Biennial report

Material Information

Biennial report
Alternate Title:
Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
The Survey
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Tallahassee ( local )
City of Miami ( local )
The Everglades ( local )
City of Orlando ( local )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Water wells ( jstor )
Drilling ( jstor )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
Digitized as a collaborative project with the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Environmental Protection
Statement of Responsibility:
Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
000376187 ( ALEPH )
01956611 ( OCLC )
ACB5800 ( NOTIS )
sn 87028635 ( LCCN )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report
Succeeded by:
Biennial report (FGS : Biennial report)

Full Text









Sixth Biennial Report of the Florida

Geological Survey

The first geological survey was organized in 1887 but was short lived, being discontinued that year. The present survey was established by the General Assembly of 1907 with E. H. Sellards appointed as State Geologist in June of that year. It has had but two directors; Dr. Sellards from 1907 to 1919, and Dr. Herman Gunter since that period. From 1907 to 1933 it was a department in itself but the 1933 Legislature created the State Board of Conservation and the Survey was placed in the newly organized Conservation Department, the State Geologist being appointed Assistant Supervisor of Conservation. On January 30, 1941, he was appointed Director, Florida Geological Survey. The Conservation Department as originally organized included the Shell Fish Commission, the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, and the Geological Survey. In the act creating the State Board of Conservation, funds for the maintenance of the Survey were allotted from those collected by the Conservation Department, but in 1935 the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish was made a separate function of the State Government and the maintenance of the Survey was placed again upon the General Revenue Fund as it had been prior to the consolidation of the departments.
A department of conservation should be made up of divisions, one for each natural resource group. Thus in Florida if in fact a department of conservation should be created it might appropriately include divisions of forestry, shell fish, fresh water fish and game, live stock, the geological survey, and others. To function effectively such a department should have its own source of revenue with bureaus or divisions for the enforcement of its laws, to promote education in conservation measures, and to carry on research and collect statistics. As now constituted, the Florida Department of Conservation is a misnomer, as its two departments, the former Shell Fish Commission and the Geological Survey, function separately and obtain their funds from different sources.


While work has progressed satisfactorily under the present grouping there is no reason or advantage to either department in remaining together.

During this biennial period the Survey has been very active and has worked to help win the war. The normal activities have been considerably interrupted. With the beginning of the war the requirements of the Nation were anticipated and the Survey outlined the minerals and pertinent information that offered possibilities for Florida to serve the war effort. A vast amount of information has been furnished to individuals and groups who were interested in establishing plants or developing mineral deposits in the State. Many of Florida's minerals are of prime importance to vital war activities. Phosphate in chemicals, explosives, and fertilizers; rutile and ilmenite in the manufacture of flares and smoke screens; limestone for concrete in military construction and for base courses in airport runways and roads; sand and gravel for concrete and fuller's earth as a filtering medium and more recently for light-weight aggregate are but a few of the war uses of Florida mineral products. The Director was appointed Emergency Coordinator of Mines for Florida, thus aiding the mines to obtain supplies and thereby increasing the output.


On September 26, 1943, the first producing oil well was brought in at Sunniland station in Collier County by the Humble Oil and Refining Company. (See Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 26, pp. 162-163, 1944). This first evidence of petroleum in Florida promoted a rapid increase in the exploration and drilling for oil throughout the State and the Survey has been cooperating in many ways with the numerous oil companies and individuals that have established offices in Florida. A fuller idea of these activities is given under Oil Prospecting, Well Drilling, and Production.

Many petroleum geologists are working in the Survey offices and laboratory studying particularly the large collection of well samples accumulated over the years. Assistance has also been ren-


dered these companies and individuals in their geophysical surveys, land leasing, and management. More services will be rendered to those persons interested in the devlopment of oil in the State as exploration and drilling increases.
The Survey is also lending technical aid in the formulation of a proposed act designed to regulate and conserve the development of the oil industry in Florida.
As a consequence of many petroleum geologists coming to Florida and the neighboring states an organization of geologists, the Southeastern Geological Society, has been formed and Dr. Herman Gunter, Director of the Survey, was elected its first president.
Another increased activity, but not a new one, has been the work done in connection with the conservation of water. The Sur'vey has helped to prepare an act to establish a Florida State Board of Well Drillers designed to regulate in some measure water well drilling and to conserve the fresh underground water supply. This proposed measure may be incorporated in the recommendations of the State Committee on Water Resources which is more fully mentioned under the caption Proposed Legislation.


The Survey has attempted to maintain its regular routine during this biennium insofar as it did not interfere with its contribution to the war effort and has prepared and published five' bulletins as follows:
Bulletin No. 24. Florida Mineral Industry, with Summaries of Production for 1940 and 1941, by Robert 0. Vernon, 1943, 207 pp., 40 figs., 25 tables.
This report has filled a long-felt need to acquaint the public with the mineral resources of the State. It describes the mining methods of each industry, the mineral resources of the State, and attempts to show the economic trends. A general summary of mineral production since 1900 and specific production figures for 1940 and 1941 are included.
Bulletin No. 25. The Natural Features of Southern Florida, especially the Vegetation, and the Everglades, by John H. Davis, Jr., 1943, 311 pp., 66 figs., 5 map figs. 10 tables.
This description of Southern Florida gives not only many features of the history, geology, topography, drainage, and soils, but accurately maps and describes the vegetation and considers some


features of the wildlife. It shows particularly the interrelations of these natural features of this relatively unusual and little known section of Florida and considers certain aspects of the best land use of many areas. For these reasons it has proven of use to many laymen as well as professionals, particularly in its description . of the Everglades which have been so little explored or insufficiently described.
Bulletin No. 26. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida-No. 3 City of Quincy Water Well; St. Mary's River Oil Corporation Hilliard Turpentine Company No. 1 Well, by W1. Storrs Cole, 1944. 168 pp., 29 pls., 6 figs.
This publication and Bulletin No. 28, together with formerly published Bulletins Numbers 16, 19 and 20, form a valuable series of paleontological well studies by W. Storrs Cole which are aiding geologists in the mapping of the geological structure of the State. They are particularly valuable to the petroleum geologist.

Buletin No. 27. Late Cenozoic Geology of Southern Florida, with a Discussion of the Ground Water, by Garald G. Parker and C. Wythe Cooke, 1944, 119 pp., 26 pls., 4 figs.
This publication, prepared in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, Dade County, and the cities of Miami, Miami Beach, and Coral Gables gives the results of a detailed, investigation of the water resources and geology of Southern Florida.. It does much to unravel the complicated and difficult geology of that area.
Bulletin No. 28. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida-No. 4, City of Tallahassee Water Well No. 6; Dale Mabry Field Well "B"; Ravlin-Brown, V. G. Philips No. 1 Well, by W. Storrs Cole, (In page proof form, will be published early in 1945).


A report, accompanied by a geologic map, entitled Geology of Florida by Dr. C. Wythe Cooke of the United States Geological Survey,, is in press. This report will be much in demand since the Twentieth Annual Report containing a paper on this subject by the same author has long since been out of print. With increasing interest in the geology of Florida it is anticipated that there will be many calls for this bulletin. It should be ready for distribution by early summer.


An investigation of the peat resources of the State to determine the quantity and quality of the peat in the large peat deposits, which are the third greatest in the United States, is in progress by John H. Davis, Jr., Research Assistant. Besides a survey of the peat deposits this investigation will try to determine the practicability of using non-agricultural peat for fuel and industries. When published the report will probably give new information on the utilization of peat and perhaps aid in the promotion of some peat using industries.
Progress is being made by David B. Ericson, Assistant Geologist, on a report dealing with Structure and Stratigraphy of Florida. Mr. Ericson has devoted intensive study to the samples and cores from many of the wells drilled in Florida and will prepare a report accompanied by appropriate drawings and maps. It is planned to have this ready for printing within the next few months.
In addition to continuing the paleontologic studies of samples from deep wells by W. Storrs Cole, it is planned also to renew paleontologic studies of formations exposed at the surface. The formation now being studied is the Ocala and it is planned to make this as complete as possible, getting samples from carefully measured sections of quarries in both peninsular Florida and west Florida and also from outcrops, pits, or exposures offering good collecting. It is desired to make these bulletins valuable as reference material.
The Survey wishes to increase its service to the schools of the State by supplying more mineral and fossil exhibits and other materials illustrating the natural resources and geology of Florida. Lectures by the staff on some phases of our natural resources, physiography and geology could be arranged with the schools to aid particularly in the many new courses now introduced emphasizing the natural resources.
During this war-time biennium the Survey has continued in its purpose to bring about a closer cooperation between agriculture, industry, and mining in Florida so as to promote the industrial development of the State. Florida has always been primarily a producer of the raw product, almost no attempt being made to produce the finished material from the raw mineral. Instead, finished products are manufactured from Florida materials that have


been shipped out of the State and other states reap the harvest of industrialization. The potential industrialization of Florida is great and as the manufacturing phase is built new employment will be opened, a firm economic foundation will be established, and the minerals will leave the State as finished products instead of raw materials.
Some of Florida's mineral products, such as phosphate and limestone, have been extensively developed, but others are only partially developed and undeveloped. Industry stands ready with capital and organization to develop any deposit or product that has been proven to be commercial, but the data necessary for such development can not ordinarily be accumulated by individuals or industrial groups. The cost involved would ordinarily far exceed the future profit, because the data must be detailed and encompass large areas. Industry can be encouraged, however, to prospect individual mineral deposits provided the Geological Survey first gathers and makes available the general information, thus eliminating doubtful areas and outlining good prospects. The cost to the State is infinitely small when compared to the increased profits in new industries and increased employment and revenue. The trend of industrial development is upward in Florida and at the present time there is a larger demand for the type of work being done by the Geological Survey than ever before.


The members of the staff of the Survey for this biennial period have been:
Herman Gunter, Director.
Robert 0. Vernon, Assistant Geologist (Military leave May, 1943).
W. Storrs Cole, Research Assistant (Specialist, part time).
John H. Davis, Research Assistant.
David B. Frieson, Assistant Geologist (November 1943).
H. G. Naegeli, Assistant Geologist (September 1944).
J. R. Galbraith, Field-Museum Assistant (Resigned April 1944).
J. C. Simpson, Field Assistant (April 1944).
W. Dean Wilson, Draftsman, resigned January 1944-No replacement).
Myrtle J. Lee, Secretary (Resigned July 1943).
Corinne Little, Secretary (August 1943).
Pearl Gatlin, Well Record Clerk.
Marward E. Rogers, File clerk, Stenographer.
Lily Moore, Librarian (July 1944).
C. Sidney Morse, Geologic Aide (Resigned January 1945).
Lessie Bell, Janitor (Resigned March 1944).


In addition to these, student helpers and others employed for limited periods in order to take care of shifting personnel were Christine Mozley, Shelly Clayton, Lola G. Miller, Mary Davis, Robert H. Hart, Jack Wells, Mrs. Eunice Stoutamire, and Green Bruce. At no time during this biennial period have we had a full staff.

Since December, 1939, the Survey offices have been located on the campus of the Florida State College for Women in what was formerly the "Old Lower Dining Hall." These quarters contain only 1800 square feet for offices and library, 1000 square feet for laboratory and storage, and about 1900 square feet for exhibition, and the Survey is therefore inadequately housed. Due to this fact recommendations have been made to the Budget Commission for new quarters to be carried out under the Building and Improvement Program now being considered by the Commission, and later by the Legislature.
The Survey has proposed a large building for its offices, library, and laboratories that will also be a beautiful and adequately appointed museum for the display of Florida's minerals, mineral industries, geology, and fossil history. The proposed museum of four'large exhibit halls will cover 19,600 square feet, and the offices, library and laboratories 11,400 square feet, at a cost of approximately $250,000. Such a museum and office building could be constructed so as to display the native stone, brick, concrete, and other building materials occuring and made in Florida, and so designed as to be one of the show buildings of the Capitol. The Survey with its greatly expanding work needs the additional office space and a fine museum for display and education, and it would be an invaluable asset to the State as a whole.


The library of the Survey is now one of the outstanding geological libraries in the southeastern United States. For years material pertaining to geology has been added to the collection with selection of the best and most authoritative works needed. The library serves a two-fold purpose and two groups of people. The main purpose is to stimulate and aid members of the staff in their research, and then to make available the material to other geol-


ogists and related groups, provided the publications are consulted in the Survey offices.
Altogether, the Library of the Survey has approximately 2,225 bound volumes, 1,215 unbound volumes, 15,000 pamphlets, 800 maps, and 400 aerial photographs of most of the counties of Florida.
The Survey has recently added a librarian to its staff and the work of classifying, cataloguing, and indexing all the library material has proceeded to the point where the records are nearly complete. There still remains the task of indexing some material, the indexing of the Foraminifera collection, and the cataloguing of the map collection.
It may be of interest to note that the Survey has files of leading geological journals, National and other State Geological publications, bulletins and reports from foreign countries. The Survey's collection of illustrative material now contains a large number of aerial photographs that will be of increasing usefulness in future mapping of various natural features and resources.

During this biennium the Geological Survey has cooperated with the United States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of Mines, the United States Soil Conservation Service, the National Resources Planning Board, the Florida State Planning Board, the University of Florida, the Florida Forest and Park Service, the State Board of Health, the State Road Department, and the United States Army and Navy.
Most of this assistance has been in the nature of routine functioning of the Survey, but direct cooperation has been given to the United States Bureau of Mines in the collection of mineral statistics for the State, to the United States Geological Survey in gathering both ground water and surface water data, to the United States Soil Conservation Service in its study of the Everglades and to the Florida Forest and Park Service in numerous ways.
Mineral Production Statistics formerly were obtained separately by both the United States Bureau of Mines and by the Florida Geological Survey. Under the present cooperative plan the data on mineral production is assembled by the Bureau of Mines and this compiled information, together with the names of the pro-


ducers and their addresses, sent to the Geological Survey at a small cost for clerical expenses. If need be the Geological Survey contacts those producers who are delinquent in making a report for the year, to encourage their cooperation, and keeps the list of active producers up-to-date, adding new ones and deleting those out of business.

These statistics are necessary to show the trends of the various industries for future investment. Advantages of each industry can thus be accentuated and the disadvantages lowered. Such statistics are also of educational advantage in advertising Florida products and acquainting the public with the Florida mineral industry.

Water Resources are probably the most important asset to the State. Our large springs, clear-water streams and lakes annually attract thousands of visitors to Florida for rest and recreation. Wells drilled into the water beds of the State supply the large part of the domestic, municipal and industrial water. The use of water for irrigation in agriculture, especially for citrus groves and truck farms, has steadily increased over the past years. This has expanded the well systems of the State to such an extent that water reserves are being depleted and impaired and the permanent water head is being reduced. Some of the water is being wasted by unwise usage, permitting wells to flow needlessly, improper well installations allowing leakage into other formations, large industrial withdrawals, and through contamination of ground water through disposal of industrial wastes and sewage into drainage wells. These practices have become so menacing that plans to adopt conservation measures through legislative action will without doubt be proposed by the State Committee on Water Resources as mentioned under Proposed Legislation.
Since 1930 the Geological Survey has carried on active cooperation with the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey. Water investigations are regularly a part of the work of the Federal Survey and representatives under the suprevision of V. T. Stringfield, Senior Geologist, have been stationed in Florida to direct the survey. An office is provided for the ground-water division in the Survey quarters at Tallahassee, with H. H. Cooper, Jr., Associate Engineer, in charge, and Dr. A. G. Unklesbay, Assistant Geologist, and an office in Miami with G. G. Parker, Associate Geologist, in charge.


The detailed investigations of water supplies of the MiamiDade County area, Orlando, St. Augustine, Fort Myers, Fernandina, and other places, have yielded valuable data from which definite recommendation as to the best methods of securing adequate water supplies have been made.
- As a result of this cooperative work various papers on the ground water resources of local areas have been published during the past biennium, as follows:
Cooper, H. H. Jr., and Warren, M. A., "Perennial Yield of Artesian Water in the Coastal Area of Georgia and Northeastern Florida," 1945. Economic Geology.
Unkelsbay, A. G., and Cooper, H. H., Jr., "Artificial Recharge of Artesian Limestone at Orlando, Florida." To be published in Economic Geology, 1945.
Parker G. G. Ferguson, G. E., and Love, S, K., Report of Investigations No. 4," Interim Report on the Investigations of Water Resources in Southeastern Florida with Special Reference to the Miami Area in Dade County," 1944, 39 pp., 9 pls.
Unkelsbay, A. G., Report of Investigations No. 5. "Ground-Water Conditions in Orlando and Vicinity," 1944, 61 pp., 11 figs., 2 tables.
The surface water division is under the direction of G. E. Ferguson, District Engineer, Ocala, Florida. The State benefits greatly by the valuable lake, springs and surface stream measurements and every effort should be made to expand these programs. The measurements made on water levels in springs, lakes, and surface streams during this biennium will be published in future Water Supply Papers of the United States Geological Survey. These data are of inestimable value to engineers desiring to know the extent of the drainage area and volume of water for which a dam or culvert must be designed; to industrialists depending on an adequate supply of water for their plants, and to the State in providing conservation methods in areas where the water .supply is in danger of being depleted.
The State Geological Survey has been unable to cooperate with the surface water division of the United States Geological Survey as actively as it would like because of insufficient funds, but more funds have been asked for and it is hoped that the cooperation can be increased. In comparison with ground water, little industrial, domestic, or municipal use has been made of lake and surface water in Florida. Where industry and agricultural uses have created heavy withdrawals from ground water it is possible that some of this industrial supply could be obtained from streams and lakes. Accurate measurements, covering long-time periods, are needed to


intelligently plan for the utilization of such supplies. Such data would also be valuable in 'planning drainage projects, erosion control measures, bridges, culverts, and runways. Without such data, irrigation and flood control projects cannot be undertaken with assurance of success.

Topographic Mapping in Florida ranks at the bottom in the number of quadrangles that have been mapped, as compared to other states. The Geological Survey has had no funds for cooperating in this much needed topographic mapping. These maps are invaluable in working the geology of the State and are of special use to engineers in determining drainage areas for highway flood control measures. They have, moreover, large cultural and educational advantages as the geography and land surface are easily visualized. They are especially needed in the schools of the State as a means of instruction. Those now available are shown on figure 1.


A a A at A
rAa A 6~o- G1 A

40 , 42

91LOU- .7O 17ZER
a '--..- /48 49 0

2 5 57

--- _8 59 60 61VWf 3

44 65
..F -1- 67 68 j 69 0
2 Century' LKE
3 Jay By 74 Robertsdale
5 Muscogee United States Geological Survey
6 Milton *Florida Mapping Project and U.S. Geological Survey
7 Harold
8 Holt #Corps of Engineers U.S Army *0--9 Niceville
10 DeFuniak Springs
11 Foley
12 Fort Barrancas
13 Pensacola
14 Holley E
15 Mary Esther 51 Lawtey
16 Villa Tasso 52 Middleburg 0 0000000 '0000000000
17 Point Washington 53 Orange Park E
18 Seminole Hills 54 Palm Valley
19 West Bay #55 Starke
20 South Port #56 Ates Creek
21 Laguna Beach 57 St. Augustine
22 Panama City Beach 58 Arredondo
23 Panama City *59 Hawthorne *
24 Beacon Beach 60 Interlachen CTTE _a
25 Long Beach - 61 Palatka
26 Crooked Island *62 Dinner Island
27 Beacon Hill *63 Matanzas
28 Overstreet 64 Williston
29 Port St. Joe 65 Citra
30 St. Joseph Spit *66 Ormond
31 Cape San Blas 67 Dunnellon _ --
32 West Pass 68 Ocala
33 Apalachicola *69 Daytona
34 Green Point *70 Port Orange
35 Carrabelle 71 Tsala Apopka
36 Dog Island 72 Panasoffkee
37 Lake Talquin #73 Tarpon Springs
38 Tallahassee #74 Dunedin
39 Arran 75 Safety Harbor
40 Folkston #76 Gandy Bridge
41 Boulogne 77 Sand Key
42 Kingsland #78 Bay Pines
43 Moniac #79 St. Petersburg
44 Hilliard #80 Pass-A-Grille
45 St. Mary #81 Bay Keys
46 Fernandina #82 Snipe Keys
47 Macclenny #83 Cottrell Key
'48 Cambon #84 Key West
49 Jacksonville #85 Boca Chica
50 Mayport #86 Saddle Bunch Keys



On September 26, 1943, Florida's first oil well was brought in. This was Humble Oil and Refining Company's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 1 at Sunniland in Collier County, with production from thirteen feet of porous limestone at a depth of 11,626 feet. The oil is a black asphaltic base petroleum of about 250 gravity, too low in lighter fractions to be a source of gasoline but suitable for use as fuel oil. Initial production was a little over one hundred barrels a day with about the same amount cf salt water. Pressure within the formation was insufficient to force the oil to the surface. Accordingly a pump, run by the small amount of gas produced with the oil, was installed. As much of the oil reached the surface as an emulsion it was necessary to set up a treater which is also run by gas from the well. The amount of gas left over from these two uses is too small to be of any practicaly value.

Figures 2-3. Oil well on pump and tank farm of eight 1000-barrel capactiy tanks, Humble Oil and Refining Company's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. I well, Sunniland Collier County. (From Bulletin 26, page 163.)
The water produced with the oil is remarkable for its high mineral content. The following analysis was made by the United States Bureau of Mines:
Radical Parts per million
Calcium (Ca) 25,204
Magnesium (Mg) 3,110
Sodium (Na) 58,491
Bicarbonate (HCO.) 146
Sulfate (SO.) 275
Chloride (Cl) 143,601
Total Solids 230,827
Specific gravity at 15.6' C. 1.162

Water gages made during March, 1944, show that over 400 barrels of water were being pumped every twenty-four hours. This means that not less than 14 metric tons or 31,000 pounds of salts were being brought to the surface every day. The possibility of finding some use for this salt is worth considering.

To obtain some idea of the probable rate of decline the well was pumped regularly for sixty days while the. Assistant Geologist made daily checks of the oil gages, quantity of salt water produced with the oil, and the pumping rate. During the first thirty days the total production amounted to 2,025 barrels of oil. As 2,025 barrels of oil is "such a quantity as may be commercially disposed of" it was evident that the well met the requirement for the $50,000 award offered by the State to the operator who "first completes such a producing well which produces petroleum oil and/or gas in commercial quantities, that is in such quantities for a period of thirty days after the completion of the well, that such explorer and operator may in any practical manner commercially dispose of such petroleum." Upon receiving this award the Humble Company added $10,000 to the amount and presented the sum to the State to be divided equally between the University of Florida at Gainesville and the Florida State College for Women at Tallahassee.
Cumulative production from the Sunniland well to the end of 1944 was 15,855 barrels. As oil wells go this- is not a large production, but it is significant in showing that petroleum does occur in Florida in greater quantities than the mere traces that have been previously reported. Undoubtedly it has been an important factor in arousing the active interest in Florida now being shown by many of the major oil companies.
Upon completion of the discovery well the Humble Company moved the rig to a new location one mile to the west and began drilling a second well on January 14, 1944. Between the depths of 11,636 feet and 11,639 feet porous limestone saturated with heavy black oil was cored, but a drill stem test proved that commercial production from this zone could not be expected. This well was finally abandoned September 25, 1944, at a depth of 13,512 feet, the deepest well ever drilled in Florida.
The rig was next moved to a point one mile north of the discovery well and on October 31, 1944, another well was begun. By the end of 1944 this had reached a depth of about 4,000 feet. Steam


power for this third well is being generated by burning oil from the Sunniland well. (Drilling at 9,883 feet, March 27, 1945)
In the meantime on June 24, 1944, the Humble Company spudded in their State No. 1 in Dade County about thirty-seven miles west of Miami. By the end of the year it had reached a depth of about 8,000 feet without having logged- any shows. (Abandoned March 7, 1945 at 11,789 feet).
Other important tests in the State were Pure Oil Company's C. C. Hopkins No. 1 in Gulf County which was abandoned at 8,708 feet; Miami Shipbuilding Corporation's Grossman No. 1 in Dade County, shut down at 1,234 feet; and Everglades No. 1 of William G. Blanchard and Associates also in Dade County which at the end of the year was shut down at a depth of 10,284 feet.
In summary, during 1943 and 1944 eleven wells were completed and one of these as a producer. By the end of 1944 there were nine wells either drilling or temporarily shut down or located.
Other developments during the 1943 and 1944. period indicate that within the next few years, barring unforeseen economic difficulties, Florida will be thoroughly tested by the major companies. Leasing activity is an indication of this. By the end of 1944 it was estimated that fully five-sevenths of the land area of Florida was under oil and gas exploration leases. Drilling and exploration rights on all coastal waters from the Apalachicola River to the Florida Keys have also been taken up by three different operators.
Another indication is the extensive geophysical exploration carried on by various companies using the gravity meter, magnetometer, and reflection and refraction seismograph. In many cases geophysical surveys have been supplemented by core drilling which is probably the most positive way of obtaining a picture of subsurface structure at relatively shallow depths.
To carry on these activities the participating companies have opened offices in Florida, several of which are in Tallahassee.
During the past two years and particularly 1944 the collections of well samples, logs, well records, and paleontological slides at the Geological Survey have been in almost constant use by oil company geologists and paleontologists. A room at the Survey has been set aside for them. Here they can set up their microscopes and make detailed studies of the well samples that the Survey has gradually accumulated during the past thirty-eight years. The eminent Wis-


dom of collecting and carefully preserving all this material is now clearly evident.
However, the Survey's collection of well samples is not a finished thing. More deep well samples were received by the Survey during 1944 than in any previous year. The washing and reduction of these samples to a form suitable for study has been one of the important tasks of the technical staff of the Survey. The problem of finding room for the new additions did not become acute in 1944 but with the increase in drilling activity towards the end of the year it was evident that the shelves now reserved for well samples would soon be filled and that some provision for providing more space should be considered without delay. The problem is not one of mere storage. If piled together the boxes containing the samples would not take up much room, but so arranged they would be of little use. To serve their purpose they must be arranged in such a way that any particular box can be easily found and conveniently taken from its place for study. In as much as these samples are of fundamental importance in the search for petroleum they constitute a valuable asset to the State and their safe keeping and availability to petroleum geologists are matters worthy of serious consideration.
Although the most valuable suites of samples are from wells drilled in search for oil, since in general such wells are fairly deep, still much valuable information is often obtained from shallow water wells. It is gratifying that during the past biennium the Survey has received better than ever cooperation from the State's water well drillers. As in the past the Survey will supply cloth sacks for saving the samples and data sheets for well information to anyone interested. Such samples should be mailed or sent express collect to the Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida. A geological log of the well will be forwarded to the driller and owner when requested.


The Florida Geological Survey has prepared and published detailed geological and mineral resources papers to cover most, if not all of, the State since the Survey's organization in 1907. Twentyfour annual reports contained in twenty-one volumes, twenty-nine bulletins, thirteen press bulletins, and five reports of investigations


have teen published. These reports are made up of 127 papers that were prepared by Survey staff members, some in cooperation with Federal agencies, and are chiefly technical papers prepared for the use of the geologist and professional groups interested in the mineral resources, geology, and structure of the State. Some have been written in less technical, semi-popular language for the use of the layman and for use in schools. It is hoped that more of this type of publication can be issued, based on fundamental data but couched in language that will have an easy style. There is a real need for this type of report, as well as for the technical, which can be more specific.
Papers prepared by staff members and published through established journals and those prepared by members of the Federal Survey and professional groups in Florida are too numerous to list. The United States Geological Survey, Washington, D. C., issues periodically a pamphlet, Publications of the Geological Survey, listing federal publications, including those relating to Florida. That organization also publishes in bulletin form, Bibliography of North American Geology, which contains references to all papers on Florida geology that were published. This bulletin may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., for a nominal sum. Papers on the mineral resources of Florida published by the United States Bureau of Mines are contained in a List of Publications of the Bureau of Mines, a bulletin published by that Bureau, Washington, D. C.
A complete list of reports prepared by the Florida Geological Survey may be obtained by writing the Director, Tallahassee.


The geological museum was designated the depository for the geological and paleontological specimens collected in the State in the Act creating the Survey in 1907., The Survey has consistently endeavored to maintain a good collection of minerals and fossils and to display these as advantageously as possible. Each specimen has been catalogued, identified and restored where necessary and possible. Some of them are worthy for reference purposes only and are stored, while others that are better preserved and significant are displayed in cases. All of the material is readily accessible to those interested; the museum for the layman and both museum and


stored samples for the scientist. A brief course of study of Florida geology may be had by a visit to the museum.

For these geologic reasons micro-invertebrate fossils are important and the collections in the Survey contain better than 3,500 catalogued slides of foraminifera, and thousands of specimens of the larger invertebrates. These are available to those interested in identifying and comparing shells found in the different parts of the State.
Much of the early on the Tertiary formations of the nation was done in Florida. The mollusks, clams and snails, were used to identify these beds and to correlate with beds of other states. Thus, since these fossils were described from Florida, the Survey has in its collections many type specimens. This class of animals is so important that possibly one-fourth of the papers on the geology of Florida are written about it. The Survey is trying to add to its collection of Recent shells. Some very beautiful specimens occur in Florida and the state should have as complete a display of these as is possible. Additional room is needed for display purposes so that appropriate cases can be installed. Through the study of the living shells and their environment the scientist by comparison can make deductions which enables him to visualize the conditions under which a formation containing a series of such shells were deposited.

In addition to invertebrate animals, the State is exceedingly rich in remains of vertebrates. These fossils range from a fish millions of years old that was found in the Ocala limestone at the Florida Caverns State Park near Marianna, and loaned to the Survey, to Indian skeletons taken from various mounds built in Recent years. Outstanding displays in the museum are: The mounted skeleton of the American Mastodon, which evidently roamed Florida in great herds during the Pleistocene; the mounted leg of an American Mammoth, a true elephant but larger than the living species. The Mastodon and the Mammoth lived here contemporaneously as is shown by their remains having been found in the same deposits. Another significant display is the skull, leg ~bones, and other portions of the skeleton of the small, three-toed horses, which were no larger than a dog, and roamed Florida in large herds in the geologic past. There are excellent specimens of other fossil vertebrates and a few mounted specimens and skeletons of living


mammals of Florida. The Florida Indian remains and artifacts are also well illustrated.


The Geological Survey in cooperation with various agencies is continuing its efforts to secure water conservation legislation. Conservation does not mean restriction necessarily but instead intelligent development. It is not aimed at curtailing the use of water by any individual or group who use water judiciously and without waste. Fresh water is the most important natural resource of the State and its conservation and protection is needed from both the economic and sanitary points of view. Certain portions of Florida have already suffered from unwise development of their ground water supplies resulting in the abandonment of wells in certain localities, the necessity of deepening or relocating wells in others, and in the lowering of the water levels in large areas. Other sections are confronted with serious problems brought about through the use of wells for drainage and for the disposal of industrial and sewage wastes. The contamination of our fresh water supplies with salt water through too deep drilling and through improper construction of wells is also an ever present perplexing problem in both coastal and interior regions. It is for the purpose of protecting our water supplies from further unwise development, waste and contamination and to assist in, retarding or preventing further progress of such problems that Governor Spessard L. Holland collaborating with Governor-elect Millard Caldwell appointed in December 1944 a Committee on Water Resources. This Committee composed of members from Pensacola to Miami will, through its several scheduled hearings, get an over-all State wide perspective of water supply conditions. To these meetings representatives of Federal and State agencies as well as representatives of all other groups, municipalities, and individuals interested in any aspect of the problem, have been invited. The Committee will make a report of its findings and recommendations to Governor Caldwell by April 1, 1945. With this report as a basis it is probable that legislation will be presented to the 1945 Legislature having for its purpose the long needed State-wide control and regulation of this important natural resource.
The discovery of oil in one of the deep test wells drilled in southern Florida has also brought about the advisability of legis-


lation controlling and regulating the drilling for oil 4nd the development of it in the State. Through the Attorney General's office, cooperating with a committee appointed by the Governor and a committee from the Florida Bar Association, legislation is being prepared that will be presented to the 1945 Legislature. It is indeed wise to enact a law that has for its purpose the protection of the State and its citizens from unwise development and also offers to those engaging in the industry the protection that they are entitled to.
The appropriation requested by the Geological Survey for the Biennium July 1, 1945 to July 1, 1947, is shown in the following table:
July 1, 1945 to July 1, 1946 to
June 30, 1946: June 30, 1947:
Salaries ---------$43,580.00 Salaries __---------$43,580.00
Necessary and Necessary and
Regular Expenses 37,300.00 Regular Expenses 37,300.00

Total --------$80,880.00 Total --------$80,880.00
The Survey has experienced the most active Biennium since its establishment. While this has been brought about by the interest in the potential possibilities of Florida as an oil producing State it is also a reflection of increased interest and development of our mineral industries. The record total mineral production for 1943 indicates this without argument. This has all brought about a very decided increase of demands on the Survey for information and data that has accumulated through the years. The many oil company representatives, geologists, land men and geophysical crews, have made much use of the data available through the Survey. Furthermore the Survey has rendered directly and through cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey, much help to the U. S. Armed Forces camps in many parts of Florida, to different municipalities, corporations and individuals, expressing concern over the adequacy of our water supplies and their proper development. In every instance the Survey has rendered appreciated service. In order that we may more adequately take care of the additional demands for professional and technical help we have prepared the budget above which is most conservative. With the additional funds requested made available it is certain that more effective service can and will be rendered.


Statistics Collected in Cooperation with the United States Bureau of Mines.

Florida recorded its largest mineral output during 1943 with a total value of $24,856,295. The previous yearly total most nearly approaching this was 1920 with a record of $23,435,804, which is $1,420,491 less than for 1943. This record total indicates the activity Florida has displayed in the effort to supply needed mineral products brought about by the World War. Phosphate production increased to $12,089,477 or $2,711,900 more than for the year 1942. Increases were likewise recorded in other products such as limestone, sand, gravel, fuller's earth, cement and the mineral concentrates ilmenite, rutile and zircon.

The mineral industries of Florida are the fourth largest industry in the State being exceeded only by the Trades and Services group which includes the Tourist or Recreational industry; Manufacturing; and Agricultural industry. In the United States Florida stands first in the production of phosphate having held that position since shortly after the discovery of phosphate in the State; it is second in fuller's earth, an industry that has been most active in current years; it leads in the production of sedimentary kaolin, a type of white-firing clay used in the manufacture of high grade white wares; it has tremendous quantities of very high grade limestones extensively used as road material, in agriculture, chemical industries and in the manufacture of lime and cement; building stone from coquina, oolitic, coral and other limestones is produced and used in construction in many parts of the State; large deposits of peat and muck which find uses for the growing of crops, as a fertilizer filler, for application to soils; sands for various construction and manufacturing purposes and mineral concentrates in sands, ilmenite, rutile and zircon. Common brick, tile and pottery products are also among products of Florida during more normal times. The mineral output and value for the years 1942 and 1943 is shown in the table which follows:



Phosphate (long tons)
Land Pebble Quantity
Land pebble ......------------........2,893,756
Hard rock ............---------------.. . 70,014
Soft or Phosphatic clay--...... 48,470

Total value of phosphate

Limestone (short tons) Road material, Concrete ....5,430,920 Railroad ballast Rip Rap,
other ...........----------------.........1,080,780
Agricultural, Miscellaneous
Stone .......- .....-----------------... . .. 177,850

Total value of Limestone --- ..............-...

Lime (Hydrated and Quick)
Agricultural and Building 4,782
Chemical .............-----------------. . 16,728

Total value of Lime........ Fuller's earth, Kaolin, Clay and Clay Products' - - ..... 53,458 Sand, Gravel and Cement 2 Diatomite, Peat, Rutile, Ilmenite and Zircon -------- 3,651 Petroleum (First in Florida) bbls .....................
Water, Shells, Concrete blocks,
Sandlime brick, statistics not collected.

Value $ 8,826,705
396,527 155,345 $ 9,378,577

$ 4,674,967

818,746 283,393

$ 5,777,106

$ 47,434
164,857 $ 212,291

717,749 3,975,566


'No return on brick and pottery products.
2 Cement reported by barrels but figures not divulged. Peat, quantity and value, based partially on estimate.
4 Figured at 80c per barrel.


Quantity 3,483,194
34,128 71,171

Value $11,633,241
201,241 254,995


6,453,000 $ 5,581,768 2,231,930 1,701,633 158,870 194,487 $ 7,477,888

1,315 $ 11,564 19,192 190,712

$ 202,276

58,533 $ 835,649

28,538 173,2993 4,032.5 3,2261





January 1, 1943, through December 31, 1943

Balance in Salary Account January 1, 1943 $11,420.00 General Revenue Fund July 1, 1943 -........ 26,740.00 $38.160.00
Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account January 1, 1943* ...-.................. 11,043.04
General Revenue Fund July 1, 1943 ............ 16,700.00
Interest Credited by the Comptroller .......... 46.89
Delinquent Bills Credited by the Comptroller .......-........................---------------------------- 3,616.70 36.098.64
Balance in Special Fund January 1, 1943 4,692.01 4,692.01 $74,258.64


Salaries, January 1 through December 31,
1943 -----.. -- ------- ------------------.
Travel Expense -...- ..............- .........--------------------Car Trade-in ....-.............-..........---...............:-...Car Operation - ...............-..-----------------------Supplies-Field, Museum, Office, Library Utilities .................................
Postage, Telephone, Telegrams, Freight, Express ..........- ..................................................
Subscriptions, Books, Dues, Maps ................
Printing of, Publications ................................
Cooperative Program with U. S. Geol.
Ground-water .......................
Surface-water ........------------......
Miscellaneous .....................-----------------------........
Special Fund
Salaries ...................................
Treasurer of the United States ....................
Travel, Hotels, Gas and Oil _....................-.Other Purchases ...........-- .. ........._ _
Printing and Stationery ..........--------------........
Balance in Salary Account Absorbed by
General Revenue Fund, June 30, 1943.... Balanee in Necessary and Regular Expense Account Absorbed by General Revenue Fund, June 30, 1943 .........--------------.........
Balance in Special F und Absorbed by General Revenue Fund, June 30, 1943 ........ Balance in Salary Account, December 31, 1943 ............- .................- ................ . . .....


537.55 925.83 282.63 1,727.91 222.58

709.45 316.27 5,761.47

164.17 107.02

1,250.00 2,860.8$5 397.80 22.83 160.52



2,340.26 6,761.70

.01 9,101.97 17,149.83

Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense Account December 31, 1943 ....-............. 12,525.21 29,675.04 $74,258.64
*Biennial Report 1942 included coverage of bills payable December 31, 1943. Disbursements of Necessary and Regular' Account cover bills payable January 1 to December 1, 1943, in order to set our records in accord with the Comptroller's records.



Balance in Salary Account January 1, 1944 $17,149.83 General Revenue Fund July 1, 1944 ............ 26,740.00 $43,889.83
Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense Account January 1, 1944 ............................ 12,525.21
General Revenue Fund July 1, 1944 ....------- 16,700.00
Refund, State Warrant No. 68034 .......... 402.11 29,627.32 $73,517.15

Salaries, January 1 through December 31, 1944 -------- -------_------------Travel Expense -_.......- ........... 2,
Car Operation - ....._...- .-.... ......
Supplies-Field, Museum, Office, Library 2,
Utilities -..--- -...-----.--------Postage, Telephone, Telegrams, Freight, Express ---.-----------............ -- --....
Subscriptions, Books, Dues, etc. .... .... Printing of Publications --............. --. 3,
Cooperative Program with U. S. Geol.
Ground-water--- .................... 3,
Surface-water --............. 1
Miscellaneous ..-----.-----------.-----Balance in Salary Account December 31, 1944 ---- .--- .--- ----------------- 20
Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1944 ---..-- - 14

353.20 812.06 938.60 260.77

494.08 347.65 ,004.77

,373.37 ,908.96 92.11




,041.75 34,599.93 $73,517.15