BIENNIUM ENDING DECEMBER 31, 1944
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
HERMAN GUNTER, Director
Letter of Transmittal
Tallahassee, Florida February 15, 1943 Mr. S. E. RICE, Supervisor, State Board of Conservation, Tallahassee, Florida Sir:
I take pleasure in transmitting herewith the Fifth Biennial Report of the Florida Geological Survey. It is principally an administrative report containing a brief resume of the activities of the Survey and an outline of some of the scientific work completed and in progress. The report contains a summary of Florida's mineral industry for the years 1940 and 1941. It is a satisfaction to note the decided increase in the production total for 1941 as compared with 1940. The report furthermore contains a condensed financial statement from January 1, 1941, to December 31, 1942Please accept my appreciation of the cordial interest you have shown in the work of the Geological Survey and the encouragement you have so uniformly extended.
Respectfully submitted, HERMAN GUNTER, Director
Fifth Biennial Report of the Florida
HISTORY AND GENERAL STATEMENT
The first geological survey was organized in 1887 but was short lived, being discontinued that year. The present survey was established by the General Assembly of 1907 with E. H. Sellards appointed as State Geologist in June of that year. It has had but two directors; Dr. Sellards from 1907 to 1919, and Herman Gunter since that period. From 1907 to 1933 it was a department in itself but the 1933 Legislature created the -State Board of Conservation and the Survey was placed in the newly organized Conservation Department, the State Geologist being appointed Assistant Supervisor of Conservation. The Conservation- Department as originally organized included the Shell Fish Commission, the Commission of Game and Fresh Water Fish, and the Geological Survey. In the act creating the State Board of Conservation, funds for the maintenance of the Survey were allotted from those collected by the Conservation Department, but in 1935 the Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish was made a separate function of the State Government and the maintenance of the Survey was placed again upon the General Revenue Fund as it had been prior to the consolidation of the departments.
A,department of conservation should be made up of divisions, one for each natural resource group. Thus in Florida if a department of conservation should be created it might appropriately include divisions of forestry, shell fish, fresh water fish and game, live stock, the geological survey, and others. To function effectively such a department should have its own source of revenue and bureaus for the enforcement of its laws, to promote education in conservation measures, and to carry on research and collect statistics. As now constituted, the Florida Department of Conservation is a misnomer, as its two departments, the former Shell Fish Commission and the Geological Survey, function separately and obtain their funds from different sources. While work has progressed satisfactorily under the present grouping there is no reason or advantage to either department in remaining together.
THE WORK OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
During this biennial period the Survey has been very active and has worked to help win the war. The normal activities have been considerably interrupted. With the beginning of the war the requirements of the Nation were anticipated and the Survey outlined the minerals and pertinent information that offered the best possibilities for Florida to serve the war effort. A vast amount of information has been furnished to individuals and groups who were interested in establishing plants or developing mineral deposits in the State. Many of Florida's minerals are of prime importance to vital war activities. Phosphate in chemicals, explosives, and fertilizers; rutile and ilmenite in the manufacture of flares and smoke screens; limestone for concrete in military construction and for base courses in airport runways and roads; sand and gravel for concrete and fuller's earth as a filtering medium and more recently for light-weight aggregate for use in concrete ships are but a few of the war uses of Florida mineral products. Through Governor Spessard L. Holland the Director has been appointed Emergency Coordinator of Mines for Florida, thus aiding the mines to obtain supplies and thereby increasing the output.
Early in 1942. a method of extracting magnesium metal from dolomite was announced in technical journals, and with the hope that dolomite of sufficient purity for this extraction could be found in Florida the dolomitic limestones of the State were prospected. A report covering the results of this work has been issued as Report of Investigations No. 3. This prospect-survey, while revealing no deposits of high-grade dolomite, does indicate that Florida has deposits of dolomitic limestone suitable for agricultural uses. It also shows that rock wool and other products could be manufactured from this dolomitic limestone and should result in new industries for the State.
The Survey was helpful, in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey, in developing information that resulted in the establishment of a concrete ship building plant at Tampa. This plant needed a clay from which a light weight aggregate could be manufactured. The Survey was instrumental in locating deposits of clay that proved highly suitable for this purpose and as a consequence a plant has been established at Ellenton, Manatee County. This aggregate is manufactured from fuller's earth and is from one-half to onefourth as light as gravel or limestone aggregate. Its use will be in the construction of concrete ships and it should find a permanent and broad
use in light weight pre-fabricated concrete units after the war, which would give the State a new permanent industry.
Many inquiries have come from the United States Army and the United States Navy, especially for data on water supplies and for physical characteristics of some locations. Water supplies for some of the bases have been particularly problematical. We have been able to recommend proper drilling locations and have acted as consultant on drilling and water problems. The Survey in turn has profited by this, for samples have been collected at frequent intervals from nearly all of the wells drilled by the Army and Navy. All of these will be studied, the wells logged and both samples and logs become a permanent record in the Geological Survey files. The Survey stands ready to continue this service and to offer geologic advice on engineering problems in the construction of camps, roads, dams, airdromes, bombing targets, and war and defense installations. In addition the Survey library contains maps and geologic literature of the Nation and of Florida from which the geological needs of the armed forces and of the civilian can at least be partially met.
The Survey has attempted to maintain its regular routine during this biennial insofar as it did not interfere with its contribution to the war effort, and has prepared and published five bulletins containing six papers, as follows:
Bulletin 19. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida, by W. Storrs
Cole, 1941, 91 pP., 18 pls., 4 figures, i table.
This is a study of two deep wells drilled in Florida: United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Power House Well No. :-; and Peninsular Oil and Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. i. This latter is the deepest well so far drilled in Florida: io,oo6 feet.
Bulletin zo. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida, No. 2, by
W. Storrs Cole, 1942., 89 pp., 16 pls., 4 figures.
This bulletin is the third of a series of studies of deep wells in Florida, the other studies being published as Bulletin 16 and Bulletin 19. Each of the papers contains a description of the strata penetrated and descriptions of new and distinct fossils. These bulletins are for the professional and technical group, those interested in the sub-surface geology of Florida as a source of oil and gas or those interest from and academic view.
Bulletin 2.1. Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida, by Robert 0.
Vernon, 1942., 161 pp., 2- maps in pocket, 2.0 figures, 8 tables.
This bulletin is a report on the geology of these two counties an contains detailed geologic maps of each. Sections on the cultural history of the counties, the physiography, stratigraphy, and economic possibilities of development of the rocks are included. This is the first geological report by county and it is hoped that the series can be continued after the war.
Bulletin 22. Contributions to Florida Vertebrate Paleontology: A Fossil Squirrel-Fish
from the Upper Eocene of Florida, by G. Miles Conrad, pp. 4-25; and The Rostrum of Felsinotherium Ossivalense, by Joseph T. Gregory, pp. 27-47, 1941, 47 PP., 5 pls.,
The first paper describes a new fossil fish from the Ocala limestone at Florida Caverns State Park, two miles north of Marianna. The second paper redescribes and carefully figures an extinct dugong found in the Bone Valley gravel (land pebble phosphates) of Florida.
Bulletin 23. Florida Dunes and Scrub, Vegetation and Geology, by Herman Kurz,
1942, 154 pp., 25 pls., 24 figures, 3 tables.
This bulletin illustrates the close association of geology with botany. In many cases the geology can be differentiated by means of plant assemblages and the botanist can often forecast the vegetation of an area by knowing the geology. An attempt is made to differentiate the fossil dunes from the more active Recent dunes by use of plants. The layman should find the paper interesting and helpful in identifying dune vegetation.
A report on prospecting for dolomite in the State has been completed and published in memeograph form as Report of Investigations No- 3. Deposits that are thought to be commercial have been outlined and are shown on small prospect maps. Analyses made during the study should be helpful to those interested in developing new products from Florida dolomite or dolomitic limestone. Several potential uses of the rock are reviewed and recommendations are made as to the best methods of developing Florida dolomitic limestone. This prospectsurvey was under the direction of Robert H. Hopkins, Field Technician.
The manuscript for a mineral industries and resources bulletin, by Robert 0. Vernon, Assistant Geologist, is being edited for publication as Bulletin 2.4. This report will fill a long-felt need to acquaint the public with the mineral resources of the State, and will answer many requests for information. It describes the mining methods of each industry, the mineral resources of the State, and attempts to show the economic trends. A general summary of mineral production since 1900 and specific production figures for 1940 and 1941 are included.
Field work has been completed in a survey of the natural features of southern Florida, particularly the Everglades and Big Cypress regions, by John H. Davis, Jr., Research Assistant. This comprehensive report now being prepared will be issued as a bulletin of the Geological Survey in the near future. The publication will describe not only many features of the history, geology, topography, drainage, and soils, but will accurately map and describe the vegetation and consider some features of the wildlife. It will show particularly the interrelations of these natural features of this relatively unusual and little known section of Florida and consider certain aspects of the best land use of many areas. For these reasons it should prove of use to many laymen as well as professionals, particularly in its description of the Everglades which have been so little explored or insufficiently described.
Progress has also been made on the continuing study of deep well samples by W. Storrs Cole, Research Assistant. This will be the fourth of such studies and will relate to the St. Mary's River Oil Corporation's Hilliard Turpentine Company No. 1 Well about four miles northwest of Hilliard, Nassau County. This well was drilled to a total depth of 4,823 feet and the samples revealed a most interesting section.
In the thirty-six years of existence the Florida Geological Survey has produced a series of reports which have encouraged and promoted the economic development of the State's mineral resources, contributed greatly to the knowledge of the State and has stimulated the recognition of the need of conserving our mineral resources. It has served as custodian of geological records and data and has established a museum to display the geological wealth of the State for the educational convenience of Florida citizens.
As an organization dispensing education, the Survey maintains study sets of the various rocks of the State and of evidences of life taken from these rocks, and displays the products developed from Florida deposits. Citizens are becoming aware of the great mineral wealth of the State and are seeking information about it and demanding conservation practices. This interest in rocks and minerals, and in the products developed from them, is made increasingly evident by the mounting numbers of inquiries answered by the Survey each year. The schools of the State are teaching Florida natural science and stressing the importance of a knowledge of natural resources. Rock samples designated for school study sets were mailed by the Survey during this biennial and a special effort is made to encourage school groups to visit the geological museum, connected with the offices of the Survey.
The Survey wishes to increase its service to the schools of the State by supplying more mineral and fossil exhibits and other materials illustrating the natural resources and geology of Florida. Lectures by the staff on some phases of our natural resources, physiography and geology could be arranged with the schools to aid particularly in the many new courses now introduced for the war effort.
During this war-time biennium the Survey has continued in its purpose to bring about a closer cooperation between agriculture, industry, and mining in Florida so as to promote the industrial development of the State. Florida has always been primarily a producer of the raw product, almost no attempt being made to produce the finished material from the raw mineral. Instead, finished products are manufactured from Florida materials that have been shipped out of the State and other states reap the harvest of industrialization. The potential industrialization of Florida is great and as the manufacturing phase is built new employment will be opened, a firm economic foundation will be established, and the minerals will leave the State as finished products instead of raw materials.
Some of Florida's mineral products, such as phosphate and limestone, have been extensively developed, but others are only partially developed and undeveloped. Industry stands ready with capital and organization to develop any deposit or product that has been proven to be commercial, but the data necessary for such development can not ordinarily be accumulated by individuals or industrial groups. The cost involved would ordinarily far exceed the future profit, because the data must be detailed and encompass large areas. Industry can be encouraged, however, to prospect individual mineral deposits provided the Geological Survey first gathers and makes available the general information, thus eliminating doubtful areas and outlining good prospects. The cost to the State is infinitely small when compared to the increased profits in new industries and increased employment and revenue. The trend of industrial development is upward in Florida and at the present time there is a larger demand for the type of work being done by the Geological Survey than ever before.
The members of the Geological Survey for this biennial period have been:
HERMAN GUNTER, Director
SIDNEY A. STUBBS, Associate (to December 31, 1942)
ROBERT O. VERNON, Assistant
W. STORRS COLE, Research Assistant
JOHN H. DAVIS, JR., Research Assistant
JAMEs R. GALBRAITH, JR., Field and Museum Assistant
W. DEAN WILSON, Draftsman
MYRTLE J. LEE, Secretary
PEARL GATLIN, File Clerk and Stenographer
HENRIETTA O'QUINN, Typist
EDDIE TAYLOR, JR., janitor (to August 15, 1942)
LESSIE BELL, janitor
In addition to these, Robert H. Hopkins, Field Technician, W. N. Kestner, Chemist, Jack C. Russell, Laboratory Technician, have rendered special assistance in the field and laboratory. The following drillers: G. E. Gray, W. L. Wilds, and Hayward V. Atkinson, Jr., and drillers helpers, John S. Gwynn, William L. Truett, Frank H. Butler, and Walton B. Jones, were employed for limited periods on the special dolomitic limestone investigation.
Since December, 1939, the Survey offices have been located on the campus of the Florida State College for Women in the "Old Lower Dining Hall." During 1940 and 1941 the demands made on the Survey were greater and the personnel was increased. To provide room for this expansion the State Board of Control generously granted additional space in December, 1941, so that the Survey now occupies all of the "Old Lower Dining Hall." The quarters now occupied cover approximately 4,700 square feet, of which approximately i,8oo square feet are used for office and library, i,ooo square feet for laboratory and storage and 1,900 square feet for exhibition. The United States Geological Survey, Ground Water Division, partially occupies one of the offices and cooperation between the Federal and State Surveys is greatly facilitated.
Appropriate signs and markers have been placed at strategic places on the campus for convenience in locating the museum and offices of the Survey.
The Geological Survey maintains one of the most complete geological libraries in the southeast United States. Reference books are essential to any scientific research, both in an exchange of ideas and
as a stimulant to thought. The Survey library is for the use of the staff primarily but is made available to geologists-and related groups for research purposes, if such research is carried on in the Survey quarters.
Efforts are made to obtain every article that in any way relates to the geology and paleontology of the State, and in some cases the papers of closely associated sciences are also collected. The library now contains more than 7,ooo books and pamphlets. These publications cover almost a complete file of the geological reports of the United States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of Mines, bulletins and reports of other state geological surveys, and reports from many foreign countries including Canada, Cuba, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Australia, New Zealand, and some European, African, and Asiatic countries that publish articles on geology. There are also nearly complete files on most of the leading geological journals and copies of text books on the various sections of geology.
In addition to the various publications mentioned above, the Geological Survey has a large file of topographic, aerial, geodetic, geologic, political, and cultural maps. Maps are absolutely essential for any sort of geological investigation and are used frequently by members of the geological survey, other State departments, oil geologists, and individuals interested in the State.
COOPERATION WITH OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND SURVEYS
During this biennium the Geological Survey has cooperated with the United States Geological Survey, the United States Bureau of Mines, the United States Soil Conservation Service, the National Resources Planning Board, the Florida State Planning Board, the University of Florida, the Florida Forest and Park Service, the State Board of Health, the State Road Department, and the United States Army and Navy.
Most of this assistance has been in the nature of routine functioning of the Survey, but direct cooperation has been given to the United States Bureau of Mines in the collection of mineral statistics for the State, to the United States Geological Survey in gathering both ground water and surface water data, to the United States Soil Conservation Service in its study of the Everglades and to the Florida Forest and Park Service in numerous ways.
Mineral Production Statistics formerly were obtained separately by both the United States Bureau of Mines and by the Florida Geological Survey. This was a duplication of effort and frequently the two records did not agree. Under the present cooperative plan the Bureau of Mines sends out data sheets to the mineral producers who make returns on their production, number of employees, accidents for the year, and various other data. The data on mineral production is assembled by the Bureau of Mines and this compiled information, together with the names of the producers and their addresses, sent to the Geological Survey at a small cost for clerical expenses. If need be the Geological Survey contacts those producers who are delinquent in making a report for the year, to encourage their cooperation, and keeps the list of active producers up-to-date, adding new ones and deleting those out of business.
Statistics are necessary to show the trends of the various industries for future investment. Advantages of each industry can thus be accentuated and the disadvantages lowered. Such statistics are also of educational advantage in advertising Florida products and acquainting the public with the Florida mineral industry.
Water Resources are probably the most important asset to the State. Our large springs, clear-water streams and lakes annually attract thousands of visitors to Florida for rest and recreation. Wells drilled into the water aquifers of the State supply the large part of the domestic, municipal and industrial water. The use of water for irrigation in agriculture, especially for citrus groves and truck farms, has steadily increased over the past years. This has expanded the well systems of the State to such an extent that water reserves are being depleted and impaired and the permanent water head is being reduced. Some of the water is being wasted by unwise usage, improper well installations allowing leakage into other formations, large industrial withdrawals, and through contamination of ground water through disposal of industrial wastes and sewage into drainage wells. These practices have become so menacing that the Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State Board of Health, are working on plans to adopt conservation measures through legislative action.
Since 1930 the Geological Survey has carried on active cooperation with the Water Resources Branch of the United States Geological Survey. Water investigations are regularly a part of the work of the Federal Survey and representatives under the supervision of Mr. V. T. Stringfield, Geologist, have been stationed in Florida to direct the
surveys. An office is provided for the ground water division in the State Survey quarters at Tallahassee, with H. H. Cooper, Jr., Assistant Engineer, in charge.
The surface water division is under the direction of G. E. Ferguson, District Engineer, Ocala, Florida. The State benefits greatly by the valuable well data and by surface stream measurements and every effort should be made to expand these programs. The measurements made on water levels in wells, lakes, and surface streams during this biennium will be published in future Water Supply Papers of the United States Geological Survey. These data are of inestimable value to engineers desiring to know the amount of drainage area and volume of water for which a dam or culvert must be designed and to industrialists depending on an adequate supply of water for their plants, and to the State in providing conservation methods in areas where the water supply is in danger of being depleted.
As a result of this cooperative work a report, Artesian Water Supply in the Florida Peninsula, by V. T. Stringfield, was published by United States Geological Survey as Water Supply Paper 773-C, and a companion report on the artesian water supply of western Florida is in manuscript form. This paper, Artesian Water in Florida West of the Suwannee River, is by V. T. Stringfield and F. C. Westendick, and will be published by the Federal Survey. Various papers on the ground water resources of local areas have been published by the State Survey in past years and members of the Federal Survey prepared two) short papers on the artesian water of Florida during the past biennium, as follows:
Artesian Water in the Coastal Area of Georgia and Northeastern Florida, by V. T.
Stringfield, H. H. Cooper, Jr., and M. A. Warren, Economic Geology, Vol. 36,
pp. 698-711, 1941.
Ground Water Investigations in Florida, with Special Reference to Duval and Nassau
Counties, by H. H. Cooper, Jr., in manuscript form.
The detailed investigation of water supplies near Miami, Miami Beach, Coral Gables, and adjacent areas is still in progress and new and valuable data are accumulating from which definite recommendations can be made as to the best methods of securing an adequate supply of water for all of Dade County and its large municipalities. Progress summaries of this work by the United States Geological Survey are on file in the State Geological Survey offices and are available to any interested group.
The State Geological Survey has been unable to cooperate with the surface water division of the U. S. Geological Survey as actively as it would like because of insufficient funds. In comparison with ground water, little industrial, domestic, or municipal use has been made of lake and surface water in Florida. Where industry and agricultural uses have created heavy withdrawals from ground water it is possible that some of this industrial supply could be obtained from streams and lakes and water difficulties thus be avoided. Accurate measurements, covering long-time periods, are needed to intelligently plan for the utilization of such supplies. Such data would also be valuable in planning drainage projects, erosion control measures, bridges, culverts, and runways. Without such data, irrigation and flood control projects can not be undertaken with assurance of success.
Topographic Mapping in Florida ranks at the bottom in the number of quadrangles that have been mapped, as compared to other states. The Geological Survey has had no funds for cooperating in this muchneeded topographic mapping. These maps are invaluable in working the geology of the State and are of special use to engineers in determining drainage areas for highway flood control measures. They have, moreover, large cultural and educational advantages as the geography and land surface are easily visualized. They are especially needed in the schools of the State as a means of instruction.
Most of these maps in Florida were prepared independently by the Federal Survey and are on a scale of one inch on the map equals one mile on land. The maps show the different features of the land by the use of various symbols and colors. Man-made objects such as mines, houses, cities, towns, roads, political boundaries and railroads. are shown in black. Recent topographic maps show paved roads in red. All streams and water bodies are printed in blue and forests, when shown, are printed in green. The land forms are indicated by brown contour lines that connect points of equal elevation above sea level. In other words all points on a contour are the same elevation. The intervals at which these contours are drawn depends upon the amount of relief and in Florida is usually ten feet. The maps are rectangular in shape and are bounded by meridians and parallels. Most of those in Florida are approximately fifteen minutes square and cover approximately 237 square miles.
OIL PROSPECTING AND WELL DRILLING
Florida has as yet not had a commercial oil or gas well but various attempts at discovery have been made. Considerable impetus to the drilling of test wells has recently been given by the discovery of a new field near Jackson, Mississippi, and from encouragement by the Florida Legislature passing an act making available a $50,000 bonus to be paid for the first commercial well in Florida.I
A number of the larger oil companies and various independents and individuals have prospected most of the State in search for possible oil and gas structures. Geophysical crews have been very active in western Florida and in the middle and southern Peninsula. Leasing has been quite active and there are many areas spotted with prospected drilling blocks. The following major oil companies are reported to hold leases and to be prospecting Florida lands: The California Company; The Gulf Refining Company; Humble Oil and Refining Company; Magnolia Petroleum Company; The Pure Oil Company; Shell Oil Company; Sinclair Oil Company; Sun Oil Company; and The Texas Company.
During November, 1942, the following wells as tests for oil or gas were being drilled in Florida:
Consumers Gas and Fuel Company, State No. 1, 39 miles west of Miami, Dade County. (Location only, drilling not begun.)
Brown and Ravlin Trustees, V. G. Philips No. i, near Wakulla Station, Wakulla County.
Florida Oil Development Company, Putnam Lumber Company No. 1, 6 miles south. cast of Cross City, Dixie County.
H. H. Givan, Marion Corporation No. i, near Portland, Walton County.
Sanford and Arrington, Walton Land and Timber Company No. 1, about 1o miles southeast of DeFuniak Springs, Walton County.
William G. Blanchard, et al., Everglades No. 1, 44 miles west of Miami, Dade County.
The Sanford and Arrington, Walton Land and Timber Company No. i, oil test in Walton County has created considerable interest throughout Florida and other portions of the country. This well is located in the S.E.'4 of Section 17, Township i North, Range i8 West, and was begun January 19, 1942. The well has a reported depth of 6,017 feet. Upon reaching this depth preparations were made for making a
1 Senate Bill No. 148, Laws of Florida, Vol. i, Chapter 20667, 1941.
Schlumbreger survey of it and in such preparations the drill stem was hung at a depth of approximately 3,000 feet. Every effort to loosen it failed and as a last attempt the lubrication method was resorted to--12o barrels of fuel oil were put into the hole. Following this attempt to loosen the drill, the press, on November 5, 1942-, carried an item that oil had been flowing from the well for the past ten days. A further attempt to dislodge the drill was successful on November 16, 1942-, when again the well was reported by the press to have "blown in." A formal claim has been made for the bonus of $5o,ooo through A. G. Campbell, Jr., Attorney for Fred L. Sanford and George Arrington. The Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund of the State of Florida have filed this claim "pending submission by the Company of report and proof that the DeFuniak well meets the specifications provided in Chapter 2.0667, Acts of 1941, . . . "
The well has been logged by the Schlumberger Well Surveying Corporation. Casing has been placed and tests at depths of potential oil horizons are reported in progress. The well was reported being tested in February, 1943. Nothing conclusive can be stated as this report goes to press.
The Geological Survey has samples from many of the tests drilled in Florida and from many of the wells drilled for water. Some of these samples, particularly those from the deeper wells, are made available to the Survey to be held in confidence until the well is completed or until such time as the contributors release the information. This the Survey is glad to do. As a consequence a vast amount of information in the form of well logs, samples, analyses, paleontologic slides and records has been accumulated and is being constantly and regularly added to. All of these data, except such as conditionally received, are available for examination and study by interested parties. Numbers of geologists and paleontologists of the major oil companies and independents, have availed themselves of this opportunity of getting first hand information as to the character, thickness and age of the formations underlying Florida.
The generous cooperation of the State's leading well drillers has greatly assisted the Survey in its efforts to get cuttings from wells. Most of the drillers collect samples from the wells they drill and ship them to the Geological Survey together with data so that the files of the Survey now contain records of more than 700 wells. The Survey endeavors to study samples submitted by well drillers as soon as possible and advise them on any geological problems and provide
them with a descriptive, geologic log for their use and help in future drilling. From statements of many drillers the data thus furnished has assisted them in many of their problems. The Geological Survey is anxious to obtain cuttings, collected at intervals of ten feet or less, from wells drilled anywhere in Florida and will supply cloth sacks for saving the samples and data sheets for well information to anyone interested. Such samples should be mailed or sent express collect to The Florida Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Florida. A geologic log of the well will be forwarded to the driller and owner upon request.
The Florida Geological Survey has prepared and published detailed geological and mineral resources papers to cover most, if not all of, the State since the Survey's organization in 1907. Twenty-four annual reports contained in twenty-one volumes, twenty-three bulletins, thirteen press bulletins, and three reports of investigations have been published. These reports are made up of 119 papers that were prepared by survey staff members, some in cooperation with federal agencies, and are chiefly technical papers prepared for the use of the geologist and professional groups interested in the mineral resources, geology, and structure of the State. Some have been written in less technical, semi-popular language for the use of the layman and for use in schools. It is hoped that more of this type of publication can be issued, based on fundamental data but couched in language that will have an easy style. There is a real need for this type of report, as well as for the technical, which can be more specific.
Papers prepared by staff members and published through established journals and those prepared by members of the Federal Survey and professional groups in Florida are too numerous to list. The United States Geological Survey, Washington, D.C., issues each year a pamphlet, Publications of the Geological Survey, listing federal publications, including those relating to Florida. That organization also publishes periodically a Bulletin, Bibliography of North American Geology, which contains references to all papers on Florida geology that were published. This Bulletin may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C., for a nominal sum. Papers on the mineral resources of Florida published by the United States Bureau of Mines are contained in a List of Publications of the Bureau of Mines, a bulletin published by that Bureau, Washington, D.C.
The following bibliography is a complete list of publications issued by the Florida Geological Survey since its creation in 1907. Those preceded by an asterisk are out of print but may be consulted in the libraries of the Geological Survey at Tallahassee, the colleges of the State, and the libraries of the larger cities in Florida. The Survey also maintains an exchange list with many of the leading colleges and institutions of the United States and the reports will be found on file in those libraries. Exchange is maintained also with some foreign countries.
In case of annual reports published prior to the consolidation of the Geological Survey with the Conservation Department in 1933, seParate papers are sometimes available, when the complete report is out of print. These are preceded by a dagger sign.
Available publications of the Survey may be obtained by addressing a request to the Florida Geological Survey, P. 0. Drawer 631, Tallahassee, Florida. One copy will be mailed free to residents of the State but non-residents should send io cents in coin or stamps to partially cover handling cost and postage charges on each copy.
*First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (i) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (:-) a chapter o.n mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brickmaking clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement, and road-making materials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a review of the more important papers published previous to the organization of the present Geological Survey.
*Second Annual Report, 1909, 2-99 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida, with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geologic map of Florida, prepared in cooperation with the United States Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits of Gadsden County, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the State.
*Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp-, 30 text figures.
This report'contains: (i) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate deposits;
(7) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water supply of eastern Florida;
(4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat deposits. Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) the soils. and other surface residual materials of Florida, their origin, character, and the formation from which derived; (2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production of phosphate rock in Florida during 191o and 1911.
*Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 Pls., 17 text figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) origin of the hard rock phosphate deposits of Florida: (2.) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and southern Florida;
(4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912; (5) statistics on public roads in Florida.
*Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) mineral industries and resources of Florida; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dunnellon Formation and the Alachua Clays; (4) geography and vegetation of northern Florida.
*Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342- pp., 8o figures, four maps.
This report contains: (x) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural resources of an area in Central Florida; (3) soil survey of Bradford County; (4) soil survey of Pinellas County.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pIs., 14 text figures.
This report contains: (x) mineral industries; (2.) thuman remains and associated fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida.
*Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pp., 8 PlS., 13 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) mineral industries; (2) tadditional studies in the Pleistocene at Vero, Florida; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee and Aucilla rivers in Florida.
*Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 13o pp., 4 pIS., 9 figures, two
This report contains: (i) geology between the Apalachicola and Ocklocknee rivers;
(2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.
*Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.
This report contains: (i) literature relating to human remains and artifacts at Vero, Florida; (2.) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations in Florida; (4) geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; (5) the age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of well borings; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special reference to structural conditions.
*Thirteenth Annual Report, 192-1, 307 pp-, 3 PIS., 43 figures.
This report contains: ([) oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of mineral production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from the deep wells of Florida; (4) geography of central Florida.
*Fourteenth Annual Report, 192.2., 135 pp., io figures, one map.
This report contains: (i) statistics on mineral production, i929 and x9ao; (2) on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic map.
*Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 266 pp., 2 pis., 55 figures.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production, 192.1 and 192.2.; (2) ta contribution to the late Tertiary and Quarternary paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3) a preliminary report on the clays of Florida.
*Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production, 1923; (2) a preliminary report on the limestones and marls of Florida.
*Seventeenth Annual Report, 1916, 175 pp., 5 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (j) administrative report and statistics on mineral production, 192.4; (2.) history of soil investigation in Florida and description of new soil map; (3) tgeneralized soil map of Florida in colors; (4) elevations in Florida; (5) review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida.
*Eighteenth Annual Report, 1917, 2o6 pp., 58 figures.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production, 192.5; (2) natural resources of southern Florida.
Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp-, 5 pIS., 36 figures, 9 tables.
This report contains: (x) administrative report and statistics on mineral production, x92.6; (2.) sand and gravel deposits of Florida; (3) tbeach deposits of ilmenite, zircon, and rutile in Florida; (4) tnew species of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala limestone; (5) fnew species of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus(?) from Florida.
*Twentieth Annual Report, 1919, 194 pp., 40 pls., 4 figures, i map.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics of mineral production in Florida during 192.7; (2.) geology of Florida with geologic map; (3) extinct land mammals of Florida.
Twenty-first and Twenty-second Annual Report, 1931, 119 pp., 39 figures.
This report contains: (s) administrative report and statistics of mineral production, 192.8-192.9; (2.) tneed for conservation and protection of our water supply; (3) fthe possibility of petroleum in Florida; (4) beaches of Florida; (5) fa fossil palm nut of Attalea from the upper Eocene of Florida.
*Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth Annual Report, 1933, 117 pp., I pIs.,
23 figures, 3 tables.
This report contains: (i) administrative report and statistics on mineral production, 1930-1931; (2.) northern disjuncts in northern Florida and cypress domes; (3) notes on the geology and the occurrence of some diatomaceous earth deposits of Florida and diatoms of the Florida peat deposits; (4) ground-water resources of Sarasota County, Florida, and exploration of artesian wells in Sarasota County, Florida.
*Bulletin No. i. The Underground Water Supply of Central Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls.,
6 text figures.
This bulletin contains: (i) underground water, general discussion; (2.) the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities, sinkholes, disappearing streams, and solution basins;
(4) drainage of lakes, ponds, and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells;
(5) water analyses and tables giving general water resources, public water supplies, spring, and well records.
*Bulletin No. z. Roads and Road Materials of Florida, 1911, 31 pp-, 4 PISThis bulletin contains: (i) an account of the road building materials of Florida;
(2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads built by the counties of the state to the close of 1910.
*Bulletin No. 3. Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida,
1930, 189 pp., 21 pls.
*Bulletin No. 4. The Foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida, 1930, 93 pp.,
*Bulletin No. 5. (1) A Fossil Teleost Fish of the Snapper Family (Lutianidae) from the
Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2.) The Foraminifera of the Marianna Limestone of Florida,
1930, 67 PP. ii pls., 2. figures.
*Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene Foraminifera of Florida, 1931, 79 pp., 7 plS.,
3 figures, 2- tables.
*Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola Terrace and Associated Beaches and Bars of Florida, 1931,
44 pp., 8 figures, i map.
*Bulletin No. 8. Miocene Pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida,i93J2 40 pp.,
34 PlS., 3 figures.
*Bulletin No. 9. The Foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and Part of the Lower Miocene of
Florida, 1932., 147 pp., 17 plo., 2. tables, i map.
*Bulletin No. io. (i) Miocene Land Mammals from Florida; (2.) New Heteromyid Rodents
from the Miocene of Florida; (3) Aphelops from the Hawthorn Formation of Florida, 1932.,
58 pp., 30 figures.
*Bulletin No. it. Ground Water Investigations in Florida, 1933, 33 pp*Bulletin No. 17.. New Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida,
- 1935, 50 pp., 5 plo.
Bulletin No. 13. Ostracods of the Arca Zone of the Choctawhatchee Miocene of Florida, 1935,
47 pP., 4 pISBulletin No. 14. Additions to the Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida, 1936,
82. pp., 10 plS.
*Bulletin No. 15. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee Limestones of Florida, 1937, 334 pp.,
*Bulletin No. 16. Stratigraphy and Micropaleontology of Two Deep Wells in Florida, 1938,
76 pp., ii pls.
Bulletin No. 17. Scenery of Florida Interpreted by a Geologist, 1939, 2.o pp., 58 figures. Bulletin No. 18. Notes on the Upper Tertiary and Pleistocene Mollusks of Peninsular Florida,
1939, 76 pp., 4 PlS., 2. figures, 5 tables.
Bulletin No. 19. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida-United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America, Power House Well No. 2; and Peninsular Oil and
Refining Company's J. W. Cory No. 1, 1941, 91 pp., 18 plo., 4 figures, i table.
Bulletin No. 2o. Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Studies of Wells in Florida, No. 2-Sawannee
Petroleum Corporation's Sholt No. s; and Florida Oil Discovery Company's Cedar Keys No. 2,
1941, 89 pp., 16 pls., 4 figures.
Bulletin No. 11. Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties, Florida, 1942, 161 pp., 2 maps
in pocket, 2o figures, 8 tables.
Bulletin No. 22. Contributions to Florida Vertebrate Paleontology. (i) A Fossil Squirrel-Fish
from the Upper Eocene of Florida, PP. 4-15; (2) The Rostrum of Felsinotherium Ossivalense, PP. 27-47, 1941, 47 pp., 5 PIs-, 3 figures.
Bulletin No. 23. Florida Dunes and Scrub, Vegetation and Geology, 1942, 154 PP., 25 Pls.,
24 figures, 3 tables.
*Press Bulletin No. i. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913*Press Bulletin No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 19r2, March 12, 1913 Press Bulletin No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the Atlanta Meer
ing of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 31, 1913. Press Bulletin No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914*Press Bulletin No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May 20, 1914. Press Bulletin No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Imbedded
in the Earth, January, 1915.
Press Bulletin No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915. Press Bulletin No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1977, May 2, 1918.
*Press Bulletin No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10, 1918. Press Bulletin No. in, Phosphate Industry of Florida during s918, June 5, 1919. Press Bulletin No. i. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, October 6,
Press Bulletin No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.
*Press Bulletin No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida, April 4, 1931-
REPORT OF INVESTIGATIONS
Report of Investigations No. i. Mimeographed Report on Ground Water in Seminole County,
Florida, 1934, 14 pPReport of Investigations No. 2. Mimeographed Report on Ground Water in the Lake Okeechobee Area, Florida, 1933, 31 ppReport of Investigations No. 3. Mimeographed Report on the Dolomitic Limestones of
Florida, 1943, 105 PP.
PAPERS PREPARED BY GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STAFF
MEMBERS BUT NOT PUBLISHED BY THE SURVEY
(Limited Number Available)
Mansfield, Wendell C., and Ponton, Gerald M., "Faunal Zones in the Miocene Choctawhatchee Formation of Florida," The Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 72, No. 4, 1932.
Boyd, Mark F., and Ponton, Gerald, "The Recent Distribution of Malaria in the Southeastern United States, The American Journal of Tropical Medicine, Vol 13, No. 2., 1933
Cole, W. Storrs, and Ponton, G. M., "New Species of Fabularia, Asterocyclina, and Lepidocyclina from the Florida Eocene." American Midland Naturalist, Vol XV, No. 2., pp. 138147, 1934Gunter, Herman, "Florida's Disappearing Lakes." The Florida Conservator, December, 1934
Stubbs, Sidney A., "A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole County, Florida." Florida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol. I', pp. 24-36, 1937.
- Stubbs, Sidney A., "Studies of Foraminifera from Seven Stations in the Vicinity of Biscayne Bay." Florida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol 4, pp. 2.2.5-2.30, 1939Stubbs, Sidney A., "The Future of Florida Archeological Research." Florida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol. 4, pp. 2.66-2-70, 1939Stubbs, Sidney A., "Pliocene Mollusks from a Well at Sanford, Florida." Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 14, No. 5, September, 1940, pp. 510-514, 1940Vernon, Robert 0., "Tributary Valley Lakes of Western Florida." Journal of Geomorphology, Vol. 5, pp. 302-311, 1942.
Davis, John H., Jr., "The Ecology of the Vegetation and Topography of the Sand Keys of Florida." Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. J24, pp. 113-195, 1942..
MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS DEALING WITH FLORIDA GEOLOGY AND RELATED SUBJECTS
(Limited Number of Some Available)
Fowler, Earl D., and others, "Soil Survey of Polk County, Florida." United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, 1927.
Taylor, Arthur E., and others, "Soil Survey of Lake County, Florida." United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, 192.8.
Gardner, Julia, "The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of Florida." U. S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 142-E, 192.8.
Simpson, George Gaylord, "Tertiary Land Mammals of Florida." American Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. 59, Article 3, pp. 149-2-11, 1930Wetmore, Alexander, "The Avifauna of the Pleistocene of Florida." Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 85, 1931Simpson, George Gaylord, "Fossil Sirenia of Florida and the Evolution of the Sirenia." American Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. 59, Article 8, pp. 419-503, 1932.
Cole, W. Storrs, "Oligocene Orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Washington County, Florida." Journal of Paleontology, Vol. 8, No. a, pp. 2.1-2.8, March, 1934Martens, James H. C., "Beach Sands between Charleston, South Carolina, and Miami, Florida." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 46, pp. 1563-1596, 1935.
Mansfield, G. R., "Geological Surveys in Florida, State and Federal." Florida Conservator, March, 1935Stringfield, V. T., "The Piezometric Surface of Artesian Water in the Florida Peninsula." American Geophysical Union Transactions, Sixteenth Annual Meeting, 1935Black, A. P., and others, "Fluorine in Florida Waters." Florida Section of the American Water Works Association, Ninth Annual Convention Proceedings, 1935.
Mendenhall, Herbert Drummond, "What the Phosphate Industry Means to the Florida Engineers." Read at Spring Meeting of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Jacksonville, Florida, April, 1938.
Richards, Horace G., "Marine Pleistocene of Florida." Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 49, pp. 12.67-12.96, 1938.
Campbell, Robert B., "Outline of the Geological History of Peninsular Florida." Floi'ida Academy of Science Proceedings, Vol. 4, 1939.
Davis, John H., Jr., "The Ecology and Geologic Role of Mangroves in Florida." Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication No. P7, pp. 303-412., 1940.
Manchester, James G., "Collecting Semi-Precious Stones in Florida." Rocks and Minerals, Vol. x6, No. 12., 1941.
Roundy, P. V., "Phosphate Investigation in Florida, 1934 and 2935." U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 9o6-F, 345 pp-, 1941Stringfield, V. T., and others, "Artesian Water in the Coastal Area of Georgia and Northeastern Florida." Economic Geology, Vol. 36, No. 7, 1941.
Cooke, C. Wythe, "Cenozoic Irregular Echinoids of Eastern United States." Journal of Paleontology, Vol 16, No. 1, 1942.
Mansfield, George R., "Phosphate Deposits of the World, with Special Reference to Those of the United States." Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol 34, pP. 9-12., 1942.White, Theodore E., "The Lower Miocene Mammal Fauna of Florida." Museum of Comparative Zoology Bulletin, Harvard College, Vol. 92., No. 1, 1942..
The geological museum was designated the depository for the geological and paleontological specimens collected in the State in the Act creating the Survey in 1907. The Survey has consistently endeavored to maintain a good collection of minerals and fossils and to display these as advantageously as possible. Each specimen has been catalogued, identified and restored where necessary and possible. Some of them are worthy for reference purposes only and are stored, while others that are better preserved and significant are displayed in cases. All of the material is readily accessible to those interested; the museum for the layman and both museum and stored samples for the scientist. A brief course of study of Florida geology may be had by a visit to the museum.
Study sets of each formation that is exposed in Florida, with examples of the animal and plant remains preserved in the rock, are displayed. Not all.rocks contain fossils but many formations have these remains of life, such as mollusks, foraminifers, or even large vertebrate animals. By the means of these fossils the specific bed can be identified and they become the tool of the geologist. Once a formation is identified its extent can be mapped and if it contains valuable mineral products they can be prospected. The smaller fossils are invaluable in well sample studies as they are not crushed by the drilling tools and their presence definitely identify the bed penetrated. The geologist is then able to compare the formations penetrated in several wells, even at great distances, and knowing the elevations of these, he can determine whether the beds are horizontal or dipping and thus the underlying structures become known. Such structural data are important to the oil and gas prospectors, and to the agriculturists and industrialists who depend upon artesian water for their crops and factories. Oil and gas are generally found in structural traps and the pressure for artesian water flow is the weight of the water flowing down a dipping pervious bed.
For these geologic reasons micro-invertebrate fossils are important and the collections in the Survey contain better than 3,500 catalogued slides of foraminifera, and thousands of specimens of the larger invertebrates. These are available to those interested in identifying and comparing shells found in the different parts of the State.
Much of the early geological work on the Tertiary formations of the nation was done in Florida. The mollusks, clams and snails, were
used to identify these beds and to correlate with beds of other states. Thus, since these fossils were described from Florida, the Survey has in its collections many type specimens. This class of animals is so important that possibly one-fourth of the papers on the geology of Florida are written about it. The Survey is trying to add to its collection of Recent shells. Some very beautiful specimens occur in Florida and the State should have as complete a display of these as is possible. Additional room is needed for display purposes so that appropriate cases can be installed. Through the study of the living shells and their environment the scientist by comparison can make deductions which enables him to visualize the conditions under which a formation containing a series of such shells were deposited.
In addition to invertebrate animals, the State is exceedingly rich in remains of vertebrates. These fossils range from a fish millions of years old that was found in the Ocala limestone at the Florida Caverns State Park near Marianna, and loaned to the Survey, to Indian skeletons taken from various mounds built in Recent years. Outstanding displays in the museum are: The mounted skeleton of the American Mastodon, which evidently roamed Florida in great herds during the Pleistocene; the mounted leg of an American Mammoth, a true elephant but larger than the living species. The Mastodon and the Mammoth lived here contemporaneously as is shown by their remains having been found in the same deposits. Another significant display is the skull, leg bones, and other portions of the skeleton of the small, three-toed horses, which were no larger than a dog, and roamed Florida in large herds in the geologic past. There are excellent specimens of other fossil vertebrates and a few mounted specimens and skeletons of living mammals of Florida. The Florida Indian remains and artifacts are also well illustrated.
The mineral collections displayed in the museum are practically all Florida specimens, representative samples being selected, but a collection of ore-bearing minerals of other states, donated by Mr. J. Eugene Brown, of Jacksonville, is now on display in a separate case.
Another donation of outstanding merit is that of Mr. James G. Manchester of a collection of fossil corals from the Ballast Point area near Tampa, Hillsborough County. Mr. Manchester has been collecting minerals as an avocation for a great many years and his interest in the corals found at Ballast Point began many years ago when he acquired a specimen bearing a label from there. During recent years he and Mrs. Manchester, while sojourning during the winter months at
St. Petersburg, have been carefully increasing their number of specimens and have by their patience and persistence accumulated an enviable number of outstanding specimens. Mr. Manchester has partially described these in his paper, Collecting Semi-Precious Stones in Florida. In his generosity Mr. Mansfield has deposited in the Geological Survey museum his prize specimens described in the paper cited. The Survey wishes to make due acknowledgment. The Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, continued to collect fossils at the Thomas Farm locality in Gilchrist County, during a portion of this biennium. The Geological Survey shares in many of the finds through Dr. Thomas Barbour's generosity in donating restored specim'eos and casts of types. The Survey is also privileged to work at that locality at any time, this being a provision in the deed stipulated by Dr. Barbour. This cooperation is much appreciated.
The Geological Survey with the State Board of Health are continuing efforts to secure satisfactory water conservation legislation. Conservation does not necessarily mean restriction but instead intelligent development and is not aimed at curtailing the use of water by any individual or group of individuals who use water judiciously and without waste. Fresh water is the most important natural resource of the State and its conservation is now needed from both the economic and sanitary points of view. Certain portions of Florida have already suffered from unwise development of their ground water supplies resulting in the permanent lowering of the water levels and the necessity of deepening or relocating water wells. Other sections are confronted with serious problems brought about by the use of drainage wells for the disposal of industrial and sewage wastes and storm waters. The contamination of our fresh water supplies with salt water is likewise an ever-present problem in both coastal and interior sections. It is for the purpose of protecting our ground water from further waste and contamination and to assist in retarding or preventing further progress of such problems that the proposed legislation, sponsored by the State Board of Health and the Geological Survey, is designed.
As mentioned at the beginning of this report it is thought wise to enact a law again creating the Geological Survey as a distinct department. There is no apparent logical reason for only the former Shell
Fish Commission and the Geological Survey to compose the Conservation Department.
The appropriation requested for the Geological Survey for the biennium July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1945, is less than that requested for the Survey and approved by the Legislature of 1941. During the current biennium the Survey has had at its disposal a Special Fund amounting to $27,ioo. This was used in purchasing needed field equipment including a small drilling machine, a truck for transporting it, and for additional items, and the employing of personnel to direct and carry on exploratory and research work, as well as cooperative investigations with the United States Geological Survey. As related in a previous portion of this report, active prospecting was suspended upon completing the prospecting of the dolomitic limestones along the western side of the Peninsula. The drafting of man power for the war effort made it difficult to operate the program, finally making it impractical to obtain satisfactory help. It was planned to prospect other mineral deposits and this will be done when conditions become more normal. The field equipment, other than the truck, which has been sold, is stored and will be available when circumstances permit. The Special Fund is not being requested for this biennium, the Necessary and Regular account carrying the cooperative work with the United States Geological Survey and the other mineral and natural resources investigations.
July 1, 1943, to June 30, 1944: July 1, 1944, to June 30, 1945:
Salaries................ $ 2.6,740.00 Salaries ................. $ 2.6,740.oo
Necessary and Regular Necessary and Regular
Expenses............. 16,700.00 Expenses.............. 16,700.00
Total.......... $43,440.00 Total........... $43,440-00
FLORIDA MINERAL INDUSTRY, 1940 AND 19412
Although Florida is not generally considered a mining state, it has produced in excess of 461,oao,ooo dollars worth of mineral products since 1900. The total value for mineral output during 1941 was $21,112,277, representing an increase of $4,980,584 over 1940, which was $16,131,693. This increase is due to greater domestic demands, largely from military uses. Nineteen mineral substances were produced in Florida in 1940 and 1941, including the various usages of the different clays, and 44 counties out of 67 contributed to the totals. The mineral resources of Florida are almost entirely non-metallics, the one exception being the heavy minerals, rutile, ilmenite, and zircon, being recovered from beach sands along the East Coast by the Riz Mineral Company. These sands have been worked irregularly since 1916, and a substantial deposit has recently been prospected inland in Duval County and in western Florida along the coast. Rutile, ilmenite, and zircon have been classified as strategic or critical minerals by the War Production Board and this has stimulated prospecting for concentrations of these minerals in Florida sands. Phosphate has been mined in Florida since 1888 and leads other products in the value of output, being 48.0 per cent of the total production for 1940, and 48-5 per cent of the total production for 1941. The quantity of all phosphate increased from 2,678,784 long tons in 1939 to 2,847,481 long tons in 1940, and 3,367,797 long tons in 1941. The value of this phosphate decreased from $7,893,457 in 1939 to $7,747,395 in 1940, and increased to $10,239,778 in 1941. The 1941 production of phosphate is exceeded by previous production in quantity only by the abnormal post-war-boom tonnage of 192.6, and in value only by the sales during 1920, 1921, and 1930,
Limestone ranks second in value of output, its sale realizing $6,862,966 in 1941, as compared to $5,093,677 in 1940, the increase being due almost entirely to the construction of military bases throughout the State. Sand and gravel were likewise used more extensively in 1941 than 1940, selling for $1,161,675 as compared to $743,928. With clay, coquina, dolomitic limestone, diatomite, muck, peat, sand, gravel, shells, and water all showing increases, the total production for 1941 was $21,112,277, the second highest yearly output in the history of the Florida mineral industry. This compares with the
2 This summary is taken from the manuscript of the mineral resource study which will be published as Bulletin No. 24 of the Survey.
output of $23,435,804 in 1920, and $20,72.4,487 in 1926, both of which were post-war-boom years.
The following table shows the quantity and value of minerals produced in Florida during 1940 and 1941, as compiled from the United States Bureau of Mines mineral statistics and from a survey of the Florida mineral industry by the Florida Geological Survey.
SUMMARY OF MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1940 AND 1941
Amount Value Amount Value
C lay ........................... .. ............
Brick and Tile1- -.-..........................
Cement,2 Fuller's Earth, Kaolin, and Pottery'....
Coquinal................ ........ ... .. . .........
Dolomitic Limestone (Agricultural).................
oj Flint Rock ....................................
0 Limestone 4 .............
Diatomite, M uck', Peat............................
Sand' and Gravel...............................
W aterl ....... ....................................
117,508 short tons
19,888 cubic yards
68,777 short tons 80,814 short tons 3,72.6,2.18 short tons 34,622. cubic yards
2.,847,481 long tons 1,040,365 short tons 230,050 cubic yards 1,72.9,942. gallons
743,92.8 198,82.1 161,773
111,579 short tons
2.7,073 cubic yards 86,453 short tons 48,600 short tons 5,2.66,148 short tons 56,156 cubic yards 3,367,797 long tons 1,613,346 short tons 308,2.17 cubic yards 1,82.4,498 gallons
Totals ............................... ........................ $ 16,131,693 . ........................
1 Includes a few values which were estimated by the producer where no book records were kept.
2 Estimated from the number of barrels of cement.
3 Includes an estimate of the limestone used in cement, based on the number of barrels, and includes also the dolomitic limestone which was sold as concrete aggregate and building stone.
4 Includes an estimate of the tonnage of art and dimensional stone, reported in cubic feet.
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
January 1, 1941, through December 31, 1941
Unexpended Balance in Salary AccountJanuary 1, 1941..... $ 12,819.62 By Appropriation from General Revenue Fund July 1,1941Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941.................. 19,280.00 $ 32,099.62
Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense Account, January 1, 1941........................... $ 6,854.61
By Appropriation from General Revenue FundJuly 1, 1941Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941................. 11,150.00 18,004.61
Special Fund. By Appropriation from General Revenue
Fund July 1, 1941-Chapter2O980, General Laws of1941 $17,100.00 17,100.00 $67,204.23
Salaries................................................ $ 15,327 .61
Traveling Expenses..................................... 882.68
Printing ............................................... 1,785.27
Field, Office, and Museum Supplies....................... 4,214.82
Postage, Express, Freight, Telephone, and Telegrams....... 572.83 U tilities............................................... 195.58
Workmen's Compensation Insurance...................... 29.76
Operation and Upkeep of Cars........................... 1,269.01
Cooperative Work with United States Geological SurveyGround-Water and Surface-Water Divisions ........... 544.94
Mineral and Natural Resources Investigations (Spl. Fund).. 9,196.14 Cooperative Work with United States Geological SurveyGround-WaterandSurface-WaterDivisions (Spl, Fund).. '441.67 $34,460.31
Unexpended Balance in Salary Account Absorbed by General
Revenue Fund June 30, 1941......................... S 5,682.01
UJnexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account Absorbed by General Revenue Fund June 30,
1941.............................................. 926.07 $ 6,608.08
Urexpended Balance in Salary Account December 31, 1941.. $11,090.00 Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1941....................... 7,583.65
Unexpended Balance in Special Fund Account December 31,
1941.............................................. 7,462.19 26,135.84 $67,204.23
STATE BOARD OF CONSERVATION
January 1, 1942., through December 31, 1942
Unexpended Balance in Salary Account January 1, 1942..... $11,090.00 By Appropriation from General Revenue Fund July 1,1942Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941................. 19,280.00
Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account January 1, 1942........................... $ 7,583.65
By Appropriation from General Revenue FundJuly 1, 1942Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941................ 11,150.00
Unexpended Balance in Special Fund AccountJanuary 1,1942 $ 7,462.19 By Appropriation from General Revenue Fund July 1, 1942Chapter 20980, General Laws of 1941................. 10,100.00
18,733.65 17,562.19 $66,665.84
Field, Office, and Museum Supplies.......................
Postage, Express, Freight, Telephone, and Telegrams....... U tilities...............................................
Workmen's Compensation Insurance......................
Operation and Upkeep of Cars...........................
Mineral and Natural Resources Investigations.............
Cooperative Work with United Stares Geological SurveyGround-Water and Susface-Water Divisions..........
Unexpended Balance in Salary Account December 31, 1942.. Unexpended Balance in Necessary and Regular Expense
Account December 31, 1942........................
Unexpended Balance in Special Fund Account December 31,
1942 ... ...........................................
755.58 189.64 73.98 436.39 9,805.77