in 2004. The results of the Johns and Flagler Counties were identified tasks completed in 2003 for this investiga- and 127 points sampled. Samples collected tion are detailed in A Geological from the beaches of St. Johns County were Investigation of the Offshore Area along analyzed and the results included in the Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 1 Annual Year 2 Report. Samples collected from the Report to the United States Department of beaches of Flagler County will be included Interior Minerals Management Service in the Year 3 Report. A total of 52 vibra(Phelps et al., 2003). This report will be cores were collected offshore of Nassau and available on CD, via the MMS web site or Duval Counties. Of that total, 11 vibracores from the FGS. were collected by the FGS and 41 were colThe 50' RV Geoquest (photo by Dan Phelps).
17




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
lected by the FGS's subcontractor Athena Coastal Research Program resulting in a Technologies Inc. offshore of southern new memorandum of agreement between Duval County. these three groups in July, 2003. The purpose of this agreement provides a mechaThe results of the tasks completed in nism to develop a working relationship Year 2 of this investigation are detailed in between the three participating organizaA Geological Investigation of the Offshore tions and was established to facilitate coopArea along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year erative efforts, and to leverage mutual 2 Annual Report to the United States expertise in the broad areas of coastal sciDepartment of Interior Minerals ence, engineering and technology. Management Service (Phelps et al., 2004). Investigations involving common needs of This report will be available on DVD via the the state and federal agencies will be carMMS web site or from the FGS. ried out in Florida's near-shore and OCS waters.
Joint Coastal Research Gulf of Mexico State Geological During 2003, discussions were conduct- Surveys Consortium ed between the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Coastal Systems Station, the A memorandum of agreement of State Coastal Operations Institute and the FGS Geologists, representing the five states bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and
- Texas, forms the Gulf of Mexico State
- Geological Surveys Consortium. This association was formed to provide for joint coop" -----eration in investigations and scientific
- exchanges concerning earth sciences S (including geology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysical, and geotechnical studies) on subjects of mutual interest. This cooperation strives to advance the understanding of the Gulf of Mexico onshore and offshore and promote cooperation on regional studies. An improved understanding of the geologic processes impacting the Gulf of Mexico is essential for the formulation of wise decisions regarding the use and preservation of the region's natural resources.
In 2003, the consortium met to develop a framework of identified needs and areas of cooperation for future research in the Gulf of Mexico. These were formalized in a report that was given to the USGS and conJim Balsillie and Jim Ladner procure a gressional staff for potential funding. vibracore in the Atlantic Ocean (photo by Dan Phelps).
18




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project
In 2004, the FGS CRP and the Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) conducted an investigation of the offshore area off 6, Port Canaveral using an established con- m trol-grid to monitor the health of scallops and associated biota (Calico Project). The established research grid was located in an area 15 to 30 miles offshore in water depths ranging from 50 to 250 feet. Utilizing the 50' FGS RV GeoQuest, 60 trawl samples were collected. In order to accomplish this task, it was required that the RV GeoQuest be fitted with a stern-mounted fast- 2 retrieval winch, which was built and ,.f installed by Wade Stringer, the ship's captain.
The cruise was conducted on November 20 24, 2004. Scallop collection was accomplished using a mesh-bag attached to a Dan Phelps examining Volusia County tethered trawl frame and dragged on the beach erosion (photo by Jim Ladner). ocean bottom a speed of one to four knots. tivity data were recorded in the surveyed Upon retrieval, the contents were sorted water bodies up to 90 feet deep. The method and weighed and the scallop tissue sam- measures differences in conductivity pled. between saltwater and freshwater and between polluted water and clean water. FGS personnel included Wade Stringer Physical parameters such as temperature, and James H. Balsillie. FMRI personnel for pH, and salinity were concurrently measthis Calico Project included Steve Geiger ured. In some locations a side-scan sonar (Assoc. Research Scientist, Principal record of bottom features was also obtained. Investigator for the Calico Project), Janessa The acquired data showed that the method Cobb (research staff), Carla Beals (research is a feasible and economical initial step in staff), Bill Arnold (fisheries supervisor), and locating areas of ground-water discharge Brett Pittinger (research staff). that can be "ground truthed" at a later date.
The survey suggests that remote-sensing Resistivity Survey Project techniques such as thermography, satellite imaging and resistivity may be practical In the spring of 2003, staff from the approaches to estimating ground-water conFGS Coastal Research Program and the tribution over large areas of surface water. FGS Hydrogeology Section conducted a Quantification of ground-water contriburesistivity survey of eleven coastal and tion as base flow to surface water is essenestuarine areas around Florida. Using two tial to regulatory programs such as Total boats and a 400-feet-long towed cable, resis- Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) and others.
19




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION by continuous core or core samples (a total PROGRAM of approximately 200,500 feet). The FGS, USGS, Water Management Districts and The FGS maintains an active scientific geologic consultants drill new core sample drilling program. Very low topographic sets and add them to the archives. The relief characterizes the state and data sample repository facility occupies 12,090 obtained from cores is essential to the square feet, with almost 30,000 cubic feet of understanding of subsurface stratigraphy, shelf space, with room for expansion. hydrogeology and hydrology.
A collection of approximately 5,750 outDuring 2003-2004, the FGS operated crop samples and mineral specimens is three rigs; a Failing 1500, a Mobile Drill B- maintained by the FGS at its headquarters 31 and a CME 75. The Failing 1500 was in the Gunter Building. These samples are taken out of service in 2004 and the full cross-indexed by formation, lithology, countime crew (a licensed driller and an assis- ty and location. The collection is referred to tant), is now operating the CME 75, pend- as the "M-Series." The M-Series is particuing delivery of a new Schramm T450M11A larly valuable given Florida's high populadrill rig. The Mobile Drill and CME tion growth and development. Surface auger/core rigs have been outfitted for con- exposures of critical lithologies have become tinuous coring in rock or unconsolidated inaccessible with the continued proliferasediments. These two rigs are utilized for tion of roadways, shopping centers, parking shallow (about 230 feet) and intermediate lots and high-rise housing. (about 800 feet) depth coring.
These sample archives and the data During 2003-2004, the FGS drilling base they represent are utilized by geoloprogram drilled 20 core holes in six counties in support of five different projects. Core holes ranged from 29.5 to 900 feet in depth for a total of 4592 feet cored. Monitor wells were constructed in 13 of these core holes in cooperation with Collier County, the Northwest Florida and Suwannee River Water Management Districts, Florida Department of Health and the Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Watershed Management.
Ongoing Geologic Data Acquisition Projects
Geologic Sample Collection
The FGS maintains separate collections of well and surface outcrop samples. The well sample collection contains more than 18,585 sets of samples from exploration, water and oil wells. Most wells are FGS's new Schramm T450 drill rig installing monitoring wells for Southeast represented by sets of drill cuttings. Sprayfield Investigation (photo by Ken Approximately 1100 wells are represented Campbell).
20




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
gists at the FGS, other state, federal and investigate the operation of septic systems local governmental agencies, universities in a karst environment. The remaining two (both in and out of the state), geological con- sites outside the park had a total of three sultants, well drillers, and the public, cores drilled and monitor wells constructed during 2003. Core samples were examined, Cooperative Geologic Data lithologic logs generated, formation picks Acquisition Projects made and the logs were entered into the FGS database. Hydraulic conductivity Manatee Springs Investigation analyses were also conducted on selected samples from each core. Manatee Springs The Florida Department of Health, State Park, Suwannee River Water Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, con- Management District and Florida State tracted with the FGS to investigate four University were also cooperators. sites in and around Manatee Springs State Park. Ten shallow core holes and monitor Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment wells were drilled in each of two campgrounds within the park during 2002 to In this cooperative agreement, the FGS agreed to drill three 1000-foot holes at locations specified by Collier County to be established as monitoring wells for continuous aquifer monitoring and to obtain core to determine hydrostratigraphy. The second I well was completed and the third well drilled during this period. Lithologic descriptions were generated for the FGS computer database. Collier County decided not to install monitor wells at these sites. This project is complete.
Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation
Three core holes were drilled intersecting the Main, Blue Water and Sewer tunnels (conduits). Drill sites were selected utilizing cave divers to set up radio beacons in the spring conduits and using a radio receiver at the surface to locate the surface location directly over the beacon. Four inch monitor wells were constructed with open completions in the spring conduits. The SRWMD has installed dedicated instrumentation thru these wells to collect conduit specific water quality and quantity information previously available only by sending a cave diving team to physically Ilk collect the water samples. Lithologic Installation of Manatee Springs conduit descriptions of the core samples were genermonitoring wells (photo by David Paul). ated for the FGS wells database.
21




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Oleno State Park and River Rise Northwest Florida Water Management State Preserve District Cooperative Program
Two core holes were drilled and moni- During fiscal years 2003 and 2004, FGS tor wells constructed in support of an ongo- staff described well cuttings and entered ing investigation into the hydrogeology of the data into the FGS wells database under the Oleno/River Rise area. These cores a purchase order agreement with the were also in support of the ongoing Northwest Florida Water Management STATEMAP project. District. Kenji Butler and Harley Means worked on the project. In 2003, Kenji
Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer System described 180 cuttings samples from Monitor Well Construction NWFWMD. In fiscal year 2004, Kenji described another 902 samples. The data
from this project helped to refine knowledge
Three coreholes were drilled proximal
tohrewecore killed proim on the lithostratigraphy of Walton County to the water filled conduits comprising the and vicinity. Sullivan Sink portion of the Leon Sinks
Cave System within the Apalachicola South Florida Water Management District National Forest. Monitor wells were Cooperative Program installed in each borehole with the
screened/open hole portion of the wells cor- South Florida is experiencing rapid responding to the same depths as the adja- population growth and water management cent conduit. Lithologic logs were generat- practices must be predicated on an adeed, formation picks made and hydraulic quate understanding of the lithologic units
Sy which comprise aquifer systems. In 1992, conductivity analysis made on selected the FGS and the South Florida Water samples of each core. Management District (SFWMD) began a cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades,
City of Tallahassee Southeast Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Lucie, Sprayfield Investigation Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties to provide geologic information in support of
The FGS is participating in an ongoing this need. Several OPS staff members investigation to determine whether the described samples for the SFWMD during sprayfield is contributing to the nutrient 2003-2004, resulting in an addition of over
load being delivered to springs in the area 60,000 feet of new descriptions from the disload being delivered to springs in the area
trict.
(including Wakulla Spring). A series of trict. wells will be drilled to monitor leachate MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM from the sprayfield and serve as dye injection points for tracing studies. Each drill The Mineral Resource Program mainsite will have two wells (125-feet and 250- tains communication with the mineral feet deep). The deep hole will be continous industry in Florida. The section publishes a core. Drilling commenced in late 2004, and biennial status report related to industry the first of two wells at the initial drilling activity. The program is also responsible site was completed by the end of that year. for providing mineral resource assessments
Cuttings from this 125-foot well were on parcels of land that are targeted for purCuttings from this 125-foot well were
chase by the state. These assessments are
described and the lithologic log added to the completed on an as-needed basis. We are
FGS ellsdataase.completed on an as-needed basis. We are FGS wells database. continuing to provide geologic input into the
22




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
mineral lands transfer between the Federal Heavy Minerals Bureau of Land Management and the state
of Florida. These are mineral grains with specific gravities generally in excess of 2.9. They
For the year 2003, the USGS ranked include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucoxFlorida fifth in the U.S. with an estimated ene. Ilmenite and rutile are primary ingrenon-fuel mineral production value of $2 bil- dients in the manufacture of titanium dioxlion. Following is a description of mineral ide pigments, used in the manufacture of resources. paint, varnish and lacquers, plastics, and paper. Florida is the top heavy mineral
Phosphate producer in the nation.
Florida supplies approximately one- Peat quarter of the world's phosphate needs and
three-quarters of US domestic needs. Peat is an organic-rich accumulation of Nearly all of the phosphate rock that is decaying plant material. Although peat mined in Florida is used to manufacture departs from the inorganic definition of a fertilizer which, in turn, is used for agricul- mineral, it is generally considered an ecotural purposes. What is not used in the nomic mineral. Florida ranked first in the manufacture of fertilizer is typically used in nation in the production of horticultural a number of products including feed supple- peat. ments, vitamins, soft drinks, and toothpaste. In recent years, fertilizer exports Clay from Florida have exceeded a billion dollars
in value, making it another one of Florida's Fuller's earth, common clay, and kaolin leading export commodities. are mined in a few locations in Florida.
Fuller's earth is typically used as an
Crushed Stone absorbent material, while kaolin is used in the manufacture of paper and refractories.
Florida rose to second in the United Common clay, mined in small quantities States in the production of crushed stone from various locations throughout the state, (limestone and dolostone). Most of the is used in the manufacture of brick, cement stone that is mined in Florida is used for and lightweight aggregate. road construction. Limestone of high purity can undergo calcination (heating) and, The state led the nation during 2003 in together with other ingredients, be used to production of phosphate rock, titanium conmanufacture portland and masonry centrates, and peat. Florida tied for first in cement. Florida ranked seventh in the pro- masonry cement production, fourth in production of portland cement and is first in duction of Fuller's earth, second in crushed the production of masonry cement. stone, third in magnesium compounds, and seventh in Portland cement. Florida continSand and Gravel ues to produce substantial quantities of sand and gravel and ranks approximately
Florida ranks in the top one-third of 13th in sand and gravel used by producers states in the country in sand and gravel in 2003. (The USGS prepares state ranking used and produced. Sand and gravel is sub- information every two years based upon divided into construction and industrial confidential data returned to them from sand, the bulk of which is, in Florida, con- Florida mine operators.) struction grade.
23




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Crude Oil and Natural Gas Geological Survey was granted over $400,000 to continue research and monitorOil and gas are produced from two pri- ing of springs through several projects. mary oil field areas of Florida. Production Those projects include the revision of began in 1943 in south Florida near Fort Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida, Quarterly Myers, where the Cretaceous Sunniland Water Quality and Discharge Monitoring, Formation yields oil from depths between and the Swallet Inventory Project. 11,000 and 13,000 feet. In northwestern Florida, near Jay, oil has been produced In 2003, work continued on the revision since 1970 from the Jurassic Smackover of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida. Field and Norphlet Formations at depths teams visited and described 463 springs between 14,000 and 17,000 feet. Production across the state almost doubling the numpeaked in the late 1970s at 48 million bar- ber of springs listed in Bulletin 31, Revised rels of crude oil and 52 billion cubic feet of (1977). Water quality and discharge measnatural gas per year. For additional, urements were also taken at 126 springs. detailed information see the section on the This work culminated in the publication of Oil and Gas Regulatory Program. a new volume, Bulletin 66, Springs of
SPRINGS PROGRAM Florida, which was released in September of 2004. This work was the third iteration in the Springs of Florida series and the The Florida Springs Initiative, estab- mt prns o dae e v e
most comprehensive to date. The volume lished by Governor Bush in 2001, continued includes color photos, maps, water quality includes color photos, maps, water quality to receive legislative funding in 2003/04. Of tables and a CD in the back cover that contables and a CD in the back cover that conthe $2.5 million dollar per year allocation tains the entire document in digital format. the Initiative received, the Florida
Jackson Blue Spring (Photo by Tom Scott).
24




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
The entire volume is also available online at:
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/springs/bulletin66.htm.
Springs field teams continued to sample water quality and measure discharge of most of Florida's first magnitude springs and some selected second magnitude springs in 2003/04. The work is done on a quarterly basis starting in January. Samplers Ryan Means and Rebecca Meegan sampled springs as part of an ongoing project that will look at water quality and quan- tity trends through time. James McClean and Brie Coane began measuring the discharge at sampled springs in 2004. The water samples are analyzed by the FDEP lab and the data are uploaded into an inter- net accessible database.
In July 2004, the Florida Geological Survey started the Swallet Inventory Project. Swallets are karst features that receive surface water. These features are W. Evans and J. Halfhill identifying fossils important because they provide direct in rock quarry (photo by Rick Green).
. in rock quarry (photo by Rick Green). access to the aquifer system without any possibility for filtering out contaminants.
sources to locate potential swallets then visMany swallets exist in spring basins and. Many citing the site to record data about each may be contributing contaminated water to swallet. The data are stored in a database
sprigs.Ed Celete ad Dana huran- swallet. The data are stored in a database springs. Ed Chelette and Diana Thurmanwhich is used to create maps. These maps Nowack were hired to conduct an inventory w use to cat ma esap are useful to local land managers and planof major swallets in first magnitude spring rs o lc land n ners who make decisions about land use in basins. Their work includes inspecting these vulnerable areas. topographic maps, aerial maps and other
STATEMAP PROGRAM
The STATEMAP Program is a cooperative project funded jointly by the FGS and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program under the State Geologic Mapping Component (STATEMAP). For each of the last ten years, staff members from the FGS have performed detailed geologic mapping of 1:100,000 scale USGS quadrangles and published the results as part of the FGS T. Scott, R. Green and H. Means in Brooks Open-File Map Series (OFMS). Cave (photo by Sean Roberts).
25




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
In 2002-2003, FGS staff geologists Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave Paul, and Jake Halfhill, together with John Bryan, a professor with Okaloosa-Walton Community College, with the help of Roger Portell, a paleontologist from the Florida Museum of Natural History, produced a geologic map, a surficial sediments map, and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000 Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections are available through the FGS Open File Live-aboard house boat utilized during Map Series (OFMS No. 92). the lower Suwannee River mapping project (photo by Rick Green).
In 2003-2004, Richard Green, William
L. Evans III, Dave Paul, John Bryan, and the eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale Roger Portell, produced a geologic map for Gainesville Quadrangle. Field mapping the western portion of the 1:100,000 scale began in October, with a planned compleGainesville Quadrangle. The project tion date of October, 2005. The maps and included a bedrock geologic map, a poster cross sections for this area will be available showing descriptions and key fossil for the through the FGS Open File Map Series units, and several geologic cross sections. beginning in November of 2005. These maps and cross sections are also available through the FGS Open File Map After input and an October workshop Series (OFMS No. 93). with the Florida Geological Mapping Advisory Committee, the USGS 1:100,000 As part of the field mapping for the Lake City Quadrangle in north-central 2003-2004 western portion of Gainesville Florida was selected for the next area to be 1:100,1000 Quadrangle, STATEMAP mapped under the STATEMAP program. If Project staff from the FGS STATEMAP, the National STATEMAP Advisory Coastal Research Program, and Committee approves the project, mapping Hydrogeology Section, together with Jon will begin in this area in November of 2005. Bryan, and Roger Portell completed an extensive geologic mapping expedition of the lower Suwannee River system within the study area. Utilizing two scout/support boats and a live-aboard vessel as a base of operations, expedition geologists mapped over 100 miles of the lower Suwannee River and approximately 10 miles of the Santa FeRiver. This included the collection of numerous geologic samples and the rescue of a young Barred Owl that had been hopelessly snared in an abandoned catfish line along the banks of the Suwannee River.
In September, 2004, the FGS began
working on production of a bedrock geologic Will Evans' rescue of a Barred Owl (photo map, and several geologic cross sections for by Rick Green).
26




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION
In June 2004, in recognition of the increasingly important role of hydrogeology research within the mission of the FGS and DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reorganized to become a formal Section within the FGS. The mission of the Hydrogeology Section is to disseminate hydrogeologic information, conduct hydrogeologic research, and administer such research through outsourcing in support of the need for unbiased, scientific knowledge of Florida's water resources with specific emphasis on aquifer system dynamics and the sustainability of ground water and watersheds. This knowledge is applicable to rule making, regulatory, and policy decisions that facilitate efficient, science-based protection of the quantity and quality of Dr. Jon Arthur, Assistant State Geologist Florida's water resources a critical compo- for Hydrogeology (photo by Harley Means). nent of Florida's environment. Five interrelated program areas comprise the Section: cost-effective, viable solution to address 1) hydrogeochemistry, 2) physical aquifer drinking-water shortages in Florida. ASR characterization, 3) aquifer vulnerability wells are Class 5 injection wells regulated assessment, 4) karst hydrogeology and 5) by the Underground Injection Control education. Program of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Division of HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY PROGRAM Water Resource Management (FDEP-UIC).
Twenty-six ASR facilities are in operation Laboratory facilities and research with- in Florida and more than 15 sites are under in Hydrogeochemistry Program has signifi- development. Some of the sites include cantly expanded in response to the increas- reclaimed water ASR facilities, which are ing need for understanding water-rock also cost-effective solutions to local water interactions, especially with regard to shortages. The FGS is working with the aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) prac- FDEP-UIC Program, the University of tices. Research on water quality changes South Florida, SWFWMD, SFWMD and during ASR continue at the field scale (i.e., consulting firms to characterize water rock cycle testing) and at the bench scale. The geochemistry during ASR at the bench scale bench-scale studies focus on developing a and in the field. predictive tool for potential water-rock reactions in the field. The following are hydro- The Florida Aquifer Storage and geochemistry projects worked on during Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing 2003-2004. investigation by the FGS to examine waterrock geochemical interactions that take Aquifer Storage and Recovery place during ASR cycle testing. WaterGeochemical Studies quality variations and aquifer system characteristics at five ASR facilities are the Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a focus of the current study. In addition, geo27




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
chemical and mineralogical data from cores high-dissolved oxygen conditions in the labtaken within and outside the influence of an oratory. Similar experiments are being conASR storage zone are currently being col- ducted for consulting firms, who have recoglected. nized the expertise and the unique analytical capabilities of the FGS hydrogeochemFGS research funded by the FDEP-UIC istry lab (see below). Program has confirmed that understanding
water-rock geochemical interactions is Results of this research underscore the important to the continued success of ASR need for continued research on the geoin Florida. Results of this investigation chemistry of ASR in Florida, especially in indicate the following: 1) chemical (includ- consideration of the 300+ ASR wells pro.posed as part of the Comprehensive ing isotopic) variability exists within posed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. There exists
ground water and carbonates of the
ground water and carbonates of the a need to improve our understanding of the Floridan Aquifer System, 2) this variability water-rock dynamics in different hydrogeomay result in site-specific geochemical logical settings in which ASR may be processes affecting ASR wells and water applied. quality, 3) in some localities, oxygen-rich
surface waters, once injected into the Bench Scale Geochemical Assessment Floridan Aquifer System causes the release of Water-rock Interaction: Seminole of trace metals such as arsenic (As), iron County ASR
(Fe), manganese (Mn), uranium (U) and
perhaps nickel (Ni) into the recharged (and The purpose of this study is to characeventually recovered) waters, 4) the design terize bench-scale leachability of Floridan of recharge-storage-recovery cycle tests and Aquifer System carbonate rocks in response the location of monitor wells are important to high concentrations of dissolve oxygen aspects of understanding these geochemical (DO), and identify sources of metals in processes. Of the nine cycle tests investi- these rocks. This study is divided into five gated to date, most recovered samples main parts: 1) lithological descriptions of exceed the new maximum contaminant the ASR well rock samples of Avon Park level (MCL) for As (10 ug/1). Research on Formation, Seminole County, 2) permeabilthe source of As in the Floridan Aquifer ity study for both vertical and horizontal System matrix, results of cycle testing in core samples of the ASR well, 3) geochemdifferent hydrogeological settings and the istry of the water samples (leachate) when effects of repeated cycles tests continues, exposed to aquifer rocks under high concentrations of dissolved oxygen, 4) geochemThe FGS is also engaged in research as istry of the aquifer rocks to identify sources part of the Comprehensive Everglades of metals in these rocks, and 5) sequential Restoration Plan to conduct a geochemical extraction of the storage-zone carbonates to reconnaissance of the Floridan Aquifer identify mineral and non-mineral phases in System carbonates in southern Florida. the aquifer matrix that may be leachable This investigation will focus on carbonate under ASR conditions. mineralogy, mineral chemistry, rock geochemistry (including a series of isotopic Four hundred sixty five water samples, analyses), and bench-scale studies. Two seven whole rock samples, and seven types of bench scale studies are planned: sequential leaching samples have been anasequential extraction, which identifies asso- lyzed for 64 elements at a commercial labociations between minerals and metals, and ratory using inductively coupled plasmaleaching studies that assess solubility of mass spectrometer and optical emission metals during simulated cycle tests under spectrometer analytical techniques.
28




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Water-quality changes during four includes sulfide minerals (see Results of bench-scale cycles have been evaluated, sequential extraction figure). Time-series graphs allow comparison of
water chemistry changes during periods of The results also demonstrate that the aeration and non-aeration for each cycle. "organic plus insoluble residue" fraction is The graphs of water quality changes during strongly associated with Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Fe, bench-scale cycles (see following figure) also La, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and U whereas Zn is clearly define concentrations and mobiliza- associated with carbonate minerals. tion, depending on the initial concentra- Organic material is recognized as a tions of the source rock. Mobilization of As, source/sink for uranium. The sources of U and other trace metals during four cycles arsenic may also include organics in addifor the Seminole ASR aquifer rocks are evi- tion to pyrite. These extraction results also dent. Comparable results for leached As provide evidence for presence of As and were evident in all four cycle tests. other mobilized metals in "non-sulfide" fracLeachates collected from cycle test 1 dis- tions of the aquifer matrix (e.g., the carbonplayed greater As concentrations compared ate and Fe-oxide fractions). In summary, to the other three cycles. During this cycle, four different chemical forms of As were leachates collected during pump off showed extracted from the core samples. The an increase of As concentrations with time extracted chemical forms are as follows: (1) whereas during pump on, As peaked, then soluble form, (2) acid soluble form (As mainshowed decrease in concentrations with ly fixed in carbonates), (3) reducible form time. On the other hand, other samples (As fixed in Fe and/or Mn-oxides), (4) insolshowed more than one As peak. uble form (As fixed mainly in sulfides and rarely in silicates). Arsenic occurs predomiFrom the whole-rock geochemistry nantly in the reducible form, organic form data, trace metals such as As, Cr, Ni, V, Mo, and insoluble form. U, Zn, Sb, S, Sc, Th, La, and Sm showed
high concentrations. When compared to Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the global averages for limestone, these select- Ground-water Quality of Springs and ed trace metals far exceed global averages. Wells in Florida The linear co-variations of As and Mo suggest that Mo is possibly associated in As- For decades, Floridians have been bearing phases such as arsenian pyrite. interested in the quality of spring and well Other minerals or phases containing As in water. By the early 1900s, only a handful of these carbonate rocks include organic mate- springs had been analyzed for their chemirial and Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide coatings. cal constituents. However, the number of Arsenian pyrite is among the sources of As springs sampled and the chemical conin the ASR aquifer rocks; however, sequen- stituents analyzed increased through the tial extraction studies suggest other phases first half of the 20th century. In 1947, the (e.g., Fe-oxides and organics) may contain FGS published an inventory of springs in As and associate metals as well. Organic Florida, which included water quality material may contain U, which is also analyses (Ferguson et al., 1947). The publithought to be associated with carbonate cation was revised in 1977 (Rosenau et al., phases. 1977), and in 2004, a third publication regarding the springs of Florida, including
Sequential extraction bench tests sug- water quality analyses, was published by gest that dominant As-bearing phases the FGS (Scott et al., 2004). reside within the "organic plus insoluble
residue" fraction of the matrix, which It should be noted that nitrate (nitrate
29




40.00 ,:I Cycle Pumps on Cycle 2 Pumps on Cycle 3 Pumps on
:1 Is,
oLeachate 30.00 Leachate Samples
I L1
25.00 *L2 -1
A I0
A a L3 S20.00 0 L
-0 :L4
13 I L5 Al 1 : A& E3 A I ~ C) 130 0 0.. "
A0 a6 15.00 c 0 1 0 L 0
6. 26 6 LB
10.00
CD
IM
IJO *:::*: I;LWrI 10.00
Water-quality changes during bench-scale cycles.
x I
0.00 t .e4... .. .. J' +', ,. "-""i... .. .. ... .'. ... .. 4-.... '.; ' "4 ".K
Time
Wlater-qluality changes during bench-scale cycles.




Sequential Leaching Percent Extracted
100%
80%
"0
UO
60%
1Fn
-m
X z w-z
., m 0 40% -o o 0 0. .-I
z
0
20%
0%
Mg AI V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn As Se Sr Mo Cd Ba La Pb Th U Heavy Metals
SSOLUBLE FORM ACID SOLUBLE FORM U REDUCIBLE FORM O INSOLUBLE FORM
Results of sequential extraction.




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
plus nitrite as N, but referred to as nitrate) Florida) in which the theme was to provide concentrations have been increasing in a forum to facilitate discussions among scisprings for the past several decades. entists, resource managers, cavers and the Although this has been an impetus in public regarding the significance of caves recent years for increased spring monitor- and springs in Florida. During the working, the state is interested in many chemi- shop, it was pointed out that caves: (1) concals, not only from springs, but also wells. tain archeological and cultural artifacts; (2) Over the years, the water management dis- can act as laboratories for medical, biologitricts and other organizations began sam- cal, geological, hydrogeological, and other pling and analyzing the water quality from scientific studies; (3) are valuable tools for both springs and wells. Although today it understanding ground-water flow and concan be said that many springs and wells tamination transport in karst terrains; and have been sampled, only a few have been (4) because of 1-3, can significantly impact monitored consistently for an entire suite of local and statewide economies. chemicals for more than a decade.
However, by the early 1990s, over 70 Because of the importance of caves, and springs and about 50 wells were being mon- because cavers spend a considerable itored for water quality on a fairly regular amount of time inside caves, it is imperative basis. that cavers communicate their considerable knowledge of caves in a standardized protoThe purpose of this project is to statis- col with each other and with the scientific tically evaluate data collected from the community. For these reasons, it was recsprings and wells for the period 1991 2003. ommended that a cave glossary be develBefore the evaluation can be conducted, the oped, emphasizing terms used in and near data needs to be obtained. During 2003 and Florida, including the Caribbean. 2004, the FGS collected the water-quality
and flow data from these springs and wells. FGS took the lead in developing the In addition, the data was compiled and pre- glossary. It organized a committee to assist pared for statistical analyses. The antici- it in generating the glossary. The commitpated completion date of the trends report tee, (The Florida Committee for the is 2006. Terminology for Cave and Karst Systems), consisted of representatives from the dry
EDUCATION PROGRAM caving, cave diving communities and FGS geologists. The committee decided that the
The Education Program within the two major purposes in publishing the glosHydrogeology Section emphasizes develop- sary were to improve: (1) the overall underment of workshops, posters and curriculum standing of wet and dry caves in and near materials that promote a better under- Florida, and (2) consistency in the usage of standing of Florida's complex hydrogeologic terms associated with caves. The draft versystems. Intended end-users vary by proj- sion of the glossary contains over 1500 ect and range from elected officials, second- terms. The final document should be comary school students, private industry and pleted in 2006. the general public.
Development of a Cave Glossary "Explore Florida!" Website Explore Florida! is a Web-based curIn April 2003, the FGS co-sponsored a riculum that integrates multidisciplinary workshop (Significance of Caves in lesson plans with the use of maps and Watershed Management and Protection in images such as satellite and airborne
32




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
imagery, aerial photography, topographic tent expansion and versatility. Each unit is maps, and other special-purpose carto- framed around a template that includes the graphic products (e.g., 3D anaglyph maps). following components: Purpose, Student These materials allow middle and high Learning Objectives, Goals, Rubrics for school students to visualize earth-system Assessment, Sunshine State Standards, processes and human impact while relating Background Material (may be written for them to disciplines beyond earth science, both student and teacher or separate matesuch as mathematics, history, social science rial for teacher and student), resources such and language arts. Student and teacher as places to visit, references, web sites, glosmanuals contain site-specific background sary, and newspaper articles. Each student information and sets of "hands-on" and activity includes a materials list and work"minds-on" interdisciplinary activities sheets. Enrichment activities and answer keyed to the state science standards. All keys are also included. materials can be used in the classroom
straight from the Web, or can be down- This task was conducted by the Florida loaded and printed in black and white, or Resource and Environmental Analysis color. A series of workshops will be held to Center in cooperation with the FGS; we familiarize teachers with these resources. anticipate using the same contractor to develop additional Florida units in the
By the end of fiscal year 2004, four 2005-2006 time-frame. For more detailed units of Explore Florida! have been made information about this project one may log available: The Woodville Karst Plain study on to: http://www.exploreflorida.org. area features a comparison of topographic
maps with infrared aerial photographs to Karst Short Course & Field Trip identify karst features, infer recharge and
discharge of aquifers, and examine land The fundamental problem associated use, both historical and modern. Several with effective hydrogeologic characterizaarcheological sites are included. The tions of karst settings in Florida is a lack of Florida Peninsula study area highlights the available formal education on karst hydrocontrasting land use exemplified by such geology at the academic and professional diverse features as Cape Canaveral, the levels in Florida. To address this problem a Disney Complex, the interior phosphate short course (including a field trip) on karst mining area, and paleo-shoreline features in Florida was developed and tested in such as the Lake Wales Ridge. Satellite 2003/2004. We anticipate continuing these images and topographic maps enable stu- activities in upcoming years in cooperation dents to relate these land uses to the geolog- with the Hydrogeology Consortium ic framework of the peninsula. The South
Florida study area focuses on the unique KARST HYDROGEOLOGY PROGRAM habitats of the Everglades, the Florida
Keys, and the impact of population pressure Ground-water flow in karst hydrogeofrom the Miami area, which threatens to logic settings is difficult to characterize. over-run these distinctive natural areas. This program focuses on field studies and Historic photos and sketches are compared modeling techniques to facilitate this charwith modern infrared aerial photographs to acterization. Multifaceted field investigadocument changes in land use through tions address the nature of ground-water time. flow through conduit systems by employing dye tracing and tide gauging (along coastal
Explore Florida! is designed for consis- karstic areas), as well as monitoring spring
33




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
discharge, rainfall, and water-quality will be continually recording velocity, temparameters within subsurface conduits sys- perature, and specific conductance at 15tems. These field studies provide calibra- minute intervals. The data was stored tion and validation for complex ground- onboard the devices then manually downwater flow models. Moreover, a cave data- loaded on-site by FGS staff at approximatebase has been established to serve as a ref- ly 30 to 60-day intervals. Drs. Tim Hazlett erence for these modeling efforts as well as and Todd Kincaid who are on the staff of characterization of highly valuable and vul- GFDI at FSU have developed a preliminary nerable natural resources. website for the dissemination of the data which is updated at approximately 60 to 90Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility Study day intervals. The dataset that was develThe quantitative ground-water tracing oped is one-of-a-kind and represents the most detailed characterization of a karst
program, conducted by the FGS in collaboration with private sector firms, over the aquifer anywhere in the US, if not the past three fiscal years has been a success. world. Key flow paths in the Woodville Karst Plain In order to capitalize most fully on the (WKP) have been successfully documented expanding dataset and consequently foster
betwen isapearng trems, he eon expanding dataset and consequently foster between disappearing streams, the Leon
wnk ndisaeag s ms, nd multidisciplinary research efforts, effort to SinWakulla Spring. The quantitative aspects, and make the data more readily available to Wakulla Spring. The quantitative aspect of researchers world-wide was begun in 2004. the tracer tests has permitted the calcula- This effort included steps to automate the
tionof roud-wterveloitis ad oher This effort included steps to automate the tion of ground-water velocities and other data collection and dissemination processes hydraulic parameters that will be crucial to by: 1) installing cabling and radio telemetry
futue goun-waer odelng ffots.The by: 1) installing cabling and radio telemetry future ground-water modeling efforts. The systems at the on-site data stations that purpose of these studies was two-fold: (1) to will continuously communicate the data characterize and identify the key karst fea- otius omca te eda tures in the Woodville Karst Plain that from the meters to a local computer server; tures in the Woodville Karst Plain that
2) constructing a local computer server to
have a probable influence on water flow in collect the data, store it on local hard drives, the watershed; (2) to determine the feasibil- coat e it o loal c e ity of conducting quantitative ground-water and communicate it to a global computer tracing experiments in the basin aimed at server via the Internet; 3) developing a comtracing experiments in the basin aimed at .ue rga htwl uoaial
. puter program that will automatically identifying flow direction and velocities pt rga htwl uoaial identifying flow direction and velocities receive the data, process it into a desired set along karstic flow paths to Spring Creek of graphical output, and post the output of graphical output, and post the output
springs system. The study was also to
assess the effect of tides and associated regularly to a project website; and 4) archivassess the effect of tides and associated .n h aa iheouhrdnac ie ing the data, with enough redundancy (i.e.
hydrogeology in Spring Creek on the backups), such that it can be retrieved, in Wakulla Spring system. While significant raw format, at will via an Internet interprogress was made in achieving these goals face. The complexity of the telemetry sysin 2003-2004, work is on going using similar e w ceit of the s tem will necessitate continuation of these
approaches. and similar activities into the 2005/2006 fisWakulla In-cave Meter Data Management cal year.
Seven oceanographic meters, manufac- Tide Gauging
tured by Falmouth Scientific, were One of the most interesting insights deployed in the Wakulla cave system and that have come out, thus far, from these began recording in late 2003. The meters activities is the potential correlation
34




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
between regular small-scale discharge fluc- model has been sufficiently developed to tuations at Wakulla and the tides in the warrant continuation of field testing and Gulf of Mexico. In late 2004, the FGS full-scale calibration, and validation in the installed two tide gauges close to Spring 2005/2006 time-frame. Creek that will be periodically harvested.
We anticipate exploring this possible rela- Florida Cave Database tionship further in 2005/2006 to obtain
additional data on tidal fluctuations in the The Florida Cave Database was initialGulf of Mexico south of Wakulla Spring. ly developed with funding from the Hydrogeology Program in FY 2001-2002
Expansion of the Cave Metering Network and augmented, revised, and refined in FYs 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The database
The existing cave meter network effec- currently contains details from more than tively characterizes the flow to the spring 30 underwater caves, each of which are repfrom four most significant known conduit resented by two ESRI GIS shape-files and sources; however, the results of the last two associated datasets: one representing the ground-water tracing experiments have survey points or significant turning points demonstrated that the Wakulla cave sys- in the caves, which contains sufficient data, tem is directly connected to the Leon Sinks when available, to render a 3D model of the cave system and that ground-water flows cave; and one that represents the 2D trend
between the two in approximately seven of the cave passages. All the files are probetween the two in approximately seven
days. Given this connection, and the stated jected to a custom FDEP Albers conformal conic projection. These files can be downgoal of the metering project, which was to conic projection. These files can be downloaded from a project website and immedicharacterize the source waters for Wakulla loaded from a project website and immediSpring, we believe that additional meters ately included in a GIS. Currently the data Spring, we believe that additional meters .ae i en o uae ih a dto a base is being populated with additional
are needed in the Leon Sinks cave system. data available to state or local government data available to state or local government
Continuation of the Woodville Karst staff as well as the private sector. This Continuation of the Woodville Karst ..
activity is expected to continue for the forePlain Modeling Efforts seeable future.
seeable future.
In 2004, the FGS outsourced an inves- Wakulla Springs Statistical Analysis tigation to predict ground-water movement and Modeling of Discharge and Rainfall and contaminant transport in karst using
finite-element models. The contractors used It is reasonable to characterize this existing and accepted finite-element task as the heart of past and on going numerical strategies but employed the research in the "Wakulla Project." detailed characterization data gleaned from Understanding the hydrogeological comthe field studies to more accurately articu- plexity of Wakulla Spring, its interaction late karst features in the model domain and with surface water sources and with land calibrate the model simulations to real- use activities, has begun to yield informaworld conditions. Currently, the model con- tion that can be applied to serve an overartains all of the key karst features in the ching goal of effective management, and northern part of the WKP and calibrates protection of water within the entire fairly well to velocities measured through Woodville Karst Plain Watershed. The data ground-water tracing and historical head is being used to calibrate the finite element levels published in the literature. This model previously mentioned with an ulti35




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
mate deliverable being a model which can eventually serve as a tool to protect and accurately simulate ground-water flow and manage the quality of the spring system contaminant transport in karst settings. and the entire watershed.
With support by the FGS's PHYSICAL AQUIFER
Hydrogeology Program, beginning in 2002, CHARACTERIZATION PROGRAM a prototype of such a model, called KARSTMOD, has been developed by two members Characterization of Florida's hydrogeoof our research team: Drs. David Loper and logical framework is of paramount imporTim Hazlett. The method utilizes a statisti- tance with regard to the protection, consercal scheme to define probable pathways vation and management of Florida's between discrete sources of recharge such ground-water resources. Aspects of this as sinkholes or sinking streams and spring characterization include developing physidischarges. Once a probabilistic network of cal models of aquifer systems, development pathways has been established, a combina- of physical aquifer property databases, and tion of statistical and deterministic meth- completion of applied research to assess ods is used to simulate the travel-time surface-water ground-water interactions. between any point in a basin and a spring. Two projects, described below, were in To date, the model has been developed to progress during 2003-2004. the point where testing is appropriate. The
next step is to calibrate KARSTMOD, using Estimating Ground-Water Discharges data on flow, temperature and electrical via Radon Tracing conductivity. In this context, temperature
and conductivity are to be used as proxies This project builds on previous work by for contaminants. scientists from the FSU Department of Oceanography and the FGS. That project
During 2004, calibration of the flow investigated the area around Lanark Reef and transport characteristics of KARST- using a continuous radon monitoring sysMOD was initiated using data collected tem and side scan sonar to search for areas (over the past 6 years) by the S-4 meter of point source discharge (springs) as well (installed by the NWFWMD) in the main as diffusive seepage. Lines were run paralvent of Wakulla Spring. In subsequent lel to the shore and one transect was made years, we intend to expand this calibration several kilometers out to sea. Radon invenprocess to include the data currently being tories (Rn 222 activity correlated to water harvested from the seven Falmouth meters depth) and salinity trends clearly confirmed deployed in the conduits leading to Wakulla the location of the previously known Lanark Spring. The S-4 data contains a surprising- and Sulfur Springs. Additionally, a nearly rich spectrum of variations in discharge shore area just west of the FSU Marine and other variables, on all timescales from Laboratory (FSUML) was also investigated hourly to (at least) annual. This variability, and shown to display lower salinity and elewhen properly analyzed and cross-correlat- vated radon levels. This area was used to ed with rainfall and flow in sinking investigate diffusive seepage since there streams, can shed considerable light on how was no visible surface drainage anywhere the Wakulla Springs flow system responds nearby. to events and activities on the land surface.
This in turn will provide the basis for the During the same period that these surcalibration of KARSTMOD model that will veys were performed, the researchers
36




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
deployed a stationary continuous radon shore samples were analyzed for Rn 222 monitor at a station about 100 meters off and Ra 226, after collection by FGS FSUML and collected time-series data for researchers. The samples show the general approximately 24 hours. These results were decreasing trend in radon activity as one used to estimate diffusive seepage using a moves farther offshore, away from groundmodeling approach that generally relies on water-spring inputs. These preliminary solving mass balance equations. Estimates findings would seem to justify continuation showed ground-water velocities ranging of the effort to better quantify ground-water from 5-40 cm/day with increased seepage discharge in the Spring Creek and other rates at low tide. vents using Radium isotopes
Such trends of enhanced seepage dur- In FY 2002-2003 the FGS funded some ing lower tidal stages have now been seen of the effort to develop and construct the in several areas including the area around Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter FSUML and in the Florida Keys. This is to replace the old-fashioned metal drum apparently due to a modulating effect meters previously used in detecting and caused by increased hydrostatic pressure at measuring ground-water discharge. That higher tides resulting in diminished effort was interrupted due to some difficulground-water discharge flow rates because ties with Dr. Taniguchi's travel from Japan the hydrostatic pressure acts in the oppo- to the US. In the latter parts of 2004 the site direction than the effects of the researchers acquired the final components hydraulic gradient coming off the land. needed to construct the Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter without the need
The isotopic results from Sulfur Spring to have the inventor physically present in all showed essentially the same result for the US. One of six meters was constructed all parameters measured (salinity, radon, and tested successfully. The researchers and radium), indicating that there is little also worked with Dr. Paul Lee of DEP who mixing going on at the spring vent. Lanark had designed and built, together with perSpring, on the other hand, showed internal sonnel from the FSU-FAMU School of consistency in the conductivity/salinity Engineering, an automatic seepage meter results but a wide variation in the radon based on ultrasonic sound (the Taniguchi and radium results. The most likely expla- meter is based on the flow of heat). nation is that there was mixing of at least
two fresh ground-water end-members in the These meters were deployed in environvent sampled. The high-radon sample in ments where more disseminated flow is Lanark was fairly similar in composition to expected, including the area around all samples in Sulfur Spring. Lanark Reef, Lake Barco (a site of another DEP project involving ground water-surface
The FSU/FGS team also worked on an water interaction), and other locations of assessment of flow rates and isotopic con- potential interest to the DEP and the FGS. centrations in waters from several vents at The result of these studies will be signifiSpring Creek Spring on April 14, 2004. FGS cant to planned research (in 2005/2006 researchers made measurements using con- time-frame) supported by the Hydrogeology tinuous side scans surveys and FSU inves- Program which seeks to account for ground tigators collected a total of 20 samples for water contribution in calculating Total isotopic analysis at two transects and four Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) to surface individual spring vents. Five additional off- waters.
37




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic maps provides the most detailed lithostratiFramework Mapping Project graphic and hydrostratigraphic data in the state to date, and will provide the basis for
Begun in 1995, the Southwest Florida further improvement. The end product is Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project set for review in 2006 and publishing soon has been a collaborative effort between the thereafter. The final product will be in both FGS and SWFWMD to create a Microsoft
paper and digital formats.
Access database of wells within the district
for the mapping project. The creation of this AQUIFER VULNERABILITY database, FGS_Wells, lead to state wide ASSESSMENT PROGRAM implementation in 2000 which included Oil
and Gas regulatory data and ArcGIS well This program area focuses on continued location interfacing, modeling of the contamination potential of Florida's aquifer systems at the state and
The mapping project culmination in local scale. In addition, areas that are sus2004 has generated 20 surface and thick- ceptible to the formation of sinkholes have ness maps and 34 cross-sections illustrating been delineated in a pilot study of "sensitive the lithostratigraphic and hydrostrati- karst areas." Knowledge of these areas is graphic framework of the southwest Florida important with regard to land-use planning region. These maps were created using and construction criteria for retention ArcGIS and AutoCAD. Mapped lithologic ponds. units include the Middle Eocene Avon Park
Formation to the Miocene/Pliocene Peace Florida Aquifer Vulnerability River Formation. Mapped hydrologic units Assessment include the Middle Floridan Aquifer
Confining Unit, the Floridan Aquifer During the 2003-2004 calendar year, System, the Intermediate Aquifer System, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability and the Surficial Aquifer System. Assessment (FAVA) project was in full swing. The assessment is based on an anaA database of 1065 wells is the basis for lytical method adapted for GIS-based minthe generated maps. Of these 1065 wells eral-potential mapping. The method, known more than 60 percent have been inspected as Weights of Evidence (WofE), combines to determine lithostratigraphic contacts. evidence from known occurrences of a pheDetailed lithologic descriptions have been nomena with spatial data to calculate a premade of approximately one-quarter of those dictive response based on Bayesian theory wells. Where gaps exist, wells with geo- with an assumption of conditional indephysical logs are included in the analysis to pendence. Prior probabilities are calculated provide adequate coverage for the generat- by dividing the number of known occured maps and cross-sections. rences (training points) by the study area producing a probability of occurrence without the benefit of relevant data. Weights are
The maps were generated using the
calculated for independent GIS data coverGeostatistical and Spatial Analyst extenages (evidential themes) based on the spasions in ArcGIS 8.3. All regions of the tial relation between each evidential theme SWFWMD including a ten-mile buffer zone and training points. Results are reflected as were analyzed. The production of these posterior probabilities on an output map
38




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
known as the response theme. in 2004 to complete a vulnerability assessment for that county. A draft of the report
The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability has been completed and the county is now Assessment (FAVA) applies the WofE considering additional funds to refine input method to the three principal aquifer sys- geologic data layers, which may serve to tems in Florida through the use of the Arc refine the response theme. Spatial Data Modeler within the ArcView
3.x platform. This extension facilitates Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment assessment of spatial datasets, conditional
independence, response theme uncertainty In 2004, the bulk of the work for the and validation, and provides other model- Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment ing techniques and statistical tools. Results (WAVA) and a draft report was completed. of the project include maps that predict the The study was initiated due to water qualirelative contamination potential of ty concerns in Wekiwa spring and the Florida's principal aquifer systems. Wekiva River. Hydrogeology of the Wekiva River study area is characterized by moderIn FAVA models, training points con- ate to no confinement and a multitude of sist of data from wells reflecting back- karst features. Ground water recharges the ground water quality. Parameters used in Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) by infiltrathe models to reflect known occurrences of tion through these sediments or directly aquifer vulnerability in the natural hydro- through sinkholes. The Wekiva River geologic system include dissolved oxygen Coordinating Committee Final Report idenand total dissolved nitrogen. Evidential tifies numerous studies by Florida's water themes include combinations of several management districts and the USGS that improved or newly created statewide cover- clearly demonstrate contamination attribages: depth to water table, hydraulic head utable to changes in land use. Therefore, difference, thickness of confinement, dis- the FGS was authorized under the Springs tance to karst features, soil permeability, Initiative and the Wekiva River and aquifer system overburden. To maxi- Coordinating Committee to identify zones of mize scientific defensibility of the response aquifer vulnerability, for the Floridan themes (relative vulnerability maps), mod- Aquifer System, within the Wekiva River els were validated using independent train- study area. ing data sets, training-point subsets and by
demonstrating lack of correlation between WAVA utilizes a model that applies land use and posterior probability, existing geographic information system data to predict relative vulnerability of the
Aquifer vulnerability maps are an Floridan Aquifer System in the Wekiva important resource for planners, develop- study area. The vulnerability zones are ers, resource-management professionals based on the weights of evidence (WofE) and policy makers to facilitate protection of modeling technique used in the statewide Florida's ground-water resources at the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment regional and local level. Among the (FAVA). strengths of the FAVA methodology is the
ability to scale the study area to better meet Use of WofE requires the combination the needs of local government agencies. For of diverse spatial data which are used to example, Alachua County funded the FGS describe and analyze interactions and gen39




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
erate predictive models. In WAVA the spa- ments). The WofE technique quantifies tial data is composed of a training point relationships between these evidential theme and evidential themes. The training themes and the training point theme in point theme consists of locations of known order to predict zones of vulnerability. occurrences. In WAVA these are wells that These zones are classified into a primary exceed a certain concentration of dissolved protection zone, a secondary protection zone oxygen. Wells with high dissolved oxygen and a tertiary protection zone. These proconcentrations are indicative of areas where tection zones will be used in decision maka good connection exists between the top of ing, development of rules, or policies the aquifer and land surface. The evidential regarding environmental conservation, prothemes include soil permeability, buffered tection, growth management and planning. effective karst features, Intermediate
Aquifer System (IAS) thickness and head Sensitive Karst Areas difference between the Surficial Aquifer
System and the Floridan Aquifer System. The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a These themes act as evidence in the model thick sequence of Paleogene carbonates, is a by either protecting the aquifer from con- major fresh water resource in Florida. tamination or allowing contamination to Overburden comprised of Surficial Aquifer move quickly from land surface to the top of System and/or Intermediate Aquifer the aquifer system (i.e., areas of thick IAS System sediments may act to protect the sediments versus areas of thin IAS sedi- FAS from potential contamination sources where it is present. This overburden can be
several hundred feet thick where it provides
variable confinement for the FAS, or it can
be thin to absent in areas where carbonate
.units comprising the FAS are exposed at or one.. -near land surface. In areas where the overS.burden is thin to absent, the potential for
_ karst terrain development such as sink-Kat holes and collapse features is increased.
Features Karst terrain provides preferential flow paths for surface water to enter the underAS -4o, lying aquifer system and, therefore, places Thickne them at a greater risk of contamination from the surface.
Hydraulic
To develop the sensitive karst areas
WAVA (SKA) boundary, the FGS utilized a To... Geographic Information System incorporating spatial data layers such as the state
geologic map, land surface topography and
overburden thickness maps. Land surface
topography is comprised of the Digital
Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the
FAVA project. The DEM was created by
Conceptual model of the FAS. The top four digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 layers are evidential themes and the bot- scale Quadrangle maps, converting these tom layer is the response theme divided arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and into zones of relative vulnerability, then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM
40




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
GRID along with a GRID of the top of the ment between the surface and limestone, Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the total depth of holding pond, vegetation NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS requirements, sediment traps, liners and overburden GRID. This was accomplished potentially ground-water modeling. For by subtracting the FAS overburden from more information on this project please the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of refer to the American Geological Institute FAS overburden were then identified and website: overlain on areas affected by karst topogra- http://www.agiweb.org/environment/pubphy in the NWFWMD. Based on the combi- lications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf nation of these two maps the SKA limits Please hit refresh if figure does not appear were identified for the NWFWMD. the first time.
This methodology was created for the Florida Springs Protection Areas Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource In response to a request by the Florida Management and was inserted in the FDEP Department of Community Affairs (DCA) in Department of Community Affairs (D)CA) in Environmental Resource Permit Applicant's Handbook Volume -1, Engineering 2004, the FGS developed a map delineating Handbook -Volume II, Engineering Requirements for Stormwater Treatment areas where Florida's springsheds and and Management Systems Water Quality springs are susceptible to land use activiand Water Quantity. The delineated SKA ties. The resulting map will be available in maps are used when sighting proposed digital form as FGS Open File Map Series stormwater holding ponds and establishes No. 95, and can be referenced when state additional design criteria for these struc- growth and land use issues are addressed. tures including minimum thickness of sedir\
I'
Florida Springs Protection Areas
FGS Springs
o Springs
* Outlier 3rd Magnitude Springs
Spring Protection Areas
Miles
I00 50 0 100
Xilonreters
IW 50 0 ]00
41




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The purpose of the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida's springs and provide land use decision-makers with a published resource to assist them in protecting and restoring the quantity and quality of Florida spring discharge. Utilizing data from Florida water manage- ment districts, the U.S. Geological Survey and Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS utilized geographical / information systems (GIS) software, expert knowledge and interpretation to generate a map delineating springs protection areas in IFa.ning Spinagshed Florida. This updatable map will be periodically revised as on-going and future delineate the Fanning Springshed. The research improves our understanding of delineation was based on a one-foot potenspringsheds tiometric surface obtained from over 100 SRWMD wells. The anticipated completion Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on date for the project is 2006. the Water Quality of Fanning Springs OTHER OUTSOURCED RESEARCH Fanning Springs is a first-magnitude
spring located within Fanning Springs The Hydrogeology Program and the State Park on the Suwannee River in Levy Outsourcing Program have been described County. The spring consistently discharges elsewhere in this and in the last biennial nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite as N) in excess report. The following is an update of projof 3.0 mg/L. This is the highest concentra- ects developed in the 2003/2004 period and tion of nitrate discharging from any of the those ongoing in 2005. first-magnitude springs that reside in Florida's State Parks. In a cooperative The following projects, funded by the effort with the Department's Division of Hydrogeology Program for FY 2003/2004, Recreation and Parks and the USGS, the were completed and reports delivered: FGS is assessing the source of nitrate discharging from the spring. The goals of the -The utility of foraminifera (forams) as indiproject are to estimate: (1) the aerial extent cators of environmental degradation or of the springshed (recharge basin); (2) the salinity changes in coastal waters. This sources of nitrate originating within the project was a continuation of an initial springshed and their respective contribu- study supported in FY 2001. The first tion to the loading of nitrate; (3) the ground- phase of the study focused on natural water travel times for the various sources of changes in salinity profiles, while the secnitrate; (4) the dilution rates that occur ond phase focused on foram's response to between the sources and the spring; and (5) pollution. The current report is being develestablish a nitrate monitoring network for oped for publication as an FGS Special Fanning Springs. During 2003 and 2004, Publication. the FGS obtained pertinent data from the Suwannee River Water Management A CD ROM for the Proceedings of the District (SRWMD). In addition, the Workshop Significance of Caves in SRWMD and the FGS worked together to Watershed Management and Protection in
42




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Florida was finalized. An adequate number influenced by interaction with surface of CDs were produced by the FGS for distri- waters. Flow meters deployed by divers in bution to all the workshop participants and the tunnels and caves of the spring system other interested parties; it is available at have been generating data that will be stathe FGS library for purchase by the public. tistically analyzed and correlated with other data, such as rainfall and hydraulic
- A report on the evaluation of remote sens- heads in wells, in an effort to locate the ing methods for the identification of areas of sources of surface water input into the ground-water interaction with surface spring system. water has been finalized. It is being peerreviewed internally and externally for pub- Wells have also been drilled directly lication as an FGS Special Publication. into conduits using transponders purchased for the purpose. Power sources and tubing
-A report on the dye tracing studies in the have been threaded through these wells to Woodville Karst watershed project has also allow for continuous data recording and been completed. This study was conducted water quality sample collection and analyin an effort to generate data on ground- sis without the need to dive into these conwater movement in karst for the ultimate duits. During 2005, efforts will be focused purpose of developing a model to predict on developing a telemetry system that will such movement. The study was conducted allow for direct input of data into computers by Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. under contract with of the scientists involved. Similar studies FSU and the FGS. This report is also being are being conducted in the Manatee Spring developed into an FGS publication. In the System by the Suwannee River Water interim; the report is available for review on Management District in cooperation with the Hydrogeology Consortium and Hazlett- FGS and the Springs Initiative Program. Kincaid, Inc. webpages (http://hydrogeologyconsortium.org/ and http://www.hazlett- Other projects that were conducted by kincaid.com/) FSU, UWF and the USGS and funded by the Hydrogeology Program in FY
- A report on the evaluation of remote sens- 2003/2004: ing techniques for the identification of submarine springs was also completed. This 1. Evaluating the impact of ASR projects on study was funded by a grant from NASA's Jet native microbial communities. Propulsion Lab. The report has been deliv- 2. Identifying the sources of bacterial conered to and accepted by NASA in satisfaction tamination of springs using genetic typing of the grant requirements. The grant allowed and bio-film cultures. the purchase of satellite "scenes" of areas of 3. Quantifying ground-water discharge into the Gulf of Mexico being studied for thermal surface waters using radon and radium surface waters using radon and radium
signatures. These signatures would indicate
possible discharge of ground water to surface along with seepage meters.
4. Developing a workshop to address scienwaters of the Gulf as well as inland waters. 4 degaorshs si tific and regulatory issues associated with
-The first phase of a study that was con- ASR projects in Florida. ducted by FSU, in cooperation with FGS 5. Continuation of dye tracing studies in the and the Springs Initiative Program at DEP, Woodville Karst watershed for the ultimate has also been completed. This project seeks purpose of developing models to predict to understand the dynamics of water flow in ground-water movement and contaminants the Wakulla Spring system and how it is behavior and transport in karstic settings.
43




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM or by telephone at (850) 644-5625 Fax: (850) 644-8972. Currently, the Consortium is in
Large areas of Florida, as well as other the process of being classified as a not-forareas of the US, are underlain by karst profit organization for federal taxing purgeology, which is riddled with conduits and poses. In 2004, the Consortium co-sponcavities of differing diameters and orienta- sored a workshop on ASR in cooperation tions resulting in ground-water flow under with the FGS and the American Ground multi-porosity conditions. Under such con- Water Trust. ditions the classical equations (such as
Darcy's Law) for depicting ground-water Since its establishment, the flow and contaminant transport are not Consortium, in cooperation with the operative. Karstic conditions also allow for Hydrogeology Program, has been involved significant volumes of ground water to flow in organizing and or co-sponsoring several rapidly through watersheds with increased workshops including the following for which potential for interaction with surface water. CDs for the proceedings have been develGround-water models based largely on oped and are currently available for purDarcy's Law and traditionally used in chase from the FGS's library: homogeneous aquifers are, therefore, not
applicable in karst. New approaches must 1) Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the be developed to conceptualize flow and Management and Protection of Florida transport in multi-porosity aquifers. Based Springs (May 8-9, 2002) in Ocala, Florida, on such conceptual models, analytical and FGS Special Publication 51. numerical models could eventually be
developed that would, more accurately, pre- 2) Workshop on the Significance of Caves in dict water flow in karstic aquifers. The use Watershed Management and Protection, of such models will be essential if the (April 16-17, 2003) in Ocala, Florida, FGS behavior and ultimate fate of natural and Special Publication 53. man-made contaminants on ground-water
quality are to be evaluated. Ground-water 3) Workshop on Aquifer Storage & Recovery quality data will in turn be critical in mak- IV: Science, Technology, Management and ing correct decisions in efforts to clean up Policy. The workshop was held on April 15and/or manage karst-dominated water- 16, 2004 in Tampa, Florida, FGS Special sheds. Publication 54.
To help in achieving this goal, scien- The Consortium also co-sponsored sevtists from state and federal agencies, as eral other public education activities aimed well as universities and the private sector, at educating the public about the signifiunder the leadership of Drs. Rodney S. cance and vulnerability of the Wakulla DeHan of the FGS and David Loper of FSU, Springs System to degradation from activimet in November 1997 and established the ties on the land surface. This effort consistHydrogeology Consortium. The steps taken ed of presentations made by Consortium and parties involved were discussed in ear- members and other FGS scientists and conlier biennial reports that can be found on tractors in "town hall" type meetings in the FGS's Webpage. More details about the Woodville and subsequently in Tallahassee Consortium, including how to join in, can followed by a "Walk for Wakulla" in also be found at: November of 2004. A more detailed descriphttp://hydrogeologyconsortium.org tion of these events can be found on the Consortium's Webpage mentioned above.
44




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
OIL AND GAS SECTION
The Oil and Gas Section regulates
petroleum exploration and production with- in the state and state waters pursuant to Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and implementing Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30, Florida Administrative Code. The Section's primary responsibilities are environmental protection, safety, conservation of oil and gas resources, and correlative rights protection. These concerns are addressed when permit applications are reviewed and permit conditions are enforced by field inspection. The Section's home office is located in Tallahassee and the field offices are in Jay and Ft. Myers near the oil and gas fields. The Section's key activities include permitting geophysical, drilling, and transport operations, inspecting field operations, Ed Garrett, Administrator of the Oil and tracking activities by the use of production Gas Section (photo by David Taylor). and other reporting forms, enforcing financial security requirements, and maintaining databases for well and geophysical permits. REGULATORY PROGRAM
Approximately 6.1 million barrels of During the state's production decline crude oil and 7 billion cubic feet of natural over the last 26 years, the Oil and Gas gas were produced in Florida during 2003 gas were produced in Florida during 2003 Section's focus has gradually shifted from and 2004. During the last 2 years, the state's oil and gas production rates have permitting and inspecting drilling and geofallen by 21% and 8% respectively. On physical operations to regulation of well December 31, 2004, the state's cumulative maintenance, plugging/abandonment, site production totals reached approximately restoration, and decommissioning of oil and 595 million barrels of oil and 628 billion gas field facilities. Over the last two years, 23 wells were plugged and abandoned and 5 cubic feet of gas. In 1978, Florida's annual wells were r ed ap o e well sites were restored. Approximately 72 petroleum production rates peaked at 48 of the state's 180 permitted oil and gas million barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic esae rnl it d and wells are currently inactive and may need feet of gas, which ranked Florida 8th among to be plugged and abandoned over the next oil producing states. Since 1945, the state serly a ba o the n several years. Many of the existing produchas received approximately 1382 drilling s el ar a oh ing proding wells are approaching profitability permit applications, of which 319 wells threshold as the statewide water cut (perthreshold as the statewide water cut (perwere never drilled, 716 were dry holes, and 346 became producers. The state currently centage of produced water mixed with the has 59 producing wells operating within produced crude oil) has climbed to 96%.
Currently 58 of the state's 180 permitted eight active oil and gas fields. One field, wells are dedicated to reinjecting produced with three wells, is currently shut in and 12 water that has been separated from proformerly producing fields have been perma- duced crude oil. nently plugged and abandoned.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
cessful, the operator plans to drill up to eight additional wells from the same pad which lies in an orange grove south of Lake Placid. Permit applications have been submitted for three of these wells.
Although no new drilling permits were issued for established fields in the Sunniland Trend, five existing operating permits were recertified, one producing well was drilled to a deeper target, 20 wells were Southwest Florida Oil and Gas Inspectors worked over to perform downhole mainteBob Caughey and Paul Attwood (timer nance and secondary recovery techniques, photo by Paul Attwood). five wells were plugged and abandoned, and four restored well sites passed final inspecDRILLING AND PRODUCTION
tion. Production from the nine fields in the Southwestern Florida: Collier southwest Florida dropped from approxiSouthwestern Florida: Colhier.
mately 3,300 to 2,600 barrels of oil per day. Resources Company, the major mineral Oil and Gas staff at the Fort Myers field rights owner within the Big Cypress office conducted 5,696 inspections of wells National Preserve, agreed to sell its drilling and related facilities. rights on 765,000 acres to the Department of Interior, but Congress failed to fund the Northwest Florida: Production at Jay Northwest Florida: Production at Jay transaction. The two parties are now contransaction. The two parties are now con- Field was suspended for 10 days in response sidering renegotiating the arrangement to Hurricane Ivan during September 2004. pending another study of petroleum reserve The shut down cost Exxon-Mobil approxiestimates. If the two parties ultimately .
mately 100,000 barrels of oil. Nevertheless, come to an agreement, the likelihood of
comear-tom a lagr nt teelo of Jay field continues to dominate state pronear-term exploration or development of auction with approximately 73% of the new fields in southern Florida will be substate's total oil and 78% of the gas. Jay stantially reduced. Field has now produced 416 million barrels of oil. Although no new wells were drilled in One drilling permit for a wildcat well
Jay Field during 2003-2004, Exxon-Mobil was issued during the 2003-2004 period in submitted four drilling applications in 2004 submitted four drilling applications in 2004
southwest Florida. Drilling operations for and was preparing to begin drilling this and was preparing to begin drilling this
the well, the Bob Paul #20-4 in Highlands series of infield wells at the end of 2004.
Couny, ega Novmbe 8,2004andwas series of infield wells at the end of 2004. County, began November 8, 2004 and was still underway at the end of 2004. The tarDuring March 2004, Petro Operating
get is the Deep Lake Sands Formation at a Dn rc ro opati Company resumed production at the total vertical depth of 12,800 feet. Although a ree d rato a h Blackjack Creek Field after a two year shut
the closest productive well is approximately down to reconfigure the field's separator 40 miles southwest of the Bob Paul #20-4, a plant for reinjection of acid gas byproduct.
dry hole drilled 12 miles to the west in 1955 plant for reinjection of acid gas byproduct.
Production has since averaged approxiunder Permit 225 yielded shows of crude oil m t as .oi a d 5mi mately 170 barrels of oil and 0.54 million in core samples taken from the in core samples taken from the cubic feet of gas per day. McLellan Field, Fredericksburg "B" Formation from depths which lies approximately 20 miles east of between 8,822 and 8,890 feet. The operator Jay has not produced any oil or gas since intends to test Bob Paul #20-4 for hydrocar- 2003 and may be decommissioned when its bons at various depths. If the well is suc- current operating permits expire in October
46current operating permits expire in October
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
2005. Oil and Gas staff at the Jay field was submitted to the Oil and Gas Section in office conducted 2,285 inspections of wells 1992 and was ultimately denied in 1998. and related facilities during the 2003-2004 The U.S. Supreme Court ruling culminated period. several years of legal dispute between Coastal and the State of Florida over
During 2003, one wildcat well was numerous offshore drilling applications and drilled in northwest Florida near Coastal's Gulf of Mexico offshore leases Crestview. The Permit 1315 well was direc- which extend along a 425-mile tract from tionally drilled by Zinke and Trumbo, Inc. Apalachicola to Naples. underneath Interstate 10 in Okaloosa
County to a Smackover Formation target at IMPORTED NATURAL GAS a total vertical depth of 15,500 feet. IN SOUTH FLORIDA Production flow testing was not conducted
because well logs indicated the well was a Prior to 2002, the only major natural dry hole. Zinke and Trumbo, Inc, applied in gas delivery system to southern Florida was 2003 for drilling permits to three additional the Florida Gas Transmission Pipeline targets, but chose to terminate the drilling which extends from southern Texas to project when the first well proved unsuc- southern Florida with mainline capacity of cessful. 2.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/day).
During 2002, Duke Energy Gas
GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Transmission and Williams completed construction of the Gulfstream Pipeline, which
One geophysical survey was conducted crossed the Gulf of Mexico along a 581-mile by Mayne and Mertz, Inc. under Permit No. path from south Alabama to Manatee G-160-03 from January through March County. A 110-mile extension across the 2004 in northern Escambia and Santa Rosa Florida peninsula was added in 2004. The Counties. The survey method was three- extension will ultimately deliver 1.1 Bcf/day dimensional seismic reflection/refraction to nine counties in southern Florida. covering 13 square miles. The energy source
was 5.5 pound charges detonated from During April 2004, the Governor and within approximately 950 shallow shot Cabinet approved plans by Tractebel North holes. All drilling, detonations, and plug- America and AES to build two additional ging operations were witnessed under the natural gas pipelines to south Florida with Oil and Gas Section's observer program. a combined total capacity of approximately The section's geophysical engineer super- two Bcf/day. The gas will be imported via vised and coordinated the inspection duties liquefied natural gas tanker ships from of 23 observers. around the world, offloaded and revaporized at port/pipeline facilities in the
OFFSHORE ACTIVITY Bahamas, and delivered through undersea pipelines to Broward and Palm Beach
In June 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court Counties. chose not to hear an appeal by Coastal
Petroleum Company to reconsider lower Completion of these pipeline systems court rulings against Coastal's claim that will dramatically increase southern the State of Florida's denial of offshore Florida's natural gas supply and may ultidrilling Permit Application 1281 constitut- mately create a strong demand for large ed an illegal taking of Drilling Lease No. scale gas storage systems in south Florida. 224-A. Permit Application 1281, which pro- Oil and gas operators in southwestern posed drilling south of St. George Island, Florida have already directed inquiries to
47




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
the Oil and Gas Section concerning permit- continues, this well and up to ten others are ting procedures for modifying depleted oil slated for plugging and abandonment over and gas fields for use as large scale gas stor- the next two years. age facilities. The oil and gas rules, Sections 62C-25 through 62C-30, Florida OIL AND GAS DATABASE Administrative Code, are currently being revised to address gas storage permitting. In 2004, the section's primary well permit database was upgraded to track, OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM archive, and make monthly reports for all oil and gas well production data in the During 2003 and 2004, the Oil and Gas state. This new tool provides section staff Section's petroleum engineer launched a with the capability of performing such tasks as evaluating wells and fields, reconciling program approved by the legislature to con- production data with other records, conveyduct remedial plugging on improperly ing to mineral owners the oil and gas proplugged and abandoned old oil and gas duction of a specific area, providing packwells throughout the state. These wells aged information for the website, and other were generally drilled before the state's for- tasks. mal regulatory system of rigorous permitting and inspection. The targeted wells OIL AND GAS WEBSITE were prioritized on the basis of potential threat to potable ground water. The sec- The Oil and Gas Section's website was tion's petroleum engineer directed a con- expanded in 2004 to publish monthly protracted drilling service to plug six wells in duction data from all of the state's active oil Levy County and one in Putnam County. and gas wells. The new system provides raw During 2004, plugging operations were cut and summarized production data to the short on a 12,000 foot well in Collier County industry, the public, and to other governbecause of unexpected metal debris found in ment agencies. The system supplants bulk the original cement plugs. As the program mailing, gives users the information faster, and provides it in a digital format.
Florida Annual I
45
Crude Oil Production
40 1943- 2004
35
30
25
, Noflh Fiokia 20
15
10
South Fforida
5
1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year
48




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
SPECIAL PROJECTS
INTRODUCTION Management and Insurance, in consultation with the Florida Geological Survey to
From time-to-time certain issues arise provide recommendations on the feasibility in addition to planned and budgeted activi- of creating a Sinkhole Insurance Facility, ties, to which the Florida Geological Survey and to recommend "uniform standards" to is asked to respond. In 2004, the FGS par- evaluate sinkhole claims (among numerous ticipated in a legislative request to assess other things). In this regard, the FGS coninsurance coverage of sinkhole damage and vened Sinkhole Summit II to essentially commenced a project to update the hydros- update the 1992 effort. Many technologies tratigraphic unit names in Florida. and the understanding of subsurface karst processes have advanced during the last
SINKHOLE SUMMIT II twelve years and a modern update was in order. The intent was to gather a group of
In 1992, the Florida Geological Survey experts in one place to discuss the currenthosted a Sinkhole Summit in response to ly accepted practices used by the professionlegislation that requested the Florida State al geoscience community. Another intent University Center for Insurance Research, was to compile a listing of those technolounder the direction of the Florida gies and activities that a competent profesDepartment of Insurance to address numer- sional would utilize in an assessment of a ous issues dealing with insurance coverage site to determine if karst processes are presof sinkhole damages. One small part of that ent or responsible for observed features. effort dealt with what competent professionals do to determine if karst processes The meeting was held in the conference are the likely or probable cause of observed room of the FGS Headquarters at the damage. In addition, the legislation Gunter Building in Tallahassee on requested input on recommendations for a September 28, 2004. Twenty five continuing research facility on sinkhole sci- Professional Geologists, geotechnical engience. The summit was a brainstorming and neers, and other experts representing priconsensus building session among a cross- vate industry / consultants, regional, state section of Professional Geologists, geotech- and federal governmental agencies, acadenical engineers and other associated mia, and agency insurance program experts experts to compile such a listing and participated. A final submittal to the FSU address the questions. A summary of those Department of Risk Management and deliberations was included in the final leg- Insurance for incorporation into their islative report and those specific sections report to the Financial Services were reproduced by the FGS as Open File Commission and the Legislature was comReport No. 72 (available online, see FGS pleted in November 2004. The report is web site, List of Publications). titled: Geological and Geotechnical Investigation Procedures for Evaluation of
The 2004 legislative session again the Causes of Subsidence Damage in requested an assessment of insurance cov- Florida, compiled by W. Schmidt, with conerage in response to sinkhole damage. A tributions from the participants of Sinkhole study was requested to be done by the FSU Summit II. The report will be available College of Business, Department of Risk online as an FGS Special Publication.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
REVISION TO THE HYDROGEOLOGICAL UNITS OF FLORIDA (FGS SPECIAL PUBLICATION 28)
In 1986, FGS published a document, Hydrogeological Units of Florida. It was published for the Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, / under the auspices of the Southeastern Geological Society. The document addressed the issue of consistency of nomenclature within the hydrogeologic community in Florida. It was an important step in assisting both governmental agencies and the private sector regarding the proper and consistent use of hydrogeology terms throughout the state.
Recently, based on discussions by staff from the FGS, the USGS, and the private sector, it was noted that since 1986, there had been a considerable increase in the understanding of the Florida's hydrogeological units. For this reason, in 2003, a committee was formed to discuss potential revisions to the document. The committee (The Second Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition) consists of representatives from the FGS, the USGS, the water management districts, private hydrogeological consultants, and the Florida university system.
The committee met in August, 2003 to discuss potential revisions. It was decided that a revised publication should be made. The FGS took the lead. The revised publication will consist of a minimum of text and will emphasis a series of hydrogeological cross sections from around the state published in poster format. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS began making a series of hydrogeological cross sections traversing the state with using updated hydrostratigraphic terminology. The revisions will be reviewed by the AD Hoc committee and the expected completion date is 2006. FGS geologists Frank Rupert and Walt Schmidt examine a large sinkhole in Tallahassee (photo by Tom Scott).
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION
HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY ering DO once As is in solution, and the LAB AND SEM effects of SO4 and Fe in the water. Also being considered is magnetic separation of
The Hydrogeology Section acquired the carbonates to concentrate the potentialnew lab space at the DEP Annex for a ly As-rich phases. hydrogeochemistry lab and sample storage.
Part of the space is occupied by a radio-iso- The Hydrogeology Section has also tope lab, equipped with an alpha spectrom- acquired a used Jeol JXA-840A Scanning eter, a radio-isotope fume hood, and a Mega Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM lab is Pure 3A water still. This lab will be used for located adjacent to the hydrogeochemistry uranium isotope studies of ground water. lab. This instrument can be used for many Of particular interest will be the water-rock applications. The current study will utilize interaction processes, including sequential its high performance electron probe microleaching and mobility of trace metals, that analyzer and its capability as a high resoluoccur during ASR. tion scanning microscope. Pre- and-postleaching samples will be examined. The
From this, future geochemical models electron probe micro analyzer measures may be able to predict water-rock interac- constituent elements of a specimen and tions and movement of the As front. their distribution. The EDX utilizes 4 Pi Experiments will look at the effects of low- Revolution software.
IlaI
New Scanning Electron Microscope (photo by Cindy Fischler).
51




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
CORE STORAGE FACILITY EXPANSION
Additional space within the FDEP a Warehouse building (where our existing sample repository is located) became available to the FGS and has been utilized for additional core storage and for a new sample preparation lab. Well samples will now New Ford F450 water/support truck be delivered, processed and archived in the (photo by Ken Campbell). same building. The first phase of mobile aisle shelving has been installed. This crew safety, productivity and depth capabilexpansion, when all shelving is installed, ity. A new water truck/support vehicle was will handle core storage needs for the next also purchased. 12-15 years. The FGS is grateful for financial support from the SWFWMD in the NEW OFFICE SPACE effort.
Drilling operations staff moved to office NEW DRILL RIG AND WATER TRUCK space in the Warehouse and Core Storage Facility located behind the Florida The Florida Legislature provided funds Department of Environmental Protection's to procure a new, state of the art drill rig to (FDEP) Annex. Both buildings are south replace the very tired and inefficient Gefco and across the street from the FDEP 1500. The new rig (Schramm T450M11A) Douglas Building located just off of Capitol will provide significant improvements in Circle Northwest in Tallahassee.
- !
New Schramm T450M11A drill rig (photo by Frank Rupert).
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
PUBLICATIONS
FGS PUBLICATIONS a unique and invaluable natural resource.
A comprehensive understanding of the The following reports in the FGS publi- spring systems will provide the basis for cation series were published during the their protection and wise use. period from January 2003 through FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM December 2004: FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM
BIENNIAL REPORT The Florida Geology Forum newsletter is designed to reach a wide range of readers Balsillie, J. H., 2003, Florida Geological interested in geology and natural resources Survey Biennial Report 22, 2001-2002: of Florida. Each issue includes current Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report events and activities at the FGS, as well as 22, 115 p. meeting announcements and contributed articles from other geoscience organizations BULLETIN and University geology departments.
Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P March 2003, v. 17, no. 1, edited by Paula Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P., Plo Means, R.C., Upchurch, S.B., Copeland, Polson R.E., Jones, J., Roberts, T., and Willet, R.E., Jones, J., Roberts, T., and Willet, October 2003, v. 17, no. 2, edited by Paula A., 2004, Springs of Florida: Florida Polson.
Geological Survey Bulletin 66, 377 p. plus CD.
CD. March 2004, v. 18, no. 1, edited by Paula
In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey Polson.
(FGS) published the first Springs of Florida October 2004, v. 18, no. 2, edited by Paula bulletin which documented the major and Polson. important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947). This publication was revised in INFORMATION CIRCULAR 1977, with many previously undocumented springs and many new water-quality analy- Armstrong, Carol, (ed.) 2004, List of ses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Publications. Florida Geological Survey Publications. Florida Geological Survey Florida Geological Survey's report on first Information Circular 87, 56 p.
magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was the initial step in once again updating and LEAFLET revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. The new bulletin includes the spring Rupert, F., 2004, This is the Florida descriptions and water-quality analyses Geological Survey: Florida Geological from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly 300 springs Survey Leaflet 17. were described in 1977. As of 2004, more than 700 springs have been recognized in This color t-fold brochure summarizes This color tri-fold brochure summarizes the state and more are reported each year. the history, mission and services provided To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a by the Florida Geological Survey. Inside, by the Florida Geological Survey. Inside, flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second the brochure details the present adminisor approximately 64.6 million gallons of trative structure of the Survey along with water per day) have been recognized in .rtv .tutr fteSuvyaogwt water per day) have been recognized in listings of current projects and activities. Florida, more than any other state or coun- Contact information and a map to the main try (Rosenau et al., 1977). Our springs are offices are provided on the back panel.
53offices are provided on the back panel.
53




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
MAP SERIES
The near surface geology of the eastern
Marella, R.L., and Sepulveda, A.A., half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale 2004, Potentiometric surface of the Upper Marianna Quadrangle is composed of carFloridan Aquifer in Florida: Florida bonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging Geological Survey Map Series 149. from Eocene to Holocene. Within this area, geologic influences are a combination of fluPrinted by the FGS, this report is the vio-deltaic and marine deposition, erosion of seventh in a series of USGS map reports sediments as a result of eustatic changes in describing the potentiometric surface of the sea level, dolomitization, and dissolution of Floridan Aquifer System in Florida. It dif- underlying carbonates. These factors, comfers from the earlier reports, because it bined with the fact that there is a transition emphasizes the highly permeable Upper zone between the primarily siliciclastics Floridan Aquifer. Data were collected as sediments of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the part of a continuing program that monitors Mississippi Embayment to the west and the ground-water resources in Florida in coop- predominantly carbonate sediments of the eration with the Florida Department of Florida Platform within the study area can Environmental Protection, the state water make differentiation of formations difficult management districts, and local govern- (Green et al., 2001). ment agencies. This report illustrates and
describes the potentiometric surface of the
Upper Floridan Aquifer based on water lev- Several relict Neogene coastal terraces els from more than 1,200 wells measured in have been recognized in the area and surMay 2000 (mostly in Florida). Discussions face topography has been incised by numerregarding water levels or water-level ous streams, often creating a dendritic changes in 2000 refer to those measured in drainage pattern. Some streams emerge May 2000; similarly, 1995 water levels refer from steep sided ravines, called steepheads. to May and June 1995. The potentiometric These features, unique to western Florida, surface is a spatial representation of the reflect the interaction between ground levels in which water would rise in tightly water and thick, siliciclastics which sit atop cased wells open to the Upper Floridan impermeable clays of the underlying Alum Aquifer. The potentiometric surface was Bluff Group. developed from the altitude of water levels
in the wells and is represented on maps by Evans, W. L., III, Green, R. C., Bryan, J., contours that connect points of equal alti- and Paul, D., 2004, Geologic map of the tude above mean sea level. To depict the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 dynamic condition of the aquifer, this report scale Gainesville Quadrangle, north-central includes a map of changes in water levels Florida: Florida Geological Survey Openbetween 1995 and 2000 and hydrographs File Map Series 93, 2 plates. from five wells across the State with longterm records.
term records. The near surface geology of the western
OPEN FILE MAP SERIES portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle is composed of a
Green, R.C., Evans, W.L., III, Bryan, J., complex mixture of carbonate and siliciclasand Paul, D., 2003, Geologic map of the tic sediments ranging from Eocene to eastern portion of the USGS 1:100,000 Holocene. A combination of factors, includScale Marianna Quadrangle, northwestern ing fluvio-deltaic deposition, marine deposiFlorida: Florida Geological Survey Open- tion, dissolution of underlying carbonates, File Map Series 92, 2 plates. erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic changes in sea level, and structural fea54




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
tures, have influenced the geology of the designed Meinzer II, is compared to the study area. long-used "industry standard" Rotap shaker. Twenty sand-sized sediment sample
Much of the western portion of the pair tests were conducted using four differGainesville quadrangle is located within ent sieving protocols to determine if the Suwannee River and Santa Fe River Meinzer II shakers duplicate results forthbasins. In this area, the Suwannee River, coming from Rotap shakers. It was found, the Santa Fe River, and their tributaries based on qualitative visual assessments of contain at least 55 documented springs, sample pair cumulative probability distriincluding 9 first magnitude springs (defined butions, and on quantitative statistical as having a minimum average flow of 100 analysis, that Rotap and Meinzer II shakers cubic feet per second, or 64.6 million gallons result in essentially identical outcomes. per day). Furthermore, this conclusion is reached for samples tested with soft or friable sandOf a total of 33 first magnitude springs sized particles, wherein the Meinzer II was in the state, approximately 27 percent are found to be gentler than the Rotap located within the study area. Many of machines. these springs have evidenced significant
increases in pollutants in the last few Balsillie, J. H., 2003, A mechanically simdecades, particularly nitrate (Scott et al., ple and low cost subaqueous surface sedi2002). Detailed geologic mapping of lithos- ment sampler: Florida Geological Survey, tratigraphic units in this area provides crit- Open File Report No. 88, 19 p. ical data needed to help in future assessments of the vulnerability of these aquifer Over the years, the author has develsystems to contamination. oped a subaqueous surface sediment sampler that is simple to operate and inexpenOPEN FILE REPORTS sive to construct. It is designed to be operated in water ranging from wading depths
Rupert, F., 2003, Geology of Suwannee to a water depth up to 20 feet when operatCounty, Florida: Florida Geological Survey ed from a boat. This paper describes (1) Open File Report 86, 9 p. sampling rational of the sedimentation unit for which the device has been designed, (2)
This publication presents an overview sample size constraints for which the samof the geology of Suwannee County. pler has been configured, (3) sampler speciIncluded are sections on: 1) geomorphology, fications, dimensions and construction tips, describing the shape and origin of the land and (4) sampler operation. surface; 2) stratigraphy, describing the
underlying rock strata; 3) ground water, POSTERS providing an overview of the aquifer systems in Suwannee County; and 4) mineral Spencer, S., and Rupert, F., 2003, resources present in the county. Florida's industrial minerals: Making modern life possible: Florida Geological Survey
Balsillie, J. H., and Dabous, A. A., 2003, Poster 9. A new type of sieve shaker; the Meinzer II,
comparative study with Rotap technology: Since pre-historic times man has utiFlorida Geological Survey, Open File lized the natural materials from the earth Report No. 87, 93 p. for constructing shelters, tools, utensils, and weapons. The earliest mining in
A new type of sieve shaker, the British- Florida was carried out by Native
55




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Americans, who quarried the mineral chert the primary sinkhole zones statewide, types from limestone for use in points and tools. of sinkholes, and the processes that form Alluvial clay deposits were also utilized for them. pots and other cooking utensils. Today minerals from the earth are the building blocks Greenhalgh, T., 2003, Florida's first magof our modern society. Florida ranks among nitude springsheds: Florida Geological the top ten states in the nation in industri- Survey Poster 12. al mineral production. Florida's minerals
are utilized both locally and worldwide. The Florida Geological Survey in conThis poster illustrates and describes junction with the Northwest Florida, Florida's common industrial minerals and Suwannee River, St. Johns River and shows the mining areas for each within the Southwest Florida Water Management state. Districts, as well as the United States Geological Survey are working together to
Bond, P. A., 2003, Land use and spring develop a preliminary map of Florida's first protection: Florida Geological Survey magnitude spring recharge basins (springPoster 10. sheds). This map is a compilation of the readily available first magnitude springThis poster illustrates geohydrologic shed boundary maps. The purpose of the aspects of a springshed and cultural fea- map is to inform decision makers (e.g., tures that have the potential to affect water county commissioners, legislators, and local quality and quantity, with special emphasis and state agency personnel) and citizens on protective practices. about the importance of appropriate land use within a springshed and to establish a
Rupert F., and Spencer, S., 2004, baseline for the further refinement of the Florida's sinkholes: Florida Geological springshed boundaries. As on-going and Survey Poster 11. future research improves the understanding of the ground-water hydrology of these
Sinkholes are a natural component of springsheds, more accurate maps of the Florida's landscape. In the simplest sense, individual springsheds will be available at sinkholes are depressions in the land sur- the Florida Geological Survey. face resulting from the dissolution of underlying bedrock. Their size depends on the Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc., 2003, Karst educalocal geology. Two broad types of sinkholes tional posters: to be available as Florida occur in Florida. Collapse sinkholes form Geological Survey Poster 13 (CD). quickly and tend to develop in areas with
clayey sediments overlying the bedrock. This is a series of eight color posters They typically are the result of an under- depicting ground water surface water ground cavity enlarging to the point where interaction, aquifers, hydrologic cycle, its ceiling no longer supports the weight of karst, distribution of the earth's water, porthe overlying sediments. Solution sinkholes sity and permeability, and how you can form gradually and commonly occur in help. areas with sandy sediments overlying
bedrock. These typically form by gradual REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS infilling of cracks and voids in the underlying bedrock by cover sediments. The land Balsillie, J. H., and Donoghue, J. F., surface over the in-filled bedrock subsides 2004, High-resolution sea-level history for in response. This poster illustrates the the U. S. Gulf of Mexico since the last glalocations of reported sinkholes in Florida, cial maximum: Florida Geological Survey,
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Report of Investigations No. 103, 65 p. to form a committee to address spring nomenclature. The Florida Springs
Comprehensive, high-resolution, com- Nomenclature Committee was formed in posite sea-level curves for the U.S. Gulf of the fall of 2003 and was made up of repreMexico since the last glacial maximum have sentatives from the Florida Geological been developed based on all available radio- Survey, the state's water management discarbon and calibrated absolute age-data. tricts, the state university system, the They are based on sea-level elevation indi- hydrogeological consultant community, and cators that, on the average, were measured the general public. In addition to developonce every 60 years for the past 20,000 ing a glossary of terms, the committee years. The data sets consist primarily of developed a spring classification system in geological sea-level indicators (some are order to allow the citizens of Florida to easarchaeological). Published sea-level histo- ily classify springs into one of a minimum ries of the Gulf of Mexico exhibit significant number of categories. It is believed that the variability. While there is error associated classification system, as well as the gloswith the 14C age dating methodology, the sary, will assist Floridians in improving bulk of error is undoubtedly associated with their overall understanding of springs and the indicator material chosen to represent to increase consistency in the usage of sea-level elevation. It is the latter that terms associated with Florida's springs. must be judicially treated. Such error has,
perhaps, been inflated to such an argumen- Dehan, R. (compiler), 2003, Significance of tative and defeatist extent among caves in watershed management and proresearchers that comprehensive compila- tection in Florida: Workshop Proceedings, tion and analysis of sea-level data for the April 16-17, 2003, Ocala, Florida: Florida Gulf, until now, has been avoided. Geological Survey Special Publication 53, CD.
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
The workshop on the Significance of
Copeland, R. E. (Compiler), 2003, Florida caves in watershed management and protecspring classification system and spring tion in Florida was designed to bridge the glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special gap between cavers and the public at large Publication 52, 17 p. on the one hand and scientists involved in water resource protection research and regIn May 2002, a Florida Springs work- ulatory activities on the other. Ideas and shop was held in Ocala, Florida sponsored discussions were exchanged on ways for jointly by the Hydrogeology Consortium, cavers to contribute to scientific data gaththe Florida State University, and the ering while practicing their sport/hobby. Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of The workshop delved into the significance the workshop was to provide a forum to of cave system maps and morphology data facilitate discussion among scientists, in understanding karstification processes resource managers and the public regard- and ultimately in understanding the ing the significance of springs as valuable dynamics of ground water flow in saturated natural systems. caves. Interaction between surface and ground water was of special interest to the
Included among the recommendations participants since this interaction is of the workshop was the need for the devel- thought to play a critical role in ground opment of consistent terms as applied to water contamination, thus the health and spring usage in the state of Florida. As a integrity of watersheds. Finally, discusresult, the Florida Geological Survey agreed sions were directed to the significance of
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
these types of data in the development of make this important information available conceptual and numerical models for to the professional community, interested ground water flow and contaminant trans- government officials and the public. This port in karstic settings. information will assist government agencies, land owners, environmentalists,
Special Publication 54, 2004, hydrogeologists, and engineers, in better Proceedings, Aquifer Storage Recovery IV: conserving and protecting Florida's prescience, technology, management and poli- cious water resources. cy, Tampa, Florida April 15-16, 2004:
Florida Geological Survey CD. Special Publication 56, 2004, Wakulla Springs scientific symposium, May 13,
This CD contains a compilation of the 2004: Florida Geological Survey CD, oral and poster presentations and discussion summaries from the Aquifer Storage Wakulla Spring has long been a draw Recovery IV, science, technology, manage- to wildlife and ancient human inhabitants. ment, and policy, held in Tampa, Florida What we see today as the Woodville Karst April 15 & 16, 2004. The Forum was spon- Plain had it's beginnings after the original sored and organized by the American deposition of the marine sediments (during Ground Water Trust, the Florida Geological the Oligocene and Miocene, (35 through 5 Survey, and the Hydrogeology Consortium. million years ago). Marine, coastal and fluAdditional co-sponsors included: the US vial processes alternatively deposited and Geological Survey, the Florida Ground reworked successive layers of younger Water Association, the South Florida Water rocks. In this area, most of these are now Management District, the St. Johns River missing due to subsequent erosion and reWater Management District, the Florida deposition further offshore. We now have Association of Professional Geologists, and residual quartz sands, with included shell the Southwest Florida Water Management material and sporadic silts and clays, overDistrict. lying the irregular karstic surface of the lithified limestone.
Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR)
technology is a well established method of Numerous fluctuations in sea-level conserving water resources and has been occurred throughout the Neogene and sevused in numerous parts of the world for eral during the Pleistocene have been wellmany years. It has also been used success- documented, using many lines of evidence. fully in Florida, and in recent years has This relentless "pumping" caused by ongoreceived much attention in regard to the ing fluctuations in sea-level and the continComprehensive Everglades Restoration uous dissolution of the carbonate rocks from Plan, in which ASR is proposed to play a aggressive surface and ground water has significant role. This Forum addressed resulted in one of the most prolific ground"Science and Technology" issues on the first water aquifers in the world, what we call day and "Management and Policy" issues the Floridan Aquifer System. The last the second day with numerous experts pre- major episode of sea-level change probably senting papers and responding to questions. resulted in the formation of the cave / conIn addition, several excellent research proj- duit system we see today. ects were summarized in poster sessions
during the meeting. These presentations The professional cave diving communiand posters are compiled in this CD to ty has utilized the Wakulla Cave system
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
and surrounding area for training, equip- Series No. 2 produced in cooperation with ment testing, and exploration of the system. Global Underwater Explorers and HazlettThey have mapped the resource and assist- Kincaid, Inc., DVD/VHS, 20 minutes. ed land managers with conservation planning and environmental protection. Cave Florida's Aquifer Adventure! is a 20 diving exploration has occurred sporadical- minute educational film describing ly since 1955 and in the mid 1980's the US Florida's aquifer systems, springs, underDeep Caving Team came to the area for water caves, cave diving and environmental exploration and equipment testing. Most issues through spectacular videography. importantly, also, the mid- 1980's saw the The lead producer and editor of the film was beginning of the Woodville Karst Plain Marc Singer (Global Underwater Project ( a NSS sanctioned project in coop- Explorers), winner of the Sundance Film eration with Global Underwater Explorers), Festival award. The project, funded by the which has resulted in continuous diving FGS Hydrogeology Program, was lead by exploration and research in the system for Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc. The film has been over 20 years, providing invaluable data, aired on Florida Public Television and is information, and scientific cooperation with available in VHS and DVD formats from the hydrogeologic community. Partially as the FGS. a result of this collaboration between the
cave diving community and the hydrogeo- MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS logic community, a workshop was held in
2003 in Ocala, titled: Significance of Caves Miscellaneous reports include contract in Watershed Management and Protection progress reports and deliverables, or other in Florida. The proceedings of that meeting special reports prepared in-house, in hard are now published in CD format as FGS copy or digital format. They are not part of Special Publication No. 53. the regular FGS publication series but, because they commonly represent extensive
The Wakulla Springs scientific sym- data gathering, compilation, and analysis posium assembled local experts to summa- projects, they are included here as scientific rize their recent activities and current reports. research. These presentations include the
Florida Springs Initiative; a general hydro- Balsillie, J. H., 2004, Native sediment geologic overview of the area; a review of composite statistics for Alligator Spit beach wetland ecosystems; information on some sands, Gulf of Mexico Coast, northern new cave and conduit flow measurements; Florida: Unpublished report to the U. S. and dye tracing studies; a bio-reconnais- Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, sance overview; a review of some studies 94 p. that are part of the Woodville Karst Plain
Project; a review of local aquifer recharge Beach restoration and maintenance studies, and several other projects in the renourishment design protocols require region. knowledge of the granulometry of borrow material and native beach material.
VIDEO SERIES Comparative numerical statistics of borrow and native materials are then used to quanSinger, M., Jablonski, J. and Arthur, J. titatively determine overfill ratios and (co-producers), 2004, Florida's Aquifer maintenance renourishment schedules Adventure: Florida Geological Survey Video (Krumbein, 1957; Krumbein and James,
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
1965; James, 1974, 1975: Hobson, 1977; Marks River estuary and the Spring Creek etc.). Granulometric statistics can be estuarine system. A secondary goal of the viewed as either suite statistics or compos- project was to survey samples taken in ite statistics. For the former, suite means 1996-1998 in the Cedar-Ortega River above are determined by averaging moment meas- its confluence with the St. John's River, as ures to yield the mean of the means, the part of a separate project. This survey was mean of the standard deviations, mean of intended to assess the suitability of those skewness, mean of kurtosis, etc. For the stored cores for further historical latter, frequency or cumulative frequency foraminiferal analysis. percentiles of all sample distributions are
averaged and then analyzed to produce the Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie, composite mean, standard deviation, skew- J.H., Dabous A., LaChance M., and ness, kurtosis, etc. The two approaches Fischler C., 2003, A geological investigaresult in different statistical outcomes, tion of the offshore area along Florida's Composite statistics are those used in beach northeast coast, Year 1: Annual Report to design work. Composite and suite statis- the United States Department of Interior, tics have been discussed in detail by Minerals Management Service: 2002-2003: Krumbein (1957), Dwass (Krumbein, 1957, Florida Geological Survey, unpublished Appendix B), Balsillie and Tanner (1999), report, CD. and Balsillie (2002).
The FGS and the U.S. Minerals
Parker, W. C., Arnold, A. J., Balsillie, J. Management Service entered into a multiH., and Hiller, W. C., 2003, The applica- year cooperative agreement with the speciftion of benthic foraminifera to environmen- ic goal of locating and characterizing both tal analysis of coastal habitats of the the areal extent and volume of available Florida Panhandle: Contract deliverable to sands suitable for beach nourishment lying the Florida Geological Survey, June 30, in federal waters adjacent to state sub2003, 18 p. merged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. In Year 1 of this study, over 230
Preliminary work as part of aprevious- miles of seismic data was collected and ly DEP-funded Springs project demonstrat- interpreted to determine locations thought ed that foraminiferal assemblages in the
Spring Creek and St. Joseph Bay regions to have been favorable for the deposition of Spring Creek and St. Joseph Bay regions bec-ultsad Atolof3bah are particularly sensitive to spring outflow beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach induced changes in salinity and anthro- sampling locations were identified and 106 pogenic pollutants. However, timing of the surface samples collected and a total of 10 original research funding did not permit offshore seabed grab sample locations were exploration of temporal changes in the visited. Grab samples were collected from 9 foraminiferal assemblages being studied. In offshore locations. Three push cores were order to demonstrate a robust and reliable collected on Bird Island, an island in the relationship between the micro/meiofauna ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River. of these environments and salinity/pollu- Descriptions were made and grain size distion, natural temporal and spatial variation tributions were determined for all beach of the fauna must be recorded. This was the and offshore seabed grab samples and push fundamental goal of the present project. cores. All of the above referenced data are The primary study areas included the St. accessible within this report.
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
As a result of the seismic stratigraphic granulometric curves. Analysis of these analysis several features indicative of high vibracore data infers potential reserves of potential for the occurrence of beach up to 198.5 million cubic yards of restorarestoration quality sand in federal waters tion-quality sand offshore of southern off Duval County were identified. This Duval County. analysis was discussed with representatives of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Analysis of the sub-bottom profiler data Jacksonville District Office and a copy of indicate the presence of areas of anomalous the preliminary work map delineating dip offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties those features provided to them. a well as three clearly identifiable buried depressions which are interpreted to be disPhelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie, solution collapse features. These three conJ.H., Ladner, L.J., Dabous A., jectured collapse features lie six to seven LaChance M., Bailey K., and Fischler miles offshore, are vertically persistent to C., 2004, A geological investigation of the the base of the seismic data recorded and offshore area along Florida's northeast are not expressed bathymetrically. coast, Year 2: Annual Report to the United
States Department of Interior, Minerals Based on age-date analysis of woody Management Service: Florida Geological material present in one of the vibracores, Survey unpublished report, DVD. the calculated sedimentation rate for the first 16.8 feet of sediments in this core is
The FGS and the U.S. Minerals 0.3621 mm per year +\- .0015 mm. This Management Service have continued a figure would set an approximate lower limit multi-year cooperative agreement to locate on the average Holocene sedimentation rate and characterize both the areal extent and locally. volume of available sands suitable for beach
nourishment lying in federal waters adja- Schmidt, Walter, 2004, Geologic and cent to state submerged lands off the north- geoechnical investigation procedures for east coast of Florida. One-hundred-and evaluation of the causes of subsidence damninety miles of seismic data were collected age in Florida: A report submitted to the offshore of Nassau, Duval and Flagler Florida State University, College of Counties in Year 2. The seismic data col- Business, Department of Risk Management lected in Years 1 and 2 are provided as and Insurance, in response to requirements processed images. A total of 127 beach of Chapter 627.7077 Florida Statutes, 21 p. samples were collected from the beaches of
St. Johns and Flagler Counties. PAPERS BY STAFF IN Photographs and granulometric analyses of OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS the beach samples collected from St. Johns
County are provided. Fifty two vibracores Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A. and Cowart, were collected offshore of Nassau and Duval J.C., 2003, Water-rock geochemical considCounties and three vibracores were collect- erations for Class V aquifer storage and ed in the mouth of the St. Johns River. recovery wells: Florida case studies, 2003: Vibracores directly acquired by the FGS are Abstract, Second International Symposium provided as photographs and granulometric on Underground Injection Science and analyses. Vibracores acquired by a contrac- Technology Symposium, Berkeley tor are provided as penetration curves, Laboratories, CA, Symposium Abstracts, drilling diagrams and, with exceptions, as October 22-25, 2003, p. 63-64.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is ASR wells in five facilities located in southan effective method of meeting increasing west Florida comprise the focus of our water-supply demands by injecting avail- research. Results summarized herein are able water into confined or semi-confined based on our work at two of these facilities, permeable formations for later withdrawal which are located more than 120 km apart: as needed. Not only does ASR meet increas- Rome Avenue ASR, Hillsborough County ing demands for drinking water, but it has and Punta Gorda ASR, Charlotte County. several applications in industry, agriculture
and environmental restoration. A prime Combined results from multiple cycle example of the latter application is the role tests at these facilities suggest that As, Fe, of ASR in the Comprehensive Everglades Mn, Ni (?), V (?) and U are mobilized from Restoration Plan (CERP). More than 300 the aquifer system matrix into the injected ASR wells are proposed in South Florida to waters. This mobilization is most apparent capture -1.7 billion gallons of water per day during the recovery phase of a cycle test at and store it in the Floridan aquifer system the ASR well. Arsenic and U mobilization (FAS) for later use. The planned CERP are the most consistent and well-documenteffort alone comprises an order of magni- ed trends, with concentrations exceeding 85 tude increase in ASR applications in gg/1 and 6 gg/1, respectively. Three pairs of Florida within the next two decades. Many cycle tests indicate that maximum observed scientific and engineering issues need to be As concentrations decrease during succesaddressed in the design, construction, test- sive cycle testing. This preliminary obsering and operation of an ASR facility. Some vation holds true only where both cycle-test of these issues include the fate and trans- injection volumes are similar and exposure port of microorganisms, algal toxins, and of "new" aquifer matrix to the injected changes in water chemistry (and thus qual- water is minimal. This result is not only ity) due to ASR practices. desired, but expected assuming that the As source is a fixed and consistently depleted
Our research focuses on the characteri- concentration within the aquifer matrix and zation of water quality changes during ASR not replenished due to changes in redox activities in Florida. Long-term goals of our conditions (e.g., pH-adjusted cycle tests), project include: 1) investigation of water- mixing or changes in flow paths. In conrock interaction during ASR with an trast, data from paired cycle tests where the emphasis on identifying the source and second injection input volume is greater mechanism for trace metal mobilization reveal different results. In this scenario, As into injected and recovered water; 2) assess- concentrations in the second cycle test are ment of these interactions within varying equal to or greater than those of the first hydrogeologic settings (i.e., different cycle test due to the exposure of input aquifer systems and matrix compositions waters to a larger volume of previously [chemical/mineralogical]); 3) evaluation of unaffected (e.g., un-leached) aquifer matrix. the effect of repeated ASR cycle testing and A further observation relevant to the design other ASR practices (e.g., borehole acidiza- and monitoring of cycle tests is that maxition) on these interactions; 4) exploring the mum As concentrations are observed during application of U isotopes to identify source recovery after 50 percent or more of the waters (injected, native and interstitial) input waters are recovered (as measured by and mixing; and 5) providing the Florida total recovery volume). Department of Environmental Protection
(FDEP) and CERP with scientific knowl- Data also indicate that different geoedge on which to base ASR design, regulato- chemical processes or reactions govern the ry and operational decisions. At present, relative mobility of metals. For example,
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
during recovery U concentrations peak ear- organics plus sulfides. Preliminary results lier than those of As and other metals. The indicate that although most of these trace activity ratio (AR) of 234U/238U is also useful metals are concentrated in the "organics for identifying mixing and evolution of plus sulfides" fraction, trace metals are also waters during ASR. Moreover, the AR is associated with the other mineral-bound useful to demonstrate heterogeneity that fractions. exists among wells in a single wellfield
(Rome Avenue) or between ASR facilities In closing, the Floridan aquifer system located kilometers apart (Rome Avenue matrix is chemically heterogeneous, which [Tampa] and Punta Gorda). Various mod- is not only exemplified by carbonate geoels are proposed to account for the observed chemical data, but by variable geochemical trends in AR including mobilization of thin responses observed in cycle tests data from 234U-depleted U carbonate grain coatings, wells only a few hundred meters apart and mobilization of homogeneously distrib- (Rome Avenue ASR wells). Mobilization of uted 234U-depleted U from within grains by As, Fe, Mn, U and other metals is observed aggressive, oxic waters. during ASR activities. A principle mechanism of this mobility is likely the input of
Mineralogical and chemical characteri- oxygen-rich surface waters into a reduced zation of storage zones in the Floridan aquifer, thereby oxidizing trace-metal rich aquifer system (FAS) at both ASR facilities phases (e.g. pyrite) and releasing metals has been determined through a variety of into solution. Other variables affecting this analytical methods. Average compositions mobility include: 1) native and input water for FAS limestones are similar to global chemistry and related parameters, 2) averages, except for Cr, which is higher in aquifer matrix chemistry/mineralogy, 3) the FAS rocks. Maximum concentrations of input water matrix contact time and numsome metals (e.g., As, Ni, and U), however, ber of cycle tests, and 4) site-specific hydrofar exceed global limestone averages, geology (e.g., pore/conduit geometry, Mineralogy of the ASR storage zone carbon- dynamic pathways). In addition to U being ates is dominantly calcite and dolomite with mobile, U activity ratios are useful toward minor clay minerals and organic material, understanding ground water evolution durand trace amounts of quartz, gypsum, and ing ASR activities. Due to concerns regardpyrite. Semiquantative microprobe analy- ing maximum contaminant levels, the ses of pyrites tentatively suggest that As design, construction and operation of ASR concentrations vary up to more than two facilities, including monitor well placement weight percent. and monitoring schedules should take into account the possibility of water-rock interAlthough additional As-bearing phases action and mobilization of metals into (i.e., Fe-Mn grain coatings, organics) are recovered waters. suspected, they were not detected in our
preliminary microprobe study; however, Arthur, J.D., DeHan, R.D., Kincaid, another analytical technique suggests that T.R., and Bond, P., 2003, Education and trace metals are more widely dispersed outreach efforts toward better management within the aquifer matrix. Limestone sam- and protection of Florida springs: Abstract, ples from an ASR storage zone were ana- Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems lyzed by a sequential extraction technique Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, designed to identify the concentration of As, Gainesville, FL, p. 1. U, and other trace metals in four
mineral/phase groups: total soluble heavy The Florida Legislature authorized the metals, carbonates, Fe- and Mn-oxides, and Florida Department of Environmental
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological 3) A Workshop titled "Blueprints for the Survey (FGS), in Fiscal Year 2001/2002, to management and protection of Florida's enhance the new FGS Hydrogeology springs:" This two-day workshop, held in Program with funds from the Water Quality May of 2002 in Ocala, was framed around Assurance Act trust fund. These funds are three invited panels of experts and a plenalargely applied to hydrogeologic research ry session. The workshop focused on both activities through "outsourcing" to universi- the science and policies of managing and ties and the private sector. Needs identified protecting springs. The findings and recomby FDEP programs stressed that an mendations of the panels, including signifiimproved understanding of the interaction cant input from workshop participants, between ground and surface water, espe- have been published as "workshop proceedcially in Florida's unique karstic geology ings" in a CD ROM format that is available setting, would be valuable toward water- to the public. To obtain a copy, contact the shed resource protection and management. FGS, or visit our website at the Internet As such, most of the scientific research and address listed above. education/outreach activities funded by the
Hydrogeology Program focus on springs and 4) Springshed posters: Two posters pertainrelated karst systems. Outreach and educa- ing to springsheds are being prepared by tion activities are summarized below, the FGS: 1) In response to a request by One Descriptions of scientific research coordi- Thousand Friends of Florida, the FGS nated by the program are on-line at: recently prepared a graphic illustrating http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/pro- various factors involved in springshed basin gramssections/hydrogeology.htm. planning. This graphic will be expanded as an educational poster relating land use to
1) Establishment of a Florida karst data- underlying karst geology. 2) In accordance base: An Internet-accessible database is with ideas stemming from the Springs being developed to provide access to loca- workshop in Ocala (see #3 above), the FGS tions, depths and dimensions of Florida is leading a multi-agency effort to compile caves. This data is essential for accurate existing knowledge of springshed bounddelineation of watershed or springshed aries. This preliminary information will be boundaries, and is important regarding the central focus of a poster designed to ground-water flow modeling efforts in karst inform decision makers and citizens about aquifers. Upon completion of this applica- the location and significance of these areas tion, qualified users will be able to input, that are highly vulnerable to ground-water store and retrieve karst-related data. The contamination. For more information, web-site also provides educational informa- please see the abstract presented at this tion about Florida karst geology, conference by Tom Greenhalgh, FDEP/FGS).
2) Construction of educational models and
exhibits: Karst and hydrogeologic-cycle con- 5) "Florida MAPS:" This is a developing curcepts are presented in a series of posters riculum project centered on hands-on use of and a short video within the framework of a satellite and airborne imagery, aerial pho"traveling kiosk." This display is intended tography, topographic maps, and other speto be a resource for middle and high school cial-purpose cartographic products. students, their teachers and the general Classroom activities will focus on Florida public to help them become aware of issues hydrogeology and will allow middle- and associated with living in, managing and high-school students to visualize natural protecting ecosystems dominated by karst processes and relate them to other discigeology, plines (e.g., mathematics and history).
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Student and teacher manuals contain site- Further, land use and nutrient loading specific background information (e.g., could be added as inputs to produce a susWoodville Karst Plain) and sets of hands- ceptibility model. on' and 'minds-on' interdisciplinary activities keyed to the national and state science Balsillie, J. H., Dunbar, J.D., Means, standards. G.H., and Means, R.C., 2003, Stratigraphic integrity of the Middle PaleoBaker, A., Cichon, J., Arthur, J., and indian Ryan-Harley Site (8Je1004): Wood, H.A.R., III, 2003, Florida aquifer abstract, Florida Anthropological Society vulnerability assessment model, a step by 55th Annual Meeting, Florida Underwater step approach to predicting aquifer vulner- Archaeology Conference 3rd Annual ability at the springshed level using Meeting, Abstract Volume, 15p. weights of evidence: Abstract, Florida
Springs Conference: Natural Gems Based on the seriation and chronologiTroubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, cal placement of Suwannee points and a Gainesville, FL, p. 2. correlation to a regional event stratigraphy, the Ryan-Harley site is relatively placed
Water flowing from Florida's springs from 10,900 14C BP to -10,500 14C BP. The originates from within the Floridan aquifer Suwannee point level was determined to be system. Water quality degradation can be intact under the river bank and was activeattributed to land-use activities occurring ly eroding in the Wacissa River channel. within a spring's catchment area or "spring- Distribution and taphonomic analysis of shed". The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability specimens from the Suwannee point level Assessment (FAVA) involves the develop- suggest the assemblage, including the faument of a GIS model to estimate the rela- nal remains, represents an undisturbed tive vulnerability of Florida's aquifer sys- site. Geologic granulometric analysis of tems. Model development is currently in the clastic sediments and other evidence indipreliminary stages and consists of five cates the Suwannee point level of the Ryancountywide projects (four of which appear Harley site is intact with little or no postin this poster). Weights of Evidence quanti- depositional reworking. fies relationships between spatial layers
with measured contaminant occurrences in Bond, P.A., 2003, A picture of spring proorder to assess a hypothesis. Using these tection-posters in education and outreach: calculated relationships, interactions can be Abstract, Geological Society of America analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Abstracts model or relative probability map. The with Program, v. 34, no. 7, p. 19. model currently involves utilization of the
following spatial layers: thickness of confin- Florida's springs are a treasured part of ing unit, soil drainage, and spatial distribu- the state's environmental heritage. The tion of karst features. state's population growth (estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 new permanent residents per
The model is designed to be easy to week) and overwhelming use of ground update as well as scaleable, thereby water (about 93% of the population depends enabling evaluation of individual spring- on it) are coupled with the innate vulnerasheds. The model will also allow for the bility of its hydrogeologic setting. In supincorporation of additional data layers port of an innovative spring protection camincluding karst features (e.g., hole type, paign initiated by the Florida Department sinks, conduits, etc.), detailed potentiometric of Environmental Protection, the Florida surface maps and lineament features. Geological Survey (FGS) has published two
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
posters that illustrate different aspects of Environmental Protection. Both posters spring protection and ground-water have as their focus a large color illustration resources in a karst environment, of a Florida landscape with a cross-section view of the hydrogeology that is associated
The FGS uses illustration as a visual with the landscape. A spring is a prominent bridge between hydrogeology and various feature of both the landscape and the crosshuman activities that impact water section. This format was chosen so that the resources in Florida's karst terrain. Florida relationship of surface water to ground is characterized by low topographic relief so water and the subsurface movement of that even common features such as layered ground water could be illustrated. rocks and fractures are rarely observed by Illustration is used in an attempt to overlay people. Sinkholes often contain slump come the difficulty that non-geoscientists material obscuring their relationship to experience in conceptualizing subsurface rock layers and the ground-water resources rock layers and the ground-water resources they contain. The surficial expression of a they contain. Protecting Florida's Springs spring is shown both in its hydrogeologic presents fundamental elements of the (cross-section view) and environmental con- hydrogeology of springs. Land Use and text (plan view). This juxtaposition of Spring Protection emphasizes a distribution hydrogeologic and environmental/cultural of land use activities that planners expect information provides Floridians of all ages will provide maximum protection for the with an understanding of ways in which spring and was based on the technical illustheir actions impact springs. tration, Overlay Protection District.
Because of their versatility and popular
Posters are an important part of the appeal posters remain a valuable part of education and outreach effort at the FGS. education and outreach efforts at the They are used successfully as part of pre- Florida Geological Survey. sentations to groups of all ages and are easily used in unconventional venues. A short Cichon, J. R., Arthur, J. D., and Baker, text with references allows stand-alone use A. E., 2003, An application of the Florida in class rooms, state parks and municipal aquifer vulnerability assessment model to and state offices. Digital versions of the springshed protection: Abstract, Florida illustrations are regularly incorporated into Springs Conference: Natural Gems talks allowing the presenter maximum flex- Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, ibility in commentary. Visually appealing Gainesville, FL, p. 8. posters that convey clear, positive, and
accessible information are a cost-effective The quality of water flowing from means of reaching diverse audiences. Florida's springs is directly related to the dynamic interaction between land use,
Bond, P.A., 2004, A picture of spring pro- recharge and the hydrogeology of a particutection-posters in education and outreach: lar spring catchment area, or "springshed." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the As defined in the Workshop to Develop Blue Geoscience Information Society, v. 34, 5 p. Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida's Springs held in Ocala in May,
Florida's springs are a cultural and 2002, a springshed is "those areas within environmental treasure. The motivation to ground-water and surface-water basins protect them is widespread. Two posters that contribute to the discharge of the have been produced at the Florida spring." Geological Survey as part of a spring protection effort led by the Department of Land use within a springshed can have
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
an impact on water quality flowing from the application within study areas of varying spring system. Due to variable hydrogeolog- sizes, such as a springshed. The resolution ic settings within the springshed, water of evidential themes is dependent upon the quality changes due to land use practices quantity and accuracy of data collected. may be observed weeks to decades after the Data collection can be designed to yield a application of the contaminant. As such, it more highly resolved vulnerability model, is important to identify relative aquifer vul- especially for local-scale needs. Moreover, nerability within a springshed to limit the due to flexibility of the FAVA design, eviimpacts on water quality in the spring sys- dential themes specifically relevant to local tem. Best Management Practices designed karst terrains (e.g., conduits, lineaments, to improve and protect the quality of ground etc.) can be added to the model to signifiwater (including springs) are enhanced cantly enhance its application as a predicwhen this science-based knowledge is con- tive tool on the scale of a springshed. sidered.
Cichon, J.R., Arthur, J., Baker, A., and
The Florida Geological Survey is cur- Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida Aquifer rently developing a GIS model to estimate Vulnerability Assessment: Abstract, 67th the relative vulnerability of Florida's Annual Meeting, Florida Academy of aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Sciences, Orlando, FL, Florida Scientist, v. Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Model 66, supplement 1, p. 54. development is currently in the preliminary
stages consisting of five countywide proj- The Florida Geological Survey is curects. The overall intent of FAVA is the rently developing a model to estimate the development of a tool for environmental, relative vulnerability of Florida's aquifer regulatory and planning professionals to systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability facilitate the protection of Florida's ground- Assessment (FAVA). Model development is water resources. FAVA differs from the currently in the preliminary stages consistEnvironmental Protection Agency DRAS- ing of five county wide projects. The overall TIC model in that the newer technique is intent of FAVA is the development of a tool GIS-based and accounts for Florida's for environmental, regulatory and planning karstic terrain. Current methods employed professionals to facilitate protection of in FAVA model development include Florida's ground-water resources. Weights Weights of Evidence, Fuzzy Logic and a of Evidence, the current method employed Travel Time method. Of these geostatistical in the FAVA model, quantifies relationmethods, Weights of Evidence holds the ships between spatial layers with actual most promise. Weights of Evidence quanti- contaminant occurrences in order to assess fies relationships between spatial layers a hypothesis. The model currently utilizes with actual contaminant occurrences in the following spatial layers (evidential order to assess a hypothesis. Using these themes): thickness of confining unit, sold calculated relationships, interactions can be drainage, and spatial distribution of karst analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive features. model. The model currently utilizes the following spatial data layers (evidential Cichon, J.R.., Baker, A.E., Arthur, J.D., themes): thickness of confining unit, depth and Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida aquifer to water, soil drainage, and the percentage vulnerability assessment (FAVA) utilizing of an area covered by karst features. geologic mapping data to predict aquifer vulnerability: Abstract, Geological Society
Although the FAVA model will be pro- of America Abstracts with Program, v. 34, duced as a statewide model, it is scalable for no. 7, p. 65.
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The relative vulnerability of an aquifer driven predictive model. The output is a to contamination is dependent upon the grid-based probability map that can be used thickness and composition of sediments by environmental, regulatory and planning overlying it and the rate at which contami- professionals to facilitate the protection of nants travel through these sediments. To Florida's ground-water resources. predict the vulnerability of Florida's major
aquifer systems to contamination the Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E., Florida Geological Survey is currently and Arthur, J.A., 2004, Application of geodeveloping the Florida Aquifer logic mapping and geographic information Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model. systems to delineate sensitive karst areas FAVA differs from the Environmental for land-use decisions: American Geological Protection Agency's DRASTIC model in Institute website, that the newer technique is GIS based and http://www.agiweb.org/environment/pubaccounts for Florida's karst terrain. lications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf, Current methods employed in FAVA model 2004. development include Weights of Evidence,
Fuzzy Logic and Travel Time. Of these The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a methods, Weights of Evidence best utilizes thick sequence of tertiary carbonates, is a new and available data sets to predict rela- major fresh water resource in the Florida tive vulnerability since it is statistically val- panhandle. Overburden comprised of idated on the front end, easily updateable, Surficial Aquifer System and/or uncertainties can be calculated and the Intermediate Aquifer System sediments model avoids preconceptions. may act to protect the FAS from potential contamination sources where it is present.
Weights of Evidence quantifies rela- This overburden can be several hundred tionships between spatial layers with actu- feet thick where it provides variable conal contaminant occurrences in order to finement for the FAS, or it can be thin to assess a hypothesis. Contaminant source absent in areas where carbonate units comdata (i.e., training points) is obtained from prising the FAS are exposed at or near land the Florida Department of Environmental surface. In areas where the overburden is Protection's Background Water Quality thin to absent, the potential for karst terNetwork of wells. Spatial layers (i.e., evi- rain development such as sinkholes and coldential themes) consist of existing and lapse features is increased. Karst terrain newly developed GIS data and include provides preferential flow paths for surface depth to water, soil drainage, distance to water to enter the underlying aquifer syskarst features, thickness of confinement tem, and therefore places them at a greater and vertical leakage rates. Different eviden- risk of contamination from the surface. tial themes are utilized based on the aquifer
being modeled. The evidential themes To develop the sensitive karst areas included in the Floridan Aquifer System (SKA) boundary the FGS utilized a (FAS) model, for example, are thickness of Geographic Information System incorporatconfining unit, distance to karst features ing spatial data layers such as the state and soil drainage. To aid in the creation of geologic map, land surface topography and these themes, data collected during geolog- overburden thickness maps. Land surface ic mapping projects (e.g., cores, well cut- topography is comprised of the Digital tings, and wireline logs) are utilized. By cal- Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the culating the statistical significance between FAVA project. The DEM was created by training points and evidential themes, digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 interactions can be analyzed to yield a data- scale Quadrangle maps, converting these
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arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and active and the attendees were asked to parthen into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM ticipate in the discussions. Many did and GRID along with a GRID of the top of the they expressed the belief that if the state is Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the to efficiently protect its springs, then a firm NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS understanding of Florida's springs is critioverburden GRID. This was accomplished cal. If we are to understand our springs, by subtracting the FAS overburden from then our knowledge begins with a definition the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of of terms. With this in mind, participants at FAS overburden were then identified and the meeting requested that the Florida overlain on areas affected by karst topogra- Geological Survey (FGS) take the lead in phy in the NWFWMD. Based on the combi- developing a glossary of terms to be used by nation of these two maps the SKA limits both the scientific community and the pubwere identified for the NWFWMD. lic of the state with regard to springs.
This methodology was created for the As a response to the workshop, the Florida Department of Environmental Spring Nomenclature Committee was Protection, Division of Water Resource established. In addition to the FGS and the Management and was inserted in the FDEP Hydrogeology Consortium, the committee Environmental Resource Permit consists of representatives from the Florida Applicant's Handbook Volume II, Department of Environmental Protection, Engineering Requirements for Stormwater the state's Water Management Districts, Treatment and Management Systems the United States Geological Survey, the Water Quality and Water Quantity. The state university system, the hydrogeological delineated SKA maps are used when sight- consulting industry of the state, and the ing proposed stormwater holding ponds and public. establishes additional design criteria for
these structures including minimum thick- The goal of the committee was to define ness of sediment between the surface and terms commonly used in Florida regarding limestone, total depth of holding pond, veg- springs. The glossary consists of the most etation requirements, sediment traps, lin- commonly used spring terms, along with ers and potentially ground-water modeling, their synonyms. Whenever possible, termiFor more information on this project please nology was taken from professional dictionrefer to the American Geological Institute aries and glossaries. website:
http://www.agiweb.org/environment/pub- During the development stage of the lications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf glossary, it became apparent that a spring classification system should also be develCopeland, R. E., 2003, Development of a oped. A spring classification system can act spring glossary and classification system as a model that enables one to envision the for use in Florida: Abstract, Florida Springs relationship of one spring to the others Conference: Natural Gems Troubled within the state. In effect, a classification Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, system assists us in better understanding FL, p. 9. our springs. For this reason, the committee decided that a spring glossary and classifiIn May of 2002, the Florida Geological cation system go hand-in-hand. They took it Survey and the Hydrogeology Consortium upon themselves to develop a spring classico-sponsored a workshop to "Develop Blue fication system in addition to the glossary. Prints for Managing and Protecting As it turns out, all of Florida's springs can Florida's Springs." The workshop was inter- be grouped into only a handful of different
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classes. This was fortunate in that it great- water quality: Abstract, Florida Springs ly reduces the complexity in the way we Conference: Natural Gems Troubled think of our springs. Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 10.
Copeland, R.E., and Upchurch, S.B.,
2003, Use of indices in evaluating Florida's Florida has over 700 recognized ground-water quality: Abstract, Final springs. Unfortunately, chemicals proProgram (with abstracts), 19th Annual duced by man's land use activities that Environmental Monitoring Conference, enter aquifer systems through natural Arlington, VA., p. 158. recharge processes can negatively impact the quality of spring water. In addition,
In the late 1990s, Florida re-designed because of the high demand of ground its statewide surface- and ground-water water, heavy pumping can potentially lower quality monitoring networks, and based the aquifer water levels. This can result in a design on random sampling. There was a negative impact on both the flow rate and desire to develop water quality indices that the water chemistry of springs. Thirteen, indicate, in defendable but simplistic terms, first-magnitude springs were sampled for the overall quality of water in: (1) an indi- 17 common chemicals by governmental vidual sample and (2) over an entire basin, agencies in 1948, the early 1970s, 1985, and The Ground-Water Quality Index is based
on whether one or more sampled analyses 2001. These fours sets of consistent data on whether one or more sampled analytes
exceeds a Guidance Concentration Level were used for long term trend detection. (GCL) in a sample. Each GCL is based on Results indicate that between the early known or suspected human health hazards. 1970s and 2001, nitrate concentrations The logic is that if only one such chemical have increased in 13 first-magnitude exceeds its GCL, then the water cannot springs almost 20-fold. The increase is tied fully support its designated use. For to land use activities in the vicinity of the ground water the designated use is drink- springs and is adversely affecting aquatic ing water. The Basin Resource Index is life in several of the associated spring runs. based on the proportion of ground-water Between 1985 and 2001, the total dissolved samples from an area that have at least one solids (TDS) have significantly increased. analyte that exceeds a GCL. The redesigned This could be related to the recent decrease network commenced operations in 2000 and in Florida's rainfall since the late 1990s, during the first year it sampled approximate- which has lowered ground-water levels and ly 25% of the state. It was found that 89% ( discharge from springs. Evidence suggests 4%) of the wells in the sampled portion of that mineralized ground water, originating Florida meet standards. For the first time, from the deeper portion of Florida's aquifers Florida has a key indicator that can be used to and migrating upward due to excessive estimate the overall quality of its ground ground-water pumping, could be the reason
.ae wihk o ncni e c ,ground-water pumping, could be the reason
water with known confidence. for the increase in TDS. Currently, this
Copeland, R.E., 2003, Assessment of long theory is being checked by analyzing water term trends (decades) in Florida spring quality data collected either quarterly or water quality: Abstract, Program Issue, bimonthly from the states' water manageFlorida Academy of Sciences, 67th Annual ment districts since the 1980s. Meeting, Orlando, FL., Florida Scientist, v.
66, Supplement 1, p. 51. Denizman, C., Kincaid, T., Arthur, J., and DeHan, R., 2004, Karst Development
Copeland, R.E., 2003, Assessment of long in Florida: Spatial analyses based on subterm trends (decades) in Florida spring surface and surficial karst databases in GIS: Abstract, Geological Society of
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. Green, R.C., Evans, W.L. III, Bryan, J., 5, p. 134. and Paul, D., 2004, Surficial and bedrock geology of the eastern portion of the
Most research on karst geomorphology U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna of Florida has been based on surficial karst Quadrangle, northwestern Florida: features primarily because cave data has Abstract, Geological Society of America, not been easily accessible especially in digi- Northeastern Section Southeastern tal format. In order to provide a centralized Section Joint Meeting, Abstracts with repository for cave data in Florida, the Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 61. Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology
Section (FGS-HS) initiated the Florida The near surface geology of the eastern Cave Database project in 2001. The purpose half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale of the project is to compile and synthesize Marianna Quadrangle, which was mapped all available maps and data for caves in by the Florida Geological Survey as part of Florida into a centralized GIS-compatible a two-year STATEMAP project, is composed database. of Eocene to Holocene carbonate and siliciclastic sediments. Within this area, geologTo date, the Florida Cave Database ic processes include a combination of fluvioincludes 31 of the largest underwater caves deltaic and marine deposition, erosion, in Florida that constitute more than 130km dolomitization, and karstification. Several of conduits. The cave files were digitized structural, sedimentological, and geomorfrom maps and survey data provided by the phic variables are unique to the area and National Speleological Society Cave have affected the near surface expression Diving Section and the Global Underwater and interpretation of the geology of the Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project. region. Two important structural features Location, conduit trend, conduit dimension, are recognized: the Chattahoochee Arch a water quality, flow direction, ownership, northeast/southwest-trending high that and land use include some of the data fields exposes Eocene and Oligocene carbonates, underlying point and line based shapefiles with younger strata thinning around the fully documented by metadata. The water arch; and the Apalachicola quality component of the database will be Embayment/Gulf Trough an elongated rendered compatible with the Florida basin that widens southwestward, towards Springs database (also being developed by the Gulf of Mexico, and narrows to the the FGS-HS). northeast into Georgia. Gulf water moved through this strait from the Middle Eocene
This paper explains the database struc- through Oligocene, flowing across the eastture; shows the results of conduit trend ern panhandle of Florida, through southern analyses; and presents the extent of subsur- Georgia and to the Atlantic Ocean. This face karst development in Florida by statis- structure crosses through the southeastern tical summaries of morphometric data on part of the study area, and noticeably influcave passages such as length, width, and enced sedimentation patterns in the region. depth. Comparing the cave distribution to
the previously prepared GIS database of The Eocene to Miocene carbonate units some 25,000 sinkholes, this study also exposed in the area have regional stratiattempts to investigate the connection graphic significance, and historically have between subsurface and surficial karst been identified, correlated, and interpreted development. Further information about in many different ways. Some previous the Florida Cave Database can be obtained investigators relied heavily on fossils to from www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/. establish formations and correlate facies
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within this region, a practice which has led As with direct observation of the underto some lithostratigraphic confusion. water cave environment, the problem with Detailed mapping of the carbonate units using the maps has been access, because allows for a better understanding of the the maps do not reside in a centralized locarelationships between cave development, tion nor are they typically in a suitable forkarstification, ground-water quality, and mat for inclusion in a hydrogeologic investiregional geology in the area. gation. The Florida Cave Database project was initiated by the Florida Geological
In the northeastern portion of the study Survey Hydrogeology Program (FGS-HP) to area, where the siliciclastics thin and the compile and synthesize all available cave carbonates are near the surface, numerous maps and cave location data into a centralkarst features, springs, and caves are pres- ized GIS compatible database. Ultimately, ent. These karst features often allow for the purpose is to make cave maps more direct recharge of surface water to the accessible to professional hydrogeological Floridan Aquifer System. This infiltration investigations, and to encourage their use of surface water influences the ground- in such endeavors. water quality of springs in the area as recognized by increased nitrate concentrations To date, the Florida Cave Database in the spring water. includes 26 of the largest underwater caves in Florida digitized from maps and survey
Kincaid, T.R., Denizman, C., Arthur, data provided by the National Speleological J.D., and Hazlett, T., 2004, The Florida Society Cave Diving Section and the Cave Database: A GIS of underwater caves Global Underwater Explorers Woodville for hydrogeological characterizations: Karst Plain Project. Location, conduit Abstract, Geological Society of America trend, conduit dimension, water quality, Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 85. flow direction, ownership, and land use include some of the data fields underlying
Caves are one of the most hydrological- point and line based shapefiles fully doculy important but least understood and docu- mented by metadata. The water quality mented physical features in the Floridan component of the database will be rendered aquifer. Though there are currently more compatible with the Florida Springs datathan 50 mapped underwater caves in base (also being developed by the FGS-HP). Florida and perhaps as many as 4000 above Though specific access issues remain to be water caves in Florida that have either been addressed, all of the shapefiles are intended mapped or located, these features are rarely to be made available to hydrogeologists via included in hydrogeological investigations, the WWW. Further information on the Florida Cave Database is available at:
The primary limiting factor has is access, F i ae Datb isav e at 'www.hazlett-hincaid.com/FGS/cave-db /.
particularly in Florida where many caves,
and all of the longest caves, are fully satuKincaid, T.R., Schmidt, W., Cook, S.A.,
rated (underwater). Though very few pro- Loper, D., Davies, G.J., and McKinlay, Loper, D., Davies, G.J., and McKmnlay,
fessional hydrogeologists have actually C., 2004, Collaborating for a better tomorbeen in an underwater cave in Florida, row: research and community outreach row: research and community outreach
explorers have traditionally surveyed the aimed at protecting Wakulla Spring: trends and dimensions of the cave passages Abstract, Geological Society of America they explore and those maps now represent Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, the most significant and extensive record of v. 36, no. 5, p. 421. Florida's underwater caves available to the
professional hydrogeologist. Florida's Wakulla Spring is a unique
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
natural and cultural resource. It is the ing and characterizing the karst watershed, largest single-vent spring in Florida, and expanding community involvement, and perhaps the world. The 37 m deep 60+ m increasing political awareness that landwide spring vent regularly discharges more use decisions can have a real and nearly than 15 m3/s of water per day and at times immediate impact on spring-water quality. exceeds 90 m3/s. Cave divers have explored The purpose of this talk is to demonstrate more than 16 km of underwater cave pas- how the key component of these successes sages that connect to the spring and aver- has been the collaborative nature of the age 10-80 m in diameter. The spring is the endeavors. center piece for Edward Ball Wakulla
Springs State Park, which is regarded as McClean, J.A.R., DeHan, R.S., and the "Crown Jewel" of the Florida State Park Donoghue, J.F., 2003, Investigation of the system. Every year nearly 200,000 people feasibility of remote sensing technologies in visit the park to take glass bottom boat locating submarine springs: Abstract, tours, observe alligators, birds, and fish in Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems their natural setting, or simply swim in the Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, crystal clear spring water. Gainesville, FL, p. 33.
Unfortunately, Wakulla Spring is This project evaluated the suitability of threatened from increased surface-water aerial thermography and boat-towed elecrunoff and nitrate contamination. Hydrilla tric resistivity as remote sensing methods verticillata and species of algae have nearly to identify submarine ground-water distaken over the spring basin and the water charge in the Gulf of Mexico. A more generclarity has diminished to the point where al objective of the study was to develop relithe glass bottom boats cannot run for able and cost effective methods of quantifymonths to years on end. Spring protection ing interaction between ground water and in Florida has received considerable atten- surface water in karst settings. Such data tion in recent years, where numerous are necessary for the development of anagroups attack the problem from various lytical and numerical models capable of preangles. The problems at Wakulla have led dicting and quantifying ground water and to an exciting collaboration between state water-borne contaminants movement and agencies, non-governmental organizations, fate in Florida's watersheds. and private companies aimed at arresting
the declines in quality, and protecting the Aerial thermography relies upon the spring for future generations. ability to detect variations in emitted surface temperature between ground water
The Hydrogeology Consortium, Florida and surface water. The option exists for Geological Survey, Global Underwater space based sensor platforms or airborne Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project, units to collect thermography data, with a Wakulla Springs State Park, Florida State trade off between ground resolution and University, Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc., cost of data acquisition. Both space based Cambrian Ground Water Co., and others and aerial data collection methods were have joined forces to conduct focused under evaluation in this study. Boat towed research to determine the causes for spring electric resistivity generates a graph of spedegradation, identify possible solutions and cific conductance as a function of salinity or disseminate the resulting data and knowl- the presence of electrically conductive conedge to the public and the key decision mak- taminants throughout the water column ers. The results to date have been ground- and bottom sediments by modelling breaking accomplishments in instrument- observed resistance between antennae
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pairs. This method therefore has the ability resolution) over eleven test sites during to identify the presence of fresh ground May 2002. In addition, Zonge Engineering water in shallow submarine sediments, or Research Organization Inc. conducted boatcontaminates in fresh surface waters, from towed electric resistivity surveys at nine equipment towed at the water's surface. sites during June 2002. Five of these surThe equipment configuration under investi- veys were along transects for which thergation has a theoretical maximum sensing mography data was also collected. This range of 20 meters below the surface of the paper summarizes areas of submarine water under ideal conditions. Such condi- ground-water discharge identified by these tions include sediments low in clay minerals, remote sensing methods and preliminary which attenuate or absorb the induced elec- results of ground truth evaluation. Ground trical signal, thereby reducing sediment pen- truth verification methods include water etration. quality analysis, seismic profiling, Doppler acoustic discharge measurements, depth
During 2001, FGS personnel conducted sounding and sidescan sonar to map suba study to identify thermal anomalies in the merged karst features typically associated northern Gulf of Mexico using Landsat 7, with ground-water discharge. Sidescan Band 6 thermal imagery having 60-meter sonar data collection occurred in tandem ground resolution and two degree Celsius with the towed resistivity surveys, as well radiometric resolution (McClean 2002, in as continuously recorded water depths and press). A basic assumption of this study is surface temperatures linked to GPS posithat ground water typically discharging at a tions within four meters horizontal accuraconstant 20 degrees Celsius will be cy. Additional in situ water quality samdetectable as warmer water mixing with ples, taken in conjunction with follow up the ambient cold water of the Gulf of Mexico seismic surveys, can augment these geoin winter. During the period of data collec- physical methods to identify ground-water tion, surface temperatures in the Gulf of discharge based upon temperature, pH and Mexico ranged from 11 degrees along the salinity values both at the surface and at coast to 17 degrees further offshore. The depth. The results of these ground truth inverse situation occurs during summer investigations as presented in this paper months when ground-water discharge will determine the feasibility and level of should appear as colder water mixing with success achieved by the remote sensing the warmer Gulf waters, which can reach as methods described above. The high as 28-30 degrees Celsius during July Hydrogeology Program established at FGS and August. by the Florida Legislature provided primary funding for this investigation.
Results of this preliminary investigation, in conjunction with locations of off- Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M., 2003, shore springs and limestone outcrops as Status of the Florida Geological Survey reported by local divers and fishermen, Bulletin 31 update: Abstract, Florida were compiled into database format and Springs Conference: Natural Gems analyzed using Arc View Geographic Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Information System software. This GIS Gainesville, FL, p. 34. study enabled the establishment of study
areas identified as having a high probabili- The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) ty of submarine springs. FGS contracted published Bulletin 31, The Springs of SenSyTech, Inc. Imaging Group to collect Florida in 1947, which was the first comprehigh-resolution thermal imagery (1-4 meter hensive report ever produced on Florida's ground pixel size with 0.2 degree Celsius springs. This volume contains water chem74




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
istry data, flow measurements, map loca- nitrate levels in the first magnitude springs tions, and other pertinent information on 76 when compared to historic nitrate levels. major springs along with some information
on other springs. The Bulletin was updated Following the sampling effort of the in 1977, and many newly discovered springs first magnitude springs, the FGS sampled were added to it. In 2001, the Florida selected second magnitude springs. Data Legislature passed the Florida Springs from second magnitude springs were anaInitiative in response to recommendations lyzed using the Mann-Kendall and the made by the Florida Springs Task Force. Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. Both tests This initiative authorized funding to the are nonparametric. The first was used to Department of Environmental Protection check for a monotonic trend over time for for springs related projects. nitrate from an individual spring. The second was used to compare nitrate data from
The Florida Geological Survey received all sampled second magnitude springs durfunding in 2001 from the Florida Springs ing any time step (e.g. 2002) to a previous Initiative to make a second revision to step (e.g. 1985). As with the first-magniBulletin 31. Within four months of funding, tude springs, nitrate trends similar to those the FGS had sampled and compiled data on seen in the first magnitude springs were the 33 first magnitude springs of Florida. observed. These data were published in FGS Open
File Report 85, First Magnitude Springs of The documenting of increasing nitrate Florida, in January, 2002. Currently, sur- levels in Florida's springs by the FGS, and vey staff are sampling water quality and other state and federal agencies has gathering data on second magnitude prompted research efforts aimed at pinsprings. A similar Open File Report will be pointing nitrate sources. The Florida published on selected second magnitude Primary Drinking Water standard for springs, and by July of 2004, a complete nitrate is currently 10 mg/1. However, conrevision to Bulletin 31 will be published. centrations of as little as 1 mg/1 of nitrate have caused significant alteration in the
Means, G.H., Copeland, R., and Scott, ecology of some springs and spring runs. T.M., 2003, Nitrate trends in selected sec- Currently, the Florida Springs Initiative is ond magnitude springs of Florida: Abstract, funding further research into nitrate trends Geological Society of America South- and sources and is working to develop best Central and Southeastern Sections management practices for springsheds that Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50. have been impacted by elevated nitrates.
Florida's more than 700 springs are Means, G. H., Means, R., Balsillie, J. H., natural treasures which provide recreation and Dunbar, J., 2003, Geoarchaeological and enjoyment to millions of people each consideration of the Ryan-Harley site (8JEyear. Over the past 55 years, the FGS has 1004) in the Wacissa River, northern periodically sampled and analyzed water Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of from selected springs across the state. As America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with part of the Florida Springs Initiative, the Programs, v. 34, no. 7, p. 35. FGS has recently sampled spring water
from Florida's 33 first magnitude springs The inundated Ryan-Harley site (8Jeand published the newly acquired data in 1004) is located in a swamp forest dissected comparison to historic data in order to doc- by channels of the spring-fed Wacissa River ument changes in water quality over time. in northern Florida. The Ryan-Harley site The FGS documented increasing trends in is thought to represent an undisturbed
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Middle Paleoindian Suwannee point site all of the sandy sediments were originally (-10,900 14C BP to -10,500 14C BP) transported and deposited as point bars by (Anderson et al., 1996, Goodyear, 1999, fluvial processes. Evidence presented shows Dunbar, 2002). The site consists of sandy to that the artifact assemblage, fossil vertesilty organic rich, unconsolidated sediments brates, and fine grain fraction eolian sand overlying the Oligocene Suwannee recovered from the Suwannee point horizon Limestone. Distribution and taphonomic were deposited after the deposition of the analyses of the artifacts and vertebrate fau- point bar during a subaerial event. The nal remains recovered from the Suwannee Suwannee point horizon then became inunpoint horizon suggests the artifact assem- dated and buried. The granulometric analyblage and the faunal remains represent an ses as well as other lines of evidence indiarchaeological site component that has cate the Suwannee point horizon at the remained relatively intact since its time of Ryan-Harley site is essentially intact with deposition. Additional conformation of site little or no post-depositional reworking. integrity beyond the artifact suite is also
necessary. To accomplish this, granulomet- Pichler, T., Arthur, J., Price R., and ric analyses of unconsolidated sediment Jones, G., 2004, The arsenic problem dursamples were performed. Samples were col- ing Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): lected from the artifact-bearing horizon and Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, from horizons immediately above and Issue 11, Supplement 1, p. 520. below. Arithmetic probability plots of grainsize distributions suggest that most but not Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is
Rock Springs, Orange County, Florida (photo by Tom Scott).
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the process of artificially recharging and water could be an alternative to the current storing treated surface water in a confined practice in order to mitigate potential aquifer, then recovering that water at a arsenic mobilization. time of need, such as during a drought or
dry season. Some concerns exist regarding With respect to the world-wide operawidespread utilization of ASR in Florida tion of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) due in part to the discovery that some facilities that intend to store water in lowrecovered water samples from the upper DO limestone aquifer systems, it is imporFloridan Aquifer System (Suwannee tant to carry out a detailed Limestone) in southwestern Florida contain mineralogical/chemical investigation of the more than 100 ppb arsenic, while the inject- aquifer matrix prior to construction and ed water is virtually arsenic free. To inves- operation. If arsenian pyrite is present, the tigate this problem we carried out a injection of oxygen-rich water will most detailed mineralogical and chemical study likely cause a release of arsenic. of regional groundwater and aquifer matrix.
Our study shows that groundwater in Portell, R. W., Means, G.H., and Scott, the region is virtually arsenic-free (<0.5 T.M., 2003, Exceptional preservation and jg/L) and oxygen depleted. The average concentration of whole body Ranilia arsenic concentration for 306 samples of the (Decapoda: Raninidae) in the Pliocene aquifer matrix is 3.5 ppm, which is higher Intracoastal Formation of Florida: Abstract, than the global average for limestone of 2.6 Geological Society of America Southppm. Maximum arsenic concentrations for Central and Southeastern Sections limestone samples range up to 54 ppm. Our Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50. combined geochemical, lithologic and mineralogical study of the Suwannee In Liberty County, Florida over 500, Limestone shows that: (1) The arsenic in nearly complete to complete, carapaces of a the Suwannee limestone is primarily con- new species of Ranilia, were collected from centrated in trace minerals, particularly the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation. The framboidal pyrite. (2) Framboidal pyrite low degree of disarticulation of the crabs contains arsenic at concentrations in excess indicates that they were buried rapidly, of 1000 ppm, (3) Other trace minerals and most likely during a severe storm event(s). organic material contain arsenic in much At least six other decapod genera occur in lower amounts when compared to fram- association with Ranilia but all were much boidal pyrite. (4) Framboidal pyrite is ubiq- less abundant (and still await study). The uitous throughout the Suwannee Intracoastal Formation, first described by Limestone, but is most abundant in high P. Huddlestun in 1976, is primarily a subporosity zones. (5) Previously suggested surface unit, occasionally cropping out iron oxyhydroxide minerals are apparently along streams and riverbanks from westnot an important source of arsenic. ern-most Okaloosa County eastward to southwestern Wakulla County. However,
The breakdown of pyrite and mobiliza- recent excavations in Liberty County tion of arsenic during ASR could be caused exposed nearly 5 m of Intracoastal section; by a change in redox. In most Florida ASR the upper 3 m dominated by Ranilia fossils. operations, water rich in dissolved oxygen
(DO) is introduced into the storage zone. The crab-bearing unit is slightly phosThus, the injection of oxygen-depleted phatic, loosely cemented, carbonate sand,
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easily removed by precipitation and runoff. tained abundant sponge spicules may be At several locations in the quarry, Ranilia incorrect. In the following discussion, we carapace density averaged six per inm2. describe Florida clay deposits, offer ethnoGiven that the quarry is approximately 0.3 graphic and archaeological evidence from km2 and that the Ranilia fossils occur the Amazon basin and Africa that reveal a throughout the quarry wherever the long history of the use of sponges as temper, Intracoastal Formation is exposed, rough report the analysis of 136 well samples and estimates indicate that many thousands of 45 shallow clay samples, and discuss the Ranilia may have been present prior to possibility of spiculate mucky soils as a mining, source of St. Johns paste.
Previous reports of Florida Pliocene Rupert, F., 2003, Fossils: a glimpse into crabs are limited to Petrochirus bouvieri Florida's underwater past: Tallahassee Rathbun 1918, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson Museum of Science Newsletter, July, 2003. 1859, and Parthenope charlottensis
Rathbun 1935, and were based solely on Florida has a rich fossil heritage, and chelae and fingers. The only Florida our state's long association with the sea is Pliocene whole-body crab was Petrolisthes evidenced in the abundant marine fossils myakkensis, described by Bishop and found here. For much of the past 200 milPortell in 1989, thus the total known lion years, Florida was under water. species diversity of Florida Pliocene crabs Through the reign of the dinosaurs and up prior to this report was a meager four. until the middle Oligocene Epoch, 30 million years ago, the area of present day
Rolland, V.L. and Bond, P.A., 2003, The Florida was sea bottom. A myriad of creatures flourished in these ancient seas.
search for spiculate clays near aboriginal tures flourished in these ancient seas.
sites in the lower St. Johns River region, Many left their remains in the sea floor sedsites in the lower St. Johns River region, mnswhculiaeybaeterok Florida: The Florida Anthropologist, v. 56, iments, which ultimately became the rocks we see today. Mollusks, or seashells, are
no. 2, p. 91-111. typically abundant. In some deposits the shells are well-preserved because their
The identification of St. Johns cultural hard, lime shells remained after the death occupations is based largely on the presence of the animal. Sometimes only molds and of ceramic vessels with pastes containing casts of the original shells remain in the abundant quantities of sponge spicules. rock. Other shelled creatures, such as Spicules represent the bio-silicate remains microscopic foraminifera, corals, algae, of freshwater sponges: Class sand dollars and sea biscuits, are also comDemospongiae, Family Spongillidae. While mon constituents of Florida's rocks. many thousands of spiculate St. Johns Dugongs, the marine mammal relatives of shards have been recovered, no raw spicu- the modern manatee, frequented the lagoon late-clay sources have been located that and coastal waters, grazing on sea grasses. contain the quantity of spicules observed Rib bones and vertebrae from these creawithin St. Johns paste. The focus of our tures are common finds in Miocene Epoch study has been to explore this contradiction rocks. And always lurking nearby were the and to consider a possible alternative sharks, predators to dugongs and fish alike. hypothesis that the presence of spicules in Sharks lose and replace teeth frequently St. Johns vessels reflects a cultural tradi- throughout their lives, resulting in the deption involving the purposeful addition of osition of many more fossil teeth than other spicules as a tempering agent. In other animals. Small to medium shark teeth are words, the assumption that the clay sources common fossils in Miocene Epoch seditargeted by St. Johns potters naturally con- ments.
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The new fossil dig display at the muse- peers and we "preach to the choir" on earth um provides visitors with a hands-on explo- science and environmental conservation ration of one moment in Florida's geologic issues when we are already in the same corpast. Featured in the exhibit are fossil- ner. Geoscience issues so often serve as a laden boulders of a rock called the Torreya critical foundation to environmental regulaFormation. The Torreya Formation was tory decisions, land-use decisions and plandeposited in the Early Miocene Epoch, ning, geologic hazards mitigation, contamiabout 20 million years ago. Geologists char- nation and waste clean-up, water resources acterize these boulders as sandy, clayey, protection, minerals exploration and prophosphatic limestone and dolostone. This duction, sustainable development or envimeans the boulders are principally carbon- ronmental conservation. Geologists have ate, with impurities consisting of quartz much to offer and they must become more sand, clay, and phosphate grains. The proactive to share their knowledge and offer Torreya Formation underlies portions of the their insight. Not only can it be financially eastern Florida panhandle and southwest- rewarding, it will increase the odds of variern Georgia. Primarily a subsurface unit, ous environmental engineering projects the Torreya is exposed in the Fullers Earth being successful if they are based on compemines near Quincy, Florida, and tent geoscience. Involvement increases the Attapulgus, Georgia, where its Attapulgite professional respectability and personal (Palygorskite) clays are extracted for com- self-worth of those offering such assistance. mercial use. Natural exposures of the We live in a state where the environment Torreya Formation may be seen at Torreya and our pristine natural resources are State Park in Liberty County, Big Dismal extremely visible in public policy and signifSink in Leon County, and along the icant to our economic well-being. The geoSopchoppy River in Wakulla County. science community must step up and offer what we can, timely and on task when
Schmidt, Walter, 2003, Measuring geolog- appropriate. Our apathy as a profession ic research projects as productive outputs must change! towards the desired outcome of natural
resource conservation: American Institute Scott, T.M. and Means, G.H., 2003, of Professional Geologists, The Professional Geologists' role in defining public policy Geologist, March 2003, p. 11-12. The Florida Springs Initiative: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthSchmidt, Walter, 2003, Professional Central and Southeastern Sections Geology Not Just for Scientists Anymore! Meeting, v. 35, no. 1. p. 49. Think.... "Marketing": American Institute
of Professional Geologists, The Professional In September 1999, the Secretary of the Geologist, May / June 2003, p. 7. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Geological Survey's
The professional geology community is parent agency, mandated the initiation of classically comprised of individuals who the Florida Springs Task Force in response tend to keep to themselves and don't social- to the declining health of the state's ize and attend large meetings often. They springs. The task force was composed of like solitary field work and they enjoy the geologists, biologists, planners and others. outdoors where they can do "hands-on geol- The task force met monthly for a year and ogy" and maybe take samples back to the compiled a series of recommendations lab or office to contemplate or write-up their which were presented to the Governor and field notes. Too often when we do gather Legislature. Geologists guided the task
together, we solicit validation from our force in learning about the subsurface envi79together, we solicit validation from our
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
ronment, the interaction between the sur- With funding from the Florida Springs face and subsurface environments and in Initiative, two first magnitude springs, developing portions of the final report. Wakulla and Manatee, were selected for a unique investigative approach to waterThe mounting challenges of accommo- chemistry provenance. Both springs have dating Florida's rapid population growth on-going water-quality sampling programs. demanded effective tactics to protect the The springsheds of these springs are being state's world-renowned springs. The need delineated based on extensive water-level for hydrogeological research, the develop- data, chemical and physical parameters. ment of best management practices and Both springs have extensive underwater careful land use planning was recognized. cave systems with multiple conduits. The 2001 Florida legislature provided $2.5 Individual conduits have different water million for the first year of the Florida quality indicating different source areas. As Springs Initiative. A large portion of the such, cultural activities may affect the allocation was used to fund a number of
allocation was used to fund a number of water quality in one portion of the system geological projects including: 1) Water sam- but not another. Through water-quality pling and analyses, description of Florida's monitoring and springshed delineation, the largest springs and publication of the
results; 2) Delineation of springsheds for effects of cultural activities on ground water results; 2) Delineation of springsheds for anthspigcnbeetrudrto.
and the springs can be better understood.
selected first magnitude springs; and 3)
Investigations of the nitrate sources affecting the spring waters. Geologists are Historically, water samples gathered tasked with determining the problems, the from individual conduits had to be taken by sources of the problems, and educating not cave divers, a time-intensive and dangerous only the Governor, Legislature, and other undertaking. Discussions between sciengovernmental officials but also the public. tists and managers concluded that drilling Only through understanding the problems wells into selected conduits at Wakulla and and enlisting the informed assistance of Manatee Springs would provide a new and others can the State's valuable resource of innovative way to access the conduits for springs be saved from further degradation. periodic sampling and monitoring instrument placement. Wells were drilled into
Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Greenhalgh, three conduits at Manatee Springs during T., Campbell, K.M., DeHan, R., and May and June 2003. Placement of the wells Hornsby, D., 2003, Innovative investiga- was accomplished by divers placing an oritive approach to assessing the culturally- ented radio beacon in a conduit and a surinduced water-quality changes in Wakulla face receiver pinpointing the vertical locaand Manatee Springs, Florida: Abstract, tion. The FGS drill rig cored each hole Geological Society of America Annual approximately 23 meters deep. Wells up to Meeting, Seattle, WA, v. 34, no. 7, p. 200. 100 meters deep will be drilled into the conduits at Wakulla Springs in July and
Florida is one of the fastest growing August 2003. Probes to continuously measstates in the country. Karst terrain predom- ure flow, temperature, nitrate and other inates in much of Florida where the carbon- parameters will be placed in the conduits by ate Floridan aquifer system is at or near the divers and will be connected to the surface land surface. Geologists have inventoried through the wellbore. Water-quality sammore than 700 springs in Florida. A trend of ples can now be obtained to study shortdeclining quality of water emanating from term responses to storm events and for commany of Florida's springs was recognized. parison to long-term data sets. This data
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
will allow geologists to assess the degrada- Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 41. tion of Florida's springs and assist the State
in developing BMPs. Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004, The Florida Springs Initiative the results of
Scott, T.M., 2004, The new geomorphic the Florida Geological Survey's three year map of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society investigation and the impacts on public polof America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, icy: Abstract, Florida Scientist v. 67, Abstracts with Program, v. 36, no. 5, p. 578. Supplement 1, p. 54.
The last state-wide geomorphic map The Florida Springs Initiative, funded published by the Florida Geological Survey by the Florida Legislature since the 2001-02 (FGS) at a 1:2,000,000 scale was released in fiscal year, was the result of the efforts of a 1964. Brooks published a geomorphic map diverse mix of geologists, biologists, other sciof the state at a scale of 1:500,000 in 1982 entists and citizen representatives that combut it was not widely utilized. The new geo- prised the Florida Springs Task Force. The morphic map is a combination of an Task Force was formed in response to the upgrade of the 1964 map and a reinterpre- perception that Florida's springs were tation of the state's physiography. Utilizing becoming degraded. The Florida Geological a combination of old-fashioned geological Survey was tasked with revising the Survey's mapping techniques and modern, digital 1977 bulletin "Springs of Florida" which techniques, a new geomorphic map of included locations, descriptions and, in some Florida has been produced by the Florida cases, water-quality data. It is now known Geological Survey. Initial mapping that more than 700 springs exist in the state. employed visual inspection of 1:24,000 scale Survey teams visited, described and collected topographic maps to identify physiographi- water samples at all the first magnitude cally similar areas then transferring those springs (33) and approximately 60 second areas to a 1:750,000 scale map by hand. The magnitude springs. The teams also visited resultant map was digitized. The digital other lower magnitude springs, inspecting outlines of the geomorphic features were and describing them. Nearly 500 springs overlain on to topography and aerial pho- have been described by the teams. The tography layers to aid in the resolution of descriptions of the spring boils and runs have boundary issues. Field checking of bound- noted that many springs have been degraded aries is occurring during travel for other compared to historical accounts and have FGS projects. The new map better identifies had abundant algal blooms caused by the karstic areas of Florida. This allows for changes in the spring-water quality. Watera more complete understanding of the quality analyses reveal increases in several water resource issues surrounding Florida's analytes most notably nitrate. The natural springs and the continuing intense develop- nitrate levels in the Floridan Aquifer System ment in the state. are below 0.05 mg/1. Today, some water from first magnitude springs exceeds 5.0 mg/1
Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004, The nitrate. Water from some lower magnitude Florida Springs Initiative the results of springs contains more than 30 mg/1 nitrate. the Florida Geological Survey's three year Increased nitrate levels have been linked to investigation and the impacts on public pol- human activities and land-use changes. Best icy: Abstract, Northeastern and Management Practices are being developed Southeastern Section meeting of the in order to prevent further degradation of the Geological Society of America, Tysons springs and to help return the springs to a Corner, VA, Geological Society of America more natural state.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER
PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
PRESENTATIONS the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Copeland,
2003 February, 2003.
Water-rock interactions during aquifer Development of a spring glossary and classtorage and recovery: Florida Association sification system for use in Florida. of Professional Geologists, Tallahassee, FL, Presented at the Florida Springs by Jon Arthur, January, 2003. Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Copeland, February, 2003.
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment
project. Florida Springs Task Force, Ocala, Status of the Florida Geological Survey FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2003. Bulletin 31 update. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville,
What geologists really do or has a spouse, FL, by Guy "Harley" Means, February, 2003 loved one, friend ever said "You get paid to
do that?!!! Lecture to the Everglades The Hydrogeology of Lake County. Geological Society, Ft. Myers, FL, by Tom Presented to National Wildlife Federation Scott, February, 2003. Habitat Stewards Training Class, Clermont, FL, by Paulette Bond, March,
Education and outreach efforts toward bet- 2003. ter management and protection of Florida
springs. Presented at the Florida Springs Nitrate trends in selected second magniConference, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, tude springs of Florida. Southeastern/ February, 2003. South-central Section, Geological Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN, by Guy
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment "Harley" Means, Rick Copeland, and Tom model, a step by step approach to predicting Scott, March 2003. aquifer vulnerability at the springshed
level using weights of evidence. Presented Exceptional preservation and concentration at the Florida Springs Conference, of whole-body Ranilia (Decapoda: Gainesville, FL, by Alan Baker, February, Raninidae) in the Pliocene Intracoastal 2003. Formation of Florida (poster). Geological Society of America meeting, Denver, CO, by
An application of the Florida Aquifer Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, March, Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model to 2003 springshed contamination. Presented at the
Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, Nitrate trends in selected second magniFL, by James Cichon, February, 2003. tude springs of Florida. Southeastern/South-central Section, Geological
Investigation of the feasibility of remote Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN, sensing technologies for locating submarine by Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott, springs. Presented at the Florida Springs March, 2003. Conference, Gainesville, FL, by James
McClean, February, 2003. Geologists' role in defining public policy. The Florida Springs Initiative.
Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Southeastern/South-central Section of the Florida spring water quality. Presented at Geological Society of America, Memphis,
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
TN, by Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, "Harley" Means, August, 2003. March, 2003.
Florida Springs Initiative update. Assessment of long term trends (Decades) Presented to the Department of in Florida spring water quality. Presented Environmental Protection, Quarterly at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Monitoring Meeting, Guy "Harley" Means, Academy of Sciences, Orlando, FL, by Rick September, 2003. Copeland, March, 2003.
The Florida Springs Initiative and where Earth Day at the Florida Capitol. does our spring water come from?. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie Presented at the Marion County Springs Lloyd, Paulette Bond, Steve Spencer, Frank Festival, by Guy "Harley" Means, Rupert, Dave Taylor, April, 2003. September 2003.
Mining Day at the Florida Capitol. Florida during the Pleistocene. Tallahassee Tallahassee, Fl., by Walt Schmidt, Steve Museum of History and Natural Science, Spencer, Frank Rupert, April, 2003. Tallahassee, FL, by Guy "Harley" Means, September, 2003.
The Florida Springs Initiative and cave management. Florida Cave Management Lecture to FSU Geohazards graduate class. Workshop, Ocala, FL, by Guy "Harley" Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Means, April, 2003. September, 2003.
What geologists really do. Northwest Interview for WFSU Public TV show on Florida Water Management District, by sinkholes and karst. By Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, May, 2003. September, 2003.
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Florida geology and professional geology. project. Florida Department of FIU Geology Department., Miami, FL, by Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Fl., Walt Schmidt September, 2003. by Jon Arthur, May, 2003.
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Florida Springs Initiative. Florida Local project. Wekiva River Basin Workgroup, Environmental Resource (FLERA) Agencies Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, September, Conference, Jupiter Beach, FL, by Guy 2003. "Harley" Means, July, 2003.
Offshore sand source investigations off the Use of indices in evaluating Florida's northern Florida east coast. 47th Annual ground-water quality. Presented at the Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach 19th Annual Environmental Monitoring Preservation Association, Amelia Island, Conference, Arlington, VA, by Rick FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2003. Copeland, July, 2003.
Earth Science Week FGS Open House. FAVA and the Hydrogeology Program. Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October, Suwannee River Water Management 2003. District, Live Oak, FL, by James Cichon, August, 2003. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. American Institute of FGS Role in the Florida Springs Initiative. Professional Geologists Annual Meeting, American Institute of Professional Lakeland, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, Geologists Florida Section Meeting, by Guy 2003.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Florida Geology. Classroom lectures at FDEP Secretary Struhs. Tallahassee, FL, Fairview Middle School, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. by Dave Taylor, Brie Coane, and Tom
Greenhalgh, October, 2003. Florida's aquifers: vulnerable and vital.
1000 Friends of Florida forum on Water
Springs of Marion County. Presented to the Issues facing the Florida Panhandle, Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, by Tallahassee, FL by Jon Arthur, December, Guy "Harley" Means, October, 2003. 2003.
Water-rock interactions during aquifer The human history of the upper storage and recovery. EPA Director's Apalachicola River valley. Florida Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, Paleontological Society, Bristol, FL, by Guy November, 2003. "Harley" Means, December, 2003.
Hydrology of Florida's karst regions. Springs Initiative funded projects at the Florida Department of Health Regional Florida Geological Survey. Hernando Meeting, by Guy "Harley" Means and Tom County Springs Workshop, Brooksville, FL, Scott, November, 2003. by Guy "Harley" Means, December, 2003.
Innovative investigative approach to The FGS; its research and other activities. assessing the culturally-induced water Geology of Florida Class at UF, Gainesville, quality chages in Wakulla and Manatee FL, by Tom Scott December, 2003. Springs, Florida. Geological Society of
America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by 2004 Tom Scott, November, 2003.
The hydrogeology of Wakulla Springs.
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Environmental Science Class of Wakulla (FAVA): utilizing geological mapping data High School, at Wakulla Springs, FL, by to predict aquifer vulnerability (poster). Paulette Bond, January, 2004. Geological Society of America Annual
Meeting, Seattle, WA, by James Cichon, Lecture to Florida State Parks Annual November, 2003. Biologists Meeting. Wekiwa Springs, FL, by Walt Schmidt, March, 2004.
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment.
35th Annual National Association for Cave The Florida Springs Initiative the results Diving Seminar, Gainesville, FL, by James of the Florida Geological Survey's three Cichon, November, 2003. year investigation and the impact on public policy. Geological Society of America
Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Annual meeting, Tyson's Corner, VA, by project. National Cave and Karst Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, March, Management Symposium, Gainesville, FL, 2004. by Jon Arthur, November, 2003.
Ocean Day at the Capitol.: Poster presentaWater-rock Interactions During Aquifer tion and static display. Tallahassee, FL, by Storage and Recovery. EPA Director's Dan Phelps and Jim Ladner, April, 2004. Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur,
November, 2003. Hydrogeology of northern Florida and other geologic topics. Westminster Oaks,
FGS Hydrogeology Program briefing for Tallahassee, FL, by Tom Scott, April, 2004.
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Mining Day at the Florida Capitol. Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach Tallahassee, FL., by Walt Schmidt, Steve Preservation Association. Marco Island, Spencer, and Frank Rupert, April, 2004. FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2004.
Earth Day event. Florida State University, Townhall meeting, Wakulla Springs waterTallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Tom shed research activities. R.A. Gray Scott, Jackie Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, Building, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt April, 2004. Schmidt, October, 2004.
Duval County geology. Duval County A brief discussion of the geology of Duval Commission, Jacksonville, FL, by Rick County, Florida. Duval County Green, April, 2004. Commission. Jacksonville, FL, by Rick Green, October, 2004.
Earth Day at the Florida Capitol.
Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie FGS Open House for Earth Science Week. Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, April, 2004. Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October, 2004.
Windows into our aquifers. Annual
Meeting of the Florida Groundwater Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Association, by Guy "Harley" Means, May, project. Florida Department of 2004. Environmental Protection, Daytona Beach, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2004.
The geologic history of the Dunnellon area.
Desoto's River of Discord Celebration, The geology of Wakulla County. Annual Dunnellon, FL, by Paulette Bond, June, Meeting of The Wakulla County Historical 2004. Society, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004.
Opening for the Wakulla Springs Hydrogeology Program Briefing for the Scientific Symposium. Tallahassee, FL, Governor's OPB Staff. Tallahassee, FL, by by Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Walt Schmidt, October, 2004.
Sinkholes in Florida Seminar. Tampa, FL, Hydrogeology '101'. Governor's Office of by Steve Spencer and Walt Schmidt, Planning and Budget, Tallahassee, FL, by August, 2004. Jon Arthur, October, 2004.
Lecture to Geohazards Graduate class at Geoarchaeological consideration of the FSU. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Ryan-Harley site (8JE-1004) in the Wacissa August, 2004. River, northern Florida. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA,
Briefing for DEP Press Secretary. by Guy "Harley" Means, November, 2004. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt,
September, 2004. Presentation to the "Walk for Wakulla Springs" participants, Tallahassee, FL, by
Marion County's precious springs. Marion Walt Schmidt and Guy "Harley" Means, County Springs Festival, Silver Springs, November, 2004. FL, by Guy "Harley" Means, September,
2004. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. EPA Director's
Offshore sand source investigations off the Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, northern Florida east coast. 48th Annual November, 2004.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
DEP Division of Resource Assessment & MEETINGS Management annual awards luncheon. Tallahassee, FL,. by Walt Schmidt, 2003 November, 2004.
DEP NW District Office to discuss Water quality issues in the Floridan agency/operator consent order regarding Aquifer System. American Water Works Petro Oil Co. as operator of Blackjack Oil Association conference, Orlando, FL, by Jon Field. Pensacola, FL, Walt Schmidt, Arthur, November, 2004. January, 2003.
Southeastern Geological Society Meeting. The new geomorphic map of Florida. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, Abstract, Geological Society of America 2003. Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, by Tom Scott, November, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN), Town Meeting. Panama City, FL, Diagnostic Fossils in Florida Stratigraphy. Carol Armstrong, January, 2003. Everglades Geological Society, Ft. Meyers, FL, by Frank Rupert, November, 2004. Board of Professional Geologists.
Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, Hydrogeology of Florida '101'. Water January, 2003. Matters! A joint conference of the Florida League of Cities and Florida Association of Florida Association of Professional Counties, Orlando, FL, December 2004. Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, January, 2003.
FIELD TRIPS
FGS Management Retreat. Tallahassee, 2003 FL, Ron Hoenstine, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd, Dave Curry, Carolyn STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Stringer, January, 2003. Committee Field Trip to Marianna, Florida, Florida Association of Professional Area, by Rick Green, October 2003. Geologists. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt,
Field Trip for Association of Ground Water February,2003. Scientists and Engineers meeting, The Florida Springs Conference, Natural Orlando, FL, by Tom Scott, December, Gems Troubled Waters. Gainesville, FL, 2003. James Cichon, Guy "Harley" Means, Walt Schmidt, and Tom Scott, February, 2003. Alum Bluff, Liberty County. Florida Paleontological Society, by Guy "Harley" DEP Activities and Performance Measures Means and Tom Scott, December, 2003. Assessment. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003.
2004
DEP NW District Office to discuss agency/ STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory operator consent order regarding Petro Oil Co. Committee Field Trip to Gainesville, FL., as operator of Blackjack Oil Field. Pensacola, Area, by Rick Green, October, 2004. FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003.
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Meeting with FSU to discuss building needs the National Speleological Society (NSSat Innovation Park. Tallahassee, FL, Walt CDS). Gainesville, FL, Tom Scott and Guy Schmidt, February, 2003. "Harley" Means, May, 2004.
USF Geology Alumni Society annual ban- Board of Professional Geologists. Cape quet. Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Walt Canaveral, FL; Tom Scott, July, 2003. Schmidt, February, 2003.
Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa Meeting with DBPR / FBPG to discuss Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Professional Geology Legislation. Means, May, 2003. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Spring Conference. Niceville, FL, Carol Armstrong, Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment May, 2003. Technical Advisory Committee. Camp Weed, FL, Jon Arthur, Alan Baker, Alex Coastal Sediments 2003. Clearwater Wood and James Cichon, February, 2003. Beach, FL, Dan Phelps, May 2003.
67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Florida Groundwater Association Meeting. Academy of Sciences. Orlando, FL, Alan Cape Canaveral, FL, Tom Scott, May, 2003. Baker, James Cichon, Rick Copeland, and Alex Wood, March, 2003. Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists. Lincoln, NE, Southeastern/South-central Section of the Walt Schmidt, June, 2003. Geological Society of America. Memphis, TN, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, Florida Association of Professional March 2003. Geologists. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, June 2003.
Meeting with FSU to discuss their plans for use of the Gunter Building. Tallahassee, Panhandle Library Access Network Board FL, Walt Schmidt, March, 2003. of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, June, 2003.
Meeting with DEP State Lands regarding Oil Co. Leases. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Coastal Management Program Schmidt, April, 2003. Clearinghouse meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.
Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop. Ocala, FL, Rodney DeHan, Jon Arthur and Gas Storage Wells meeting. Tallahassee, James Cichon, April, 2003. FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.
Significance of Caves in Watershed Coastal Operations Institute Meeting. Management and Protection in Florida. Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, Ocala, FL, Tom Scott, Rick Copeland, Walt 2003. Schmidt, Guy "Harley" Means, and Jon Arthur, April, 2003. The Florida Local Environmental Resource Agencies, Inc. (FLERA) Conference. Jupiter C-Boom seismic equipment demonstration. Beach, FL, Guy "Harley" Means, July, 2003. St. Petersburg, FL, Dan Phelps, April 2003.
Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, Annual Meeting of Cave Diving Section of FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
The Florida Section of the American Panhandle Library Access Network Board Institute of Professional Geologists meet- of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, ing. Lakeland, FL, Guy "Harley" Means, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2003. August, 2003.
18th Annual Phosphate Conference. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature meetings Lakeland, FL, James Cichon, October, Altamonte Springs, FL, and several other 2003. meetings at the FGS, Tallahassee, FL, Rick Copeland, Jon Arthur, Guy "Harley" Florida Water Data Center discussion Means, and Tom Scott, August, 2003. meeting. FSU, Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2003.
City of Alachua City Commission. Alachua, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, National Cave and Karst Symposium. August, 2003. Gainesville, FL, Rick Copeland and Jon Arthur, October, 2003.
Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium. Mobile, AL, Walt Schmidt, The Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, August, 2003. Guy "Harley" Means, October, 2003.
FAPG Executive Committee Meeting. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project 2003. Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, October 2003.
Wekiva Basin Coordinating Committee Public Meeting. Altamonte Springs, FL, 35th Annual National Association for Cave Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, September, Diving Seminar. Gainesville, FL, James 2003. Cichon, November, 2003.
Naval Air Station Jacksonville Restoration Annual meeting of the Geological Society of Advisory Board Meeting. Jacksonville, FL, America. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott and Guy Ron Hoenstine, September, 2003. "Harley" Means, November, 2003.
Panhandle Library Access Network Board American Association of State Geologists, of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, mid-year meeting. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2003. November, 2003.
The Department of Environmental DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Protection, Quarterly Monitoring Meeting. Model Springs Land Development Code. St. Augustine, FL, Guy "Harley" Means, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, September, 2003. 2003.
STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory PERC Administrative Hearing. Committee Meeting. Florida Geological Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick. Green, Tom Jackie Lloyd and Jim Balsillie, November, Scott, Guy "Harley" Means, Will Evans, and 2003. David Paul, October, 2003.
Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, Annual Meeting. Reno, NV, Ed Garrett, 2003. October 2003.
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BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
Florida Department of Health Regional Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Guy "Harley" Springs, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004. Means and Tom Scott, November, 2003.
Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Florida Paleontological Society. Bristol, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney Florida, Guy "Harley" Means, December, DeHan, January, 2004. 2003.
Meeting with Bob Hughes Drilling re/ Panhandle Library Access Network Board Highlands County Drilling Applications. of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2003. 2004.
Hydrogeology Consortium / FSU President Florida Board of Professional Geologists. Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jacksonville, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004. December, 2003.
Panhandle Library Access Network Board Association of Ground Water Scientists and of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, Engineers. Orlando, FL, Tom Scott, FL, Carol Armstrong, February, 2003. December, 2003.
Meeting with DMS to assess Gunter Godby High School Science Fair Judging. Building facilities. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, Schmidt, February, 2004. 2003.
PERC Administrative Hearing. Coastal Operations Institute Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2004. 2003.
Meeting with FSU Dean of Arts & Sciences Panhandle Water Issues Workshop. regarding Geology Department. Tallahassee City Hall., Tallahassee, FL, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. 2004.
2004 Office Inspection of the Jay Field Office.
Jay, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project ROSS Data Base Workshop. Dan Phelps, Delivery Team. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, February 2004. January, 2004.
DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. 2004.
Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Florida Board of Professional Geologists Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt, Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon January, 2004. Arthur, March 2004.
Springs Task Force Meeting. Tallahassee, Hydrogeology Consortium meeting. FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. NWFWMD, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur,
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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
March, 2004. Annual Meeting of the Florida Groundwater Association. Orlando, FL, Geological Society of America combined Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott, May, Northeastern and Southeastern Sectional 2004 meeting. Tyson's Corner, VA, Rick Green, Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott, March, Panhandle Library Access Network Board 2004. of Directors meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, May, 2004. Meeting with Shell Oil Co. re/ Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal Waters. Meeting with Murphy Oil Company regardTallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, March, ing Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal 2004. Waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004..
Career Day Oakridge Elementary School. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, April, 2004. Meeting with DCA regarding FGS mapping of Springs Areas for the use in the model Florida Association of Professional code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt 2004. Schmidt and Jon Arthur, April, 2004.
Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Florida Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur, April, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2004. Hydrologic Observatory Meeting with UF, FSU, USGS, and the Hydrogeology Aquifer Storage and Recovery IV Forum. Consortium. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Tampa, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur and Schmidt, June, 2004. Dan Phelps, April, 2004.
Annual Meeting of the Association of Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver American State Geologists. Stevenson, WA, Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Means, May, 2004.
Meeting with DEP State Lands, State National Speleological Society Cave Parks regarding potential acquisition of Diving Section, Science of Cave Diving limestone caves area in Jackson County. Workshop. High Springs, FL, Walt Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, and Guy "Harley" Means, May, 2004. Meeting with DCA to discuss Florida Springs Area Map. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver Schmidt, July, 2004. Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy "Harley" Means, May 2004. Facilities inspection of Jay Oil Fields with Governors OPB representative. Jay, FL, Hydrogeology Consortium Water Data Walt Schmidt, July, 2004 Center meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Rodney DeHan, and Jon Arthur, Gunter Building and Warehouse Facilities / May, 2004. Program review by Governors OPB repre90




BIENNIAL REPORT NO. 23
sentative. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Association of American State Geologists, August, 2004. mid-year meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott, November, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting, Panama City Beach, FGS Oil & Gas Section program planning FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2004. retreat. Maclay Gardens, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004
Meeting with Anadarko Oil Company regarding offshore drilling plans in Federal Meeting with DEP Inspector General Staff waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, to formulate audit plan Tallahassee, FL, September, 2004. Walt Schmidt, November, 2004.
Marion County Springs Festival. Ocala, Godby High School Science Fair judging. FL, Guy "Harley" Means and Tom Scott, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, September, 2004. 2004.
Sinkhole Summit II. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Springs Task Force meeting. Tallahassee, Schmidt, Tom Scott, September, 2004. FL, Tom Scott, December, 2004.
ASC / LNG Pipeline Tunneling meeting. Meeting with DCA representatives to Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, October, discuss Columbia County "stream-to-sinks" 2004. mapping. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2004.
Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing System FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2004. Regional Association Conference. .Jacksonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, December, STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory 2004.. Committee Meeting. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick Green, Panhandle Library Access Network Board October, 2004. of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2004.
Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Tom Scott, Jon Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Arthur and Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney DeHan, December, 2004
Oil & Gas Administrative Rules Public Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, TRAINING November, 2004.
2003
Geological Society of America Annual Meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and Making the Connexion. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, November, 2004. Carol Armstrong, January, 2003.
Seven Hills Regional Users Group Technology Special Interest Group. Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, James Cichon, Mariana, FL, Carol Armstrong, March, November 2004. 2003
Olesya Lazareva Thesis defense at USF. First Aid/CPR Training for selected FGS Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur, employees, Tallahassee, FL, March, 2003. November, 2004.
91




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Copyright Law in the Digital Age. Schramm Drill Rigs Maintenance and Marianna, FL, Carol Armstrong, April, Operation Training, Craig Berninger and 2003. Lee Booth, November, 2004.
Portals: Beyond the Hype. Panama City, BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) FL, Carol Armstrong and Paula Polson, August, 2003. 2003
Information Literacy. Marianna, FL, Carol Wakulla Springs Birding and Wildlife Armstrong, September, 2003. Festival. Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2003.
Certified Public Manager Training. Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, Tallahassee, FL, Ed Garrett, two-year pro- April, 2003. gram beginning September 2003.
Marion County Springs Festival. Rainbow Geochemist's Workbench. Denver, CO, Jon Springs State Park, Dunnellon, FL, Arthur, November, 2003. September, 2003.
PowerPoint Training Workshop. Innovation Park Open House. Tallahassee, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, FL, October, 2003. 2003.
Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter 2004 Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2003.
Management 101. Tallahassee, FL, Carol 2004 Armstrong, January-May, 2004.
Florida State University Earth Day Event. Florida Groundwater Association Tallahassee, FL, April, 2004. Convention: Water well contractors continuing education courses. Craig Berninger, Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Lee Booth, Ken Campbell and Eric Springs, FL, April, 2004. Harrington, May, 2004.
Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, Critical Computer Care. Panama City April, 2004. Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, July, 2004.
Desoto's River of Discord Celebration. People First Training. FGS staff, August, Dunnellon, FL, June, 2004. 2004.
Wild Florida Festival at the Tallahassee Short Course on Carbonate Stratigraphy. Museum. Tallahassee, FL, September, Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom 2004. Greenhalgh, Will Evans, Cindy Fischler, Clint Kromhout, Jon Arthur, Guy "Harley" Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter Means, Dave Paul, Tom Scott and Rick Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2004. Green, September, 2004.
Where in the volcano is that? Front Porch Wireless Technology in Libraries. After School Program. Tallahassee, FL, Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, October, 2004. 2004.
92




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describe
'416' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADHY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012.txt'
77ca066fe80df37a23bb61d73987eab1
34d55251595c5abae9dce265fd3e6ed22d8a9429
'2017-02-24T12:14:42-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
WARNING CODE 'Daitss::Anomaly' Invalid character
Invalid character
'3865' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADHZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_083.txt'
cedfca46bfebd1ccf6e04e244b069a42
9af3ad58e9888308b4be3413cfe58efdaab4a50e
'2017-02-24T12:12:04-05:00'
describe
'4615' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008.txt'
ecbd33f8b8836a5ba72f8f346dbc1d9f
a57034135c1910d43fefcd0e1b2b7ac072138015
'2017-02-24T12:11:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_081.tif'
a4918fb936ee5106135850f6b7bb7f5b
e4488437e518d37c4252d02e872ff2b38c5d2a42
'2017-02-24T12:11:32-05:00'
describe
'74420' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093.pro'
c86f6d41a5761bd0c178c0aaa16a5e81
a6df51729e9886f2257d2af1c84dc1efb785628d
'2017-02-24T12:11:57-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADID' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074.tif'
a5ab65173eac5f28a20210aab77f0de0
74d7a4c4e46f0dbf764c05f58f9cc988e4997177
'2017-02-24T12:14:03-05:00'
describe
'1051986' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017.jp2'
714627c99b15ccc18ea5ddfe4de6f12c
b4c0f7934b4fc6930ffb9063b0ffbc450121defc
'2017-02-24T12:13:28-05:00'
describe
'33839' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102.QC.jpg'
c4fd19871b25d72f0dc97df9b419c7b3
0f057c3567e27366dda255d4af401bd3e2b26d34
'2017-02-24T12:14:59-05:00'
describe
'37643' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_106.QC.jpg'
6c711b60fe0cc8b5c297bb3c5616b333
689d77fb75f962a96f96fcad505aea011d4c6d5a
'2017-02-24T12:13:25-05:00'
describe
'37317' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_072.QC.jpg'
1c9cc873df7c73cdb0691da5bee43491
6aeb39d1ef2a648a5199b03c7de75fe1026f5195
'2017-02-24T12:14:30-05:00'
describe
'4544' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADII' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016.txt'
d90ca6d856e3fd7e84f82ef69ffb873f
a662e493e816cc86babc25495ae274e9833decbb
'2017-02-24T12:10:53-05:00'
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'7354' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_011thm.jpg'
82241ce0c5938ff221ebbbb768e92414
049745cb39c3aa5eb107040d0f1e08179efbd286
'2017-02-24T12:10:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045.tif'
2424087c24c62a72d4e9a15cf2097ac4
cf9e5c6b9aaa8ac8f8e7b9181693f270f781b51a
'2017-02-24T12:11:44-05:00'
describe
'7863' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_083thm.jpg'
3f75ae30014a7e275eaa0b24fe339c72
60b57c72b94fac6696439fd71ccb97b45754218e
'2017-02-24T12:14:07-05:00'
describe
'182125' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_111.jp2'
ab09118967ba940ca954594a22924f49
b92bfdf5fb3c679dbb2a068e4f690401572cfe79
'2017-02-24T12:12:54-05:00'
describe
'3638' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069.txt'
47ce1d22a4424e67df523b2a24492dd5
c713de8f40ff3cd262d7023402bb6b453ad49eee
'2017-02-24T12:14:38-05:00'
describe
'156734' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_086.jpg'
3efb419a3b97b4fc360e3f63a000afa9
99b4ea72d8a7c10c530f225b1491599883a2d660
'2017-02-24T12:14:45-05:00'
describe
'99286' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_106.pro'
c4c4e9a9d5e4be86d476497f3232a41e
148af2489b9b3c0d3157aee1190522d6d7d09db9
'2017-02-24T12:11:50-05:00'
describe
'10929' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012.pro'
d1a5f465eb26518394b10e26b54493fe
88fcc692ddee3d91440b2c2cf8d09a39fbe4af58
'2017-02-24T12:14:48-05:00'
describe
'7291' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061thm.jpg'
5dc8aa02d10fa46bccb30059097eee1f
cfb02c3ad45ea89b18ee062d8fb8f23582fa1013
'2017-02-24T12:14:28-05:00'
describe
'149073' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054.jpg'
7efe4412e8bf862ddccac0a403935086
d43f762df3c040f557d0f30a2e09a9ee295d2001
'2017-02-24T12:10:38-05:00'
describe
'181850' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066.jp2'
600c76f0a2786efcd0bd5afb21925f1b
18ef311390bb078ce7dc39e1cf2ed721eaad25d8
'2017-02-24T12:12:58-05:00'
describe
'7314' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015thm.jpg'
5218455aea733ec595b7506441649dff
c1751fdeb6a24732bb740c79a382b58e3eadffec
describe
'451' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039.txt'
c538b4ba4bfe0f3f0cfa92564730ad08
ff7a8139480590a9157da3744d6e53821abf7126
describe
'83777' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101.pro'
3ac67efa06b997a1183451dea6d84ce3
065aa139e53c3126b1bc6ff8de8ba455e3124afa
'2017-02-24T12:11:23-05:00'
describe
'146359' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044.jpg'
368428838af70d0e2fdb4c6b7da82b90
4b48b0d08814b71a1cb9c83e20131a1264ebe5bf
'2017-02-24T12:15:06-05:00'
describe
'57056' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025.pro'
e3e44cda1d16986dbf6f2bc7b549ae24
8c8a4d34b8e5c266ad7624671e5d1f403e3e4fd3
describe
'194239' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADIZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_079.jp2'
c836a9c2feea63245f8b478c8a76376f
4a035560a1bac46fc0bc811f34bd1851155d0754
'2017-02-24T12:13:30-05:00'
describe
'152674' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041.jpg'
5a6c57112f6f66e580ce2660d7a28ae2
ffb7a76ccf0b6be05d5911e2f02531bccd7b7e82
'2017-02-24T12:11:03-05:00'
describe
'7749' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_042thm.jpg'
c00c30a55be667fb7bf98997607e00f4
02f6817b2e06a917faaa057870e0520b0be9ca71
'2017-02-24T12:12:01-05:00'
describe
'34934' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066.QC.jpg'
d2031ad645550ba1cd670140cdaa3062
71d531eeccf0ddb56550d0dfcc0de77e3a2a0d8d
'2017-02-24T12:13:21-05:00'
describe
'27719' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100.QC.jpg'
84461503d753dfacee8ad557a5d7272e
5b9df23231b1ce1fdd7344b0c42168bb26f6a2bd
'2017-02-24T12:15:10-05:00'
describe
'146831' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021.jpg'
33718c3b2cd0f8eccc32fb2e21be6bce
1075286565a2d4c68f93d800d1d8f7f81148b442
describe
'156289' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_071.jpg'
df3637b09b04c5877549779650ad7742
cbc509cb5b41d2996c674ebe9ed9f43ee0aeaae0
'2017-02-24T12:14:37-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026.tif'
a90c5b329eb932ea4dd5a2e4a1bced84
f35ccac8b51e42390599829a527120bec4c7324b
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087.tif'
faa0cc220d3daad69a35b87c408ee179
9cbaaff673c9254d51c878ce56e8ad75b271e2db
'2017-02-24T12:12:03-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_071.tif'
6b8343de7117d70dadc2a68ced103ab3
229e82ffaf8d9c2a909824bc4b04de290037aa3e
'2017-02-24T12:11:02-05:00'
describe
'7939' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113thm.jpg'
1d289fb0d54a4a6a0a65292db9950ffa
2868d0dd0402b37e62d051aabe8a9c1001af1774
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077.tif'
58351c93586ffd8a7c169bb1d917fcea
f3e3e173edfed660806823c82704bb600218ec27
'2017-02-24T12:12:57-05:00'
describe
'7785' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076thm.jpg'
a1060fa68393e80f2c0ea371c0494f1f
5da5080d196b21261ef8edb6893ac488d1e71981
'2017-02-24T12:15:00-05:00'
describe
'97066' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_042.pro'
433afe37d4d29086d3ab9d9b03296a8b
a566851630c3315dee75ff6db22ad6d38258625a
describe
'7831' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_105thm.jpg'
8400fef16f24de98220d9768f5f6bfd5
f40773116f9e56ea4c3c212c18101960386e71e9
describe
'7475' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092thm.jpg'
a5bce305e4284cc182fa90608a460342
569fc581d259e66053e25c4939861f13d3a22801
'2017-02-24T12:11:19-05:00'
describe
'3285' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_005thm.jpg'
b939f1e022118f011a376752669b52dc
61e4ac3c4449f55732726c9bd35fe880e64bf792
'2017-02-24T12:13:38-05:00'
describe
'7209' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_110thm.jpg'
055ba0cb4cf3458b7b2e3a9d88f7d6a5
4e1fc9d1b8118fde39b22e799867a50837f2dfa0
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112.tif'
e8b0535a7c03592a682f4fabcb14e0fc
eb9f8262ea93a72d04cc8c6a558e56d6fbecda4e
describe
'127823' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026.jpg'
9c6ef438e6743a4c80b4289356928ca7
594036747bb4dfeb094bebfcaf0584eb898430d3
'2017-02-24T12:12:27-05:00'
describe
'181657' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021.jp2'
2c8797f144fdf77240d9a96b3c954cea
c96edd80be31951441b8acac0e4c62250804f4c6
describe
'71324' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034.pro'
16accc67ed20f52b7e4b1bad3f3e21e0
a0a6f7ac4db476958058bd914230386339a78df4
'2017-02-24T12:10:37-05:00'
describe
'142438' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_097.jp2'
d6288597add4ee859193b520fec29800
04d3fd9ef99c7bd92eed8f51e1e6027b8ec28e5f
'2017-02-24T12:10:58-05:00'
describe
'7875' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_073thm.jpg'
e959f5b49f3d371ce2300c0f41957eaa
e6bd0796c3128b4d9ae67a07b7a12a6de4e1ccf3
'2017-02-24T12:12:15-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_028thm.jpg'
d83600fae6426d45d38b13048d609491
268fe19b7fac425b671fe269987c45196c7c3143
describe
'7764' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_019thm.jpg'
9fe0199d96b00bd876141413f2f2e38d
4bbafbccca822e61aa6e87835fa2250234047bd1
'2017-02-24T12:14:35-05:00'
describe
'189200' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADJZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062.jp2'
8bcfc3c2d382370c4f6e6b39be90f3ec
b8dd310f39e000705851f58d774e92826c56e04f
describe
'96885' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112.pro'
cf5458dbc35fbe35b5d2e00e8be04ab0
b8a4fcec3c2a66566ac14dd1e2fc6f9685eacdf9
describe
'33644' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101.QC.jpg'
a9e0316d2202bcc108f0654fd0e02060
3e943c88fa0916a6e9a722115ef07cd9799a8d6b
'2017-02-24T12:14:27-05:00'
describe
'196402' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087.jp2'
36ad95492974dd3bb6a35a99ec1905d5
5ac7fe8ce25c8bb828196f370b32f81335d89757
'2017-02-24T12:13:48-05:00'
describe
'59786' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_019.pro'
5766df3d15ad2923e4ad695e2a3b4d50
d74201994220f1da354e54bec99a828ad3751654
'2017-02-24T12:11:18-05:00'
describe
'33787' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_020.QC.jpg'
01b06ca555864381f8764a7ca590e881
ff6f4c1decafae75625764e430f5cb7c928e5f03
describe
'37928' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112.QC.jpg'
042177f288b3982c60be995c9d5dee0a
669734b2e7c82d9c2d3349b9e98ea077934490ed
'2017-02-24T12:14:23-05:00'
describe
'116710' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096.jpg'
23b683f1bfdf38d14d4478c8dcb7201e
c9d6799031ec37fa5c4c46e59941fc6a0fd58d0b
'2017-02-24T12:14:53-05:00'
describe
'96238' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008.jp2'
d97d2c02111c112698702b3bd2d4d89c
650a7386af6bd19ff9139a516ef8b1a4b79c23e7
'2017-02-24T12:11:07-05:00'
describe
'142584' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_011.jpg'
b4dc4bf122876a0cbc5ae43bd751153f
4f3b6b03be8d92943efb1fbc9cbca2224a5168a5
'2017-02-24T12:12:47-05:00'
describe
'24375' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016thm.jpg'
b4e94f7dd8c3c10f217b31c7588e1153
bdc63951275997058d23e912c449e1f4cd476e88
'2017-02-24T12:11:41-05:00'
describe
'3142' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022.txt'
a4827d12dd7ea5d52448d2041bc0c84b
d03640c78e912200f10efb635b0a3a9dc2a232d2
'2017-02-24T12:12:02-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109.tif'
7b2adb12de7d3f3507b9f69155149bf6
21c1958442e4ce54e37426b9f53c6cb39f7c4904
'2017-02-24T12:14:13-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_046.tif'
896879c31012cb6cc661ab98cf27f122
0dc4c662cbcdd20156fc0fa028208475889e4af5
'2017-02-24T12:11:16-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120.tif'
a1effd0c860896e4ddaf9d4c9f6966b7
e9d4cc161bb8ac12a9462d54e64dc976e4dce187
describe
'162451' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010.jpg'
e86b56d63a0cc60c10316a9753a4b488
db2b52b3aaec687dd9f70b2f9ce61de6df4ceb20
'2017-02-24T12:13:24-05:00'
describe
'8785' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001thm.jpg'
6002966e13b671198ae2c2f207ac953d
212d8995b0cd3dc3657cbc032b912e6c16ddaddb
'2017-02-24T12:14:18-05:00'
describe
'7301' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_046thm.jpg'
5c3e7a1dd53a1bd5e27799877ae30477
9fd0ae939f5ea7589e9e84ad006b21b0c48fc1cd
'2017-02-24T12:14:06-05:00'
describe
'103926' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_006.jpg'
56fbe8aa4ae6b0b37cfdeedaaccc1d36
c6c84dcf3f7524e4c04c5a22c418b1f4764d2261
describe
'116806' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025.jpg'
7f8b2f5d5495d96bf10da95045d823f1
ddf32a606b1db7c518185bc634268f0dcc309fcb
describe
'98505' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059.jpg'
35ce63dd23177c616d18e516c7971560
85125d3cbb730c23a18375bdbc1152ee1dc0e0bc
'2017-02-24T12:13:03-05:00'
describe
'568' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003.txt'
e47e53d2521bffd08f6fd5fa5ce02485
7626db71ffec1aa297ea986948e9219dd86410f1
'2017-02-24T12:14:21-05:00'
describe
'124702' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091.jpg'
d92c9b9fa85869ec20e6ea2a40cc4ff5
74d6fed7d089042ee693f064fbe5e9b91dfdf972
describe
'148727' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096.jp2'
8adc89207303c8f0f45c2384618e5dc0
b9b9c5752ba319ab8f65182f8b598e465d32d501
'2017-02-24T12:14:55-05:00'
describe
'103801' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_072.pro'
10a25a02c138dc297b6b4846272a5ae6
26e968de2a82cfbbe3a90ce669cd0bdf8da6c03c
'2017-02-24T12:11:27-05:00'
describe
'123344' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033.jpg'
92a7221f87b86cdb41b8d89683d7a364
039f0fa0d83915ae30fe4dbae7e34c496368d3d2
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADKZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102.tif'
7d74b5e0e658a6145d162d6445b5f7dc
befb11821d12c0a61cd340118aa0a595d6a2fccb
'2017-02-24T12:11:31-05:00'
describe
'36156' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052.QC.jpg'
e519e2b42a1e473c25f6a1038e119c97
ac7108c3e6d85fa3fb7dbb2f8f4f3af1452752f9
'2017-02-24T12:13:11-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040.tif'
c7de772521bf0c59dd1a93ebab292889
e8a000306345a31d4aa42253fa8edff96eb9db72
'2017-02-24T12:11:40-05:00'
describe
'7394' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096thm.jpg'
da08d09ac9f821f933b38ad5dd6f838e
24de5424bfc36a569261b6e20d48e7b61eea6f6c
describe
'7365' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033thm.jpg'
40135a8d069cb006d6a555bd51c4d1a7
9595fa36789c68a3749666f99effd6a9f0850679
'2017-02-24T12:14:11-05:00'
describe
'30032' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_119.QC.jpg'
b35c022d63a9677acda321f9df8445ba
fb36297b07d8c8c9367593ab1e2155f0a69c37d6
describe
'33969' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027.QC.jpg'
4bc9cc0ec7ed9cc98f7a4d12d55261e8
cf2e36f8bd0be7b044efa1dd243b60d6a7f77263
'2017-02-24T12:11:22-05:00'
describe
'6929' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059thm.jpg'
f1c70a50fd309a98c754c48c874c00e5
eca7886e4d329e70d9cbbcff2251213dc85c79f0
'2017-02-24T12:12:39-05:00'
describe
'85203' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_031.pro'
aa582a8ab9d9ff4fa13bde92a9d83a09
446e16abe08f0a2e2093ce578ded8ba3e7743769
'2017-02-24T12:12:05-05:00'
describe
'132445' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101.jpg'
56d5aba2b60510edf80d5beffef4fe99
a2469750fd861930e00febc2e33e925f171820f8
'2017-02-24T12:13:39-05:00'
describe
'2346' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_019.txt'
a6bf422c14ec20b5f2313f37d35ed431
aad0186debc851638901b1212bb898209464362c
'2017-02-24T12:13:45-05:00'
describe
'195542' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112.jp2'
e95398b76f61409801edfe4d41b7cc44
c1f82efd31d2e285e891cf55be118cc30681d83e
'2017-02-24T12:13:27-05:00'
describe
'90443' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_111.pro'
9e241d401744fd4baf2fda07bbfd781a
7a19d700a4b8e85fb78c2cc11e23ce602fbece0a
'2017-02-24T12:13:22-05:00'
describe
'3634' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066.txt'
f50a1ad66e222963ea45c9cfa8040531
c241a55611b4615007f21bf9c01dfee109457d50
'2017-02-24T12:11:09-05:00'
describe
'101396' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078.pro'
f25603b0628cfb2941184fc63dc89fa2
cd0d16db1c7990fe3e29aad8395be7dffc086d06
'2017-02-24T12:11:30-05:00'
describe
'137685' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030.jpg'
8ba9320ea132b4234f1216059efcbeff
126fb27c80cb07ee1cdc3aaf01e1120ec4660597
'2017-02-24T12:14:20-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090.tif'
b735ef2d58d9880d7a6f187727ed4a9c
fcfd85e71b9c0f192ff259efa2edd77ed7a4dff7
describe
'194197' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLQ' 'sip-filesUF00000224_00003.xml'
2638251b9e4b5f13490ad3344ca92d1c
7e86595a85a1bc7510cddf6579b403c629d51d31
'2017-02-24T12:13:02-05:00'
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'2017-03-07T14:10:59-05:00'
xml resolution
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'100450' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001.jpg'
c88060d1ac19c7378d14afa801c83479
3a9b208767b4efb2afa823cfafe055c0515d9fa2
describe
'6358' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_002.jpg'
8603d5862f2e73690753562480d1b1eb
062724995015d8b758931b3c53ed03fb2aace83f
'2017-02-24T12:12:11-05:00'
describe
'40598' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003.jpg'
0c8defeb894edd96d3ab99823eb84a0e
4bbe50db1b0038b73fc9823df45ad05ea597a782
describe
'3200' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004.jpg'
4561f67f047216348234b727575abc52
0e4418e766aeb74a7d4ffa9174e70bf7886d33ee
'2017-02-24T12:13:31-05:00'
describe
'45900' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_005.jpg'
80457ab9ec814a118f88ae1c85be9faf
ee031d73ec4f9f9a002dd8c8d3c7d4d1e1e1f53e
'2017-02-24T12:12:18-05:00'
describe
'108029' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_007.jpg'
f20811fa7039284e2dc6942b8a769dc9
80513a2f2e7f1b9f48bc9e9cf83d22e9852be616
'2017-02-24T12:13:34-05:00'
describe
'103400' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADLZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008.jpg'
123fb41d511c829201e88118b5814054
76fd5b035c007bda0389a53f0f586d9be762338f
'2017-02-24T12:15:07-05:00'
describe
'145955' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009.jpg'
6c286f0c7695ab308f493e2526f2c71e
2f31a452f30caed017614a5d22a752e174a388fe
'2017-02-24T12:10:51-05:00'
describe
'74609' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012.jpg'
174d639efe0ecffb50fb6de9989b1ba9
2f3090992372294dbaf1282578ed12d70679e522
'2017-02-24T12:13:32-05:00'
describe
'134021' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013.jpg'
29d850afc446b59e8dbd361399451fce
52e2fc0944b31ca43db5fa5dbc73f3c6332e4b72
'2017-02-24T12:11:15-05:00'
describe
'134356' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014.jpg'
7475cc04b0929c717a2a61ffecee4853
023f5a0e3ca6874ff1083c1ce90892af8aec800b
describe
'125478' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADME' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015.jpg'
64de3aa6ccc16342d396a55b0f4db880
98338a4ee95cc0fd1df6a227db966c035d43974c
describe
'64778' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016.jpg'
9083613b73de1bb6342a51f4f9c398db
58498c8a527345fa71a773402495acdd78646924
'2017-02-24T12:13:17-05:00'
describe
'134597' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017.jpg'
82302ba8c3ab38a62bb74f5527675824
668da6396a1b1bc4b28e31f912b814ad8613d7db
'2017-02-24T12:12:06-05:00'
describe
'151032' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018.jpg'
02670e6642c0203fa4459a82faf72769
edbe5001041467ff2ba3dbfb3e482493f37a38b1
'2017-02-24T12:14:34-05:00'
describe
'122502' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_019.jpg'
2ab2c6fe3cffb74b7589aec8d4e9f7c2
cafcda80161640d584f03a21a76aa975d55ba010
describe
'135100' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_020.jpg'
55b3eca25082857380446742fa3b5017
618f48a2398559a0c514e57301907648bb9cccd4
'2017-02-24T12:12:45-05:00'
describe
'141214' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022.jpg'
5a87ffd3dea43c6e286df45f61a34212
2f4817f8ce80d42624b0f9a1a23e44ff6a6ccb85
describe
'150653' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADML' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_023.jpg'
5bd9b3b31d556c571e944d3dd983e26a
97aad413069373f4df21944b76b0e2a00a0810fe
'2017-02-24T12:11:56-05:00'
describe
'136789' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024.jpg'
33b1d79ffefc21dc80047c336497701c
d8911b7e9903866c6f537478eeec665f75d8ccd7
'2017-02-24T12:10:48-05:00'
describe
'133996' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027.jpg'
f9e3e5d42853dba16abf9276eaf557b5
f41c7e30ecd8ea3fc94a1ceada3a13db1cf5e8c4
'2017-02-24T12:12:44-05:00'
describe
'139190' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_028.jpg'
f644b36c7ca7cfff4adf3697e36390ac
e47c641609cfe917ae1ab6ccc0ceed992e1175fc
'2017-02-24T12:13:57-05:00'
describe
'129485' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_029.jpg'
80d6ee15125c8a4f0e73e9e9fee085c5
467dee3794ff2933158ece47a3a62baa5894d595
'2017-02-24T12:12:17-05:00'
describe
'130871' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_031.jpg'
8a8d5c473ec3b4653e70f7a4b34df5fe
7958b36d345dd57fa519e1b40c6342b29fc7d986
'2017-02-24T12:13:51-05:00'
describe
'110123' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032.jpg'
7138d31e87ff16da5c53eed2526ebc33
fe78d495db3f53858b118eb54ea5c25397fe5912
'2017-02-24T12:10:49-05:00'
describe
'135494' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034.jpg'
3e5d088d5681cee8a9e983b5fcc53836
98a0604bcf2b3cc8166b1ab70e7fa6121a96c628
'2017-02-24T12:12:20-05:00'
describe
'134510' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035.jpg'
fba4656b7c733911d48943941f3a2488
9a6a344e91787e9fb15e45a15f7e598021565095
'2017-02-24T12:14:16-05:00'
describe
'155311' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036.jpg'
0af4e0231fac7b795d34cffc395576b2
74b34fa6f6cc315a5ed381b78b4ed05aab7ce19d
describe
'153116' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_037.jpg'
aa25aec8663eb0be915014f5eed8e601
d265655230892e6051621254581007fbafb24c00
'2017-02-24T12:12:55-05:00'
describe
'57864' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_038.jpg'
89cad2983aff90af9f91796903aeb1a9
4b91baa39596880986e92d2480e21a54e783814d
'2017-02-24T12:10:52-05:00'
describe
'55563' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039.jpg'
7b1771b9968ae709c56f4cb3fef485a9
f14cfc002b9cab335b5b2273e47698534f416d10
'2017-02-24T12:13:52-05:00'
describe
'149891' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040.jpg'
7e700ec2e5638af28f1c509646b7557a
843dca6d81947741084f5026f633e8a1b1f820bc
'2017-02-24T12:15:13-05:00'
describe
'145460' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADMZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_043.jpg'
cd4411bdb41ff1442a0af852c7420a45
b7f56d6431a836f36ce97e23f83c1c98ae5a3d84
describe
'150515' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045.jpg'
8fe719cfb51e07f8b9477c8022ec4631
3ffc8bce5a17faa2a31e838ce2397685e1c387d5
'2017-02-24T12:14:15-05:00'
describe
'141446' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_046.jpg'
8ef0a24a8e511fc0fcc5bdd4cfc9eb99
9f464e3cc15ffd9b04e6a924da42669256145a7a
'2017-02-24T12:14:58-05:00'
describe
'144144' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_047.jpg'
5307e10045525cc714a24cc1fdf6ea98
3c4bc8f3dec688f3fa95259f7809a39206b81116
'2017-02-24T12:14:49-05:00'
describe
'138480' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADND' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048.jpg'
9cedceb32c38a97c6f096819cb849772
0f523065d7e48e2b7a6e817cc11d932f55c7d999
describe
'117347' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049.jpg'
d767b37501b96e39889e3f6219638da6
b84939a034b7bff2f8b34dbfb28e69c792627ab1
'2017-02-24T12:15:03-05:00'
describe
'139209' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_050.jpg'
b99622bddbfa5965c4fc22e7b0a478eb
da70b0a6021265c7a156db62300f89a2fd4fd93a
describe
'150053' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_051.jpg'
191fde8fd5235f1b82f49a9cdc5d806f
e0643367512cce36c507472fb7f579d489a3031b
describe
'148980' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052.jpg'
15ee77a0f5f66d03c0f8bf7b665c3fa3
728d96904a27e033b21a6f7493b1552fc9f484f3
'2017-02-24T12:15:02-05:00'
describe
'139734' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_053.jpg'
3d8ad8421d25a967be579ad3f7f35e92
40bb59deb877679f8ed3e29483c5b4ec172ca0b5
describe
'145767' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055.jpg'
d01689fe74aec60b695b7d5eb257f861
347fb176a63ef4fba821e966ca13729e8f8cc94c
describe
'109592' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056.jpg'
a8901ccdd799216c861d2d7107d3c1e4
d4c11bc736f49e442d6eefaa21f781b4fe27bfc3
'2017-02-24T12:11:13-05:00'
describe
'141109' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057.jpg'
b95057c3d78758d6f4ba0865e468c7ec
7d69bd3dd4a3ebb430d69cb9f92df094c15f55e6
describe
'130387' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058.jpg'
b211611a74341d0fe6e54671cc319c79
8b495b535f05b9d881d0a0794dfae8184f3cb9cc
'2017-02-24T12:13:50-05:00'
describe
'101368' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060.jpg'
f2a619fe4174beecacedfc6b4dfa72d7
b8520272fbed80a78e2ee3921e332e6a51682674
describe
'123183' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061.jpg'
26d4e6649a64d839e2dc3425edb3a011
7f4113a67611e771903418ab7e18934ad5401cb1
describe
'151641' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062.jpg'
6f11cbffafbd564261658fd38dcbc397
51420022d9f4665d12d0f3c5d341d67ef3416e9e
describe
'144624' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_064.jpg'
a26b1860e71ea4450a1d30dd8247a962
48adb468303b24eb8a93e9bc2f317fb8a5f07482
'2017-02-24T12:12:21-05:00'
describe
'153800' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065.jpg'
3efadcb1d53d3ced102a5d5774450cc6
c20e9542dca6f0aa4b79071415a8c726dd2cced5
'2017-02-24T12:12:16-05:00'
describe
'146408' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066.jpg'
c3836066fa6223355c27a7d699d63cac
3c675eba0c003da93f526bbc0346d1a97b86a240
describe
'140701' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_067.jpg'
67a5695441c2ba23dd4c2cb92d705e0d
876538ae979800a6575baaace7f7a8f26caf5d8e
'2017-02-24T12:14:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_068.jpg'
0c6523185cf7eff5e2bc30b09ce306c6
b4263e8fd6fd0671d1caded54c3dde21e7597472
'2017-02-24T12:11:28-05:00'
describe
'146159' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069.jpg'
39cc4a413c15643ef562d29cf7ab3963
038575d1185721dcca7a665d7047f014a09d015e
'2017-02-24T12:13:56-05:00'
describe
'162713' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070.jpg'
6d335e0eb4fa3c5be5fcab954362d908
0ce8183e16c5d5012408df1bcb334c47ad37dc7b
'2017-02-24T12:11:01-05:00'
describe
'159861' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_072.jpg'
53618be53176be4d9d5acbc9960bf887
3ab8c98655bac7f9525657f17c61a775edb3651e
describe
'151096' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_073.jpg'
c26cb7582cf61f82992859166030266b
80815a490af2f2bf2e5b1c546ae9e320072b19bb
'2017-02-24T12:14:26-05:00'
describe
'153117' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADNZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074.jpg'
495fa0ff353186eb6a5e7090fdfa7fa1
fff00c15d41e6c0de545f0bb523fa4826e4e9c36
describe
'155079' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_075.jpg'
87909187d3530d31c64cf14195a9f39b
8b3a215913e3804c0cfada415c09ae5f49377267
describe
'159185' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076.jpg'
f927aadeaaeb99b2cc31f1624bf9c43a
ab7154f5be865d10184d930ee6d76c938f4ced78
describe
'153648' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077.jpg'
a266b4d12fe4e896c08022d88a3363b3
6d0254c2fa70d5de4a00d2a9045825954b04fc6f
describe
'153890' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078.jpg'
a6e07d67f22780f01e10aaacf903eb2b
0b42b499cc01dbc490cc6864c9627d02fd8fdbd7
'2017-02-24T12:11:24-05:00'
describe
'156246' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_079.jpg'
1775afaaa05f3de0a4842f9547295e8d
8b06786b3bf06ebae08c7eae36637a3716fcc965
describe
'155140' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080.jpg'
5f7b0d4a08307de0d497417108818b73
35624a0cf6652d072fecda34a00eaf4421f448c5
describe
'157124' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_081.jpg'
50e04697c313988a647dfa8d15378962
99cd241a45dc665448f823cf85cb27b511ab36a3
describe
'158941' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082.jpg'
9bf1ce4b02ac3c4345361a8b778b8b10
a4fc81b1ea0a6e5bfb69156baf85d7328460d30d
describe
'156462' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_083.jpg'
11cbefbcbd001ef215f8315b6618c701
114f31809ffc7b9ca1cf96d7c56a8c4c3e507966
'2017-02-24T12:14:01-05:00'
describe
'137374' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084.jpg'
225571bc4a7756b5f1fb86bf2c8d0c46
46eef6a3eab5a4fdc9517e427a23908dcc6a715b
'2017-02-24T12:10:55-05:00'
describe
'147423' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_085.jpg'
c25ccd492c394121221cca87df200119
5904ae8bb43262bd92f1ad0ba6a16924f64403cc
'2017-02-24T12:14:51-05:00'
describe
'159183' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087.jpg'
36e6c1b8c60b3c29653d52940afcbee5
e59cfb03f6664444561a5a9c00a4aefcd334dd59
'2017-02-24T12:13:44-05:00'
describe
'158199' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088.jpg'
b2dbbb0819d2d129b07ec02e80240b5c
89328860af83aa558c24909cf6410a5770d31b57
describe
'156397' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADON' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089.jpg'
281b05c8aa18d22c5b7c7e93f6113aef
38bc1fd60c88f5ad3b41d1784abfb07ea5fb9974
describe
'125385' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090.jpg'
3feeb802df3c5fd08b2140e50931c1c1
f1d33601f2fb3e9cf8f0c8f2a92aa71314ef7c89
describe
'125619' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092.jpg'
df8134384fdda387d85663e21f68c5e3
338b98c8048cf1064acf76f3123d699b5fcf74c7
'2017-02-24T12:12:00-05:00'
describe
'119851' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093.jpg'
776c098c2540eab980c32b687522eb5d
79c5e20476aec29fe3cf0ae9c6401a9974d6a4bb
describe
'108150' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_094.jpg'
12cd7f2ce6fcb6b812c198bd34670ed1
c9cb75aaaea124251e787da0437e82d7fa70bf1b
describe
'117823' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_095.jpg'
1d594777c91b28ef6d8ea41732c2d69c
936da46e8c52c63419096eae43782e0951b9307d
describe
'112216' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_097.jpg'
56f3f641f7fc42ef5f9a606ff0337dbe
02cf467799d907c30fb1dd5e27387b862349b7b9
describe
'120737' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098.jpg'
4b3124d569fc30ae473162e7c4ea7c01
e6bbf21b7c1089497193cfe244f9b2d12904dd3c
'2017-02-24T12:14:54-05:00'
describe
'113856' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_099.jpg'
90ccc838956d4ac20304137c2fb98ff2
2912bf753444851dd23f947f461e2eb997677cc3
'2017-02-24T12:10:42-05:00'
describe
'99757' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100.jpg'
2884b97b286585c9401ebf0dc1d76928
871454cd3c53064242570765c4679dd98277c962
describe
'124742' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102.jpg'
cf55adacc630eb471e748b6ec4c421f5
a40bda42a5fd7df7b8003c86230dc6181ec30a1e
describe
'129291' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103.jpg'
863fde93d96491437f4279b67f150cf2
9896b81661866ab45ad46b6ad2709cec07c6ca07
describe
'140789' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADOZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_104.jpg'
0e7f372a965933b784e0bdb17b1dc44d
82aff52c9fa7b8bb31790c91eb045b7c257ac780
'2017-02-24T12:11:35-05:00'
describe
'155861' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_106.jpg'
c1a338fa30914eda96ea401e0095aa06
0dbabc1d6a8288fed41e9b92a7a8d3186fb7d9bd
'2017-02-24T12:12:50-05:00'
describe
'151756' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107.jpg'
6bfd87c9b5c480c7ce95d2781dba6183
fa1406bda3850ceb883ade0a8a1a058efc197dbb
'2017-02-24T12:14:22-05:00'
describe
'151342' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_108.jpg'
5ddd792a6d757ef7ad66064759aa393a
944288b5bae23249d45c8c3063d6a60a3a7b30b2
describe
'152845' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109.jpg'
8c0f20977f3d59cd66d92555476958e1
2b13bbd4dcdb98f2b0ec147d9e0c586f5760d5da
'2017-02-24T12:10:44-05:00'
describe
'115069' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_110.jpg'
e98ee9b10efa58978827c56a6d4149e7
a807763cc3629fdaf8dd7b771cbb79507b7d17d5
describe
'146644' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_111.jpg'
165074cd4b2bc30f9440a5726a9f13e3
ad05b9f5c3c53bbe37488ec0d37549f4e4dfb41a
'2017-02-24T12:13:13-05:00'
describe
'155337' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112.jpg'
4b0f13f109c2150ffff4d100ed1b9bed
9ee197d72e24daa4a4624c27d20f37ca2310cd37
'2017-02-24T12:13:40-05:00'
describe
'154569' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113.jpg'
113a0fe368d4917456877c7c5f076ca6
31f0f3d0367624338eefd7acd8ce2b1dba34d968
describe
'149857' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_114.jpg'
4f21503038d5c3dabbcff1b790193169
b5f344d07f5f38010303b5ba3b92a4d9e05b3648
'2017-02-24T12:14:31-05:00'
describe
'137518' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115.jpg'
962696ca5ba5840e223f3ea0da595f67
83355f433bedc891059a3117fe1dceab0922ff7f
describe
'153879' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_116.jpg'
447ed37c66a6ab1d554614383b514232
efaafd5176dc71331d60338af08e328dd6d7822a
'2017-02-24T12:10:36-05:00'
describe
'151230' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117.jpg'
50fa6f674eb8fac0d5368296b98444db
2c3c6aed0f8c78e48a293477c007d59e0b344468
'2017-02-24T12:12:52-05:00'
describe
'134804' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118.jpg'
c08a58be9e2dc4cacd83eae6d3cff8e9
e1510513d460caa92278b868ef55d82429ec1e24
'2017-02-24T12:12:46-05:00'
describe
'108544' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_119.jpg'
83f2c7659ed32019d6d5c7915af074a9
3fb2f702524006f90161dc391ee95078fd789691
describe
'78704' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120.jpg'
1f9680cd8ff0c1a076778c8bd7bee05c
f86f4dbc367c17048a99a0f6e14748443b877495
describe
'1051971' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001.jp2'
7e8d27a2eff167c1cea33110a7c56c56
46a20dacc64087ab5f488c9e676d3cc56b0377a0
describe
'8028' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_002.jp2'
20841faf52330e24888944e55f90ac3f
9b5d9107d342c05c4024a241752a426ee8a69035
'2017-02-24T12:11:49-05:00'
describe
'499728' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003.jp2'
d6afca93fc3ec02ababe0f228137f1b6
56eb92845208c359e8f3a6394957778b18716851
describe
'4664' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004.jp2'
13e1b6fec6e85d65672d437ba32ebfb8
8a615a56f279d1343259ceaba46f3dc30213ac67
describe
'571151' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_005.jp2'
8c067558c7641766b3410343c325d747
305802b27c514a6fbb87417d1a7d399e3ae45f3f
'2017-02-24T12:12:59-05:00'
describe
'114204' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_006.jp2'
ec27cdae1b1851cb3108a3c4ba861e30
96a0886b656c5926790af3498b12bcc411b4ea41
'2017-02-24T12:11:55-05:00'
describe
'115124' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_007.jp2'
1174e9bbbdf75daee32e32f059a3326d
2aeb1d5cfc3219e03f2c894463ab88c849330a59
describe
'182482' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009.jp2'
d23d688d0c383aca265f68cbdb6b2149
0f39d82f2fdadee5b77d33a82363de595b54fddb
describe
'201716' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010.jp2'
efd6c9f180417609b9b19bda5bce831b
a39ca8f46f5a19cb4277dc3c03ce09bf128f58fd
describe
'172996' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_011.jp2'
9a116a4c22349d3fb7e2c0182daf0949
0fc522df242017831bfdf09b19943cf0f9cdfa6f
describe
'1051965' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADPZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012.jp2'
051dcfb7b02f1b46cd6de0012b9462f5
78eb119c69c72beeac71dc35c6d8e19f193a2f45
'2017-02-24T12:12:51-05:00'
describe
'1051956' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013.jp2'
b8b4d50a65ecdfff4f0bc1b22c2e1fff
e3eab8053e11a12edb76ead6897848baa5451e55
'2017-02-24T12:11:17-05:00'
describe
'165320' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014.jp2'
1abb1d400a1e982e46e5c8db9e651323
0bbe5da4df8203ea8290b3419c57449940ef98cc
describe
'1051885' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015.jp2'
91549a26c25e67ef5cf7addc9cef6018
cdfe61e807d6d25aea8b226b5bffa6fbe4a315b5
describe
'785688' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016.jp2'
549dbbf84b8ea92733dcf8cf32078d7c
cb5fada25f0acd94a767b76213525b3394652711
describe
'187559' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018.jp2'
f21e6c47b39a41d364c77cef591d81b9
52cc0705d6dd45e979bf05c8356898b3b5b26271
describe
'1051931' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_020.jp2'
fa80d1c8841b3edcca46130ade7d5763
58e6ee046dd0c7afda22f408229f55e9ea63fb16
describe
'1051981' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022.jp2'
455b72eb86a4e8b4a201d7541e5f39b8
cdfa51570825a6ef98fc18af75b677099033dc42
describe
'185509' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_023.jp2'
9067e665288cba7082ef90fea87e6b03
9a05903224e0833312d7180b7da66e6b320da4e5
describe
'1051975' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024.jp2'
fd00b4febdcfe04aa2f27c6b7a615cf9
45de70ae89631281bd8c7a518a120ab13fcbd680
describe
'1051932' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025.jp2'
e8eb365feef0d629dcfed29800c4d5af
e5a7d43303a7256f2905c8068fbd65268b912242
'2017-02-24T12:11:53-05:00'
describe
'1051963' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026.jp2'
1a431afb31a7cc9b7cf813612e9a931a
9b77f39d87ad4df6c3313cedb7b5bab168beaf73
'2017-02-24T12:10:54-05:00'
describe
'1051884' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027.jp2'
8e2a94f6117caa0e609bd2d7a6fcbd87
3b259afb5ed27595f3848be1cad7aa0c493f53d7
'2017-02-24T12:11:21-05:00'
describe
'1051705' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_028.jp2'
1ccd01df48372ddcb352bdcd13810f7d
2967ae70187d19fe1cf6e2f6306646bfc9a26611
'2017-02-24T12:14:46-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_029.jp2'
58540f66632b6f3fb9cebdbc3d842ea4
c1216faf2a5c023e71aa3271105a5de4dc0ae777
'2017-02-24T12:11:26-05:00'
describe
'169334' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030.jp2'
a611919fce3d837d1fe90306a2e2fe04
cc64e365f28b722bfa2d838dca6cd9a13cf7b714
describe
'158439' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_031.jp2'
94f56b3ebcfd1801cab6891d06374bc5
71e7b43877b8551d12c496569c93ff9b067d1545
describe
'1051916' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032.jp2'
632dccb215502128e98227662e16c093
20e2e366b40fc12a0fa7c8f08fa5e8ee7f7128e6
describe
'1051980' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033.jp2'
c75606405dda4e912b712c6fe96e8380
236e097e1bdd2d3d4ec07e4b022112595a062b3e
describe
'1051945' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034.jp2'
68b763e680fe98ebcf17e0a89d16b8e1
379c2ff09a4b14dcd50f31197b210d4e0b7c4e7e
describe
'1051968' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035.jp2'
375a8b1896c3fe96d5db2f46feb627de
1921f73114b4dffb794c7d38a8c45e39b5e68756
'2017-02-24T12:14:09-05:00'
describe
'195109' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036.jp2'
71dcb0f0ec64f9575ab6f954387bd8f6
3081aad9e8c170b5ee09c07263f2bc0ccb8b3f3e
'2017-02-24T12:14:52-05:00'
describe
'186268' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040.jp2'
df25b2b315b093112f3391c78c9d51e8
0318d2bda2550d6fbe13861570db886aa154563c
'2017-02-24T12:11:51-05:00'
describe
'188939' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041.jp2'
10260b7b3240b9ed02ca81337c205f4a
5e6d142848c52deb80b096fe85208945b3f9a189
describe
'187278' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_042.jp2'
de3f55b44083ab47c7d64f5160582731
4b492e8cf3874625a77d253b0093932916a1d6f3
'2017-02-24T12:13:47-05:00'
describe
'180432' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_043.jp2'
b556b5c38a7c157336cd66fafbf46a82
3328bbab4b1f04073ba125bb0473355e8383eb22
describe
'182059' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADQZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044.jp2'
4b5deecb3af25caa69d4696841953223
b94dc463bad7e7ae7020e861e5ef95b48545e076
'2017-02-24T12:12:48-05:00'
describe
'186778' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045.jp2'
5426e35d483d758afd36a3b11347cb93
b95b593e6aa2097d36bc09ab02ab513669b3aa34
describe
'173733' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_046.jp2'
50909bc41e9816a4c6c5d8192301a78a
a3781e55228669ba74d174c7cb7c68198f5fe622
describe
'176916' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_047.jp2'
796e5c665c0af1492b2b96deb1a2e0a1
21866991cbf11f3e0fa3a3e52888be3ab098f5a4
'2017-02-24T12:14:08-05:00'
describe
'1051950' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048.jp2'
3aaf4627ffcb52fd3b0a8b4807f257b1
1fbd4277bf972508c786059988944f28dae5ba33
'2017-02-24T12:10:40-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049.jp2'
af583c57bab9ade339a97c67dfe612c8
72035c0b0d59be643c4e5dff736c4b8d83de71ef
'2017-02-24T12:15:12-05:00'
describe
'1051927' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_050.jp2'
81430970635dfd58e235df7bf1bd5383
4beb2351236e5c3739af6ecfba24bad7a97d3928
'2017-02-24T12:11:06-05:00'
describe
'184084' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_051.jp2'
5dacd6827f4b8a90a4d23a7bfd187a8b
f9b4c500287b6b634cb3e5454f5b9e8161e7b4f9
describe
'183837' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052.jp2'
9be7229b12cb4dcd2de0fd2adc4fe342
3b85b0bdb62df5cd7031c50fbe32485adcff7050
describe
'1051748' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_053.jp2'
2cbd310090c6438d3546708c06697587
13328b6751f66d6c2ecb3248fcc828e3495e5b7d
describe
'1051982' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054.jp2'
a0df89ab4943ce578c4220df0f3c1c5e
c0da6d34fe319369bc930ab958359f57b63198d5
'2017-02-24T12:14:40-05:00'
describe
'179145' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055.jp2'
6b71b667ab26d3dafa4db717d664c6ae
b08cccfb1664c77312e640fcb76ed73a9f7a11ea
describe
'1051978' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056.jp2'
dc0265a0cd7f48110123a6b9cc29ad28
0ddb8e6dac2e47189f5cd3662dcc25c847934107
describe
'178132' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057.jp2'
b8bbc9d6d34b9efa714804e12c2eb713
0757cf010548ccb5a5c1c5674c4cfbd793679074
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058.jp2'
d0e2ff9b2fa50054da9b08a1826baf32
38d0257f115ece8286959ed41e38e4f7c093735d
'2017-02-24T12:12:14-05:00'
describe
'1051958' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059.jp2'
57fe42d5cf76bb1af7ee4e2f0700f9cf
7146956048483cb79298fb637ddf33e4db5a9d58
describe
'1051841' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060.jp2'
0284a9c3f6c722ce443f32b56c8b2fdf
deadbcd7badb30a75c9491759eb00b6e93810994
describe
'153232' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061.jp2'
28539276ea1f787d43c4222f939b9c5f
35091f2daf43e98e5d4696b992f7edd6ab24746f
'2017-02-24T12:14:50-05:00'
describe
'171887' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_063.jp2'
0f2280e598a7e7ace28fe23e35153610
d8d3e993dc58d9ac2363a350c873492ea49f8449
describe
'178021' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_064.jp2'
ef2b1784d78e7b2ee797008279eb290e
9777537b0e00f048296124e68f19da43bf307150
describe
'191221' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065.jp2'
fea0cb778bcbd3b0c9cfba07452caedd
635263c7923328b35e92016ac9f59779f1b19ad1
describe
'182586' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_068.jp2'
206daad9119556aac0bf4694e970ae42
80c9017c895da966f0be4cafa345e3935aa1d7cd
describe
'182203' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069.jp2'
d50941dd9a2b5ad30ba8dd81a7048235
1922b891bb505d3328d65eaad3992d099b03a7a5
describe
'203454' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070.jp2'
34fd40f95def60ecbb6714906e5e40e8
4ec16cc5ef54a259cd8819ea8e8c4ea3e5f61b8f
describe
'194471' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_071.jp2'
341540ff6da2933bceee761cf9397605
b4e4288c6ec46ae935e6d96a84af4a8ff01b653b
describe
'198205' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_072.jp2'
6d07832c09cde8059b456b35cd7daae7
d586793a3e5d06462b51ad5ac00bf4144b452c2c
describe
'186620' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADRZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_073.jp2'
ee5f12e8cddd478e72da9e5f4972ce90
9194a3f12ade555fdebb1143d674facc88b82117
describe
'190327' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074.jp2'
92f2081f11a6f8f560279d5a3489ae28
a6f1fa45929e80724fc2244c77a6119b88d3775e
describe
'193168' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_075.jp2'
eb6e4bcfe0c8778befabc879574db387
c29d273557c231052962d010b368e42a66400d33
'2017-02-24T12:12:42-05:00'
describe
'197841' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076.jp2'
1372594b0cd3b062ed8e721e14421632
5c6748e1da33abb96bc5c926a6e9738827020d9b
describe
'192824' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077.jp2'
bc8dc43997531bd64d699c5c057c3636
7b1e0f4353112d1510b4c610961d316629142357
describe
'193467' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078.jp2'
8be10bc5129f75164080b0057385aa7a
210f37ea431c8dff0138a5d891599631cbb5127e
describe
'193152' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080.jp2'
df4b54df746ac29a6dde537ea9892d2e
9b8126cee3dda4a6aa6877f68a0e519a020c3e38
describe
'195255' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_081.jp2'
f0133979f6034a05813be68c88291c5f
747ac27212c195c308c78127619f5d6f2f86fc2a
'2017-02-24T12:10:50-05:00'
describe
'195909' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082.jp2'
42150f2a2a7126f6d07e04e873eb2a3e
14f9570d4cd18a1e705887b882de1569e348a3f4
describe
'190172' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_083.jp2'
cca894e31f5b66d27eba9396a8376a88
fce835ca6a958077955a8c1868f30b48c7b89829
'2017-02-24T12:13:58-05:00'
describe
'1051961' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084.jp2'
89d5cd43920e7c879ced344cbf9701d2
49655193996f20a41cd79b2f9ef959c46721d664
describe
'183304' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_085.jp2'
c4f87590bfd0f0cd9b71811b185c2446
c97c926258ac1d89ca66a0673542799be3763be7
'2017-02-24T12:14:36-05:00'
describe
'194498' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_086.jp2'
c6d53f3d457ce707cb4e3829d94267e2
7b7c1e083a87940618abaa86db2441e8766b9a04
describe
'194518' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088.jp2'
66ada0df3b95dd727845db40aff97f71
f49b21c507d1d96a18057cf8d94bc80427fc1432
describe
'193025' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089.jp2'
e8a23ea165414031ef88a978d3f3e7d7
84814c384239d30d428ba26ecb2a408896ad47ff
describe
'157174' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090.jp2'
5848259b30ef28aafbf9e0e4caa7e4d2
11c410bd2e911ff7cebe4cb25a41537f9c86bc9f
describe
'156155' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091.jp2'
d36233765ebfd829326bfff54d76554a
4c9ec0a7e2ecefe10d15db38b318717aa60a8ada
describe
'157205' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092.jp2'
6fb3ae3eaa74cf3d9aba6a09c5041b1e
d965228672771a892f3166858c379f9f0c7675c4
describe
'149611' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093.jp2'
2cfa7fbe6b6b2a557160dda4c710d37f
1c74ac425d458bb2dc7110ce61dd9344ab6c78ce
describe
'137019' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_094.jp2'
e77f23f6d449a84c456057b3c253598f
f1497453090ba9a4376f4418e133773e9f428f7b
'2017-02-24T12:13:08-05:00'
describe
'149700' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADST' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_095.jp2'
30f4d658e45911532c4e2ee6d08355ac
046f947402311461f9cae3079f275d9981750808
describe
'150192' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098.jp2'
bb440f03b5f5a8e844198d2406aefd88
4eddb765fa67c83cd24dde7191a3036e9516ee4a
'2017-02-24T12:12:43-05:00'
describe
'144476' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_099.jp2'
8e4f77bb6cf025a0c944729ebbe04a31
aeca6392d7a2c97bfe30d4cf2071fc43534abff9
describe
'126354' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100.jp2'
356ede1ff2d59468f07f216ce3e9434c
62a111d45efbc7dbdaa20feefd97766b3f3631d4
describe
'166549' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101.jp2'
ef0f60284e69ed8b22b881e2391b22c5
2cc9332d4045e641b54446a26428b23b804b887d
describe
'160522' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102.jp2'
f81694e22bd6dfc1784d5f37cfdb51c6
3525f8f5a796dbb467e3ae1b92ca479a468df6b5
'2017-02-24T12:13:16-05:00'
describe
'162739' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADSZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103.jp2'
332bcd134bbff6ad7367c0c7b1280068
6ad10d6a243cce554ea25ac4a02242a0cad46f82
describe
'178110' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_104.jp2'
b15fc43bdfa5bd687daf8dbffe6504b1
4a8808fffd8c3d7f3393a22b9aa97b3a345768da
describe
'188160' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_105.jp2'
2ada19633d54adc4c70b6d28e07f5f45
3c0c3257fa1a0b31403d284c01cae7c84ed91a5f
'2017-02-24T12:11:39-05:00'
describe
'189673' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107.jp2'
a0fa86ea9a76e7a579d3a1672198abef
2609b07454e829697fbceb8326e511748efd6359
'2017-02-24T12:14:29-05:00'
describe
'188442' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_108.jp2'
99b31a357e07e53dc946ea65600210d4
6ae36978a60cc239644210d794fb0390f3a6aa2c
describe
'193648' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109.jp2'
e3b7c6eca111b41459f26e032ee5602e
cba8376ba89fb9f96adb64a19da12751791e8ae3
describe
'1051983' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_110.jp2'
8b26a8c0cf8fef04b16158b539581681
3928eed15668e7be56c0ca0fbd2b3c27c160788d
describe
'197541' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113.jp2'
0fbdcaef6dbf51e3327d88956f13f4b8
32825a0c7e6a311ce9614dbb2129f030b5b4d050
describe
'190156' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_114.jp2'
f2d3b8f25961c7681538d2570ba94170
38eb7d711df2c3fe0ac61b49db90110d873e2766
'2017-02-24T12:13:06-05:00'
describe
'172683' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115.jp2'
9a556203a53c172c224649c9e2591c2e
b7748b06f3a6dd5e55918d412679b983be1eb39d
'2017-02-24T12:12:22-05:00'
describe
'190250' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_116.jp2'
5696c3b00dc47b6e2261441c3184cc68
91a4a500646ca1d3ab003fde94a43b837f458b90
'2017-02-24T12:11:46-05:00'
describe
'185554' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117.jp2'
2855d322aa12ef5b358bcc3e3bf0cf4e
8a95ec4300f6737cec2f9188c73ef07d4159f4a6
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118.jp2'
de55963fedee18aa6465eac234668d74
20dd3ff64d52925fee0ac02d5d2b712d03d0d1da
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_119.jp2'
5f1aa2e2ba89782f6b93969d26b533bf
9c7e13dcb1b7b597869587590668d3aae3e69c92
describe
'1028663' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120.jp2'
f9197700e638af5ef3b7f99024b46b80
e66c4a5d1b93697fbc1510d12eda8b93942476b2
describe
'25271604' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001.tif'
90e8dfb71b5747eff9b03040b8e8ab52
855ce3d57093d49afd3044473155c13542bb511a
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003.tif'
6bee1e791c55a18d25764a5e613c7aa1
8826248336931f1f2f27e45c8170d823ec78e19c
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004.tif'
3a6089d85e8fe84bd2f6451b015dd54f
1cb1b0fe78513a9ce4a2038811db4f7594cdf6ed
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_005.tif'
6360e33b2c35b34da5c2d1adc3a3732a
392a4d6766a4a1dd128bef3a720d22ec486bacbd
'2017-02-24T12:14:05-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_006.tif'
6a1a4e2420d1e24bf0f1cf6d9e6dda32
944e8fa978044ddd1e0c0a7ef6a0131d8891ac0c
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_007.tif'
b7e6e3bec9b6ab1ecff2f93b25cafbad
585dd1ce871b4c53509c870c9eebf2e6f4220e40
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008.tif'
380fc03f5d4345426ffdafed4639459d
f12b3dc07af18efda652034dc2c246f864603ea4
'2017-02-24T12:11:48-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009.tif'
48e391023576287a5b6787a732717c52
a91f326d447e7c6ab234e668204dec7eb393c3d6
'2017-02-24T12:13:01-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010.tif'
34c7ff847830564d2a507252e0a5ef57
7620ae0811abc8d343014e4a118b128c129aa51b
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012.tif'
6c63cba9a342225e9d8d67affeb1af9f
a93633b85f7a4c714b1444fa254cccd13d4dd131
'2017-02-24T12:12:13-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013.tif'
7ce69705add948b65d3f2ae5af19dba9
7312d03bfcaa1d1e347babee35390e75756deb41
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADTZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014.tif'
9ff4f7cbf0f7e8cac5d87e83a7d8a0c5
68e715624ec812532584d7d346b3502d6e2cd37a
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015.tif'
4011dff4ee9ccb721d607182a73a111a
e3a0199d0b6258ada7871959842bba9fc8589763
describe
'8436360' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016.tif'
f85b55aff173d74b7530a367b5c9631f
9a65d332e80f64984dfc306051e5883162f4c767
'2017-02-24T12:10:41-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017.tif'
baa29ae9f6ae38ead230e9ad6e1daaea
1264f4288826fccd25f28284452f6c0a34c20ffd
'2017-02-24T12:10:56-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018.tif'
c1ef5a49466006a7318f47d5c345d3e5
1897cd0f98126bbea737da1fdeec75da80d36ae5
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_019.tif'
3b91bd2b224553cd457fda79d4281b33
e4b6a751a8aa874da0a5b5f0f9184bd4cc2ea79e
'2017-02-24T12:14:17-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021.tif'
cf76c962ee230306562edc65f68378b8
f64c9c841ad4c84f56dafbcf0ff81708c0dc2682
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022.tif'
fa3dfe49120641cfabbde1ca21eed3e2
452e81b3290d222fdc451f3017c9ae33c54806f4
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024.tif'
b19233278202bd025e897ecf8fb0239c
838d43066bf587f8b25349256e2605154b34fd24
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025.tif'
64f9fde360b4614c6fc4485b7d5d6deb
642a76545fca63933a261cbf171089332f811065
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027.tif'
ae3db19dcb26ae79c1b41c5259a9416b
ea3b1d652cc309db2859f23ab2425a210ac1c1dc
'2017-02-24T12:10:57-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_028.tif'
c2cbcf43cfc60c4d1e04c4482fab1e88
459b421a7124dd5f3c876f1812323e55842fd122
'2017-02-24T12:13:09-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_029.tif'
a5b354b153b8b0c44a4e3943823e6199
87d7fbff584d8b36c0a7a6b484fce31723696512
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030.tif'
060fdf376c7b240cb2c9f88f81383546
62fabf046c24a9f710768d478b2a74ecfda12b38
'2017-02-24T12:11:59-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_031.tif'
a31bd5dc66dc465fa64cb9a957cc7994
61333999128fb238602ad6a90965ad295ffacdde
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032.tif'
d64366d42200b6a5b6662c59dd397dcb
b255591d0ac1091248ab25d271d2db088985ac53
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033.tif'
7169da34ff8636c1d912901d4248280f
e7d5f2f84a5c9ad95c03a2e20dc8de469552f6da
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034.tif'
617495a0b6460d1eb067634ee78452d2
cfca55b6d96e5ff6092d0c9db1dffa064a15b05f
'2017-02-24T12:13:42-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035.tif'
dda4a818be011755af2a182c1919c862
5c3ddec2349fb5ecffb704ac6ac97ab9bc3f6502
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036.tif'
748b70aa2ca7fd1fb22952c3f7b099fc
a719c42c6e7af8ca0fe4d02a84631c8fa951e8d8
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_037.tif'
a73186ab1e3d15ef5d28819a30dc916c
7bc6af2bd0e65303332ed4b35f24c1241072aa58
describe
'8436516' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_038.tif'
f4c9e16703c77a6bbe5816dd60f400c1
c2c9eeda5d67256f2807775aa0ef9d01b9eb7e9f
'2017-02-24T12:11:12-05:00'
describe
'8436508' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039.tif'
b280cbbd52c3706c6c35dfbaa3a22e30
8f808d9aa45953934308b67567df8f4a0e9e3562
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041.tif'
1908c776364379488240e165a3663a7a
43716797f678a6abce3729c4576adc156f59c078
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_043.tif'
91731e29fbde6e531efca08a72163447
15dae7a34cfac80b5529668f222eba7a38c7ab5c
'2017-02-24T12:14:44-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044.tif'
49860a44acf1ef8acf3b45c3dd732bff
9a217d2fa3e63955000d1ace75fab0e09f1c25e1
'2017-02-24T12:13:54-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADUZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048.tif'
40e87a6a8947ef9a5de492013ca3088e
e2f7662c111849f4a97928428223ce7cfc1d0e2d
'2017-02-24T12:11:54-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049.tif'
31069014bdc3469bbac3aacc9001ef04
6c7ac8a23e2745e0e748608ff81f25cd53015f9e
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_050.tif'
a0cf636f45fd9c5254e802bbaeaba48e
b1b0632566bdae5b806fc69dede73c2441c74520
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_051.tif'
55062087c18bfc926781cc26fbdb0077
4756810c0341a5a05131ccc6e8227f81e6f127a5
'2017-02-24T12:15:08-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052.tif'
6f77f433a6f3ede1087e6528d8fc0347
f0746b9f5ee5821f75d3aaf18d545cffba52e95a
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_053.tif'
3ace799ba1a4e70594ab4f48c5f2b43b
1996144dcf79b72e79e9e6010a041aa5a2f44d3b
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054.tif'
7165384daab5f540216a58739650a8dc
2904603fbae0db832141564056754f0c1e05b258
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055.tif'
335ec04e43c24ec5e9d6cfb638b2e488
797d978b80b47439dc824fc2514980cf522b3dca
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056.tif'
342111c8e78e438e42a65f9022a215ca
359675efd79c7b06b0b5aeb21616e7fa341bd3f4
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057.tif'
80612a62ad4ee53cdb49ca8db8f7af37
0ad1d9569c196809e1bf5adee32d0130398ca38c
'2017-02-24T12:13:33-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058.tif'
35063ee0922f063a1b49237d144f8f8d
639a7a05101272e66b11cc26b1f03ad1af4a8e17
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059.tif'
cca29bd1e5f33942b3ad0b1d776aa86b
84da3a16e61d9404954099a0fd55b076cf505f27
'2017-02-24T12:11:34-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060.tif'
b4fb023cf1fca33d5316772c899fa55f
18915edc92c6c2e056a042341b199d28a943d383
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061.tif'
c90b6210335c06a2289c942eeb3178c5
317b2cd744c724c946d93b106d22d43e59918d5a
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062.tif'
1ba358dacdd77306122cc6b320d25755
aad80275e1973bc59c03604d5fca87c515c4e558
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_063.tif'
cb4d69c2772e440594f69738e8104b3d
f27944e2bf070c548c69ef7647ca0af2530d1a64
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_064.tif'
c173e5b5557c69ed0fe503bd12325539
d68a3c910f2a9fa66443dc3020f855f19821ec6c
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065.tif'
3e11a00697bc354c717de1a6b2172387
29297d2b44c96195cbf0093b1f0af4c37322f2a6
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066.tif'
cfd6b4ff3eb50687476ec82a0fe91ef5
8192feb70e45ba7b39b13354727fe25b4f485a33
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_067.tif'
c5d08562ed36e52ff1c987303bf36111
2c9ceeb9b1fc65db231a90a5c0c171525c67b093
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_068.tif'
9583218d29cf3ac7512fbf8ff751084c
9225c2e6cc3add3e6a9fb87c8d889fd8efa7d0fe
'2017-02-24T12:12:25-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069.tif'
c08fa9265ecf4ded2ecf4c32cc89c638
aecc0c991cd743a761948979f15b697f88c7903c
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070.tif'
7e3523d9881cba81d76b6977fe7f9071
e31e4082df63feefe0c82c7cc9d2a032c326b8bf
'2017-02-24T12:13:23-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_072.tif'
6f0b5cc55cf6953770bfb4bdfa652b4e
74771c940f7fdb800d08b59022233c84f0e667b0
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_073.tif'
8067955a89232192a88291e0e866b36e
c35acb82e4c8f966e530cf1d43129bc35564b360
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_075.tif'
1788e1a7d98d86937261acfdc07f35bb
0d21071194503890338960f1e31101a45ea565aa
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADVZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076.tif'
86e18591d938915668bb7dce1573a689
4b84656d7961a5766cffa561101646b0ec1734ce
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078.tif'
eb1aa6ee87618c7970f37b697adaa132
755dae537a606c76a9963038385549f069d1e177
'2017-02-24T12:13:19-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_079.tif'
50de66a7543e0f4ccedaa2937fed3e5d
941c6c73ce8e9da60ee211c527134f417fdf3975
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080.tif'
db200d2a8946dfa95f3b77af87a79001
1fd0f22e03cf3e0faf4b7aaee155272a053714bb
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082.tif'
ff631996b2065e593a057d26c5790071
4fe611064b9c8500700efac11d36938a5348ffa2
'2017-02-24T12:12:49-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_083.tif'
9fdeb85eb0888896de187b84b7ed9af0
48753a5925d286288e65a54c60dda768f9f4c51b
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084.tif'
a078e8eccae2abe6bcf825670e58e072
9d177f9910ee8cfd7a2c93190a5521905e81c06b
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_086.tif'
99ac4d9d8107e82dc0fdfd48c0f587d8
7aede52f596fb4b228b465ae6d2b387436f31d7a
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088.tif'
0887af59079c8e39e6209310aa51c560
0276a30a5ca9ec1ee0da0b1b8151d30ab095f771
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089.tif'
f556cc6d789ffa7f0d2084a901aefe0d
7c09ea0f18a8fc8ca5cc7fddab059a31b53e8a02
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091.tif'
2bfb6a4074644943888c6a1925d5bee8
f873efab4fc5bc0237631bb49df669c705636809
'2017-02-24T12:12:08-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092.tif'
7b38414c8b53c46a0cdce75e85dcc2d0
15185a4e23dec35de729a0e20b43bdb4384faee8
'2017-02-24T12:10:47-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093.tif'
f53f2881473995ac1d9288f40091ac19
ab20a826d76e10d613959f0bdd18dabfe9d4fa2e
'2017-02-24T12:12:12-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_094.tif'
7c446a8d4bdd1ac6facd3abd0bb64783
95f48fb9d9a64beccd22b53bc7884e43a02c3e1e
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_095.tif'
7bba2db3a1e244020d60a2a7ce11d38e
4c3a727891f5139bcb596466a45cc6e4e143ca19
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096.tif'
fb6189e44485e9b8cf9a63eec60f41eb
30bff8028a03ea36d1a8ff5c0fcd7d8481a7584b
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_097.tif'
4b4361cd1fe00d4f201f7591ab25df47
3e8506ecb01b6a25aae0f110f5e7dd7f992a1742
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098.tif'
7657fad9628f3ee88c2d4f6ee4c19b5f
9b2928e7dc3178ba8e4daa794c738088f162fb27
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100.tif'
e4b72fb27abe8ffa318b3f58591955ff
cf7be4e1ea41171c900f7714998cb2e8c18d2f1c
'2017-02-24T12:14:24-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101.tif'
4fd1fb30a5fe2a1bd446cc4812381a4e
0d5c4c77d011b1c50e83b31fcacf96652f88d586
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103.tif'
a50370a0cb9a79fad4d9efa0e3460ca9
8539a070fc7f311d27ef41052c429675745687e6
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_104.tif'
350ee20d58ae41488337771f273a208e
bd47c6c6ceeafa07ce0bc6b2dc81b7eac6e13043
'2017-02-24T12:15:09-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_105.tif'
7ae491f8edd5075f492be1ee00dec9fb
c11479cdca9cf2a50f581f0396ac763131b37488
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_106.tif'
de1faeb45a4e2d325fe98bcdd46be3e2
8ef05b3a3d42cc0c34b48f8f0268a5bcc8f12166
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107.tif'
5e3d0293c715cd6938ca53ebcb1c4d75
cf663db0c05af602f12529a6ef2a99eb77762286
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_108.tif'
d684a10a9db25d5a367912230a1dc477
e403fcf625579c4fdb5a590eceac7aa420693afe
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADWZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_111.tif'
1831e07c4e68960dffbde92146dba761
36cbbced373dc3472215f70b0685ec32d0e94cea
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113.tif'
cdf5fde23279af002559fcb8a1bf50fe
8440a48cfb9276779f5571b2962e5e6a0ca9ceb2
'2017-02-24T12:14:02-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_114.tif'
bba5acbdeab9e726294f67b087b22fd2
41950baabfb6bda09a616713990ac5f69dc32c62
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115.tif'
dd73aa3d43c343ceba66d49b16fdb0d7
371eaf76adc78da28243d7f457152874677746b3
'2017-02-24T12:14:00-05:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117.tif'
f84d1ad3f8cd3bffce60d318b5e79b50
ec7916c8ead8a4fe26ca30d4f8ee294ccc20ebc8
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118.tif'
0ac875fbb1e88a9d51789eaa6887a3fe
d347b2419eb2251ba8d48f3cf77e4f08562fa78f
describe
'7841' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001.pro'
a03c8b6249c3f197a37b239329f7d928
95c9edad08779c0cba62f02efdf23790926cbe4a
describe
'2899' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_002.pro'
905169273278e2ac27f06dd5b16e3d91
5449d667eff6222ec1bfe2d709efad3b5e76182c
describe
'11785' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003.pro'
b33f0e8c236adfdcd7e2e94cbad9bc52
21e71b2eff8d1a5b221f380188833bcf48b697a4
describe
'782' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004.pro'
d367e4fa8c58d29ae65ab2f4ed8f8db7
aaea448570ffafddd7a7035ecdb0602f2000b039
describe
'104664' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_007.pro'
f4c982c4b79c6964100a943795d0ddf3
1b80c7249695076fd44b9f7a5d7f298f3afbf6c4
describe
'109555' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008.pro'
9651938510e0bd8af5fb2151a3919dcf
2a31f73ce2a31bbaa71972b373bde0a08607ea52
'2017-02-24T12:14:47-05:00'
describe
'94633' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009.pro'
c45157a8c1541736f846e597ad27262d
306ff063131cd6f4f24a5d528ec82694d0875202
'2017-02-24T12:14:33-05:00'
describe
'104474' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010.pro'
38de2f38a7e44de0fd6d733f21514716
5ffe81f5e65f4f74a0ee0ea98ae6c31a471d1937
describe
'90299' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_011.pro'
59f880940e8849415c58900aaee10a35
e1e7a1763702ac67b591fa21fff8e3ac4c9bb1f4
describe
'79028' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013.pro'
d3846bfeacaf2d9ff7c3f73b6a8180e0
cdd23155bd75c96106ae2bb59d0d7196fcd6698d
describe
'80449' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014.pro'
2cbf8396112045fc80f98ce90a5e2e5e
37e71c9c4e82100cc226d48934329f9e2e7ccc05
'2017-02-24T12:13:29-05:00'
describe
'69524' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015.pro'
20b8cfa9537bf846b434e524a0d3f1fb
6b36d97ca79a8c8c5f7a8c036bd91e0aee419e91
describe
'73605' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016.pro'
f1040f038fad359822137f25394348a1
192c71c5c00cc41a669f0d43f7e2b424d9572627
describe
'76323' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017.pro'
304605be9608b2129ef5612f2c05a74b
2c30ec3ea2cff83cb91f6697522e88354ea19ebb
describe
'96361' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018.pro'
a28f82e7ab9655c3227cf3866abf88ac
f717fb360eb6a67de59bc980ae16b6441a9ac40f
describe
'76218' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_020.pro'
84a116801a25d7d1c833759b7a1095e8
820bd15bae919bb0ddf563f88e966ddf59b84c20
describe
'92375' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021.pro'
d3ff064984286d59e831261686fc63a3
8cea27e354514fae20eddf466c3644e5c59c056c
describe
'81236' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022.pro'
e40fce2fe1f825471f3c5c38d300c334
93d838dc3c707d9e0dcb9b8387855a26220356e8
describe
'74630' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024.pro'
ee9b5e5db8973e25b37ed503c2733ab1
c9405bb9ffab29d13e66b0d5818964590bd1e5cd
describe
'65691' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026.pro'
97d5d3edf401dd02758bf497f675bb70
b441ffbf8b480128ba22a5e13b4676f7b43742cb
describe
'70599' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADXZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027.pro'
ce15b6f7e6e8cca873ddd59600dbb0af
a8b361cf5246c77498fb7ace8d6c68a6b0da4fdb
describe
'65329' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_029.pro'
c34d73e8d6749ebf40f675401e0cc801
1aed55934eb62b9c10294437c788f84be4708da3
describe
'86275' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030.pro'
fe668c28d73472ce090539a628ae2932
b36ca1fd3502470757a147c5fe289a0c4d472f8e
describe
'50096' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032.pro'
d9d2ad1f86775a257904dcc78c89adc0
3d34361fc7c83cc9025a69744e7863ad6220937f
describe
'58147' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033.pro'
5a457f834af76823d130ebe6d165b395
b14ab46e87c1dd89d328fa628130eb57d43456f1
describe
'76777' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035.pro'
432bf5a1674042665ce823af32df9fac
cc0e29dc5db27a994ba6d0edb5d85cd55c6a75ac
'2017-02-24T12:11:37-05:00'
describe
'100851' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036.pro'
f2c000db675b9e9863c998582e119296
4141a9e2b43b57d65dfb0cca198989e935f5eba1
describe
'100587' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_037.pro'
439cbcb947c21b0f7090382da8086192
4d2fb47c5d44ea4ffd39043e77dfa203fa1c3531
describe
'7988' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039.pro'
7fc58af834d78bc451df6e067ecad2f1
c0cfab85859d9438ddcb4baff72cbb192a3a4148
describe
'95840' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040.pro'
3407bd5e5105faf44809d84529802154
e30eeced3dce3cce961ba4ec094566db0c7e6bf7
describe
'97540' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041.pro'
5632904784e9b1718540ab5a26f89967
203911866e757dc18d7020b07975b2951a63bf85
describe
'93289' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_043.pro'
a78398ecbd26f3fd6d0c6971ecce04be
b078ec8f3a49b3bef2a369e4ac81f28dac69b137
describe
'93558' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044.pro'
4aa3e998cf6418747c8086bc8b078e8f
2303092c25b8b1fe9e2708ed33a46fdf9c20a146
'2017-02-24T12:13:53-05:00'
describe
'96942' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045.pro'
4c3247f2fe7c7e2fb9e0337584c6ee86
2920496779aa92ca7867e42e8c5ec69606d4a31e
describe
'87902' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_046.pro'
9296a2819529ee1cbecb8c7b16784dcc
5883a2d9ce2cbc451efdbdd065a7cf45fba4f8e6
describe
'91794' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_047.pro'
c1dda3c7aed7413789d0d696d0984031
7586e33b0742408ce8fa0f9956a3c830ba625d77
describe
'80751' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048.pro'
2b1c064162400cbb3ee56b56fca49fa5
efa8fa4e44dd0d6a6175e643e90e87a47e1aa8b9
describe
'46994' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049.pro'
8cb4d08512dd801409604d308a19ff2b
68259e10ebf41ba604f80d418cdfc906ead27c19
describe
'81338' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_050.pro'
958357079023990c6423f35bf19d8360
f8dc4f07286302d4f6f5dc6a13b79e63334fad73
describe
'96772' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_051.pro'
63ca311337da3d56852d3178b8f4021c
b65d85ac5b52963f5feb5f95bfb59a0730aeb04e
'2017-02-24T12:13:35-05:00'
describe
'93978' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052.pro'
ac7eb918d340e3858b7259070eee78ca
1d2ebf4b744361e1e5e30c3db42e425d371e7056
describe
'89874' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054.pro'
95eacc6ddde2cd92f1b018787f8dfc5e
bcd195454cbb5e9254e1b5e1082d1889112b7bd0
describe
'92418' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055.pro'
6d34605e441db003d7044ce844e84e14
ce3b534731e16163fc9713f02650d1ef25327908
describe
'55867' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056.pro'
606b32ed1b9447edeab3feadc659cbcd
765abcff8ad72c6e265a278d39ac5e97c1dd5bb1
describe
'91422' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057.pro'
fdffef5944587f6e2ff8a6024fe8c712
32534f487bf4f7db5fb9c679c1801a1f70b99c03
describe
'50302' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058.pro'
0c03393bd2f93db9a5f0b4e3b87ba7aa
f82f82e0bccdf75c15bc8d2cfa78e1e338645ae7
describe
'41258' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADYZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059.pro'
9a3fceecf059ae4d96554c056728b3f3
6360953974f9125387c1df5a6c5d9ff4aff34cbe
describe
'38921' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060.pro'
37428d96c1bb6e550341c9c57db8769f
03dfdc43762f0fe1e6f6dbe54fd6d0f64ad5127c
describe
'77185' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061.pro'
67211f68a0773876643b47390e7aacff
6f3b7af8355618889dcb32051425b4a16ab49a4c
describe
'99010' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062.pro'
ee2f40666658b54c90b692b39a284328
ac68f73f815e8d6df187b8bbced05145ebe77826
describe
'89905' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_063.pro'
087c8ed7984c32c17c18ec962be295fb
c078a9755a1939f74526239b3dc680a859c48a75
describe
'99896' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065.pro'
8581990769664797edc5ea4ff1c2ad94
17ae6019aa689fce8245311b9c29feb5ea3fb9e9
describe
'93438' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066.pro'
4eda22a609a79055915de1641e57fe9d
5fb2f41eb61d5c9847b486ce310d9fe3f78b103d
'2017-02-24T12:15:04-05:00'
describe
'90351' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_067.pro'
7bc6d30c5fedddc1fe4889fce7a94a88
2b3c14b0321f13fddc22b9b5b86ffa3692eff581
describe
'93536' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069.pro'
33dca962e8a3be779166c3b676f1f2ad
3b9c5cb74ea5bca53e275c69563ad671ee043af6
describe
'107910' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070.pro'
7ceca56a9f50dc7f519c1c9720069d81
d0d50883e2b309b4c2f0fbece926a7b80bf6843a
describe
'101834' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_071.pro'
6c50f8211bd461a25060a519930d625e
5e3e50ae19be0a11656fa983a87208bd60484b0d
describe
'99016' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_073.pro'
a9dff0b83dcd30ac262ebd4e4cb70d31
9d41ee50c12679403cabdbd8b5185728f04cd821
describe
'99906' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074.pro'
18f352f39d64f8b66885cdb5e6dace2c
7d5e6d772c8cf5e7a5cff72a7bd86d4eb75e237f
'2017-02-24T12:15:11-05:00'
describe
'102294' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_075.pro'
bc8fbc19d3b2c4e087ae4c7fbd0c7952
fc7bc6fd737b82e0513d437e78df97341c353ad4
describe
'103485' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076.pro'
8c056fed03426db020da341aea62ef4e
f9f84f6ff7f65e65f52b75889c28588e224d8d8f
describe
'99811' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077.pro'
d721c9fe644adcd24c3986ceaa2d3c10
ff3cdd5653b401e0a45bec9e40fd6cda61741c0c
describe
'101026' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_079.pro'
6794ec5d044f9f7385cf8c35f26f2e92
530402f1b49850fb6a495543ca47a631da968af9
describe
'99844' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080.pro'
e32eeba1090c8237bd27844321a2ebbf
052f50a58f8aa95c729dd0069e2d85c992f12e4b
'2017-02-24T12:12:53-05:00'
describe
'102116' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_081.pro'
e2ead863b0c808cb804e2fa1882bde94
7c14867a60381097ece6d3681c2f669c4d9e76ed
describe
'102395' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082.pro'
e91a5fcdc533e5fb6ccf24ee91532ce1
2defe84a9febc472b53249416945249bec27e7c2
describe
'99768' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_083.pro'
730ca8ba3a2843c2ef825dcc960c305c
26bc74dc730f874986a9a0d2715e5e5f851c39e3
'2017-02-24T12:14:10-05:00'
describe
'48899' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084.pro'
def5f2f4c8cb8dd45ed3c22939a8b084
730e9c1832ac79f36eb7c4e5453e30c98f5b58e4
describe
'102707' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_086.pro'
741a3c81c80ce38e18e66f91f2b5fd3b
8b8632c7c6548115825ea0b6a522b6172cd5d6c5
describe
'103190' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087.pro'
8df7a5122c62f28c55cbdd84564ae25d
e24f34ab933e0be07614e4580b9e344acc31dc25
describe
'102328' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088.pro'
570fc167881233791661611b7c7516d1
177e3e58c3e678afa626c8d3892e27eb287982ee
describe
'101952' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089.pro'
cd0ff56d0bb6f7f61c0325bfbbade767
04e0f379414e58adef1152ae436d9eb87ef487fc
'2017-02-24T12:11:08-05:00'
describe
'79039' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAADZZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090.pro'
76d652dac79101004619ebe65cef7f9d
11a42ef7cc503196ac7412d0bcd8dbbe8dd3fda8
describe
'77705' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091.pro'
04e94b6263d41511051ce145c66da8c2
3128b219a251b2e0770ec1af9bfc34bc055dee30
describe
'77985' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092.pro'
ad5c9d0081a0a17e2c569e8f09a03ff2
eb33bb360fefb9d1dd9628bb9f9e2697cca9ae65
describe
'71727' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096.pro'
d436c6618d6be782630f73fc48a567a5
de255791173a720f3155cae791376703ddb3d31f
describe
'68193' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_097.pro'
25b62a634a0f99ce41f995a9bb7de572
0d50067001bbbfc546ca9737be2c21b3c6b081ee
describe
'73274' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098.pro'
616b60d7e593104cbaa52d3279e0540f
fb6f172d9ce49211ec46d85f2a915a4620e1da20
describe
'68836' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_099.pro'
afc29afdee898944f224d2234bda1cd9
b7c891e3ada3ae11f5acc7a05c9195da0032fb1d
describe
'61214' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100.pro'
8f180982bc149368fe4977095ffa7410
46b275cbfb3dca9cb8d2c44345c0b555e09af1de
describe
'79830' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102.pro'
98d01fbe17658f19a593ca5dbeae45b3
2014840e55bb0469dae270dc0719aaeaba7f09e6
describe
'80800' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103.pro'
d4e0266bfce95bbcd056e6380498acfc
a867a01a739dbf2c70d018b693f4099c4c70002c
describe
'88327' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_104.pro'
4267f514cb8f865d4a67a1132e482038
9b942962f0965d4700bba5d177b33174130b7a19
describe
'95397' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_105.pro'
c9f3307e5c50adb2f57f9245209c7d4f
f56abb9622a32e836c7c805fd2c603671f11e44a
'2017-02-24T12:13:14-05:00'
describe
'97428' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107.pro'
c66b62df1fb6bc10c23d3d03571d9107
048fe79220fd9370fffe421174eac098ee449b2f
describe
'94622' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_108.pro'
a8393387a61d56090bec426dabac9026
e2fdd1973b6d59d50e97a3b9c144b3ae10535314
describe
'97516' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109.pro'
389f978c39a93dfadd2dcb91ff0ce702
d5552bb809bd362f52d61e5cda8bd1c799f33fa9
describe
'56478' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_110.pro'
28f398dc8e506eb46d8c83d43bbd529d
e470202156e6d2ec771ed2addba3ad67f21a0e6f
describe
'98355' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113.pro'
0dd95772ccbc9091d2d3b1c15d7000e9
625ec40947806096a635abc3821e1c55ccb72e1d
describe
'93244' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_114.pro'
46c36b04d2dcd30d7558632458b4fa05
a8edc0993ec2aaeeca259bd0f32b421c14f5cb02
describe
'85608' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115.pro'
3a98c333b83cafacde1a2c8bc26489e5
d127ce684458a367ef79c18baf828c172e335e6d
describe
'99185' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_116.pro'
07cb8b0182fcf4e44237e4cd22f291a4
2953f2c80e1a90b640d471c894cac711a6b77c7b
describe
'95906' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117.pro'
eaacb34a265cf6b1c5dc667872890824
6553c9a1ae9052b71d5c066681cad50b17071687
describe
'68793' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118.pro'
f89f7b9431bc5d2eec286e955c425335
3f56cbfcd039017ffd0a3b49786a4dbaf79fab4a
describe
'40199' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_119.pro'
23629202a2b630297695575ffd6e1f47
d9e5ae6bfd6568b98664d0a2facb2b7227e62059
describe
'45315' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120.pro'
b2f7d42723cfa0ff66c3ea00e0fba8f0
310d8f1ec43c574387f36950eb222fd3bf8450a9
describe
'408' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001.txt'
4c209d25e54fbb6209a7be3ea14b91bd
1bef4dc7917e863e749e8d28742060bdc5a506b9
describe
'222' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_002.txt'
008d7c8fac006071fdec3a4abd8f92e6
d8768dea941edf239d02a6c815ce5d7752c8c972
'2017-02-24T12:13:20-05:00'
describe
'162' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEAZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004.txt'
2e4fe50c8e743ecdf7a27997337f61c9
4d570ea6748029a1fa670c04d10239f48cb85789
describe
'1042' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_005.txt'
98bc71f63eb9d83fa78c1fa6e5aa7f94
bc73a553fe5a4843e5612cd463f44912f6393423
describe
'4940' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_006.txt'
62fa1ed12450f45e25e73b159ed47e8d
f68c06093924d14580c9d273e39260fb279645e4
describe
'4621' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_007.txt'
378197247119b36c4f573b2112a7504a
c7be8070059ed72a53cb88d21a69c0608cc93d97
describe
'3671' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009.txt'
d097511e846fe31256d6f412d5546072
c2f4ffc9bd35b4987b773a99988416ee121a0e48
describe
'4047' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010.txt'
1d9e232e6814f8d6a2c617711b984667
0f061b72725b2712c65e2b3f795fc861fc60a742
describe
'3514' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_011.txt'
ae8a7751ddc02292121be1feac9c0a38
3c07d45e38d19ff067909046aaf5732735bf09a5
'2017-02-24T12:13:12-05:00'
describe
'3089' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013.txt'
d287fe06419bf1a7c4653eb184664e6a
7f77ae3302232516dc463efbb8850934d8458053
describe
'3169' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014.txt'
eda4cf31f65f2a3d51c8ee5f59aa3e3a
e7a4d0ee4cb4519d8933cebe6aa6d2f091e9d4fe
describe
'2763' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015.txt'
418c9abdc313fac58003b6d24810d3c8
c49890fd66eba33641d4a30703dcee589f26b606
describe
'2962' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017.txt'
bbde7a8be699131b9689bd3abe859a1d
26a5420ddb7c2aa84124b44fb72c0b6f943ca077
describe
'3749' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018.txt'
7b7c2e195bc14a116ed728d08171685d
0d8e54ddc539ef036570e2466c47a956690577cd
describe
'3001' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_020.txt'
4cc44d99d045c9045d52eb7c81152fea
457ed90f0622b8a7e2b70b744920e722de1c183d
describe
'3617' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021.txt'
571d78a6e28d299c79c519ade0b4d5e3
ed29f007422f20ef092976814e301f783599b754
describe
'3727' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_023.txt'
69acd8039488f0a6423fa0f3f4bc32f4
19d87870c32613bd62037161834cf70e49552921
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'2897' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024.txt'
eb29e9cc0a01b9b5cd74add96f6344d6
d9702935d601747525b9bece33c5fef8e567687a
describe
'2233' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025.txt'
19d24814f14afbe708e6647a1804ad22
3e2b21981fc6909d05dd39137f2940cf7967d3d1
'2017-02-24T12:13:26-05:00'
describe
'2573' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026.txt'
4aa3d34cdc5c9f085449ead9d3890f4c
3badb022db2d955e2161c17cdff770963bca2099
describe
'2734' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027.txt'
7cf9c4562989f3dc9b0f46ac596929f4
9bed1c2daa5cea1fd44fe1703edd295726e30aad
describe
'3365' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030.txt'
f50b85296d41a0536bd5841324112ac6
d52a171469a6475829bdafe81eed1516e072779a
describe
'3336' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_031.txt'
9c32c9db3d4347de03097913fa619e7d
cdeb512eeacfa54677955f6eb367de7c40fc712f
describe
'1977' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032.txt'
513c520d36c7e57706fe7d9a9bb21f12
03901680773144adc6b17344b2ae998c7d678b65
describe
'2260' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033.txt'
746a73fddb50f1f4fbf1c91da2463bbd
da3104a61ca1f36b2e701124733ee11a3d2cd3a5
describe
'2787' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034.txt'
48f7b21eba0a1ae8358abf247da5991e
f298304a07ef4993f9291f24c560cdd142a18bba
describe
'2983' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035.txt'
5ba3e8302c85e9281398959db0e6c7d6
f55a27f643b716aeeee6c0c5722ce8b415ff44b8
describe
'3903' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036.txt'
b2c96db81edccc14770078ddda31ba23
02d9e01cfda0b60371ca62837a85e64754cbbfc4
describe
'3904' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEBZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_037.txt'
a0a56e451ca8b97e4970c50af156a026
68d83b470bd45a78c3a0169a749e895683a877d4
describe
'1206' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_038.txt'
ecde4bcc21e63065936e7157644bc062
3686c670223b3fc1dca9d96f49e9b97e910e8e9b
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3742' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040.txt'
59540de674c331e36e608ab004fd7e61
8f3c0119a869ba3596c9c91afd31d0b12ce828ed
describe
'3783' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041.txt'
7bda027ca0f117b2633003d4d0207356
f78da4f6e4fb2c1528908f92f90d34335310e7ca
describe
'3776' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_042.txt'
e88fab73bc009bf84e4d3aa8593c708b
eebfd79c147b08346fb14b47ce820b30f49654fb
describe
'3624' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_043.txt'
ada6f6dda0381d5cda715a2072f169cb
14ecac982e0b561c9c93c2060f015f0d88a54274
describe
'3639' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044.txt'
166ac28140e9cac674d70c9f683ec569
d34e4cee13aa70e07c27e0ae51fe922bf6fd9f94
describe
'3759' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045.txt'
c08b2dbf9010741a7558646555eb8dcf
20febd64bb2bf1e68235fd72858919b84d0695be
describe
'3430' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_046.txt'
f1c1bad49178bcc0042491a5dfcfdfc1
7b30ac700321b098af91891ef2a69e1c97be7c4b
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3582' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_047.txt'
edf4b2fd42ad20e3aab55321049c4556
3b375d619304aef4ee3231432269b3066961d884
describe
'3162' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048.txt'
1710e89dc3bf0f05a1261af66d4054df
9550df4c0412ee1ccb08389806ae6e532744915a
describe
'1845' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049.txt'
4f3c439efdd050ba24daa96bd4aec814
6c147cbd89970ada9e913400be4e290034838897
describe
'3156' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_050.txt'
12eec1958b3a8eaf1466ff1d7d460d62
27846f9a1476d838bbe0a4324d54c13a9da18b11
describe
'3744' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_051.txt'
0c3d647ed54c85d0e6ffd63ab94c1590
8dba4f84ec32a904c9d288c3bede125e38ed9420
describe
'3640' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052.txt'
dd87f9dc963fda2f7988dae866632938
8b7f674678a52cf08efec56666e07dad5d7722e4
describe
'3091' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_053.txt'
c51a760289d55484d61a46709a3c3b56
87e73b0e49782d2b56b4795bbe8331d5a387f3a2
describe
'3482' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054.txt'
6175db564fbd531e3ca46961467564cf
3180a7970cede8622b215132df4babd7b3a0e613
describe
'3596' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055.txt'
87b50fdc1e4f65917193d757e35acd00
081064177e130b39af5f2bfefd92834def662925
describe
'2202' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056.txt'
a87023136ae6c77a40dc5ec38a99af58
2cb25dbccb9e2f1bcebbd895cb6f6088e8a173ed
describe
'3570' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057.txt'
b0cc9d23984266d13cae7d3304380fe3
f6a069eabbba908ac51c84cb6677eac748216735
describe
'1950' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058.txt'
111947584ff9705f034e5067d5119d4f
dfb6821ccbbe8b4978eca49faf0fb0bf78337c00
describe
'1623' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059.txt'
3783fd8383f65c1b233fffdd5a5e6b32
2802461a7a2d970990e26158cbc9bb30456526d0
describe
'1536' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060.txt'
07a6df85e239df2dd63d0d8b17d9c4d7
807b670cc82c197ed66c11ba74ed9348c24eaa57
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3009' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061.txt'
d9e4f52bc55ffdfab81624950549efa6
93346e96a8a0f50455072251f321321a05ec3122
describe
'3835' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062.txt'
1072cadb1f816484cbb45ef2eba1dba8
500d21c4826654d33eb96a8b44f2f4fd082d78cf
describe
'3513' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_063.txt'
bbc91a6b6b409c38a7985ab6e5600eab
f86f11866ed9314e08e7c9a362b6de30ab61fba0
describe
'3618' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAECZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_064.txt'
20bb2d6fcf54b573c3cd51ff482e9589
e3484741bf8271c015e8f59209a4429d3e73dc9f
describe
'3871' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065.txt'
c4ea7e9e43b835b454ec430ed120942f
27a931295f0ade44d28ed79870c3d21c51f04a2a
describe
'3526' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_067.txt'
3fcee320a7a4d61df40a915a8acea9f8
821fcb778eb9bdbeccebcb25595e388c16b5aa28
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_068.txt'
a177f00f5a8001dc29116e02dc26fbd7
1eca99b83c457130907b8e0c45c59a7b80db1830
describe
'4163' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070.txt'
6f6dc03ff2b0f0a6ac4893db35c05487
d69c09abd6217c1dbd50e1a7eeee56d58b8b0eac
describe
'3999' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_072.txt'
2d6914ff14750b428c5f485e2531036e
0838e47a1c69b6207c6032693b1f11d7537b7c67
describe
'3882' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074.txt'
7da439bfd966d8e52df4ae79dfd7b77c
c0e0f35b8d4eb6032159f41ebc9b8987ec37fcfc
describe
'4002' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076.txt'
b5188c793dee0c3a69f1403e84e03ced
d35b42b1eb7a80f33a4c4fac2107129f2d050b91
describe
'3873' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077.txt'
5b8364ee08d06c169b09fca399303bf2
c55918ce8e9614e27a92daffc52da95f2b289061
describe
'3924' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078.txt'
443ff0e32a9980a1728659b5dcad3cae
c6bdcc82fc88dec87b365e0a674aa02f8d6af832
describe
Invalid character
Invalid character
Invalid character
'3919' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_079.txt'
f86527f516e41df991790f7bfdd26343
61f20ed64061678bce83b86e6d98cef3f9f7cc04
describe
'3867' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080.txt'
078c3a0108e7d41c6c5614ea8f7277ec
feffc20cd9117f19384a89732deceaad5fc49059
describe
'3947' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_081.txt'
3607ba9357fde8c1ed8cb9faf4a76c62
27fb93cae9199d27aba0c695d130c67bfe734475
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082.txt'
644c14c7f4e0988899a53aacd1e2e104
4bb2e550c7604717232cb068b29341890e0f9cb2
describe
'1910' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084.txt'
c7b5f5c44f114a345756ebbc91f18883
c93fa105101928e61dedcf81a9d3423bb5862ea5
describe
'3743' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_085.txt'
9df61c2a4942ff12027e01e5b7808ff5
f02f9712cdd21ea66c02e6d9ede1cbd093eb7fb5
describe
'3971' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_086.txt'
b8e51051de8ed46502d4fbb4e0dc83ee
348bad04ff2a6c4b970c6abdce9c722e0cb546dd
describe
'3983' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087.txt'
0517c444774329df940eed910a702bfa
254510709310a713b20789ca99e9ee8b4a678f85
describe
'3954' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088.txt'
d25185339bcd695d34aedfcf9aec013e
328fc81a47a0ab3db07d97c320b918f37e320eb1
describe
'3940' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089.txt'
0b1cf104cfef233db4ac392baff91236
2e218d180d03a18e30df8e2bec0197deb08b896c
describe
'3096' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090.txt'
354ce3c7c98d23886c01bfc51d53e914
209ac55e9edc34bf49f09075acf0b7d06eac1c98
describe
'3054' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091.txt'
1f12eba7f2c6a63da4278346be2b4124
a955f2044514118aa4a6fd48c880d377297860f4
describe
'3055' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092.txt'
601115d7f1f01d6b44ebb3f293a383db
b81b1d77ebb0653c8b103cb4dfe77e9afc05244b
'2017-02-24T12:12:41-05:00'
describe
'2924' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093.txt'
2548c2159404eaac69d963fa9fc5980e
8bf14822df7c770dfe072fb7000710247cb70dca
describe
'2619' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_094.txt'
4ec31672932e951df136ce4b8c93b4f6
f697f02bbd16fba75d118fce768c35ccde22bd9d
describe
'2849' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_095.txt'
db8939c91de07d7a9393d1e2ac96fcbd
02aaae7ab6dcfe104d21d4fea533c5cdf770bda5
describe
'2814' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEDZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096.txt'
69496964d8dae916083c78567cad9cac
57f73a791cd8ea23aa0590feec968476c95b3d53
'2017-02-24T12:13:36-05:00'
describe
'2884' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098.txt'
126e23215fca3f443fe458e1af29e682
4c98a1630f08a65ff52bcd1b857d9e738a9377fb
describe
'2704' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_099.txt'
ccea18a60c8897820b9d8c34ed26faeb
9eb05ffd3de1a2087d11d115d007e3ae67fe8137
describe
'2478' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100.txt'
5f1e62a963b33e2e26dae2e744779474
ef3026471dd1dc3cb4ab168b1a6f453177981268
describe
'3288' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEED' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101.txt'
f5e42fc11b604e2ddc9346cff94d6d44
c92e85315465f77c7f86602a9d64d059e94ae616
describe
'3170' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102.txt'
daa14329eb2a16fcda8d1f407c854a6b
9455934d2f0b00a05c259804a781fbf4250767ad
describe
'3194' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103.txt'
f31067810825fa73b796c0ef3cc249c8
53de0420475f7f7f51658fb0faf063b84c2e16e9
describe
'3454' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_104.txt'
65afc81e4822a955471afcf6b09061ff
fdc06db1e1f50e2d31ef3ebf44e6423a0991e28c
describe
'3703' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_105.txt'
5cf7c6b292b711931b7d4b1fe68ae25c
1a4d0bc36574eb4b3c09af06bbf4d155b8ab5c10
describe
'3859' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_106.txt'
08e8ec78fae580dacd5532ce8926b7e1
0033251f9d08bc055d5aa069f95a790733d5417e
'2017-02-24T12:13:04-05:00'
describe
'3774' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107.txt'
3bd4880a4dd428706238d06c85406542
96255d42643956be2837445cc68ccdf5f33f511a
describe
'3680' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_108.txt'
7aa301ac13770546a337c42eb329beee
dea688e6d07e9983fcd64e523cf7c700152afc91
'2017-02-24T12:14:43-05:00'
describe
'3792' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109.txt'
e08fc7a310d67ec384ba8e99081c425d
b58da9b6078ffaef04af03e4a76e304ad2fdbfa5
describe
'2199' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_110.txt'
bf457bbb148e69eda483fec7d91f1d5a
65f85e2bb5d9e9a0e6345fcae695dec6ae4ea1a7
describe
'3753' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112.txt'
58fc35669170754d39b9789fb3bb0e97
f98fddcf4956ca9458d43469d4c43ddc4ad6c4da
describe
'3822' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113.txt'
b1f6ce9e7ce7cdff5a45c8e677d764b0
5f3986f2b5395e3c0e409b137a74f10cbcc1451a
describe
'3628' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_114.txt'
80e1edcd5a559142f1ff210f0c0fe042
23cea48944a1358aaa443e0a55a2ae4f87a4ccb9
describe
'3327' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115.txt'
9969d6d19c3f57627fa9c84653d83994
0d94ff6a68560059a636dca64c65d6ed4364329a
describe
'3841' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEER' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_116.txt'
2a36f675db232e8739323da7dd6bbbc0
a581637fa19e43a7387e0ce9331b02b8fcfa8658
describe
'3720' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEES' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117.txt'
b2499df0051b07c2afe9682dccb0e9dc
5fc755fa54e39fe6e6cda225465805acdd5274b1
describe
'2687' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEET' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118.txt'
17452247c86b38d08c554b197aa4005f
c49afaffc02ff251d1ae3e6df0de44e4f5fcc550
describe
'1569' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_119.txt'
90b17ac7540d023cb9c6cee04e117f9e
2e2f95102cca82521137cd2e06faed4db0998e14
describe
'2081' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120.txt'
1a468b64a49a674a4058ac319b7a26ac
5c0b2ebfe3cbccf256720aba153870a04b40c745
describe
'3210500' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEW' 'sip-filesVID00003.pdf'
c8fc8d7fb858b41cc56ff2ecd007f44e
b9436bf87a9e31332664e45169c424ae00b95550
'2017-02-24T12:12:29-05:00'
describe
'86684' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEW-norm-1' 'ARCHIVE' 'aip-filesF20100310_AAAEEW-norm-1.pdf'
d342bf4cb5b6d05302ac608f19617ccc
e574b914e128715f50a7248c0d316b0a3ea2f117
'2017-03-07T14:10:31-05:00'
describe
'2017-03-07T14:06:32-05:00'
normalize
'151528' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEX' 'sip-filesUF00000224_00003.mets'
90aa4a94f4e325f4289866fb601106c2
d1e6df98d7f8745f9d96f49f15f0ffa4d98f7bb2
describe
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
xml resolution
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
TargetNamespace.1: Expecting namespace 'http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/digital/metadata/ufdc2/', but the target namespace of the schema document is 'http://digital.uflib.ufl.edu/metadata/ufdc2/'.
'32065' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_001.QC.jpg'
e4159d10d80ca5336a679f899bfea955
7910460fbcfa2d0494d9a9ca159b9c1d2d77e56d
describe
'2194' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEEZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_002.QC.jpg'
a21599cab7570a3f56728ebf8e15bce4
2703affe51b3710fa49aa5ae5bdb3d124705b1ca
describe
'634' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_002thm.jpg'
78740b6dd8cd2975ab4412850c8d7db4
d88bf915f34b7e124dc692ae9867f3058499b0d2
describe
'12483' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003.QC.jpg'
f989aa64da8ad9b9035df6a17bb89aa0
6f97395981c72e2d47c231fc6b9b9a4944c27714
describe
'3437' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_003thm.jpg'
cdbc8aafba96768062d3a02052c11c5b
3bc1013553c5fbceb832771574f563594fce7289
describe
'1065' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004.QC.jpg'
81eafae6f6f0c3ba0b1d349a5e83a932
38a5c1207a759135046691995627b00fddf5cde1
describe
'392' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_004thm.jpg'
212f4e1078deadda5d889de5365237cd
8417cfe36a7e5c93b713ae3306ab7962ce2be534
describe
'12451' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_005.QC.jpg'
da403b55bb644039adcfecd57154b2ec
fc6b6bb9149bcf970680f175c616606d72c3878f
describe
'24428' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_006.QC.jpg'
6e152a2ad2c52c8f5e2a29f388acf06f
ac7f280b30d1b8cdb706ff34cb1a6254dcbd45c2
describe
'4914' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_006thm.jpg'
e7d8e162a595ce8daa81884d994764fc
bdd4f73516cf1369b3d9604303689a131ef6c040
describe
'4773' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_007thm.jpg'
1d5f3039ea56a37d64d966d1d7ccee63
ea6f6e87284e754389ce494e4e0fdce3285ace1c
describe
'23657' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008.QC.jpg'
e64e80e62a619e8761b93fc07bd6247c
ca87ac41eb93d748e29ad7e2ef02357cc2f5f3e9
describe
'4117' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_008thm.jpg'
d2068adb234a4d50eb02f774450a789c
0c7513c0f93519fa128fa33134c3914ef05f73d2
describe
'34372' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009.QC.jpg'
5343a457a71c9609a98fe209bafcb707
11c502892c3d89617ed977d50d8cb25fbccefe95
describe
'7190' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_009thm.jpg'
d901fba0ff528f3d10e6462b95f5d695
01f82262e7d41261d8d4b27c4488a9c73a30a570
describe
'38598' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010.QC.jpg'
72a4fe7182b60ee85e34b81a1f81c212
886e88f49c9dba641510ba85cf784bcfdaa8eb8d
describe
'7902' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_010thm.jpg'
747593921080b4147e60729835587d69
80447c4035026c88f5cd23d84963f4df8a8581c7
describe
'34010' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_011.QC.jpg'
ef778362ae0b46b24f738fb5d34f3810
9f6edac24c51da5ae79a6ee8ad29ca812b26413f
describe
'22113' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012.QC.jpg'
a9002279840a1058b8493cbef4ebf9aa
f86d34e04edfe31929095ca106becdf9175bcf8c
describe
'6058' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_012thm.jpg'
c36e18b6f5fb24931c6725a4869f3cad
e9db596bfea35ea9e5506a32f4ce6ea5a345e35c
describe
'33483' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013.QC.jpg'
fab9f1bd251513966f54d31f138db975
3495229faf56d079bdc1be82f8b3f57ac2f0afa0
describe
'7352' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_013thm.jpg'
da7af1f012525ddd2f502e04e053498c
910f4b6c487583fa5f3d68a15804a61906663a0c
describe
'33214' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014.QC.jpg'
cf3ba58b924c9d0efeaef0c8a188511f
bf75c11e41977d2ff61af41f7509d081ce17b190
describe
'7274' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_014thm.jpg'
b7a0c806ed0c54e8a2f2aa67078ec9af
b296d08e25466d9cce6edda3b0a6af11a70208bb
describe
'32392' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_015.QC.jpg'
e6861b6583174089ce94a496d1a78e15
c227d5739421846964051041e50b6d96ac05082f
describe
'34242' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_016.QC.jpg'
177e50263b9eb312242bef2180bed53e
d44a4e6134cda9baa115cdd50c9c5cb9626b0a2e
describe
'33525' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017.QC.jpg'
98a17c7f58b249c99ad1c08330b6ed01
42e6a2d1bc810e4ae09146cb0a47f47dc7b08ced
describe
'7638' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEFZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_017thm.jpg'
714061dd8ef7fc134b46140ea11887cc
d2b4c8864b42fcb4f25310f26442a03024297956
describe
'36440' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018.QC.jpg'
89153f3ea2e66efaf1fe29480097feee
0592f291b0f7efdc6430eee01c52fe6a707fe17d
describe
'7693' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_018thm.jpg'
775f237da14dbf9ecf1c8ab7a077228f
97fc28ad54a26f500659e6f9720e4d2b1287972a
describe
'32150' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_019.QC.jpg'
e1f23b51b703767f98b31b93cb989a15
f194e0098ecceb196f49df123b055c09c7087711
describe
'7834' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_020thm.jpg'
6f9c87e89fa590fd73822316b1ee9dbd
3586401b268a32b679586000530938a8381c9857
describe
'36218' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021.QC.jpg'
16dbc421dde94f4c9b5d496481cbef56
29cedcc589164afee4e3a208454def82d82b489d
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_021thm.jpg'
4adab8e04d1abb0fb559cd90e99aaed5
1265cfa23df758e23547b18d4669d4d6b84ad169
describe
'34882' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022.QC.jpg'
11af42efbbef1b79d297b976a6c48113
16cecc7df953329370abc2e9d328656ff8247b8f
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_022thm.jpg'
4fff37b1eab79a8f262221a891628a3c
68fec29d3fe911ecb01b63b632ba527e3af89181
describe
'36018' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_023.QC.jpg'
59c30f3af58fc74484abbcab7afdadf2
98956bf86854e93a7fa5d5689994a1237e8190ca
describe
'7649' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_023thm.jpg'
e0de387e7f707fdd733af570abdd56d3
1c2cdc19fb722762e793371d8ef567b20b892241
describe
'34222' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024.QC.jpg'
06fd9fb32acb649a81b0776d1f10a596
f195645f1ec8f4f0f42c6568c496fea0f16e00ad
describe
'7561' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_024thm.jpg'
017875c931b9e0a04c8e6723bccce0f1
3626042e7468e679702ed625da12d71a591c6ebd
describe
'29169' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025.QC.jpg'
15a707da59b432838214c6fcc58ca420
ec97725c044e336464547c1d6f9a6290fdfd2dc2
describe
'6808' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_025thm.jpg'
b7b27580f35d792d40363c5b906af62e
074cfc4be8f9b054df7e567b911112f1872ab61f
describe
'32922' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026.QC.jpg'
2f558082fc3309ae8e9b24fb25bd423a
62541eff543491cacb866499c5f1ea66605ec7e0
describe
'7761' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_026thm.jpg'
a4bb7467f2b107f1f45a38feb4c6f407
f352e9d14e48b8ec43fb212533c91b18797e3f8b
describe
'7656' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_027thm.jpg'
60ed530062e93866ac097b5b08f061eb
c022e930379362d8a0fa94aabfe2ef192c8c6ec6
describe
'34841' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_028.QC.jpg'
26e0e03ab4b5842bf56d05f6ce40ae7b
71ac05eeea12cb2bc92992f02cd7f66d79e17d57
describe
'32633' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_029.QC.jpg'
5e0fcf43bdc78894c3cfe14cbc07b99a
46658bc9c6bf618bae3211b5cb9dc8dbcb28d12a
describe
'7462' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_029thm.jpg'
a0c8a8d24b9e17b71a5a83a46d793e79
7b91dfecada28c957822ee7685961918fa0bc73f
describe
'33715' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030.QC.jpg'
2e0475027ce9cfb262206c255a859b6d
d7b7b90fc25a528f346d088df94387ee0860d703
describe
'7415' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_030thm.jpg'
66f104c8d3bf53de85e2ce80d1597eef
2d5700ae7f65abcb9f3472923e0ab12953b3d300
describe
'7199' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_031thm.jpg'
2685e5871a0dc95280b6f3a39aa9d335
3ef2a3288073008047cec3c429e0ef7b59a0db8c
describe
'28273' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032.QC.jpg'
e363e28e9acbbbfbe462cd45405db5c2
5f8661871015819e8c5f31ec3d3dbeedf7f9ae4c
describe
'6737' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_032thm.jpg'
46b2c03749b9b1ee69b6653be52d0d84
2f9e96cff58677637fc3fd8f54f0b5eb64c29b10
describe
'31565' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEGZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_033.QC.jpg'
e1e62f4f0f28c26e1fe18b756b79e860
5fad7693b251b7cec513dfdb0dc2b166c726079b
describe
'34739' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034.QC.jpg'
5fdd8d9de0416e1345e79a2d6af2a1d8
8aeb6b777fb29cb1e570f0d4a938585683509007
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_034thm.jpg'
d3a4ab1792f3557d3f23696b88ff2f11
621ece66c821de4d35597fd86e2eedb9fbd7742e
describe
'34112' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035.QC.jpg'
3268cf758ec88ad01acd360b68a28ff2
702d95fb1a4d4287444841f92eb7293c2e7681dc
describe
'7617' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_035thm.jpg'
f26af88363afcff2c5a403ed21468fe3
f5141866b6e706d6fec90067eb506e2f284ddd89
'2017-02-24T12:14:57-05:00'
describe
'36895' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036.QC.jpg'
9a7f4ad16f0ace5f81ba9beb39104abf
19585d7a18a155f52dcb2dae17bbc71be3463ad7
describe
'7818' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_036thm.jpg'
cd23f7c6dccc62fab1a2bbe5c3a44de9
674087ed5543c727f0cc1109410b9754a01d037f
describe
'36635' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_037.QC.jpg'
1ade797dbb99faf881f741beb0eeaeec
aaa0060ab20a2ba245b978004ae9639e0e6fc056
describe
'7864' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_037thm.jpg'
c7b9cde5e935352d63524d1e43167ed9
dd921b798a017a17ab215323eb3d1fa267575e65
describe
'33490' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_038.QC.jpg'
92a7dda750ef1c6810076cd7bb504edf
066ad80d7fc4c3672826e615bb8c8791a0959c2c
describe
'24713' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_038thm.jpg'
1cc8f4626b66d734c9d37fe8b5961745
4cbc8c597ebfd360f4e85879bf66ef0ffc4d45a1
describe
'32691' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039.QC.jpg'
4e3247c454d6abb322b33e23097d579b
7dc5392a11e39b2c2b8f58cdd27a1003873094e3
describe
'24674' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_039thm.jpg'
2dd98dc9e889b987bf188b5b7ebfa570
43c95692bea754237c856816344564d49fb12375
describe
'35797' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040.QC.jpg'
c9906139ef81f0f09ca4daac5e6c6774
91fe596d73e1fcab62a1e0d38bc80e4b772d8b20
describe
'7669' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_040thm.jpg'
07f4dfcaa5ff06bd5a90bd62f4e9f17c
ac9aec2f96732ae08b3c3f60f56de879103a2190
describe
'36253' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041.QC.jpg'
d5664a9d39268254f0e4ec3d36122721
854e85677f146afb6b4c6b99213392ebf9d42d79
describe
'7789' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_041thm.jpg'
1037b2f6f166ef1bf31a0c9173b61249
feacb2d80b31585ee9d49af05bf9f125321619f3
describe
'35767' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_042.QC.jpg'
4dac54769180e3a3296a56f23263ed5f
364a6cf3612b6676beeacc42f94cc3bffda4d6ae
describe
'35420' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_043.QC.jpg'
f12e1855a9dd501e30ab942684eb682d
416225ba99d139af222c47a5c8c243e384df9b00
describe
'34921' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044.QC.jpg'
20437f3f28835a47a7a8157f49d93129
b371615d27225583e84b6a8979e8ab7650b5a465
describe
'7608' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_044thm.jpg'
73eddf585bfec6e07c812c606b39634b
ad7a14405504078a5b39465112841e39a3005a52
describe
'35348' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045.QC.jpg'
939e86e4ba9315e98946b128d32629ef
afda0a56c1506fd1957cb83118a01189dc113d62
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_045thm.jpg'
8161f32cddd55f0b30086b624c7d53b7
bb16f258fd9bc75cd25269dc5c803a8bbde6c64a
describe
'34855' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_047.QC.jpg'
c8d8e734cc7f714a72285437bf0d27ec
c61a46ef05c0fc7e628f85f75934ba8060254437
describe
'7385' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_047thm.jpg'
d669f387385547e06f71d5cacef1899e
f0e37b61906aa12251e567398d84f23cd8f4012f
describe
'34031' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048.QC.jpg'
b00b7d55ba3f0fbc3a87b08507c3a577
0e18cefbb5f3e96134e810eebd19b15c8a26d41c
describe
'7679' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEHZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_048thm.jpg'
93d33f3daa263155f90b9336026f90f1
5abc8166b02567eb3b1913456720f88ec6ca4fe6
describe
'31210' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049.QC.jpg'
98783b1087965026070fa8e0f1fc3792
a18be15504360fb197e40b00158ee25e5003c04f
describe
'7680' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_049thm.jpg'
b4283f42fb99db76dc003d07fd666c8c
061fc846e397cb9e9339df268d7ae40021ad9e39
describe
'34519' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_050.QC.jpg'
461687103718cd01376189f4dafefa34
98cf3af7593557d81cef1a75f2ca16227994e5bd
describe
'7712' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEID' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_051thm.jpg'
7d83665f6e274b6783a861b25cb769c6
21927fc82c40d1a6e7f9dff6d1d2b6a4b792a923
describe
'7721' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_052thm.jpg'
cdba49eb0a4e549a344f1f5e9c74039b
d4598c41d0aa4dfdcf3be13989b9ec62b83efe7a
describe
'34200' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_053.QC.jpg'
e0365fb6429f62f62a363552039b9b3f
5da74b50cc8dbc3f60aa600e6c3595c30ffdaae2
describe
'7564' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_053thm.jpg'
8131d3d2ebb70545709432dd8fc36820
0becef41a4b22a89100da172162ad638ec83e911
describe
'36642' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054.QC.jpg'
d868b04ff736e679889088342d691e5f
c9d79ee23a62bb1beef976b7b84e4f0ccd0b09f8
describe
'8054' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEII' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_054thm.jpg'
1294ad5172fa55991adb4b58d076911a
127f687a27b76bee6c1069a5659e0c9924dc3288
describe
'35527' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055.QC.jpg'
f0828f1385cd512f0b44d4e1b72309d7
be747d4b01fc105f4016e5022921eb7c8570771c
describe
'7636' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_055thm.jpg'
cf9df7dabacc2f8ee9c429cf9ce9acba
b418a173891d6bd7d966c63b9c7e5d3ca904f922
describe
'28521' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056.QC.jpg'
50ff0961b5248def4c8d67b6d7776003
3a3a7202e2a7836317afdded9754ea9634f955cd
describe
'6719' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_056thm.jpg'
09bc409dc503de72aa6c4b85760b32a6
c1ee78ec2bfd02580ae4b53c27c78d16637a642f
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057.QC.jpg'
81d331d07fa3d422c1cba94d8b1483e7
2dd8ee31cc326c126a68b6d389597396661fd22b
describe
'7163' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_057thm.jpg'
44a1a778bfc3ce3edd153e71a1c26a14
d57b823bc10da5d2c4cfc42e314017b8a8270547
describe
'33277' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058.QC.jpg'
65084ba783c053f4c7f2a6e5cf05a7e9
db9c654d145d8b91b58e6ff3ee8e58573c0fbd12
describe
'7691' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_058thm.jpg'
0807fdded145082277f997795eb1a956
482380b7d63d806d1955f9f5f831c61aa7870f1c
describe
'26902' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_059.QC.jpg'
396aa7c0daad3722ffbd315c870a3bc0
96c6a5b94721f404653cd9d6fd9ad33ad9b2e07b
describe
'27208' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060.QC.jpg'
d5c6fc0a35f747413795c080381d0e8f
7dd9f85190aef9c0bbee9dfe352d3e8568c0ecd5
describe
'7092' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_060thm.jpg'
9b51b56eab647f208ce2e664696e62e5
209a583d9f130fde79fdb861f81826fca486c444
describe
'31472' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_061.QC.jpg'
2c909768da5aa727fbc8f26dd9c6186f
a6bfa744f8eda1adb9f5dce7ff52e00a5564ea22
describe
'36328' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062.QC.jpg'
52a6e3deb59b3aafa6f7011e3cc44748
af1609a381c52b9e33ef0d98d07ac1e9137fe932
describe
'7702' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_062thm.jpg'
c47effcf60cae5f465645d30d1ebbf27
0085d58b9682f7076b899488506d104e2cd22b9c
describe
'34430' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_063.QC.jpg'
5639e6eb06baae9f24c52d778dd71865
d37897d2f8327f280843f67d33de8719ee5d9e5f
describe
'7528' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_063thm.jpg'
a59853718dd41e03601b9ef14f7a3de0
3e6fd3a50925d06a549ccbc36bd288ae1c133197
describe
'35390' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEIZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_064.QC.jpg'
f143ebbd36590fdf560d3a33b3f2c53e
389bbc6a280978cb57e5ac1baf3f3f61b7a80872
describe
'7768' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_064thm.jpg'
d9129438eb458ce8052a7fe605b016d4
5e3eaa12aee3c6248b024f5ebe0d55ef241ba2d4
describe
'36862' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065.QC.jpg'
991a2d6e0207e1de296c115fa47f1a84
7047c52ae3c6794ec29104adde902f1949684b7a
describe
'7795' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_065thm.jpg'
ddf80c5f71d369a025fe02c735fa643c
01132729ff71b55ab0479fcbf07afa5242aaa27a
'2017-02-24T12:13:55-05:00'
describe
'7705' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_066thm.jpg'
b9219af6b602230319b5ebaedc2a4ea1
a17ff5589f0b2c34e98cd787d2cd853f066fc399
describe
'33940' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_067.QC.jpg'
51371d2a27a17980c43ee930c6bc146f
6246afa2b0bdf5f193c1267f6635355396ee3c87
describe
'7513' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_067thm.jpg'
6ede7c98daf75fc99f937e7edc9b4b8a
433e2bd39d4a6d74e1cbd77fbe40d8214453f612
describe
'35665' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_068.QC.jpg'
8386cd5d1886f90bd56ab92ef5aeb3c4
1133357849a50c891d1c440e6adf99fcb272d8ae
describe
'7508' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_068thm.jpg'
e0bc8d8caea047738bc0f27afae42d12
e9d227e1becf793d69c1806c46eaa137428ced57
describe
'35301' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069.QC.jpg'
2d604ecf6bd414abd21f76c7d86ec16d
70bedda497aac4eb4b80445c6557928966e48b1d
describe
'7731' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_069thm.jpg'
f6ff361ccb2cf106f3a8db58a4169c15
086413d1b0f89d71d031c53245de41b7b173d850
describe
'38102' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070.QC.jpg'
a515e39f1363133fbda36f52ff1e2645
a16be4eebc021708402c0a2bcb502062d745384a
describe
'7798' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_070thm.jpg'
7aba131a7c1d199ba32c9a5683a03e33
87c425828faaccd46a100beff3e12153b1f08635
describe
'37060' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_071.QC.jpg'
51a39c82c1f68ebf09488103f0cb0598
4bd7b39165bab8ce041c901da0c49b44306c9c0a
describe
'7756' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_071thm.jpg'
8169befe775b291445dc76afc5de501c
b3a1fcbce6ee02f65f79eac172c5a5d28dd994f1
describe
'36514' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_073.QC.jpg'
9a6a056f42c597e36ad61f2552de5da9
2e3d040176a02925b064d752f12253471f7697dc
describe
'36793' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074.QC.jpg'
cc10ccb015e0f21d1a6287d71a5066f6
ce40752b626c31f90d4ad6ec09f138d8fab04a0b
describe
'7859' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_074thm.jpg'
fde2c56e1bff50ccbd21306b55f3d210
689d7fb1c425fe36be554bf542c8ef7af426f1c1
describe
'37697' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_075.QC.jpg'
4a590420851ce7e32fd1e197c93e32cc
5a01c37ebd83c3900711c26ab8ffceb3742e337c
describe
'7874' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_075thm.jpg'
376cd67ce0850eff7bbf0fcdb54515b8
6dd9603b400d94b2dc5d20a47b879bedc5e98b40
describe
'37519' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_076.QC.jpg'
32350898a55e0d69127b833d42052fd8
e608f65e2418a22bd2ac5e477e97dbb368c5de32
describe
'37061' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077.QC.jpg'
f1618db8e769cc8d9d0189b87a4203ce
c365085c491d720e49568c2d12a83c67fcdc773b
describe
'7763' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_077thm.jpg'
c673b57c90431708cbf3c2d5a94c6d42
acb3f6cc71b4aca0bc797052b2014fdf3945e5e6
describe
'36519' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078.QC.jpg'
87516cc896f550090989305ff5b4b585
670d938a6c85f760e4e79abdf35b037a59428311
describe
'7958' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_078thm.jpg'
0b232a648a9eb2f6c3d185184ba6e5fa
ff8cbb927f5a4638ea008c713d62bf80075dc86e
describe
'7843' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_079thm.jpg'
ac710d3fd60b6dc20c20987c9637c7fe
7f75cb282f5591d0079ed96682560a14d0bea687
describe
'37444' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEJZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080.QC.jpg'
8c8a02168531ae406bdc03fd54f75674
70dd4c2329c2bbb05683cb662f6a61075070ecf2
describe
'7895' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_080thm.jpg'
d2b62a7deb5675adea3acfb2fbf96807
4d2d0329fe657de05352effcadfa9221aeaa95e9
'2017-02-24T12:11:58-05:00'
describe
'7781' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_081thm.jpg'
7de9fd9349ec1cc2ec76934f2ed7766d
83d6821a10d982407340f5824df074893d36f772
describe
'37549' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082.QC.jpg'
ea6bb783b16d3bfe0bf79b76d3f04c92
7356d1e8b612c00d16a0d5cf63a38534867e57c1
describe
'7810' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_082thm.jpg'
f85b4da9d277957655e2950fd6dbba7b
07984e343affa5f5ae9ea9ea7d14db0dccec1501
'2017-02-24T12:12:38-05:00'
describe
'34904' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084.QC.jpg'
fd3e5ce0fda72890820aec333eb140dd
730744a0bcaacbe9766689fa653ad926455c4c60
'2017-02-24T12:13:41-05:00'
describe
'7955' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_084thm.jpg'
be0fa31bec3228627444cbbfec556c65
791cf64914180a27d5c7604b6034a6a1faf47271
'2017-02-24T12:14:56-05:00'
describe
'7716' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_085thm.jpg'
3d180877b35e9e9c06ac7d69821022cb
63e77a646573656ff735ce94dd4ab66ed207e731
describe
'7889' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_086thm.jpg'
8ffbe91c0c51602a93651c8a644a0c8c
699d472b4db61a837aa10e9aa5f4ae3fcd78850a
describe
'37484' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087.QC.jpg'
17a90e7c597faa8ec6658ea16cde0e63
2de658ca4a36a207d7a1ba9670627f8f2a35ab5e
describe
'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_087thm.jpg'
15298a8978ab2b9eadff2178fe2256e1
478164eea9d789a79891573864640029245d9c9c
describe
'37140' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088.QC.jpg'
8068fe339f2ef325ec68a5f572ca5c56
f48f2b62c3d39eb5c3aaf03e0e9e5305e5fcdc0e
describe
'7766' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_088thm.jpg'
9b71c2a25e371de39055dabb3e55b126
8e3bb80b406ef801c6a65f935b86a2a81a2e5131
describe
'37390' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089.QC.jpg'
cd4e389bdb14dfa5fea5b5ed25f266b5
a4a59b12608fbc1d3efa0d21f8b42a991ac5e21c
describe
'7949' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_089thm.jpg'
a95ad05698b9f12436080e555305e471
18e0e1b2d1deb2be8423ea0b859ebf1260fd0ec2
describe
'32608' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090.QC.jpg'
d4127777798ad86045f3f403834ecf93
8a695a514a29060a87d783079d81bc159d10454a
describe
'7310' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_090thm.jpg'
3e37a78fb66a3d866dc687acc73eb3a4
54bbc05c4d25ab653ef96f5b07384819f57e0589
describe
'32553' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091.QC.jpg'
92c15d9ad686040526b508d35a6a71e1
bc5358dcc2b81f5fc118bc2bf4a8c8ba82a2ccec
describe
'7540' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_091thm.jpg'
2c65b2fefae011a4431d020991ac7420
3e2484c44e20662fe0b51d89eaa8a91033c1dc87
describe
'32477' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_092.QC.jpg'
a25b63fdc6ea1150ac99f4592c169395
1fd316f91597bf8f5c10fde7c3ea404d1bdf2290
describe
'31911' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093.QC.jpg'
9bc429c3ae55c96e6343163a241c1742
827ceba892da249c4fc2991a973f66d5d082d1e2
describe
'7497' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_093thm.jpg'
6200e9e84a13a59575a2aad158b9dd9b
0d18a543b2cf9a0aba026c601b5517bbbc616bb3
describe
'29046' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_094.QC.jpg'
c0d5cedf61f3494fcf629c94ad2840d2
960a9564df348d48b3919b352735de54dae24bf9
describe
'6911' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_094thm.jpg'
40eac950768ffd1d770683140bcee582
37f53bd4be51de3caed3b92ebfe53ee844535a1d
describe
'31727' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_095.QC.jpg'
26890e15552a71fb2a0c1e58cdadd06e
4f8729055adae368885d805459dcc48fbc0fe9ed
describe
'7607' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_095thm.jpg'
58e1ff994bc09572845127b33dc3b719
76f77210f7608ecb9feadcc62ee2171c368c85dd
describe
'31029' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEKZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_096.QC.jpg'
a915d3752f347131d6f3b592cdf9d676
3fef4ab1311d3e71892352be6d8cba6fe8d73e86
describe
'30313' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_097.QC.jpg'
4f519cdf83bdef4c7f9317b4896900b0
e123b7f3ad87d353e91a54d4e2134014bb543afe
describe
'7355' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_097thm.jpg'
50efc8ff76e152698729a07c14390e54
a06e49456920a2ee74359704fbebe22ec2f48710
describe
'32002' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098.QC.jpg'
6abd4b4cde05c83054940c8c559f966f
570502dd38dd1c7671b88693766e7c4bb8ba1e6a
describe
'7612' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_098thm.jpg'
9d3636ffa30df6019acc245a08b8b6b1
70f9ffb065cb8ecb7f52734b0d055e80c6abb105
describe
'30733' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELE' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_099.QC.jpg'
599587f79d8086babef78dee6ef5a381
275dfe39d693849a8d2ece95c524019c0b77745c
describe
'7320' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_099thm.jpg'
6f89206470bdea539dcdde1415a751f1
24e51549557cd90ad9fa54dc404657021653e6c6
describe
'6931' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_100thm.jpg'
d438f4fe4aa4f951b40e7935b51b3a72
2d134bcee24ea76403847e254b7b8fc610b62fc2
describe
'7373' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_101thm.jpg'
3b02f1c76cb55d57f215ba64442c6ff4
0d24aaca9fed6a881317bd5f52be30eba1296fb3
describe
'7589' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_102thm.jpg'
eedd41d05def899ecfd0733556764044
b1d1e1c2c7dfb74bb38ae0d05cb4bbf72444e00f
describe
'33444' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103.QC.jpg'
2add1a1f8b844bc87c80d989f762e116
da55cea1643d3c42efd29097646fc132fd492247
describe
'7504' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELK' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_103thm.jpg'
0b132370ec02a55f02117488f34ea90c
204410a5fd3f87c9d8ebdaf8a03f834f7da92b5d
describe
'35610' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELL' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_104.QC.jpg'
5d0d10b05b6dc5dab0e0fddfd78c787e
df01a6cf46fcf66d1d867a2a9a6152974ceba4f1
describe
'36966' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELM' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_105.QC.jpg'
26c250805f6247858d94f64dae976276
6973476b0c220e1f89609aa310eb10e2171500e6
describe
'7899' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELN' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_106thm.jpg'
1f3f0051bae807d55d2ccb5d7ac52663
11ef76593637e39170d1fe18ed7e37f99f4c2558
describe
'37024' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELO' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107.QC.jpg'
e9417bb7a54640f2929c812fcced290c
b4afbfda2a845a3fe59eafcd10661b0fec3f9750
describe
'7886' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELP' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_107thm.jpg'
1520ca31cdd1f7e7758c7ebc1476f2fb
ca0b038dd15f80e298e97b67c85719e38d2cf649
describe
'37035' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELQ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_108.QC.jpg'
772a14d41f18c8c4c06c2f26b21b31ac
cad9c2e194463d49f2956b962939a88d3eee44f6
describe
'37504' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELR' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109.QC.jpg'
1afe04f6c42ad8d2b0af03b622a41404
e64ec585b9b95c1a530c14a2d86cef63b0060d69
describe
'7879' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELS' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_109thm.jpg'
ad100cdb66fcf77924661dfb3b3f6131
91f43d85e32db5353f655826ac28da4e64e82528
describe
'30202' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELT' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_110.QC.jpg'
65e37c43b59d3bde6cba0fd76a7a25d4
dbbe888a20dd6abc32ee6d0242eba8de4bd73359
describe
'35965' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELU' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_111.QC.jpg'
86cd40cf30c7dbc2d3df9f31755e9428
2d32fabdfc6bdb9b0a539234d985fc95d540f4aa
describe
'7800' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELV' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_111thm.jpg'
6e3d6d671cbc43b65c9a80adc2b641cb
2cf1214e97852faa6f0391b97399480fe0b733d6
describe
'7853' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELW' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_112thm.jpg'
52d104757e0afc2b415e74394301a1ec
70b9cd0f75238fc5b5fb8f6c2cc335eef3e18511
describe
'37801' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELX' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_113.QC.jpg'
f23108e6107c1928612e74327fa5e249
20d7dc7876899f2022cb3b705d0d39b19aa9af04
describe
'37002' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELY' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_114.QC.jpg'
f5a2bcd5306e289ab056b17a1d0b52a6
1cabb9bfb53395a45023317dbf22296de4ccfeb0
describe
'34284' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAELZ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115.QC.jpg'
f0700ba23dc32937abbf40985eceef16
7bd58f60417e220149252c0ec3d73bfc92951569
'2017-02-24T12:12:19-05:00'
describe
'7338' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMA' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_115thm.jpg'
3414636c1c2af2898d0d9251ee8eb861
125deebc2886817bce17d92f0bbb4c9d1345108c
describe
'36389' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMB' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_116.QC.jpg'
565af9617ada35b23e1b1e0057d3222b
fc797cf72c996455a57b8cdf2f54174eb24a1275
describe
'7786' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMC' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_116thm.jpg'
c3bb451e0c06267d21ef6ea8f6bca6ef
7646c2be9f326d1b69cab0e947d3f11482e57904
describe
'36587' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMD' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117.QC.jpg'
e7cf72da8a6ffed1c53cfbbd6b4f8f49
d608623d517c3bda22c0d10ce5a7747148186cf2
describe
'7813' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEME' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_117thm.jpg'
a660510e3754d42d5d05365a60ce855d
35794bcf3cd502ca44121cebddd6fb2e02882506
describe
'34070' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMF' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118.QC.jpg'
68c4d9b8545b4e1290b65c082f6f8b32
72486495cd218707f2b2c304d51f593271ed91f8
describe
'7784' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMG' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_118thm.jpg'
d8392a341cf8aa5c1c41ba95e2c82b9d
500dc6dfd4df952632c476a5e8023b49669a8938
describe
'7249' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMH' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_119thm.jpg'
672271a4c80face2e5a8efd6d0fc931b
8c1c1dfa11dc02cbf813971bde8a5599ea6afb5c
describe
'22836' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMI' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120.QC.jpg'
0ea9e2da9bd9e8a64c72618dbafab3d7
762ea7fa5e5812674ef43d833a4e9c35791e0e0d
describe
'5995' 'info:fdaE20100310_AAAABHfileF20100310_AAAEMJ' 'sip-filesVID00003_Page_120thm.jpg'
c89cfd88eafd04790d9842d09a40222d
69c71c50853ad054b322a693cb6cffc7d521e0ea
describe



PAGE 1

OUR CHANGING NATURAL LANDSCAPE – The gray area in the picture above depicts Florida’s land area during the low sea level stand of the late Pleistocene, about 18,000 years ago. Florida’s current land area is outlined in white. FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEYBiennial Report 23 2003 2004

PAGE 2

Cover design by Tom Greenhalgh. Illustration used with permission of Tasa Graphic Arts.

PAGE 3

STATE OF FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION Colleen M. Castille, Secretary DIVISION OF RESOURCE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT Edwin J. Conklin, Director FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief BIENNIAL REPORT 23 2003 – 2004 By Tom Greenhalgh, P.G. #1277, Jim Ladner, P.G. #1726, and Frank Rupert, P.G. #0149 Published for the FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida 2005

PAGE 4

ISSN 1052-6536 ii

PAGE 5

PREFACE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Tallahassee, Florida December 2005 The Florida Geological Survey (FGS), Division of Resource Assessment and Management, Department of Environmental Protection is publishing Biennial Report 23, prepared by the Survey's professional staff. This report summarizes the activities of the FGS staff during the two-year period January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004. Research results are reported in the Survey's various publication series, professional journals, presentations, and contract deliverables. Reports for this period are listed here, along with a summary of extended services and other activities of the FGS. Walt Schmidt, Ph.D, P.G. State Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey iii

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TABLEOFCONTENTS PageFOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 FGS CREATES THE HYDROGEOLOGYSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONALOFFICE SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 THIS BIENNIALREPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 FGS ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICALDATAMANAGEMENTSECTION . . . . . . . . .9 COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Geographic Informational Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Web Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Information Technologies (IT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Earth Science Week 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Earth Science Week 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 RESEARCH LIBRARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Library Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Library Computer Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Publications Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 SPECIALPROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Leon County School System Leon Advocacy and Resource Center Coopertive Job Training Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 National Geologic Map Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 St. Johns River Water Management District Cooperative Program . . . . . . .13 GEOLOGICALINVESTIGATIONS SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 COASTALRESEARCH PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 On-going Coastal Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Sedimentologic Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Sedimentation Elevation Table (SET) Project . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Cooperative Coastal Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Offshore Sand Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Joint Coastal Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium . . . . . . . .18 FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project . .19 Resistivity Survey Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 GEOLOGIC DATAACQUISITION PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 On going Geologic Data Acquistion Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Geologic Sample Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Cooperative Geologic Data Acquistion Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Manatee Springs Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Oleno State Park and River Rise State Preserve . . . . . . . . . . .22 Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer Monitoring Well Construction . . . . . .22 City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Investigation . . . . . . . .22 Northwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program . . .22 South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program . . . .22 MINERALRESOURCES PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Phosphate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 iv

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Crushed Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Sand and Gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Heavy Minerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Peat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Clay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Crude Oil and Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 SPRINGS PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 STATEMAPPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 HYDROGEOLOGYSECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 HYDROGEOCHEMISTRYPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemistry Studies . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Bench-Scale Geochemical Assessment of Water-Rock Interaction: Seminole County ASR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Groundwater Quality of Spring Wells in Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 EDUCATIONPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Development of a Cave Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 “Explore Florida!” Website . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Karst Short Course and Field Trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 KARSTHYDROGEOLOGYPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Wakulla In-Cave Meter Data Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Tide Gauging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Expansion of the Cave Metering Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Continuation of the Woodville Karst Plain Modeling Efforts . . . . . . . . . .35 Florida Cave Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Wakulla Springs-Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Discharge and Rainfall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 PHYSICALAQUIFERCHARACTERIZATIONPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . .36 Estimating Ground Water Discharges via Radon Tracing . . . . . . . . . . .36 Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project . . . . . . . .38 AQUIFERVULNERABILITYASSESSMENTPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Sensitive Karst Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Florida Springs Protection Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on the Water Quality of Fanning Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 OTHEROUTSOURCEDRESEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 THEHYDROGEOLOGYCONSORTIUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 OILAND GAS SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 REGULATORYPROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 DRILLING AND PRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46 GEOPHYSICALEXPLORATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 OFFSHORE ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 IMPORTED NATURALGAS IN SOUTH FLORIDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 OILAND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 OILAND GAS DATABASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 OILANDGASWEBSITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 SPECIALPROJECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 SINKHOLE SUMMITII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49REVISION TO HYDROGEOLOGICALUNITS OF FLORIDA . . . . . . . . . .50 v

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EQUIPMENTAND FACILITIES ACQUISITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 HYDROGEOCHEMISTRYLAB AND SEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 CORE STORAGE FACILITYEXPANSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 NEWDRILLRIG AND WATER TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 NEWOFFICE SPACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 FGSPUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 BIENNIALREPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 BULLETIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 FLORIDAGEOLOGYFORUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 INFORMATION CIRCULAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 LEAFLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 MAPSERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 OPEN FILE MAPSERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 OPEN FILE REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 POSTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 SPECIALPUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 VIDEO SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 PAPERS BYSTAFF IN OUTSIDE PUBLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONALACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 PRESENTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 FIELD TRIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 TRAINING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 PERSONNELINFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 PERSONNELCHANGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 FULLTIME EMPLOYEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 RESEARCH ASSOCIATES & ASSISTANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 FULLTIME EMPLOYEES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96 RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ANDASSISTANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 FGS AWARDS PROGRAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 FGS AWARDS FOR 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 FGS AWARDS FOR 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109 OUTSIDE AWARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 RETIREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 FGS BUDGETSUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 vi

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BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 1 As we entered 2005, the State of Florida was recovering economically and emotionally from one of the worst hurricane seasons our state has ever seen. The people of Florida have been through great trauma and personal loss; however, through it all, many have shown their inner strength and ability to persevere. The Governor and the Secretary of DEP praised and described, on several occasions, the many individuals and volunteer groups that provided assistance, coordinated emergency response and resource follow-up assistance to those in need. We can be proud of our efforts and appreciative of those who donated so much of their time to assist our communities. Our Oil and Gas District Field Offices in Ft. Myers and Jay both escaped with near misses with no major damage, as did our staff's personal homes. Tallahassee was out of harms way from the main paths of destruction, but we had many downed trees and numerous power outages. All in all, we were glad to see the 2004 hurricane season end. During the 2003-2004 biennium, the FGS again proposed modifications to the distribution formula for minerals severance tax revenue to more equitably include the minerals trust fund (MTF) in this distribution. The DEP has agreed with this need each year and put forward the proposal. To date, however, legislative action has not occurred. We have once more proposed modifications to the Oil and Gas statues to update some outdated language and to close down the MTF as a surety option for private industry. We have also proposed language to allow the FGS to maintain certain data from sinkholes, caves, and springs confidential from public records. This is intended to increase our database for resource conservation and ground-water dynamics understanding and protection. These also have not been acted upon yet....we will keep trying until these concerns are satisfactorily addressed. The Florida Geological Survey has been very active and productive during 2003 and 2004. In February 2003, the Department held the Florida Springs Conference "Natural Gems Troubled Waters" in Gainesville, Fl, attended by almost 400 professionals and private citizens. The conference agenda included field trips to the Ichetucknee Springs State Park and the Santa Fe River recharge basin, concurrent speaker sessions, invited guest speakers, and the premier of a new documentary video Waters Journey The FGS was a significant participant with eight presentations, hosting an educational booth, and participating in numerous discussions and planning sessions. Later in 2003, the FGS published the Florida Spring Classification System and Spring Glossary, Special Publication No. 52, compiled by Dr. Rick Copeland. Two staff also presented papers at the annual meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences and published inhouse reports on two projects funded in part by the "Florida Springs Initiative" established by Governor Bush. During this two year period, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) project was completed, and will be published as Bulletin 67. This important contribution to protecting and conserving our valuable ground-water resources was presented at several professional meetings and at planning and elected officials' conferences. We have also contracted with several groups to provide us with targeted research results on selected hydrogeology projects. Contractors FORWARDby Walt Schmidt State Geologist and Chief Florida Geological Survey

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have included leading Professional Geologists from Florida State University, the University of West Florida, the U.S. Geological Survey, and Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. One of the products was an educational DVD in our video series titled Florida's Aquifer Adventure This is a 20 minute video which describes Florida's aquifer systems, springs, caves and environmental issues. We published the transactions of a workshop held in 2002 titled Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida's Springs In cooperation with the Hydrogeology Consortium, the FGS organized, hosted and published the transactions from a workshop held in April of 2003, titled Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida Again in 2004, we teamed with the Hydrogeology Consortium and the American Ground Water Trust to put on the ASR (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) IV Forum in Tampa and published the transactions from this conference. In May 2004, the FGS cooperated with the Cave Diving Section of the National Speleological Society at their workshop The Science of Cave Diving This four day workshop brought together cave divers, scientists, regulators, private landowners, and researchers to explore cooperative opportunities for the cave diving and scientific communities in the management and protection of our karst environment. Finally, we published two educational posters on Florida's Sinkholes and on Florida's First Magnitude Springsheds in 2004. Our Hydrogeology and Geological Investigations staff have also been active cooperators with the Department of Community Affairs, assisting as Technical Advisory Committee members on their "Model Springs Land Development Code" and in preparing various springshed and stream to sink map products. In response to this high level of activity and productivity, the FGS upgraded the Hydrogeology Program to Section status in 2004. Dr. Jon Arthur oversees this section as the Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology. At the beginning of 2003, the Oil and Gas Section moved out of the Gunter Building into its new offices at the DEP Warehouse facility on Commonwealth Boulevard in Tallahassee. About one year later, our Geologic Data Acquisition Program also relocated to the Warehouse. This now puts the core / auger drilling operations staff co-located with our Geology Sample Repository. We built a 1,785 square foot drilling operations "barn" to house some of our equipment on location. Additional core storage space adjacent to the existing geologic sample library was made available to us by DEP. We have begun installing a mobile aisle shelving system in this facility. We have also moved to and expanded several labs at the Warehouse facility. We now operate our Scanning Electron Microscope / Microprobe Lab and our Environmental Geochemistry Lab at the Warehouse site. A visiting scientist lab is available for sample lay-out and description. A computer network station has been installed to allow access to our well log database and data entry on-site. Our "minerals resource review" program to support the DEP Division of State Lands has continued to grow in regards to demands on our time. In response to several conservation lands programs, there are continuing requests for mineral resource potential comments on numerous land parcels the state is considering for acquisition, acquiring a conservation easement, or selling. Our Coastal Research Program continues with its cooperative partnership with the U. S. Minerals Management Service to assess the sand resources offshore of the northeastern coast of Florida for potential beach renourishment use. The Oil and Gas Section, responding to questions about the potential for groundwater contamination from old, abandoned oil wells, designed a project to re-enter a FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 2

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selected subset of old, plugged wells, to assess their status and plug them according to modern standards. This pilot program is intended to last five years, at which point a project review will occur to determine if further action is warranted. The section also has been working tirelessly on their Oil and Gas data management and upgrading the database. Much information is now available on the web and the full new capabilities should allow tracking of regulatory deadlines, bonding, descriptive well data, and fluid production. The six chapters of Administrative Rules have undergone a revision and modern upgrade. Public workshops have been held and we anticipate proposing full rule revisions in early 2005. In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the Leon County School System to provide job training for area high schools students with special needs. Our program provided various computer filing / scanning job experiences for the students. This continuing project is helping the FGS work on the backlog of well log data in need of digital entry. Other outreach activities included our annual open-house each Earth Science Week, our participation at the Florida Capitol during Earth Day, Mining Day, and Oceans Day. We cooperated with teachers from the Florida Sheriff's Youth Ranch to provide them with our earth science educational materials and a brief on Florida Geology. Staff also assisted in other interagency projects during 2003, including providing articles and assisting the Tallahassee Museum of History and Natural Science, cooperating with the DEP Office of Environmental Education in the Community Classroom after school program, participating in the Marion County Spring Festival, assisting the Department of Health with one of their workshops, and leading a fieldtrip for the National Ground Water Association. The Florida STATEMAP component of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program continues its past successes. We have completed the Marianna 1:100,000 scale Quadrangle and began fieldwork on the Gainesville, 1:100,000 scale quadrangle. Staff held a one week lower Suwannee River expedition using a rented houseboat as their field staging facility. Staff from the Florida Museum of Natural History and Okaloosa-Walton Community College joined our staff for the field work. In the summer of 2004, the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission, working with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Navy, requested our assistance to investigate the sea floor with our sonar survey equipment. The site, about 36 kilometers southeast of Pensacola, is under consideration for sinking the USS Oriskany, a World War II aircraft carrier, for use as the worlds largest intentionally sunk, artificial reef. In the fall of 2004, we organized and held a meeting titled Sinkhole Summit II This was in response to legislation requesting the FSU College of Business and the Department of Risk Management and Insurance to recommend "uniform standards" to evaluate sinkhole claims. The FGS facilitated the discussion and compiled the results for the university. This is but a small fraction of the activities and projects the staff of the Florida Geological Survey has been involved in these last two years. Details on these and many other projects can be found on the following pages. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 3

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 4 State Geologist Elias Sellards (left) poses with Roland Harper (middle) and Herman Gunter (right) on the steps of one of the FGSÂ’s early offices (circa 1908 1920). The building was a former wood and coal-storage structure situated just south of the Capitol Building in Tallahassee (anonymous photo).

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The Florida Geological Survey's (FGS) Main Office is located on the campus of the Florida State University (FSU) in the Herman W. Gunter Building, adjacent to the university's Department of Geological Sciences. The FGS's Oil and Gas Section and Geological Data Acquisition Program are co-located in office space in the Department of Environmental Protection's (DEP) Warehouse on Commonwealth Boulevard. The FGS has a staff of 65 40 full-time, permanent and 25 part-time OPS employees. Research facilities at the FGS include a geological research library, sample repositories, and laboratories. The library contains an extensive collection of state and federal publications, periodicals, and references. The sample repositories hold cores and well cutting samples from more than 18,585 wells (both onshore and offshore), as well as samples from approximately 5,400 outcrops. The laboratory facilities at the Gunter Building include a permeability lab equipped with 44 falling-head permeameters; a sedimentology lab containing diamond-blade rock-saws, drill press corer, and core saw for core processing, sieve shakers, ovens, and balances; sample preparation equipment for clay mineralogy, organic/carbonate content and micro/nannofossil studies; and an alpha spectrometer. A Hydrogeochemistry Lab and scanning electron microscope (SEM) laboratory have been set up at the Warehouse. New equipment includes an alpha spectrometer and a radio-isotope fume hood, a Mega Pure 3A Water Still, and a Jeol JXA-840A SEM and microprobe. Field equipment includes a trailermounted auger rig, a truck-mounted Failing 1500 drill rig for continuous coring, a truck-mounted Mobile Drill and CME auger/core rigs with wire-line coring capability, various pickup trucks and four-wheel drive vehicles, two research vessels and six smaller boats used for inland and marine research projects. In addition, the FGS has a side scan sonar, a geopulse subsurface acoustic profiler, a vibracore sediment collection system, a jet probe and a number of water chemistry data loggers, GPS units and sediment core and grab sampling devices. The FGS acquired its "GeoLab" in 1998. The GeoLab is an aluminum step-van that has been outfitted for mobile field and simple laboratory work and can also be used for educational demonstrations at environmental fairs and schools. The FGS also has cooperative agreements with FSU's Department of Geological Sciences to share an x-ray diffractometer, an x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an atomic absorption spectrometer. FGS CREATES THE HYDRODGEOLOGY SECTION In June 2004, in recognition of the increasingly important role of hydrogeology research within the mission of the FGS and DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reorganized to become a formal Section within BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 5 INTRODUCTION FGS Main Office, Gunter Building, FSU Campus, Tallahassee, FL (photo by Tom Scott).

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the FGS. The new Hydrogeology Section expands hydrogeologic research to further the protection and management of Florida's aquifers, ground-water resources and springsheds. The Section is comprised of Professional Geologists, a Senior Scientist, and several OPS research staff who continue to conduct in-house research, and administer hydrogeological research through outsourcing. Knowledge gained through this research has been applied to rule making, regulatory, and policy decisions that facilitate efficient, science-based protection of the quantity and quality of Florida's water resources. FGS ACQUIRES ADDITIONAL OFFICE SPACE In the summer of 2003, the Geological Data Acquisition Program staff moved to offices in the Warehouse and Core Storage Facility located behind the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex, across the street from the FDEP Douglas Building located just off of Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee. THIS BIENNIAL REPORT Biennial reports have been historically compiled by the FGS to not only chronicle its legacy but to inform the public as to its activities. They also serve to insure accountability of FGS activities to Florida government and the pubic pursuant to FGS mission goals prescribed by Chapter 377, Florida Statutes. Following this introduction, eleven sections provide information about our program, in the following order. Descriptions of the general organization of the FGS are provided in FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. Work conducted by the FGS either on its own or in conjunction with other agencies in the past two calendar years is chronicled in the write ups for the four individual FGS Sections. The four sections are the: ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT, GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, HYDROGEOLOGY and OIL AND GAS Next, the SPECIAL PROJECTS section describes those projects which were not anticipated, but were important enough to garner special attention. FGS scientists strive to maintain stateof-the-art status regarding field support and measurement and laboratory analytical equipment; new additions during the biennial period are described in EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION Florida Statute 377.075 is quite specific about the role of the FGS; specific to its mandate is the dissemination of geologic information forthcoming from investigation in published products. These are listed and abstracted in the PUBLICATIONS section. In addition to written, published products, the FGS is involved in in-house and outside activities described in the PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES section. The PERSONNEL INFORMATION section chronicles personnel changes during the past two-year period, and provides short biographies of FGS personnel. Accolades received by our staff or the Survey are described in the AWARDS section. Finally, a short, one-page tabulated representation of FGS funding is provided in the FGS BUDGET SUMMARY FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 6

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OFFICE OF THE STATE GEOLOGIST The State Geologist carries a three-fold responsibility: Chief of the Survey State Geologist and Administrator of Oil and Gas exploration and production operations throughout the State. The Chief exercises the general program leadership, direction, and management authority in planning, scheduling and executing the programs of the Survey. As State Geologist he is the point of contact representing the State of Florida on geoscience inquiries from elected and appointed officials, government agencies, industry, mining companies, oil and gas companies, geologic and hydrogeologic consultants, environmental consultants, academia, land and mineral owners, educators, students, and the public. The responsibilities of the State Geologist and the duties of the Florida Geological Survey have been defined by the Florida Legislature and are generally listed in Section 377.075, Florida Statutes With this guidance and policy input from the Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS has a broad mission. It is described as follows: The mission of the FGS is two fold: First: to collect, interpret, disseminate, store and maintain geologic and earth science data, thereby contributing to the responsible use and understanding of Florida's natural resources; and Second: to conserve the State of Florida's oil and gas resources and minimize environmental impacts from exploration and production operations through regulatory oversight using permits and inspections. The FGS is presently organized into four sections which are administered by the State Geologist as Chief of the Survey. This organizational structure is shown in the organizational chart on the following page. The sections include: the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, the Geological Investigations Section, the Hydrogeology Section, and the Oil and Gas Section. Each of these sections is managed by a Section Administrator. In addition to the overall administration of the FGS, the primary responsibilities of the State Geologist include the historical functions of acting as the chief geoscientist for the State in various capacities and needs, and overseeing the overall production and quality of the geological research produced by the staff. The State Geologist is also ultimately responsible for implementing the State's oil and gas exploration and production regulations. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 7 FGS ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Dr. Walter “Walt” Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief, Florida Geological Survey (photo by Harley Means).

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 8

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ADMINISTRATIVE AND GEOLOGICAL DATA MANAGEMENT SECTIONThe Survey's Administrative and Geological Data Management Section includes the Administrative Secretary to the State Geologist, administrative support staff, the building custodian, the survey librarian, the FGS network administrator, the geological mapping and analysis staff, and the environmental geology and educational outreach staff. This section is responsible for administration (budget, department and interagency liaison, etc.) and personnel management (travel, leave, benefits, etc.), Gunter Building maintenance and repair, computer system management and network administration, web design, development and maintenance, and contract and grant tracking. This group's functions also include graphics design, geological mapping and map interpretation through GIS and CAD analysis, geological research library services, publication production and distribution, geological education and public outreach, and environmental geology research. COMPUTER SYSTEMS PROGRAM Geographic Information Systems The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) capability of the FGS consists of a full-time GIS Analyst, a CAD analyst, a general support group who contribute to specific projects, three OPS technicians specifically working on the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Program (FAVA) Hydrogeology project, and the support of BIS/GIS division. Tasks undertaken by GIS include: assistance in map production, development of GIS applications, imagery manipulation support, and technical support to all users of GIS software (ArcView 3.2a, ArcGIS 8.x, ESRI Extensions, ERDAS Imagine and Surfer.) Other tasks include software evaluation, development and maintenance of GIS data on the FGS and DEP Intranet, installation and maintenance of GIS software, scanning, digitizing, map series production and maintenance, image processing, interactive web-based map development and maintenance and development of GIS databases and tools through programming languages such as Avenue and Visual Basic. Major accomplishments for projects during the time period of January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004 include: revision of Florida Oil and Gas maps, completion of the FGS/MMS coastal sand search program years 1 and 2, revision of the FGS GIS data library directory, revision of Wakulla County karst coverage mapping project, addition of quarter/quarter/quarter sections to PLSS boundary data layer, assisted with the development of the State of Florida Geologic Map at 1:100,000 scale program and continued data conversion and program transition to the ArcGIS 8.x format. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 9 Jacqueline “Jackie” M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist, Administrator of the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section ( photo by Harley Means).

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In support of the FAVA program, major accomplishments include: development and revision of a statewide 15m digital elevation model at state level, development of closed topographic depressions (CTD's) coverage, refinement of soil permeability and drainage grid, development of effective karst features coverage for the Floridan Aquifer System, and development of aquifer thickness layers for FAVA. For details on other FAVA maps, see page 38. Web Technologies The web capabilities of the FGS consist of a full-time webmaster, who maintains, enhances and adds to the FGS Internet and Intranet web sites. All content on both sites are supplied to the webmaster by full-time and OPS employees of the FGS. These web sites are part of the larger DEP website, which is made up of all websites maintained by the Department's Bureaus and Divisions. The goal of the FGS Internet is to present available geological information to the citizens of the State of Florida. The goal of the FGS Intranet is to supply forms, graphics, library resources and helpful information to FGS and DEP employees. Tasks undertaken by the webmaster include: preparation of information into web pages for the Internet and Intranet in compliance with ADA section 508 requirements and DEP web standards, development of websites presenting geologic information for CD's and DVD's, burning and label printing of CD's and DVD's intended for mass distribution, graphics for websites, poster presentations and development of CD/DVD labels. Major accomplishments during the time period of January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2004 include: redesign of the Internet and Intranet to comply with DEP's new look and feel and ADA section 508 compliancy requirements. New additions to the Internet include: Florida Rocks and Minerals a subweb with pictures and description of Florida's most common rocks and minerals, an Oil and Gas subweb to supply information to the Oil and Gas industry, Springs of Florida FGS Bulletin 66, education web page to direct teachers and students to educational material provided by the FGS and a page for sinkhole frequently asked questions. Products created for CD's and DVD's include: A Geologic Investigation of the Offshore Area Along Florida's Northeast Coast Year 1 and Year 2 Annual Reports Information Technologies The Information Technologies (IT) capabilities of the FGS include a full-time Systems Programmer and an OPS automation specialist who are supplemented by the Bureau of Information Systems (BIS). Most computer hardware and software issues are addressed by the systems programmer and automation specialist. FGS primarily uses Microsoft operating systems in conjunction with office utilities from Microsoft. Tasks undertaken by IT include: installation of newly acquired software, maintenance and upgrading of all FGS computer hardware systems including installation of new devices, maintenance of networked computer systems capabilities and peripheral devices, equipment storage and support for FGS network servers maintained on-site. Major accomplishments for the IT section from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2004 include: All computer systems were protected from virus attacks by McAfee Enterprise virus scan and were updated automatically by the ePo agent in cooperation with BIS. Operating systems in use by the FGS were setup to randomly receive new updates that have been tested by BIS and corresponding IT technical representatives by the Software Update Service server. All data generated by the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 10

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FGS is now backed up in house on a Certance DAT 72 Autoloader. Backup strategies and contingency plans have been implemented in compliance with BIS backup standards and retention schedules. PUBLIC EDUCATION PROGRAM As an ongoing public education and outreach effort, FGS staff members give talks on Florida geology to local civic groups, clubs and school classes throughout the year. Resources permitting, we also provide booths and displays at various local festivals and celebrations such as Earth Day. In 2003 and 2004, the FGS hosted day-long open houses at its main office during Earth Science Week of each year. Earth Science Week 2003 October 12-18, 2003 was Earth Science Week (ESW), a national event initiated and sponsored by the American Geological Institute (AGI) to raise public awareness of the earth sciences and their role in our daily lives. The theme for the 2003 event was "Eyes on Planet Earth: Monitoring our Changing World." In celebration of ESW the FGS hosted its annual Open-House on Wednesday, October 15 at the Gunter Building on the campus of Florida State University. The local home schooling community was invited as well as the general public. The Open-House featured building tours and various interactive activities. FGS staff members also gave talks in local middle schools on earth science topics during ESW. Earth Science Week 2004 On October 13, 2004 the Florida Geological Survey held its annual Open House celebrating Earth Science Week at its main facility, the Gunter Building, on the campus of Florida State University. We especially enjoyed the attendance of families from our local home schooling community. The AGI theme for the 2004 event was "Living on a Restless Earth". Interactive activities appropriate for various age groups were planned. Tours of our facility at the Gunter Building were run throughout the day. For the first time this year, the Department of Environmental Protection's Office of Environmental Education participated with Greg Ira and Jenny Dambek in presenting an interactive ground-water activity. Faith Eidse represented BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 11 Walt Schmidt leading a tour of the FGS building during Earth Science Week, 2004 (photo by Frank Rupert).

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Northwest Florida Water Management District, demonstrating various ways by which water is polluted, using their Enviroscape Model. This year, we planned special activities to assist Webelos Scouts in earning their Geology Badges. We extended Open House hours from 6:30 to 8:30 pm so that Scouts who usually meet in the evening could take advantage of Open House activities. Approximately 50 scouts, parents, and leaders joined us for building tours, movies of volcanic eruptions, hands-on identification of volcanic rocks and an introduction to common Florida rocks and minerals. RESEARCH LIBRARY The Research library is an integral part of the Survey's research and regulatory programs. In support of the information needs of staff, students, and researchers from the public sector, the library staff provides access to basic research materials including books, maps, state and federal documents, photographs and periodicals. Materials continue to be collected and purchased on various aspects of geology, including mining and mineral resources, environmental geology, hydrogeology and other related topics. The library has one of the largest and oldest geologic map collections in the state of Florida. Library Services The library is used by the general public, students, other government agencies, and private consulting companies. While circulation is restricted to Survey staff, and the faculty of the Florida State University, Department of Geological Sciences, the library is open to the general public for research. In addition, library materials are available to libraries throughout the world via the Interlibrary Loan system. The library participates in a nationwide Interlibrary Loan network through which the staff has access to other public, special and academic collections. The library cooperates with other libraries through various networking groups on the local, state, and national level. The librarian participates in the activities of the Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN), the Florida Library Network (FLIN), The North Florida Library Association (NFLA), and various other library and geoscience cooperatives. The library has a new automation system and is currently beginning the long project of barcoding all of the holdings to enable more accurate records for circulation and inventory. An assessment of all of the collections is in progress to determine it's value and usefulness to the mission of the survey. Many documents from non-coastal plain states have been returned to those states, or donated to libraries wishing to increase their holdings in geological materials. Library Computer Services The Research Library currently has access to the GEOREF database, as well as FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 12 Florida Geological Survey Library (photo by Jim Balsillie).

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more than 25 other major databases, through the State Library. Many of these databases are full-text, expanding our access to periodical literature. Publications Distribution The library is responsible for providing detailed information on the survey's nearly 745 published documents and reports, and oversees the distribution of all documents currently in print. During 2003-2004 this included more than 1,000 requests for a total of approximately 7,000 documents. In addition to individual requests, publications are distributed to more than 130 libraries, throughout Florida, the U.S. and around the world, which maintain depository collections of Florida Geological Survey publications. FGS Publications are requested by students, environmental consultants, government agencies, libraries, schools, geologists studying for professional licensure, and the general public. The List of Publications is also now available online, with many of the Survey's publications available in full text at no charge. Thanks go to the Publication of Archival Library and Museum Materials (PALMM) of the libraries of the State University System's Division of Colleges and Universities, for continuing to scan in many of our publications. This allows the public fast and free access to many titles. The online version of the List of Publications is: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/publications/index.htm SPECIAL PROJECTS Leon County School System Leon Advocacy and Resource Center Cooperative Job Training Program In 2003, the FGS teamed up with the Leon County School System to provide job training for local area high schools students with special needs. The FGS program provides various computer filing / scanning job experiences for the students. This continuing project is helping the FGS digitize its extensive collection of older, hard-copy lithologic well logs. National Geologic Map Database During 2003-2004, the Florida Geological Survey continued inputting FGS published geologic maps into the National Geologic Map Database. The National Geologic Map Database is a project sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Geologic Mapping Program in cooperation with the Association of American State Geologists. The goal of the project is to establish a database of all national and state produced geologic maps, both paper and digital, and to provide keyword and geographic searching capabilities for the database. All published maps of the Florida Geological Survey are included in the database on an annual basis. The National Geologic Map Database may be accessed at: http://ngmdb.usgs.gov/. St. Johns River Water Management District Cooperative Program In 1993, a cooperative program was developed between the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) and the FGS. In this program, samples obtained from wells drilled as part of the District Observation Well Network (DOWN) are shipped to the FGS for preparation, description, and entry into an electronic database. SJRWMD funds a student research assistant to describe samples. The work is beneficial to both the District and the FGS. The FGS is able to augment its lithologic coverage of the counties covered by the SJRWMD. SJRWMD obtains descriptions of samples from its observation wells providing it with site specific data vital in understanding local and regional hydrogeologic conditions. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 13

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GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION The Geological Investigations Section is comprised of the Coastal Research Program, the Geologic Data Acquisition Program, the Mineral Resources Program, the Springs Initiative Program (created in 2001), Geologic Mapping Program (National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Act “STATEMAP”) and the Water Management District Cooperative Program. In 2004, the Hydrogeology Program was elevated to section status and removed from the Geological Investigations Section. The Geological Investigations Section conducts research projects covering a wide range of topics with section scientists being involved in many basic and applied research projects. The projects are designed to produce and interpret geological data to aid in growth planning, resource management and a better understanding of earth systems. Under the auspices of the Governor's Florida Springs Initiative, the 2001 Florida Legislature authorized the inclusion of the Florida Spring's Initiative in the Department of Environmental Protection's budget. The FGS was tasked with creating an inventory of the State's more than 700 springs. The FGS began an investigation of the springs which included land uses around the springs and spring-water quality. In 2003-04, the Survey published FGS Bulletin 66 Springs of Florida by T. M. Scott, G. H. Means, R. P. Meegan, R. C. Means, S. B. Upchurch, R. E. Copeland, J. Jones, T. Roberts and A. Willet. Included in Bulletin 66 are chemical analyses of the spring water for 126 springs and maps and descriptions of more than 460 springs. A CD accompanies the printed version and contains all the published information plus the descriptions and photographs of more than 350 springs that were not sampled. The entire volume is also available on the FGS website. The Florida Springs Initiative began funding an investigation of swallets in 2004. Swallets, those sinkholes that capture water from surface streams and rivers, provide direct avenues of recharge to the Floridan Aquifer System and, therefore, are highly susceptible to pollution. FGS teams are locating and describing swallets in order to provide the first comprehensive listing of the features and their distribution. Ongoing cooperative research with the State's water management districts and the FGS Hydrogeology Section is delineating hydrostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic units. The FGS is studying potential beach renourishment sands offshore from the state's northeast coast in cooperation with the U.S. Minerals Management Service. Other investigations include mapping funded through the STATEMAP program in the eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000 scale quadrangle (2003), the western portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle (2004), and ongoing mapping for 2004-05 in the eastern portion of the Gainesville 1:100,000 scale quadrangle, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 14 Dr. Tom Scott, Assistant State Geologist for Geological Investigations (photo by Harley Means).

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research on the Citronelle Formation in the western Florida panhandle and cooperation with State archeologists on the investigation of Native American sites. Work continues on the development of a new state geomorphic map which will delineate landform distribution throughout the state and aid in understanding the processes that developed the state's land surface. The section also consults with other government agencies because the knowledge of regional and local geology of a given area is fundamental in the evaluation of numerous environmental problems. The Geological Investigations Section responds to inquiries regarding aquifer recharge and contamination, geologic hazards, geologic mapping, Florida's geologic history, and problems related to community planning and development. The group prepares detailed lithologic logs for wells that are on file at the FGS. This information is added to the Survey's digital data base which currently contains logs for more than 5,400 wells. This data base and the programs designed to manipulate it are currently used by other governmental agencies and a number of private firms. COASTAL RESEARCH PROGRAM The Coastal Research Program (CRP) is committed to continuing fundamental research to improve our understanding of Florida's coastal ecosystems and environmental processes. This research provides information that is essential for planning, ecosystem management, conservation, and protection of Florida's valuable coastal and underwater resources. Ongoing Coastal Projects Sedimentological Research A comprehensive comparative study was initiated in 2002 and was published in 2003. In this study, a new type of sieve shaker, the British-designed Meinzer II, was compared to the long-used "industry standard" Rotapshaker. Twenty sandsized sediment sample pair tests were conducted using four different sieving protocols to determine if Meinzer shakers duplicate results from Rotap shakers. It was found, based on qualitative visual assessments of sample pair cumulative probability distributions and on quantitative statistical analyses, that Rotap and Meinzer shakers result in essentially identical outcomes. GRANPLOT, an analytic granulmetry tools software application, was installed on the FGS web site in 2002 and has been viewed over 3,300 times. In addition, various communiqus have been received by the authors. B. A. Cheadle, President of DarkMatter Energy Consulting Corporation, Calgary, Alberta, Canada wrote "Â… with some interest as I have often struggled with devising an appropriate manner to trick EXCEL into faking a probit scale for probability plots". M. J. Johnsson, a coastal geologist with the California Coastal Commission, congratulated the effort by stating "Â… I am impressed with the wonderful job you have done GRANPLOTcertainly far exceeds my humble spreadsheets in utility and design." Professor Jorge Ledesma-Vaczques, Chairman of the Geology Department, Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Mexico, teaches undergrad and graduate sedimentology and was "Â… very much interested in getting a copy of GRANPLOT Â…" for use by his students. Sedimentation Elevation Table Project Florida Gulf Coast marshes along the Big Bend are experiencing sea-level rise and an insufficient sediment supply to maintain marsh surface elevation. Local mean sea level is rising at an approximate rate of 1.5 to 2.4 millimeters (mm) per year and the spring-fed or controlled (dammed) rivers of the Florida Gulf Coast do not proBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 15

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vide sufficient sediments to maintain longterm health of the marshes. Marsh health is determined by several factors; sediment supply, sea-level rise, storm events, erosion rate of waves and marsh subsidence. Over the last 12 years the Florida Geological Survey's Coastal Research Program, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, installed Sediment Elevation Tables (SET) at a number of sites along the Florida Gulf Coast (St. Joe Bay, Apalachicola River, Ochlockonee River, St. Marks River, Aucilla River, Rocky Creek, Cedar Key area and Waccasassa River area) to measure elevation changes of the marsh surface. SET measurements were combined with feldspar marker horizon measurements to quantify changes in marsh topography. The sediment supply for the majority of these marshes is not sufficient to keep pace with sea level rise, resulting in a marsh surface elevation loss of -0.3 to -15.0 mm/year. As a result, this data suggests that the Big Bend coastal areas are at risk, a finding that points out the dynamic and mobile nature of coastal environments. The Coastal Program continued monitoring SET sites during the 2003-2004 period, evaluating the response of marshes to sea level rise. A report of this data with interpretations will be issued as an interactive report (CD) in 2006. Cooperative Coastal Projects Offshore Sand Investigation In 2002, the Florida Geological Survey and the U.S. Minerals Management Service (MMS) entered into a second multiyear cooperative agreement with the specific goal of locating and characterizing both the aerial extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. The area of investigation in Year 1 (2003) comprised shallow sediments in federal waters off Nassau and Duval Counties, from three to approximately ten miles offshore, and the sediments on the beaches immediately adjacent to that area. During 2003, over 230 miles of sub-bottom profile data were collected off Nassau and Duval Counties and interpreted to determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition of beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach sampling locations were identified In Nassau and Duval Counties and 106 surface samples collected. A total of 18 offshore seabed grab samples were collected. A total of 10 offshore seabed grab sample locations were visited with grab samples being collected from nine locations. Three push cores were collected on the ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions were made and grain size distributions were determined for all beach and offshore FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 16 Jim Ladner conducts cryogenic coring at a SET site (photo by Dan Phelps).

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seabed grab samples and push cores. A preliminary seismic stratigraphic analysis of sub-bottom profiler data collected was completed. As a result of the seismic stratigraphic analysis conducted, several features indicative of high potential for the occurrence of beach restoration quality sand in federal waters off Duval County were identified. This analysis was discussed with representatives of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District Office and a copy of the preliminary work map delineating those features was provided to them. They then selected 45 locations in the study area of particular interest for vibracoring in 2004. The results of the tasks completed in 2003 for this investigation are detailed in A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 1 Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior Minerals Management Service (Phelps et al., 2003). This report will be available on CD, via the MMS web site or from the FGS. In 2004, the CRP continued its second multiyear program of offshore investigations in cooperation with the Minerals Management Service. Data collection in Year 2 of this study concentrated primarily on the areas offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties as well as the northern half of St. Johns County from three to approximately ten miles offshore and the sediments on the beaches immediately adjacent to that area. During Year 2, over 190 miles of seismic data were collected and interpreted to determine locations thought to be favorable for the deposition of beach-quality sand A total of 63 beach sampling locations in St. Johns and Flagler Counties were identified and 127 points sampled. Samples collected from the beaches of St. Johns County were analyzed and the results included in the Year 2 Report. Samples collected from the beaches of Flagler County will be included in the Year 3 Report. A total of 52 vibracores were collected offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties. Of that total, 11 vibracores were collected by the FGS and 41 were colBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 17 The 50Â’ RV Geoquest (photo by Dan Phelps).

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lected by the FGS's subcontractor Athena Technologies Inc. offshore of southern Duval County. The results of the tasks completed in Year 2 of this investigation are detailed in A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area along Florida's Northeast Coast, Year 2 Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior Minerals Management Service (Phelps et al., 2004). This report will be available on DVD via the MMS web site or from the FGS. Joint Coastal Research During 2003, discussions were conducted between the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Coastal Systems Station, the Coastal Operations Institute and the FGS Coastal Research Program resulting in a new memorandum of agreement between these three groups in July, 2003. The purpose of this agreement provides a mechanism to develop a working relationship between the three participating organizations and was established to facilitate cooperative efforts, and to leverage mutual expertise in the broad areas of coastal science, engineering and technology. Investigations involving common needs of the state and federal agencies will be carried out in Florida's near-shore and OCS waters. Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium A memorandum of agreement of State Geologists, representing the five states bordering the Gulf of Mexico, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, forms the Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium. This association was formed to provide for joint cooperation in investigations and scientific exchanges concerning earth sciences (including geology, geochemistry, geochronology, geophysical, and geotechnical studies) on subjects of mutual interest. This cooperation strives to advance the understanding of the Gulf of Mexico onshore and offshore and promote cooperation on regional studies. An improved understanding of the geologic processes impacting the Gulf of Mexico is essential for the formulation of wise decisions regarding the use and preservation of the region's natural resources. In 2003, the consortium met to develop a framework of identified needs and areas of cooperation for future research in the Gulf of Mexico. These were formalized in a report that was given to the USGS and congressional staff for potential funding. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 18 Jim Balsillie and Jim Ladner procure a vibracore in the Atlantic Ocean (photo by Dan Phelps).

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FGS and Florida Marine Research Institute Scallop Research Project In 2004, the FGS CRP and the Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) conducted an investigation of the offshore area off Port Canaveral using an established control-grid to monitor the health of scallops and associated biota (Calico Project). The established research grid was located in an area 15 to 30 miles offshore in water depths ranging from 50 to 250 feet. Utilizing the 50' FGS RV GeoQuest 60 trawl samples were collected. In order to accomplish this task, it was required that the RVGeoQuest be fitted with a stern-mounted fastretrieval winch, which was built and installed by Wade Stringer, the ship's captain. The cruise was conducted on November 20 24, 2004. Scallop collection was accomplished using a mesh-bag attached to a tethered trawl frame and dragged on the ocean bottom a speed of one to four knots. Upon retrieval, the contents were sorted and weighed and the scallop tissue sampled. FGS personnel included Wade Stringer and James H. Balsillie. FMRI personnel for this Calico Project included Steve Geiger (Assoc. Research Scientist, Principal Investigator for the Calico Project), Janessa Cobb (research staff), Carla Beals (research staff), Bill Arnold (fisheries supervisor), and Brett Pittinger (research staff). Resistivity Survey Project In the spring of 2003, staff from the FGS Coastal Research Program and the FGS Hydrogeology Section conducted a resistivity survey of eleven coastal and estuarine areas around Florida. Using two boats and a 400-feet-long towed cable, resistivity data were recorded in the surveyed water bodies up to 90 feet deep. The method measures differences in conductivity between saltwater and freshwater and between polluted water and clean water. Physical parameters such as temperature, pH, and salinity were concurrently measured. In some locations a side-scan sonar record of bottom features was also obtained. The acquired data showed that the method is a feasible and economical initial step in locating areas of ground-water discharge that can be “ground truthed” at a later date. The survey suggests that remote-sensing techniques such as thermography, satellite imaging and resistivity may be practical approaches to estimating ground-water contribution over large areas of surface water. Quantification of ground-water contribution as base flow to surface water is essential to regulatory programs such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) and others. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 19 Dan Phelps examining Volusia County beach erosion (photo by Jim Ladner).

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GEOLOGIC DATA ACQUISITION PROGRAM The FGS maintains an active scientific drilling program. Very low topographic relief characterizes the state and data obtained from cores is essential to the understanding of subsurface stratigraphy, hydrogeology and hydrology. During 2003-2004, the FGS operated three rigs; a Failing 1500, a Mobile Drill B31 and a CME 75. The Failing 1500 was taken out of service in 2004 and the full time crew (a licensed driller and an assistant), is now operating the CME 75, pending delivery of a new Schramm T450M11A drill rig. The Mobile Drill and CME auger/core rigs have been outfitted for continuous coring in rock or unconsolidated sediments. These two rigs are utilized for shallow (about 230 feet) and intermediate (about 800 feet) depth coring. During 2003-2004, the FGS drilling program drilled 20 core holes in six counties in support of five different projects. Core holes ranged from 29.5 to 900 feet in depth for a total of 4592 feet cored. Monitor wells were constructed in 13 of these core holes in cooperation with Collier County, the Northwest Florida and Suwannee River Water Management Districts, Florida Department of Health and the Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Watershed Management. Ongoing Geologic Data Acquisition Projects Geologic Sample Collection The FGS maintains separate collections of well and surface outcrop samples. The well sample collection contains more than 18,585 sets of samples from exploration, water and oil wells. Most wells are represented by sets of drill cuttings. Approximately 1100 wells are represented by continuous core or core samples (a total of approximately 200,500 feet). The FGS, USGS, Water Management Districts and geologic consultants drill new core sample sets and add them to the archives. The sample repository facility occupies 12,090 square feet, with almost 30,000 cubic feet of shelf space, with room for expansion. A collection of approximately 5,750 outcrop samples and mineral specimens is maintained by the FGS at its headquarters in the Gunter Building. These samples are cross-indexed by formation, lithology, county and location. The collection is referred to as the "M-Series." The M-Series is particularly valuable given Florida's high population growth and development. Surface exposures of critical lithologies have become inaccessible with the continued proliferation of roadways, shopping centers, parking lots and high-rise housing. These sample archives and the data base they represent are utilized by geoloFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 20 FGS's new Schramm T450 drill rig installing monitoring wells for Southeast Sprayfield Investigation (photo by Ken Campbell).

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gists at the FGS, other state, federal and local governmental agencies, universities (both in and out of the state), geological consultants, well drillers, and the public. Cooperative Geologic Data Acquisition Projects Manatee Springs Investigation The Florida Department of Health, Bureau of Onsite Sewage Programs, contracted with the FGS to investigate four sites in and around Manatee Springs State Park. Ten shallow core holes and monitor wells were drilled in each of two campgrounds within the park during 2002 to investigate the operation of septic systems in a karst environment. The remaining two sites outside the park had a total of three cores drilled and monitor wells constructed during 2003. Core samples were examined, lithologic logs generated, formation picks made and the logs were entered into the FGS database. Hydraulic conductivity analyses were also conducted on selected samples from each core. Manatee Springs State Park, Suwannee River Water Management District and Florida State University were also cooperators. Upper Floridan Aquifer Assessment In this cooperative agreement, the FGS agreed to drill three 1000-foot holes at locations specified by Collier County to be established as monitoring wells for continuous aquifer monitoring and to obtain core to determine hydrostratigraphy. The second well was completed and the third well drilled during this period. Lithologic descriptions were generated for the FGS computer database. Collier County decided not to install monitor wells at these sites. This project is complete. Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation Three core holes were drilled intersecting the Main, Blue Water and Sewer tunnels (conduits). Drill sites were selected utilizing cave divers to set up radio beacons in the spring conduits and using a radio receiver at the surface to locate the surface location directly over the beacon. Four inch monitor wells were constructed with open completions in the spring conduits. The SRWMD has installed dedicated instrumentation thru these wells to collect conduit specific water quality and quantity information previously available only by sending a cave diving team to physically collect the water samples. Lithologic descriptions of the core samples were generated for the FGS wells database. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 21 Installation of Manatee Springs conduit monitoring wells (photo by David Paul).

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Oleno State Park and River Rise State Preserve Two core holes were drilled and monitor wells constructed in support of an ongoing investigation into the hydrogeology of the Oleno/River Rise area. These cores were also in support of the ongoing STATEMAPproject. Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer System Monitor Well Construction Three coreholes were drilled proximal to the water filled conduits comprising the Sullivan Sink portion of the Leon Sinks Cave System within the Apalachicola National Forest. Monitor wells were installed in each borehole with the screened/open hole portion of the wells corresponding to the same depths as the adjacent conduit. Lithologic logs were generated, formation picks made and hydraulic conductivity analysis made on selected samples of each core. City of Tallahassee Southeast Sprayfield Investigation The FGS is participating in an ongoing investigation to determine whether the sprayfield is contributing to the nutrient load being delivered to springs in the area (including Wakulla Spring). A series of wells will be drilled to monitor leachate from the sprayfield and serve as dye injection points for tracing studies. Each drill site will have two wells (125-feet and 250feet deep). The deep hole will be continous core. Drilling commenced in late 2004, and the first of two wells at the initial drilling site was completed by the end of that year. Cuttings from this 125-foot well were described and the lithologic log added to the FGS wells database. Northwest Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program During fiscal years 2003 and 2004, FGS staff described well cuttings and entered the data into the FGS wells database under a purchase order agreement with the Northwest Florida Water Management District. Kenji Butler and Harley Means worked on the project. In 2003, Kenji described 180 cuttings samples from NWFWMD. In fiscal year 2004, Kenji described another 902 samples. The data from this project helped to refine knowledge on the lithostratigraphy of Walton County and vicinity. South Florida Water Management District Cooperative Program South Florida is experiencing rapid population growth and water management practices must be predicated on an adequate understanding of the lithologic units which comprise aquifer systems. In 1992, the FGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) began a cooperative project in Collier, Lee, Glades, Martin, Okeechobee, Osceola, St. Lucie, Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Counties to provide geologic information in support of this need. Several OPS staff members described samples for the SFWMD during 2003-2004, resulting in an addition of over 60,000 feet of new descriptions from the district. MINERAL RESOURCES PROGRAM The Mineral Resource Program maintains communication with the mineral industry in Florida. The section publishes a biennial status report related to industry activity. The program is also responsible for providing mineral resource assessments on parcels of land that are targeted for purchase by the state. These assessments are completed on an as-needed basis. We are continuing to provide geologic input into the FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 22

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mineral lands transfer between the Federal Bureau of Land Management and the state of Florida. For the year 2003, the USGS ranked Florida fifth in the U.S. with an estimated non-fuel mineral production value of $2 billion. Following is a description of mineral resources. Phosphate Florida supplies approximatelyonequarter of the world's phosphate needs and three-quarters of US domestic needs. Nearly all of the phosphate rock that is mined in Florida is used to manufacture fertilizer which, in turn, is used for agricultural purposes. What is not used in the manufacture of fertilizer is typically used in a number of products including feed supplements, vitamins, soft drinks, and toothpaste. In recent years, fertilizer exports from Florida have exceeded a billion dollars in value, making it another one of Florida's leading export commodities. Crushed Stone Florida rose to second in the United States in the production of crushed stone (limestone and dolostone). Most of the stone that is mined in Florida is used for road construction. Limestone of high purity can undergo calcination (heating) and, together with other ingredients, be used to manufacture portland and masonry cement. Florida ranked seventh in the production of portland cement and is first in the production of masonry cement. Sand and Gravel Florida ranks in the top one-third of states in the country in sand and gravel used and produced. Sand and gravel is subdivided into construction and industrial sand, the bulk of which is, in Florida, construction grade. Heavy Minerals These are mineral grains with specific gravities generally in excess of 2.9. They include ilmenite, rutile, zircon, and leucoxene. Ilmenite and rutile are primary ingredients in the manufacture of titanium dioxide pigments, used in the manufacture of paint, varnish and lacquers, plastics, and paper. Florida is the top heavy mineral producer in the nation. Peat Peat isan organic-rich accumulation of decaying plant material. Although peat departs from the inorganic definition of a mineral, it is generally considered an economic mineral. Florida ranked first in the nation in the production of horticultural peat. Clay Fuller's earth, common clay, and kaolin are mined in a few locations in Florida. Fuller's earth is typically used as an absorbent material, while kaolin is used in the manufacture of paper and refractories. Common clay, mined in small quantities from various locations throughout the state, is used in the manufacture of brick, cement and lightweight aggregate. The state led the nation during 2003 in production of phosphate rock, titanium concentrates, and peat. Florida tied for first in masonry cement production, fourth in production of Fuller's earth, second in crushed stone, third in magnesium compounds, and seventh in Portland cement. Florida continues to produce substantial quantities of sand and gravel and ranks approximately 13th in sand and gravel used by producers in 2003. (The USGS prepares state ranking information every two years based upon confidential data returned to them from Florida mine operators.) BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 23

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Crude Oil and Natural Gas Oil and gas are produced from two primary oil field areas of Florida. Production began in 1943 in south Florida near Fort Myers, where the Cretaceous Sunniland Formation yields oil from depths between 11,000 and 13,000 feet. In northwestern Florida, near Jay, oil has been produced since 1970 from the Jurassic Smackover and Norphlet Formations at depths between 14,000 and 17,000 feet. Production peaked in the late 1970s at 48 million barrels of crude oil and 52 billion cubic feet of natural gas per year. For additional, detailed information see the section on the Oil and Gas Regulatory Program. SPRINGSPROGRAM The Florida Springs Initiative, established by Governor Bush in 2001, continued to receive legislative funding in 2003/04. Of the $2.5 million dollar per year allocation the Initiative received, the Florida Geological Survey was granted over $400,000 to continue research and monitoring of springs through several projects. Those projects include the revision of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida Quarterly Water Quality and Discharge Monitoring, and the Swallet Inventory Project. In 2003, work continued on the revision of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida Field teams visited and described 463 springs across the state almost doubling the number of springs listed in Bulletin 31, Revised (1977). Water quality and discharge measurements were also taken at 126 springs. This work culminated in the publication of a new volume, Bulletin 66, Springs of Florida which was released in September of 2004. This work was the third iteration in the Springs of Florida series and the most comprehensive to date. The volume includes color photos, maps, water quality tables and a CD in the back cover that contains the entire document in digital format. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 24 Jackson Blue Spring (Photo by Tom Scott).

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The entire volume is also available online at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/springs/bulletin66.htm Springs field teams continued to sample water quality and measure discharge of most of Florida's first magnitude springs and some selected second magnitude springs in 2003/04. The work is done on a quarterly basis starting in January. Samplers Ryan Means and Rebecca Meegan sampled springs as part of an ongoing project that will look at water quality and quantity trends through time. James McClean and Brie Coane began measuring the discharge at sampled springs in 2004. The water samples are analyzed by the FDEP lab and the data are uploaded into an internet accessible database. In July 2004, the Florida Geological Survey started the Swallet Inventory Project. Swallets are karst features that receive surface water. These features are important because they provide direct access to the aquifer system without any possibility for filtering out contaminants. Many swallets exist in spring basins and may be contributing contaminated water to springs. Ed Chelette and Diana ThurmanNowack were hired to conduct an inventory of major swallets in first magnitude spring basins. Their work includes inspecting topographic maps, aerial maps and other sources to locate potential swallets then visiting the site to record data about each swallet. The data are stored in a database which is used to create maps. These maps are useful to local land managers and planners who make decisions about land use in these vulnerable areas. STATEMAP PROGRAM The STATEMAP Program is a cooperative project funded jointly by the FGS and the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program under the State Geologic Mapping Component (STATEMAP). For each of the last ten years, staff members from the FGS have performed detailed geologic mapping of 1:100,000 scale USGS quadrangles and published the results as part of the FGS Open-File Map Series (OFMS). BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 25 T. Scott, R. Green and H. Means in Brooks Cave (photo by Sean Roberts). W. Evans and J. Halfhill identifying fossils in rock quarry (photo by Rick Green).

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In 2002-2003, FGS staff geologists Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave Paul, and Jake Halfhill, together with John Bryan, a professor with Okaloosa-Walton Community College, with the help of Roger Portell, a paleontologist from the Florida Museum of Natural History, produced a geologic map, a surficial sediments map, and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the Marianna 1:100,000 Quadrangle. These maps and cross sections are available through the FGS Open File Map Series ( OFMS No. 92 ). In 2003-2004, Richard Green, William L. Evans III, Dave Paul, John Bryan, and Roger Portell, produced a geologic map for the western portion of the 1:100,000 scale Gainesville Quadrangle. The project included a bedrock geologic map, a poster showing descriptions and key fossil for the units, and several geologic cross sections. These maps and cross sections are also available through the FGS Open File Map Series ( OFMS No. 93 ). As part of the field mapping for the 2003-2004 western portion of Gainesville 1:100,1000 Quadrangle, STATEMAP Project staff from the FGS STATEMAP, Coastal Research Program, and Hydrogeology Section, together with Jon Bryan, and Roger Portell completed an extensive geologic mapping expedition of the lower Suwannee River system within the study area. Utilizing two scout/support boats and a live-aboard vessel as a base of operations, expedition geologists mapped over 100 miles of the lower Suwannee River and approximately 10 miles of the Santa Fe River. This included the collection of numerous geologic samples and the rescue of a young Barred Owl that had been hopelessly snared in an abandoned catfish line along the banks of the Suwannee River. In September, 2004, the FGS began working on production of a bedrock geologic map, and several geologic cross sections for the eastern portion of the 1:100,000 scale Gainesville Quadrangle. Field mapping began in October, with a planned completion date of October, 2005. The maps and cross sections for this area will be available through the FGS Open File Map Series beginning in November of 2005. After input and an October workshop with the Florida Geological Mapping Advisory Committee, the USGS 1:100,000 Lake City Quadrangle in north-central Florida was selected for the next area to be mapped under the STATEMAP program. If the National STATEMAP Advisory Committee approves the project, mapping will begin in this area in November of 2005. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 26 Will EvansÂ’ rescue of a Barred Owl (photo by Rick Green). Live-aboard house boat utilized during the lower Suwannee River mapping project (photo by Rick Green).

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HYDROGEOLOGY SECTION In June 2004, in recognition of the increasingly important role of hydrogeology research within the mission of the FGS and DEP, the Hydrogeology Program was reorganized to become a formal Section within the FGS. The mission of the Hydrogeology Section is to disseminate hydrogeologic information, conduct hydrogeologic research, and administer such research through outsourcing in support of the need for unbiased, scientific knowledge of Florida’s water resources with specific emphasis on aquifer system dynamics and the sustainability of ground water and watersheds. This knowledge is applicable to rule making, regulatory, and policy decisions that facilitate efficient, science-based protection of the quantity and quality of Florida’s water resources – a critical component of Florida’s environment. Five interrelated program areas comprise the Section: 1) hydrogeochemistry, 2) physical aquifer characterization, 3) aquifer vulnerability assessment, 4) karst hydrogeology and 5) education. HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY PROGRAM Laboratory facilities and research within Hydrogeochemistry Program has significantly expanded in response to the increasing need for understanding water-rock interactions, especially with regard to aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) practices. Research on water quality changes during ASR continue at the field scale (i.e., cycle testing) and at the bench scale. The bench-scale studies focus on developing a predictive tool for potential water-rock reactions in the field. The following are hydrogeochemistry projects worked on during 2003-2004. Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Studies Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a cost-effective, viable solution to address drinking-water shortages in Florida. ASR wells are Class 5 injection wells regulated by the Underground Injection Control Program of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Division of Water Resource Management (FDEP-UIC). Twenty-six ASR facilities are in operation in Florida and more than 15 sites are under development. Some of the sites include reclaimed water ASR facilities, which are also cost-effective solutions to local water shortages. The FGS is working with the FDEP-UIC Program, the University of South Florida, SWFWMD, SFWMD and consulting firms to characterize water rock geochemistry during ASR at the bench scale and in the field. The Florida Aquifer Storage and Recovery Geochemical Study is an ongoing investigation by the FGS to examine waterrock geochemical interactions that take place during ASR cycle testing. Waterquality variations and aquifer system characteristics at five ASR facilities are the focus of the current study. In addition, geoBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 27 Dr. Jon Arthur, Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology ( photo by HarleyMeans).

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chemical and mineralogical data from cores taken within and outside the influence of an ASR storage zone are currently being collected. FGS research funded by the FDEP-UIC Program has confirmed that understanding water-rock geochemical interactions is important to the continued success of ASR in Florida. Results of this investigation indicate the following: 1) chemical (including isotopic) variability exists within ground water and carbonates of the Floridan Aquifer System, 2) this variability may result in site-specific geochemical processes affecting ASR wells and water quality, 3) in some localities, oxygen-rich surface waters, once injected into the Floridan Aquifer System causes the release of trace metals such as arsenic (As), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), uranium (U) and perhaps nickel (Ni) into the recharged (and eventually recovered) waters, 4) the design of recharge-storage-recovery cycle tests and the location of monitor wells are important aspects of understanding these geochemical processes. Of the nine cycle tests investigated to date, most recovered samples exceed the new maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As (10 ug/l). Research on the source of As in the Floridan Aquifer System matrix, results of cycle testing in different hydrogeological settings and the effects of repeated cycles tests continues. The FGS is also engaged in research as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan to conduct a geochemical reconnaissance of the Floridan Aquifer System carbonates in southern Florida. This investigation will focus on carbonate mineralogy, mineral chemistry, rock geochemistry (including a series of isotopic analyses), and bench-scale studies. Two types of bench scale studies are planned: sequential extraction, which identifies associations between minerals and metals, and leaching studies that assess solubility of metals during simulated cycle tests under high-dissolved oxygen conditions in the laboratory. Similar experiments are being conducted for consulting firms, who have recognized the expertise and the unique analytical capabilities of the FGS hydrogeochemistry lab (see below). Results of this research underscore the need for continued research on the geochemistry of ASR in Florida, especially in consideration of the 300+ ASR wells proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. There exists a need to improve our understanding of the water-rock dynamics in different hydrogeological settings in which ASR may be applied. Bench Scale Geochemical Assessment of Water-rock Interaction: Seminole County ASR The purpose of this study is to characterize bench-scale leachability of Floridan Aquifer System carbonate rocks in response to high concentrations of dissolve oxygen (DO), and identify sources of metals in these rocks. This study is divided into five main parts: 1) lithological descriptions of the ASR well rock samples of Avon Park Formation, Seminole County, 2) permeability study for both vertical and horizontal core samples of the ASR well, 3) geochemistry of the water samples (leachate) when exposed to aquifer rocks under high concentrations of dissolved oxygen, 4) geochemistry of the aquifer rocks to identify sources of metals in these rocks, and 5) sequential extraction of the storage-zone carbonates to identify mineral and non-mineral phases in the aquifer matrix that may be leachable under ASR conditions. Four hundred sixty five water samples, seven whole rock samples, and seven sequential leaching samples have been analyzed for 64 elements at a commercial laboratory using inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometer and optical emission spectrometer analytical techniques. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 28

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Water-quality changes during four bench-scale cycles have been evaluated. Time-series graphs allow comparison of water chemistry changes during periods of aeration and non-aeration for each cycle. The graphs of water quality changes during bench-scale cycles (see following figure) also clearly define concentrations and mobilization, depending on the initial concentrations of the source rock. Mobilization of As, U and other trace metals during four cycles for the Seminole ASR aquifer rocks are evident. Comparable results for leached As were evident in all four cycle tests. Leachates collected from cycle test 1 displayed greater As concentrations compared to the other three cycles. During this cycle, leachates collected during pump off showed an increase of As concentrations with time whereas during pump on, As peaked, then showed decrease in concentrations with time. On the other hand, other samples showed more than one As peak. From the whole-rock geochemistry data, trace metals such as As, Cr, Ni, V, Mo, U, Zn, Sb, S, Sc, Th, La, and Sm showed high concentrations. When compared to global averages for limestone, these selected trace metals far exceed global averages. The linear co-variations of As and Mo suggest that Mo is possibly associated in Asbearing phases such as arsenian pyrite. Other minerals or phases containing As in these carbonate rocks include organic material and Feand Mn-oxyhydroxide coatings. Arsenian pyrite is among the sources of As in the ASR aquifer rocks; however, sequential extraction studies suggest other phases (e.g., Fe-oxides and organics) may contain As and associate metals as well. Organic material may contain U, which is also thought to be associated with carbonate phases. Sequential extraction bench tests suggest that dominant As-bearing phases reside within the "organic plus insoluble residue" fraction of the matrix, which includes sulfide minerals (see Results of sequential extraction figure). The results also demonstrate that the "organic plus insoluble residue" fraction is strongly associated with Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and U whereas Zn is associated with carbonate minerals. Organic material is recognized as a source/sink for uranium. The sources of arsenic may also include organics in addition to pyrite. These extraction results also provide evidence for presence of As and other mobilized metals in "non-sulfide" fractions of the aquifer matrix (e.g., the carbonate and Fe-oxide fractions). In summary, four different chemical forms of As were extracted from the core samples. The extracted chemical forms are as follows: (1) soluble form, (2) acid soluble form (As mainly fixed in carbonates), (3) reducible form (As fixed in Fe and/or Mn-oxides), (4) insoluble form (As fixed mainly in sulfides and rarely in silicates). Arsenic occurs predominantly in the reducible form, organic form and insoluble form. Evaluation of Temporal Trends in the Ground-water Quality of Springs and Wells in Florida For decades, Floridians have been interested in the quality of spring and well water. By the early 1900s, only a handful of springs had been analyzed for their chemical constituents. However, the number of springs sampled and the chemical constituents analyzed increased through the first half of the 20th century. In 1947, the FGS published an inventory of springs in Florida, which included water quality analyses (Ferguson et al., 1947). The publication was revised in 1977 (Rosenau et al., 1977), and in 2004, a third publication regarding the springs of Florida, including water quality analyses, was published by the FGS (Scott et al., 2004). It should be noted that nitrate (nitrate BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 29

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 30 Water-quality changes during bench-scale cycles. Leachate Samples

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BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 31 Results of sequential extraction.

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plus nitrite as N, but referred to as nitrate) concentrations have been increasing in springs for the past several decades. Although this has been an impetus in recent years for increased spring monitoring, the state is interested in many chemicals, not only from springs, but also wells. Over the years, the water management districts and other organizations began sampling and analyzing the water quality from both springs and wells. Although today it can be said that many springs and wells have been sampled, only a few have been monitored consistently for an entire suite of chemicals for more than a decade. However, by the early 1990s, over 70 springs and about 50 wells were being monitored for water quality on a fairly regular basis. The purpose of this project is to statistically evaluate data collected from the springs and wells for the period 1991 2003. Before the evaluation can be conducted, the data needs to be obtained. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS collected the water-quality and flow data from these springs and wells. In addition, the data was compiled and prepared for statistical analyses. The anticipated completion date of the trends report is 2006. EDUCATIONPROGRAM The Education Program within the Hydrogeology Section emphasizes development of workshops, posters and curriculum materials that promote a better understanding of FloridaÂ’s complex hydrogeologic systems. Intended end-users vary by project and range from elected officials, secondary school students, private industry and the general public. Development of a Cave Glossary In April 2003, the FGS co-sponsored a workshop ( Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida ) in which the theme was to provide a forum to facilitate discussions among scientists, resource managers, cavers and the public regarding the significance of caves and springs in Florida. During the workshop, it was pointed out that caves: (1) contain archeological and cultural artifacts; (2) can act as laboratories for medical, biological, geological, hydrogeological, and other scientific studies; (3) are valuable tools for understanding ground-water flow and contamination transport in karst terrains; and (4) because of 1-3, can significantly impact local and statewide economies. Because of the importance of caves, and because cavers spend a considerable amount of time inside caves, it is imperative that cavers communicate their considerable knowledge of caves in a standardized protocol with each other and with the scientific community. For these reasons, it was recommended that a cave glossary be developed, emphasizing terms used in and near Florida, including the Caribbean. FGS took the lead in developing the glossary. It organized a committee to assist it in generating the glossary. The committee, ( The Florida Committee for the Terminology for Cave and Karst System s), consisted of representatives from the dry caving, cave diving communities and FGS geologists. The committee decided that the two major purposes in publishing the glossary were to improve: (1) the overall understanding of wet and dry caves in and near Florida, and (2) consistency in the usage of terms associated with caves. The draft version of the glossary contains over 1500 terms. The final document should be completed in 2006. "Explore Florida!" Website Explore Florida! is a Web-based curriculum that integrates multidisciplinary lesson plans with the use of maps and images such as satellite and airborne FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 32

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imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps, and other special-purpose cartographic products (e.g., 3D anaglyph maps). These materials allow middle and high school students to visualize earth-system processes and human impact while relating them to disciplines beyond earth science, such as mathematics, history, social science and language arts. Student and teacher manuals contain site-specific background information and sets of "hands-on" and "minds-on" interdisciplinary activities keyed to the state science standards. All materials can be used in the classroom straight from the Web, or can be downloaded and printed in black and white, or color. A series of workshops will be held to familiarize teachers with these resources. By the end of fiscal year 2004, four units of Explore Florida! have been made available: The Woodville Karst Plain study area features a comparison of topographic maps with infrared aerial photographs to identify karst features, infer recharge and discharge of aquifers, and examine land use, both historical and modern. Several archeological sites are included. The Florida Peninsula study area highlights the contrasting land use exemplified by such diverse features as Cape Canaveral, the Disney Complex, the interior phosphate mining area, and paleo-shoreline features such as the Lake Wales Ridge. Satellite images and topographic maps enable students to relate these land uses to the geologic framework of the peninsula. The South Florida study area focuses on the unique habitats of the Everglades, the Florida Keys, and the impact of population pressure from the Miami area, which threatens to over-run these distinctive natural areas. Historic photos and sketches are compared with modern infrared aerial photographs to document changes in land use through time. Explore Florida! is designed for consistent expansion and versatility. Each unit is framed around a template that includes the following components: Purpose, Student Learning Objectives, Goals, Rubrics for Assessment, Sunshine State Standards, Background Material (may be written for both student and teacher or separate material for teacher and student), resources such as places to visit, references, web sites, glossary, and newspaper articles. Each student activity includes a materials list and worksheets. Enrichment activities and answer keys are also included. This task was conducted by the Florida Resource and Environmental Analysis Center in cooperation with the FGS; we anticipate using the same contractor to develop additional Florida units in the 2005-2006 time-frame. For more detailed information about this project one may log on to: http://www.exploreflorida.org. Karst Short Course & Field Trip The fundamental problem associated with effective hydrogeologic characterizations of karst settings in Florida is a lack of available formal education on karst hydrogeology at the academic and professional levels in Florida. To address this problem a short course (including a field trip) on karst in Florida was developed and tested in 2003/2004. We anticipate continuing these activities in upcoming years in cooperation with the Hydrogeology Consortium KARSTHYDROGEOLOGYPROGRAM Ground-water flow in karst hydrogeologic settings is difficult to characterize. This program focuses on field studies and modeling techniques to facilitate this characterization. Multifaceted field investigations address the nature of ground-water flow through conduit systems by employing dye tracing and tide gauging (along coastal karstic areas), as well as monitoring spring BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 33

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discharge, rainfall, and water-quality parameters within subsurface conduits systems. These field studies provide calibration and validation for complex groundwater flow models. Moreover, a cave database has been established to serve as a reference for these modeling efforts as well as characterization of highly valuable and vulnerable natural resources.Spring Creek Tracing Feasibility StudyThe quantitative ground-water tracing program, conducted by the FGS in collaboration with private sector firms, over the past three fiscal years has been a success. Key flow paths in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP) have been successfully documented between disappearing streams, the Leon Sinks and Wakulla cave systems, and Wakulla Spring. The quantitative aspect of the tracer tests has permitted the calculation of ground-water velocities and other hydraulic parameters that will be crucial to future ground-water modeling efforts. The purpose of these studies was two-fold: (1) to characterize and identify the key karst features in the Woodville Karst Plain that have a probable influence on water flow in the watershed; (2) to determine the feasibility of conducting quantitative ground-water tracing experiments in the basin aimed at identifying flow direction and velocities along karstic flow paths to Spring Creek springs system. The study was also to assess the effect of tides and associated hydrogeology in Spring Creek on the Wakulla Spring system. While significant progress was made in achieving these goals in 2003-2004, work is on going using similar approaches.Wakulla In-cave Meter Data ManagementSeven oceanographic meters, manufactured by Falmouth Scientific, were deployed in the Wakulla cave system and began recording in late 2003. The meters will be continually recording velocity, temperature, and specific conductance at 15minute intervals. The data was stored onboard the devices then manually downloaded on-site by FGS staff at approximately 30 to 60-day intervals. Drs. Tim Hazlett and Todd Kincaid who are on the staff of GFDI at FSU have developed a preliminary website for the dissemination of the data which is updated at approximately 60 to 90day intervals. The dataset that was developed is one-of-a-kind and represents the most detailed characterization of a karst aquifer anywhere in the US, if not the world. In order to capitalize most fully on the expanding dataset and consequently foster multidisciplinary research efforts, effort to make the data more readily available to researchers world-wide was begun in 2004. This effort included steps to automate the data collection and dissemination processes by: 1) installing cabling and radio telemetry systems at the on-site data stations that will continuously communicate the data from the meters to a local computer server; 2) constructing a local computer server to collect the data, store it on local hard drives, and communicate it to a global computer server via the Internet; 3) developing a computer program that will automatically receive the data, process it into a desired set of graphical output, and post the output regularly to a project website; and 4) archiving the data, with enough redundancy (i.e. backups), such that it can be retrieved, in raw format, at will via an Internet interface. The complexity of the telemetry system will necessitate continuation of these and similar activities into the 2005/2006 fiscal year. Tide Gauging One of the most interesting insights that have come out, thus far, from these activities is the potential correlation FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 34

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between regular small-scale discharge fluctuations at Wakulla and the tides in the Gulf of Mexico. In late 2004, the FGS installed two tide gauges close to Spring Creek that will be periodically harvested. We anticipate exploring this possible relationship further in 2005/2006 to obtain additional data on tidal fluctuations in the Gulf of Mexico south of Wakulla Spring. Expansion of the Cave Metering NetworkThe existing cave meter network effectively characterizes the flow to the spring from four most significant known conduit sources; however, the results of the last two ground-water tracing experiments have demonstrated that the Wakulla cave system is directly connected to the Leon Sinks cave system and that ground-water flows between the two in approximately seven days. Given this connection, and the stated goal of the metering project, which was to characterize the source waters for Wakulla Spring, we believe that additional meters are needed in the Leon Sinks cave system. Continuation of the Woodville Karst Plain Modeling Efforts In 2004, the FGS outsourced an investigation to predict ground-water movement and contaminant transport in karst using finite-element models. The contractors used existing and accepted finite-element numerical strategies but employed the detailed characterization data gleaned from the field studies to more accurately articulate karst features in the model domain and calibrate the model simulations to realworld conditions. Currently, the model contains all of the key karst features in the northern part of the WKP and calibrates fairly well to velocities measured through ground-water tracing and historical head levels published in the literature. This model has been sufficiently developed to warrant continuation of field testing and full-scale calibration, and validation in the 2005/2006 time-frame. Florida Cave Database The Florida Cave Database was initially developed with funding from the Hydrogeology Program in FY 2001-2002 and augmented, revised, and refined in FYs 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. The database currently contains details from more than 30 underwater caves, each of which are represented by two ESRI GIS shape-files and associated datasets: one representing the survey points or significant turning points in the caves, which contains sufficient data, when available, to render a 3D model of the cave; and one that represents the 2D trend of the cave passages. All the files are projected to a custom FDEP Albers conformal conic projection. These files can be downloaded from a project website and immediately included in a GIS. Currently the data base is being populated with additional data available to state or local government staff as well as the private sector. This activity is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Wakulla Springs Statistical Analysis and Modeling of Discharge and RainfallIt is reasonable to characterize this task as the heart of past and on going research in the "Wakulla Project." Understanding the hydrogeological complexity of Wakulla Spring, its interaction with surface water sources and with land use activities, has begun to yield information that can be applied to serve an overarching goal of effective management, and protection of water within the entire Woodville Karst Plain Watershed. The data is being used to calibrate the finite element model previously mentioned with an ultiBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 35

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mate deliverable being a model which can accurately simulate ground-water flow and contaminant transport in karst settings. With support by the FGS's Hydrogeology Program, beginning in 2002, a prototype of such a model, called KARSTMOD, has been developed by two members of our research team: Drs. David Loper and Tim Hazlett. The method utilizes a statistical scheme to define probable pathways between discrete sources of recharge such as sinkholes or sinking streams and spring discharges. Once a probabilistic network of pathways has been established, a combination of statistical and deterministic methods is used to simulate the travel-time between any point in a basin and a spring. To date, the model has been developed to the point where testing is appropriate. The next step is to calibrate KARSTMOD, using data on flow, temperature and electrical conductivity. In this context, temperature and conductivity are to be used as proxies for contaminants. During 2004, calibration of the flow and transport characteristics of KARSTMOD was initiated using data collected (over the past 6 years) by the S-4 meter (installed by the NWFWMD) in the main vent of Wakulla Spring. In subsequent years, we intend to expand this calibration process to include the data currently being harvested from the seven Falmouth meters deployed in the conduits leading to Wakulla Spring. The S-4 data contains a surprisingly rich spectrum of variations in discharge and other variables, on all timescales from hourly to (at least) annual. This variability, when properly analyzed and cross-correlated with rainfall and flow in sinking streams, can shed considerable light on how the Wakulla Springs flow system responds to events and activities on the land surface. This in turn will provide the basis for the calibration of KARSTMOD model that will eventually serve as a tool to protect and manage the quality of the spring system and the entire watershed. PHYSICALAQUIFER CHARACTERIZATIONPROGRAM Characterization of FloridaÂ’s hydrogeological framework is of paramount importance with regard to the protection, conservation and management of FloridaÂ’s ground-water resources. Aspects of this characterization include developing physical models of aquifer systems, development of physical aquifer property databases, and completion of applied research to assess surface-water ground-water interactions. Two projects, described below, were in progress during 2003-2004. Estimating Ground-Water Discharges via Radon Tracing This project builds on previous work by scientists from the FSU Department of Oceanography and the FGS. That project investigated the area around Lanark Reef using a continuous radon monitoring system and side scan sonar to search for areas of point source discharge (springs) as well as diffusive seepage. Lines were run parallel to the shore and one transect was made several kilometers out to sea. Radon inventories (Rn 222 activity correlated to water depth) and salinity trends clearly confirmed the location of the previously known Lanark and Sulfur Springs. Additionally, a nearshore area just west of the FSU Marine Laboratory (FSUML) was also investigated and shown to display lower salinity and elevated radon levels. This area was used to investigate diffusive seepage since there was no visible surface drainage anywhere nearby. During the same period that these surveys were performed, the researchers FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 36

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deployed a stationary continuous radon monitor at a station about 100 meters off FSUML and collected time-series data for approximately 24 hours. These results were used to estimate diffusive seepage using a modeling approach that generally relies on solving mass balance equations. Estimates showed ground-water velocities ranging from 5-40 cm/day with increased seepage rates at low tide. Such trends of enhanced seepage during lower tidal stages have now been seen in several areas including the area around FSUML and in the Florida Keys. This is apparently due to a modulating effect caused by increased hydrostatic pressure at higher tides resulting in diminished ground-water discharge flow rates because the hydrostatic pressure acts in the opposite direction than the effects of the hydraulic gradient coming off the land. The isotopic results from Sulfur Spring all showed essentially the same result for all parameters measured (salinity, radon, and radium), indicating that there is little mixing going on at the spring vent. Lanark Spring, on the other hand, showed internal consistency in the conductivity/salinity results but a wide variation in the radon and radium results. The most likely explanation is that there was mixing of at least two fresh ground-water end-members in the vent sampled. The high-radon sample in Lanark was fairly similar in composition to all samples in Sulfur Spring. The FSU/FGS team also worked on an assessment of flow rates and isotopic concentrations in waters from several vents at Spring Creek Spring on April 14, 2004. FGS researchers made measurements using continuous side scans surveys and FSU investigators collected a total of 20 samples for isotopic analysis at two transects and four individual spring vents. Five additional offshore samples were analyzed for Rn 222 and Ra 226, after collection by FGS researchers. The samples show the general decreasing trend in radon activity as one moves farther offshore, away from groundwater-spring inputs. These preliminary findings would seem to justify continuation of the effort to better quantify ground-water discharge in the Spring Creek and other vents using Radium isotopes In FY 2002-2003 the FGS funded some of the effort to develop and construct the Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter to replace the old-fashioned metal drum meters previously used in detecting and measuring ground-water discharge. That effort was interrupted due to some difficulties with Dr. TaniguchiÂ’s travel from Japan to the US. In the latter parts of 2004 the researchers acquired the final components needed to construct the Taniguchi-style automated seepage meter without the need to have the inventor physically present in the US. One of six meters was constructed and tested successfully. The researchers also worked with Dr. Paul Lee of DEP who had designed and built, together with personnel from the FSU-FAMU School of Engineering, an automatic seepage meter based on ultrasonic sound (the Taniguchi meter is based on the flow of heat). These meters were deployed in environments where more disseminated flow is expected, including the area around Lanark Reef, Lake Barco (a site of another DEP project involving ground water-surface water interaction), and other locations of potential interest to the DEP and the FGS. The result of these studies will be significant to planned research (in 2005/2006 time-frame) supported by the Hydrogeology Program which seeks to account for ground water contribution in calculating Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) to surface waters. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 37

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Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project Begun in 1995, the Southwest Florida Hydrogeologic Framework Mapping Project has been a collaborative effort between the FGS and SWFWMD to create a Microsoft Access database of wells within the district for the mapping project. The creation of this database, FGS_Wells, lead to state wide implementation in 2000 which included Oil and Gas regulatory data and ArcGIS well location interfacing. The mapping project culmination in 2004 has generated 20 surface and thickness maps and 34 cross-sections illustrating the lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic framework of the southwest Florida region. These maps were created using ArcGIS and AutoCAD. Mapped lithologic units include the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation to the Miocene/Pliocene Peace River Formation. Mapped hydrologic units include the Middle Floridan Aquifer Confining Unit, the Floridan Aquifer System, the Intermediate Aquifer System, and the Surficial Aquifer System. A database of 1065 wells is the basis for the generated maps. Of these 1065 wells more than 60 percent have been inspected to determine lithostratigraphic contacts. Detailed lithologic descriptions have been made of approximately one-quarter of those wells. Where gaps exist, wells with geophysical logs are included in the analysis to provide adequate coverage for the generated maps and cross-sections. The maps were generated using the Geostatistical and Spatial Analyst extensions in ArcGIS 8.3. All regions of the SWFWMD including a ten-mile buffer zone were analyzed. The production of these maps provides the most detailed lithostratigraphic and hydrostratigraphic data in the state to date, and will provide the basis for further improvement. The end product is set for review in 2006 and publishing soon thereafter. The final product will be in both paper and digital formats. AQUIFERVULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT PROGRAM This program area focuses on continued modeling of the contamination potential of Florida’s aquifer systems at the state and local scale. In addition, areas that are susceptible to the formation of sinkholes have been delineated in a pilot study of “sensitive karst areas.” Knowledge of these areas is important with regard to land-use planning and construction criteria for retention ponds. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment During the 2003-2004 calendar year, the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) project was in full swing. The assessment is based on an analytical method adapted for GIS-based mineral-potential mapping. The method, known as Weights of Evidence (WofE), combines evidence from known occurrences of a phenomena with spatial data to calculate a predictive response based on Bayesian theory with an assumption of conditional independence. Prior probabilities are calculated by dividing the number of known occurrences (training points) by the study area producing a probability of occurrence without the benefit of relevant data. Weights are calculated for independent GIS data coverages (evidential themes) based on the spatial relation between each evidential theme and training points. Results are reflected as posterior probabilities on an output map FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 38

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known as the response theme. The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) applies the WofE method to the three principal aquifer systems in Florida through the use of the Arc Spatial Data Modeler within the ArcView 3.x platform. This extension facilitates assessment of spatial datasets, conditional independence, response theme uncertainty and validation, and provides other modeling techniques and statistical tools. Results of the project include maps that predict the relative contamination potential of Florida's principal aquifer systems. In FAVA models, training points consist of data from wells reflecting background water quality. Parameters used in the models to reflect known occurrences of aquifer vulnerability in the natural hydrogeologic system include dissolved oxygen and total dissolved nitrogen. Evidential themes include combinations of several improved or newly created statewide coverages: depth to water table, hydraulic head difference, thickness of confinement, distance to karst features, soil permeability, and aquifer system overburden. To maximize scientific defensibility of the response themes (relative vulnerability maps), models were validated using independent training data sets, training-point subsets and by demonstrating lack of correlation between land use and posterior probability. Aquifer vulnerability maps are an important resource for planners, developers, resource-management professionals and policy makers to facilitate protection of Florida's ground-water resources at the regional and local level. Among the strengths of the FAVA methodology is the ability to scale the study area to better meet the needs of local government agencies. For example, Alachua County funded the FGS in 2004 to complete a vulnerability assessment for that county. A draft of the report has been completed and the county is now considering additional funds to refine input geologic data layers, which may serve to refine the response theme.Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment In 2004, the bulk of the work for the Wekiva Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (WAVA) and a draft report was completed. The study was initiated due to water quality concerns in Wekiwa spring and the Wekiva River. Hydrogeology of the Wekiva River study area is characterized by moderate to no confinement and a multitude of karst features. Ground water recharges the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) by infiltration through these sediments or directly through sinkholes. The Wekiva River Coordinating Committee Final Report identifies numerous studies by Florida's water management districts and the USGS that clearly demonstrate contamination attributable to changes in land use. Therefore, the FGS was authorized under the Springs Initiative and the Wekiva River Coordinating Committee to identify zones of aquifer vulnerability, for the Floridan Aquifer System, within the Wekiva River study area. WAVA utilizes a model that applies existing geographic information system data to predict relative vulnerability of the Floridan Aquifer System in the Wekiva study area. The vulnerability zones are based on the weights of evidence (WofE) modeling technique used in the statewide Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Use of WofE requires the combination of diverse spatial data which are used to describe and analyze interactions and genBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 39

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erate predictive models. In WAVA the spatial data is composed of a training point theme and evidential themes. The training point theme consists of locations of known occurrences. In WAVA these are wells that exceed a certain concentration of dissolved oxygen. Wells with high dissolved oxygen concentrations are indicative of areas where a good connection exists between the top of the aquifer and land surface. The evidential themes include soil permeability, buffered effective karst features, Intermediate Aquifer System (IAS) thickness and head difference between the Surficial Aquifer System and the Floridan Aquifer System. These themes act as evidence in the model by either protecting the aquifer from contamination or allowing contamination to move quickly from land surface to the top of the aquifer system (i.e., areas of thick IAS sediments versus areas of thin IAS sediments). The WofE technique quantifies relationships between these evidential themes and the training point theme in order to predict zones of vulnerability. These zones are classified into a primary protection zone, a secondary protection zone and a tertiary protection zone. These protection zones will be used in decision making, development of rules, or policies regarding environmental conservation, protection, growth management and planning. Sensitive Karst Areas The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a thick sequence of Paleogene carbonates, is a major fresh water resource in Florida. Overburden comprised of Surficial Aquifer System and/or Intermediate Aquifer System sediments may act to protect the FAS from potential contamination sources where it is present. This overburden can be several hundred feet thick where it provides variable confinement for the FAS, or it can be thin to absent in areas where carbonate units comprising the FAS are exposed at or near land surface. In areas where the overburden is thin to absent, the potential for karst terrain development such as sinkholes and collapse features is increased. Karst terrain provides preferential flow paths for surface water to enter the underlying aquifer system and, therefore, places them at a greater risk of contamination from the surface. To develop the sensitive karst areas (SKA) boundary, the FGS utilized a Geographic Information System incorporating spatial data layers such as the state geologic map, land surface topography and overburden thickness maps. Land surface topography is comprised of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the FAVA project. The DEM was created by digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale Quadrangle maps, converting these arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 40 Conceptual model of the FAS. The top four layers are evidential themes and the bottom layer is the response theme divided into zones of relativevulnerability.

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GRID along with a GRID of the top of the Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS overburden GRID. This was accomplished by subtracting the FAS overburden from the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of FAS overburden were then identified and overlain on areas affected by karst topography in the NWFWMD. Based on the combination of these two maps the SKA limits were identified for the NWFWMD. This methodology was created for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management and was inserted in the FDEP Environmental Resource Permit Applicant's Handbook Volume II, Engineering Requirements for Stormwater Treatment and Management Systems Water Quality and Water Quantity. The delineated SKA maps are used when sighting proposed stormwater holding ponds and establishes additional design criteria for these structures including minimum thickness of sediment between the surface and limestone, total depth of holding pond, vegetation requirements, sediment traps, liners and potentially ground-water modeling. For more information on this project please refer to the American Geological Institute website: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf Please hit refresh if figure does not appear the first time. Florida Springs Protection Areas In response to a request by the Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) in 2004, the FGS developed a map delineating areas where Florida's springsheds and springs are susceptible to land use activities. The resulting map will be available in digital form as FGS Open File Map Series No. 95, and can be referenced when state growth and land use issues are addressed. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 41

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The purpose of the map is to identify areas that contribute flow to Florida's springs and provide land use decision-makers with a published resource to assist them in protecting and restoring the quantity and quality of Florida spring discharge. Utilizing data from Florida water management districts, the U.S. Geological Survey and Florida's Department of Environmental Protection, the FGS utilized geographical information systems (GIS) software, expert knowledge and interpretation to generate a map delineating springs protection areas in Florida. This updatable map will be periodically revised as on-going and future research improves our understanding of springsheds.Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on the Water Quality of Fanning SpringsFanning Springs is a first-magnitude spring located within Fanning Springs State Park on the Suwannee River in Levy County. The spring consistently discharges nitrate (nitrate plus nitrite as N) in excess of 3.0 mg/L. This is the highest concentration of nitrate discharging from any of the first-magnitude springs that reside in Florida's State Parks. In a cooperative effort with the Department's Division of Recreation and Parks and the USGS, the FGS is assessing the source of nitrate discharging from the spring. The goals of the project are to estimate: (1) the aerial extent of the springshed (recharge basin); (2) the sources of nitrate originating within the springshed and their respective contribution to the loading of nitrate; (3) the groundwater travel times for the various sources of nitrate; (4) the dilution rates that occur between the sources and the spring; and (5) establish a nitrate monitoring network for Fanning Springs. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS obtained pertinent data from the Suwannee River Water Management District (SRWMD). In addition, the SRWMD and the FGS worked together to delineate the Fanning Springshed. The delineation was based on a one-foot potentiometric surface obtained from over 100 SRWMD wells. The anticipated completion date for the project is 2006. OTHEROUTSOURCEDRESEARCH The Hydrogeology Program and the Outsourcing Program have been described elsewhere in this and in the last biennial report. The following is an update of projects developed in the 2003/2004 period and those ongoing in 2005. The following projects, funded by the Hydrogeology Program for FY 2003/2004, were completed and reports delivered: -The utility of foraminifera (forams) as indicators of environmental degradation or salinity changes in coastal waters. This project was a continuation of an initial study supported in FY 2001. The first phase of the study focused on natural changes in salinity profiles, while the second phase focused on foram's response to pollution. The current report is being developed for publication as an FGS Special Publication. A CD ROM for the Proceedings of the Workshop Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 42

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Florida was finalized. An adequate number of CDs were produced by the FGS for distribution to all the workshop participants and other interested parties; it is available at the FGS library for purchase by the public. A report on the evaluation of remote sensing methods for the identification of areas of ground-water interaction with surface water has been finalized. It is being peerreviewed internally and externally for publication as an FGS Special Publication. -A report on the dye tracing studies in the Woodville Karst watershed project has also been completed. This study was conducted in an effort to generate data on groundwater movement in karst for the ultimate purpose of developing a model to predict such movement. The study was conducted by Hazlett-Kincaid Inc. under contract with FSU and the FGS. This report is also being developed into an FGS publication. In the interim; the report is available for review on the Hydrogeology Consortium and HazlettKincaid, Inc. webpages ( http://hydrogeologyconsortium.org/ and http://www.hazlettkincaid.com/) A report on the evaluation of remote sensing techniques for the identification of submarine springs was also completed. This study was funded by a grant from NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab. The report has been delivered to and accepted by NASA in satisfaction of the grant requirements. The grant allowed the purchase of satellite "scenes" of areas of the Gulf of Mexico being studied for thermal signatures. These signatures would indicate possible discharge of ground water to surface waters of the Gulf as well as inland waters. -The first phase of a study that was conducted by FSU, in cooperation with FGS and the Springs Initiative Program at DEP, has also been completed. This project seeks to understand the dynamics of water flow in the Wakulla Spring system and how it is influenced by interaction with surface waters. Flow meters deployed by divers in the tunnels and caves of the spring system have been generating data that will be statistically analyzed and correlated with other data, such as rainfall and hydraulic heads in wells, in an effort to locate the sources of surface water input into the spring system. Wells have also been drilled directly into conduits using transponders purchased for the purpose. Power sources and tubing have been threaded through these wells to allow for continuous data recording and water quality sample collection and analysis without the need to dive into these conduits. During 2005, efforts will be focused on developing a telemetry system that will allow for direct input of data into computers of the scientists involved. Similar studies are being conducted in the Manatee Spring System by the Suwannee River Water Management District in cooperation with FGS and the Springs Initiative Program. Other projects that were conducted by FSU, UWF and the USGS and funded by the Hydrogeology Program in FY 2003/2004: 1. Evaluating the impact of ASR projects on native microbial communities. 2. Identifying the sources of bacterial contamination of springs using genetic typing and bio-film cultures. 3. Quantifying ground-water discharge into surface waters using radon and radium along with seepage meters. 4. Developing a workshop to address scientific and regulatory issues associated with ASR projects in Florida. 5. Continuation of dye tracing studies in the Woodville Karst watershed for the ultimate purpose of developing models to predict ground-water movement and contaminants behavior and transport in karstic settings. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 43

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THE HYDROGEOLOGY CONSORTIUM Large areas of Florida, as well as other areas of the US, are underlain by karst geology, which is riddled with conduits and cavities of differing diameters and orientations resulting in ground-water flow under multi-porosity conditions. Under such conditions the classical equations (such as Darcy's Law) for depicting ground-water flow and contaminant transport are not operative. Karstic conditions also allow for significant volumes of ground water to flow rapidly through watersheds with increased potential for interaction with surface water. Ground-water models based largely on Darcy's Law and traditionally used in homogeneous aquifers are, therefore, not applicable in karst. New approaches must be developed to conceptualize flow and transport in multi-porosity aquifers. Based on such conceptual models, analytical and numerical models could eventually be developed that would, more accurately, predict water flow in karstic aquifers. The use of such models will be essential if the behavior and ultimate fate of natural and man-made contaminants on ground-water quality are to be evaluated. Ground-water quality data will in turn be critical in making correct decisions in efforts to clean up and/or manage karst-dominated watersheds. To help in achieving this goal, scientists from state and federal agencies, as well as universities and the private sector, under the leadership of Drs. Rodney S. DeHan of the FGS and David Loper of FSU, met in November 1997 and established the Hydrogeology Consortium. The steps taken and parties involved were discussed in earlier biennial reports that can be found on the FGS's Webpage. More details about the Consortium, including how to join in, can also be found at: http://hydrogeologyconsortium.org or by telephone at (850) 644-5625 Fax: (850) 644-8972. Currently, the Consortium is in the process of being classified as a not-forprofit organization for federal taxing purposes. In 2004, the Consortium co-sponsored a workshop on ASR in cooperation with the FGS and the American Ground Water Trust. Since its establishment, the Consortium, in cooperation with the Hydrogeology Program, has been involved in organizing and or co-sponsoring several workshops including the following for which CDs for the proceedings have been developed and are currently available for purchase from the FGS's library: 1) Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida Springs (May 8-9, 2002) in Ocala, Florida, FGS Special Publication 51. 2) Workshop on the Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection (April 16-17, 2003) in Ocala, Florida, FGS Special Publication 53. 3) Workshop on Aquifer Storage & Recovery IV: Science, Technology, Management and Policy The workshop was held on April 1516, 2004 in Tampa, Florida, FGS Special Publication 54. The Consortium also co-sponsored several other public education activities aimed at educating the public about the significance and vulnerability of the Wakulla Springs System to degradation from activities on the land surface. This effort consisted of presentations made by Consortium members and other FGS scientists and contractors in "town hall" type meetings in Woodville and subsequently in Tallahassee followed by a "Walk for Wakulla" in November of 2004. A more detailed description of these events can be found on the Consortium's Webpage mentioned above. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 44

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OIL AND GAS SECTION The Oil and Gas Section regulates petroleum exploration and production within the state and state waters pursuant to Chapter 377, Florida Statutes and implementing Rules 62C-25 to 62C-30, Florida Administrative Code. The Section's primary responsibilities are environmental protection, safety, conservation of oil and gas resources, and correlative rights protection. These concerns are addressed when permit applications are reviewed and permit conditions are enforced by field inspection. The Section's home office is located in Tallahassee and the field offices are in Jay and Ft. Myers near the oil and gas fields. The Section's key activities include permitting geophysical, drilling, and transport operations, inspecting field operations, tracking activities by the use of production and other reporting forms, enforcing financial security requirements, and maintaining databases for well and geophysical permits. Approximately 6.1 million barrels of crude oil and 7 billion cubic feet of natural gas were produced in Florida during 2003 and 2004. During the last 2 years, the state's oil and gas production rates have fallen by 21% and 8% respectively. On December 31, 2004, the state's cumulative production totals reached approximately 595 million barrels of oil and 628 billion cubic feet of gas. In 1978, Florida's annual petroleum production rates peaked at 48 million barrels of oil and 52 billion cubic feet of gas, which ranked Florida 8th among oil producing states. Since 1945, the state has received approximately 1382 drilling permit applications, of which 319 wells were never drilled, 716 were dry holes, and 346 became producers. The state currently has 59 producing wells operating within eight active oil and gas fields. One field, with three wells, is currently shut in and 12 formerly producing fields have been permanently plugged and abandoned. REGULATORY PROGRAM During the state's production decline over the last 26 years, the Oil and Gas Section's focus has gradually shifted from permitting and inspecting drilling and geophysical operations to regulation of well maintenance, plugging/abandonment, site restoration, and decommissioning of oil and gas field facilities. Over the last two years, 23 wells were plugged and abandoned and 5 well sites were restored. Approximately 72 of the state's 180 permitted oil and gas wells are currently inactive and may need to be plugged and abandoned over the next several years. Many of the existing producing wells are approaching profitability threshold as the statewide water cut (percentage of produced water mixed with the produced crude oil) has climbed to 96%. Currently 58 of the state's 180 permitted wells are dedicated to reinjecting produced water that has been separated from produced crude oil. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 45 Ed Garrett, Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section (photo by David Taylor).

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DRILLING AND PRODUCTION Southwestern Florida: Collier Resources Company, the major mineral rights owner within the Big Cypress National Preserve, agreed to sell its drilling rights on 765,000 acres to the Department of Interior, but Congress failed to fund the transaction. The two parties are now considering renegotiating the arrangement pending another study of petroleum reserve estimates. If the two parties ultimately come to an agreement, the likelihood of near-term exploration or development of new fields in southern Florida will be substantially reduced. One drilling permit for a wildcat well was issued during the 2003-2004 period in southwest Florida. Drilling operations for the well, the Bob Paul #20-4 in Highlands County, began November 8, 2004 and was still underway at the end of 2004. The target is the Deep Lake Sands Formation at a total vertical depth of 12,800 feet. Although the closest productive well is approximately 40 miles southwest of the Bob Paul #20-4, a dry hole drilled 12 miles to the west in 1955 under Permit 225 yielded shows of crude oil in core samples taken from the Fredericksburg “B” Formation from depths between 8,822 and 8,890 feet. The operator intends to test Bob Paul #20-4 for hydrocarbons at various depths. If the well is successful, the operator plans to drill up to eight additional wells from the same pad which lies in an orange grove south of Lake Placid. Permit applications have been submitted for three of these wells. Although no new drilling permits were issued for established fields in the Sunniland Trend, five existing operating permits were recertified, one producing well was drilled to a deeper target, 20 wells were worked over to perform downhole maintenance and secondary recovery techniques, five wells were plugged and abandoned, and four restored well sites passed final inspection. Production from the nine fields in the southwest Florida dropped from approximately 3,300 to 2,600 barrels of oil per day. Oil and Gas staff at the Fort Myers field office conducted 5,696 inspections of wells and related facilities. Northwest Florida: Production at Jay Field was suspended for 10 days in response to Hurricane Ivan during September 2004. The shut down cost Exxon-Mobil approximately 100,000 barrels of oil. Nevertheless, Jay field continues to dominate state production with approximately 73% of the state's total oil and 78% of the gas. Jay Field has now produced 416 million barrels of oil. Although no new wells were drilled in Jay Field during 2003-2004, Exxon-Mobil submitted four drilling applications in 2004 and was preparing to begin drilling this series of infield wells at the end of 2004. During March 2004, Petro Operating Company resumed production at the Blackjack Creek Field after a two year shut down to reconfigure the field's separator plant for reinjection of acid gas byproduct. Production has since averaged approximately 170 barrels of oil and 0.54 million cubic feet of gas per day. McLellan Field, which lies approximately 20 miles east of Jay has not produced any oil or gas since 2003 and may be decommissioned when its current operating permits expire in October FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 46 Southwest Florida Oil and Gas Inspectors Bob Caughey and Paul Attwood (timer photo by Paul Attwood).

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2005. Oil and Gas staff at the Jay field office conducted 2,285 inspections of wells and related facilities during the 2003-2004 period. During 2003, one wildcat well was drilled in northwest Florida near Crestview. The Permit 1315 well was directionally drilled by Zinke and Trumbo, Inc. underneath Interstate 10 in Okaloosa County to a Smackover Formation target at a total vertical depth of 15,500 feet. Production flow testing was not conducted because well logs indicated the well was a dry hole. Zinke and Trumbo, Inc, applied in 2003 for drilling permits to three additional targets, but chose to terminate the drilling project when the first well proved unsuccessful. GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION One geophysical survey was conducted by Mayne and Mertz, Inc. under Permit No. G-160-03 from January through March 2004 in northern Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties. The survey method was threedimensional seismic reflection/refraction covering 13 square miles. The energy source was 5.5 pound charges detonated from within approximately 950 shallow shot holes. All drilling, detonations, and plugging operations were witnessed under the Oil and Gas Section's observer program. The section's geophysical engineer supervised and coordinated the inspection duties of 23 observers. OFFSHORE ACTIVITY In June 2004, the U.S. Supreme Court chose not to hear an appeal by Coastal Petroleum Company to reconsider lower court rulings against Coastal's claim that the State of Florida's denial of offshore drilling Permit Application 1281 constituted an illegal taking of Drilling Lease No. 224-A. Permit Application 1281, which proposed drilling south of St. George Island, was submitted to the Oil and Gas Section in 1992 and was ultimately denied in 1998. The U.S. Supreme Court ruling culminated several years of legal dispute between Coastal and the State of Florida over numerous offshore drilling applications and Coastal's Gulf of Mexico offshore leases which extend along a 425-mile tract from Apalachicola to Naples. IMPORTED NATURAL GAS IN SOUTH FLORIDA Prior to 2002, the only major natural gas delivery system to southern Florida was the Florida Gas Transmission Pipeline which extends from southern Texas to southern Florida with mainline capacity of 2.1 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/day). During 2002, Duke Energy Gas Transmission and Williams completed construction of the Gulfstream Pipeline, which crossed the Gulf of Mexico along a 581-mile path from south Alabama to Manatee County. A 110-mile extension across the Florida peninsula was added in 2004. The extension will ultimately deliver 1.1 Bcf/day to nine counties in southern Florida. During April 2004, the Governor and Cabinet approved plans by Tractebel North America and AES to build two additional natural gas pipelines to south Florida with a combined total capacity of approximately two Bcf/day. The gas will be imported via liquefied natural gas tanker ships from around the world, offloaded and revaporized at port/pipeline facilities in the Bahamas, and delivered through undersea pipelines to Broward and Palm Beach Counties. Completion of these pipeline systems will dramatically increase southern Florida's natural gas supply and may ultimately create a strong demand for large scale gas storage systems in south Florida. Oil and gas operators in southwestern Florida have already directed inquiries to BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 47

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the Oil and Gas Section concerning permitting procedures for modifying depleted oil and gas fields for use as large scale gas storage facilities. The oil and gas rules, Sections 62C-25 through 62C-30, Florida Administrative Code, are currently being revised to address gas storage permitting. OIL AND GAS PLUGGING PROGRAM During 2003 and 2004, the Oil and Gas Section's petroleum engineer launched a program approved by the legislature to conduct remedial plugging on improperly plugged and abandoned old oil and gas wells throughout the state. These wells were generally drilled before the state's formal regulatory system of rigorous permitting and inspection. The targeted wells were prioritized on the basis of potential threat to potable ground water. The section's petroleum engineer directed a contracted drilling service to plug six wells in Levy County and one in Putnam County. During 2004, plugging operations were cut short on a 12,000 foot well in Collier County because of unexpected metal debris found in the original cement plugs. As the program continues, this well and up to ten others are slated for plugging and abandonment over the next two years. OIL AND GAS DATABASE In 2004, the section's primary well permit database was upgraded to track, archive, and make monthly reports for all oil and gas well production data in the state. This new tool provides section staff with the capability of performing such tasks as evaluating wells and fields, reconciling production data with other records, conveying to mineral owners the oil and gas production of a specific area, providing packaged information for the website, and other tasks. OIL AND GAS WEBSITE The Oil and Gas Section's website was expanded in 2004 to publish monthly production data from all of the stateÂ’s active oil and gas wells. The new system provides raw and summarized production data to the industry, the public, and to other government agencies. The system supplants bulk mailing, gives users the information faster, and provides it in a digital format. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 48

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INTRODUCTION From time-to-time certain issues arise in addition to planned and budgeted activities, to which the Florida Geological Survey is asked to respond. In 2004, the FGS participated in a legislative request to assess insurance coverage of sinkhole damage and commenced a project to update the hydrostratigraphic unit names in Florida. SINKHOLE SUMMIT II In 1992, the Florida Geological Survey hosted a Sinkhole Summit in response to legislation that requested the Florida State University Center for Insurance Research, under the direction of the Florida Department of Insurance to address numerous issues dealing with insurance coverage of sinkhole damages. One small part of that effort dealt with what competent professionals do to determine if karst processes are the likely or probable cause of observed damage. In addition, the legislation requested input on recommendations for a continuing research facility on sinkhole science. The summit was a brainstorming and consensus building session among a crosssection of Professional Geologists, geotechnical engineers and other associated experts to compile such a listing and address the questions. A summary of those deliberations was included in the final legislative report and those specific sections were reproduced by the FGS as Open File Report No. 72 (available online, see FGS web site, List of Publications). The 2004 legislative session again requested an assessment of insurance coverage in response to sinkhole damage. A study was requested to be done by the FSU College of Business, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, in consultation with the Florida Geological Survey to provide recommendations on the feasibility of creating a Sinkhole Insurance Facility, and to recommend "uniform standards" to evaluate sinkhole claims (among numerous other things). In this regard, the FGS convened Sinkhole Summit II to essentially update the 1992 effort. Many technologies and the understanding of subsurface karst processes have advanced during the last twelve years and a modern update was in order. The intent was to gather a group of experts in one place to discuss the currently accepted practices used by the professional geoscience community. Another intent was to compile a listing of those technologies and activities that a competent professional would utilize in an assessment of a site to determine if karst processes are present or responsible for observed features. The meeting was held in the conference room of the FGS Headquarters at the Gunter Building in Tallahassee on September 28, 2004. Twenty five Professional Geologists, geotechnical engineers, and other experts representing private industry / consultants, regional, state and federal governmental agencies, academia, and agency insurance program experts participated. A final submittal to the FSU Department of Risk Management and Insurance for incorporation into their report to the Financial Services Commission and the Legislature was completed in November 2004. The report is titled: Geological and Geotechnical Investigation Procedures for Evaluation of the Causes of Subsidence Damage in Florida compiled by W. Schmidt, with contributions from the participants of Sinkhole Summit II. The report will be available online as an FGS Special Publication. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 49 SPECIAL PROJECTS

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REVISION TO THE HYDROGEOLOGICALUNITS OF FLORIDA (FGS SPECIAL PUBLICATION 28) In 1986, FGS published a document, Hydrogeological Units of Florida It was published for the Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition, under the auspices of the Southeastern Geological Society. The document addressed the issue of consistency of nomenclature within the hydrogeologic community in Florida. It was an important step in assisting both governmental agencies and the private sector regarding the proper and consistent use of hydrogeology terms throughout the state. Recently, based on discussions by staff from the FGS, the USGS, and the private sector, it was noted that since 1986, there had been a considerable increase in the understanding of the Florida's hydrogeological units. For this reason, in 2003, a committee was formed to discuss potential revisions to the document. The committee ( The Second Ad Hoc Committee on Florida Hydrostratigraphic Unit Definition ) consists of representatives from the FGS, the USGS, the water management districts, private hydrogeological consultants, and the Florida university system. The committee met in August, 2003 to discuss potential revisions. It was decided that a revised publication should be made. The FGS took the lead. The revised publication will consist of a minimum of text and will emphasis a series of hydrogeological cross sections from around the state published in poster format. During 2003 and 2004, the FGS began making a series of hydrogeological cross sections traversing the state with using updated hydrostratigraphic terminology. The revisions will be reviewed by the AD Hoc committee and the expected completion date is 2006. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 50 FGS geologists Frank Rupert and Walt Schmidt examine a large sinkhole in Tallahassee (photo by Tom Scott).

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HYDROGEOCHEMISTRY LAB AND SEM The Hydrogeology Section acquired new lab space at the DEP Annex for a hydrogeochemistry lab and sample storage. Part of the space is occupied by a radio-isotope lab, equipped with an alpha spectrometer, a radio-isotope fume hood, and a Mega Pure 3A water still. This lab will be used for uranium isotope studies of ground water. Of particular interest will be the water-rock interaction processes, including sequential leaching and mobility of trace metals, that occur during ASR. From this, future geochemical models may be able to predict water-rock interactions and movement of the As front. Experiments will look at the effects of lowering DO once As is in solution, and the effects of SO4and Fe in the water. Also being considered is magnetic separation of the carbonates to concentrate the potentially As-rich phases. The Hydrogeology Section has also acquired a used Jeol JXA-840A Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The SEM lab is located adjacent to the hydrogeochemistry lab. This instrument can be used for many applications. The current study will utilize its high performance electron probe microanalyzer and its capability as a high resolution scanning microscope. Preand-postleaching samples will be examined. The electron probe micro analyzer measures constituent elements of a specimen and their distribution. The EDX utilizes 4 Pi Revolution software. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 51 EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES ACQUISITION New Scanning Electron Microscope (photo by Cindy Fischler).

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CORE STORAGE FACILITY EXPANSION Additional space within the FDEP Warehouse building (where our existing sample repository is located) became available to the FGS and has been utilized for additional core storage and for a new sample preparation lab. Well samples will now be delivered, processed and archived in the same building. The first phase of mobile aisle shelving has been installed. This expansion, when all shelving is installed, will handle core storage needs for the next 12-15 years. The FGS is grateful for financial support from the SWFWMD in the effort. NEW DRILL RIG AND WATER TRUCK The Florida Legislature provided funds to procure a new, state of the art drill rig to replace the very tired and inefficient Gefco 1500. The new rig (Schramm T450M11A) will provide significant improvements in crew safety, productivity and depth capability. A new water truck/support vehicle was also purchased. NEW OFFICE SPACE Drilling operations staff moved to office space in the Warehouse and Core Storage Facility located behind the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's (FDEP) Annex. Both buildings are south and across the street from the FDEP Douglas Building located just off of Capitol Circle Northwest in Tallahassee. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 52 New Ford F450 water/support truck (photo by Ken Campbell). New Schramm T450M11A drill rig (photo by Frank Rupert).

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FGS PUBLICATIONS The following reports in the FGS publication series were published during the period from January 2003 through December 2004: BIENNIAL REPORT Balsillie, J. H. 2003, Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report 22, 2001-2002: Florida Geological Survey Biennial Report 22, 115 p. BULLETIN Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Meegan, R.P., Means, R.C., Upchurch, S.B., Copeland, R.E., Jones, J., Roberts, T., and Willet, A., 2004, Springs of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 66, 377 p. plus CD. In 1947, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published the first Springs of Florida bulletin which documented the major and important springs in the state (Ferguson et al., 1947). This publication was revised in 1977, with many previously undocumented springs and many new water-quality analyses being added (Rosenau et al., 1977). The Florida Geological Survey's report on first magnitude springs (Scott et al., 2002) was the initial step in once again updating and revising the Springs of Florida bulletin. The new bulletin includes the spring descriptions and water-quality analyses from Scott et al. (2002). Nearly 300 springs were described in 1977. As of 2004, more than 700 springs have been recognized in the state and more are reported each year. To date, 33 first magnitude springs (with a flow greater than 100 cubic feet per second or approximately 64.6 million gallons of water per day) have been recognized in Florida, more than any other state or country (Rosenau et al., 1977). Our springs are a unique and invaluable natural resource. A comprehensive understanding of the spring systems will provide the basis for their protection and wise use. FLORIDA GEOLOGY FORUM The Florida Geology Forum newsletter is designed to reach a wide range of readers interested in geology and natural resources of Florida. Each issue includes current events and activities at the FGS, as well as meeting announcements and contributed articles from other geoscience organizations and University geology departments. March 2003, v. 17, no. 1,edited by Paula Polson October 2003, v. 17, no. 2,edited by Paula Polson. March 2004, v. 18, no. 1,edited by Paula Polson. October 2004, v. 18, no. 2, edited by Paula Polson. INFORMATION CIRCULAR Armstrong, Carol (ed.) 2004, List of Publications. Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 87, 56 p. LEAFLET Rupert, F. 2004, This is the Florida Geological Survey: Florida Geological Survey Leaflet 17. This color tri-fold brochure summarizes the history, mission and services provided by the Florida Geological Survey. Inside, the brochure details the present administrative structure of the Survey along with listings of current projects and activities. Contact information and a map to the main offices are provided on the back panel. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 53 PUBLICATIONS

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MAP SERIES Marella, R.L., and Sepulveda, A.A ., 2004, Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map Series 149. Printed by the FGS, this report is the seventh in a series of USGSmap reports describing the potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer System in Florida. It differs from the earlier reports, because it emphasizes the highly permeable Upper Floridan Aquifer. Data were collected as part of a continuing program that monitors ground-water resources in Florida in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the state water management districts, and local government agencies. This report illustrates and describes the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan Aquifer based on water levels from more than 1,200 wells measured in May 2000 (mostly in Florida). Discussions regarding water levels or water-level changes in 2000 refer to those measured in May 2000; similarly, 1995 water levels refer to May and June 1995. The potentiometric surface is a spatial representation of the levels in which water would rise in tightly cased wells open to the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The potentiometric surface was developed from the altitude of water levels in the wells and is represented on maps by contours that connect points of equal altitude above mean sea level. To depict the dynamic condition of the aquifer, this report includes a map of changes in water levels between 1995 and 2000 and hydrographs from five wells across the State with longterm records. OPEN FILE MAP SERIES Green, R.C., Evans, W.L., III, Bryan, J., and Paul, D. 2003, Geologic map of the eastern portion of the USGS 1:100,000 Scale Marianna Quadrangle, northwestern Florida: Florida Geological Survey OpenFile Map Series 92, 2 plates. The near surface geology of the eastern half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quadrangle is composed of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging from Eocene to Holocene. Within this area, geologic influences are a combination of fluvio-deltaic and marine deposition, erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic changes in sea level, dolomitization, and dissolution of underlying carbonates. These factors, combined with the fact that there is a transition zone between the primarily siliciclastics sediments of the Gulf Coastal Plain of the Mississippi Embayment to the west and the predominantly carbonate sediments of the Florida Platform within the study area can make differentiation of formations difficult (Green et al., 2001). Several relict Neogene coastal terraces have been recognized in the area and surface topography has been incised by numerous streams, often creating a dendritic drainage pattern. Some streams emerge from steep sided ravines, called steepheads. These features, unique to western Florida, reflect the interaction between ground water and thick, siliciclastics which sit atop impermeable clays of the underlying Alum Bluff Group. Evans, W. L., III, Green, R. C., Bryan, J., and Paul, D. 2004, Geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville Quadrangle, north-central Florida: Florida Geological Survey OpenFile Map Series 93, 2 plates. The near surface geology of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle is composed of a complex mixture of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging from Eocene to Holocene. A combination of factors, including fluvio-deltaic deposition, marine deposition, dissolution of underlying carbonates, erosion of sediments as a result of eustatic changes in sea level, and structural feaFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 54

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tures, have influenced the geology of the study area. Much of the western portion of the Gainesville quadrangle is located within the Suwannee River and Santa Fe River basins. In this area, the Suwannee River, the Santa Fe River, and their tributaries contain at least 55 documented springs, including 9 first magnitude springs (defined as having a minimum average flow of 100 cubic feet per second, or 64.6 million gallons per day). Of a total of 33 first magnitude springs in the state, approximately 27 percent are located within the study area. Many of these springs have evidenced significant increases in pollutants in the last few decades, particularly nitrate (Scott et al., 2002). Detailed geologic mapping of lithostratigraphic units in this area provides critical data needed to help in future assessments of the vulnerability of these aquifer systems to contamination. OPEN FILE REPORTS Rupert, F. 2003, Geology of Suwannee County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Report 86, 9 p. This publication presents an overview of the geology of Suwannee County. Included are sections on: 1) geomorphology, describing the shape and origin of the land surface; 2) stratigraphy, describing the underlying rock strata; 3) ground water, providing an overview of the aquifer systems in Suwannee County; and 4) mineral resources present in the county. Balsillie, J. H., and Dabous, A. A. 2003, A new type of sieve shaker; the Meinzer II comparative study with Rotap technology: Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report No. 87, 93 p. A new type of sieve shaker, the Britishdesigned Meinzer II, is compared to the long-used "industry standard" Rotap shaker. Twenty sand-sized sediment sample pair tests were conducted using four different sieving protocols to determine if Meinzer II shakers duplicate results forthcoming from Rotap shakers. It was found, based on qualitative visual assessments of sample pair cumulative probability distributions, and on quantitative statistical analysis, that Rotap and Meinzer II shakers result in essentially identical outcomes. Furthermore, this conclusion is reached for samples tested with soft or friable sandsized particles, wherein the Meinzer II was found to be gentler than the Rotap machines. Balsillie, J. H., 2003, A mechanically simple and low cost subaqueous surface sediment sampler: Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report No. 88, 19 p. Over the years, the author has developed a subaqueous surface sediment sampler that is simple to operate and inexpensive to construct. It is designed to be operated in water ranging from wading depths to a water depth up to 20 feet when operated from a boat. This paper describes (1) sampling rational of the sedimentation unit for which the device has been designed, (2) sample size constraints for which the sampler has been configured, (3) sampler specifications, dimensions and construction tips, and (4) sampler operation. POSTERS Spencer, S., and Rupert, F. 2003, Florida's industrial minerals: Making modern life possible: Florida Geological Survey Poster 9. Since pre-historic times man has utilized the natural materials from the earth for constructing shelters, tools, utensils, and weapons. The earliest mining in Florida was carried out by Native BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 55

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Americans, who quarried the mineral chert from limestone for use in points and tools. Alluvial clay deposits were also utilized for pots and other cooking utensils. Today minerals from the earth are the building blocks of our modern society. Florida ranks among the top ten states in the nation in industrial mineral production. Florida's minerals are utilized both locally and worldwide. This poster illustrates and describes Florida's common industrial minerals and shows the mining areas for each within the state. Bond, P. A., 2003 Land use and spring protection: Florida Geological Survey Poster 10. This poster illustrates geohydrologic aspects of a springshed and cultural features that have the potential to affect water quality and quantity, with special emphasis on protective practices. Rupert F., and Spencer, S. 2004, Florida's sinkholes: Florida Geological Survey Poster 11. Sinkholes are a natural component of Florida's landscape. In the simplest sense, sinkholes are depressions in the land surface resulting from the dissolution of underlying bedrock. Their size depends on the local geology. Two broad types of sinkholes occur in Florida. Collapse sinkholes form quickly and tend to develop in areas with clayey sediments overlying the bedrock. They typically are the result of an underground cavity enlarging to the point where its ceiling no longer supports the weight of the overlying sediments. Solution sinkholes form gradually and commonly occur in areas with sandy sediments overlying bedrock. These typically form by gradual infilling of cracks and voids in the underlying bedrock by cover sediments. The land surface over the in-filled bedrock subsides in response. This poster illustrates the locations of reported sinkholes in Florida, the primary sinkhole zones statewide, types of sinkholes, and the processes that form them. Greenhalgh, T. 2003, FloridaÂ’s first magnitude springsheds: Florida Geological Survey Poster 12. The Florida Geological Survey in conjunction with the Northwest Florida, Suwannee River, St. Johns River and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts, as well as the United States Geological Survey are working together to develop a preliminary map of Florida's first magnitude spring recharge basins (springsheds). This map is a compilation of the readily available first magnitude springshed boundary maps. The purpose of the map is to inform decision makers (e.g., county commissioners, legislators, and local and state agency personnel) and citizens about the importance of appropriate land use within a springshed and to establish a baseline for the further refinement of the springshed boundaries. As on-going and future research improves the understanding of the ground-water hydrology of these springsheds, more accurate maps of the individual springsheds will be available at the Florida Geological Survey. Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc ., 2003, Karst educational posters: to be available as Florida Geological Survey Poster 13 (CD). This is a series of eight color posters depicting ground water surface water interaction, aquifers, hydrologic cycle, karst, distribution of the earthÂ’s water, porsity and permeability, and how you can help. REPORTS OF INVESTIGATIONS Balsillie, J. H., and Donoghue, J. F. 2004, High-resolution sea-level history for the U. S. Gulf of Mexico since the last glacial maximum: Florida Geological Survey, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 56

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Report of Investigations No. 103, 65 p. Comprehensive, high-resolution, composite sea-level curves for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico since the last glacial maximum have been developed based on all available radiocarbon and calibrated absolute age-data. They are based on sea-level elevation indicators that, on the average, were measured once every 60 years for the past 20,000 years. The data sets consist primarily of geological sea-level indicators (some are archaeological). Published sea-level histories of the Gulf of Mexico exhibit significant variability. While there is error associated with the 14C age dating methodology, the bulk of error is undoubtedly associated with the indicator material chosen to represent sea-level elevation. It is the latter that must be judicially treated. Such error has, perhaps, been inflated to such an argumentative and defeatist extent among researchers that comprehensive compilation and analysis of sea-level data for the Gulf, until now, has been avoided. SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS Copeland, R. E. (Compiler), 2003, Florida spring classification system and spring glossary: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 52, 17 p. In May 2002, a Florida Springs workshop was held in Ocala, Florida sponsored jointly by the Hydrogeology Consortium, the Florida State University, and the Florida Geological Survey. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to facilitate discussion among scientists, resource managers and the public regarding the significance of springs as valuable natural systems. Included among the recommendations of the workshop was the need for the development of consistent terms as applied to spring usage in the state of Florida. As a result, the Florida Geological Survey agreed to form a committee to address spring nomenclature. The Florida Springs Nomenclature Committee was formed in the fall of 2003 and was made up of representatives from the Florida Geological Survey, the state's water management districts, the state university system, the hydrogeological consultant community, and the general public. In addition to developing a glossary of terms, the committee developed a spring classification system in order to allow the citizens of Florida to easily classify springs into one of a minimum number of categories. It is believed that the classification system, as well as the glossary, will assist Floridians in improving their overall understanding of springs and to increase consistency in the usage of terms associated with Florida's springs. Dehan, R. (compiler), 2003, Significance of caves in watershed management and protection in Florida: Workshop Proceedings, April 16-17, 2003, Ocala, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 53, CD. The workshop on the Significance of caves in watershed management and protection in Florida was designed to bridge the gap between cavers and the public at large on the one hand and scientists involved in water resource protection research and regulatory activities on the other. Ideas and discussions were exchanged on ways for cavers to contribute to scientific data gathering while practicing their sport/hobby. The workshop delved into the significance of cave system maps and morphology data in understanding karstification processes and ultimately in understanding the dynamics of ground water flow in saturated caves. Interaction between surface and ground water was of special interest to the participants since this interaction is thought to play a critical role in ground water contamination, thus the health and integrity of watersheds. Finally, discussions were directed to the significance of BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 57

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these types of data in the development of conceptual and numerical models for ground water flow and contaminant transport in karstic settings. Special Publication 54 2004, Proceedings, Aquifer Storage Recovery IV: science, technology, management and policy, Tampa, Florida April 15-16, 2004: Florida Geological Survey CD. This CD contains a compilation of the oral and poster presentations and discussion summaries from the Aquifer Storage Recovery IV, science, technology, management, and policy held in Tampa, Florida April 15 & 16, 2004. The Forum was sponsored and organized by the American Ground Water Trust, the Florida Geological Survey, and the Hydrogeology Consortium. Additional co-sponsors included: the US Geological Survey, the Florida Ground Water Association, the South Florida Water Management District, the St. Johns River Water Management District, the Florida Association of Professional Geologists, and the Southwest Florida Water Management District. Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) technology is a well established method of conserving water resources and has been used in numerous parts of the world for many years. It has also been used successfully in Florida, and in recent years has received much attention in regard to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan, in which ASR is proposed to play a significant role. This Forum addressed "Science and Technology" issues on the first day and "Management and Policy" issues the second day with numerous experts presenting papers and responding to questions. In addition, several excellent research projects were summarized in poster sessions during the meeting. These presentations and posters are compiled in this CD to make this important information available to the professional community, interested government officials and the public. This information will assist government agencies, land owners, environmentalists, hydrogeologists, and engineers, in better conserving and protecting Florida's precious water resources. Special Publication 56 2004, Wakulla Springs scientific symposium, May 13, 2004: Florida Geological Survey CD, Wakulla Spring has long been a draw to wildlife and ancient human inhabitants. What we see today as the Woodville Karst Plain had itÂ’s beginnings after the original deposition of the marine sediments (during the Oligocene and Miocene, (35 through 5 million years ago). Marine, coastal and fluvial processes alternatively deposited and reworked successive layers of younger rocks. In this area, most of these are now missing due to subsequent erosion and redeposition further offshore. We now have residual quartz sands, with included shell material and sporadic silts and clays, overlying the irregular karstic surface of the lithified limestone. Numerous fluctuations in sea-level occurred throughout the Neogene and several during the Pleistocene have been welldocumented, using many lines of evidence. This relentless "pumping" caused by ongoing fluctuations in sea-level and the continuous dissolution of the carbonate rocks from aggressive surface and ground water has resulted in one of the most prolific groundwater aquifers in the world, what we call the Floridan Aquifer System. The last major episode of sea-level change probably resulted in the formation of the cave / conduit system we see today. The professional cave diving community has utilized the Wakulla Cave system FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 58

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and surrounding area for training, equipment testing, and exploration of the system. They have mapped the resource and assisted land managers with conservation planning and environmental protection. Cave diving exploration has occurred sporadically since 1955 and in the mid 1980's the US Deep Caving Team came to the area for exploration and equipment testing. Most importantly, also, the mid1980's saw the beginning of the Woodville Karst Plain Project ( a NSS sanctioned project in cooperation with Global Underwater Explorers), which has resulted in continuous diving exploration and research in the system for over 20 years, providing invaluable data, information, and scientific cooperation with the hydrogeologic community. Partially as a result of this collaboration between the cave diving community and the hydrogeologic community, a workshop was held in 2003 in Ocala, titled: Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida The proceedings of that meeting are now published in CD format as FGS Special Publication No. 53. The Wakulla Springs scientific symposium assembled local experts to summarize their recent activities and current research. These presentations include the Florida Springs Initiative; a general hydrogeologic overview of the area; a review of wetland ecosystems; information on some new cave and conduit flow measurements; and dye tracing studies; a bio-reconnaissance overview; a review of some studies that are part of the Woodville Karst Plain Project; a review of local aquifer recharge studies, and several other projects in the region. VIDEO SERIES Singer, M., Jablonski, J. and Arthur, J. (co-producers), 2004, Florida's Aquifer Adventure: Florida Geological Survey Video Series No. 2 produced in cooperation with Global Underwater Explorers and HazlettKincaid, Inc., DVD/VHS, 20 minutes. FloridaÂ’s Aquifer Adventure! is a 20 minute educational film describing FloridaÂ’s aquifer systems, springs, underwater caves, cave diving and environmental issues through spectacular videography. The lead producer and editor of the film was Marc Singer (Global Underwater Explorers), winner of the Sundance Film Festival award. The project, funded by the FGS Hydrogeology Program, was lead by Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc. The film has been aired on Florida Public Television and is available in VHS and DVD formats from the FGS. MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS Miscellaneous reports include contract progress reports and deliverables, or other special reports prepared in-house, in hard copy or digital format. They are not part of the regular FGS publication series but, because they commonly represent extensive data gathering, compilation, and analysis projects, they are included here as scientific reports. Balsillie, J. H. 2004, Native sediment composite statistics for Alligator Spit beach sands, Gulf of Mexico Coast, northern Florida: Unpublished report to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, 94 p. Beach restoration and maintenance renourishment design protocols require knowledge of the granulometry of borrow material and native beach material. Comparative numerical statistics of borrow and native materials are then used to quantitatively determine overfill ratios and maintenance renourishment schedules (Krumbein, 1957; Krumbein and James, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 59

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1965; James, 1974, 1975: Hobson, 1977; etc.). Granulometric statistics can be viewed as either suite statistics or composite statistics. For the former, suite means are determined by averaging moment measures to yield the mean of the means, the mean of the standard deviations, mean of skewness, mean of kurtosis, etc. For the latter, frequency or cumulative frequency percentiles of all sample distributions are averaged and then analyzed to produce the composite mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, etc. The two approaches result in different statistical outcomes. Composite statistics are those used in beach design work. Composite and suite statistics have been discussed in detail by Krumbein (1957), Dwass (Krumbein, 1957, Appendix B), Balsillie and Tanner (1999), and Balsillie (2002). Parker, W. C., Arnold, A. J., Balsillie, J. H., and Hiller, W. C. 2003, The application of benthic foraminifera to environmental analysis of coastal habitats of the Florida Panhandle: Contract deliverable to the Florida Geological Survey, June 30, 2003, 18 p. Preliminary work as part of a previously DEP-funded Springs project demonstrated that foraminiferal assemblages in the Spring Creek and St. Joseph Bay regions are particularly sensitive to spring outflow induced changes in salinity and anthropogenic pollutants. However, timing of the original research funding did not permit exploration of temporal changes in the foraminiferal assemblages being studied. In order to demonstrate a robust and reliable relationship between the micro/meiofauna of these environments and salinity/pollution, natural temporal and spatial variation of the fauna must be recorded. This was the fundamental goal of the present project. The primary study areas included the St. Marks River estuary and the Spring Creek estuarine system. A secondary goal of the project was to survey samples taken in 1996-1998 in the Cedar-Ortega River above its confluence with the St. John's River, as part of a separate project. This survey was intended to assess the suitability of those stored cores for further historical foraminiferal analysis. Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie, J.H., Dabous A., LaChance M., and Fischler C. 2003, A geological investigation of the offshore area along Florida's northeast coast, Year 1: Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service: 2002-2003: Florida Geological Survey, unpublished report, CD. The FGS and the U.S. Minerals Management Service entered into a multiyear cooperative agreement with the specific goal of locating and characterizing both the areal extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. In Year 1 of this study, over 230 miles of seismic data was collected and interpreted to determine locations thought to have been favorable for the deposition of beach-quality sand. A total of 34 beach sampling locations were identified and 106 surface samples collected and a total of 10 offshore seabed grab sample locations were visited. Grab samples were collected from 9 offshore locations. Three push cores were collected on Bird Island, an island in the ebb tidal delta of the Nassau River. Descriptions were made and grain size distributions were determined for all beach and offshore seabed grab samples and push cores. All of the above referenced data are accessible within this report. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 60

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As a result of the seismic stratigraphic analysis several features indicative of high potential for the occurrence of beach restoration quality sand in federal waters off Duval County were identified. This analysis was discussed with representatives of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jacksonville District Office and a copy of the preliminary work map delineating those features provided to them. Phelps, D.C., Hoenstine, R.W., Balsillie, J.H., Ladner, L.J., Dabous A., LaChance M., Bailey K., and Fischler C. 2004, A geological investigation of the offshore area along Florida's northeast coast, Year 2: Annual Report to the United States Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service: Florida Geological Survey unpublished report, DVD. The FGS and the U.S. Minerals Management Service have continued a multi-year cooperative agreement to locate and characterize both the areal extent and volume of available sands suitable for beach nourishment lying in federal waters adjacent to state submerged lands off the northeast coast of Florida. One-hundred-and ninety miles of seismic data were collected offshore of Nassau, Duval and Flagler Counties in Year 2. The seismic data collected in Years 1 and 2 are provided as processed images. A total of 127 beach samples were collected from the beaches of St. Johns and Flagler Counties. Photographs and granulometric analyses of the beach samples collected from St. Johns County are provided. Fifty two vibracores were collected offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties and three vibracores were collected in the mouth of the St. Johns River. Vibracores directly acquired by the FGS are provided as photographs and granulometric analyses. Vibracores acquired by a contractor are provided as penetration curves, drilling diagrams and, with exceptions, as granulometric curves. Analysis of these vibracore data infers potential reserves of up to 198.5 million cubic yards of restoration-quality sand offshore of southern Duval County. Analysis of the sub-bottom profiler data indicate the presence of areas of anomalous dip offshore of Nassau and Duval Counties a well as three clearly identifiable buried depressions which are interpreted to be dissolution collapse features. These three conjectured collapse features lie six to seven miles offshore, are vertically persistent to the base of the seismic data recorded and are not expressed bathymetrically. Based on age-date analysis of woody material present in one of the vibracores, the calculated sedimentation rate for the first 16.8 feet of sediments in this core is 0.3621 mm per year +\.0015 mm. This figure would set an approximate lower limit on the average Holocene sedimentation rate locally. Schmidt, Walter 2004, Geologic and geoechnical investigation procedures for evaluation of the causes of subsidence damage in Florida: A report submitted to the Florida State University, College of Business, Department of Risk Management and Insurance, in response to requirements of Chapter 627.7077 Florida Statutes, 21 p. PAPERSBYSTAFFIN OUTSIDEPUBLICATIONS Arthur, J.D., Dabous, A.A. and Cowart, J.C. ,2003, Water-rock geochemical considerations for Class V aquifer storage and recovery wells: Florida case studies, 2003: Abstract, Second International Symposium on Underground Injection Science and Technology Symposium, Berkeley Laboratories, CA, Symposium Abstracts, October 22-25, 2003, p. 63-64. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 61

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Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an effective method of meeting increasing water-supply demands by injecting available water into confined or semi-confined permeable formations for later withdrawal as needed. Not only does ASR meet increasing demands for drinking water, but it has several applications in industry, agriculture and environmental restoration. A prime example of the latter application is the role of ASR in the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). More than 300 ASR wells are proposed in South Florida to capture ~1.7 billion gallons of water per day and store it in the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) for later use. The planned CERP effort alone comprises an order of magnitude increase in ASR applications in Florida within the next two decades. Many scientific and engineering issues need to be addressed in the design, construction, testing and operation of an ASR facility. Some of these issues include the fate and transport of microorganisms, algal toxins, and changes in water chemistry (and thus quality) due to ASR practices. Our research focuses on the characterization of water quality changes during ASR activities in Florida. Long-term goals of our project include: 1) investigation of waterrock interaction during ASR with an emphasis on identifying the source and mechanism for trace metal mobilization into injected and recovered water; 2) assessment of these interactions within varying hydrogeologic settings (i.e., different aquifer systems and matrix compositions [chemical/mineralogical]); 3) evaluation of the effect of repeated ASR cycle testing and other ASR practices (e.g., borehole acidization) on these interactions; 4) exploring the application of U isotopes to identify source waters (injected, native and interstitial) and mixing; and 5) providing the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and CERP with scientific knowledge on which to base ASR design, regulatory and operational decisions. At present, ASR wells in five facilities located in southwest Florida comprise the focus of our research. Results summarized herein are based on our work at two of these facilities, which are located more than 120 km apart: Rome Avenue ASR, Hillsborough County and Punta Gorda ASR, Charlotte County. Combined results from multiple cycle tests at these facilities suggest that As, Fe, Mn, Ni (?), V (?) and U are mobilized from the aquifer system matrix into the injected waters. This mobilization is most apparent during the recovery phase of a cycle test at the ASR well. Arsenic and U mobilization are the most consistent and well-documented trends, with concentrations exceeding 85 g/l and 6 g/l, respectively. Three pairs of cycle tests indicate that maximum observed As concentrations decrease during successive cycle testing. This preliminary observation holds true only where both cycle-test injection volumes are similar and exposure of "new" aquifer matrix to the injected water is minimal. This result is not only desired, but expected assuming that the As source is a fixed and consistently depleted concentration within the aquifer matrix and not replenished due to changes in redox conditions (e.g., pH-adjusted cycle tests), mixing or changes in flow paths. In contrast, data from paired cycle tests where the second injection input volume is greater reveal different results. In this scenario, As concentrations in the second cycle test are equal to or greater than those of the first cycle test due to the exposure of input waters to a larger volume of previously unaffected (e.g., un-leached) aquifer matrix. A further observation relevant to the design and monitoring of cycle tests is that maximum As concentrations are observed during recovery after 50 percent or more of the input waters are recovered (as measured by total recovery volume). Data also indicate that different geochemical processes or reactions govern the relative mobility of metals. For example, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 62

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during recovery U concentrations peak earlier than those of As and other metals. The activity ratio (AR) of 234U/238U is also useful for identifying mixing and evolution of waters during ASR. Moreover, the AR is useful to demonstrate heterogeneity that exists among wells in a single wellfield (Rome Avenue) or between ASR facilities located kilometers apart (Rome Avenue [Tampa] and Punta Gorda). Various models are proposed to account for the observed trends in AR including mobilization of thin234U-depleted U carbonate grain coatings, and mobilization of homogeneously distributed 234U-depleted U from within grains by aggressive, oxic waters. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of storage zones in the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) at both ASR facilities has been determined through a variety of analytical methods. Average compositions for FAS limestones are similar to global averages, except for Cr, which is higher in the FAS rocks. Maximum concentrations of some metals (e.g., As, Ni, and U), however, far exceed global limestone averages. Mineralogy of the ASR storage zone carbonates is dominantly calcite and dolomite with minor clay minerals and organic material, and trace amounts of quartz, gypsum, and pyrite. Semiquantative microprobe analyses of pyrites tentatively suggest that As concentrations vary up to more than two weight percent. Although additional As-bearing phases (i.e., Fe-Mn grain coatings, organics) are suspected, they were not detected in our preliminary microprobe study; however, another analytical technique suggests that trace metals are more widely dispersed within the aquifer matrix. Limestone samples from an ASR storage zone were analyzed by a sequential extraction technique designed to identify the concentration of As, U, and other trace metals in four mineral/phase groups: total soluble heavy metals, carbonates, Feand Mn-oxides, and organics plus sulfides. Preliminary results indicate that although most of these trace metals are concentrated in the "organics plus sulfides" fraction, trace metals are also associated with the other mineral-bound fractions. In closing, the Floridan aquifer system matrix is chemically heterogeneous, which is not only exemplified by carbonate geochemical data, but by variable geochemical responses observed in cycle tests data from wells only a few hundred meters apart (Rome Avenue ASR wells). Mobilization of As, Fe, Mn, U and other metals is observed during ASR activities. A principle mechanism of this mobility is likely the input of oxygen-rich surface waters into a reduced aquifer, thereby oxidizing trace-metal rich phases (e.g. pyrite) and releasing metals into solution. Other variables affecting this mobility include: 1) native and input water chemistry and related parameters, 2) aquifer matrix chemistry/mineralogy, 3) input water matrix contact time and number of cycle tests, and 4) site-specific hydrogeology (e.g., pore/conduit geometry, dynamic pathways). In addition to U being mobile, U activity ratios are useful toward understanding ground water evolution during ASR activities. Due to concerns regarding maximum contaminant levels, the design, construction and operation of ASR facilities, including monitor well placement and monitoring schedules should take into account the possibility of water-rock interaction and mobilization of metals into recovered waters. Arthur, J.D., DeHan, R.D., Kincaid, T.R., and Bond, P. 2003, Education and outreach efforts toward better management and protection of Florida springs: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 1. The Florida Legislature authorized the Florida Department of Environmental BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 63

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Protection (FDEP) Florida Geological Survey (FGS), in Fiscal Year 2001/2002, to enhance the new FGS Hydrogeology Program with funds from the Water Quality Assurance Act trust fund. These funds are largely applied to hydrogeologic research activities through "outsourcing" to universities and the private sector. Needs identified by FDEP programs stressed that an improved understanding of the interaction between ground and surface water, especially in Florida's unique karstic geology setting, would be valuable toward watershed resource protection and management. As such, most of the scientific research and education/outreach activities funded by the Hydrogeology Program focus on springs and related karst systems. Outreach and education activities are summarized below. Descriptions of scientific research coordinated by the program are on-line at: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/programssections/hydrogeology.htm 1) Establishment of a Florida karst database: An Internet-accessible database is being developed to provide access to locations, depths and dimensions of Florida caves. This data is essential for accurate delineation of watershed or springshed boundaries, and is important regarding ground-water flow modeling efforts in karst aquifers. Upon completion of this application, qualified users will be able to input, store and retrieve karst-related data. The web-site also provides educational information about Florida karst geology. 2) Construction of educational models and exhibits: Karst and hydrogeologic-cycle concepts are presented in a series of posters and a short video within the framework of a "traveling kiosk." This display is intended to be a resource for middle and high school students, their teachers and the general public to help them become aware of issues associated with living in, managing and protecting ecosystems dominated by karst geology. 3) A Workshop titled "Blueprints for the management and protection of Florida's springs:" This two-day workshop, held in May of 2002 in Ocala, was framed around three invited panels of experts and a plenary session. The workshop focused on both the science and policies of managing and protecting springs. The findings and recommendations of the panels, including significant input from workshop participants, have been published as "workshop proceedings" in a CD ROM format that is available to the public. To obtain a copy, contact the FGS, or visit our website at the Internet address listed above. 4) Springshed posters: Two posters pertaining to springsheds are being prepared by the FGS: 1) In response to a request by One Thousand Friends of Florida, the FGS recently prepared a graphic illustrating various factors involved in springshed basin planning. This graphic will be expanded as an educational poster relating land use to underlying karst geology. 2) In accordance with ideas stemming from the Springs workshop in Ocala (see #3 above), the FGS is leading a multi-agency effort to compile existing knowledge of springshed boundaries. This preliminary information will be the central focus of a poster designed to inform decision makers and citizens about the location and significance of these areas that are highly vulnerable to ground-water contamination. For more information, please see the abstract presented at this conference by Tom Greenhalgh, FDEP/FGS). 5) "Florida MAPS:" This is a developing curriculum project centered on hands-on use of satellite and airborne imagery, aerial photography, topographic maps, and other special-purpose cartographic products. Classroom activities will focus on Florida hydrogeology and will allow middleand high-school students to visualize natural processes and relate them to other disciplines (e.g., mathematics and history). FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 64

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Student and teacher manuals contain sitespecific background information (e.g., Woodville Karst Plain) and sets of handson' and 'minds-on' interdisciplinary activities keyed to the national and state science standards. Baker, A., Cichon, J., Arthur, J., and Wood, H.A.R., III, 2003,Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment model, a step by step approach to predicting aquifer vulnerability at the springshed level using weights of evidence: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 2. Water flowing from Florida's springs originates from within the Floridan aquifer system. Water quality degradation can be attributed to land-use activities occurring within a spring's catchment area or "springshed". The Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) involves the development of a GIS model to estimate the relative vulnerability of Florida's aquifer systems. Model development is currently in the preliminary stages and consists of five countywide projects (four of which appear in this poster). Weights of Evidence quantifies relationships between spatial layers with measured contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. Using these calculated relationships, interactions can be analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive model or relative probability map. The model currently involves utilization of the following spatial layers: thickness of confining unit, soil drainage, and spatial distribution of karst features. The model is designed to be easy to update as well as scaleable, thereby enabling evaluation of individual springsheds. The model will also allow for the incorporation of additional data layers including karst features (e.g., hole type, sinks, conduits, etc.), detailed potentiometric surface maps and lineament features. Further, land use and nutrient loading could be added as inputs to produce a susceptibility model. Balsillie, J. H., Dunbar, J.D., Means, G.H., and Means, R.C. 2003, Stratigraphic integrity of the Middle Paleoindian Ryan-Harley Site (8Je1004): abstract, Florida Anthropological Society 55th Annual Meeting, Florida Underwater Archaeology Conference 3rd Annual Meeting, Abstract Volume, 15p. Based on the seriation and chronological placement of Suwannee points and a correlation to a regional event stratigraphy, the Ryan-Harley site is relatively placed from 10,900 14C BP to ~10,500 14C BP. The Suwannee point level was determined to be intact under the river bank and was actively eroding in the Wacissa River channel. Distribution and taphonomic analysis of specimens from the Suwannee point level suggest the assemblage, including the faunal remains, represents an undisturbed site. Geologic granulometric analysis of clastic sediments and other evidence indicates the Suwannee point level of the RyanHarley site is intact with little or no postdepositional reworking. Bond, P.A., 2003 A picture of spring protection-posters in education and outreach: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Abstracts with Program, v. 34, no. 7, p. 19. Florida's springs are a treasured part of the state's environmental heritage. The state's population growth (estimated at 4,000 to 6,000 new permanent residents per week) and overwhelming use of ground water (about 93% of the population depends on it) are coupled with the innate vulnerability of its hydrogeologic setting. In support of an innovative spring protection campaign initiated by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) has published two BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 65

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posters that illustrate different aspects of spring protection and ground-water resources in a karst environment. The FGS uses illustration as a visual bridge between hydrogeology and various human activities that impact water resources in Florida's karst terrain. Florida is characterized by low topographic relief so that even common features such as layered rocks and fractures are rarely observed by lay people. Sinkholes often contain slump material obscuring their relationship to rock layers and the ground-water resources they contain. The surficial expression of a spring is shown both in its hydrogeologic (cross-section view) and environmental context (plan view). This juxtaposition of hydrogeologic and environmental/cultural information provides Floridians of all ages with an understanding of ways in which their actions impact springs. Posters are an important part of the education and outreach effort at the FGS. They are used successfully as part of presentations to groups of all ages and are easily used in unconventional venues. A short text with references allows stand-alone use in class rooms, state parks and municipal and state offices. Digital versions of the illustrations are regularly incorporated into talks allowing the presenter maximum flexibility in commentary. Visually appealing posters that convey clear, positive, and accessible information are a cost-effective means of reaching diverse audiences. Bond, P.A., 2004 A picture of spring protection-posters in education and outreach: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Geoscience Information Society, v. 34, 5 p. Florida's springs are a cultural and environmental treasure. The motivation to protect them is widespread. Two posters have been produced at the Florida Geological Survey as part of a spring protection effort led by the Department of Environmental Protection. Both posters have as their focus a large color illustration of a Florida landscape with a cross-section view of the hydrogeology that is associated with the landscape. A spring is a prominent feature of both the landscape and the crosssection. This format was chosen so that the relationship of surface water to ground water and the subsurface movement of ground water could be illustrated. Illustration is used in an attempt to overcome the difficulty that non-geoscientists experience in conceptualizing subsurface rock layers and the ground-water resources they contain. Protecting Florida's Springs presents fundamental elements of the hydrogeology of springs. Land Use and Spring Protection emphasizes a distribution of land use activities that planners expect will provide maximum protection for the spring and was based on the technical illustration, Overlay Protection District Because of their versatility and popular appeal posters remain a valuable part of education and outreach efforts at the Florida Geological Survey. Cichon, J. R., Arthur, J. D., and Baker, A. E., 2003, An application of the Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment model to springshed protection: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 8. The quality of water flowing from Florida's springs is directly related to the dynamic interaction between land use, recharge and the hydrogeology of a particular spring catchment area, or "springshed." As defined in the Workshop to Develop Blue Prints for the Management and Protection of Florida's Springs held in Ocala in May, 2002, a springshed is "those areas within ground-water and surface-water basins that contribute to the discharge of the spring." Land use within a springshed can have FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 66

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an impact on water quality flowing from the spring system. Due to variable hydrogeologic settings within the springshed, water quality changes due to land use practices may be observed weeks to decades after the application of the contaminant. As such, it is important to identify relative aquifer vulnerability within a springshed to limit the impacts on water quality in the spring system. Best Management Practices designed to improve and protect the quality of ground water (including springs) are enhanced when this science-based knowledge is considered. The Florida Geological Survey is currently developing a GIS model to estimate the relative vulnerability of Florida's aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Model development is currently in the preliminary stages consisting of five countywide projects. The overall intent of FAVA is the development of a tool for environmental, regulatory and planning professionals to facilitate the protection of Florida's groundwater resources. FAVA differs from the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC model in that the newer technique is GIS-based and accounts for Florida's karstic terrain. Current methods employed in FAVA model development include Weights of Evidence, Fuzzy Logic and a Travel Time method. Of these geostatistical methods, Weights of Evidence holds the most promise. Weights of Evidence quantifies relationships between spatial layers with actual contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. Using these calculated relationships, interactions can be analyzed to yield a data-driven predictive model. The model currently utilizes the following spatial data layers (evidential themes): thickness of confining unit, depth to water, soil drainage, and the percentage of an area covered by karst features. Although the FAVA model will be produced as a statewide model, it is scalable for application within study areas of varying sizes, such as a springshed. The resolution of evidential themes is dependent upon the quantity and accuracy of data collected. Data collection can be designed to yield a more highly resolved vulnerability model, especially for local-scale needs. Moreover, due to flexibility of the FAVA design, evidential themes specifically relevant to local karst terrains (e.g., conduits, lineaments, etc.) can be added to the model to significantly enhance its application as a predictive tool on the scale of a springshed. Cichon, J.R., Arthur, J., Baker, A., and Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment: Abstract, 67th Annual Meeting, Florida Academy of Sciences, Orlando, FL, Florida Scientist, v. 66, supplement 1, p. 54. The Florida Geological Survey is currently developing a model to estimate the relative vulnerability of FloridaÂ’s aquifer systems: the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA). Model development is currently in the preliminary stages consisting of five county wide projects. The overall intent of FAVA is the development of a tool for environmental, regulatory and planning professionals to facilitate protection of FloridaÂ’s ground-water resources. Weights of Evidence, the current method employed in the FAVA model, quantifies relationships between spatial layers with actual contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. The model currently utilizes the following spatial layers (evidential themes): thickness of confining unit, sold drainage, and spatial distribution of karst features. Cichon, J.R.., Baker, A.E., Arthur, J.D., and Wood, H.A.R., 2003, Florida aquifer vulnerability assessment (FAVA) utilizing geologic mapping data to predict aquifer vulnerability: Abstract, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Program, v. 34, no. 7, p. 65. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 67

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The relative vulnerability of an aquifer to contamination is dependent upon the thickness and composition of sediments overlying it and the rate at which contaminants travel through these sediments. To predict the vulnerability of FloridaÂ’s major aquifer systems to contamination the Florida Geological Survey is currently developing the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model. FAVA differs from the Environmental Protection AgencyÂ’s DRASTIC model in that the newer technique is GIS based and accounts for FloridaÂ’s karst terrain. Current methods employed in FAVA model development include Weights of Evidence, Fuzzy Logic and Travel Time. Of these methods, Weights of Evidence best utilizes new and available data sets to predict relative vulnerability since it is statistically validated on the front end, easily updateable, uncertainties can be calculated and the model avoids preconceptions. Weights of Evidence quantifies relationships between spatial layers with actual contaminant occurrences in order to assess a hypothesis. Contaminant source data (i.e., training points) is obtained from the Florida Department of Environmental ProtectionÂ’s Background Water Quality Network of wells. Spatial layers (i.e., evidential themes) consist of existing and newly developed GIS data and include depth to water, soil drainage, distance to karst features, thickness of confinement and vertical leakage rates. Different evidential themes are utilized based on the aquifer being modeled. The evidential themes included in the Floridan Aquifer System (FAS) model, for example, are thickness of confining unit, distance to karst features and soil drainage. To aid in the creation of these themes, data collected during geologic mapping projects (e.g., cores, well cuttings, and wireline logs) are utilized. By calculating the statistical significance between training points and evidential themes, interactions can be analyzed to yield a datadriven predictive model. The output is a grid-based probability map that can be used by environmental, regulatory and planning professionals to facilitate the protection of FloridaÂ’s ground-water resources. Cichon, J.R., Wood, H.A.R., Baker, A.E., and Arthur, J.A. 2004, Application of geologic mapping and geographic information systems to delineate sensitive karst areas for land-use decisions: American Geological Institute website, http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf, 2004 The Floridan Aquifer System (FAS), a thick sequence of tertiary carbonates, is a major fresh water resource in the Florida panhandle. Overburden comprised of Surficial Aquifer System and/or Intermediate Aquifer System sediments may act to protect the FAS from potential contamination sources where it is present. This overburden can be several hundred feet thick where it provides variable confinement for the FAS, or it can be thin to absent in areas where carbonate units comprising the FAS are exposed at or near land surface. In areas where the overburden is thin to absent, the potential for karst terrain development such as sinkholes and collapse features is increased. Karst terrain provides preferential flow paths for surface water to enter the underlying aquifer system, and therefore places them at a greater risk of contamination from the surface. To develop the sensitive karst areas (SKA) boundary the FGS utilized a Geographic Information System incorporating spatial data layers such as the state geologic map, land surface topography and overburden thickness maps. Land surface topography is comprised of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) developed for the FAVA project. The DEM was created by digitizing U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale Quadrangle maps, converting these FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 68

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arcs to a Triangular Irregular Network and then into a 30 X 30 meter GRID. The DEM GRID along with a GRID of the top of the Floridan Aquifer System, acquired from the NWFWMD, was used to develop a FAS overburden GRID. This was accomplished by subtracting the FAS overburden from the DEM. Areas of less then 100 feet of FAS overburden were then identified and overlain on areas affected by karst topography in the NWFWMD. Based on the combination of these two maps the SKA limits were identified for the NWFWMD. This methodology was created for the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Resource Management and was inserted in the FDEP Environmental Resource Permit Applicant's Handbook Volume II, Engineering Requirements for Stormwater Treatment and Management Systems Water Quality and Water Quantity The delineated SKA maps are used when sighting proposed stormwater holding ponds and establishes additional design criteria for these structures including minimum thickness of sediment between the surface and limestone, total depth of holding pond, vegetation requirements, sediment traps, liners and potentially ground-water modeling. For more information on this project please refer to the American Geological Institute website: http://www.agiweb.org/environment/publications/mapping/graphics/florida.pdf Copeland, R. E., 2003, Development of a spring glossary and classification system for use in Florida: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 9. In May of 2002, the Florida Geological Survey and the Hydrogeology Consortium co-sponsored a workshop to "Develop Blue Prints for Managing and Protecting Florida's Springs." The workshop was interactive and the attendees were asked to participate in the discussions. Many did and they expressed the belief that if the state is to efficiently protect its springs, then a firm understanding of Florida's springs is critical. If we are to understand our springs, then our knowledge begins with a definition of terms. With this in mind, participants at the meeting requested that the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) take the lead in developing a glossary of terms to be used by both the scientific community and the public of the state with regard to springs. As a response to the workshop, the Spring Nomenclature Committee was established. In addition to the FGS and the Hydrogeology Consortium, the committee consists of representatives from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the state's Water Management Districts, the United States Geological Survey, the state university system, the hydrogeological consulting industry of the state, and the public. The goal of the committee was to define terms commonly used in Florida regarding springs. The glossary consists of the most commonly used spring terms, along with their synonyms. Whenever possible, terminology was taken from professional dictionaries and glossaries. During the development stage of the glossary, it became apparent that a spring classification system should also be developed. A spring classification system can act as a model that enables one to envision the relationship of one spring to the others within the state. In effect, a classification system assists us in better understanding our springs. For this reason, the committee decided that a spring glossary and classification system go hand-in-hand. They took it upon themselves to develop a spring classification system in addition to the glossary. As it turns out, all of Florida's springs can be grouped into only a handful of different BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 69

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classes. This was fortunate in that it greatly reduces the complexity in the way we think of our springs. Copeland, R.E., and Upchurch, S.B. 2003, Use of indices in evaluating Florida's ground-water quality: Abstract, Final Program (with abstracts), 19th Annual Environmental Monitoring Conference, Arlington, VA., p. 158. In the late 1990s, Florida re-designed its statewide surfaceand ground-water quality monitoring networks, and based the design on random sampling. There was a desire to develop water quality indices that indicate, in defendable but simplistic terms, the overall quality of water in: (1) an individual sample and (2) over an entire basin. The Ground-Water Quality Index is based on whether one or more sampled analytes exceeds a Guidance Concentration Level (GCL) in a sample. Each GCL is based on known or suspected human health hazards. The logic is that if only one such chemical exceeds its GCL, then the water cannot fully support its designated use. For ground water the designated use is drinking water. The Basin Resource Index is based on the proportion of ground-water samples from an area that have at least one analyte that exceeds a GCL. The redesigned network commenced operations in 2000 and during the first year it sampled approximately 25% of the state. It was found that 89% ( 4%) of the wells in the sampled portion of Florida meet standards. For the first time, Florida has a key indicator that can be used to estimate the overall quality of its ground water with known confidence. Copeland, R.E. 2003, Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Florida spring water quality: Abstract, Program Issue, Florida Academy of Sciences, 67th Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL., Florida Scientist, v. 66, Supplement 1, p. 51. Copeland, R.E. 2003, Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Florida spring water quality: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 10. Florida has over 700 recognized springs. Unfortunately, chemicals produced by man's land use activities that enter aquifer systems through natural recharge processes can negatively impact the quality of spring water. In addition, because of the high demand of ground water, heavy pumping can potentially lower aquifer water levels. This can result in a negative impact on both the flow rate and the water chemistry of springs. Thirteen, first-magnitude springs were sampled for 17 common chemicals by governmental agencies in 1948, the early 1970s, 1985, and 2001. These fours sets of consistent data were used for long term trend detection. Results indicate that between the early 1970s and 2001, nitrate concentrations have increased in 13 first-magnitude springs almost 20-fold. The increase is tied to land use activities in the vicinity of the springs and is adversely affecting aquatic life in several of the associated spring runs. Between 1985 and 2001, the total dissolved solids (TDS) have significantly increased. This could be related to the recent decrease in Florida's rainfall since the late 1990s, which has lowered ground-water levels and discharge from springs. Evidence suggests that mineralized ground water, originating from the deeper portion of Florida's aquifers and migrating upward due to excessive ground-water pumping, could be the reason for the increase in TDS. Currently, this theory is being checked by analyzing water quality data collected either quarterly or bimonthly from the states' water management districts since the 1980s. Denizman, C., Kincaid, T., Arthur, J., and DeHan, R. 2004, Karst Development in Florida: Spatial analyses based on subsurface and surficial karst databases in GIS: Abstract, Geological Society of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 70

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America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 134. Most research on karst geomorphology of Florida has been based on surficial karst features primarily because cave data has not been easily accessible especially in digital format. In order to provide a centralized repository for cave data in Florida, the Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology Section (FGS-HS) initiated the Florida Cave Database project in 2001. The purpose of the project is to compile and synthesize all available maps and data for caves in Florida into a centralized GIS-compatible database. To date, the Florida Cave Database includes 31 of the largest underwater caves in Florida that constitute more than 130km of conduits. The cave files were digitized from maps and survey data provided by the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section and the Global Underwater Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project. Location, conduit trend, conduit dimension, water quality, flow direction, ownership, and land use include some of the data fields underlying point and line based shapefiles fully documented by metadata. The water quality component of the database will be rendered compatible with the Florida Springs database (also being developed by the FGS-HS). This paper explains the database structure; shows the results of conduit trend analyses; and presents the extent of subsurface karst development in Florida by statistical summaries of morphometric data on cave passages such as length, width, and depth. Comparing the cave distribution to the previously prepared GIS database of some 25,000 sinkholes, this study also attempts to investigate the connection between subsurface and surficial karst development. Further information about the Florida Cave Database can be obtained from www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/ Green, R.C., Evans, W.L. III, Bryan, J., and Paul, D. 2004, Surficial and bedrock geology of the eastern portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quadrangle, northwestern Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America, Northeastern Section Southeastern Section Joint Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 61. The near surface geology of the eastern half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quadrangle, which was mapped by the Florida Geological Survey as part of a two-year STATEMAP project, is composed of Eocene to Holocene carbonate and siliciclastic sediments. Within this area, geologic processes include a combination of fluviodeltaic and marine deposition, erosion, dolomitization, and karstification. Several structural, sedimentological, and geomorphic variables are unique to the area and have affected the near surface expression and interpretation of the geology of the region. Two important structural features are recognized: the Chattahoochee Arch – a northeast/southwest-trending high that exposes Eocene and Oligocene carbonates, with younger strata thinning around the arch; and the Apalachicola Embayment/Gulf Trough an elongated basin that widens southwestward, towards the Gulf of Mexico, and narrows to the northeast into Georgia. Gulf water moved through this strait from the Middle Eocene through Oligocene, flowing across the eastern panhandle of Florida, through southern Georgia and to the Atlantic Ocean. This structure crosses through the southeastern part of the study area, and noticeably influenced sedimentation patterns in the region. The Eocene to Miocene carbonate units exposed in the area have regional stratigraphic significance, and historically have been identified, correlated, and interpreted in many different ways. Some previous investigators relied heavily on fossils to establish formations and correlate facies BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 71

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within this region, a practice which has led to some lithostratigraphic confusion. Detailed mapping of the carbonate units allows for a better understanding of the relationships between cave development, karstification, ground-water quality, and regional geology in the area. In the northeastern portion of the study area, where the siliciclastics thin and the carbonates are near the surface, numerous karst features, springs, and caves are present. These karst features often allow for direct recharge of surface water to the Floridan Aquifer System. This infiltration of surface water influences the groundwater quality of springs in the area as recognized by increased nitrate concentrations in the spring water. Kincaid, T.R., Denizman, C., Arthur, J.D., and Hazlett, T. 2004, The Florida Cave Database: A GIS of underwater caves for hydrogeological characterizations: Abstract, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 85. Caves are one of the most hydrologically important but least understood and documented physical features in the Floridan aquifer. Though there are currently more than 50 mapped underwater caves in Florida and perhaps as many as 4000 above water caves in Florida that have either been mapped or located, these features are rarely included in hydrogeological investigations. The primary limiting factor has is access, particularly in Florida where many caves, and all of the longest caves, are fully saturated (underwater). Though very few professional hydrogeologists have actually been in an underwater cave in Florida, explorers have traditionally surveyed the trends and dimensions of the cave passages they explore and those maps now represent the most significant and extensive record of Florida's underwater caves available to the professional hydrogeologist. As with direct observation of the underwater cave environment, the problem with using the maps has been access, because the maps do not reside in a centralized location nor are they typically in a suitable format for inclusion in a hydrogeologic investigation. The Florida Cave Database project was initiated by the Florida Geological Survey Hydrogeology Program (FGS-HP) to compile and synthesize all available cave maps and cave location data into a centralized GIS compatible database. Ultimately, the purpose is to make cave maps more accessible to professional hydrogeological investigations, and to encourage their use in such endeavors. To date, the Florida Cave Database includes 26 of the largest underwater caves in Florida digitized from maps and survey data provided by the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section and the Global Underwater Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project. Location, conduit trend, conduit dimension, water quality, flow direction, ownership, and land use include some of the data fields underlying point and line based shapefiles fully documented by metadata. The water quality component of the database will be rendered compatible with the Florida Springs database (also being developed by the FGS-HP). Though specific access issues remain to be addressed, all of the shapefiles are intended to be made available to hydrogeologists via the WWW. Further information on the Florida Cave Database is available at: www.hazlett-kincaid.com/FGS/cave-db/ Kincaid, T.R., Schmidt, W., Cook, S.A., Loper, D., Davies, G.J., and McKinlay, C ., 2004, Collaborating for a better tomorrow: research and community outreach aimed at protecting Wakulla Spring: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 421. Florida's Wakulla Spring is a unique FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 72

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natural and cultural resource. It is the largest single-vent spring in Florida, and perhaps the world. The 37 m deep 60+ m wide spring vent regularly discharges more than 15 m3/s of water per day and at times exceeds 90 m3/s. Cave divers have explored more than 16 km of underwater cave passages that connect to the spring and average 10-80 m in diameter. The spring is the center piece for Edward Ball Wakulla Springs State Park, which is regarded as the "Crown Jewel" of the Florida State Park system. Every year nearly 200,000 people visit the park to take glass bottom boat tours, observe alligators, birds, and fish in their natural setting, or simply swim in the crystal clear spring water. Unfortunately, Wakulla Spring is threatened from increased surface-water runoff and nitrate contamination. Hydrilla verticillata and species of algae have nearly taken over the spring basin and the water clarity has diminished to the point where the glass bottom boats cannot run for months to years on end. Spring protection in Florida has received considerable attention in recent years, where numerous groups attack the problem from various angles. The problems at Wakulla have led to an exciting collaboration between state agencies, non-governmental organizations, and private companies aimed at arresting the declines in quality, and protecting the spring for future generations. The Hydrogeology Consortium, Florida Geological Survey, Global Underwater Explorers Woodville Karst Plain Project, Wakulla Springs State Park, Florida State University, Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc., Cambrian Ground Water Co., and others have joined forces to conduct focused research to determine the causes for spring degradation, identify possible solutions and disseminate the resulting data and knowledge to the public and the key decision makers. The results to date have been groundbreaking accomplishments in instrumenting and characterizing the karst watershed, expanding community involvement, and increasing political awareness that landuse decisions can have a real and nearly immediate impact on spring-water quality. The purpose of this talk is to demonstrate how the key component of these successes has been the collaborative nature of the endeavors. McClean, J.A.R., DeHan, R.S., and Donoghue, J.F., 2003, Investigation of the feasibility of remote sensing technologies in locating submarine springs: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 33. This project evaluated the suitability of aerial thermography and boat-towed electric resistivity as remote sensing methods to identify submarine ground-water discharge in the Gulf of Mexico. A more general objective of the study was to develop reliable and cost effective methods of quantifying interaction between ground water and surface water in karst settings. Such data are necessary for the development of analytical and numerical models capable of predicting and quantifying ground water and water-borne contaminants movement and fate in Florida's watersheds. Aerial thermography relies upon the ability to detect variations in emitted surface temperature between ground water and surface water. The option exists for space based sensor platforms or airborne units to collect thermography data, with a trade off between ground resolution and cost of data acquisition. Both space based and aerial data collection methods were under evaluation in this study. Boat towed electric resistivity generates a graph of specific conductance as a function of salinity or the presence of electrically conductive contaminants throughout the water column and bottom sediments by modelling observed resistance between antennae BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 73

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pairs. This method therefore has the ability to identify the presence of fresh ground water in shallow submarine sediments, or contaminates in fresh surface waters, from equipment towed at the water's surface. The equipment configuration under investigation has a theoretical maximum sensing range of 20 meters below the surface of the water under ideal conditions. Such conditions include sediments low in clay minerals, which attenuate or absorb the induced electrical signal, thereby reducing sediment penetration. During 2001, FGS personnel conducted a study to identify thermal anomalies in the northern Gulf of Mexico using Landsat 7, Band 6 thermal imagery having 60-meter ground resolution and two degree Celsius radiometric resolution (McClean 2002, in press). A basic assumption of this study is that ground water typically discharging at a constant 20 degrees Celsius will be detectable as warmer water mixing with the ambient cold water of the Gulf of Mexico in winter. During the period of data collection, surface temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico ranged from 11 degrees along the coast to 17 degrees further offshore. The inverse situation occurs during summer months when ground-water discharge should appear as colder water mixing with the warmer Gulf waters, which can reach as high as 28-30 degrees Celsius during July and August. Results of this preliminary investigation, in conjunction with locations of offshore springs and limestone outcrops as reported by local divers and fishermen, were compiled into database format and analyzed using Arc View Geographic Information System software. This GIS study enabled the establishment of study areas identified as having a high probability of submarine springs. FGS contracted SenSyTech, Inc. Imaging Group to collect high-resolution thermal imagery (1-4 meter ground pixel size with 0.2 degree Celsius resolution) over eleven test sites during May 2002. In addition, Zonge Engineering Research Organization Inc. conducted boattowed electric resistivity surveys at nine sites during June 2002. Five of these surveys were along transects for which thermography data was also collected. This paper summarizes areas of submarine ground-water discharge identified by these remote sensing methods and preliminary results of ground truth evaluation. Ground truth verification methods include water quality analysis, seismic profiling, Doppler acoustic discharge measurements, depth sounding and sidescan sonar to map submerged karst features typically associated with ground-water discharge. Sidescan sonar data collection occurred in tandem with the towed resistivity surveys, as well as continuously recorded water depths and surface temperatures linked to GPS positions within four meters horizontal accuracy. Additional in situ water quality samples, taken in conjunction with follow up seismic surveys, can augment these geophysical methods to identify ground-water discharge based upon temperature, pH and salinity values both at the surface and at depth. The results of these ground truth investigations as presented in this paper will determine the feasibility and level of success achieved by the remote sensing methods described above. The Hydrogeology Program established at FGS by the Florida Legislature provided primary funding for this investigation. Means, G.H. andScott, T.M. 2003, Status of the Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31 update: Abstract, Florida Springs Conference: Natural Gems Troubled Waters, February 5 7, 2003, Gainesville, FL, p. 34. The Florida Geological Survey (FGS) published Bulletin 31, The Springs of Florida in 1947, which was the first comprehensive report ever produced on Florida's springs. This volume contains water chemFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 74

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istry data, flow measurements, map locations, and other pertinent information on 76 major springs along with some information on other springs. The Bulletin was updated in 1977, and many newly discovered springs were added to it. In 2001, the Florida Legislature passed the Florida Springs Initiative in response to recommendations made by the Florida Springs Task Force. This initiative authorized funding to the Department of Environmental Protection for springs related projects. The Florida Geological Survey received funding in 2001 from the Florida Springs Initiative to make a second revision to Bulletin 31. Within four months of funding, the FGS had sampled and compiled data on the 33 first magnitude springs of Florida. These data were published in FGS Open File Report 85, First Magnitude Springs of Florida, in January, 2002. Currently, survey staff are sampling water quality and gathering data on second magnitude springs. A similar Open File Report will be published on selected second magnitude springs, and by July of 2004, a complete revision to Bulletin 31 will be published. Means, G.H., Copeland, R., and Scott, T.M. 2003, Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthCentral and Southeastern Sections Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50. Florida's more than 700 springs are natural treasures which provide recreation and enjoyment to millions of people each year. Over the past 55 years, the FGS has periodically sampled and analyzed water from selected springs across the state. As part of the Florida Springs Initiative, the FGS has recently sampled spring water from Florida's 33 first magnitude springs and published the newly acquired data in comparison to historic data in order to document changes in water quality over time. The FGS documented increasing trends in nitrate levels in the first magnitude springs when compared to historic nitrate levels. Following the sampling effort of the first magnitude springs, the FGS sampled selected second magnitude springs. Data from second magnitude springs were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall and the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. Both tests are nonparametric. The first was used to check for a monotonic trend over time for nitrate from an individual spring. The second was used to compare nitrate data from all sampled second magnitude springs during any time step (e.g. 2002) to a previous step (e.g. 1985). As with the first-magnitude springs, nitrate trends similar to those seen in the first magnitude springs were observed. The documenting of increasing nitrate levels in Florida's springs by the FGS, and other state and federal agencies has prompted research efforts aimed at pinpointing nitrate sources. The Florida Primary Drinking Water standard for nitrate is currently 10 mg/l. However, concentrations of as little as 1 mg/l of nitrate have caused significant alteration in the ecology of some springs and spring runs. Currently, the Florida Springs Initiative is funding further research into nitrate trends and sources and is working to develop best management practices for springsheds that have been impacted by elevated nitrates. Means, G. H., Means, R., Balsillie, J. H., and Dunbar, J. 2003, Geoarchaeological consideration of the Ryan-Harley site (8JE1004) in the Wacissa River, northern Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Abstracts with Programs, v. 34, no. 7, p. 35. The inundated Ryan-Harley site (8Je1004) is located in a swamp forest dissected by channels of the spring-fed Wacissa River in northern Florida. The Ryan-Harley site is thought to represent an undisturbed BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 75

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Middle Paleoindian Suwannee point site (~10,900 14C BP to ~10,500 14C BP) (Anderson et al., 1996, Goodyear, 1999, Dunbar, 2002). The site consists of sandy to silty organic rich, unconsolidated sediments overlying the Oligocene Suwannee Limestone. Distribution and taphonomic analyses of the artifacts and vertebrate faunal remains recovered from the Suwannee point horizon suggests the artifact assemblage and the faunal remains represent an archaeological site component that has remained relatively intact since its time of deposition. Additional conformation of site integrity beyond the artifact suite is also necessary. To accomplish this, granulometric analyses of unconsolidated sediment samples were performed. Samples were collected from the artifact-bearing horizon and from horizons immediately above and below. Arithmetic probability plots of grainsize distributions suggest that most but not all of the sandy sediments were originally transported and deposited as point bars by fluvial processes. Evidence presented shows that the artifact assemblage, fossil vertebrates, and fine grain fraction eolian sand recovered from the Suwannee point horizon were deposited after the deposition of the point bar during a subaerial event. The Suwannee point horizon then became inundated and buried. The granulometric analyses as well as other lines of evidence indicate the Suwannee point horizon at the Ryan-Harley site is essentially intact with little or no post-depositional reworking. Pichler, T., Arthur, J., Price R., and Jones, G. 2004, The arsenic problem during Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, v. 68, Issue 11, Supplement 1, p. 520. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 76 Rock Springs, Orange County, Florida (photo by Tom Scott).

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the process of artificially recharging and storing treated surface water in a confined aquifer, then recovering that water at a time of need, such as during a drought or dry season. Some concerns exist regarding widespread utilization of ASR in Florida due in part to the discovery that some recovered water samples from the upper Floridan Aquifer System (Suwannee Limestone) in southwestern Florida contain more than 100 ppb arsenic, while the injected water is virtually arsenic free. To investigate this problem we carried out a detailed mineralogical and chemical study of regional groundwater and aquifer matrix. Our study shows that groundwater in the region is virtually arsenic-free (<0.5 g/L) and oxygen depleted. The average arsenic concentration for 306 samples of the aquifer matrix is 3.5 ppm, which is higher than the global average for limestone of 2.6 ppm. Maximum arsenic concentrations for limestone samples range up to 54 ppm. Our combined geochemical, lithologic and mineralogical study of the Suwannee Limestone shows that: (1) The arsenic in the Suwannee limestone is primarily concentrated in trace minerals, particularly framboidal pyrite. (2) Framboidal pyrite contains arsenic at concentrations in excess of 1000 ppm, (3) Other trace minerals and organic material contain arsenic in much lower amounts when compared to framboidal pyrite. (4) Framboidal pyrite is ubiquitous throughout the Suwannee Limestone, but is most abundant in high porosity zones. (5) Previously suggested iron oxyhydroxide minerals are apparently not an important source of arsenic. The breakdown of pyrite and mobilization of arsenic during ASR could be caused by a change in redox. In most Florida ASR operations, water rich in dissolved oxygen (DO) is introduced into the storage zone. Thus, the injection of oxygen-depleted water could be an alternative to the current practice in order to mitigate potential arsenic mobilization. With respect to the world-wide operation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) facilities that intend to store water in lowDO limestone aquifer systems, it is important to carry out a detailed mineralogical/chemical investigation of the aquifer matrix prior to construction and operation. If arsenian pyrite is present, the injection of oxygen-rich water will most likely cause a release of arsenic. Portell, R. W., Means, G.H., and Scott, T.M ., 2003, Exceptional preservation and concentration of whole body Ranilia (Decapoda: Raninidae) in the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthCentral and Southeastern Sections Meeting, v. 35, no. 1, p. 50. In Liberty County, Florida over 500, nearly complete to complete, carapaces of a new species of Ranilia were collected from the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation. The low degree of disarticulation of the crabs indicates that they were buried rapidly, most likely during a severe storm event(s). At least six other decapod genera occur in association with Ranilia but all were much less abundant (and still await study). The Intracoastal Formation, first described by P. Huddlestun in 1976, is primarily a subsurface unit, occasionally cropping out along streams and riverbanks from western-most Okaloosa County eastward to southwestern Wakulla County. However, recent excavations in Liberty County exposed nearly 5 m of Intracoastal section; the upper 3 m dominated by Ranilia fossils. The crab-bearing unit is slightly phosphatic, loosely cemented, carbonate sand, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 77

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easily removed by precipitation and runoff. At several locations in the quarry, Ranilia carapace density averaged six per m2. Given that the quarry is approximately 0.3 km2and that the Ranilia fossils occur throughout the quarry wherever the Intracoastal Formation is exposed, rough estimates indicate that many thousands of Ranilia may have been present prior to mining. Previous reports of Florida Pliocene crabs are limited to Petrochirus bouvieri Rathbun 1918, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson 1859, and Parthenope charlottensis Rathbun 1935, and were based solely on chelae and fingers. The only Florida Pliocene whole-body crab was Petrolisthes myakkensis described by Bishop and Portell in 1989, thus the total known species diversity of Florida Pliocene crabs prior to this report was a meager four. Rolland, V.L. and Bond, P.A. 2003, The search for spiculate clays near aboriginal sites in the lower St. Johns River region, Florida: The Florida Anthropologist, v. 56, no. 2, p. 91-111. The identification of St. Johns cultural occupations is based largely on the presence of ceramic vessels with pastes containing abundant quantities of sponge spicules. Spicules represent the bio-silicate remains of freshwater sponges: Class Demospongiae, Family Spongillidae. While many thousands of spiculate St. Johns shards have been recovered, no raw spiculate-clay sources have been located that contain the quantity of spicules observed within St. Johns paste. The focus of our study has been to explore this contradiction and to consider a possible alternative hypothesis that the presence of spicules in St. Johns vessels reflects a cultural tradition involving the purposeful addition of spicules as a tempering agent. In other words, the assumption that the clay sources targeted by St. Johns potters naturally contained abundant sponge spicules may be incorrect. In the following discussion, we describe Florida clay deposits, offer ethnographic and archaeological evidence from the Amazon basin and Africa that reveal a long history of the use of sponges as temper, report the analysis of 136 well samples and 45 shallow clay samples, and discuss the possibility of spiculate mucky soils as a source of St. Johns paste. Rupert, F. 2003, Fossils: a glimpse into Florida's underwater past: Tallahassee Museum of Science Newsletter, July, 2003. Florida has a rich fossil heritage, and our state's long association with the sea is evidenced in the abundant marine fossils found here. For much of the past 200 million years, Florida was under water. Through the reign of the dinosaurs and up until the middle Oligocene Epoch, 30 million years ago, the area of present day Florida was sea bottom. A myriad of creatures flourished in these ancient seas. Many left their remains in the sea floor sediments, which ultimately became the rocks we see today. Mollusks, or seashells, are typically abundant. In some deposits the shells are well-preserved because their hard, lime shells remained after the death of the animal. Sometimes only molds and casts of the original shells remain in the rock. Other shelled creatures, such as microscopic foraminifera, corals, algae, sand dollars and sea biscuits, are also common constituents of Florida's rocks. Dugongs, the marine mammal relatives of the modern manatee, frequented the lagoon and coastal waters, grazing on sea grasses. Rib bones and vertebrae from these creatures are common finds in Miocene Epoch rocks. And always lurking nearby were the sharks, predators to dugongs and fish alike. Sharks lose and replace teeth frequently throughout their lives, resulting in the deposition of many more fossil teeth than other animals. Small to medium shark teeth are common fossils in Miocene Epoch sediments. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 78

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The new fossil dig display at the museum provides visitors with a hands-on exploration of one moment in Florida's geologic past. Featured in the exhibit are fossilladen boulders of a rock called the Torreya Formation. The Torreya Formation was deposited in the Early Miocene Epoch, about 20 million years ago. Geologists characterize these boulders as sandy, clayey, phosphatic limestone and dolostone. This means the boulders are principally carbonate, with impurities consisting of quartz sand, clay, and phosphate grains. The Torreya Formation underlies portions of the eastern Florida panhandle and southwestern Georgia. Primarily a subsurface unit, the Torreya is exposed in the Fullers Earth mines near Quincy, Florida, and Attapulgus, Georgia, where its Attapulgite (Palygorskite) clays are extracted for commercial use. Natural exposures of the Torreya Formation may be seen at Torreya State Park in Liberty County, Big Dismal Sink in Leon County, and along the Sopchoppy River in Wakulla County. Schmidt, Walter, 2003, Measuring geologic research projects as productive outputs towards the desired outcome of natural resource conservation: American Institute of Professional Geologists, The Professional Geologist, March 2003, p. 11-12. Schmidt, Walter 2003, Professional Geology Not Just for Scientists Anymore! ThinkÂ…. "Marketing": American Institute of Professional Geologists, The Professional Geologist, May / June 2003, p. 7. The professional geology community is classically comprised of individuals who tend to keep to themselves and don't socialize and attend large meetings often. They like solitary field work and they enjoy the outdoors where they can do "hands-on geology" and maybe take samples back to the lab or office to contemplate or write-up their field notes. Too often when we do gather together, we solicit validation from our peers and we "preach to the choir" on earth science and environmental conservation issues when we are already in the same corner. Geoscience issues so often serve as a critical foundation to environmental regulatory decisions, land-use decisions and planning, geologic hazards mitigation, contamination and waste clean-up, water resources protection, minerals exploration and production, sustainable development or environmental conservation. Geologists have much to offer and they must become more proactive to share their knowledge and offer their insight. Not only can it be financially rewarding, it will increase the odds of various environmental engineering projects being successful if they are based on competent geoscience. Involvement increases the professional respectability and personal self-worth of those offering such assistance. We live in a state where the environment and our pristine natural resources are extremely visible in public policy and significant to our economic well-being. The geoscience community must step up and offer what we can, timely and on task when appropriate. Our apathy as a profession must change! Scott, T.M. and Means, G.H. 2003, Geologists' role in defining public policy The Florida Springs Initiative: Abstract, Geological Society of America SouthCentral and Southeastern Sections Meeting, v. 35, no. 1. p. 49. In September 1999, the Secretary of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the Florida Geological Survey's parent agency, mandated the initiation of the Florida Springs Task Force in response to the declining health of the state's springs. The task force was composed of geologists, biologists, planners and others. The task force met monthly for a year and compiled a series of recommendations which were presented to the Governor and Legislature. Geologists guided the task force in learning about the subsurface enviBIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 79

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ronment, the interaction between the surface and subsurface environments and in developing portions of the final report. The mounting challenges of accommodating Florida's rapid population growth demanded effective tactics to protect the state's world-renowned springs. The need for hydrogeological research, the development of best management practices and careful land use planning was recognized. The 2001 Florida legislature provided $2.5 million for the first year of the Florida Springs Initiative. A large portion of the allocation was used to fund a number of geological projects including: 1) Water sampling and analyses, description of Florida's largest springs and publication of the results; 2) Delineation of springsheds for selected first magnitude springs; and 3) Investigations of the nitrate sources affecting the spring waters. Geologists are tasked with determining the problems, the sources of the problems, and educating not only the Governor, Legislature, and other governmental officials but also the public. Only through understanding the problems and enlisting the informed assistance of others can the State's valuable resource of springs be saved from further degradation. Scott, T.M., Means, G.H., Greenhalgh, T., Campbell, K.M., DeHan, R., and Hornsby, D., 2003, Innovative investigative approach to assessing the culturallyinduced water-quality changes in Wakulla and Manatee Springs, Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, v. 34, no. 7, p. 200. Florida is one of the fastest growing states in the country. Karst terrain predominates in much of Florida where the carbonate Floridan aquifer system is at or near the land surface. Geologists have inventoried more than 700 springs in Florida. A trend of declining quality of water emanating from many of Florida's springs was recognized. With funding from the Florida Springs Initiative, two first magnitude springs, Wakulla and Manatee, were selected for a unique investigative approach to waterchemistry provenance. Both springs have on-going water-quality sampling programs. The springsheds of these springs are being delineated based on extensive water-level data, chemical and physical parameters. Both springs have extensive underwater cave systems with multiple conduits. Individual conduits have different water quality indicating different source areas. As such, cultural activities may affect the water quality in one portion of the system but not another. Through water-quality monitoring and springshed delineation, the effects of cultural activities on ground water and the springs can be better understood. Historically, water samples gathered from individual conduits had to be taken by cave divers, a time-intensive and dangerous undertaking. Discussions between scientists and managers concluded that drilling wells into selected conduits at Wakulla and Manatee Springs would provide a new and innovative way to access the conduits for periodic sampling and monitoring instrument placement. Wells were drilled into three conduits at Manatee Springs during May and June 2003. Placement of the wells was accomplished by divers placing an oriented radio beacon in a conduit and a surface receiver pinpointing the vertical location. The FGS drill rig cored each hole approximately 23 meters deep. Wells up to 100 meters deep will be drilled into the conduits at Wakulla Springs in July and August 2003. Probes to continuously measure flow, temperature, nitrate and other parameters will be placed in the conduits by divers and will be connected to the surface through the wellbore. Water-quality samples can now be obtained to study shortterm responses to storm events and for comparison to long-term data sets. This data FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 80

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will allow geologists to assess the degradation of Florida's springs and assist the State in developing BMPs. Scott, T.M., 2004, The new geomorphic map of Florida: Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, Abstracts with Program, v. 36, no. 5, p. 578. The last state-wide geomorphic map published by the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) at a 1:2,000,000 scale was released in 1964. Brooks published a geomorphic map of the state at a scale of 1:500,000 in 1982 but it was not widely utilized. The new geomorphic map is a combination of an upgrade of the 1964 map and a reinterpretation of the state's physiography. Utilizing a combination of old-fashioned geological mapping techniques and modern, digital techniques, a new geomorphic map of Florida has been produced by the Florida Geological Survey. Initial mapping employed visual inspection of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps to identify physiographically similar areas then transferring those areas to a 1:750,000 scale map by hand. The resultant map was digitized. The digital outlines of the geomorphic features were overlain on to topography and aerial photography layers to aid in the resolution of boundary issues. Field checking of boundaries is occurring during travel for other FGS projects. The new map better identifies the karstic areas of Florida. This allows for a more complete understanding of the water resource issues surrounding Florida's springs and the continuing intense development in the state. Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004,The Florida Springs Initiative the results of the Florida Geological Survey's three year investigation and the impacts on public policy: Abstract, Northeastern and Southeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, Tysons Corner, VA, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 2, p. 41. Scott, T.M., and Means, G.H., 2004,The Florida Springs Initiative the results of the Florida Geological Survey's three year investigation and the impacts on public policy: Abstract, Florida Scientist v. 67, Supplement 1, p. 54. The Florida Springs Initiative, funded by the Florida Legislature since the 2001-02 fiscal year, was the result of the efforts of a diverse mix of geologists, biologists, other scientists and citizen representatives that comprised the Florida Springs Task Force. The Task Force was formed in response to the perception that Florida's springs were becoming degraded. The Florida Geological Survey was tasked with revising the Survey's 1977 bulletin "Springs of Florida" which included locations, descriptions and, in some cases, water-quality data. It is now known that more than 700 springs exist in the state. Survey teams visited, described and collected water samples at all the first magnitude springs (33) and approximately 60 second magnitude springs. The teams also visited other lower magnitude springs, inspecting and describing them. Nearly 500 springs have been described by the teams. The descriptions of the spring boils and runs have noted that many springs have been degraded compared to historical accounts and have had abundant algal blooms caused by changes in the spring-water quality. Waterquality analyses reveal increases in several analytes most notably nitrate. The natural nitrate levels in the Floridan Aquifer System are below 0.05 mg/l. Today, some water from first magnitude springs exceeds 5.0 mg/l nitrate. Water from some lower magnitude springs contains more than 30 mg/l nitrate. Increased nitrate levels have been linked to human activities and land-use changes. Best Management Practices are being developed in order to prevent further degradation of the springs and to help return the springs to a more natural state. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 81

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PRESENTATIONS 2003 Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery: Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Florida Springs Task Force, Ocala, FL, by Jon Arthur, January, 2003. What geologists really do or has a spouse, loved one, friend ever said "You get paid to do that?!!! Lecture to the Everglades Geological Society, Ft. Myers, FL, by Tom Scott, February, 2003. Education and outreach efforts toward better management and protection of Florida springs. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, February, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment model, a step by step approach to predicting aquifer vulnerability at the springshed level using weights of evidence. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Alan Baker, February, 2003.An application of the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA) model to springshed contamination. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by James Cichon, February, 2003. Investigation of the feasibility of remote sensing technologies for locating submarine springs. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by James McClean, February, 2003. Assessment of long term trends (decades) in Florida spring water quality. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Copeland, February, 2003. Development of a spring glossary and classification system for use in Florida. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Rick Copeland, February, 2003. Status of the Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 31 update. Presented at the Florida Springs Conference, Gainesville, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, February, 2003 The Hydrogeology of Lake County. Presented to National Wildlife Federation Habitat Stewards Training Class, Clermont, FL, by Paulette Bond, March, 2003. Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida. Southeastern/ South-central Section, Geological Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN, by Guy “Harley” Means, Rick Copeland, and Tom Scott, March 2003. Exceptional preservation and concentration of whole-body Ranilia (Decapoda: Raninidae) in the Pliocene Intracoastal Formation of Florida (poster). Geological Society of America meeting, Denver, CO, by Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, March, 2003 Nitrate trends in selected second magnitude springs of Florida. Southeastern/South-central Section, Geological Society of America Meeting, Memphis, TN, by Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, March, 2003. Geologists' role in defining public policy. The Florida Springs Initiative. Southeastern/South-central Section of the Geological Society of America, Memphis, FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 82 PRESENTATIONS AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES

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TN, by Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, March, 2003. Assessment of long term trends (Decades) in Florida spring water quality. Presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences, Orlando, FL, by Rick Copeland, March, 2003. Earth Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, Paulette Bond, Steve Spencer, Frank Rupert, Dave Taylor, April, 2003. Mining Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, Fl., by Walt Schmidt, Steve Spencer, Frank Rupert, April, 2003. The Florida Springs Initiative and cave management. Florida Cave Management Workshop, Ocala, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, April, 2003. What geologists really do. Northwest Florida Water Management District, by Tom Scott, May, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, Fl., by Jon Arthur, May, 2003. Florida Springs Initiative. Florida Local Environmental Resource (FLERA) Agencies Conference, Jupiter Beach, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, July, 2003. Use of indices in evaluating Florida's ground-water quality. Presented at the 19th Annual Environmental Monitoring Conference, Arlington, VA, by Rick Copeland, July, 2003. FAVA and the Hydrogeology Program. Suwannee River Water Management District, Live Oak, FL, by James Cichon, August, 2003. FGS Role in the Florida Springs Initiative. American Institute of Professional Geologists Florida Section Meeting, by Guy “Harley” Means, August, 2003. Florida Springs Initiative update. Presented to the Department of Environmental Protection, Quarterly Monitoring Meeting, Guy “Harley” Means, September, 2003. The Florida Springs Initiative and where does our spring water come from?. Presented at the Marion County Springs Festival, by Guy “Harley” Means, September 2003. Florida during the Pleistocene. Tallahassee Museum of History and Natural Science, Tallahassee, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, September, 2003. Lecture to FSU Geohazards graduate class. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, September, 2003. Interview for WFSU Public TV show on sinkholes and karst. By Walt Schmidt, September, 2003. Florida geology and professional geology. FIU Geology Department., Miami, FL, by Walt Schmidt September, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Wekiva River Basin Workgroup, Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, September, 2003. Offshore sand source investigations off the northern Florida east coast. 47th Annual Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association, Amelia Island, FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2003. Earth Science Week FGS Open House. Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October, 2003. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. American Institute of Professional Geologists Annual Meeting, Lakeland, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2003. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 83

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Florida Geology. Classroom lectures at Fairview Middle School, Tallahassee, FL, by Dave Taylor, Brie Coane, and Tom Greenhalgh, October, 2003. Springs of Marion County. Presented to the Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, October, 2003. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. EPA Director's Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. Hydrology of Florida's karst regions. Florida Department of Health Regional Meeting, by Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, November, 2003. Innovative investigative approach to assessing the culturally-induced water quality chages in Wakulla and Manatee Springs, Florida. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by Tom Scott, November, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment (FAVA): utilizing geological mapping data to predict aquifer vulnerability (poster). Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by James Cichon, November, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. 35th Annual National Association for Cave Diving Seminar, Gainesville, FL, by James Cichon, November, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. National Cave and Karst Management Symposium, Gainesville, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. Water-rock Interactions During Aquifer Storage and Recovery. EPA Director's Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. FGS Hydrogeology Program briefing for FDEP Secretary Struhs. Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2003. Florida's aquifers: vulnerable and vital. 1000 Friends of Florida forum on Water Issues facing the Florida Panhandle, Tallahassee, FL by Jon Arthur, December, 2003. The human history of the upper Apalachicola River valley. Florida Paleontological Society, Bristol, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, December, 2003. Springs Initiative funded projects at the Florida Geological Survey. Hernando County Springs Workshop, Brooksville, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, December, 2003. The FGS; its research and other activities. Geology of Florida Class at UF, Gainesville, FL, by Tom Scott December, 2003. 2004 The hydrogeology of Wakulla Springs. Environmental Science Class of Wakulla High School, at Wakulla Springs, FL, by Paulette Bond, January, 2004. Lecture to Florida State Parks Annual Biologists Meeting. Wekiwa Springs, FL, by Walt Schmidt, March, 2004. The Florida Springs Initiative the results of the Florida Geological Survey’s three year investigation and the impact on public policy. Geological Society of America Annual meeting, Tyson’s Corner, VA, by Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, March, 2004. Ocean Day at the Capitol.: Poster presentation and static display. Tallahassee, FL, by Dan Phelps and Jim Ladner, April, 2004. Hydrogeology of northern Florida and other geologic topics. Westminster Oaks, Tallahassee, FL, by Tom Scott, April, 2004. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 84

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Mining Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL., by Walt Schmidt, Steve Spencer, and Frank Rupert, April, 2004. Earth Day event. Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, April, 2004. Duval County geology. Duval County Commission, Jacksonville, FL, by Rick Green, April, 2004. Earth Day at the Florida Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, and Paulette Bond, April, 2004. Windows into our aquifers. Annual Meeting of the Florida Groundwater Association, by Guy “Harley” Means, May, 2004. The geologic history of the Dunnellon area. Desoto's River of Discord Celebration, Dunnellon, FL, by Paulette Bond, June, 2004. Opening for the Wakulla Springs Scientific Symposium. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Sinkholes in Florida Seminar. Tampa, FL, by Steve Spencer and Walt Schmidt, August, 2004. Lecture to Geohazards Graduate class at FSU. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, August, 2004. Briefing for DEP Press Secretary. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, September, 2004. Marion County's precious springs. Marion County Springs Festival, Silver Springs, FL, by Guy “Harley” Means, September, 2004. Offshore sand source investigations off the northern Florida east coast. 48th Annual Conference of the Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association. Marco Island, FL, by Dan Phelps, September, 2004. Townhall meeting, Wakulla Springs watershed research activities. R.A. Gray Building, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. A brief discussion of the geology of Duval County, Florida. Duval County Commission. Jacksonville, FL, by Rick Green, October, 2004. FGS Open House for Earth Science Week. Tallahassee, FL, by FGS staff, October, 2004. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment project. Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Daytona Beach, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2004. The geology of Wakulla County. Annual Meeting of The Wakulla County Historical Society, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Hydrogeology Program Briefing for the Governor's OPB Staff. Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Hydrogeology '101'. Governor's Office of Planning and Budget, Tallahassee, FL, by Jon Arthur, October, 2004. Geoarchaeological consideration of the Ryan-Harley site (8JE-1004) in the Wacissa River, northern Florida. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, by Guy “Harley” Means, November, 2004. Presentation to the "Walk for Wakulla Springs" participants, Tallahassee, FL, by Walt Schmidt and Guy “Harley” Means, November, 2004. Water-rock interactions during aquifer storage and recovery. EPA Director's Meeting, San Destin, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2004. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 85

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DEP Division of Resource Assessment & Management annual awards luncheon. Tallahassee, FL,. by Walt Schmidt, November, 2004. Water quality issues in the Floridan Aquifer System. American Water Works Association conference, Orlando, FL, by Jon Arthur, November, 2004. The new geomorphic map of Florida. Abstract, Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, CO, by Tom Scott, November, 2004. Diagnostic Fossils in Florida Stratigraphy. Everglades Geological Society, Ft. Meyers, FL, by Frank Rupert, November, 2004. Hydrogeology of Florida ‘101’. Water Matters! A joint conference of the Florida League of Cities and Florida Association of Counties, Orlando, FL, December 2004. FIELD TRIPS 2003 STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Field Trip to Marianna, Florida, Area, by Rick Green, October 2003. Field Trip for Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers meeting, Orlando, FL, by Tom Scott, December, 2003. Alum Bluff, Liberty County. Florida Paleontological Society, by Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, December, 2003. 2004 STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Field Trip to Gainesville, FL., Area, by Rick Green, October, 2004. MEETINGS 2003 DEP NW District Office to discuss agency/operator consent order regarding Petro Oil Co. as operator of Blackjack Oil Field. Pensacola, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2003. Southeastern Geological Society Meeting. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN), Town Meeting. Panama City, FL, Carol Armstrong, January, 2003. Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, January, 2003. Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jackie Lloyd, January, 2003. FGS Management Retreat. Tallahassee, FL, Ron Hoenstine, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd, Dave Curry, Carolyn Stringer, January, 2003. Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Gainesville, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. The Florida Springs Conference, Natural Gems Troubled Waters. Gainesville, FL, James Cichon, Guy “Harley” Means, Walt Schmidt, and Tom Scott, February, 2003. DEP Activities and Performance Measures Assessment. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003.DEP NW District Office to discuss agency/ operator consent order regarding Petro Oil Co. as operator of Blackjack Oil Field. Pensacola, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 86

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Meeting with FSU to discuss building needs at Innovation Park. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. USF Geology Alumni Society annual banquet. Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. Meeting with DBPR / FBPG to discuss Professional Geology Legislation. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2003. Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Technical Advisory Committee. Camp Weed, FL, Jon Arthur, Alan Baker, Alex Wood and James Cichon, February, 2003. 67th Annual Meeting of the Florida Academy of Sciences. Orlando, FL, Alan Baker, James Cichon, Rick Copeland, and Alex Wood, March, 2003. Southeastern/South-central Section of the Geological Society of America. Memphis, TN, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, March 2003. Meeting with FSU to discuss their plans for use of the Gunter Building. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, March, 2003. Meeting with DEP State Lands regarding Oil Co. Leases. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2003. Hydrogeology Consortium Workshop. Ocala, FL, Rodney DeHan, Jon Arthur and James Cichon, April, 2003. Significance of Caves in Watershed Management and Protection in Florida. Ocala, FL, Tom Scott, Rick Copeland, Walt Schmidt, Guy “Harley” Means, and Jon Arthur, April, 2003. C-Boom seismic equipment demonstration. St. Petersburg, FL, Dan Phelps, April 2003. Annual Meeting of Cave Diving Section of the National Speleological Society (NSSCDS). Gainesville, FL, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, May, 2004. Board of Professional Geologists. Cape Canaveral, FL; Tom Scott, July, 2003. Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, May, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Spring Conference. Niceville, FL, Carol Armstrong, May, 2003. Coastal Sediments 2003. Clearwater Beach, FL, Dan Phelps, May 2003. Florida Groundwater Association Meeting. Cape Canaveral, FL, Tom Scott, May, 2003. Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists. Lincoln, NE, Walt Schmidt, June, 2003. Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, June 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, June, 2003. Coastal Management Program Clearinghouse meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003. Gas Storage Wells meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003. Coastal Operations Institute Meeting. Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003.The Florida Local Environmental Resource Agencies, Inc. (FLERA) Conference. Jupiter Beach, FL, Guy “Harley” Means, July, 2003. Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, Walt Schmidt, July, 2003. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 87

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The Florida Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists meeting. Lakeland, FL, Guy “Harley” Means, August, 2003. Hydrostratigraphic Nomenclature meetings Altamonte Springs, FL, and several other meetings at the FGS, Tallahassee, FL, Rick Copeland, Jon Arthur, Guy “Harley” Means, and Tom Scott, August, 2003. City of Alachua City Commission. Alachua, FL, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, August, 2003. Gulf of Mexico State Geological Surveys Consortium. Mobile, AL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2003. FAPG Executive Committee Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2003. Wekiva Basin Coordinating Committee Public Meeting. Altamonte Springs, FL, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, September, 2003. Naval Air Station Jacksonville Restoration Advisory Board Meeting. Jacksonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, September, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2003. The Department of Environmental Protection, Quarterly Monitoring Meeting. St. Augustine, FL, Guy “Harley” Means, September, 2003. STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Meeting. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick. Green, Tom Scott, Guy “Harley” Means, Will Evans, and David Paul, October, 2003. Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission Annual Meeting. Reno, NV, Ed Garrett, October 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2003. 18th Annual Phosphate Conference. Lakeland, FL, James Cichon, October, 2003. Florida Water Data Center discussion meeting. FSU, Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2003. National Cave and Karst Symposium. Gainesville, FL, Rick Copeland and Jon Arthur, October, 2003. The Ocala Leadership Council. Ocala, FL, Guy “Harley” Means, October, 2003. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, October 2003. 35th Annual National Association for Cave Diving Seminar. Gainesville, FL, James Cichon, November, 2003. Annual meeting of the Geological Society of America. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, November, 2003. American Association of State Geologists, mid-year meeting. Seattle, WA, Tom Scott, November, 2003. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2003. PERC Administrative Hearing. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, Jackie Lloyd and Jim Balsillie, November, 2003. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2003. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 88

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Florida Department of Health Regional Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, November, 2003. Florida Paleontological Society. Bristol, Florida, Guy “Harley” Means, December, 2003. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2003. Hydrogeology Consortium / FSU President Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. Association of Ground Water Scientists and Engineers. Orlando, FL, Tom Scott, December, 2003. Godby High School Science Fair Judging. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. Coastal Operations Institute Meeting. Panama City, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. Panhandle Water Issues Workshop. Tallahassee City Hall., Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. 2004 Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery Team. Orlando, FL, Jon Arthur, January, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Homosassa Springs, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney DeHan, January, 2004. Meeting with Bob Hughes Drilling re/ Highlands County Drilling Applications. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, January, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists. Jacksonville, FL, Tom Scott, January, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, February, 2003. Meeting with DMS to assess Gunter Building facilities. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. PERC Administrative Hearing. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Meeting with FSU Dean of Arts & Sciences regarding Geology Department. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Office Inspection of the Jay Field Office. Jay, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. ROSS Data Base Workshop. Dan Phelps, February 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, February, 2004. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project Delivery Team. West Palm Beach, FL, Jon Arthur, March 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium meeting. NWFWMD, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 89

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March, 2004. Geological Society of America combined Northeastern and Southeastern Sectional meeting. Tyson's Corner, VA, Rick Green, Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, March, 2004. Meeting with Shell Oil Co. re/ Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal Waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, March, 2004. Career Day Oakridge Elementary School. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, April, 2004. Florida Association of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Jon Arthur, April, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur, April, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, April, 2004. Aquifer Storage and Recovery IV Forum. Tampa, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur and Dan Phelps, April, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, May, 2004. National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section, Science of Cave Diving Workshop. High Springs, FL, Walt Schmidt, Jon Arthur, Tom Scott, and Guy “Harley” Means, May, 2004. Springs Task Force Meeting. Silver Springs, FL, Tom Scott and Guy “Harley” Means, May 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Water Data Center meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Rodney DeHan, and Jon Arthur, May, 2004. Annual Meeting of the Florida Groundwater Association. Orlando, FL, Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, May, 2004 Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, May, 2004. Meeting with Murphy Oil Company regarding Offshore Drilling Plans in Federal Waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004.. Meeting with DCA regarding FGS mapping of Springs Areas for the use in the model code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, May, 2004. DCA Technical Advisory Committee for the Model Springs Land Development Code. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Hydrologic Observatory Meeting with UF, FSU, USGS, and the Hydrogeology Consortium. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Annual Meeting of the Association of American State Geologists. Stevenson, WA, Walt Schmidt, June, 2004. Meeting with DEP State Lands, State Parks regarding potential acquisition of limestone caves area in Jackson County. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Meeting with DCA to discuss Florida Springs Area Map. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004. Facilities inspection of Jay Oil Fields with Governors OPB representative. Jay, FL, Walt Schmidt, July, 2004 Gunter Building and Warehouse Facilities / Program review by Governors OPB repreFLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 90

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sentative. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, August, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting, Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2004. Meeting with Anadarko Oil Company regarding offshore drilling plans in Federal waters. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, September, 2004. Marion County Springs Festival. Ocala, FL, Guy “Harley” Means and Tom Scott, September, 2004. Sinkhole Summit II. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Scott, September, 2004. ASC / LNG Pipeline Tunneling meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2004. STATEMAP Geologic Mapping Advisory Committee Meeting. Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL, Rick Green, October, 2004. Florida Board of Professional Geologists Meeting. Tallahassee., FL, Tom Scott, Jon Arthur and Walt Schmidt, October, 2004. Oil & Gas Administrative Rules Public Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott, November, 2004. Seven Hills Regional Users Group Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, James Cichon, November 2004. Olesya Lazareva Thesis defense at USF. Tampa, FL, Tom Scott and Jon Arthur, November, 2004. Association of American State Geologists, mid-year meeting. Denver, CO, Walt Schmidt and Tom Scott, November, 2004. FGS Oil & Gas Section program planning retreat. Maclay Gardens, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004 Meeting with DEP Inspector General Staff to formulate audit plan Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, November, 2004. Godby High School Science Fair judging. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2004. Springs Task Force meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Tom Scott, December, 2004. Meeting with DCA representatives to discuss Columbia County "stream-to-sinks" mapping. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2004. Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association Conference. .Jacksonville, FL, Ron Hoenstine, December, 2004.. Panhandle Library Access Network Board of Directors Meeting. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, December, 2004. Hydrogeology Consortium Meeting. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt and Rodney DeHan, December, 2004 TRAINING 2003 Making the Connexion. Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, January, 2003. Technology Special Interest Group. Mariana, FL, Carol Armstrong, March, 2003 First Aid/CPR Training for selected FGS employees, Tallahassee, FL, March, 2003. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 91

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Copyright Law in the Digital Age. Marianna, FL, Carol Armstrong, April, 2003. Portals: Beyond the Hype. Panama City, FL, Carol Armstrong and Paula Polson, August, 2003. Information Literacy. Marianna, FL, Carol Armstrong, September, 2003. Certified Public Manager Training. Tallahassee, FL, Ed Garrett, two-year program beginning September 2003. Geochemist's Workbench. Denver, CO, Jon Arthur, November, 2003. PowerPoint Training Workshop. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, December, 2003. 2004 Management 101. Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, January-May, 2004. Florida Groundwater Association Convention: Water well contractors continuing education courses. Craig Berninger, Lee Booth, Ken Campbell and Eric Harrington, May, 2004. Critical Computer Care. Panama City Beach, FL, Carol Armstrong, July, 2004. People First Training. FGS staff, August, 2004. Short Course on Carbonate Stratigraphy. Tallahassee, FL, Walt Schmidt, Tom Greenhalgh, Will Evans, Cindy Fischler, Clint Kromhout, Jon Arthur, Guy “Harley” Means, Dave Paul, Tom Scott and Rick Green, September, 2004. Wireless Technology in Libraries. Tallahassee, FL, Carol Armstrong, October, 2004. Schramm Drill Rigs Maintenance and Operation Training, Craig Berninger and Lee Booth, November, 2004. BOOTHS AND DISPLAYS (FGS STAFF) 2003 Wakulla Springs Birding and Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2003. Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, April, 2003. Marion County Springs Festival. Rainbow Springs State Park, Dunnellon, FL, September, 2003. Innovation Park Open House. Tallahassee, FL, October, 2003. Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2003. 2004 Florida State University Earth Day Event. Tallahassee, FL, April, 2004. Wakulla Wildlife Festival. Wakulla Springs, FL, April, 2004. Earth Day at the Capitol. Tallahassee, FL, April, 2004. Desoto's River of Discord Celebration. Dunnellon, FL, June, 2004. Wild Florida Festival at the Tallahassee Museum. Tallahassee, FL, September, 2004. Earth Science Week Open House. Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL, October, 2004. Where in the volcano is that? Front Porch After School Program. Tallahassee, FL, October, 2004. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 92

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INTRODUCTION At the time of publication of this biennial report, the FGS has met its mission to study and assess geological attributes and conditions of surface, subsurface, and subaqueous environments, both terrestrial and marine, pursuant to mandated constraints of Chapter 377, Florida Statutes, with 40 full time employees (FTE's). Within the State of Florida governmental structure, this is not a large staffing contingent. Many of the basic research and administrative tasks at the FGS are accomplished by hiring additional staff under the Other Personal Service (OPS) system. It differs from FTE employment status because individuals so employed do not receive Florida medical and retirement benefits, but must seek such coverage personally. In the FGS, OPS employees are classified as Research Assistants, Research Associates, and Outside Research Associates. Research Assistants encompass those employees who are just starting their professional careers. They are usually students in college or university programs assessed to have talents of useful value to the mission of the FGS. Research Associates are those who have the educational backgrounds and established experience that is considered essential toward FGS mission goals. They are considered as experienced professionals, performing work as consultants. Outside Research Associates include those individuals employed external to the FGS who, from time-to-time provide valuable consultation or cooperative service-oriented contributions to the mission of the FGS. We consider, here, the contribution of Research Assistants and Research Associates toward the realization of goals of the FGS, because they are co-workers in day-to-day operations essential toward realization of successful mission goals. It is to be noted that over the years and field data collection seasons this percentage of OPS contributions can be as large as 50% of the total FGS staff strength. Hence, it is to be recognized that OPS contributions have been historically essential towards FGS success. We first describe personnel changes that have occurred within the FGS during the biennium because their presence might not be otherwise historically chronicled. After that, personnel attributes at the time of this biennial report are listed. PERSONNEL CHANGES Personnel changes at the FGS during this biennial period have been due to additional programs being added and routine moving brought about by refocusing career objectives or lifetime goals. FULL TIME EMPLOYEES Karen E. Achille Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section resigned her position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. David S. Anderson joined the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section as an Environmental Specialist II (GIS Analyst) in December, 2004. Jon Arthur was promoted to Professional Geologist Administrator and Assistant State Geologist in June, 2004, in charge of the Hydrogeology Section of the FGS. Wanda Bissonnette Administrative BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 93 PERSONNEL INFORMATION

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Assistant, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, resigned her position in July, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Dorothy Black Secretary Specialist, joined the Oil and Gas Section's Tallahassee office in October 2004. Lawrence D. Curry Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section retired in November, 2004. Ed Garrett Professional Geologist I, was promoted to Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section in November, 2004.Ed Gambrell Environmental Specialist III, retired February 2004 after 12 years managing the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office. Mr. Gambrell had previously worked 32 years in the oilfield services industry. Dave Files Engineer IV, joined the Oil and Gas Section September 2004 to serve as the section's general technical advisor and to manage the section's old well plugging program. Cara H. Gowan Administrative Secretary, Administrative and Data Management Section resigned her position in August, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Al Keaton Engineer III, resigned from the Oil and Gas Section in April 2004 to take a position with Whiting Oil Corporation as Regional Director of Michigan Basin Operations. Ted B. Kiper Engineer I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section, position was eliminated in August, 2003. John Marquez Computer Programmer/ Analyst II and Cartographer. Administrative and Geological Data Management Section resigned his position in January, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Tracy Phelps Secretary Specialist, Oil and Gas Section, Jay Field Office resigned her position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Sarah Ramdeen joined the Geological Investigations Section's Drilling Operations as a Lab Technician I in June, 2004. Andrew Rudin GIS Analyst, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section resigned his position in July, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Franklin R. Rush, Jr ., Laboratory Technician III, Geological Investigations Section, resigned his position in July, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Debbie Westberg joined the Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section of the FGS as the Administrative Secretary in November, 2004.RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ANDASSISTANTSDavid Arthur Database Programmer, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Brandon N. Ashby GIS Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in May, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Kristen Bailey Granulometrics Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in May, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Kristy L. Baker FAVA Research Assistant, Geological Investigations FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 94

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Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in June, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Jon Bryan STATEMAP Research Associate, Geological Investigations Section, STATEMAP Program resigned his position in October, 2004. Kenji Butler NWFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Ed Chelette joined the Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiative's Swallet Inventory project as a Laboratory Technician in October, 2004. Brett Cimbora Database Technician, Oil and Gas Section resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue a career in the USAF. Brian Cross Coastal Research Assistant, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in April, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Roberto Davila FAVA GIS Analyst, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section, resigned his position in August, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Kevin DeFossett SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in January, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Erin Dorn SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned her position in October, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Colin (Brent) Fain Driller's Assistant, Geological Investigation Section, Drilling Operations resigned his position in August, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Brian Farrell Research Assistant, resigned his position in September, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Fran Flores SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned his position in May, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Beth Forrest Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Coastal Program resigned her position in September, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Jake Halfhill Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Drilling Operations was deployed (US Marine) in to North Africa and will be rehired upon return to the States. Robbie Jones Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, reductions in Springs Initiative funding eliminated this position in February, 2004. Christa Kinyon SFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section resigned her position in April, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Mat Mayo, SWFWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in June, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Michael H. Miller GIS Analyst, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section resigned his position in July, 2004, to pursue other career opportunities. Lori L. Millonzi Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in May, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 95

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Tracy Phelps Secretary Specialist at the Jay Field Office, Oil and Gas Section, resigned in August, 2004 to begin a career as a registered nurse. Anthony Priesta SJRWMD Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned his position in March, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Tina Roberts Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiative resigned her position in August, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Rupa Sharma FAVA Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, Hydrogeology Program resigned her position in December, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. James Sparr joined the Geological Investigations Section's Coastal Program as a Lab Technician I in July, 2004. Diana Thurman-Nowak joined the Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiative's Swallet Inventory project as a Laboratory Technician in November, 2004. Jack Ward Driller's assistant, Geological Investigation Section, Drilling Operations resigned his position in January, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. Joel Webb Database Manager, joined the Oil and Gas Section April 2003 to design and maintain the section's comprehensive well permit database. Alan Willett Research Assistant, Geological Investigations Section, reductions in Springs Initiative funding eliminated this position in February, 2004. Hauqi Yin Programmer, Oil and Gas Section resigned her position in February, 2003, to pursue other career opportunities. FULL TIME EMPLOYEES David S. Anderson Environmental Specialist II (GIS Analyst), Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. A.A. (2002), B.S. Environmental Studies/Natural Sciences (2004), Certificate in Geographic Information Systems (2003), University of West Florida. Research Interests: Geomorphology, Coastal morphology, Internet mapping and application services, Environmental and urban spatial analysis. Professional Memberships: American Geophysical Union, Geospatial Information and Technology Association, Florida Association of Environmental Professionals (Northwest chapter), Florida Society of Geographers. Carol J. Armstrong Librarian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.A. Art (1986) and History (1989), Brenau University; M.L.I.S. Florida State University (1993). 2001 and 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award. Completed SOLINET's Management 101 Series, 2004. Currently serving on the Board of Directors for the Panhandle Library Access Network (PLAN). Jonathan D. Arthur Assistant State Geologist for Hydrogeology and Administrator of the FGS Hydrogeology Section. He received his B.S. with Honors from Florida State University (1982) and his Ph.D. from Florida State University (1994). Research interests: hydrogeology, geochemistry and environmental education. Dr. Arthur is a licensed Professional Geologist (Florida) and member of several state committees including the FDEP Aquifer Vulnerability Mapping Committee, and three aquifer storage and recovery Project Development Teams (Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan). He also holds a Courtesy Faculty Appointment in the Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 96

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University and is on the Board of Representatives of the Hydrogeology Consortium. Professional memberships include the Florida Association of Professional Geologists (he currently serves as President of the Association), Southeastern Geological Society, Geological Society of America, National Ground Water Association, and International Association of Hydrogeology. Awards include 1996 FGS Employee of the Year; 1997 Governor's Environmental Education Award for "Florida's Geology Unearthed," New York Festivals, 1997 Finalist for Non-Broadcast Film and Video for production of "Florida's Geology Unearthed," April 1997 DEP Employee of the Month; 1997 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance Award, 1999 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Most recently, Jon was confirmed as a committee member as inorganic geochemist on the National Academy of Sciences project titled: "Sustainable Underground Storage of Recoverable Water." Paul Attwood Professional Geologist I, Oil and Gas Section, Ft. Myers Field Office. B.S. Denison University (1974); M.S. University of Kansas (1981). Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Bonita Springs Utilities Board of Directors, 2001 to present. Past President, Everglades Geological Society. James H. Balsillie Senior Research Scientist and Coastal Engineering Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Portland State University (1970). Graduate studies, Florida State University (19751977). Research interests: structural geology, sedimentology including design of core laboratory processing tools and sampling devices, and sedimentologic standards, statistics in geology, numerical computer modeling, La Nina associated karst responses of periodic lacustrine drawdown events, geological applications to archaelogical problems, and coastal engineering geology including hurricane and tropical storms, storm and long-term coastal erosion, astronomical tides, wave mechanics and theory, longshore bar dynamincs, seasonal beach changes, sea level changes. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). He served with the Coastal Engineering Research Center as a principal investigator for five years, with the Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as a coastal engineer for 18 years (including Chief of the Analysis/Research Section), and has served with the Florida Geological Survey as a coastal engineering geologist and sedimentologist for the past ten years. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists. 1998 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, FGS 2003 Extra Effort Award, and FGS 2003 Team Extra Effort Award, and the FGS 2004 Team Extra Effort Award. He has written over 95 published papers and numerous computer programs and numerical models. Craig Berninger Engineer I, Geological Investigations Section. Area of specialization: well drilling and coring, licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). Research interests: Water well and core drilling. Professional Memberships: National Drillers Association, Florida Groundwater Association. Dorothy Black Secretary Specialist, Oil and Gas Section, Business management training at Lively Vocational-Technical School. Professional background includes administrative secretarial work and management of family owned business. Paulette Bond Research Geologist, Administrative and Geological Data BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 97

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Management Section. B.S. West Virginia University (1971); M.S. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (1974). Research interests: environmental geology, geologic hazards and environmental education. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Member: Geological Society of America, Florida Association of Professional Geologists. Davis Lee Booth Geological Investigations Section. Area of specialization: core drilling and well construction, licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Kenneth M. Campbell Professional Geologist III, Geologic Investigations Section. B.S. Old Dominion University (1975), M.S. Florida State University (1979). Geologic Interests: Core drilling, monitor well construction, Cenozoic stratigraphy, sedimentation and coastal processes. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Licensed Water Well Contractor (Florida). Professional Memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Employee of the Year, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Robert S. Caughey Professional Geologist II, Ft. Myers Oil and Gas Field Office. B.S. University of Arizona (1976). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy and the "boulder zones" of south Florida. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc., Association of Exploration Geochemists, New Mexico Geological Society, Everglades Geological Society, 1997 FGS Employee of the Year Award, commendation letter from Governor Bush for "job well done" (June 28, 2002). Brett Cimbora Meteorologist and Database Technician, resigned August 2004 to begin a career as a US Air Force officer. Mr. Cimbora had performed data entry and quality control for 1.5 years. Rick Copeland Professional Geologist III, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigation Section. B.S. University of Florida, Geology (1972). M.S. University of Florida, Geology (1974). Ph.D. Florida State University, Geology (1998). His research interests include: the theory of water quality and quantity monitoring, interpretation of ground-water quality and its relationship to land use and geomorphology, and interpretations of trends in ground-water quality and quantity. He was a hydrogeologist with the Suwannee River Water Management District for nine years where he established and maintained several ground-water quality monitoring networks. He was the administrator of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's statewide ground-water quality network for 18 years and was instrumental is re-designing and integrating the Department's combined surface-water and ground-water quality monitoring network into one based on randomized sampling. He has served as a hydrogeologist with the Florida Geological Survey for the past three years. Professional memberships: Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President, 2001 2002), the Florida Academy of Sciences (Program Chair Coordinator, 2003 2004; Chairman Geological and Hydrological Section, 2001 2002), the American Association of Professional Geologists, the National Ground Water Association, the American Water Resource Association, Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President, 2003), and the Southeastern Geological Society (Vice President, 20042005). He received the Department's Division of Water Resource Management's Employee of the Month award in August, 1998, the Sustained Exemplary FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 98

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Performance award in 2000, and 2001 Extra Effort Award. Dave Curry Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, B.A. Geology, University of South Florida, 1973, completed 2-year University of Texas drilling technology program 1979. Retired November 2004 after 31 years with the Oil and Gas Section. Served as an inspector in the Jay Field Office 1977-79, geologist in the Tallahassee office and section administrator since 1979. Rodney S. DeHan Senior Research Scientist, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section. Dr. DeHan initiated his undergraduate and professional education in the United Kingdom which culminated in earning the degree, Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. His graduate work continued in the United States where he earned the degrees, Master of Science in Microbiology/Virology from the University of Kansas, and a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from Florida State University. He continued his association with the University as a member of the research faculty of the Department of Biological Sciences until 1980. He is currently an adjunct professor in the Department of Geological Sciences of the Florida State University. Dr. DeHan joined the Florida Department of Environmental Protection in 1974 and worked in the Treatment Process Technology and Biology Sections. He established the Florida Ground Water Program in 1979 and helped guide its development into a leader in ground water protection in the country. He joined the Florida Geological Survey in 1997 where he is currently a Senior Research Scientist. His research interests and current projects are focused on the role of ground water as a component of watersheds with special interest in the characterization and dynamics of interaction between ground and surface water in the coastal environment. Dave Files Engineer IV, joined the Oil and Gas Section September 2004 to serve as the section's general technical advisor and to manage the section's old well plugging program. Mr. Files worked since 1972 as a drilling engineer for various independent and major oil companies in Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, California, and offshore. Ed Gambrell Environmental Specialist III, Oil and Gas Section, B.S. Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University 1960. Licensed explosives and radioactive materials handler, retired February 2004 after 12 years managing the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office. Mr. Gambrell had previously worked 27 years for Schlumberger Oilfield Services and 5 years as an oilfield consultant. Ed Garrett Environmental Administrator, Oil and Gas Section, B.S. Geology, Florida State University (1983). Promoted December 2004 to section administrator after 13 years as a geologist for the Oil & Gas Section. Research interests: Energy policy, environmental effects of offshore drilling, oil and gas regulatory database applications. Florida Certified Public Manager. Licensed professional geologist (Florida). Richard C. Green Professional Geologist I, Geologic Mapping, Hydrogeology Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (1986); M.S. Geology, Florida State University (1993). Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Research Interests: Uranium /Thorium geochemistry, environmental hydrogeology, and stratigraphy. Principal Investigator, USGS STATEMAP Program. Member of the National Groundwater Association. 1997 FGS Extra Effort Award. 2003 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award (STATEMAP). BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 99

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Thomas H. Greenhalgh III Professional Geologist I, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Florida State University (1984). Research interests: hydrogeology, ground water contamination, and environmental education. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Member: FDEP Springs subcommittees, Hydrogeology Consortium. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologists, National Ground Water Association. Eric P. Harrington Engineer Technician IV, Geological Investigations Section, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award. 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Promoted to Engineer Technician IV, 2004. Jessie L. Hawkin s, Custodian, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Ronald W. Hoenstine Coastal Geologist, Supervisor Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. University of Florida (1967); M.S. University of Florida (1974); Ph.D. Florida State University (1982). Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal geology and environmental geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Installation Restoration Environmental Cleanup Advisory Committee, Jacksonville Naval Air Station. 1995 FGS Employee of the Year. Lucien James Ladner Coastal Geologist, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. University of Southern Mississippi (1970). Research interests: hydrogeology, environmental and coastal geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), 1st runner up DEP Safety Awareness Event, 2004 Team Extra Effort Award STATEMAP Project John L. Leccese Engineer IV, began working for the Oil and Gas Section December 2002 as assistant inspector in the Jay Field Office. He was promoted to the role of chief inspector in April 2004. Mr. Leccese's oilfield experience over the previous 36 years includes production management and the drilling of wildcats, workovers, development wells, and gas storage wells for independent oil companies in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, California, Alaska, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf of Alaska. Professional training included drilling technology, well control, petroleum production technology, H2S safety, and oilfield firefighting. Jacqueline M. Lloyd Assistant State Geologist for Administration and Administrator of the Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Florida Atlantic University (1976); M.S. University of Chicago (1979). Research interests: environmental geology and public management. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Florida Certified Public Manager. Professional memberships: Geological Society of America, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Southeastern Geological Society (Secretary/Treasurer, 1984), and Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President-1999; President-2000; Past President-2001-2002), 1995 DEP Extra Effort Award, 2000 FGS Extra Effort Award. Guy Harlan (Harley) Means ProfessionalGeologist I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Florida State University in Geology (1996), M.S. candidate (Geology), Florida State University. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, molluscan and vertebrate paleontology, Florida prehistoric underwater archaeology. Professional memberships: Southeastern Geological Society (Vice President 2002, President 2003), Geological Society of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 100

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America, Florida Association of Professional Geologists, Florida Paleontological Society. 1996 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 1998 FGS Extra Effort Award, 1999 DEP Team Performance Award, 2000 Davis Productivity Award, 2000 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 Extra Effort Award, 2004 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2004 Team Extra Effort Award. Daniel C. Phelps Professional Geologist I, Coastal Research Program. B.S. Campbell University, 1974, M.S. (Geology) Duke University, 1979, M.S. (Environmental Management) University of Houston-Clear Lake, 1990, post graduate work (Karstic Hydrogeology) University of Arkansas, 1996. Research Interests: applied geophysics, seismic stratigraphy, continental shelf sedimentation, coastal processes, environmental geology and coastal zone resource management. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida) Christopher J. Poarch Systems Programmer I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Information Studies, Florida State University (2002). Concentration in Network Administration, Database Administration, and Web Development. 2003 Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE), 2003 Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator (MCSA), 2003 Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP), 2003 FGS Employee of the Year, 2002; 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Paula Polson Environmental Specialist I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Web Master, Florida Geology Forum Editor, Graphic Design. Training in graphic arts, drafting and Web Design, Florida State University Center for Professional Development, Tallahassee, FL.; Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA; Tidewater Community College, Virginia Beach, VA; John Tyler Community College, Richmond, VA. Interests: computer graphics/illustrations and web design. Awards: 2001 FGS Extra Effort Award, 2002 Employee of the Year, September 2003, DEP Employee of the Month, 2003 Team Extra Effort Award. Sarah Ramdeen Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (2003). B.A. Humanities, Florida State University (2003). Currently Graduate Student in Information Studies: Florida State University. Research Interests: Archives, cataloging processes, and record management. Frank R. Rupert Professional Geologist II, Paleontologist and Publications Coordinator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Florida Atlantic University (1976); M.S. Florida State University (1980). Research Interests: Cenozoic micropaleontology and biostratigraphy and environmental hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). Professional memberships: Florida Paleontological Society (Past President, Board Member, and Newsletter Editor), 1988 FGS Employee of the Year, July 1989 DEP Employee of the Month, Co-recipient GSA John C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental Geology, October, 1999; 2000 and 2004 FGS Team Extra Effort Award; 2000 Davis Productivity Award; 2001 and 2003 FGS Extra Effort Awards. Walter Schmidt State Geologist and Chief of the Florida Geological Survey. A.S. Florida Institute of Technology (1970); B.A. University of South Florida (1972); M.S. Florida State University (1977); Ph.D. Florida State University (1983). Research interests: Cenozoic stratigraphy, hydrogeology, environmental geology, paleogeography, petroleum geology, economic geology, geology and public policy. Licensed Professional Geologist in Florida, Alabama, Pennsylvania, North Carolina (inactive), and South BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 101

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Carolina (inactive). Professional memberships: Geological Society of America (Fellow), Southeastern Geological Society (Past President), American Institute of Professional Geologists (Member, CPG), Florida Board of Professional Geologists (Legislative appointment, Past Chair), Governor's Outer Continental Shelf Advisory Committee Association of American State Geologists (Member and Past President, current Chair of Coastal Processes Committee, current Chair of the John C. Frye Memorial Award in Environmental Geology Committee, current Statistician, current member of Awards, Continental Margins, Environmental Affairs, Honorary Members, Liaison, Professional Affairs, and Water Policy committees), Southeast Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (Advisory Committee Member), American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Sedimentary Geology, Ground Water Protection Council, Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Founding Member), Florida Academy of Sciences (Past Chair of Geology / Hydrology Section), Big Cypress Swamp Advisory Committee (Legislative Appointment and Chair), National Research Council Oceans Studies Board (Past Member). Adjunct Professor, Florida State University Department of Geological Sciences.Thomas M. Scott Assistant State Geologist for Geological Investigations. B.A. University of South Florida (1971); M.S. Eastern Kentucky University (1973); PhD Florida State University (1986). Research interests: Cenozoic lithostratigraphy, geologic history, and hydrogeology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), Certified Professional Geologist (American Institute of Professional Geologists). Professional memberships: Geological Society of America, Southeastern Geological Society (Past-President, 1978 and 1990-92), Society of Sedimentary Geology (Past President, Southeastern Section, 1996-97), Florida Academy of FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 102 Brett Cimbora and Joel Webb work on the Oil and Gas database. OPS staff are an important component of the FGS scientific workforce (photo by Ed Garrett).

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Sciences, Florida Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists (PastPresident, 1985-86), Florida Association of Professional Geologists (Vice President and Board Member 1996), Research Associate, University of South Florida. Serving on DBPR Board of Professional Geologists, chairman in 2004. More than 150 publications, maps, abstracts. Recently completed new geological map of Florida. Awards "Hero of Industry” Award from Florida Section of American Institute of Professional Geologists, 1992; Donald C. Haney Outstanding Alumnus Award, Eastern Kentucky University, 1996; Florida Geological Survey Employee of the Year 2001; Outstanding Alumni Award from the University of South Florida Geology Alumni Society, March 2002; elected as a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, 2004, Research Associate, University of South Florida. Steven M. Spencer Professional Geologist I, Oil and Gas Section. B.S. Florida State University (1981). Research interests: petroleum geology. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida), January 1992 DEP Employee of the Month Award, 1994/95 DEP Sustained Exemplary Performance Award, January 2003 Leon County Schools/FGS Cooperative Program Team Extra Effort Award. Sharon Sroka Financial Coordinator, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. B.S. Finance and Marketing, University of Maryland (1981). Carolyn Stringer Management Analyst, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section. B.S. University of Alabama (1970). FGS Extra Effort Awards 2001 and 2003. Wade Stringer Engineer I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. Certified Yamaha Motors and Honda Marine Corporation Outboard Mechanic, U.S. Coast Guard licensed Captain, FAA Airframe and Power plant License, PADI Certified Open Water Diver and First Aid Medic. 2000 FGS Extra Effort Award. Dave Taylor Geophysical Operations Engineer, Oil and Gas Section. A.A. Miami Dade Community College (1985). University of Michigan, Aeronautical Engineering School (1970-73); Florida International University, Business Management candidate. Commercially rated aircraft pilot. Coast Guard licensed captain. Susan B. Trombley Executive Secretary, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section. Susan has nine years State service which include working for Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Department of Labor, and Department of Environmental Protection. In her years of State service, Susan has attended several seminars such as: Microsoft Windows 2000 Introduction, Microsoft Access 2000 Introduction, Mistake-Free Grammar and Proofreading, and Outstanding Receptionist. Tim Walker Environmental Specialist II, joined the Oil and Gas Section's Jay Field Office in September 2004 to conduct inspections and enforcement. Mr. Walker previously worked eight years as a petroleum exploration geologist for various independent oil companies in the Illinois Basin. He also worked 16 years for various environmental consulting firms and owned his own environmental firm which specialized in contamination assessment and remediation of soil and ground water. Debbie Westberg, Adminstrative Secretary, Administrative and Geologic Data Management Section. A.A., Gulf Coast Community College (1975). BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 103

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RESEARCH ASSOCIATES ANDASSISTANTS Alan E. Baker OPS Professional Geologist I, Hydrogeology Section, B.S. Geology (1994), Florida State University (FSU). Worked four years with the FSU Department of Oceanography as a Research Associate and Lab Technician for the Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Facility. Spent three years at the Northwest Florida Water Management District working as a Hydrogeologist in the Bureau of Resource Regulation and then one year as a Geographic Information Systems Analyst supporting the Districts' Groundwater Bureau. Employed by the Florida Geological Survey as part of the Hydrogeology Program/Section in June of 2001 to work on the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model. Research interests include water resource protection, environmental geology, geomorphology, karst hydrogeology, GIS analysis and spatial modeling. Edward Chelette OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, B.S. Geology (1990), Florida State University. Worked as a research assistant and teaching assistant at the University of Hawaii while doing post-graduate work in volcanology and hydrogeology (1990-1993). Worked part time at the Northwest Florida Water Management District while doing post-graduate work in chemical hydrogeology at Florida State University (1993 -1995). Worked as full-time IS support and then as a hydrogeologist with the Northwest Florida Water Management District working on a joint project with DEP and DOH to identify, permit, test and regulate construction of wells in EDB contaminated areas, primarily in Jackson County, FL. Worked as IS administrator for the Professional Development Center, Tallahassee Community College from 1997-2004. James R. Cichon OPS Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Geology, Florida Atlantic University (1998), B.A. Chemistry, Florida Atlantic University (1998). Worked two years at the Northwest Florida Water Management District as a Hydrogeologist in the Bureau of Resource Regulation. Employed by the Florida Geological Survey as part of the Hydrogeology Program/Section in June of 2001 to work on the Florida Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment Model. Research interests: hydrogeology, GIS analysis and spatial modeling, karst processes, data management, water resources. Brie Coane OPS Laboratory Technician I, Drilling Operations and Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Environmental Studies with a minor in Geology from Florida State University (2003). Research interests: St. JohnÂ’s River Water Management District stratigraphy with a focus on Oldsmar and Cedar Keys Formations, springsheds water quality and its effects on the Floridan Aquifer System. Other interests include: Water-well drilling and core drilling. Recipient of 2003 Extra Effort Team award. Adel Dabous OPS Geochemistry Research Associate, Hydrogeology Section, Geological Investigation Section. B.S. (1968) and M.S. (1973), Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; Ph.D. (1981), Florida State University. Research interests: environmental geochemistry and environmental radioactivity; applications of uranium and other uranium-series nuclides in hydrology and Quaternary geochronology; water/rock interactions. Professional memberships: Geochemical Society of America, Geological Society of Egypt, Geological Society of America, and Mineralogical Society of Egypt. William L. Evans III OPS Professional Geologist I, Geological Investigations Section. Dual B.S. Zoology and Biology, University of Central Florida (1979); M.S. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 104

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Geology, Florida State University (1996). Research interests: hydrogeology, lake hydrology, aquifer storage and recovery system geochemistry and hydrogeology, environmental geology, stratigraphy and heavy mineral deposition. Licensed Professional Geologist (Florida). DEP Scientific Diver (in training). Co-Principal Investigator, USGS STATEMAP Program. Professional memberships: Florida Association of Professional Geologist (Past Board of Directors Member), National Ground Water Association, Southeastern Geological Society. August 1999 DEP Employee of the Month, 1997, 1998, and 1999 DEP Extra Effort Awards, 1999 DEP Division of Waste Management Appreciation Award, 2002 FGS Extra Effort Award, and 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Cindy Fischler OPS Environmental Specialist III, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Environmental studies, Florida State University (2002). Research interests: geochemistry and hydrogeology especially water-rock interaction; coastal geology and processes, and carbonate petrology. Frances C. Ijeoma OPS Fiscal Assistant II, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. in Geology University of Calabar, Nigeria (1998). A.S. in Computer Programming and Analysis Tallahassee Community College (2002). B.S. candidate, Management Information Systems, Tallahassee Community College/ University of Florida. Projected graduation: Summer 2006. Candidate, Certification in Oracle9i Certified Professional. (OCP) (2005). Interest: Systems management and administration. Amy Jensen OPS Laboratory Technician I, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, B.S. candidate, Department of Geoscience, Florida State University (2005), Research Interests: structural geology, planetary geology, igneous environments, GIS analysis and remote sensing. Clint Kromhout OPS Geologist II, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (2003). Research Projects: Southwest Florida Sub-surface Mapping Project, Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project, STATEMAP Program, Floridan Aquifer Vulnerability Assessment. Research interests: hydrogeology, groundwater issues, karst, GIS applications, applied geostatistical analysis and modeling, remote sensing, structural geology, cartography, drilling processes, and well construction. 2003 Manatee Springs Extra Effort Team Award Recipient. 2004 Southwest Florida Sub-surface Mapping Project Extra Effort Team Award Recipient. Robert Kurtz, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. in Geology, Florida State University, May, 2004. Currently at Florida State University as a graduate student in geology. FGSresearch assistant working on analysis of sample cuttings and cores for STATEMAP and South Florida Water Management District. Ryan C. Means OPS Biological Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Zoology, University of Florida (1996), M.S. Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida (2001). Research Assistant working on springs-related topics. Research interests: biological inventorying and monitoring, herpetology, temporary pond metapopulation dynamics, environmental geology, prehistoric archaeology, vertebrate paleontology. Rebecca P. Meegan OPS Biological Scientist I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Biology, Virginia Tech (1996). M.S. Forestry, Texas A&M (2000). Research assistant working on springs related topics. Research interests include landscape ecology, environmental geology, ephemeral pond ecology, and amphibian metapopulation dynamics. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 105

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James McClean OPS Environmental Specialist II, Hydrogeology Section, B.A. (Art) and B.A.. (Anthropology), University of New Mexico (1994). M.S. (Anthropology), Florida State University (2002). Research interests: Remote Sensing and GIS for marine resource management, karst, sea level change and scientific diving. Professional memberships: American Academy of Underwater Sciences, National Association of Underwater Instructors, and National Speleological Society. Michelle Lachance OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. M.S. candidate; B.S. in Civil Engineering, Geology and Social Science, Florida State University (2002); Certificate in Urban and Regional Planning (2002). Research interests: Geophysics, Structural Engineering and Geographical Information Systems. Professional memberships: American Society of Civil Engineers. Aaron Lower OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Geology, Purdue University (2004); M.S. candidate, Geology, Florida State University. Research interests: Coastal Geology, Sedimentology, Geophysics. Professional memberships: Geological Society of America. Elizabeth Moulton OPSEnvironmental Specialist I, Hydrogeology Section. B.S. Geology, Florida State University (2001). M.S. candidate, Geology, Florida State University. Research interests: geochemistry, hydrogeology, and GIS applications. David T. Paul OPS Geologist II, Geological Investigations Section, B.S. Geology, Florida State University (1999). USGS STATEMAP Program; Manatee Springs Conduit Investigation cooperative project, FGS/Suwannee River Water Management District; O'Leno State Park and River Rise State Preserve cooperative project, FGS/UF Geology Department; Leon Sinks/Floridan Aquifer cooperative project, FGS/Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc./FSU Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Institute. Research interests: GIS analysis, remote sensing, and cartography; core drilling and monitor well construction. 2002 Extra Effort Award, 2003 Manatee Springs Team Extra Effort Award, 2003 STATEMAP Team Extra Effort Award. Jeremy Poarch OPS IT Assistant, Geological Data Management Section. B.S. candidate, Management Information Systems, Tallahassee Community College / Florida State University. Projected graduation: Summer 2006. Interest: Computer network systems management. 2003 FGS Team Extra Effort Award. Sean Roberts, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Research Assistant with the Swallet Team (Florida Springs Initiative project). A.A. Santa Fe Community College in general science and engineering. Research interests include: cave mapping and exploration, photo documentation. Current president of the Florida Speleological Society, member of the Florida Paleontological Society, National Speleological Society. Christie Seale, OPS Secretary Specialist, Administrative and Geological Data Management Section, B.S. candidate, College of Business, Florida State University (2007) James (Jim) Sparr OPS Laboratory Technician I, Coastal Research Program, Geological Investigations Section. B.S. Earth Science, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Texas (1994). Research interests: X-ray diffractometry, geophysical instrumentation, coastal dynamics, ecology and aquaculture of hermatypic corals, sea level fluctuation, and astroblemes. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 106

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Rob Stoner OPS Environmental Specialist I, Computer data input. BA in business management, Florida State University (1990). Interests and experience in database programming and management and managing administrative services. Diana M. Thurman-Nowak OPSLaboratory Technician I, Springs Initiative, Geological Investigations Section. B.A. University of North Carolina at Charlotte (1990). Post-graduate studies in Environmental Biology, Western Carolina University and Florida International University (1996). Research Assistant on preliminary studies for the Southern Everglades Restoration Project (1996). Prior to coming to FGS, worked as a Hydrogeology Specialist for the Northwest Florida Water Management District, for two years. State of Florida licensed Drinking Water Plant Operator with five years of experience in ground water treatment. Professional Memberships: Florida Water PollutionControl Operator Association. William "Bill" Walker, OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Swallet team (Florida Springs Initiative funded). A.A., Business, Central Florida Community College. Research interests: subaerial cave exploration and mapping. Founder of the Karst Conservancy, member of the Florida Speleological Society. Joel Webb OPS Database Manager, Oil and Gas Section, B.S., Economics, Florida State University (1996); B.S., Management Information Systems, Florida State University (2000). Programming specialization in creating customized software for billing and inventory tracking. Certified Professional for MS Access. Alan Willett OPS Laboratory Technician I, Geological Investigations Section, Springs Initiatve. B.S., University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (1987); B.S., Georgia Southwestern University (1996); M.S. candidate, Florida State University. Research interests: hydrogeology, coastal and environmental geology. Professional membership: Geological Society of America. Alex Wood OPS Environmental Specialist II, Hydrogeology Section, B.A., Geology: Hanover College, Hanover, Indiana (1996), M.S., Auburn University, Alabama (1999). Research interests: hydrogeology, ground water supply issues, GIS applications, geostatistical analysis and three-dimensional subsurface characterization. Hauqi Yin OPS Programmer, Oil and Gas Section. B.A. in English, Sichuan International University (1992), M.S. in Information Studies, Florida State University (2001). OUTSIDE RESEARCH ASSOCIATES Hal Davis (USGS) Dr. Joe Donoghue (FSU) Kendall Fountain (UF) Robin Hallbourg (Alachua County) Harmon Hardin (FSU) Dr. Timothy Hazlett (Hazlett Kincaid Inc.) Jeff Herr (SFWMD) Mark Hooks (FL Dept of Health) David Hornsby (SRWMD) Dr. Todd Kincaid (Hazlett-Kincaid Inc.) Chris Langevin (USGS) Jody Lee (SJRWMD) Dr. David Loper (FSU) Carole Maddox (SFWMD) Gary Maddox (DEP) Dr. Jon Martin (UF Dept of Geology) Dr. Katherine Milla (FAMU) Carole Milliman (SFWMD)Dr. Thomas Missimer(Groundwater Science, Inc.) Ed Oaksford (USGS) John Passehl (USGS) Roger Portell (UF) Thomas Pratt (NWFWMD) Ron Reese (USGS) Koren Taylor (City of Tallahassee) Warren Zwonka (SRWMD BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 107

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FGS AWARDSFOR2003 The 2003 Employee of the Year was Cris Poarch. Cris consistently has a positive attitude and record for prompt, cheerful service. He seeks out learning opportunities that apply to effective and improved administration of the FGS computers. Cris handles all staff requests and troubleshooting in record response time. He works independently and shows excellent judgment in setting priorities. There were nine Extra Effort Awards presented at the 2003 Awards Luncheon. Jim Balsillie, Professional Geologist III, has successfully captained several expeditions for field sampling for the STATEMAP program. His attention to detail and concern for safety make him a top choice for the field mapping expeditions. Erin Dorn, Research Assistant, willingly and cheerfully helped train other OPS staff, and took on new assignments and new responsibilities without complaint. She has shown a high degree of professionalism and reliability in her work ethic. Rick Green, Professional Geologist I, leads the STATEMAP crew, making a better product every year. He keeps pace with new technologies and uses every possible resource to map the geology of Florida. His initiative, hard work, and forward thinking have led to the completion of nine STATEMAP products to date. Jim Ladner, Professional Geologist I, has excellent captain skills in handling the boats, and assisting the field crews for the STATEMAP expeditions, under difficult circumstances. He provides the expertise of a geologist and a boat captain and works well with the field teams. Harley Means, Professional Geologist I, has worked hard with the Springs Initiative in addition to his duties as District Geologist for northwest Florida. His outgoing personality and dedication to educating the public have made him a fine representative of the FGS. Rebecca Meegan, Research Assistant, represents the FGS very well in the field by talking to and educating citizens about springs when out sampling. Frank Rupert, Professional Geologist II, always make himself available to assist other staff members in everything from desktop computer situations, to paleontology, to any geologic question which comes up. He is a friendly and knowledgeable person who is always ready to help others. Carolyn Stringer, Management Analyst, is always ready to help staff members with their paperwork, which can get very tricky when you work for any large entity, such as the State. She keeps abreast of the many changes taking place in the procedures, has a great attitude, and puts in extra hours when needed to accomplish the task. Wade Stringer, Engineer I, is greatly appreciated for his seamanship, boat maintenance and cheerful attitude. His efforts in the outfitting and repair of the FGS research vessels, which were often completed under extreme conditions of weather, confined spaces, and limited resources, were instrumental in fulfilling obligations to contracts. Four teams won Extra Effort Awards: LCS/FGS Cooperative Program Team is an arrangement between the Leon County Schools and the FGS for special needs students to come to our library and learn a skill that may be useful to them in order to make a living one day. They helped us by scanning in the "Green Books" which are the well descriptions for each county in Florida. We are grateful for the help with this project, while being of benefit to the local school system. The team leader was Steve Spencer, and team members were Paula Polson, Cris Poarch, and Jeremy Poarch. The FGS Springs Team was in the field for about three weeks out of each month sampling the water quality of the many FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 108 FGS AWARDS PROGRAM

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springs in Florida and making spring descriptions. They were working on the revision of Bulletin 31, Springs of Florida. The team members were Robbie Jones, Ryan Means, Rebecca Meegan, and Alan Willet. A 2003 Extra Effort Award was presented to the Manatee Springs Conduit Team. Core drilling and monitor well construction team consisting of Harley Means, Ken Campbell, Eric Harrington, Brie Coane, Robby Jones, Clint Kromhout, Tom Greenhalgh, Dave Paul, Lee Booth and Alan Willet. Three cores were drilled intersecting the Main, Blue Water and Sewer conduits which feed Manatee Springs. Four inch monitor wells were installed with open completions in the conduits for sampling ports. The STATEMAP / Suwannee Team sampled the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers for data to complete the STATEMAP project for this area. This group showed how cooperation between sections of the FGS and with other agencies, is an ideal combination of skills of individuals. The crew included Captains Jim Ladner and Jim Balsillie, Rick Green, Will Evans, Tom Greenhalgh, Dave Paul, Jon Bryan, and Roger Portell. Paula Polson was honored as the Department of Environmental Protection's September 2003 Employee of the Month. Paula is one of the hardest working behindthe-scenes workers at the FGS. She has done an excellent job of converting FGS publications to online availability, has improved the appearance and functionality of our web site, and designs and edits our newsletter, the Forum. The Forum now has a very polished, professional appearance since Paula took it over. Jackie Lloyd graduated from the Florida State University, Florida Center for Public Management (CPM) Program on June 13, 2003. This is a nationally recognized program which includes comprehensive training and development for public sector managers at all levels of state and local government. It is a rigorous course involving eight four day class sessions and extensive homework covering a time period of two and a half years. FGS AWARDSFOR 2004 The FGS Employee of the Year for 2004 was Carolyn Stringer. During the year she took on, not only her own job, but two others as well. She helped with the duties of the Financial Coordinator and the Administrative Secretary, when those positions were vacant. She also helped find excellent replacements for those positions and helped train them. Carolyn has also become the resident expert with People First, not an easy task!! She cheerfully drops what she is doing and helps with problems that are brought to her on a regular basis. Because of her hard work and dedication to the FGS, her colleagues recognized her as Employee of the Year for 2004. There were five Individual Extra Effort Awards. Sarah Ramdeen, Lab Technician I, was nominated due to her initiative and hard work getting the core storage area cleaned up and organized. She is always ready to help out when help is needed. Jackie Lloyd, PG Administrator, has a management style that encourages employees to do their best. She is knowledgeable of the many administrative rules and changes and keeps the FGS current in these areas. She keeps the FGS Employee Handbook updated with all of these issues as well. Eric Harrington, Engineering Technician IV, seems to be always able to get things, and get things done. He is cheerful and willing to help in many areas, besides his own. Harley Means, Professional Geologist I, does an excellent job representing the FGS to the public and to other agencies. He has worked on the Florida Springs Initiative BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 109

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and assisted the current coordinator. He lectures at schools and to professional groups educating his audiences in the natural sciences. Wade Stringer, Engineering Specialist I, is knowledgeable in marine maintenance and seamanship, and works hard to keep our marine vehicles up and running with limited time and resources. His efforts have made many of the projects able to be completed on time. Four teams received Team Extra Effort Awards in 2004. The Vibrocoring Team, of the Coastal Program, did an outstanding job under difficult conditions to attain the data essential to the offshore beach renourishment investigation. They worked in high seas, high winds and strong currents and still got the job done. The team includes Wade Stringer, Jim Balsillie, Jim Ladner, Steve Spencer, Dan Phelps, and Ron Hoenstine. The FGS Springs Initiative Team, including Rick Copeland, Harley Means, Ryan Means, Rebecca Meegan, Paula Polson, Frank Rupert, Tom Scott, Robby Jones, Tina Roberts, Sam Upchurch, and Alan Willet, represented the FGS to the public while out sampling springs, and creating presentations and the publication, Bulletin 66, "Springs of Florida". The Southwest Florida Mapping Team, Clint Kromhout and Cindy Fischler, have taken on more and more responsibilities and maintained their excellent attitudes to get this multi-year project completed. They have demonstrated more than average effort over and over to ensure the project is their best work. The FAVA Team, of the Hydrogeology Program, consisting of Jon Arthur, Alan Baker, Jim Cichon and Alex Wood, worked long, hard hours on this very important project concerning aquifer vulnerability. They have truly gone the extra mile with the project itself, and presentations all over the state regarding the project. OUTSIDE AWARDS Ryan Means and Rebecca Meegan, received the Springs Protection Award from the Florida Springs Task Force in May, 2004. Dr. Thomas Scott was elected as a Fellow of the Geological Society of America in 2004. Dr. Scott was elected to fellowship because of his exemplary record of publishing on Florida geology, administering geological programs, promoting public awareness of geology, serving in leadership roles in professional organizations, and for his editorial work. He is highly motivated and loves training the next generation of geologists. Dr. Scott was inducted as a Fellow of GSA at the Annual Meeting November 7th in Denver, Colorado. FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 110 Dr. Tom Scott, 2004 Geological Society of America Fellow (photo by Harley Means)

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L. David Curry, Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section, retired on November 30th, 2004 after 31 years with the Florida Geological Survey. Dave joined the FGS in 1973 as a Geologist I, soon after graduating from the University of South Florida with a BA in Geology, and after having served four years in the U. S. Marines. He initially was assigned to the Tallahassee office, but after just two years he was transferred to the Oil and Gas Northwest Florida District Office in Jay, FL where he worked for three years. In 1979, he was transferred back to the Tallahassee office having gained field and Oil and Gas operations inspections procedures experience. Within six months of his return to Tallahassee he was promoted to Administrator of the Oil and Gas Section, a position he held for 25 years, until his retirement. Dave had completed a four year home study course issued by the Petroleum Extension Service of the University of Texas, and he obtained his Professional Geologists' License in Florida. Over his career, Dave was involved with inspection procedures revisions, administrative rule reviews and updates, and he has witnessed decades of litigation between the State and various offshore oil exploration interests. His knowledge, corporate memory, and easy going style will be missed by all who worked with him and relied on his judgment for so many years. We wish him good luck and congratulate him on his retirement. BIENNIALREPORT NO. 23 111 Dave Curry (photo by Ed Garrett). RETIREMENT

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FLORIDAGEOLOGICALSURVEY 112 FGS BUDGET SUMMARY AGENCIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE GRANTS AND DONATIONS TRUST FUND THROUGH COOPERATIVE CONTRACTS WITH THE FGS AgencyFY 02/03FY 03/04 Association of American State GeologistsX California Institute of TechnologyXX Collier County GovernmentXX Florida Department of Environmental ProtectionXX Florida Department of HealthX Hazlett-Kincaid, Inc.X Missimer and AssociatesX Northwest Florida Water Management DistrictXX St. Johns River Water Management DistrictXX Suwannee River Water Management DistrictX South Florida Water Management DistrictX Southwest Florida Water Management DistrictXX U. S. Geological SurveyXX U. S. Minerals Management ServiceXX University of TexasX Camp, Dresser and McKee, Inc.X