Biennial report

Material Information

Biennial report
Alternate Title:
Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
The Survey
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Miami ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
Polk County ( local )
Broward County ( local )
City of Vernon ( local )
Counties ( jstor )
Boxes ( jstor )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Business structures ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Statement of Responsibility:
Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
000376187 ( ALEPH )
01956611 ( OCLC )
ACB5800 ( NOTIS )
sn 87028635 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report
Succeeded by:
Biennial report (FGS : Biennial report)

Full Text
EOCENE1959 -1960

Farris Bryant, Governor
Covering Period January 1, 1959 through December 31, 1960
Robert 0. Vernon Director and State Geologist
Tallahassee, Florida 1961

Farris Bryant
Tom Adams Richard Ervin Secretary of State Attorney General
Ray E. Green J. Edwin Larson
Comptroller Treasurer
Thomas D. Bailey Doyle Conner Superintendent of Commissioner of Public Instruction Agriculture
Robert 0. Vernon, Administrator
Oil and Gas Division State Geologist

Honorable Farris Bryant, Chairman Florida State Board of Conservation Tallahassee, Florida
Dear Governor Bryant:
The Fourteenth Biennial Report summarizes the responsibilities, history, work and activities of the Florida Geological Survey, covering the calendar years of 1959-60. The report contains summaries of the mineral production and gives a list, of producers known to have been active.
The reportis required by the Legislature and will be used to assist in answering requests for summaries of the activities of the Florida Geological Survey and for tabulation of the mineral wealth of the State. This department anticipates a greatly expanded economic develQpment of Florida during your administration and the data on water and mineral resources developed by the Survey will be helpful in this development and fully utilized by all needing them.
Respectfully yours,
Robert 0. Vernon, Director and State Geologist

Letter of transmittal ............................. iii
Introduction ................ ................... 1
Appropriation and expenditures ...................... 5
Office and museum space......................... 14
Personnel ...................................... 17
Florida Geological Survey personnel ........... 18
U.S. Geological Survey personnel ................ 19
Surface Water Branch ......................... 19
Quality of Water Branch ...................... 20
Ground Water Branch ....................... .21
Survey activities ....................... ........... 23
Cross-Florida Barge Canal ...................... 26
Work by consultants ............................... 39
Dr. Pierce Brodkorb .............. ........... 39
Dr. W.A. White ................................. 39
Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan 39 Feasibility studies Abbott, Merkt and Company 40 Studies by State and Federal Geological Survey
personnel and by consultants for the Survey
published between January .1, 1959, and
December 31, 1960 ............................. 44
Estimation of funds needed for publications
1959-60 ...................................... 50
Library report ....................................... .50
Topographic maps .................................. 52
Numerical index to topographic maps ............ .54
County index to topographic maps................ 56
Cooperation with other agencies ........... e........ 58
Attorney General and Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Fund ........................... 58
University of South Florida and the Board of
State Institutions .............................. 63
Ground water considerations ................. 65
Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Section, American Water Works Association, and Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste As s ociation. ........... ........................ 66

University of Florida ............................ 66
Florida State Rural Development Committee .... 66 State Road Department .......................... 67
Governor's Office ................................ 67
Report of Governor's Commitee formed for the
study of the problem of retention of phosphate
slimes ....................................... 67
Florida Resource Use Committee .................. 80
Florida State University ......................... 80
Department of Water Resources .................. 81
State Board of Health ............................ 83
U. S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division 84
Current program ............................. 84
Proposed future program ...................... 91
Oil and gas exploration in Florida ................... 93
1959-60 activities ................................ 93
The mineral industry of Florida 1958-59 .............. 95
Employment and injuries ........................ 96
Consumption, trade and markets ................ 97
Trends and developments ........................ 99
Legislation and government programs .......... 103 Review by mineral commodities .................. 106
Nonm etals ................................ 106
M etals ................................... 120
Mineral fuels .................................. 124
Review by counties ............................... 125
The Mineral industry of Florida in 1960 ........... 127
Known active mineral producers in Florida 1958-1959 128
1 Florida Geological Survey .................. 14
2 Planned geological center ................. 15
3 Three-quarter view of proposed geological
museum .................................. 16
4 Proposed route of trans-Florida barge
canal .................................... 30
5 Index to published topographic mapping.. 55
6 Aerial photo of Sanibel Island showing
the present shoreline and associated
features .................................. 62

Figure Page
7 Recommended minimum cross section of
dam .................................. 79
8 Modified minimum cross section of dam 79
9 Distribution of observation wells in the
statewide network, by counties .......... 85 10 Chemical quality sampling stations ...... 86 11 Areas of water resources investigations 87 lZ Stream flow measuring stations ......... 88
1 Mineral and rock production and value in
1959 in the proposed trans-Florida barge
canal area ................................ 31
2 1959-60 geophysical crew weeks ........ 94 3 Mineral production in Florida 1958-59... 96 4 Marketable production of phosphate rock. 115
5 Phosphate rock sold or used by producers,
by uses ................................... 115
6 Sand and gravel sold or used by producers,
by counties .............................. 117
7 Sand and gravel sold or used by producers,
by uses ................................... 117
8 Crushed limestone sold orusedbyproducers, by counties .......................... 121
9 Crushed limestone sold orusedbyproducers, by uses .............................. 121
10 Value of mineral production in Florida, by counties ................................ 126

The Survey was created in 1907 and has had but three State Geologists: Dr. Elias Sellards from 1907 to 1919; Dr. Herman Gunter, 1919-1958, and Dr. Robert Vernon, 1958 to date. The department was an executive department responsible to the Governor until 1933, when it was included in the Florida Department of Conservation along with the Salt Water Fish Commission, and the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish. In 1935, the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission was made a constitutional department and the Salt Water Fish Commission (State Department of Conservation) and the Geological Survey operated as distinctive departments, obtaining their funds separately from the General Revenue by appropriation of the Legislature, administering their departments separately but being loosely held together administratively. In 1959, the Florida Geological Survey and the Department of Conservation were made responsible to the State Board of Conservation and to the Governor as Chairman of the Board.
Membership of the State Board of Conservation:
Start of report period
LeRoy Collins, Governor
R. A. Gray, Secretary of State
Richard Ervin, Attorney General
Ray E. Green, Comptroller
J. Edwin Larson, Treasurer
Thomas D. Bailey, Superintendent of Public
1 80199

Nathan Mayo, Commissioner of Agriculture
Ernest Mitts, Director, Department of
Conservation and Salt Water Fisheries
Robert 0. Vernon, Director and State Geologist
of the Florida Geological Survey and
Administrator of the Oil and Gas Division
John Wakefield, Director, Department of
Water Resources
The only change in the State Board of Conservation and the membership of departments under the Board was occasioned by the death of Mr. Mayo and the appointment of Mr. Lee Thompson as acting Commissioner in 1960. The Department of Water Resources, with Mr. John Wakefield as Director, was organized in 1957.
Legislative accomplishments:
During the 1959 Legislature, the Survey and the Department of Water Resources jointly sponsored a bill to include the Department of Water Resources under the Florida Statutes, Section 373. 021, the Survey to retain its datadetermining authority,but the Department of Water Resources to join the county sheriffs in control of wildly flowing wells.
The Geological Survey was made a responsibility of the State Board of Conservation to parallel the Department of Conservation (Salt Water Fisheries) and the Department of Water Resources by the 1959 Legislature.
Legislative authority:
The Florida Geological Survey's responsibilities, duties and organization are set forth in the 1959 Florida Statutes under Section 373. 0113, setting forth the general duties; 373. 021/. 051, requiring the Survey to determine the hydraulic facts of the State's water resources and authorizing Survey personnel to assist the county sheriffs and the Department of Water Resources to control free-flowing artesian wells. Under Sections 377.01/.40 the State Board of Conservation regulates exploration for oil and gas in the State and the B oard has directed that the State Geologist shall serve as

Administrator to the Oil and Gas Division of the Board, the Survey retaining all records of oil and gas drilling activities. The State Geologist also was directed by the Board to serve on the Oil Compact Commission as needed.
General responsibilities:
Florida law provides that the Survey shall explore for "minerals, water supply, and other natural resources of the State," and shall prepare reports and maps covering "description of such surveys and explorations, occurrences and locations of mineral and other deposits of value, surface and
subterranean water supply and power, and mineral waters, and the best and most economical methods of development, together with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral waters. .
The Florida Geological Survey is a data-collection agency and works closely with the State Board of Health in protecting our water resources, with the DevelopmentCommission in developing new mineral and water resources and in expanding present usages. It is the principal cooperator with the Water Resources Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey and, together, these departments develop water resource facts covering groundwater, surface water and quality of water. The Survey does not enter the water management
and control field, which is reserved unto the Department of Water Resources.
The Survey maintains a comprehensive geologic library, a well-sample library containing at the moment rock cuttings from 5,560 wells, and records andspecimens of life of the past geologic ages.
The functions of the Florida Geological Survey might be summarized briefly as follows:
1) Study the geology and map the structure and
stratigraphy of various formations of the State.
Issue reports covering these studies.
2) Studyandpublishpapers on the individual mineral resources of Florida, including oil, gas

and water, and data-tabulation on the following:
a) Since 1929, the Survey has cooperated with
the Federal Geological Survey in water resource studies in which detailed studies of surface, ground and quality of waters, togetherwithgeologicfactors, are made and
b) The Legislature of 1955 made the Survey an
advisory member of the Water Resources Study Commission and it functioned inthat capacity in gathering data onthe water resources for a report to the 1959 Legislatur e.
c) Preparing an inventory of flowing wells of
d) Administering the rules and regulations
pertaining to the exploration for oil and gas, and tabulating data on exploration for
oil and gas in the State.
e) Tabulating mineral production statistics
in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of
Mine s.
3) Guide industrial and commercial development
of mineral resources sometimes in cooperation with the Development Commission and other agencies. Run evaluation tests on mineral resources.
4) Consult and advise private, State and Federal
agencies on problems of geology and hydrology.
In particular, an active cooperation exists with the State Board of Health on public supply and drainage wells, and drainage fields, and with the Department of Water Resources on water
management and control.
5) Encourage and assist inthe preparation of topographic, planimetric and soilmaps of Florida.

6) Collect and display specimens of minerals and
other resources, including remains of animals and plants, in the office of the Survey, as an
educational aid to Florida citizens.
The 1959-1960 biennium has reflected a slight growth in personnel and in the budget. Both have assisted in the contributions the Survey has been privileged to make to the growth and welfare of the economy of Florida. The increase in the number of new industries established in Florida in 1959-1960 has been made in part and at times largely through the activity of the Survey in supplying data on mineral and water resources, foundation problems, and evaluations of marketing conditions.
The 1959 Legislature recognized this contribution by providing $882, 182 for the 1959-1961 biennium. Trustfunds in the amount of $29,600 were also made available, making a total of $911, 782 available for this biennium. This was an increase of 32 percent over the funds available for the 19571959 biennium.
July 1, 1959 June 30, 1961
7-1-59 to 7-1-60 to
6-30-60 6-30-61 Total Current:
1. Geological Survey:
(a) Salaries .......................... $129,564 $129,564 $259,128
(b) Expenses ......................... 67,631 67,643 135,274
(c) Operating capital outlay ............ lZ, 656 5,124 17,780
(d) U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Agreements ..................... 135,000 135,000 270,000
2. Special:
(a) Feasibility studies of the SanfordTitusville Canal, the Southwest
Florida Water Conservation District, or its successor, the
Suwannee River and the Choctowhatchee River Valley Development projects to be submitted to the 1961
legislature ...................... 19Z, 200 0 192,200
(b) Salary of one employee for administration of studies and preparation
of legislative report ............. 3,900 3,900 7,800

Appropriation 1959-61 (continued)
3. Trust Funds:
(a) City of Pensacola ................. Z, 000
(b) Escambia County .................. 1,000
(c) Cities and counties of the Green
Swamp area ..................... 5,600
(d) National Science Foundation Grant
No. 9802 1,800
(e) National Science Foundation Grant
No. 14562 19,200
Total .................... $570,551 $341,231 $911, 78Z
The 1957 Legislature appropriated $300, 000 for an Office and Research Building Second Unit, but none of these funds were released for expenditure. It is hoped that the 1961 Legislature will reappropriate funds for this urgently needed building.
Statement of Funds Available Expenditures and Balances January 1 to December 31
Salaries General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ................................ $ 1,288.85
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ................................. z6,715.75
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June ...................................... ... 24,060.00
General Revenue Release for July, August
and September .................................. 32,391.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December .............................. 32,391.00
Total available ..................... $116,846.60
Salaries and wages ................................... .111,640.76
$ 5,205. 84
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget
Commission ...................................... 200.34
Balance December 31, 1959 .................... $ 5,005.50
Expenses General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ................................ $ 5,656.68
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................... 43,029.75
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June ......................................... 41,030.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September .................................... 16,908.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December .............................. 16,000.00
Total available ..................... $12z,624.43

1959 (continued)
Day Labor .................................... $ 462.00
Professional fees and consultant services ........ 1,043.30 Communications and transportation of things ..... 3,067.60 General printing and reproduction services ...... 11,2Z1. 76 Repairs and maintenance ....................... 4,983.06
Travel ....................................... 5,724.88
Utilities ...................................... 2,529.37
Other contractural services .................... 64, 207.70
Heating supplies (steam from F. S. U. ) ........... 1,081.71
Scientific supplies ............................. 1,177.71
Maintenance materials and supplies ............. 1,405.43
Motor fuels and lubricants ..................... 1,392.81
Office materials and supplies ................... 5,075.94
Other materials and supplies .................... 685.30
Insurance and surety bonds ........................... 1,029.71
Rentals of buildings and equipment ............... 6.00
Other current charges and obligations ............ 260.00
Transferred to operating capital outlay ........... 5,000.00
Transferred to trust fund for U. S. Geological
Survey Cooperative .............................. 2,000.00
Total expenditures $112,354.28 $ 10,270.15
Less funds placed in reserve on July 1, 1959 ...... 3,000.85 $ 7,269.30
Operating Capital Outlay General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 $ 1,034.91
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ................................. 980.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June ...................................... 980.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ................................. 3,164.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ................................ 3,164.00
Transfer from expense appropriation ........... 5,000.00
Total available ..................... $ 14, 322. 91
Books. ........................................ 541.37
Scientific equipment ........................... 6,889.96
Motor vehicles passenger .................... 369.90
Office furniture and equipment ................. 2,049.59
Other capital outlay ........................... 531.95
Total expenditures ................. $ 10, 382.77
Balance January 1, 1960 ....................... $ 3,940.14
Expenses U. S. Geological Survey Cooperative Agreements:
Funds available: (Separate appropriation made by 1959
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ................................. $33,750.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ................................. 33,750.00
Total available .................. .... $ 67,500.00

1959 (continued)
Contractural services ........................... $67,500.00
Total expenditures ................. $ 67,500.00
Balance December 31, 1959 .................... 0
Salaries Special-For Surveys: (1959 legislative
Funds available:
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ................................. $ 325.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December .................................... 975.00
Total available ..................... $ 1,300.00
Salary for the coordinator ........................ $ 1,300.00
Total expenditures ................. $ 1,300.00
Balance December 31, 1959 .................... 0
Expenses Special-For Surveys: (1959 legislative
Funds available:
General Revenue Release for July, August
and September ................................. $ 48,050.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December .................................. 48,050.00
Total available ........................... $ 96,100.00
Contractural services ........................... $ 42,250.00
Total expenditures ................... $ 42,250.00
Balance December 31, 1959 ......................... $ 53,850.00
Salaries Special-Enforcing Section 373. 031 Florida Statutes
Funds available:
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ..................................... $ 5,385.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and
June ........................................... 5,520.00
Total available ........................... $ 10,905.00
Salaries and wages ............................. ......... 10,905.00
Balance July 1, 1959 (This section terminated by 1959
Legislature) ........................................................... 0

1959 (continued)
Expenses Special-Enforcing Section 373. 031 Florida Statutes Funds available:
Balance January I .............................. $ 466.41
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ...................................... 3,062.50
General Revenue Release for April, May and June 3,062.50
Total available ...................... $ 6,591.41
Communication and transportation of things ....... $ 6.86 General printing and reproduction services ........ 253.29 Repairs and maintenance ........................ 1,211.42
Travel ........................................... 1,749.00
Heating supplies (Steam from F. S. U. ) ............ 134.05
Scientific materials and supplies ................. 27.68
Maintenance materials and supplies .............. 746.98
Motor fuels and lubricants ....................... 722.05
Office materials and supplies .................... 1,056.54
Other materials and supplies .................... 130.91
Other current charges and obligations ............ 17.75
Total expenditures ................... 6,056.53
$ 534. 88
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget Commission 534.88
Balance July 1, 1959 (This section terminated by
1959 Legislature) ............................0
Operating Capital Outlay Special-Enforcing Section 373. 031 Florida Statutes
Funds available:
Balance January 1 $ 1,500.00
Total available ....................... $ 1,500.00
Motor vehicles passenger ...................... $ 1,500.00
Total expenditures ................... $ 1,500.00
Balance July 1, 1959 (This section terminated by
1959 Legislature) ............................ 0
Capital Outlay Office and research building-first unit
Funds available:
Balance January 1................................. $ 6,955.39
Total available ....................... $ 6,955.39
Buildings and fixed equipment .................... $ 1,592.82
Total expenditures ................... 1,592.82
Balance December 31, 1959 .......................$ 5,362. 57

1959 (continued)
Trust Funds U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ................................. $ 7, 850.00
Receipts January through December .............. 5,400.00
Total available ....................... $ 13,250.00
Contractural services ............................. $ 10,750.00
Total expenditures .................... $ 10,750.00
Balance December 31, 1959 ...................... $ 2, 500. 00
Trust Funds National Science Foundation Grant No. 980Z
Funds available:
Trust Funds Release by Budget Commission ........ $ 1,800.00
Total available ........................... $ 1,800.00
Materials and supplies ............................. $ 336.00
Total expenditures ................... 336.00
Balance December 31, 1959 ...................... $ 1,464.00
Statement of Funds Available
Expenditures and Balances
January I to December 31
Salaries General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ................................ $ 5,005.50
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. 27,121.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 30,307.00
General Revenue Release for July, August, and
September ................................... 33,36z.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 33,275.00
Total available ...................... $129,070.50
Expenditures :
Salaries and wages ...................................... M,435.23
Total expenditures ...................$ 7,635.27
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget Commission 2, 341.84
Balance December 31, 1960. .................... $ 5,293.43

1960 (continued)
Expenses General Office
Funds available:
Balance January 1 .............................. $ 7,269. 30
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. 17,360.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 17,363.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
Septem ber .................................. 18,820.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 15,000.00
Total available ............. ...........$ 75,812.30
Professional fees and consultant services ............ $ 1,450.08
Communication and transportation of things ....... 3,450.18 General printing and reproduction services ....... 11,062.73 Repairs and maintenance .............................. 8,258.39
Travel........... ...................................... 8,159.24
Utilities ....................................... 2,574.24
Other contractural services .......................... 7,121.43
Heating supplies (steam from F. S. U. ) ... ....... I,215.76
Scientific supplies .............................. 414. 85
Maintenance materials and supplies ................. 2,445.61
Motor fuels and lubricants .......................... 2,442.99
Office materials and supplies ........................ 8,854.87
Other materials and supplies ........................ 2,164.49
Insurance and surety bonds ...................... 1,564.84
Rentals of buildings and equipment .................. 203.50
Other current charges and obligations ................ 1,191.29
Total expenditures .................... $ 62,574.49
$ 13,237.81
Less funds placed in reserve on July 1, 1960 by
Budget Commission .......................... $ 7, 112.82
Balance December 31, 1960 .................... $ 6,124.99
Operating Capital Outlay General Office
Funds available:
Balance January I .............................. $ 3,940.14
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March .................................. 4,664.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 1,664. 00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ...................................... 5,124.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 0
Transfer from Expenses appropriation 12,800.00 Insurance adjustment for burned automobile ....... 1, 712.98
Total available ...................... $ 29,905. 12

1960 (continued)
Books ............................................ $ 536.43
Buildings and fixed equipment .......................... 652.57
Scientific equipment ................................ 19,021.70
Motor vehicles passenger ........................ 5,567.60
Office furniture and equipment ................... 332.82
Other capital outlay ....................................225. 75
Total expenditures ................... $ 26,336.87
$ 3,568.25
Less funds placed in reserve by Budget Commission
on July 1, 1960 .............................. 2.07
Balance January 1, 1961 ........................ ....... $ 3,566.18
Expenses U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Agreements Funds available:
Balance January 1 ......................................... 0
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ..................................... 33,750.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 33,750.00
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September ..................................... 33,750.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 33,750.00
Total available ...................... $135,000.00
Contractural services ............................. $135,000.00
Total expenditures ................... $135,000.00
Balance December 31, 1960 ..................... 0
Salaries Special-For Surveys
Funds available:
Balance January 1 ......................................... 0
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ..................................... $ 975.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June. 1,037.90
General Revenue Release for July, August and
September... ...................................... 975.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 975.00
Total available ...................... $ 3,962.90
Salary for the coordinator .......................... $ 3,962.90
Total expenditures ................... $ 3,96z.90
Balance December 31, 1960 ........................ 0
Expenses Special-For Surveys
Funds available:
Balance January I ................................. $ 53,850.00
General Revenue Release for January, February
and March ..................................... 21,125.00
General Revenue Release for April, May and June 975.00

1960 (continued)
General Revenue Release for July, August and
Septem ber .................................. 37,000.00
General Revenue Release for October, November
and December ............................... 37,000.00
Total available ......... .................. $149,950.00
Contractural services ........................... $123,875.00
Total expenditures ................................. $123,875.00
Balance December 31, 1960 ........................ $ 26,075.00
Trust Funds U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative
Funds available:
Balance January 1 .............................. $ 2,500.00
Receipts January through December ................. 8,600.00
Total available ................. ........ $ 11,100.00
Contractural services ........................... $ 9,600.00
Total expenditures ................... 9,600.00
Balance December 31, 1960 ........................ $ 1,500.00
Trust Funds National Science Foundation Grant No. 9802
Funds Available:
Balance January 1 .............................. $ 1,464.00
Total available ........... ............... $ 1,464.00
General printing and reproduction services ........... $ 1,020.00
Travel ........................................ 249.40
Scientific supplies .............................. 10.00
Total expenditures ................... 1,279.40
$ 184.60
Balance refunded to National Science Foundation. 184.60
Balance December 31, 1960 .....................0
Trust Funds National Science Foundation Grant No. 14562:
Funds available:
Trust funds released by Budget Commission ....... $ 10,000.00
Total available ........... ............... $ 10,000.00
Salaries ....................................... $ 222.50
Travel ........................................ 313.00
Office materials and supplies ............................ 65.17
Other materials and supplies ............................ 80.00
Office equipment ............................... 220. 54
Total expenditures ................ .... $ 901.21
Balance December 31, 1960 ........................ $ 9,098.79

In 1955 funds were provided to construct a building to house the offices and laboratories of the Florida Geological Survey. This was occupied in December 1957, and a recent photograph is reproduced as figure 1.
Figure 1. Florida Geological Survey office and research
In 1957 the Legislature appropriated funds for construction of an educational and industrial display building. This unit would have joined the Survey building with that housing the Department of Geology of Florida State University. A declining economy brought on by a severe and prolonged freeze prevented the release of funds and this unit was not constructed.
The Legislature directs that the Survey shall collect minerals and rocks representative of those of the State, particularly those capable of economic exploitation and to display these, together with examples of former animal and plant life. We have placed before the 1961 Legislature a

request for funds to build a suitable space to house and display these specimens. The Survey, over the last 50 years has gathered one of the most outstanding collections in the southeastern United States. These collections can not be replaced and are priceless. Preliminary designs of the proposed building, figures 2 and 3 show the utility and beauty of the building. There is great need for this building and we urge the Legislature to provide funds for its construction.
Figure 2. Planned geological center.

Fijzure 3. Tharee-quarters view off proposed geological

In 1955, the Florida Geological Survey employed 28 full-time employees and from 5 to 10 part-time employees. The full-time employees included 12 scientists or technical employees and 16 clerical, fiscal and administrative employees. Five years later, in 1960, the permanent employee total has been increased to 29 through the addition of one PBX operator.
Because of low salaries, onJanuary 1,1961, the Survey had three vacancies, a Geologist I, an Administrative Assistant III, and the Assistant Director, which has beenvacant for almost two years.
In additionto the need to fill vacant positions, the Survey has a need for another custodial worker to assist in the care of the Survey building which is too large for the care of one janitor.
In 1959 a well exploration rig was obtained to assist in the development of our mineral resources and toprovide data on the geology of Florida. One geologist has been assigned the job of taking the cores by use of the core rig and has been using part-time personnelto assisthim. The operation requires at least two workers and part-time personnel are not satisfactory, since the work requires considerable coordination between workers. We are requesting one man to serve as a well driller.
One new position, a Geologist II, is needed with experience in oil geology. He would work closely with the oil prospecting companies operating in Florida andwould assist in scouting the industry to provide data onprospecting activities, leasing, and exploration. He would attend the plugging operations to insure the proper plugging of all abandoned wells. He could also work closely with the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund to prepare base maps and details of oil and mineral occurrences and leases of State lands. This is a position that the Survey has needed for several years to assume responsibilities of added duties given to the department under the oil and gas control statutes.

Florida Geological Survey Personnel
Office Tallahassee
P. O. Box 631
Florida Geological Survey Office Building
Tennessee and Woodward Streets
January 1, 1959 to December 31, 1960
Full-time Employees
Vernon, Robert a. Director and State Geologist Bishop, Ernest W. Resigned Dec. 15,1960 Geologist Hendry, Charles W. ,Jr. Geologist Lavender, James A. Geologist Reves, William D. Geologist Sproul, Charles R. Geologist Woodard, Herbert J. Resigned June 30, 1959 Geologist Yon, James W. Jr. Geologist Olsen, Stanley J. Vertebrate Paleontologist Pur, Harbans S. Paleontologist Maxwell, Earl L. Personnel Manager and Accountant Janson, Andrew R. Illustrator Whitehead, Harry Draftsman Still, Wright P. Resigned July 31,1959 Duplicating Equipment Supervisor Murphy, Simmie L. Duplicating Equipment Operator Wildner, Gertrude P. Resigned October 18, 1959 Librarian Wilson, Ruth D. Entered October 1Z, 1959 Librarian Westcott, Gerald P. Oct. 1,1959 toAug. ZZ, 1960 AdministrativeAssistant (Trainee) Brown, Helen J. Entered March 1, 1960 Secretary Harthern, Alvis T. Resigned August 14, 1959 Secretary Humphrey, Mary E. Sept. l,1959 to Mar. 31, 1960 Secretary Novak, Mary C. Secretary Sands, Evelee C. Entered February 1, 1960 Secretary Barnes, Evelyn L. Resigned Jan. 22, 1959 Stenographer Corriveau, Mary L. Resigned Jan. 31, 1959 Stenographer Franklin, Janice T. Jan. 27, 1959 to Aug. 9, 1959 Stenographer Nichols, Barbara A. Entered Sept. 1, 1959 Stenographer Price, Ann E. Entered Aug. 3, 1959 Stenographer Barthlow, Hilda A. Entered June 1, 1959 Clerk-Typist Clark, Deborah F. Resigned May 31, 1959 Clerk-Typist Shuler, Ruth A. Clerk-Typist Miller, Alfred G. Entered Sept. 28, 1959 Clerk Barnes, Moses L. Resigned Sept. 15, 1959 Sample Washer and Janitor Snellings, Charlie Sample Washer Houston, Clarence Janitor
Part-time Employees
Austin, Robert W. Laboratory Aide Balanky, Eugene F. Sept. 19, 1958 to May 31,1959 Librarian Assistant Benda, William K. Sept. 2, 1958 to Aug. 31, 1959 Laboratory Aide Blow, Robert M. December 12, 1958 to Feb. 28, 1959 Sample Sorter Boring, Charles E. Jr. May 4, 1960 to Aug. 31, 1960 Sample Sorter Bruce, Ike Entered May 24, 1960 Day Laborer Brush, Robert M. July Z, 1959 to August 31, 1959 Day Laborer

Cantwell, Richard J. May 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960 Paleontologist Aide Chin, Chih S. June 2, 1958 to June 30, 1959 Sample Sorter Dee, Lawrence L. Jr. Feb. 6, 1959 to June 30, 1960 Laboratory Aide Evans, Susan Mar. 9, 1960 to May 31, 1960 Typist Garman, Roy K. June 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960 Rodman Godbold, Phillip R. Feb. 10, 1958 to Oct. 31, 1959 Sample Sorter Gutsch, Kenneth A. May 4, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960 Sample Sorter Haslam, John H. Jr. Dec. 12, 1958 to Feb. 29, 1960 Sample Sorter Houston, Allen Oct. Z, 1959 to Sept. 30, 1960 Janitor Lammers, George E. Dec. Z0, 1957 to July 31, 1959 Laboratory Aide Malloy, John June 13, 1960 Laboratory Aide Miller, Gloria R. June 6, 1960 to Aug. 31, 1960 Typist Mould, Linda R. Entered Oct. 22, 1959 Laboratory Aide Reynolds, Joshua P. ,Jr. June 1, 1960 to Aug. 31, 1960 Rodman Rust, Sandra L. Entered Feb. 9, 1959 Draftsman Aide Schneider, Travis M. June 6, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960 Typist Schwenk, Charles S. ,Jr. June 15, 1959 to Aug. 31, 1959 Sample Sorter Sims, Obediah, Jr. July 20,1960 to July 31, 1960 Janitor Stone, James A. June 1, 1960 to Sept. 30, 1960 Rodman Strozier, Robert M. ,Jr. June 16, 1958 to Aug. 31, 1959 Sample Sorter Thompson, Leigh A. Oct. 21, 1957 to Apr. 30, 1959 Typist Umstead, Robert L. June 2, 1958 to June 30, 1959 Sample Sorter Vanstrum, Vincent V. Dec. 20, 1957 to Feb. 8, 1959 Laboratory Aide Whitton, Elliott A. June 22, 1959 to Sept. 30, 1959 Sample Sorter Wilkinson, Katherine L. Mar. 10, 1960 to May 31, 1960 Typist
U. S. Geological Survey Personnel
Surface Water Branch
Florida District
District Office Ocala
P.O. Box 607
Building 211, Roosevelt Village
Phone MArion 2-6513
Patterson, Archibald 0. District Engineer Pride, Roland W. Assistant District Engineer Adamek, Paul R. Hydraulic Engineer Anderson, Warren Hydraulic Engineer Bridges, Wayne C. Hydraulic Engineer Heath, Richard C. Hydraulic Engineer Joslin, James L. Hydraulic Engineer Kenner, William E. Hydraulic Engineer Mann, James A. (on military furlough)Hydraulic Engineer Meredith, Edwin W. Hydraulic Engineer Messmore, Alan L. Hydraulic Engineer Musgrove, Rufus H. Hydraulic Engineer Stone, Roy B. Jr. Mathematician Gardner, Milton S. Engineering Aid Robinson, William H. Hydrologic Field Assistant Sheets, Robert W. Engineering Aid(WAE) Woodham, William M. (on military furlough) Engineering Aid Leake, Frances P. Clerk MacLain, Helen J. Clerk Speir, Florence D. Clerk

Ocala Subdistrict Office
Charnley, Raymond S. Engineering-Technician in Charge Black, James L. Engineering Aid Cash, Carl J. Jr. Hydrologic Field Assistant (WAE) Causseaux, Kenneth W. Engineering Aid (WAE) Collins, Donald C. Engineering Aid Cunningham, Ray E. Engineering-Technician Holly, Otis T. Engineering Aid Potter, Phillip W. (on military furlough) Engineering Aid
Miami Subdistrict Office
P.O. Box 33348, Miami 33
3316 Pan American Drive
Phone HIghland 8-4564
Hartwell, James H. Engineer in Charge Galliher, Claiborne F. Hydraulic Engineer Higer, Aaron L. Hydraulic Engineer Leach, Stanley D. Hydraulic Engineer Schneider, James J. Hydraulic Engineer Beaumont, Edmund L. Engineering Aid Bellman, Morris Engineering Aid Luethi, Doris B. Clerk-Stenographer
Sebring Subdistrict Office
P.O. Box 553
Highlands County Court House
Phone EVergreen 6-5771
Murphy, Walter R., Jr. Engineer in Charge Altvater, Allen C. Jr. Engineering Aid Bird, Robert A. Engineering Aid Hollingsworth, Violet C. Clerk-Typist Llewellyn, Lee H. Laborer (WAE)
Quality of Water Branch
Florida District
District Office Ocala
P.O. Box 607
Building 2 11, Roosevelt Village
Phone MArion 2-6513
Geurin, James W. District Chemist Joyner, Boyd F. Assistant District Chemist Cherry, Rodney N. Chemist Grantham, Rodney G., Jr. Chemist Menke, Clarence G. Chemist Shattles, Donald E. Geologist Cole, Catherine L. Physical Science Aid Eff, Samuel Physical Science Aid (WAE) Gore, James B. Physical Science Aid Hardee, Jack Physical Science Aid Kirkland, Robert T., Jr. Physical Science Technician Meyers, Donald F. Physical Science Aid Shampine, William J. Hydrologic Field Assistant (WAE) Wesley, Merle S. Clerk-Stenographer Privett, Alta S. Clerk-Typist (WAE) Hackworth, Garnet K. Laboratory Aid (WAE)

Ground Water Branch
Florida District
Office of Research Engineer Tallahassee
P.O. Box 110
Florida Geological Survey Office Building
Tennessee and Woodward Streets
Phone 223-1693
Cooper, N.H. Jr. Research Engineer
District Office Tallahassee
P.O. Box 110
Florida Geological Survey Office Building
Tennessee and Woodward Streets
Phone 223-1693
Rorabaugh, M.I. District Engineer Hoy, Nevin D. Administrative Geologist Brown, Delbert W. Geologist Healy, Henry G. Geologist Hyde, L. Willis Geologist Stewart, Herbert G. Geologist Sutcliffe, Horace Geologist
Essig, Carl F. Engineering Aid Martin, J. B. Engineering Aid Teel, John R. Scientific Illustrator Clarke, Marilyn Y. Clerk-Stenographer Finch, Lenora C. Clerk-Typist Hall, Martha L. Clerk
Miami Subdistrict Office
P.O. Box 33348, Miami 33
3316 Pan American Drive
Phone HIghland 8-4564
Klein, Howard Geologist in Charge Kohout, Francis A. Geologist Sherwood, Clarence B. Hydraulic Engineer Voegtle, Henry J. Engineering-Technician Hanan, Robert V. Physical Science Technician Hull, John E. Physical Science Technician Hermance, Ronald Engineering Aid Jackson, Kenneth L. Engineering Aid Pollard, Laura G. Clerk
Gainesville Field Office
P.O. Box 325
Professional Building, Rooms 309-311
Phone FRanklin 6-2833
Cagle, Joseph W. Jr. Geologist Clark, William E. Hydraulic Engineer Foster, James B. Geologist Mills, Luther R.E. Engineering Aid
Jacksonville Field Office
Prosser Building, Room 201
1453 Louisa Street
Phone EXbrook 8-3631
Leve, Gilbert W. Geologist

Lakeland Field Office P.O. Box 773 Arcade Building, Room 903 129 Kentucky Avenue Phone MUtual 8-2390
Meyer, Frederick W. Geophysicist Wetterhall, Walter S. Geologist
Naples Field Office 1039 6th Lane North Phone MIdway 2-5890
McCoy, Henry J. Geologist
Orlando Field Office 2817 Wessex Street Phone GA 2-3717
Lichtler, William F. Geologist
Pensacola Field Office Town and Country Plaza, Inc.
Phone HEmlock 3-3553
Barraclough, Jack T. Hydraulic Engineer Marsh, Owen T. Geologist
Pompano Beach Field Office 532 N.W. IZth Terrace, Boca Raton Phone 6906
Tarver, George R. Geologist

The Survey is the geologic and water-resource consultant to the citizens and officials of Florida. Through publications, talks, correspondence and personal contacts, the results of research and data collected on the mineral, water, and related economic resources have been made available.
Throughout the past two years, officials from more than 200 new industrial plants, involving investments estimated to be in excess of $350 million, with a potential of more than 7, 500 jobs, contacted the Survey for information on foundation sites, water supply, water quality, and available mineral resources to be used in a proposed industrial expansion.
We are especially pleased to have helped to locate or to expand the activities of a number of companies engaged in mining or in the extraction of metals or minerals. Detailed assistance was given to companies engaged in manufacturing, transportation, mining, and other activities as follows: lightweight aggregate, beer, pipeline, zirconium sintering, citrus concentrates, farming, concrete aggregate, roadbase course materials, chemicals, air products, expansion of kaolin mining, fullers earth, aggregate, sand, gravel, limestone, building stone, clay for brick, clay for sewer pipe, dolomite for calcining in separation of magnesium oxide, limestone for road base, lime and cement, gypsum, aluminum- and magnesium-oxide extractions, water and oil well drilling, missiles and electronic components, nuclear development, and sanitary engineering. Officials from numerous other activities, citizens, cities and agencies have used data published by the Survey, of which we have no record.
Specific information was made available for the construction of rocket launching platforms at Tyndall Air Base and Homestead; for the resolution of a dispute between the Government and a contractor on the cost of constructing an air force installation at Cross City; in the exploration and drilling for gypsum in Florida; in completion of numerous

wells constructed for water supply and for oil explorations; for foundations along the Houston Gas and Oil Company oil line and the need for such gas; for municipal water supplies for Vero Beach, Orlando, Miami, Sanford, and the power plant at Tallahassee. The Humphreys Gold Corporation was assisted in developing a water supply at Trail Ridge, as was the Bomark Missile Base onSanta Rosa Island and the Sperry Rand plant at Gainesville.
In 1958 the decision was made to more fully utilize the data contained in the Survey's well sample library, which on December 31, 1960, had rock cuttings and cores from 5, 560 wells. Data leading to areal reports covering the casing interval for wells developing water from the artesian aquifers, geological structures, stratigraphy and paleontology, and economic resources are being prepared.
At that time, a need for certain types of publications was expressed. These included: (1) a general but comprehensive guidebook to the principal exposures of Florida that contained a summary of the geology, paleontology and stratigraphy of Florida; (2) a popular, well illustrated pamphlet on the mammals of Florida; (3) a general geologic pamphlet prepared for school childrentobe usedwith a representative collection of minerals from Florida; (4) a general specific and comprehensive book on the geology of Florida. I am pleased to report that the guidebook (Special Publication No.5), the summary of mammals (Special Publication No. 6), and the pamphlet for school children (in press) have been prepared and a comprehensive discussion of the geology of Florida has been started. The study onthe geology of Florida has been divided into four parts, (1) landforms (under preparation), (2) stratigraphy, (3) paleontology, and (4) economic geology, and will be published in four parts.
The Geological Survey was a member of the Florida Inter-Agency Conference, created by Governor Collins, where work schedules and programs of the various State agencies were coordinated. One of the first projects to be coordinated through the Inter-Agency Conference was a study of the development program of Washington County. Robert Vernon and Charles W. Hendry, Jr. prepared the sections on geology and ground water.

Conferences and seminars were held relating to the following projects: bayfill and the establishment and maintenance of bulkhead lines; the age of the Caloosahatchee marl; the identification of rock underlying differing soils; economics of watershed planning, the age and distribution of "Hawthorn" sediments; the age of the Acline shell marl in pits near Punta Gorda; the Governor's conference onfreshwater lakes; the Annual Statewide Industrial Conferences of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce; and seminars at the University of Florida on the Cross-Florida barge canal, and on water resources.
Displays or exhibits were prepared for the Putnam County agricultural fair; the Scout Jamboree display in Colorado; Saint Francis College, Biddeford, Maine; the museum of the city of Fayetteville, North Carolina; and almost 1, 000 sets of 18 minerals common to Florida were mailed to schools and collectors.
Various members of the Survey participated in the dedication of the Key Largo Reef Preserve, the Florida State University Von De Graff Accelerators at Tallahassee; the St. Johns River Junior College at Palatka.
The Survey was represented at the 1959 and 1960 annual meetings of the Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, American As sociation of State Geologists, Geological Society of America (National and Southeastern Section), Society of Vertebrate Paleontologists, Southeastern Geological Society, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, and the Water Resources Committee of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce in Orlando.
Several members attended the Tenth Annual Highway Geology Symposium on "Geology as Applied to Highway Engineering, which was held in Atlanta, Georgia, with Georgia Institute of Technology as host. These symposia are designed to build a higher degree of cooperation and understanding between geologists and highway engineers and to increase the accomplishment of both inthe field of highway construction. The annual meetings are centered around an

exchange of ideas and a discussion of geologic problems with which highway engineers and designers must contend.
The Geological Survey joined with the Geology Department of Florida State University and the State Road Department as hosts to the Eleventh Annual Highway Geology Symposium held in Tallahassee on February Z2, 1960. There was a total registration of 113, with representatives from 15 states, Washington D.C., and Puerto Rico. Representatives attended from the Bureau of Public Roads, State Road Departments of Florida, Virginia, Mississippi, and geologists from the southeastern states. Eight papers were presented. The proceedings were published by the Florida Geological Survey, the cost being reimbursed from registration fees.
Throughout the reported period, Robert Vernon was a member of the Stratigraphic Correlation Committee; the Research Committee and subcommittee on Atomic Waste Disposal formed in the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. He was chairman of the Inter-Institutional Committee on Nuclear Research at Florida State University and the University of Florida; chairman of the Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Sewage and Industrial Wastes Association and the Florida section of the American Water Works Association, and a member of the Research Committee and Tourist Promotion Committee of the Tallahassee Chamber of Commerce, of the Research Committee of the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, and of the Water Resources and Water Control Committee of the Florida State Chamber of Commerce.
Cross-Florida Barge Canal
Supporters of the Cross-Florida barge canal made appearances before the Bureau of the Budget in Washington, D.C., on August 19, 1959, and November 9, 1960, to appeal for funds to begin the construction of this most needed canal. These supporters included Governor-elect Farris Bryant, Secretary of State-elect Tom Adams, many state senators and representatives, heads of state departments and distinguished citizens of the State. At these two meetings, the Florida Geological Survey was represented by Robert Vernon, State Geologist, who presented a statement setting forth the

Florida Geological Survey's opinion that construction of the Cross-Florida barge canal would benefit all of Florida. The canal is designed to fluctuate between annual lows and highs by the construction of four locks and a dam. Large storage areas are provided between locks and provisions have been made to recover any water lost in lockages. Therefore, the construction of the canal would not only benefit the State through increased economic values, but also would provide means for water control and management. Floods could be ejected quickly to the sea, water could be retained during droughts and the ground-water levels would not be materially altered. A statement presented at the November 9, 1960, hearing before the Bureau of the Budget in Washington, D. C., is reproduced below, followed by a brief mineral resource evaluation along the canal prepared by Mr. William D. Reves, Economic Geologist.
Economic impact of the Cross-Florida barge canal upon mineral production, land development, and recreation:
The canal cuts through extensive deposits of dolomite and limestone along the area from the Gulf to the Oklawaha River. These are rocks of high grade that will meet any specifications for chemical and metallurgical grades, averaging near 100 percent magnesium and calcium carbonates. Agricultural dolomite is produced a few miles north of the canal at Lebanon Station, Levy County, and south at Red Level, Citrus County. Large reserves of this rock a-re known to be present in Levy County, and along the Gulf Coast in Dixie, Taylor, and Wakulla counties. Much of the limestone, used as a road base course in State roads, and minor amounts as soil applicators and as mortar and lime, is mined afew miles north of the canal inthe areas of Ocala, Marion County, and Williston, Levy County. More than200 manufacturing processes include limestone or dolomite as a necessarybase material. Few of these are locatedin Florida. We take pure limestone, that is relatively scarce in many states, and place it at a dollar per ton in ribbons over the ground in Florida when we could well be commanding five to ten dollars per ton when used in lime, cement, whiting, paint fillers, toothpaste, and hundreds of other uses.

The State's hard-rock phosphate resources are located along the easternmost townships of Gilchrist, Levy, Citrus, and Hernando counties, and the western townships of Alachua and Marion counties. The canal crosses this resource along the Citrus-Levy County boundary and the difficulty of mining a resource that occurs as disconnected deposits beneath a thick cover has reduced a once thriving industry of many mines to one. Hard-rock phosphate is consistently of higher grade than land pebble, and is indispensable for some chemical and metallurgical purposes. Cheap barge transportation would make these deposits more competitive and would enlarge the mining schedules.
Perhaps the greatest need for mineral development in Florida would be a structural clay deposit near the canal. Clay pipe, tile, brick, and light-weight clay aggregate are in great demand throughout Florida, but the nearest sources for structural clays are inAlabama, Georgia, and Pensacola, Florida. Expanded aggregate is now produced near Doctor's Inlet, Florida, and other clay deposits are known along the flood plain of the St. Johns River. The development of these clays and new uses for kaolin, produced in Putnam and present in Lake and adjacent counties, will be accelerated by barge transportation and by the resulting enlarged marketing area.
Relatively undeveloped areas where large acreages of land are available at reasonable prices are present along much of the canal (at the present time). These land values will be greatly increased by improvements along the canal, and by the availability of water for recreation, transportation, and irrigation. The high-rolling sand hills of the interior of Florida will overlook a scene of magnificent grandeur -home sites that would be unexcelled.
The route traverses near the cities of Inglis, a port of entry, Dunnellon, Ocala, Palatka, Green Cove Springs, Orange Park, and Jacksonville, any one of which can be expected to expand both industrially and residentially toward the canal.
Industry seeking to relocate needs large tracts of land, abundant water, cheap transportation, and the Florida recreational and climatic benefits to attract personnel. These

attractions added to the presence of nearby researchfacilities and a sympathetic state and local administration will promote the land development along the canal route.
Products produced along the canal can be shipped to markets along the Atlantic, the Gulf, or into the Caribbean, at reasonable water transportation rates.
Unexcelled recreational facilities are available throughout the route. Inglis combines a limestone-walled clearwater stream with salt water and fresh water fishing, hunting, and boating. One of the best hunting preserves and largest undeveloped tract of land extends both north and south of the canal along the Gulf. These lands are rock paved high-level swamps that can be bought and developed cheaply into excellent industrial and residential sites.
The land near and including the Ocala National Forest will also containlargetracts of sand-covered, well-drained, rolling high land, that is possible of development. Excellent industrial-park and land-development sites exist along the St. Johns River, the higher side usually lying westerly of the canal.
Mineral resources adjacent to the proposed trans-Florida barge canal:
The proposed route of the trans-Florida barge canal (fig. 4) passes adjacent to some of the more important mineral resource commodities of northern peninsular Florida. These commodities include limestone, dolomite, hard rock phosphate, soft rock phosphate, clay, sand, peat and diatomaceous earth (table 1).
The counties lying immediately adjacent to the proposed canal route, where these natural resources lie, are: Levy, Citrus, Sumter, Lake, Marion, Alachua, Putnam, Volusia, Flagler, St. Johns, Clay and Duval counties. The mineral resource data tabulation which follows applies to the above counties.

0~~1 GANEVIL Project
me- -POSIB..LNKS. 0 0- .
Figure O.P ropse SAYt WATE trOn-TErSd bargeT GORAnal.PL

Table 1. Mineral and Rock Production and Value in 1959
in the Proposed Trans-Florida Barge Canal Area
Mineral Resource Tons Value Limestone 5,593,887 $ 5,673,755 Dolomite (1) (1) Hard Rock Phosphate 78,000 666,000 Soft Rock Phosphate 45,584 (2) 373,150 (2) Clay 493,018 563,878 Sand(Quartz and Heavy) 2,202,000 (3) 11,346,000 (3) Peat Diatomaceous Earth (4) (4) Petroleum (5) (5)
AREA TOTAL 8,412,489 $18,622,783
(1) Included in limestone tonnage so as not to disclose individual company data.
(2) Not all producers reported.
(3) Heavy mineral concentrate included under sand. The
tonnage is only that of titanium concentrates. The value includes that of titanium concentrates, zircon, staurolite and monazite.
(4) No production figures available.
(5) No production.
The great interest in the construction of the CrossFlorida barge canal is reflected by the presentation of Mr. Everett Winters, Executive Vice President of the Mississippi Valley Association, before the Bureau of the Budget on November 9, 1960, reproduced as follows:

Bureau of the Budget
Washington, D.C.
November 9, 1960
For the first time in the forty-two year history of the Mississippi Valley Association, our organization with a unanimous vote endorsed a project for water resources development that does not lie within the Mississippi Valley. The organization believes, however, that the Mississippi Valley does have a very direct interest in the project, and we urge the Bureau of the Budget to recommend the immediate start of construction onthis all-important project, the CrossFlorida Barge Canal.
The industrial eastern part of the United States would be starved for oil if a foreign enemy had submarine bases located in or near Cuba and we were at war.,
During World War II, 25% of all of the United States merchant shiplosses on all oceans occurred along the shores of the State of Florida. In preventing tankers and cargo vessels from moving from Gulf ports to the Atlantic Ocean, German submarines sank 165 of these vessels, 77 being tankers; 88 were drycargo ships. The combined gross tonnage sunk inthis area was 1,065,327. The replacement cost (exclusive of cargoes) of these vessels is $964,029,000. How many lives were lost is not known. These losses would not have been sustained had there been a Cross-Florida Barge Canal.
The distance between the State of Florida and the Island of Cuba is only 90 miles. During World War II, 32% or 142, 573, 000 barrels annually, was moved by ocean tankers from Gulf ports to the Atlantic seaboard. The remainder went overland. In 1957 (the last year figures are available), this total movement by tanker was 1, 125, 346, 000 barrels, which was 92% of the total.
If theGerman submarinefleet based manyhundreds of miles away could inflict losses such as were inflicted, it is a horrifying thought as to the damage that could be inflicted by a fleet of submarines based less than 100 miles away.

Before Congress adjourned, the House of Representatives passed an appropriation bill for civil functions that contained no money for the start of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal. The Senate in its bill provided $160, 000 for advance engineering and designto start the building of this $175,000,000 project.
The project has a benefit-cost ratio of 1.4 1, and we believe that this is an ultra conservative estimate of the benefits. The economic benefits compiled do not take into consideration the defense benefits that rightly should be credited to this project.
All of the overland means of transportation in existence could not possibly handle the volume of petroleum needed on the eastern seaboard in peacetime nor during war. The Cross-Florida Barge Canal is the answer, as it would permit the movement of this petroleum and other cargo on a relatively protected waterway at a small fraction of the cost that this cargo could be moved by any other means. The Cross-Florida Barge Canal is todaythe missing link in our inlandwaterway extending from Brownsville, Texas, to New Jersey.
Let's start building the canal at the earliest possible time. It may be later than we think.
Mississippi Valley Association (Signed) Everett L.Winters
Executive Vice President
Mr. Charles W. Hendry, Jr. has directed the section on ground-water geology of the Survey and has also served as Acting Director in the absence of the Director. The ground-water geology section is composed of Mr. Hendry, Mr. C. R. Sproul, Mr. James Lavender and, for the first six months of 1959, Mr. Jack Woodward was in this section.
Since January 1,1959, the ground-water geology section has completed the full-time program of inventorying all wildly flowing wells in Florida. A final report was compiled and submitted to the 1959 Legislature. This inventory is

continuing and the section is assisting the Department of Water Resources in preparing specifications for plugging wells, and in studies of many lakes and other wells to provide data used in the control and management of the State's water resources.
Mr. Hendry and C. R. Sproul are actively engaged in a study of the ground-water resources of LeonCounty. This program was planned to span at least 4 to 5 years in order that data on a complete cycle of precipitation extremes could be collected and studied with the results related to water availability in Leon County.
The Survey was fortunate in obtaining funds to purchase a Longyear 24-exploration core rig. This core rig is designed to take cores, drive samples and cuttings representative of subsurface formations to depths of 500 feet. James Lavender has been assigned full-time duty to the operation and maintenance of the rig. It is hoped that through the use of this rig data will be provided for the completion of geologic studies and information developed on minerals capable of economic exploitation. Programs have been completed in Gilchrist and Taylor counties and one is underway in Leon County. Foundation testing for Florida State University and Florida A. and M. University was made for the Board of Control.
The section has cooperated with various departments of the state, federal and municipal governments, and the personnel joins others of the Survey in providing geological, electrical, gamma-ray and other radioactive service logging to the State.
Mr. E. W. Bishop. Geologist, in cooperation with Mr. Herbert G. Stewart, Jr. of the U. S. Geological Survey, has continued his studies of the geology of Polk County. He has also prepared two short papers on the mineralogy of phosphate minerals, gave two talks before resource-use groups, and served on the Florida Use Education Committee and the Rural Development Committee. A general geologic paper entitled "Rocks and Minerals of Florida A Guide to Identification, Occurrence, Production and Uses, was prepared by Mr. Bishop and L. L. Dee, Jr. andwill be published as Special Publication No. 8.

Mr. Stanley J. Olsen, Vertebrate Paleontologist, has continued his reorganization of the Survey's vertebrate collection, assisted in the preparation of preliminary designs for a resource-education and museum building. He has served on the Board of Directors of the American Geological Institute representing the Society of Vertebrate Paleontologists. To assist in the tabulation of data in Mr. Olsen's study of Bos and Bison he has been complimented by the receipt of grants from the National Science Foundation and the NationalAcademy of Science. Mr. Olsenhas undertaken:
(1) A cooperative study with Clayton Ray and James Gut on
some little known Pleistocene vertebrates from Reddick, Arredondo and Williston, Florida, that bear on the ecology of Pleistocene Florida. This study will be completed in 1961, and will be issued as Part 4 of Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication No.. 2.
(2) A comparison of the Miocene vertebrate fauna (fromthe
locality of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad Company's switchyard "B" in Tallahassee) with those from Thomas Farm, Midway, Griscomb Plantation, Tallahassee Water Works and Colclough Hill, Florida. Mr. Hendry is also interested in this study as an aid to the interpretation of the geology of Leon County.
(3) A part-time work on the manuscript of a paper dealing
with the identification of mammal remains from archaeological sites. Enthusiastic encouragement has been received, from all of the field archaeologists who have been informed of this work. The published results should take some of the burden from paleontologists by enabling the archaeologist to make initial identifications in the field withthe aid of the manual itself. (The study specimens are on loan from Harvard University. )
(4) To continue the cataloging and storing of the last remaining vertebrates which are in our collection but are not
(5) A routine identification of small lots of vertebrate remains which are sent intothe Survey for determination.

This phase has picked up considerably during the last few months and amounts to several collections per week.
Whether this is due to the publication "Fossil Mammals of Florida," or the increased interest inSCUBA diving, or both, is hard to say. Answers to routine inquiries
relating to vertebrate fossils are prepared daily.
(6) The exchange and loan of specimens from Survey collections (both actual material and casts) with those of
other institutions.
(7) To gather and sort data for the proposed Geological Museum.
Dr. Harbans S. Puri, Paleontologist, continued his studies of the ostracods and foraminifers of Florida. These remains of small crab-like and unicellular animals are preserved in sediments forming in the State's fresh and salt water, and because of their small size they are preserved in sediments that were formed in the geologic past. The description, identification and occurrences of these fossil remains recovered from cuttings in wells assist in oil findings, economic mineral exploitation and general geologic planning. Dr. Puri was editor of the 9th Field Trip Guidebook is sued by the Southeastern GeologicalSociety of Tallahas see and is a participating faculty member at Florida State University, having taught a course in Ostracoda, directed several studies used by students as partial fulfillment of a master's degree and serving on several committees for examining doctoral candidates.
He has undertaken a revision of G. W. Miller's monograph of the "Ostracoda of the Gulf of Naples," which will be financed through the National Science Foundation and has the full cooperation of the Zoological Station at Naples, Italy.
Dr. Puri directed William K. Benda and V. V. Vanstrum in studies relating to "Environments of the Boca Ceiga" (in cooperation with the Department of Conservation), "Distribution of Recent Ostracoda and Foraminifera Along Parts of the Gulf Coast of Peninsula Florida, and "Zonation and Paleoecology of the Caloosahatchee Formation Based on Ostracoda. "

Mr. J. W. Yon, Jr. Geologist, has prepared and published a study of the regional lithofacies of post-Eocene rock with Mr. H. G. Goodell, of the Florida State University Department of Geology.
Mr. Yon and Dr. Puri continued their study of the geology of Gilchrist and Dixie counties, which will be published in 1961. These geologists also have continued their study of the foraminifers of the Avon Park limestone. Mr. Yon is studying the geology and water resources of Jeffers on County and with Dr. Pur has prepared a short geological study of the Waccasassa Flats, Gilchrist County, for publication. He has worked closely with Mr. Hendry in well-logging inventory, and other service activities, and has served as counselor on Geology Merit Badge of the Boy Scouts of America in Leon County District.
Mr. William D. Reves, Geologist, has completed data on clay mineralogy, sedimentology and economic geology. This effort has resulted in five publications: two research publications regarding clays, two regarding Florida and Alabama economic geology, and one regarding Florida economic limestones. In addition to the above, Mr. Reves is currently compiling new data on some clay resources of Panhandle Florida, which will be available in printed form during 1961. Alsopartially completed is some chemical and location data concerning glass sand deposits in south-central peninsular Florida, which will also be in printed form in 1961.
Two speeches concerning the science of geology were given by Mr. Reves in Sanford and Tallahassee, and six national regional and state scientific and planning meetings were also attended.
Innumerable visits were made to allparts of Florida by Mr. Reves for the purpose of meeting with mineral resources developers and producers, civic and governmental agencies. Also, many conferences were held inthe office of the Florida Geological Survey with mining, civic and governmental officials.
Mr. Harry Whitehead, Draftsman, has prepared many detailed maps, charts and graphs, some of which were

completed in color and used in color slides. He has developed isometric and perspective projection of surface and subsurface geologic data used as illustrations in publications and for talks. Many of these were developed from rough sketches or oral descriptions. He has assisted in the supervision of the publication de'partment and has supervised the activities of student-aides used in drafting.
Mr. Andrew R. Janson, Scientific Illustrator, continued his excellent work of preparing the scientific illustrations for the reports of staff members of the Geological Survey. He also actively cooperated with the Physics Department of Florida State University in their astronomy program and with the Oceanographic Institute by designing charts to be used for motion pictures for the NASA in Washington D. C. Mr. Janson also cooperated with the Florida State University by acting as consultant for the Audio Visual and Education Departments relating to cartographic presentations.
The tabulation of rainfall data for Florida has continued and include many inacces sible stations reported by the Florida Board of Forestry. These data are available upon request.
The Geological Survey assisted the Geologic Division of the U. S. Geological Survey in a study of Neogene mollusks.
The Development Commission was furnished the locations of mines, production figures and general information on mineral resources, and was assisted by the preparation of many summaries of water, mineral resources and production data for industrial prospects.
Widco electric logger:
During the biennium the Coastal Petroleum Company began an evaluation of a part of its State leases. The program combined an evaluation of shallow mineral possibilities with a shallow core drill program. The Survey requested permissionto make electrical logs on each core test, since these were State leases, and the Company was kind enough to grant this request. Because of the loose sand cored at shallow

depths, which required the use of casing, the company obtained a gamma-ray probe for use in the prospect and this was donated to the Survey upon completion of the project.
Both electric and gamma-ray logs were run as a part of the cooperative program between the U. S. and Florida Geological Surveys and for control of drainage and supply wells by municipal, county, state and federal agencies in Polk, Lake, Orange, Green Swamp, Lee, Charlotte, Sarasota, Hillsborough, Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Alachua, Glades, Hendry, Okeechobee and Suwannee counties.
Dr. Pierce Brodkorb
Throughout the biennial period the Florida Geological Survey has maintained a cooperative agreement with Dr. Pierce Brodkorb, Ornithologist with the Department of Biology, University of Florida, and his students. Dr. Brodkorb and his students have collected and classified, in part, excellent specimens from several localities in central Florida.
Dr. W. A. White
Dr. W.A. White, Professor of Geology at the University of North Carolina, joined Harbans Pur and Robert Vernon in a study of the landforms of Florida. A complete classification of these landforms, their description and formative causes, is being prepared for publication as a bulletin. This will be the first of four parts of the Geology of Florida, the other three covering stratigraphy, paleontology and economic geology to follow.
Mr. Glenn T. Allen, Jr., and Mr. Edward Dolan
The tabulation and study of archaeological data collected at Hornsby and Darby springs was completed during the biennium. The paleo-Indian artifacts correlate closely with

the Folsom culture and fluted arrowheads of western states, dating about 10, 000 years B. C. This study is being published as Special Publication No. 7.
Feasibility Studies Abbott, Merkt and Company
In 1959 the Florida Legislature asked the Florida Geological Survey to as sume the responsibility of c ontracting for four economic and engineering studies of the feasibility of improving or developing waterways along the Peace River, Suwannee River, Choctawhatchee River, and the SanfordTitusville Canal. On June 29, 1959, the Abbott, Merkt and Company, New York and Jacksonville, was employed to conduct these studies and to prepare reports of the studies during the biennium of 1959-60. The Survey assisted in developing the program and cooperated with the company through the Survey's extensive library, knowledge of water and mineral resources, and as liaison between the company, various districts and associations promoting the development of the rivers and with state and federal agencies.
To obtain Federal assistance in developing any waterway, the U. S. Corps of Engineers requires a favorable benefit-cost ratio of at least 1. 0. The studies were correlated closely with the Corps offices at Jacksonville and Mobile. Abbott, Merkt and Company has considered costs of each project and the benefits that would accompany the development of the waterway. The benefits were determined by projecting rates, based on population growth, for barge transportation of up to 200 commodities against rates charged by present methods of transportation and computing the savings which were added to defense benefits and to minor benefits from recreational boating, fishing, wildlife, flood control and irrigation, where these were applicable.
The completed studies covering the four waterways are available for study in the offices of the Florida Geological Survey. The cost and benefit evaluations found for each may be summarized as follows:

Sanford-Titusville Canal:
A total of 1980 individual commodities were priced for barge and present methods of transportation, a large percentage being discarded due to unsuitabilityfrom the standpoint of tonnage or economy. Defense benefits associated with missile development have been included because of their realistic character, and costs were reevaluated based on current building methods and prices. The nondefense benefitcost ratio, based onthe study, is 6.6 with an average annual benefit of $4,107,000 andannual costs of $621,850 basedupon afirst cost of $11,927,000. With defense benefits of $981,000 included, the benefit-cost ratio would increase to 8.2. Thus this project is feasible and should be built after the crossFlorida canal has been completed, upon which much of the justification of the Sanford-Titusville Canal is based.
Choctawhatchee River Basin:
The feasibility study by Abbott, Merkt and Company paralleled studies being made by the Mobile District of the Corps of Engineers and the U. S. Study Commission for southeast river basins. It was apparent that the scope of our work should be limited to specific intensified segments of a more comprehensive study of the Corps of Engineers. Following several conferences with Corps personnel it was decided that to avoid duplication and waste, Abbott, Merkt and Company would develop specific data on mineral resources, forest resources and economic statistics and potentials for that part of the river basin subject to improvment and development. This report provides this data which can be used by the Corps in their recommendation for channel improvement and provides valuable basic data to the communities and people living in the basin.
Timber is valued at about $63 million and the basin could be made to produce, through reforestation, $114 million after 15 years. Current production of minerals average $3 million annually and reserves could support a volume many times larger.

Suwannee River:
The development of the Suwannee River is vigorously supported byan active Suwannee River Authority. The feasibility of developing the river was discussedin open meetings of the Authority and it was agreed that the most pressing need for waterway development was in the opening and maintenance of a channel into the river from the Gulf. Shoaling of the channel prevented the safe access to the Gulf for recreational and fishing craft. An existing Federal navigation project was authorized by Congress in 1880 and 1890 to provide a channel 150 feet wide and 5 feet deep through the entrance to Branford, Florida, and a channel 60 feet wide and 4 feet deep upstream to Ellaville. The latest maintenance work bythe Corps of Engineers consisted of snagging between the mouth and Oldtown in 1939.
The general improvement of the channel above the mouth was considered as local and state responsibilities, but in the economic justification of the resumption of channel maintenance at the river entrance, Abbott, Merkt and Company determined that the estimated benefits will be at the ratio of 2. 13 times the annual cost of $9, 570, covering an initial maintenance cost of $82, 500.
Peace River:
The Peace River Valley Water Conservation and Drainage District has the responsibilities of developing the Peace River valley. The Survey and Abbott, Merkt and Company sought to make that part of the funds as signed to the feasibility study of Peace River available to the District so they could make the study, but District officials preferred to have an independent survey made of the economic possibilities of commercial transportation. Accordingly, the District chose to determine the physical characteristics of the Valley and the improvement contemplated, and Abbott, Merkt and Company chose to develop the economic aspects with emphasis on the feasibility of commercial navigation. With respect to the latter, although the Peace River at one time provided

considerable transportation, an examination of the suitability of water shipment of 28 commodities by barge indicate a negligible savings in terms of the construction required. The District has estimated a 2-phase construction program will require an investment of $42. 8 million with an annual carrying charge of $2.14 million. The total benefits, with commercial navigation benefits being excluded, amount to $615,000 annually, representing a benefit-cost ratio of
Accordingly, it is recommended that:
1. No further action be taken toward providing
commercial navigation facilities on Peace
2. Snagging operations be resumed at an early
3. The District continue to study the feasibility
of building steel sheet pile control structures.
4. The design of the proposed steel sheet pile
dam at Bartow be reviewed in detail.
Both Abbott, Merkt and Company and Survey personnel believe that the computed benefits are conservative, and subject to atremendous potential of presently intangible values. The cost estimates are realistic and the four reports will be of considerable aid to the Corps of Engineers, and to the U. S. Study Commission in regards to the Suwannee and Choctawhatchee River systems, in the preparation of more comprehensive reports being prepared for each waterway. The Survey is placing copies of each of the reports with the Corps offices, the U. S. Study Commission, Suwannee River Authority, Peace River Valley Water Conservation and Drainage District, and the Choctawhatchee-Pea River Valley Association, and urges the favorable consideration of results and recommendations contained in the reports.

Benda, William K.
1960 Studies of the environments of the Boca Ceiga
Bay: Open file report in the office of the
Florida Geological Survey.
Bishop, E.W.
1960 The geochemistry of phosphorus: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field Trip Guidebook,
p. 38-49.
1960 Structure and diadochic substitution in the
apatite group: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th
Field Trip Guidebook, p. 64-74.
1960. Geology and. ground-water resources of Suwannee County, Florida: Mimeographed report on file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey, 6 p. 3 fig.
Cooper, H. H., Jr.
1959 A hypothesis concerning the dynamic balance
of fresh water and salt water in a coastal aquifer: Jour. Geophys. Research, v. 64,
no. 4.
Hendry, Charles W. Jr.
1959 (and Lavender, James A. ) Final report on an
inventory of flowing artesian wells in Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 21, 30 p.,
9 fig. 3 tables.
Kohout, F.A.
1959 (and Mayer, F. W.) Hydrologic features of
the Lake Istokpoga and Lake Placid areas, Highlands County, Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Rept. Inv. 19, 73 p. 20 fig. 5 tables.

1960 Cyclic flow of salt water in the Biscayne acquifer of s outheastern Florida: J our. Ge ophys.
Research, v. 65, no. 7.
Lichtler, William F.
1960 Geology and ground-water resources of Martin
County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept.
Inv. 23, 149 p. 26 fig. 8 tables.
Marsh, O.T.
1960 A geologic-profile plotter: Econ. Geology,
v. 55, no. 1.
1960 A rapid and accurate contour interpolator:
Econ. Geology, v. 55, no. 7.
Olsen, Stanley J.
1959 Similarity in the skull of the Bison and Brahman: American Antiquity, v. 24, no. 3,
p. 321-322.
1959 The baculum of the Miocene carnivore Amphicyon: Jour. Paleontology, v. 33, p. 449-450.
1959 (and Dunkle, D. H. ) Description of a Beryciform fish from the Oligocene of Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 2, Paper 3,
p. 1-20.
1959 The middle ear of the Miocene mustelid
Leptarctus: Jour. Paleontology, v. 33, no. 3,
p. 451, 452.
1959 Fossil mammals of Florida: Florida Geol.
Survey Spec. Pub. 6, 74 p., 14 pl., 13 fig.
1959 The archaeologist's problem of interpreting
nonartifactual material: Curator, v. 2, no. 4,
p. 335-338.
1959 The Wakulla Cave: In Captain Courteau's
Underwater Treasury, Harper and Brothers,
p. 369-373.

1960 Age and faunal relationship of Tapiravus remains from Florida: Jour. Paleontology,
v. 34, no. 1, p. 164, 167.
1960 Florida's Pleistocene vampire: Florida Wildlife Magazine, v. 14, no. 2, p. 16-37.
1960 The fossil carnivore Amphicyon longiramus
from the Thomas Farm Miocene, Pt. II, Postcranial skeleton: Mus. Comp. ZoologyBull.
v. 123, no. 1, p. 1-45.
1960 Additional remains of Florida Pleistocene
vampire Desmodus magnus: Jour. Mammology, v. 41, no. 4, p. 457-466.
1960 Postcranial skeletal characters of Bison and
Bos: Peabody Mus. Am. Ethnology, Harvard
Univ., v. 35, no. 4, p. 1-61, 24 fig.
Peek, Harry M.
1959 The artesian water of the Ruskin area of Hillsborough County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 21, 96 p., 47 fig. 1 pl.,
7 tables.
1959 Record of wells in the Ruskin area of Hillsborough County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 22, 85 p. 1 fig. 1 pl. ,2 tables.
Puri, Harbans S.
1959 (and Robert 0. Vernon) Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the classic exposures: Florida Geol. Survey Spec. Pub. 5,
254 p., 11 pl., 11 fig.
1959 (and Joseph E. Banks) Structural features
of the Sunniland Oil Field, Collier County,
Florida: Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. Trans.
v. 9, p. 121-130, 21 fig.
1959 Ecology of Ostracoda: Mimeographed report
on file in the office of the Florida Geol. Survey,
16 p.

1960 The H. S. Puri card catalog of Recent Ostracoda: J. D. McLean, Jr. Alexandria, Va.
no. 1-4.
1960 Recent Ostracoda from the west coast of
Florida: Gulf Coast Asso'c. Geol. Soc. Trans.
v. 10, p. 107-149, 6 pl. 46 text fig.
1960 (and Vernon, R. 0. ) Notes on surficial geology of central peninsular Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field Trip Guidebook,
p. 1-31, 3 fig., 1 pl.
Reves, William D.
1959 Clay dispersal study of a red siltstone: Southeastern Geology, v. 1, no. 2, p. 77-82.
1960 An X-ray study of two Florida land pebble
phosphate samples, late Cenozoic stratigraphy and sedimentation in central Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field Trip Guidebook,
p. 50-63.
1960 Mineral resources of Choctawhatchee-Pea
River basin in Florida and Alabama: Mimeographed report on file in the office of the
Florida Geological Survey, 28 p.
1960 Mineral resources adjacent to the proposed
trans-Florida barge canal: Mimeographed report on file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey, 31 p.
Rorabaugh, M.I.
1960 Problems of waste disposal and ground-water
quality: Am. Water Works Assoc. Jour.
v. 52, no. 8.
Shirley, Lawrence E.
1959 (and Vernon, RobertO.) The mineral industry
of Florida: U. S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, v. 3(1958), 17 p., 1 fig. ,9 tables.

1960 (and Vernon, Robert O.) The mineral industry
of Florida: U. S. Bureau of Mines Minerals Yearbook, v. 3 (1959), 29 p. 1 fig. ,9 tables.
Sherwood, C.B.
1959 Ground-water resources of the OaklandPark
area of eastern Broward County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept. Inv. 20, 40 p.,
23 fig. 2 tables.
Stewart, Herbert G. Jr.
1959 Interim report on the geology and groundwater resources of northwestern Polk County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Inf. Circ. 23,
83 p., 19 fig., 3pl. 9 tables.
Vanstrum, V. V.
1960 Zonation and Paleoecology of the Caloosahatchee formation based onOstracoda: Master's Thesis, Florida State Univ. 144 p. ,
11 pl., 5 fig., 1 table.
Vernon, Robert 0.
1959 Thirteenth Biennial Report 1957-58: Florida
Geol. Survey, 84 p., 14 fig.
1959 (and Hendry, Charles W. Jr.) Exploration
for oil and gas in Florida: 1958 Supplement
to Inf. Circ. 1 (revised), 15 p. 2 fig.
1959 Trans-Florida barge canal: Mimeographed
report on file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey, 18 p.
1959 Economic impact on mineral production, land
development, and recreation: Mimeographed report on file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey, 3 p.
1959 Geology in the nuclear research program:
Leaflet published by the Florida Nuclear Development Commission, p. 5-11.

1960 (and Hendry, Charles W. Jr. ) Exploration
for oil and gas in Florida: 1959 Supplement to
Inf. Circ. 1 (revised), 16 p., 2 fig.
1960 The distribution and geology of road base
course material in Florida: Proceedings Eleventh Annual Symposium on Highway Engineering Geology, pub. by Florida Geol. Survey, p. 1-8, Frontispiece.
1960 (and Hendry, Charles W. ,Jr. Sproul, C. R.,
Lavender, J. A., and Bishop, E. W.) Your water resources: Florida Geol. Survey Leaflet No. 1, 24 p.
1960 Report of Governor's committee formed for
study of the problem of retention of phosphate slimes: Mimeographed report on open file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey,
15 p.
Wyrick, Granville G.
1960 The ground-water resources of Volusia
County, Florida: Florida Geol. Survey Rept.
Inv. 22, 65 p. 30 fig. 3 tables.
Yon, J.W., Jr.
1960 (and H. G. Goodell) The regional lithostratigraphy of the post-Eocene rocks of Florida: Southeastern Geol. Soc. 9th Field
Trip Guidebook, p. 75-113.
In addition to the above, numerous publications issued by the U.S. Geological Survey, Washington 25, D.C. ,include information on geology and water resources of Florida, particularly water-supply papers giving information on water levels and artesian pressure in observation wells, quality of surface waters and stream measurements.

Estimation of Funds Needed for Publication
Geology and Hydrology Estimated Date Estimated
of (Area Covered) Manuscript is Ready Type of Report Cost
Gilchrist-Dixie counties 1961 Bulletin $ 2,500 Florida landforms 1962 Bulletin 2,500 Caloosahatchee River 1961 Bulletin 2,500 Boca Ceiga Bay 1961 Bulletin 2,500 DuBar's Mollusca 1961 Special Paper 500 Florida fossils 1962 Bulletin 2,500 Avon Park fossils 1962 Bulletin 2,500 Jefferson County 1962 Bulletin 2,500 Eocene rocks of the northern
part of peninsular Florida 1962 Bulletin 2,000 South Florida glass sand 1961 Bulletin 2,500 West Florida clays 1961 Bulletin 2,000 Polk County geology 1962 Bulletin 3,000 Common rocks and minerals
in Florida 1961 Special Paper 300 Reddick, Arredonda, and
Williston, Florida 1961 Special Paper 300 Miocene fauna near
Tallahassee, Florida 1961 Special Paper 300 Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union counties Interim 1961 IC1 500 Collier County Interim 1961 IC 500 Dade County 1962 RI1 2,000 Escambia and Santa Rosa
counties Interim 1961 IC 500 Glades and Hendry counties 1962 RI & IC 2,500 Hillsborough County 1962 RI 2,000 Polk County ground water 1961 RI & IC 2,500 St. Johns, Putnam and
Flagler counties 1961 RI & IC 2,500 Pompano Beach, Broward
County 1962 RI 2,000 Charlotte and Lee counties 196Z RI 2,000 Collier County 196Z RI 2,000 Orange County Interim 1961 IC 500 Alachua, Bradford, Clay and
Union counties 1962 RI & IC Z,500 Green Swamp in central
Florida Interim 1961 IC 500 Biennial Report to the Legislature 1962 600
lnformation Circular and Report of Investigations.
Mrs. Ruth Wilson, the librarian, has been endeavoring through gifts, exchanges and purchases, to obtain out-of-print documents to add to the library holdings. The Smithsonian Institution sent the Survey enough out-of-print Proceedings to fill lacking numbers in 31 volumes. Duplicate copies of their Annual Report contained in our files were sent to them in exchange. The library of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard gave the Survey 68 Bulletins and Brevoria. An additional gift of eight Memoir volumes included

the Agassiz Coral Reefs issued in 1903.
The largest single exchange was made with Tulane University, which included 360 duplicate state and federal publications which were exchanged for 126 volumes of scientific publications.
The new universities and junior colleges in the State have not been slighted in the exchange program. The University of South Florida has received a complete set of all Survey periodicals, as well as 47 duplicate publications of scientific journals and pertinent publications have also been sent to all of the junior colleges.
Fifteen volumes of Floridiana have been given to the Leon County Public Library, and back issues of many of our nonscientific serials were presented to the library of Florida State University.
The present collection of 30,000 volumes has been obtained through exchange with other state surveys, the U. S. Geological Survey, the U. S. National Museum and other governmental agencies. We receive exchange publications from 36 foreign countries in geology and allied sciences. The Survey budget allows for the purchase of current scientific journals and reference books.
The Survey has a complete file of all the topographic maps issued by the U. S. Geological Survey on Florida. These are sent, on standing order, as they are issued. The Florida map collection also contains all coast and geodetic survey maps including the "100 Series" issued before 1900. In our map files are studies of all the Florida areas that have been mapped.
The library is open to the public. While materials may not be checked out, they may be examined at leisure in comfortable surroundings.

(January 1959 through December 1960)
Number of volumes added (subscriptions,
exchanges, purchases) ..................... 13,000
Gifts (number of volumes)
Tulane University ............................. 126
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard.. 80 Chicago Museum of Natural History ........ 25 University of Kansas ........................ 19
Smithsonian Institution ....................... 15
Florida State University ...................... 12
Dr. Herman Gunter ......................... 10
Leon County Public Library .................... 5
Dr. James L. Calver ........................... 2
San Diego Museum of Natural History ...... 2 American Museum of Natural History ...... 1 Number of maps added or replaced
Standing order ........................ 864
Special order ........................1, 522
Total ................................... 2,386
Material sent to bindery (volumes) ................ 1,060
Visitors other than Florida Geological Survey
U. S. Geological Survey ................ 137
Florida State University ............... 625
Other ................................. 334
Total visitors ............................... 1,086
In Florida, topographic maps canbe obtained fromthe following companies:
Fort Lauderdale:
Dolph Map Co., Inc. 430 North Federal Highway.
Fort Myers:
Gulf Maps, 16 Patio De Leon.
Fort Pierce:
Horton's, IZZ North Second Street.

Campus Shop & Book Store, University of Florida.
Florida Book Store, Inc.,1638 West University Ave.
The H. & W. B. Drew Company.
The Nautical Supply Co., 15 North Newman Street.
Sanford Engineering Supply Co.,
128 Riverside Avenue.
Edwards Surveying and Blueprinting,
1218 East Main Street, P.O. Box 230.
Hopkins-Carter Hardware Co. ,
135 South Miami Avenue.
Denmark Sporting Goods, Inc. ,
149 North Main Street.
George Stuart, Inc. 133 East Robinson Avenue,
P.O. Box 593.
Punta Gorda:
Van Dyke Blueprint Service, 124 Herald Court.
Ellie's Book & Stationery, 1350 Main Street.
Valentine's Bookshop, 560 East Fourth Street.
Jon S. Beazley, Photogrammetric Engineers,
1903 North Monroe Street.
Poston Marine Hardware & Supply Co.,
1012 East Cass Street.
West Palm Beach:
Hopkins Marine Hardware Co. 207 Sixth Street.
Reference facilities are available in the following libraries where maps published by the U. S. Geological Survey are deposited:
The University Libraries, University of Florida.
Lake Alfred:
Library, Agricultural Experiment Station,
University of Florida.

Research Library, Florida Development Commission, East Wing, Carlton Building.
Florida Geological Survey.
Library, Florida State University.
Winter Park:
Mills Memorial Library, Rollins College.
Numerical Index to Topographic Maps
A numerical index to the names of quadrangles for which topographic maps have been published appears in the Eleventh Biennial Report. The following maps have been published since the Thirteenth Biennial Report'.
Name Series Date Name Series Date
5. Crestview 15' 1951 60. 28. A Ellaville 7.5' 1959
C Gretna 7.5' 1959 B Ft. Union 7.5' 1959 29. C Falmouth 7. 5' 1959
D Quincy 7.5' 1959 D Live Oak West 7.5' 1959 40. 68.
A St. Marys 7.5' 1919 A Laguna Beach 7i 5' 1945
C Italia 7.5' 1958 70.
41. B Tenmile Swamp 7.5' 1945
C Fernandina Beach 7.5' 1956 D Wetappo Creek 7.5' 1945 49. 71.
A Bruce 7.5' 1945 A Dead Lake 7.5' 1945 B Red Head 7.5' 1945 B Orange. 7.5' 1945 C Seminole Hills 7.5' 1945 C. Wewahitchka 7.5' 1945 D West Bay 7.5' 1944 D Kennedy Creek 7.5' 1945 50. 72. :
A Crystal Lake 7.5' 1945 A Wilma 7.5.' 1946 B Bennett 7.5' 1945 B Queens Bay 7.5' 1946 C Southport 7.5' 1944 C Sumatra 7.5' 1946.
D Bayhead 7.5' 1945 D Owens Bridge 7.5' 1946 51. 73.
B Juniper Creek 7.5' 1947 A Smith Creek 7.5' 1945
C Youngstown 7.5' 1944 B Bradwell Bay 7.5' 1945 D Broad Branch 7.5' 1947 C Thousand Yard Bay 7.51 1945 52. D Sanborn 7.5' 1945
A Clarksville 7.5'. 1,945 88.
B Blountstown 7.5' 1945 B Overstreet 7.5' 1943 C Frink ,7.5' 1945 C St. Joseph Point 7.5' 1945 D Estiffanulga 7.5' 1945 D Port St. Joe 7.5' 1943 53. 89.
A Bristol 7.5' 1945 A White City 7.5' 1945
C Woods 7.5' 1945 C Lake Wimico 7.5' 1944 D Telogia 7.5' 1946 D Jackson River 7.5' 1945 59. 90.
A Madison 7.5' 1958 A Ft. Gadsden 7.5' 1945 B Lee 7.5' 1958 B Tates Hell Swamp 7.5' 1945 C Madison SW 7.5' -1958 C Beverly 7.5' 1945 D Madison SE 7. 5' 1958 D Green Point 7.5' 1944

Figure 5. Index to published topographic mapping.

Name Series Date Name Series Date 91.
A Pickett Bay 7.5' 1944 D Titusville SW 7. 5' 1953
B McIntyre 7.5' 1945
C Carrabelle 7.5' 1944 158.
D Dog Island 7.5' 1943 A Wilson 7.5' 195Z 92. C Orsino 7.5' 1951
A St. Teresa 7. 5' 1945 D False Cape 7.5' 1951
B Lighthouse Point 7.5' 1945 162.
105. D Poyner 7.5' 1959
A St. Joseph Spit 7.5' 1943 163.
B Cape San Blas 7.5' 1943 A Lake Louise 7.5' 1959
106. C Lake Louise SW 7.5' 1959
B West Pass 7.5' 1944 164.
D Cape St. George 7.5' 1945 A Lake Jessamine 7.5' 1953 107. 173.
A Apalachicola 7. 5' 1943 A Gum Lake 7. 5' 1959
B Goose Island 7.5' 1945 177.
C New Inlet 7. 5' 1950 A Eau Gallie 7.5' 1951 116. D Melbourne 7.5' 1951
A Interlachen 7.5' 1949 183.
118. C Lake Wales 7.5' 1952
D Espanola 7.5' 1957 188.
119. C Sebastian 7.5' 1951
A Mantanzas 7.5' 1956 198.
125. Citra 15' 1944 A Fellsmere 4 NW 7.5' 1953 129. D Fellsmere 4 SE 7.5' 1953
A Flagler Beach West 7.5' 1956 209.
B Flagler Beach East 7.5' 1956 A Ft. Pierce 7. 5' 1950
C Favoretta 7.5' 1956 234.
D Ormond Beach 7.5' 1956 A Ft. Myers SE 7.5' 1958 139. B Ft. Myers NW 7.5' 1959
A Port Orange 7. 5' 1936 D Ft. Myers SW 7.5' 1959
C New Smyrna Beach 7. 5' 1956 243.
142. A Ft. Myers Beach 7.5' 1958
D Inverness 7.5' 1954 Z53.
152. B Miles City 7.5' 1959
A Wahoo 7.5' 1958 C Deep Lake SW 7.5 1959 B Bushnell 7.5' 1958 D Deep Lake 7.5' 1959
C St. Catherine 7.5' 1958 D Webster 7.5' 1958
County Index to Topographic Maps
County index to the names of topographic maps that
have been published or revised since the Thirteenth Biennial Report. Asterisks (*) indicate areas which have not been previously mapped.
Name Series Date Name Series Date
Alachua County Brevard County
125. Citra 15' 1944 158.
A Wilson 7.5' 1952
Bay County C Orsino 7.5' 1951 49. D False Cape 7.5' 1951 D West Bay 7.5' 1944 177.
50. A Eau Gallie 7.5' 1951 C Southport 7.5' 1944 D Melbourne 7.5' 1951 51. 188. C Youngstown 7.5' 1945 C Sebastian 7.5' 1951 68.
A Laguna Beach 7. 5' 1945

Name Series Date Name Series Date Calhoun County
51. 89.
B Juniper Creek 7. 5' 1947 A White City 7.5' 1945 D Broad Branch 7.5' 1947 C Lake Wimico 7.5' 1944 52. D Jackson River 7.5' 1945 A Clarksville 7.5' 1945 105.
C Frink 7.5' 1945 A St. Joseph Spit 7.5' 1943 D Estiffanulga 7. 5' 1945 B Cape San Blas 7.5' 1943 70.
B Tenmile Swamp 7. 5' 1945 Lake County 71. 163. A Dead Lake 7.5' 1945 A Lake Louise 7. 5' 1959*
Citrus County Lee County 142. 234.
D Inverness 7. 5' 1954 A Fort Myers SE 7.5' 1958* C Fort Myers NW 7.5' 1959* Collier County D Fort Myers SW 7.5' 1959* 253. 243.
B Miles City 7.5' 1959* A Fort Myers Beach 7. 5' 1958
C Deep Lake SW 7.5' 1959*
D Deep Lake 7.5' 1959* Liberty County
Flagler County B Blountstown 7.5' 1943 129. 53.
C Favoretta 7.5' 1956 A Bristol 7.5' 1945 C Woods 7.5' 1945 Franklin County D Telogia 7.5' 1946 71. 71. B Orange 7.5' 1945 C Wewahitchka 7.5' 1945 90. 72. A Fort Gadsden 7. 5' 1945 A Wilma 7. 5' 1946 B Tates Hell Swamp 7.5' 1945 B Queens Bay 7.5' 1946 C Beverly 7.5' 1945 C Sumatra 7. 5' 1946 D Green Point 7.5' 1944 D Owens Bridge 7.5' 1946 91. 73. A Pickett Bay 7.5' 1944 C Thousand Yard Bay 7.5'1 945
C Carrabelle 7.5' 1944
D Dog Island 7.5' 1943 Madison County 106. 59.
B West Pass 7.5' 1944 A Madison 7.5' 1958* D Cape St. George 7.5' 1945 B Lee 7.5' 1958* 107. C Madison SW 7.5' 1958*
A Apalachicola 7.5' 1943 D Madison SE 7.5' 1958*
B Goose Island 7.5' 1949 60.
C New Inlet 7. 5' 1950 C Falmouth 7.5' 1959*
Gadsden County Nassau Co40ty
28. 40. C Gretna 7.5' 1959* A St. Marys 7.5' 1919 29. C Italia 7.5' 1958* D Quincy 7.5' 1959* 41.
C Fernandina Beach 7.5' 1956 Gulf County
70. Osceola County
D Wetappo Creek 7.5- 1945 198.
71. A Fellsmere 4 NW 7.5' 1953
D Kennedy Creek 7.5' 1945 D Fellsmere 4 SE 7.5' 1953 88.
B Overstreet 7.5' 1943 Okaloosa County
C St. Joseph Point 7.5' 1945 5. Crestview 15' 1951
D Port St. Joe 7.5' 1943

Name Series Date
Orange Cunt Suwannee County
157. 60.
D Titusville SW 7. 5' 1953 A Ellaville 7. 5' 1959* 163. B Ft. Union 7.5' 1959*
C Lake Louise SW 7.5' 1959* D Live Oak-West 7.5' 1959* 164.
A Lake Jessamine 7. 5' 1953 Volusia County 129.
Polk County A Flagler Beach West 7.5' 1956* 16z. B Flagler Beach East 7.5' 1956*
D Poyner 7.5' 1959* D Ormond Beach 7.5' 1956* 173. 139.
A Gum Lake 7. 5' 1959* A Port Orange 7.5' 1936 183. C New Smyrna Beach 7.5' 1956
C Lake Wales 7.5' 195Z Wakulla County 73.
Putnam County A Smith Creek 7.5' 1945 116. B Bradwell Bay 7.5' 1945
A Interlachen 7. 5' 1949 D Sanborn 7. 5' 1945 91.
St. Johns County B McIntyre 1945 118. 92.
D Espanola 7.5' 1957 A St. Teresa 7.51 1945 119. B Lighthouse Point 7.5' 1945
A Matanzas 7. 5' 1956
Walton County
St. Lucie County 49. 209. A Bruce 7. 5' 1945
A Ft. Pierce 7.5' 1950 C Seminole Hills 7.5' 1945
Sumter County Washington County
15Z. 49.
* Wahoo 7.5' 1958* B RedHead 7.5' 1945
B Bushnell 7.5' 1958*
C St. Catherine 7.5' 1958* A Crystal Lake 7.5' 1945 D Webster 7.5' 1958* B Bennett 7. 5' 1945 D Bayhead 7.5' 1945
Attorney General and Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund
The State Geologist was requested to prepare opinions
on the geologic history of areas at Lake Maitland, Black Creek, Sanibel Island, Englewood area, Peace River, and Lake Conway. In each of these areas the title to the State land was questioned either because of accretion of adjacent land upon State land, or through reliction.

Black Creek, Dade County:
Black Creek is near Perrine, Florida. A claim against the Trustees made by a highland owner because of accretion couldnot be substantiated. The entire coastal areawas found tobe composed of hard, porous limestone of the Miami oolite formation, formed millions of years ago. Biscayne Bay and the adjacent coastline are adjusting to a rising sealeveland the lower parts of this limestone shelf was being drowned and covered by mangrove growth and peat. There was no evidence of accretion by marine sediments, within the past few thousand years.
Peace River, Charlotte County:
That part of Peace River from the coast to a point several miles beyond Fort Ogden is tidal and has a floodplain that narrows gradually to a width of about 1 mile south of Fort Ogden. The river is adjusting to a slowly rising sea level and is forced to meander repeatedly in its floodplain to avoid and adjust to vegetative growths. These growths capture sediment and become firm land.
An upland owner claimed that land sold bythe Trustees to another owner had developed bythe slow addition of sediment to his land.
The geologic and landform data indicated that the Peace River had meandered continuously between its valley walls and deposited a well developed floodplain and that the land in question did slowly develop adjacent to the land of the upland owner who raised the question of title, but that this sedimentation occurred across the land in question in the geologic past, before Florida acquired title to the land.
Lake Conway, Orange County:
In litigation between private owners over a small tract of land sold to one owner by the Trustees and occupied by the other, Lake Conway was determined to have oscillated between low and high water separated by several feet, and to have established a plainly marked ordinary high watermark at an elevation of 90 feet. Because of the form of the lake bottom and difference intree ages below and above the eleva-

tion of 90 feet, it was determined that the water in the lake had been artificially reduced by the use of drainage wells in the lake basin and by the capture of water through other drainage wells located high in the watershed that formerly emptied into Lake Conway. The Trustees established a new ordinary high water level at 86. 4 feet in 1952 and a new regimen of the lake has been established at this elevation.
Lake Maitland, Orange County:
Lake Maitland is a meandered lake in part, and geologic and biologic data were compiled to determine that the present level of the lake was held artifically below the ordinary high water level of the lake. The court determined that the State held title to the lake bottom (see Thirteenth Biennial Report).
Englewood Subdivision, Sarasota County:
An upland owner claimed land from the Trustees on accretion by the adjacent inland waters, but the geologic and landforms indicate that the "accretion" was largely vegetative growth and the title was still in the State.
Sanibel Island:
At Sanibel Island, owners of a government lot claimed title, byaccretion, to the preserved meandered overflow land and the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund wished to establish whether the State had previously held title to the overflow land. An investigation revealed that Sanibel Island is the terminal island of a long spit and series of bars extending southerly along Florida's Gulf coast from a point lying west of northern Pinellas County. The islands were deposited by Gulf Stream currents impinging against the western promontory of the peninsula and flowing generally in a southerly direction. Sanibel Island is composed of quartz sand grains and of shells and shell fragments that were swept up off the ocean bottom and cast upon shoals and beaches of the area.
The island is composed of a series of ridges that rise a few feet above interridge swales. Both the ridges and swales are composed of sandy, uncemented shell and shell

fragments, but the interridge areas are underlain by finer clastic particles with an organic clay matrix.
The highest ridge runs downthe central part of Sanibel Island and is a shell ridge on which the elevations range between8 andl0feet. Landward toward the southeast, a series of low-lying ridges and broad swales and basins are present. Gulfward toward the northwest, three separate and distinct ridge-swale areas are present. The present beach and most recent deposition along the shoreline lies at elevations generally a few inches to a foot above the present ordinary high tide. The next ridge-swale area inland from the beach lies at elevations of 2 to 4 feet and the area adjacent to the Silver Bluff shell ridge lies 3 to 5 feet above sea level.
Since beach deposits are formed at or near high tide, the presence of deposits formed into ridges and swales at elevations ranging between 2 to 4, 3 to 5, and 8 to 10 feet, and recognizable as distinct topographic features makes it possible to approximate an age of formation of these sediments.
It has been well established by means of wave-cut notches and marine deposits, that some years ago the ocean and Gulf stood about 8 feet higher upon the land than it now does. This elevation corresponds closely to the elevation of the highest shell ridge on the island. This former stand of the ocean has been dated at 5,000 to 8,000 years, and therefore it would follow that the principal shell ridge of Sanibel Island was formed about 5, 000 to 8, 000 years ago.
The present shoreline can be easily identified on the aerial photograph (fig. 6). A narrow band (the very white area) adjacent to the shoreline is covered by trees that are up to 25 years old and are for the most part 10 to 12 years old. This band represents an active deposition along the present shore resulting largely from the recent extreme erosion of Captiva Island to the north. It therefore follows that the area between the Silver Bluff shell ridge and the present shoreline represents depositionbrokenby occasional erosional periods that extended from -8, 000 years to the present time.

Figure 6. Aerial photo of Sanibel Island showing the
present shoreline and associated features.

From the aerial photograph and from the field inspection, it is apparent that about 8,000 years ago the ocean stood across Sanibel Island on the mainland to the east. The area at Sanibel was a shoal and bars were deposited, eroded, and other bars formed until the area became stable and a high ridge of sandy shells was extended southwesterly across the area, probably as a spit. The Gulf shoreline then stood along the ridge and it was scoured by current that passed along it. Shoreward of this barrier or spit, other currents, much weaker, were forming ridge-bars and current passes.
Sea level declined graduallyto reach its present level, although the decline was interrupted by still stands of the water or by slight recovery. The ridge-swale deposition represents slow accretion of sediment in each of the recognized ridge-swale areas, the oldest ridge of each segregated area being formed in the northwest sector and the youngest in the southeast. The truncation of these ridge-swale areas represent erosional intervals probably when the sea stood still or recovered slightly.
There is no geologic evidence of the previous existence of a bay, such as that recorded by the government surveyor, in lot 5. In fact, all evidence indicates that it would have been impossible to have had such a bay present in the area as shown. It is the State Geologist's conclusion that the land under contest is omitted land and is definitely not one of accretion within the time of legal record.
University of South Florida and the
Board of State Institutions
The Board of Commissioners of State Institutions requested the State Geologist to study the foundation and subsurface at the site of the University of South Florida. Measurements of the bearing strengths of the foundations by Board of Control engineers had indicated a need for consolidation of surficial sands by vibropacking and of a need for grouting of "cavities in loose sediments. Cap grouting had been attempted at considerable cost to the State. In our evaluation of the site, several core holes were placed on the

campus under the direction of Survey personnel. The data thus developed was combined with that developed by the engineers and architects of the Board of Control at the site.
The topography of the campus is gently rolling, the highest elevation being slightly above 70 feet, and the lowest slightly below 25 feet. The soil is exceedingly porous and the site well drained. The ground surface is essentially barren fine grained quartz sand, blown into windrows with a thin cover of grass, scrub oak and scrub live oak. The south campus site is broken by numerous shallow sinkhole basins in whichwater stands during wet weather. Permanent lakes are present where a basin bottoms below 25 feet.
Two stratigraphic holes drilled on the campus penetrated 48 and 49 feet of quartz sand, fine to medium grained, the upper 10 to 20 feet being loose anduncompacted, andthe basal parts of these sands being very argillaceous, silty and with a low permeability. Some of these sands were very plastic and were identified in the field as sandy clays. Upon careful laboratory separation these sediments proved to be largely quartz sand, containing about 16 to 30 percent clay and 6 to 18 percent silt. The clay mineral was identified by D. T.A. (Differential Thermal Analysis) as a montmorillonoid, but may be a 14 R (fourteen Angstrom) clay mineral approximating "diagenetic chlorite. Cavernous limestone, fairly crystalline to chalky, moderately hard and fossiliferous, was penetrated at depths of 48 and 49 feet (elevations of -5.01 and
-8.0 feet). Each boring terminated in the Tampa formation, but hole 2 penetrated loose sand that was apparently filling a cavity in the limestone at depths of 61 to 84 feet, the roof of the cavity being supported by 13 feet of moderately hard limestone. No cavities were noted in sediments overlying the limestone.
From the descriptions of the rock samples and cores prepared by Law Engineering Testing Company, the top of the rock was contoured beneath each of the proposed buildings and thetop of the rock, as expected, is irregular with relief beneath the buildings of more than 18 feet at the site of the library, 10 feet at the administration building, 27feet at the proposed site of the science laboratory, 3 feet at the auditorium and 20 feet at the cafeteria. From other limited core

evidence based on general foundation testing of the campus (13 holes drilled by Law-Barrow-Agee Laboratories, Inc. under job T-355), it would appear that the highest rock in the area would extend beneath the campus as a buried ridge connecting the proposed administration and auditorium buildings. This area extending northwest-southeast appears to be the most stable area of the campus and, if this proves to be true during subsequent foundation investigations, would offer excellent subsurface conditions for the larger buildings.
Ground Water Considerations
The U. S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey, has undertaken a study of the ground water of Hillsborough County. The inventory of wells of the South Florida University campus and vicinity indicates that the artesian water reaches elevations of about 27feet in wells that penetrate the limestone of the Tampa and older sediments. The highest elevation of limestone recorded in the foundation cores is 12 feet above sea level. The ordinary ground-water level in the vicinity of the campus fluctuates freely with rainfall and drought and maylie above this artesian head at times and below during others. It must follow, therefore, that the limestone must be saturated at all times. However, heavy pumping by industrial development near the campus, and redistribution of recharge at the campus, as it is developed, could possibly change the pattern of recharge in the vicinity of the campus and reduce the artesianhead by heavy withdrawal. All campus wells should be made available for continuous inventory of the water table and artesian head, if possible.
If the limestone and clastic sediments that overlie it are dewatered by heavy pumping, some subsidence will result and some adjustment to cavity development can be expected, particularly following heavy rains upon the dewatered rock. An expensive system of sluicing floodwaters off the campus proposed for construction at the site would limit recharge to the ground water and will not have helped in preventing a further and more rapid solution of the limestone.

Joint Water Resources Committee of the Florida Section, American Water Works Association, and
Florida Sewage and Industrial Waste Association
The Survey has had a member on this committee both years of the biennium and Robert Vernon was chairman in 1960. A summary of water resource data and problems is prepared by the committee each year.
University of Florida
Members of the Survey have given talks to various groups at the University of Florida, including theGeology Club and the Civil Engineers.
An active cooperation exists with Dr. Pierce Brodkorb, Mr. Clayton Ray, and other members of the Department of Biology. Mr. Ray has prepared and the Survey has published an excellent bibliography of vertebrate paleontology. Dr. Brodkorb has collected a large number of Pleistocene vertebrates fromthe following localities in Florida: Reddick Cave, Marion County; Arredondo Sink, Alachua County; and Sabertooth Cave, Citrus County. These collections were made in cooperation with and financed by the Survey. The material is a part of the study collections of the Florida Geological Survey.
Florida State Rural Development Committee
One or more members of the Survey has participated in the study and development of rural counties needing economic development. Suwannee and Washington counties were the original counties granted aid through the committee. In 1960, Jefferson, Jackson and Lafayette counties were also admitted and Holmes was proposed for investigation as a potential. The committee, through organization of citizens in each county, seeks to help the economic development throughprofessional advices from state and federal agencies working together.

State Road Department
Numerous specimens of limestone from Jackson, Holmes and Washington counties were collected and submitted to the State Road Department to be evaluated for use as road base course material. A report onthe localities and tests is in preparation. Physical tests include the liquid limit, plastic index, shrinkage limit and Los Angeles abrasion.
Governor's Office
At the request of Governor Collins, Robert Vernon served with Mr. John Wakefield, Director of the Department of Water Resources, and Mr. David B. Lee, Director of Sanitary Engineering, on a committee to consider design specifications for construction of phosphate- slime retention dams. A report prepared by the committee is reproduced below:
Report of Governor's Committee Formed for the
Study of the Problem of Retention of Phosphate-Slimes
Phosphate-slime is a waste product of phosphate mining, made up of clay and colloidal-size phosphates, silica and rare silicates. The percentage of bone phosphate of lime contained in the slime is too small to make its separation economically feasible under current demands and prices of the rock. Because of its colloidal characteristics, the clay remains in suspension for long periods of time and the waste cannot be released into existing natural waterways because of danger to aquatic life and sedimentation of the drainage channels. The permanent storage of the slime is also desired by the phosphate companies as reserves of possible value in the future. Dewatered, such as those in the abandoned hard-rock phosphate disposal areas, the slime deposits can be dried and used as a fertilizer or soil conditioner and as a supplement for feed to chickens and animals.
The common practice in the land-pebble phosphate field of Hillsborough and Polk counties has been to dispose of these slimes into abandoned pits or upon wasteland behind retaining levees composed of any available, usable sediment. Construction of the levees, as to freeboard, type of materials used for diking, and preparation of the land prior to fill,

varied between the companies and sometimes within the company.
Because of the variable construction methods, breaks in the dikes have been fairly common, and where breaks occurred upon sparsely settled land and no well developed waterway was present, the damage was not great and little public notice was taken, but in recent years a number of breaks within the Peace River watershed had caused widespread sedimentation of open water and property with resultant damage to the fish and wildlife in the river. The first public complaint was raised about 1946, and a series of breaks in late 1959 prompted the Peace River Valley District to send a questionnaire to each of the phosphate companies inquiring about the causes of failures and requesting a definition of specifications and construction methods. Following the tabulation of these data from the phosphate companies, the District asked the Governor of Florida to appoint a committee to study specifications for the dams.
The State Board of Health and the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission have responsibilities in the fields of public health and of fish and game propagation and preservation, and release of the slime into Peace River raised serious questions of contamination of a public waterway. The Honorable LeRoy Collins, Governor, became interested in the problem in 1959, and appointed David B. Lee, Director of the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering, Florida State Board of Health; John W. Wakefield, Director, Department of Water Resources; and Robert 0. Vernon, State Geologist and Director of the Florida Geological Survey, to a committee to study basic designs for pits to store the phosphate slime. This committee met on May 6, 1960, with the managerial and technical staffs of the various phosphate industries, members and staff of the Peace River Valley Water Conservation and Drainage District, and interested citizens.
The phosphate industry had likewise become concerned by the failure of its slime-retaining levees and the various companies had activated a committee to recommend a minimum design to be used in the construction of slime settling

The committee consisted of the following:
D.H. Barnett
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company
Nichols, Florida
J. S. Gruel (Chairman)
The American Agricultural Chemical Company
Pierce, Florida
Robert E. Hutchinson Armour and Company
Bartow, Florida
B.P. Jones
Davison Chemical Company
Bartow, Florida
H. M. Larsen
Swift and Company
Bartow, Florida
G.L. Lyle
American Cyanamid Company
Brewster, Florida
E.G. Padgett
Smith-Douglass Company
Plant City, Florida
M.T. Smith
International Minerals & Chemical Corporation
Bartow, Florida
The committee had met previously to the meeting called by the Governor's Committee for May 6, 1960, and had proposed minimum specifications for slime pits using proved engineering practices, advice from the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and other consultants, and results of many years of experience in the construction, maintenance

and operation of settling areas to arrive at the basic minimum design for slime pit construction reproduced below:
Construction of Dams in the Florida Pebble Phosphate Area
For Water Conservation and Clarification
Dams constructed on original ground:
1. Site preparation
a. Remove all trees, stumps, palmettos, and
other growth.
b. Remove all muck, slimes, mud, and other
materialthat is highly compressible and has
a tendency to flow under a heavy load.
2. Core ditching
a. Core ditching is very important and a welldrained core ditch should be dug, along or near the center line of the dam; the depth and width depending upon soil conditions.
A minimum depth of three feet is recommended. If in diggingthe core ditch, hardpan is encountered, it should be dug deep
enough to go through the hardpan.
b. In dams of over twenty-five feet in height,
it is recommended that two core ditches be dug instead of one; these core ditches to be spaced a minimum of fifteen feet on each
side of the center line of the dam.
3. Berms
Berms with a minimum width of twenty-five
feet should be left on each side of the dam.
4. Drainage
a. Keep the outside toe of the damwell-drained.
If necessary, dig a drainage ditch onthe outside of the berm on the outside toe.

5. Cross section design. (See figure 7.)
a. The minimum cross-section design, where
good material is available for construction, is one with a hydraulic gradient of five to one. Bothinside and outside slopes should be no steeper than two to one and have a
minimum freeboard of five feet.
b. The top of the dam should be a minimum of
twenty feet wide.
c. The outside of the top should be higher than
the inside top to permit all top drainage to
the inside of the dam.
6. Materials of construction
a. Dams should be constructed of good clean
material, free of stumps, trees, palmettos and any other vegetative material that could
decay and leave voids in the dam.
b. Materials such as muck, mud, slimes, or
any soupy material should not be used.
c. Large pieces of hardpan, iron rock, sandstone, bedrock, or other hard materials
should not be used.
7. Methods of construction
a. The use of draglines and drag scrapers is
extensive in the field and both methods have
proved satisfactory.
b. Draglines. Where there is plenty of good
dam building material within reach, draglines canbe used to cast the dirt intoposition. The dam should then be dressed with other equipment to obtainthe proper crosssection. When dams are constructed in this manner, it is recommended that they be per mitted to stabilize one year before being
c. Drag Scrapers. The use of drag scrapers
is a very satisfactory method for building a

dam. Suitable material can be hauled in -and laid down in layers. The movement of these rubber-tired vehicles over the dam in the placing of the material also packs down the material. If additional packing is required, a sheep s foot roller is recommended. Dams constructed in this manner can be used immediately upon completion.
8. Spillway installations
a. The use of well-designed and constructed
spillways is common practice in this field.
However, there are several installation precautions that should be observed.
b. Where the spillway goes through the dam,
it is most important that seepage not be permitted to go through the dam along the spillway pipe. The use of pipe constructed of suitable material and the proper packing of an impervious material around the pipe willprevent this seepage. As a safety precaution, it is recommended that a collar or shield of steel or concrete be fitted around the pipe near the center line of the dam to
prevent seepage along the pipe.
c. All joints in pipes going through dams should
be made permanently leakproof.
d. A sufficient number of spillways should be
installed in an area to release water, if nec essary, in case of heavy rainfall. It is recommended that sufficient weir length be provided to release six inches of rain in twenty-four hours with a maximum flow depth of sixinches, if settling area is being
operated at maximum design depth.
e. In situations, where streams cannot be diverted and flow into a settling area, additional spillways should be installed to release this additional flow.

9. Maintenance recommendations
a. Plant and maintain a good growth of grass
or other suitable plants on all exposed portions of the dam. This should. be done as soon as the dam is constructed. Grasses such as Bermuda, Carpet, Centipede, Para and any other varieties that do not grow very high, and which form a good sod, are recommended. A good sod will prevent wind
and water erosion.
b. Anadequate inspection system should be set
up to not only inspect the top of the dam,
but also the outside toe.
c. Keep all washouts or gullies filled.
d. Do not permit water to collect or puddle on
the top or side of the dam.
e. Keeptop of dam well dressed and sloping to
the inside for good drainage.
f. Tailings must be disposed of use them to
systematically reenforce the inside slope of
10. Operating precautions
a. Clear water will seep through earthen dams.
In raising the water level in a settling area
with clear water, do so with precaution.
b. Do not raise or lower the water level too
fast in an area.
c. As an added precaution, if possible, it is
recommended that the water levels in settling areas be kept as low as possible at the beginning and during the early part of the
rainy and hurricane seasons.
d. In case of excessive seepage on outside toe
of dam, do not continue to raise the watex level. If at all possible, lower the level until the dam can be reenforced or sealed
e. The syphon can be used to good advantage
in the operation of a settling area. It can

beused to remove excessive water at a convenient location; to obtain water where there is no spillway; and by using water in dead pockets within an area, it can direct the flow to bring slimes into these pockets and
obtain a more effective use of the area.
11. Building of dams in mined-out cuts
The practice of building dams in mined-out cuts is becoming more and more necessary. With certain precautions, these dams can be constructed safely and satisfactorily.
a. Always build these dams next to original
ground. It is not recommended that dams constructed of spoil or overburden be built through a mined-out area that, when completed will have water levels on each side of the dam. If necessarytoconstructadam across a mined area, it should be built by pumping in tailings. If tailings are pumped in, the slopes on each side will be approximately nine to one and this should give an
adequate cross section.
b. In the construction of such a dam, be certain that the cut in which the dam is started is well drained and that the dam is not constructed on slimes or soft mud that could be forced out of positionbythe weight of the dam. Reenforce the inside of the dam by placing the spoil or overburden from additional cuts in or next to the dam. When a substantial base has been provided in the cut, the portion of the dam above ground level should then be constructed or finished in accordance with specifications recommended in paragraphs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
c. Pump in tailings to reenforce the inside of
these dams.

12. Building of dams using pumped-in tailings
The use of tailings hydraulically placed for the construction of dams to retainwater and slimes has proven quite successful in the mining industry and is an accepted procedure. Tailing dams have proven safe and highly successful for more than 20 years in the metal mining industry in the United States. They have been in successful use for nearly 10 years in the Florida phosphate field. Certain precautions should be observed in building dams by this method.
These precautions are as follows:
a. If the water within the settling area to be
enclosed with a tailings dam is above ground level, then on the first pass care must be exercised to avoid saturating the outer earth darn. This can be protected against by laying a header line onthe earth dam and using two or three inch diameter pipes of proper length to place the tailing inside and along the earth dam. Pumping location should be changed at least every twelve hours and the section of dam pumped on should be allowed to drain for at least twelve hours before
pumping on this section again.
b. If tailings are discharged inside an existing
dam from twelve inch pipe or larger, the point of discharge must be a minimum of thirty feet from the inside crest of the existing dam. This should be accomplished with an elbow turned to the inside, and a suitable length of pipe following the elbow.
A splatter board should be used on the end
of the pipe.
c. The use of wood bents to hold pipe in place
for longer than thirty days should be avoided.
If treatedwood is used, or if stronger joints than nailed joints are used, this period may
be extended.

d. The specifications recommended in paragraphs 3, 4, 5 and 8 are to be used where dams are constructed of pumped-in tailings.
In dams constructed of pumped-in tailings, at least one slope will be much flatter than
the 2 to 1 slope recommended.
At the public hearing on May 6, 1960, in Winter Haven, Florida, the personnel from the phosphate companies all agreed that each company was now meetingthese minimum specifications- in construction of slime -retaining pits.
Slime pits, abandoned during the last 10 years were reported to be composed of about 50 percent solids at the surface and 25percent solids, 2 to 15feet below the surface. Levees around these pits are maintained by grassed slopes, the pits are ditched and the rain and surface water removed. Sometimes, after 20 to 30 years, the drained pits can be planted to pines.
The reasons for failure of the dikes were believed to result froma low freeboard, faulty materials, possible sinkholes, heavy floodwaters and poor maintenance. The minimum specifications adopted by the phosphate committee will assist to prevent these failures with the exception of sinkhole formation, which is probably only a very minor cause of failure.
'The minimum specifications for slime pit construction have been discussed by the Governor's Committee, Mr. Lamar Johnson, Consultant Engineer to the Peace River Valley District, and with the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey. The summary of this' discussion is that the phosphate committee had done an excellent job and were to be commended for their thoroughness in design, foresightedness in meeting the problem, and in placing their minimum specifications before the Governor's Committee.
Some suggestions were made by the Governor's Committee relative to specific items of the minimum specifications that, if adopted by the phosphate companies, would help clarify details, definitions, and some constructional

procedures. These are summarized in the numerical order itemized in the minimum specifications.
1. Some preparation of the original ground surface,
such as disking, to obtain bonding is worthy of consideration. General site reconnaissance by borings would help eliminate "sinkhole" failures.
Z. "The width and depth of core ditching... depending upon soil conditions" would be strengthened by a definition of engineering limits for various
soils that can be used in construction.
3. The width of the berm should be related to soil
type and ground-water conditions and engineering limits stated for the variables.
4. The hydraulic gradient of the cross section
(fig. 7) could be improved by constructing the levees by piling wet sediment from the outside and inside slopes, thus allowing the fine sediment to wash into the center of the fill such
as shown in figure 8a and b.
5. It is presumed that the hydraulic gradient of
5 to 1 is based on the normal creep ratio for coarse sand, but in a dam of this type construction, the length along the hydraulic gradient and the creep-ratio distance may approach each other and sediment of finer grain-size, if placed along the slopes of the levee with a core of coarse sediments, may be a factor in frequent
failures of the levees.
6. "Material" in 6a should read "quartz sand and
locally associated sediments, free. . ." Some effort should be made to select fine-grained sediment for use in the core of the dam and to place this material so that natural sedimentation will result in the fines being concentrated
toward the center.
7. Some data are needed to establishthetime after
which abandoned slime-retaining areas are no longer a danger. Such data should be incorporated in the minimum design specifications.

8. Pensacola Bahia should be added to the list of
grasses to be used to stabilize levee slopes.
The phosphate companies are commended for their courteous cooperation and for their recognition of the need to meet the problems arising fromthe retention of phosphate slime. The proposal of the recommended minimum design standards and the stated acceptance of these -standards by all of the operating phosphate companies will go far toward insuring against failures of slime-retaining levees, and subsequent pollution of the State's water resources. However, the apparent weakness in guaranteeing that the State's water and wildlife resources will not be damaged by inadvertent or careless release of phosphate slimes lies in a lack of legal control or supervision of the problem.
The members of the Governor's Committee feel that much progress has been made in meeting the problem of slime-disposal, but that one inherent weakness in controlling the problem is the absence of any method of enforcement. Neither the State Board of Health, the Water Resources Department, nor the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission are in a position to offer inspection service, and the Florida Geological Survey has no enforcing section. The Committee, therefore, favors leaving the determination of a satisfactory design for retaining levees with the phosphate companies, where it now rests, but would encourage conformity to an approved design by penalizing failures through the automatic assessment of costs to cover damages to any waterway. Such costs could be based on the percentage of turbidity resulting from the failure and the length of time such turbidity persisted. Personnel of the State Board of Health and the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission are in the area and could, with reasonable additional cost, undertake the surveillance required. Any money recovered from the assessment for costs of damages could be utilized in restocking the areas damaged and inhelping to pay the cost of surveillance.
Rec ommendations
The Governor's Committee recommends the adoption of the revised cross section (fig. 8a,b) into the minimum

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Figure 7. Recommended minimum cross section of dam.
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-i K
Figure 8. Modified minimum cross section of dam.

specifications for construction of phosphate-slime retention dams by the phosphate companies and urges consideration of the other suggestions listed above.
It also urges that the Attorney General of Florida be requested to draft a bill that would penalize for failures of slime-retaining dams, through an automatic assessment of costs against the owner; such assessments to be used to cover damages to waterways, fish and wildlife, in accordance with the suggestions set forth herein.
(Signed) Robert 0. Vernon, Director Florida Geological Survey
David B. Lee, Director
Bureau of Sanitary Engineering State Board of Health
John W. Wakefield, Director Tallahassee, Florida Water Resources Department September 23, 1960
Florida Resource Use Committee
In connection with the activities of this committee, of which E. W. Bishop was a member, he and other members of the Survey made a number of talks onthe mineral resources of Florida. Messrs. Vernon and Bishop joined members of the Department of Water Resources inpresenting the facts on geologyandwater resources of Suwannee, Lake and Highlands counties.
Florida State University
Several field trips were organized by the Survey personnel for the benefit of the students and faculty of Florida State University, Department of Geology. Localities where rock and shell deposits typical of the geology of the State

are exposed, were studied.
During both summers of the biennium, the Florida State Univer sity Conservation Workshop included discussions of the water resources of Florida. The discussion on ground water was developed by Robert Vernon.
Messrs. Robert Vernon, Harbans Puri, Stanley Olsen (all of the Florida Geological Survey), and M. I. Rorabaugh of the U. S. Geological Survey, assisted in the development of a program of studies leading to the granting of a Doctor of Philosophy degree in geology. Each is a "participating faculty" member and Mr. Olsen and Dr. Puri also participate in the studies of the Department of Biology.
A course of study in ground-water hydrology was taught by Mr. Rorabaugh, one in Ostracoda by Dr. Pur, and Mr. Olsen and Dr. Vernon have directed individual studies.
Department of Water Resources
The Survey and Department of Water Resources personnel joined in developing methods for plugging and testing wildly flowing wells in Charlotte, Lee and Sarasota counties. These wells were producing artesian water, highly mineralized, at pressures high enoughtoflow at the ground surface. Shallow casing allowed this water to move into shallow aquifers, thus contaminating more potable, fresher water. This was particularly true where these wells were closed by valves.
Through the use of the Widco electric logger the Survey selected suitable impervious layers where cement plugs could be placed to prevent the vertical flow of highly saline waters. Cement plugs separated by clay was recommended as a seal for the entire well. Some well drillers suggested the use of finely ground limestone to fill the wells tothe base of dense impervious layers where cement plugs could be placed.
The Department of Water Resources sponsored the

start of the Green Swamp inventory of water resources made bythe U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey. On February 19, 1960, the Survey participated in a conference to review the progress of this work and the results of aland use study to be madeby the Department of Water Resources was also reviewed.
The two departments joined to present the water resource, geological and water control facts to conferences of teachers in Lake, Suwannee and Dade counties.
The Survey prepared geologic and water-resource data to be presented relative to water-control problems at:
1) Tavares relative to the creation of Little Everglades Conservation District, Lake County;
2) Big Alligator Lake, Osceola County, where because of low water levels it was proposedto erect a dam around sinks known to be present in the basin to prevent further lowering, and the low levels in the lake were found to result from low
3) Lake Mable, Polk County, where the average
high water level was found to be about 6 feet above the level on January 15, 1959, a result of
low rainfall and use of water for irrigation;
4) Suwannee River, tothe feasibility of constructing
a sheet piling low-level overflow dam on the Suwannee River in the upper part of the watershed to deepen the channel and make the river available for boating to near White Springs;
5) Lake Letta, Highlands County, and Lake Millsite,
Polk County, where the ordinary high water levels were determined to assist in the resolution of land ownership disputes.

State Board of Health
Radiological monitoring of the ground water of Florida:
The State Board of Health has established a net of wells over the State to be sampled quarterly for the purpose of determining changes in the radioactivity of the State's ground water. The Survey assisted in selecting shallow and deep wells evenly spaced over Florida that could be used for sampling. Shallow wells terminated in sediments lying above the Floridan artesian aquifer and deep wells terminated in The artesian aquifer.
The Survey works closely with the Bureau of Sanitary Engineering of the State Board of Health in providing details on the subsurface formations, water and lake levels, and on the porosity and permeability of the soils and rocks, particularly as these relate to the functioning of drainage wells. Permits for such wells are usually granted after submitting the application to the Survey for review.
In areas where the water table is perched above the artesian water level, drainage wells are possible. In such areas, a well developed karst or sinkhole lake basins are usually present and make the control and management of surface waters difficult. Orange County is one of the areas where poor surface drainage combined with the absence of a county zoning control, and rapidly expanding housing developments have resulted in strong pressures being placed on the State Board of Health for the granting of an excessive number of permits for drainage wells.
Because the ground water must be protected for a water supply, great care has been exercised to insure the safe disposal of surface waters in the ground. Where lake levels are to be controlled, the elevation of the lake at high water must be known, the location of all supply wells within a wide radius and their depth must be known. An attempt has been made in the Orlando and Orange County areas to place all drainage waters inthe contaminated upper aquifers that are separated from a lower uncontaminated aquifer by dense dolomite.

In an attempt to decrease the time required to obtain a permit in the Orange County area, the Geological Survey is preparing maps to show:
1. A maximum water level or piezometric surface
2. The top of the first porous limestone
3. The top of the hard dense dolomite that
separates the upper from the lower aquifer.
These maps can be used to predict whether the well will function, how much casing is required and the depth to which the well can penetrate.
U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division
Current Program
The Florida Geological Survey and the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey have been cooperatively engaged in investigations of Florida's water resources for a number of years. This cooperation was continued during the 1959-60 biennium. These investigations are for the purpose of appraising the water resources of Florida, both as to quantity and quality.
Basic data:
One part of making an appraisal of the water resources of the State is the collection of basic data over a long period of time. This part of the cooperative program consists of the collection, interpretation, evaluation, and publication of long-term records of lake and stream stages, stream and spring discharge, ground-water levels, and quality of water, on a statewide network of stations. The program with the Florida Geological Survey is coordinated with programs of other cooperating agencies to achieve the best coverage of the State within the limits of available funds. Under the data-collection part of the program the network of stations has been extended to nearly every part of the State and as of December 31, 1960 (fig.9-12) included: continuous records

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MAP OF o a
19600 PR0A
2 Number, of recording stoiofslO-: !- .
.5 Number of ... dig slolio - 1q = "/l
3 Number of periodic Stotions o
Figure 9

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Figure 10

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~~~~FLORIDA : .'l=A
SHowING AREAS o OF %7- P ''<% i
Reporf Otn d
S Surface water inveotigotion
G round wore, iovesliqooton ,^ o o i$ i
0 Onolity woter noelhgotrorn
Figure 1 1

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SII oporctio~n Sept 1, 1960.
SPIS.d 5=mry

of stage and discharge at 169 stations on streams; continuous records of stage at 179 stations on lakes and streams; periodic discharge measurements at 41 sites; continuous records of water levels in 177 observation wells; periodic water-level measurements in 704 observation wells; daily sampling from 6 stream stations for chemical quality; periodic sampling from 68 stream stations for chemical quality; and periodic sampling from about 375 wells for chloride content.
A network of gaging stations for obtaining high water information, to supplement daily strearnflow stations, was started in July 1960, in cooperation with the State Road Department. As of December 1960, 19 of these partial-record stations had been installed and the network will be expanded over a 5-year period.
Measurements of flow and chemical quality of about 75 springs were made during the latter part of 1960 when many of these springs were flowing at maximum rates as the result of above normal rainfall in 1959 and 1960. The flow and chemical quality of these same springs were obtained in 1956 following a prolonged drought. These two sets of data provide valuable information on the limits of variation of flow and chemical quality for many of the large springs in Florida.
Studies covering various phases of salt-water encroachment were continued and several articles were prepared for publication in technical journals and by the Florida Geological Survey. Some research was done on instrumentation, methods, and operations. Although part of the research was conducted by staff engineers in Washington, the results have valuable applications to our investigations in Florida.
Special studies:
During the 2-year period the following special studies have been made or initiated: (a) Characteristics of some Florida Lakes, report in preparation; (b) Fathometer surveys of selected lakes and streams are currently in progress;

(c) Drought andflood studies, report in preparation; (d) Water levels and salt-water encroachment in the JacksonvilleFernandina area, reports prepared and are in review;
(e) Problems of waste disposal and ground-water quality, article published in a technical journal.
Area studies (fig.1l):
In addition to the above studies the following project investigations designed to determine the water resources of specific areas were undertaken:
Area Status
Brevard County Investigation completed; interim report published; final report in review.
Hillsborough County Investigation completed; report in review.
Polk County Surface-water resources (report inpress). Ground-water resources investigation completed; interim report published and final report in preparation.
Alachua, Bradford, Clay Field work in progress; interim and Union counties report in review.
Escambia and Santa Field work in progress; interim Rosa counties report in review.
Green Swamp Field work in progress; interim report prepared (in press).
St. Johns, Flagler, Report of surface-water resources and Putnam counties in review. Ground-water resources investigation completed; interim report published and final report in preparation.

Orange County Field work in progress.
Everglades National Field work in progress; interim
Park report in review.
Columbia County Investigation completed; report in review.
Baker, Duval and Field work in progress. Nassau counties
Seminole County Investigation completed; interim report published and final report in review.
Tampa Bay Field work in progress.
Glades and Hendry Investigation completed; final recounties port in preparation.
Collier County Field work in progress.
Pompano Beach area Field work in progress.
Southeast River basins A report on the water resources (St. Marys River to prepared for U. S. Study ComPerido River) mission. To be published by the Commission.
Proposed Future Program
The following summarizes a proposed program in cooperation with the Florida Geological Survey for the 2-year period ending June 30, 1963:
(1) Basic data: Continuation of the existing datacollection stations. In addition it is proposed that the following stations be installed and operated as a part of the statewide network:

Fiscal year 1961-62:
8 new gaging stations in primary streamflow network
25 new gaging stations in secondary network
100 new lake stage gages
25 new recording ground-water stations
15 new nonrecording ground-water stations
Make reconnaissance of chemical quality of surface
waters of Florida
50 index wells for chemical quality of ground water
Fiscal year 1962-63:
15 new gaging stations in secondary network
25 new lake stage stations
10 new recording ground-water stations
15 new nonrecording ground-water stations
Complete reconnaissance of chemical quality of surface
50 index wells for chemical quality of ground water
(2) Research: Continued salt-water encroachment studies and research on instrumentation.
(3) Special studies: Continue studies on hydrology of lakes and fathometer surveys of selected lakes and streams. Interpret hydrologic data for small areas where water resources problems might arise which require a minimum of field and office work.
(4) Area studies: Continue those area studies which are shown above, under current program, as not being completed. Additional areal water resources investigations will be initiated in areas whichhave or will have major water problems in the fores eeable future, the number being dependent upon the availability of funds. Many of the area studies are being financed wholly or in part by cooperative funds from county and city agencies.
The following table summarizes the state funds required

in order to carry out the proposedprogram. Federal matching funds are contingent upon availability and approval bythe Director of the U.S. Geological Survey.
SW GW QW Total
Present FGS cooperation (1960-61 $40,000 $ 96,100 $16,500 $15Z, 600 Additional funds needed 50,000 40,900 11,500 102,400
Total proposed (1961-62) 90,000 137,000 28,000 255,000
(1962-63) 90,000 137,000 Z8, 000 255,000
The State Geologist is directed by the Oil and Gas Division of the State Board of Conservation to be administrator of the oil and gas act and to serve with the Oil Compact Commission. As administrator, the State Geologist reviews all applications for permits to drill, supervises the plugging of all exploratory wells to protect the ground-water and oil resources of Florida. The office of the State Geologist is designated as the depository of records, well logs, rock cuttings and cores, pertaining to these exploratory activities, and the administrator is official historian and statistician of the industry for Florida. Refer to the Florida Statutes, Chapter 377. 01/. 40.
1959-60 Activities
Ten permits to drill in Florida were issued by the State Board of Conservation in 1959, 11 permits in 1960. Eleven wells were completed in 1959, 5 wells in 1960, representing totals of 80,835 and 53,866 feet of drilling. The completed wells reflect an interest in the entire State with special interest being given to the State's submerged shelf.
Seven prospects drilled during the biennium developed stratigraphic and structural data inthe Upper Cretaceous and Lower Cretaceous carbonates and evaporates in peninsular