Biennial report

Material Information

Biennial report
Alternate Title:
Biennial report of the Florida Geological Survey ( 8th-14th )
Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, FL
The Survey
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
Physical Description:
11 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Miami ( local )
City of Ocala ( local )
Marion County ( local )
City of Dunnellon ( local )
Polk County ( local )
City of Jacksonville ( local )
Geological surveys ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Quarries ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
4th (1940)-14th (1959-1960).
Statement of Responsibility:
Florida State Board of Conservation, Florida Geological Survey

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
ACB5800 ( ltuf )
01956611 ( oclc )
000376187 ( alephbibnum )
sn 87028635 ( lccn )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report
Succeeded by:
Biennial report (FGS : Biennial report)


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Full Text

DECEMBER 3, 1940 "




R. L. DoWLING, SupervisorI


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A Geological Survey has a twofold purpose, to dispense edu-
cational information and to promote and encourage the economic
development of the State's mineral wealth. The successful prose-
cution of either of these duties yields data thatrare closely- con-
nected with and promote the other.

Florida has a vast wealth of non-metallic minerals. Some of
these such as phosphate and limestone have been extensively de-
veloped and constitute an important factor in the annual income
of the State. There are many others, however, that are entirely
undeveloped or only partially developed, while others are poten-
tial. The data necessary before such development can take place
cannot ordinarily be accumulated by an individual or combine
of individuals in private industry. The cost involved would far
exceed any future profit because the data must be detailed and
encompass large areas. This same valuable general information
can, however, be gathered by a State Geological Survey at an
infinitely smaller cost and leave only the prospecting of individual
mineral deposits to the private operator. At the present time
there is greater demand for the type of work that is being done
by the Geological Department than there has ever been before.
The industrial development of the South is an assured fact and
with this there is a steadily growing demand for data on the
mineral resources of the Southern States and Florida in particular.

As an educational organization the Geological Survey is as-
suming a place of real importance. Our schools are stressing the
importance of a knowledge of our natural resources and their
conservation. The citizens of Florida are becoming conscious that
we have a prized mineral wealth and are seeking information
about it. To supply these demands, the Geological Survey must
prepare an entirely different type of publication than is demanded
by the commercial developer or technical geologist. Such infor-
mation has been supplied in formal reports and through pam-
phlets prepared for the State Department of Education, newspaper
releases and information circulars. In addition many specific
questions are answered by direct correspondence.
Pure science is the tool of industrial development. A State
Geological Survey must, therefore, from time to time issue pub-
lications of an abstract nature. This is particularly true in order
to obtain a clear and comprehensive picture of the geologic his-

F6G3 G5/

tory and stratigraphy of a State. Through a detailed knowledge
of the relation and extent of various geologic formations and the
conditions under which they were deposited, it is possible to
predict the possible deposits of economic importance that may
be found in any formation. With such information available a
prospecting program for any specific mineral or type of mineral
deposit can more rapidly be completed, because only those areas
where the formation known to bear the mineral desired occurs
need be prospected, and other areas can be eliminated before field
work is begun. The area and extent of a formation cannot be
definitely known until a thorough knowledge of the fossil fauna
of the formation is obtained. The detailed study of fossil faunas
is, of course, a problem in pure science. The Florida Geological
Survey has attempted to fulfill this pure science requirement by
publishing from time to time paleontologic studies of different
Through the printed media alone, it is impossible to entirely
fulfill the demands for a knowledge of the mineral resources and
geology of the State. As a supplement exhibits of various kinds
are necessary. The ideal is to have small exhibits in all schools,
colleges and libraries of the State. This is impossible, however,
without specific funds for that purpose. In order to supply the
need for visual education the Florida Geological Survey has built
up and maintains a Museum in connection with its office. This
Museum is not as comprehensive as would be desired, but efforts
are made to keep representative displays of Florida fossils, min-
erals and mineral industries on view. Representative mineral
specimens are also supplied to schools and other organized groups
and every assistance possible is offered in helping to establish local
The members of the Geological Survey during the period
covered by this report have been:
Herman Gunter, Assistant Supervisor of Conservation Depart-
ment. State Geologist and Administrative Head of the
Geological Department.
Sidney A. Stubbs, Assistant Geologist
J. Clarence Simpson, Field and Museum Assistant
Tinnie D. Williams, Secretary
Pearl Gatlin, File Clerk and Stenographer
Mary Francis Lamb, Typist (To December 31, 1940)
Henrietta O'Quinn, Typist


From December, 1927, to December, 1939, the Survey offices
and museum were located on the ground floor of the Martin
Building. With the creation of the Florida Highway Patrol by
the 1939 Legislature and the organization of the department later
in the year, the space occupied by the Geological Survey was al-
loted to the Road Patrol. Through the generous and courteous
assistance of Dr. Edward Conradi, President of the Florida State
College for Women, the State Board of Control provided space
in the Old Lower Dining Hall of the State College. This space
was remodeled and provisions for offices, laboratory and museum
were made. The new quarters are much more commodious than
the space formerly occupied and for that reason it has been
possible to make our museum more attractive and instructive than
heretofore. It has also greatly facilitated the work of the Survey
by making it possible to have the various necessary equipment
much more accessible. For convenience in locating the office and
museum of the Survey, attractive signs and markers have been
placed at the south sidewalk entrance to Reynolds dormitory and
at other appropriate places on the College grounds. Figure 1
shows the location and how to get to the Geological Survey offices
and museum.
The space now occupied by the Geological Survey covers ap-
proximately 3,000 square feet. Of this space about 1,100 square
feet are used for offices and the library, about 600 square feet
for laboratory and specimen storage, and the remainder for
museum exhibition.


The library of the Florida Geological Survey is one of the
most complete Geological libraries in the southeast. Efforts have
been made to gather together all papers in any way relating to
the geology and paleontology of the State. At the present time
the library has a total of between 6,000 and 7,000 books and
pamphlets. These publications cover an almost complete file of
the geological reports of the United States Geological Survey, an
almost complete file of the reports of other State Geological
Surveys, reports from many foreign countries including Cuba,
Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, and some European, African, and Asiatic countries pub-
lishing papers on geology. There are also nearly complete files

n r--
Fig. 1-Showing location of Geological Survey offices at the Florida
State College for Women.


of most of the leading geological journals. In addition to the
various books and pamphlets mentioned above, the Geological
Survey has a large file of topographic, aerial, geologic and cul-
tural maps. These maps are absolutely necessary for any kind
of geologic investigation and are frequently used by the Survey,
other State Departments and individuals in the State.

In connection with various geologic investigations, the Geo-
logical Survey has acquired a large number of geological speci-
mens. These specimens include extinct vertebrate and inverte-
brate animals, mineral samples and examples of finished products
produced from Florida minerals. As the specimens are received
they are carefully catalogued and cross-indexed so that they
will be available for ready reference. Most of the material is
necessarily of value only for study purposes, but many specimens
are obtained that are worthy of display. In compliance with
the law creating the State Geological Survey, a museum has al-
ways been maintained. This museum is of inestimable value for
educational purposes. The average person can get a rapid picture
of the mineral resources and geology of the State in a short time
spent in the Geological Survey museum.
A large collection of invertebrate fossils are available for
study purposes. These collections include all classes of inverte-
brates, but the bulk of the specimens are of Foraminifera and
Mollusca. Foraminifera are generally used for the correlation of
the geologic sections represented in different wells. For that rea-
son these fossils are exceedingly important in geologic studies in
Florida. At the present time there are about 3,000 catalogued
slides, many of which represent Holotypes in the survey collec-
tion and slides are being continuously added. The slides are filed
in a specially constructed cabinet so that anyone desiring to refer
to the species represented may do so immediately.

Fossil mollusks have long served as the basis for surface cor-
relations and age determinations of the various geologic forma-
tions. By the study of the fossil shells contained in any rock it
is possible to determine its age. For that reason it has been
necessary for the Geological Survey to assemble as large a col-
lection of these as possible. Nearly every formation known to
occur in the State is represented by a typical collection of fossil
shells characteristic of the formation. In the museum an exhibit

has been prepared showing the physical features of each forma-
tion and a group of the shells used to characterize that particular
formation. In addition to this exhibit, there are several thousand
shell specimens, that can be referred to by the serious student,
filed in cabinets.
In addition to the fossil shells, there is a representative col-
lection of the living marine, fresh-water and land shells of Florida.
An outstanding collection is one of several hundred specimens
representing the known species of the famous Florida Tree Snail
(Liguus). Many of the specimens represented are today either
very rare or extinct. Representative examples are on display in
the museum while others are stored in cabinets where they may
be referred to for study purposes. The collection of living marine
shells is as yet inadequate but new specimens are being continu-
ously added. Due to limited space, it is impossible to exhibit
more than a few representative shells, but study trays are being
prepared which can be used by anyone having shells to identify.
For the geologists, these shells are very valuable in determining
the relationship of fossil shells and in determining the condi-
tions of deposition of various formations by comparison with
living conditions of present day shells. The Geological Survey
will be very pleased to receive gifts of private collections. These
collections will be catalogued with due credit to the donor and
displayed, or properly stored and taken care of.
The State of Florida is exceedingly rich in the remains of
vertebrate animals that lived in North America during and before
the Ice Age. Outstanding among these animals was the American
Mastodon (Mastodon americanus). Huge herds of these massive
beasts roamed the woodlands and bathed in the crystal rivers of
the Florida of the past. When one of these huge animals became
mired in the soft marl that is frequently found in our rivers and
springs, he was without doubt soon completely covered and today
we find nearly entire skeletons remaining. The vast number that
must have been here at one time is shown by the frequency with
which bones and partial skeletons are found by the casual observer.
The Geological Survey now has three almost complete skeletons
and various bones of many others. During the summer of 1940,
through the courtesy of the Loncola Phosphate Company, Ocala,
a very perfect head including tusks and many other bones of a
skeleton were removed from the Itchatucknee River just below
Itchatucknee Springs.

In the fall of 1930, through the courtesy and assistance of
George T. Christie of Wakulla Springs an almost complete skeleton
was removed from the north side of the spring just outside of
the big boil. Because of the method of recovery and the very
fragile state of preservation, many bones were broken and a few
of the smaller were lost during the removal operations. Those
recovered were treated and restored and the skeleton partially
mounted on the ground floor of the Martin Building where it
remained until the Geological Survey was moved to Florida State
College for Women in December, 1939. The mastodon has now
been completely restored and is on display in the museum at the
new quarters. This is the only completely mounted specimen in
any museum in the southeast.
Contemporaneously with the mastodon, a true elephant was
living in Florida. This elephant was much larger than the
mastodon or any living elephant. Many of these animals stood
15 to 16 feet tall. Complete skeletons of these elephants are rare,
but occasionally have been found. Individual odd bones are, how-
ever, of quite common occurrence. For comparison with the
mastodon a left front leg of one of these elephants has been
mounted in the museum. This leg from the top of the shoulder
blade, or scapula, to the ground measures 11 feet.
A most unique exhibit in the section of vertebrate animals is
that of the skull of a small Miocene horse. This skull was taken
at the old Thomas Farm in Gilchrist County, during the Spring
of 1940. restored, prepared for exhibit and loaned to the Florida
Geological Survey by the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Har-
vard University, through the courtesy of the Director, Dr. Thomas
During the Miocene Period (about 25 million years ago) herds
of tiny horses no larger thln a dog roamed the prairies of Florida.
These were strange little creatures, quite different from the horses
of today. In general shape they were apparently a little like a
small mule, but were different from any living member of the
horse family in that they were much smaller and had three toes.
One of the most famous of the localities at which the remains
of these little horses have been found is the old Thomas Farm
in Gilchrist County. This locality was discovered by J. C. Simpson
in 1930 and first excavated by the Florida Geological Survey during
January and February, 1932. Since then various institutions and
individuals have worked the deposits. In the spring of 1940
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, pur-

chased this site and by a generous cooperative agreement, the
Harvard Museum, The Florida Geological Survey, and the Uni-
versity of Florida are to have equal rights for excavation at
Thomas Farm.
The mineral collections displayed in the museum are largely
confined to the Florida specimens. Few people realize the variety
of minerals found in the State of Florida and an effort has been
made to show representative samples of as many of these as
possible. At the same time effort has been made to show the
commercial use of each mineral displayed.
Very recently Mr. J. Eugene Brown of Jacksonville, Florida,
has very kindly donated his collection of ore-bearing minerals to
the Geological Survey. This collection contains representative
specimens of various ores found in the United States that Mr.
Brown has personally collected in his travels. A case will be pre-
pared for this collection and it will shortly be placed on display
in the Museum.

The work of the Geological Survey is closely related to the
work of a number of other State Departments and to various
Federal Agencies. For that reason close cooperation is advan-
tageous in order to accomplish the most constructive work and
to avoid duplication of efforts. During this biennium direct co-
operation has been maintained with the United States Geological
Survey, the United States Bureau of Mines and the United
States Bureau of Census, and with the School of Geology of the
Louisiana State University. In addition cooperative assistance
has been given the National Resources Planning Board, the State
Planning Board, the Florida Forest and Park Service, the State
Board of Health, and the State Road Department.
Two cooperative projects have also been undertaken with the
Federal Work Agency-Works Project Administration. One wilh
the Book-binding branch of the Library Service Project calls for
the binding of all unbound reports now in the Survey Library.
The second project is with the University of Florida Sponsored
Federal Writer's Project. This calls for the preparation of in-
formation booklets of general interest.


Florida has been bountifully blessed by an abundant supply
of potable water. This water is by far the most important asset
of the State. Our large springs, the largest of their kind in the
world, yearly attract thousands of visitors because of their size
and exquisite beauty. Thousands of wells have been drilled to
supply the ever increasing demands for water to supply agricul-
thral, municipal, commercial and domestic needs. In many parts
of the State flowing wells are obtained at relatively shallow
depths and each year huge volumes of water are discharged
through these flowing wells. The demand for well water for citrus
and truck irrigation is steadily increasing. This results in a greatly
expanded development of the well systems and water reserves
of Florida.
This expansion has brought about certain problems that have
required detailed and serious study. As water is a mineral, the
Geological Survey has since its establishment devoted considerable
time to the study of ground-water supplies. These new problems
have, therefore, naturally fallen to the Geological Survey. During
this biennium, advice and assistance have been given to many
municipalities, commercial enterprises, well drillers and indi-
viduals. Specific mention may be made of aid in problems that
have confronted the cities of Lake City, Marianna, Pensacola,
Haines City, Sanford and Tallahassee; the Suni-Citrus Products
Company, Haines City, the Florida Fruit Canners, Incorporated,
Frostproof, the State Armory Board, Camp Blanding, the Na-
tional Park Service and various contractors developing water
supplies at the new Army and Navy bases being established in
the State.
A particularly perplexing problem has arisen in relation to
the newly established citrus pulp feed industry. These plants have
large volumes of liquid waste to dispose of. Because of trouble-
some and undesirable conditions arising from the disposal of
these wastes by surface means, drainage wells have been resorted
to. In order to protect the ground water used for domestic and
municipal supplies from pollution, the State Board of Health has
adopted stringent regulations concerning the use of drainage wells
and much time has been devoted to planning specifications for
these citrus pulp waste disposal wells.
In cooperation with the State Board of Health, the Florida
Geological Survey has been working on plans that will eventually

make it possible to eliminate the use of drainage-wells in most
instances. The drainage well problem has become acute in many
areas. There was a time when some cities .disposed of all street
waters and both treated and raw sewage through wells into the
underground water reservoir. Waters for municipal supplies were
drawn from near-by lakes. In recent years, however, it has been
found that the available supply of lake water was inadequate to
take care of the needs, and it became necessary to resort to wells
to supplement the lake waters. Long use of drainage wells la'd
so polluted much of the well waters that real difficulties arose in
obtaining suitable well water. The Geological Survey will con-
tinue to study these problems until a solution has been found.
As has been the practice of the Geological Survey for many
years, active cooperation has been carried on with the Water
Resources branch of the United States Geological Survey. In
the past, valuable information to the citizens of the state has
accrued from this relationship and every effort has been made
to expand this program. As a result of the cooperative work, a
report on Artesian Water in The Florida Peninsula by V. T.
Stringfield was issued by the United States Geological Survey in
1936 as Water-Supply Paper 773-C. Other reports on water sup-
plies in local areas have been released by the State Geological
Survey from time to time.
At present a report is in preparation on the artesian water
supplies of West Florida. This will be a companion volume to
the one on Peninsular Florida. The data for this report were col-
lected over a period of years, and the information contained will
be of great value to water supply developers in that area.
Work is also progressing toward a detailed report on the
subsurface geology and underground water supply of Nassau,
Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties in northeast Florida. The
paper plants at Fernandina and Jacksonville, the city of Jack-
sonville, and the various Military and Naval reservations in these
counties use large quantities of water. It is therefore desirable
that detailed information be available should any water supply
problem arise. Where such large quantities of water are being
used, there is always some danger that water supply difficulties
may develop.
A large part.of the field work in this area has already been
completed, particularly in the areas subjected to the heaviest
draft. Plans now include extending the work into all parts of the

counties in order to acquire the greater details necessary for
satisfactory interpretations. When all the work has been com-
pleted, a report will be issued.
Because of the spectre of a grave municipal water-supply
shortage, the cities of Miami, Miami Beach, Coral Gables and
Dade County initiated an extensive and detailed cooperative study
of the available surface and well supplies in that territory late
in 1939 with the U. S. Geological Survey. The water study is
a part of the more comprehensive joint investigation sponsored
by the National Resources Planning Board. The information in
the file of the Florida Survey has been made available and con-
ferences have been held with the workers from time to time that
have proved very beneficial to both organizations. A memorandum
setting forth the conclusions based on results obtained during
1940 is on file in the office of the Florida Geological Survey and
available to all interested persons.
Late in 1939 a proposal was made to establish a paper pulp
mill at Pensacola, Florida. Navy and City officials were apprehen-
sive of the possible effect of this mill upon the water supply of
Pensacola, and called on the Florida Geological Survey for in-
formation. Because of the scope of the undertaking a three-way
cooperative agreement was worked out with the United States
Geological Survey, the Florida Geological Survey and the City
of Pensacola. In this way it was possible to carry out a detailed
study of the water supply of Pensacola and Escambia County.
Several months were spent in that area by members of the State
and Federal Survey. A preliminary report was issued in June,
1940, and as a result the mill has been located and is now under
construction at a site agreeable to all parties concerned. A copy
of this report may be consulted by interested parties in the office
of the Florida Geological Survey at Tallahassee, and it is antici-
pated that in time a detailed printed report on both the sub-sur-
face geology and hydrology of West Florida from the Yellow
River westward will be available.
Because of insufficient funds it has been impossible for the
Florida Geological Survey to cooperate as actively in surface
water studies as would be desired. The field work in these studies
is carried out by the Surface Water Branch of the Ground Water
Division of the United States Geological Survey. The work is
made possible by an equal matching of funds with the Federal
Government and the data made available are of considerable
economic importance. Some of the uses of such data may be

mentioned. The water powers of Florida have not been adequately
developed. Stream-flow data are essential to such developments.
With sufficient information about the surface waters it is possible
to plan drainage and irrigation programs intelligently. Without
such data drainage plans that may prove destructive may be
undertaken and drainage programs that would be very beneficial
may never be initiated.

Efforts have been continued toward constructive water con-
servation legislation. This effort has been toward true conserva-
tion, which means intelligent development and in no way is aimed
at curtailing the use of water by any individual or group of in-
dividuals who use such water judiciously and without waste. It
has already been stated that water is our most important natural
resource and it behooves us to protect this valuable asset and
thereby assure an adequate supply both for ourselves and for
posterity. Already we have seen certain areas of the State facing
grave water-supply problems because of unwise development which
has brought about pollution by underlying salt water and a
serious lowering of head. In order to guard against further de-
velopment of.such problems the Geological Survey will continue
to strive for constructive legislation aimed at protecting our
water supplies.

During recent years there has been a continuously increasing
interest in the possibilities of petroleum production in Florida.
The fact that production is now a fact in Mississippi lends much
encouragement to those interested in Florida.
Various individuals and large oil companies have been doing
prospecting in the State. Geophysical work has been done in much
of west Florida and some has been carried on in the Peninsula,
particularly the central and southern portions.
In addition to the geophysical work carried on by private
interests, the United States Geological Survey has completed sev-
eral east-west and north-south pendulum traverses in the State.
This work was part of a program covering a large part of the
Eastern Seaboard, and much pertinent data have resulted. This
information has been published from time to time in the Trans-
actions of the American Geophysical Union. Prior to this, various

geophysical readings had been taken by the United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey and published by that organization.
A magnetometer survey was made of certain State-owned lands
in 1935 through the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund.
The largest of these tracts are in the southern part of the State,
but there are some in other portions. The report by L. Spraragen
covering the results of this work has never been published, but
anyone interested may examine it, in the offices of the Engineer
and Secretary of the Trustees of the Internal Improvement Fund,
State Capitol Building, Tallahassee.
Leasing has been active in many parts of the State. It is
reported that the Humble Oil and Refining Company now has
large acreages in both west Florida and the southern part of
Peninsular Florida. The Gulf Oil Company and the Sun Oil
Company are said to have holdings in west Florida. The Sinclair
Oil Company has been active in the Peninsula, but no holdings in
their name have been reported, and the Shell Oil Corporation is
also reported to have done some work in west Florida.
During the time covered by this report the Peninsular Oil
and Refining Company completed its deep test for oil in Collier
County at a depth of 10,006 feet. A set of cuttings and cores
from this well was deposited with the Geological Survey by
Robert B. Campbell, President. The St. Marys River Oil Cor-
poration test in Nassau County was completed early in 1940 at
a depth of 4,818 feet and samples from this were presented the
Survey by J. Eugene Brown, President. This well was particu-
larly interesting in that it penetrated a considerable thickness
of black shale of a character not heretofore suspected to underlie
Florida. Samples from the Florida Oil Discovery Company well
in Levy County have been supplied to the Survey by Edward
A. Hill, Consulting Geologist, to their present depth of 5,266 feet.
At the present time there is only one well active in Florida.
This is an off-set well be:ng drilled by William G. Blanchard and
Associates in Dade County, near the Tamiami Trail about 43 miles
west of Miami. The first well was drilled to a depth of 1,270 feet
and a gas flow was reported. On September 11, 1940, shortly
after this gas was reported, the State Geologist and Assistant
Geologist visited the well and obtained samples of the gas. Four
of the eight bottles of gas collected were submitted to the United
States Bureau of Mines, Central Experiment Station at Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, for analysis. The following is a report submitted
by Dr. R. R. Sayers, Director, United States Bureau of Mines,

Washington, October 22, 1940. Analyses by G. W. Jones, Chemist,
Explosives Division.

BOTTLE NO. 1 2 5 8 Average

Carbon dioxide ............. 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3
Illuminants ................ .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Oxygen.................... 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.6
Hydrogen.................. .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Carbon monoxide........... .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Methane................. 53.2 53.3 53.4 53.5 53.4
Ethane.................... .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Hydrogen sulphide .......... .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Gasoline vapor............. .0 .0 .0 .0 .0
Nitrogen.................. 43.0 43.0 42.7 42.5 42.7

Carbon dioxide ............. 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.4
Methane.................. 63.5 63.6 64.9 65.0 64.2
Nitrogen................... 36.0 36.0 34.9 34.6 35.4

The above analyses indicate the nature of the gas and are
largely self explanatory, however, certain observations might be
made. Its principal constituents are methane and nitrogen, petro-
leum hydrocarbons other than methane being absent. The gas is
essentially a marsh gas type. It differs, however, from a typical
marsh gas in the low carbon dioxide content. An explanation of
this might be the fact that the gas is in contact with and passes
through large volumes of water. Carbon dioxide is soluble in
water and a large part of it would be removed in this way.
The Geological Department has a vast amount of information
in the form of well logs, records and well samples that are of
much value and use to those interested in oil prospecting in
Florida. This information has been kept available for examination
and study by interested parties. Many individuals and oil com-
panies have availed themselves of this information and it has
been of great help in directing their activities. Invaluable aid has
been given by the water well drillers of the State in saving well
cuttings and we gratefully acknowledge this assistance.
The Survey will appreciate the cooperation of everyone having
wells drilled in saving samples of the cuttings, at not greater than
10-foot intervals and sending these to the Geological Survey, Tal-
lahassee, for study and report. By so doing a permanent record

of the well is made which is available for future reference. Special
bags for the saving of samples and information about water sup-
plies and well location will be supplied to interested parties upon


The last report on the structure and stratigraphy of Florida
was contained in the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Florida
Geological Survey in 1926. Since that time, a vast amount of
additional data have been gathered and many additional deep
wells have been drilled. Much progress has also been made toward
zoning the deeply buried formations of the State. These advances
have brought about a real need for a revised publication on the
subsurface geology and structure of Florida. Work is now in
progress on such a revision. The amount of detailed study neces-
sary means that progress is slow, but it is hoped that this paper
will be completed some time within the year.

The late Tertiary formations of Florida have long attracted
the paleontologist. The Pliocene and Pleistocene beds along the
St. Johns River are of particular interest because an understand-
ing of their true relationship may throw light on some local
structural features. Large collections have been made from the
various exposures, and this material has been prepared for study.
As time permits these faunal assemblages will be studied and a
report on the various formations made.


The county geologic reports initiated by the work in Holmes
and Washington Counties will be continued. County reports of
this nature are of real value to the mineral developers and it is
hoped that the whole State may eventually be covered by such

Gypsite deposits are known in the vicinity of Panasoffkee and
Inverness in Peninisular Florida. The quality and extent of the
deposits are not well known, however. There is an ever growing
demand for gypsum in construction work and also in the manu-
facturing of cement and these deposits can without doubt be
developed if their extent and quality can be proved of commercial
value. Plans are being made to attempt to work out a WPA
project to adequately prospect this gypsite.

Many years have elapsed since the limestones and marls of
Florida were published on. During this interim many new locali-
ties have been found and numerous new uses have been discovered.
Outstanding among these is the greatly increased use of limestone
in the construction of dwellings both in the form of cut stone
and as aggregate in concrete blocks and poured walls. This has
given rise to a demand for information on local supplies from
a standpoint of quality and quantity. Should facilities be made
available, a study of the limestones of the State will be undertaken
with a view of collecting specific data as to quality, quantity and
potential uses.
Paleontologic studies of the various formations of the State
will be continued. A detailed paleontologic study of the Ocala
Limestone has never been made. With the present refinements in
geologic knowledge the necessity for such work is apparent. It is
planned that work will be begun toward a thorough study of the
fauna and possible zones of the Eocene Ocala Limestone.


The present quarters of the Geological Survey are larger than
any heretofore occupied, but there is still a need for more space.
Under the present conditions it is impossible to properly store
for reference and study purposes, all the mineral specimens and
samples received. This material is of extreme importance to the
everyday work of the Department and should be immediately ac-
cessible in order to make for the most efficient operation of the
Our laboratory space is extremely small. This necessarily
means facilities for physical tests of various minerals are in-
adequate. Laboratory space is needed to allow for complete
physical tests of our limestones, sands, gravels and other minerals.
It has been impossible to operate the clay laboratory of the
Geological Survey for a number of years because of lack of funds
for personnel and maintenance. Clay is one of the most outstand-
ing of the potential mineral industries of Florida. At present
there are only a fraction of the clay industries in the State that
could be developed if extensive research on our clay deposits
could be carried out.
The Geological museum is a definite asset to the people of
Florida. It not only serves as an educational medium but is also

a source of recreation to many. The larger and more complete
museums yearly attract thousands of people. With slightly larger
space and more funds, it would be possible to build up a museum
of Florida Geology and Paleontology that would become an at-
traction to visitors from all parts of the nation.

The appropriation requested by the Geological Survey for the
Biennium July 1, 1941, to July 1, 1943, is essentially the same as
that requested by this department and passed by the Legislature
of 1939. All special expense items were, however, vetoed by the
Governor and a large part of the funds approved were never made

The following appropriation has been requested:

July 1, 1941, to July 1, 1942, to
June 30, 1942: June 30, 1943:

Salaries.............. $19,280.00 Salaries............. $19,280.00
Necessary and Regu- Necessary and Regu-
lar Expenses........ 11,150.00 lar Expenses........ 11,150.00
Special............... 17,100.00 Special............. 10,000.00

TOTAL............... .. $47,530.00 TOTAL ........... $40,530.00

This appropriation although modest if approved will allow
for much more efficient operation of the Geological Survey. During
the preceding biennium the membership of the Geological Depart-
ment has been entirely inadequate. Funds were made available
for an office force large enough to handle office details, but there
has been a real need for more technical personnel. For this reason
it has been impossible to carry out field work of the scope desired
and essential. Funds for three new positions are being asked.
Before being moved to the State College for Women the Geological
Survey did not require the service of a janitor, this service being
furnished by the Custodian of the Martin Building. Since the
move, however, it has been necessary to employ a janitor and an
amount is being asked for to take care of this expense. During
this biennium an extra stenographer was added to the staff to
enable the Survey to meet the increased demands for specific in-
formation that cannot be dispensed through the usual publica-

tions. It is felt that the amount of work facilitated by this stenog-
rapher justifies that addition as a permanent position. A request
is being made for an engineer draftsman. There has long been a
need for a draftsman on the Survey staff. During the course
of a year many charts, maps and drawings are prepared in con-
nection with the various geologic investigations. Under the present
condition this retards to a large extent the accomplishment of
the Geologic workers who have endeavored to do this work. With
the addition of a draftsman the amount of work completed would,
therefore, be much greater than at present.

Because of a lack of available funds the technical staff of the
Geological Survey has been inadequate for several years. Monies
were appropriated by the 1939 Legislature for a sufficient number
of geologists to supply the demands made upon the Geological
Survey. Only a portion of this money was available for use.
The current request is the same as that made in 1939 and if
it is approved, the work done by the Geological Survey will be
greatly increased.

The Special Expense item requested includes a sum for co-
operative work with various Federal Agencies. This cooperation
has been carried on for many years in a limited way and great
benefits to the State have accrued. The United States Geological
Survey through its various divisions will match any money put
up by the State for geologic investigations of various kinds.
Because of the greatly increased working facilities available
through such an agreement, it is possible to accomplish much
more than could be done by the State Survey alone with an
equal fund.

The continued development of the mineral industries of
Florida depends upon the acquisition of detailed data about the
extent and nature of our mineral reserve. It is known that Florida
contains many undeveloped or partially developed mineral de-
posits. Among these may be mentioned gypsite, peat, diatomaceous
earth, dolomite, clays, earth colors, and deposits of ilmenite and
other heavy minerals in the beach sands. To determine the po-
tential commercial worth of these materials it will be necessary
to carry out an extensive system of test borings throughout the
State. Funds are, therefore, being requested in order to purchase
a core drilling machine and provide for its operations. It is felt
that the returns to the State in increased mineral development
will many times exceed the cost of operation.

An important function of a State Geological Department is
to compile and publish pertinent geological data so that it will
be readily accessible to those interested in the geology and mineral
possibilities of the State. Throughout the years of its existence
the Florida Geological Survey has regularly issued detailed re-
ports on the geology of the State. These publications cover all
the many diversified fields of geology helpful in understanding
the geological history and mineral resources of Florida.
During this biennium two bulletins (No. 17 and No. 18) have
been published and five manuscripts have been completed. These
manuscripts are now being edited and will be published as bul-
letins in the near future.
Bulletin 17, Scenery of Florida, Interpreted by a Geologist,
by C. Wythe Cooke, 1939, 118., 58 figs.
This bulletin is primarily designed for the layman, but it ad-
heres strictly to scientific accuracy. It is, therefore, equally valu-
able to the professional geologist. There has long been a need for
such a publication in order to better acquaint the people of
Florida with the reasons for the various physical features of the
State. It is felt that this bulletin fills that need.
Bulletin 18, Notes on the Upper Tertiary and Pleistocene
Mollusks of Peninsular Florida, by W. C. Mansfield, 1939, 75 pp.,
4 pls., 2 figs., 5 tables.
This bulletin discusses many heretofore unrecorded exposures
of late Tertiary deposits and proposes two new names for Florida
formations. There is considerable uncertainty as to the exact re-
lationships of many of our late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene
deposits. It is important that these relationships be established so
that more accurate structural or paleogeographic maps can be
drawn. Dr. Mansfield spent many years studying these deposits in
Flor:da and his various papers on the paleontology of the State
have been of great aid to the various stratigraphic workers. This
bulletin published posthumously has added greatly to the paleon-
tologic knowledge ol' the Peninsula.
In addition to the regular publications of the Geological Sur-
vey the following papers have been prepared by members of the
staff and published in other scientific journals.
The Future of Florida Archeological Research, by Sidney A.
Stubbs; Florida Academy of Sciences, Proc., Vol. 4, pp. 266-270,

This is a short paper prepared to point out the wealth of
archeological material to be found in Florida and how it is being
destroyed. Conservation measures are suggested.
Studies of Foraminifera From Seven Stations in the Vicinity
of Biscayne Bay, by Sidney A. Stubbs; Florida Academy of
Sciences, Proc., Vol. 4, pp. 225-230, 1939.
A list of recent Foraminifera with remarks on the relation of
such studies to geologic investigations.
Pliocene Mollusks From a Well at Sanford, Florida, by Sidney
A. Stubbs; Journal ,of Paleontology, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 510-514,
Lists 87 species of Pliocene mollusks from Seminole County.
The relation of these to the Recent fauna is briefly discussed and
the nature of species persisting into the Recent mentioned.
Solution A Dominant Factor in the Geomorphology of Penin-
sular Florida. by Sidney A. Stubbs; Florida Academy of Sciences,
Proc., Vol. 5, 1940.
Describes the physiography of the region, the development of
the lakes through the central part of the Peninsula and the role
that solution has played in their origin.
Source Materials for Florida Aboriginal Artifacts, by J. Clar-
ence Simpson, Florida Academy of Sciences, Proc., Vol. 5, 1940.
Describes some of the artifacts found in Florida, their method
of making and finishing. Also gives the location of some of the
aboriginal quarries in the State and the character of stone found.

Manuscripts Ready For Publication. The manuscripts now
prepared and being edited cover a variety of subjects. The in-
terest in possible oil production in Florida has created a growing
demand for detailed paleontologic information concerning the
subsurface formations of Florida. Through the courtesy of Mr.
Robert B. Campbell, President, Peninsular Oil and Refining
Corinarniy, Tampa, a complete set of cuttings and cores from the
]I..Oa.iI-n,,t test for oil drilled by that company near Pinecrest in
3','. ..>.- County was deposited with the Florida Geological Survey.
These samples have been studied by 'Dr. W. Storrs Cole of Ohio
State University and his manuscript is now ready for the printers.
This pai-a.-- will be issued as Bulletin No. 19.

It has been possible to complete the studies of the white-firing
delays of Florida begun by the Florida Survey in 1929. Frank
W-.,-:i-ii.:. Assistant Geologist, completed most of the field work

and laboratory tests prior to the closing of the clay laboratory in
1934. In April 1939 through the aid of a cooperative agreement
entered into with the United States Bureau of Mines, Mr. Westen-
dick was given two three-month temporary appointments with the
Bureau. During this time he was to assemble and compile for
publication all data he had acquired during his period of work
on the kaolin between 1929 and 1934. It was found that this
period was insufficient to complete the manuscript and when his
appointment with the Bureau of Mines expired the Florida Geo-
logical Survey assumed his salary for another three months. The
manuscript has now been completed and is being edited by Rich-
ard W. Smith, Mineral Economist, United States Bureau of Mines,
Southern Experiment Station, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. It will be
issued as Bulletin No. 20 of the Florida Geological Survey, and
the wealth of information contained in the report should greatly
stimulate interest in Florida kaolin. The report is replete with
detailed data that should be of much help to operators and pros-
pective developers.

A report on the Geology of Holmes and Washington Counties,
Florida, has been completed by Robert 0. Vernon. This work
was made possible by a cooperative agreement with the School of
Geology of Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. The report
contains detailed geologic maps of these two counties and suggests
various economic possibilities for the various formations. Pains
have been taken to establish the relation between the various ex-
posures and the report promises to be a valuable contribution to
the geology of the State. This will be issued as Bulletin No. 21.
Two manuscripts are in hand relating to the vertebrate paleon-
tology of Florida. These are contributions to the Florida Survey,
one by G. Miles Conrad of the American Museum of Natural
History, New York, entitled; "A Fossil Squirrel-Fish from the
Upper Eocene of Florida", describes a new fossil fish from the
Ocala limestone at Florida Caverns State Park, two miles north
of Marianna, Jackson County, and the other is by Joseph T.
Gregory, Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas,
Austin, on "The Rostrum of Felsinolherium ossivalcnse". This
paper redescribes and carefully figures an extinct dugong found
in the Bone Valley Pliocene of Florida. It is planned that these
papers will form Bulletin No. 22.
There is an increasing demand for literature of a non-scien-
tific nature describing the mineral resources and geologic history

of Florida. Through the aid of the Work Projects Administration
Writers' Project of Florida such reports are now in progress.
These will be issued in the form of illustrated booklets and as
leaflets and will cover a number of subjects. Three papers have
already been prepared, as follows: "Prehistoric Animals of Flor-
ida"', "Minerals of Florida" and "Diatomite Industry of Florida ".
It is planned to have separate papers written dealing with the
history and development of our various mineral industries and
other allied subjects. These pamphlets should be of interest not
only to the citizens of the State but to the teachers in our schools
and to those desiring a rapid review of the geology of Florida
without having to delve through technical papers.
In addition to the regular publications of the Geological De-
partment, newspaper items are released from time to time in order
to acquaint the people of the State with the type of work being
done by members of the Geological Department. These items are
of service in making known to the citizens the type of service that
is available to them by the Geological Department.

The following is a complete list of publications issued by the
Florida Geological Survey since its creation in 1907. Those pre-
ceded by an asterisk are now out of print and not available for
distribution. Copies have, however, been deposited in all the lead-
ing libraries of the State and these may be referred to there. In
the case of Annual Reports published prior to the combining of
the Geological Survey with the Conservation Department, separate
papers are sometimes available, when the complete report is out
of print. These separates are preceded by a dagger sign.
Annual Reports
*First Annual Report, 1908, 114 pp., 6 pls.
This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a
chapter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay,
brickmaking clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making
materials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a
review of the more important papers published previous to the or-
ganization of the present Geological Survey.

*Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures,
one map.
This report contains: (1) a preliminary report on the geology of
Florida, with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic

and geologic map of Florida, prepared in cooperation with the United
States Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth
deposits of Gadsden County, with notes on similar deposits found else-
where in the State.

*Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 30 text figures.
This report contains: (1) a preliminary paper on the Florida phos-
phate deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian
water supply of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida
peat deposits.

Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pis., 15 text figures,
one map.
This report contains: (1) the soils and other surface residual ma-
terials of Florida, their origin, character and the formation from which
derived; (2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the
production of phosphate rock in Florida during 1910 and 1911.
*Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures,
two maps.
This report contains: (1) origin of the hard rock phosphate deposits
of Florida: (2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply
of eastern and southern Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida
during 1912; (5) statistics on public roads in Florida.
*Sixth Annual Report, 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries and resources of
Florida: (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the
Dunnellon Formation and the Alachua Clays; (4) geography and vege-
tation of northern Florida.
*Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.
This report contains: (1) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural
resources of an area in Central Florida; (3) t soil survey of Bradford
County; (5 ozs.) (4) t soil survey of Pinellas County. (5 ozs.)
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pis., 14 text figures.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) t human remains
and associated fossils from the Pleistocene of Florida. (6 ozs.)
*Ninth Annual Report, 1917, 151 pls., 13 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) t additional studies
in the Pleistocene at Vero, Florida; (6 ozs.) (3) t geology between the
Ocklocknee and Aucilla rivers in Florida. (6 ozs.)
*Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 p1s.,
9 figures, two maps.
This report contains: (1) geology between the Apalachicola and
Ocklocknee rivers; (2) the skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description

of a new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3)
geology between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola rivers; (4)
mineral statistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.

*Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.
This report contains: (1) literature relating to human remains and
artifacts at Vero, Florida; (2) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations
in Florida; (4) geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; (5)
the age of the underlying rocks ,of Florida as shown by the foraminifera
of well borings; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special ref-
erence to structural conditions.

*Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921, 307 pp., 3 plls., 43 figs.
This report contains: (1) oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics
of mineral production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from the deep wells of
Florida; (4) geography of central Florida.

*Fourteenth Annual Report, 1922, 135 pp.. 10 figs., one map.
This report contains: (1) statistics on mineral production. 1919 and
1920; (2) on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic

*Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 266 pp., 2 pls., 55 figs.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1921 and 1922; (2) t a contribution to the late
Tertiary and Quarternary paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3 ozs.)
(3) t a preliminary report on the clays of Florida. (1 lb.)

*Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figs., two mnaps.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production. 1923; (2) f a preliminary report on the limestones
and marls of Florida. (1 lb.)

*Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figs., two maps.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production. 1924; (2) history of soil investigation in Florida
and description of new soil map; (3) t generalized soil map of Florida
in colors; (2 ozs.) (4) Elevations in Florida. (5) 1 Review of the
structure and Stratigraphy of Florida. ( 6 ozs.)

*Eighteenth Annual Report, 1927, 206 pp., 58 figs.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1925; (2) t natural resources of southern Florida.
(1 lb.)

Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp., 5 pls., 36 figs., 9 tables.
This report contains: (1) administrative report and statistics on
mineral production. 1926; (3ozs.) (2) sand and gravel deposits of

Florida (8 ozs.) (3) t beach deposits of ilmenite. zircon, and rutile in
Florida; (4 ozs.) (4) f new species of Operculina and Discocyclina from
the Ocala limestone; (3 ozs.) (5) t new species of Coskinolina and
Dictyoconus? from Florida. (3 ozs.)

*Twentieth Annual Report, 1929, 294 pp., 40 pls., 4 figs., 1 map.
This report contains: (1) t administrative report and statistics of
mineral production in Florida during 1927; (3 ozs.) (2) geology of
Florida with geologic map; (3) extinct land mammals of Florida.

Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1931, 129
pp., 39 figs. (1 lb.)
This report contains: (1) t administrative report and statistics of
mineral production, 1928-1929; (5 ozs.) (2) 1 need for conservation and
protection of our water supply; (3 ozs.) (3) t the possibility of petroleum
in Florida; (3 ozs.) (4) t beaches of Florida; (6 ozs.) (5) t a fossil palm
nut of Attalea from the upper eocene of Florida; (2 ozs.)

Twenty-Third and Twenty-Fourth Annual Report, 1933, 227
pp., 11 pls., 23 figs., 3 tables. (2 lbs.)
This report contains: (1) t administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1930-1931; (4 ozs.) (2) 1 northern disjuncts in
northern Florida and cypress domes; (2 ozs.) (3) notes on the geology
and the occurence of some diatomaceus earth deposits of Florida and
diatoms of the Florida peat deposits: (4) Ground-water resources of
Sarasota County, Florida and exploration of artesian wells in Sarasota
County, Florida.

*Bulletin No. 1. The underground water supply of central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 pls., 6 text figures.
This bulletin contains: (1) underground water. general discussion;
(2) tly underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells.
spring and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution.
cavities, sinkholes. disappearing streams and solution basins; (4)
drainage of lakes, ponds and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by
bored wells; (5) water analyses and tables giving general water re-
sources, public water supplies, spring and well records.

#Bulletin No. 2. Roads and road materials of Florida, 1911,
31 pp., 4 pis.
This bulletin contains: (1) an account of the road building ma-
terials of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of im-
proved roads built by the counties of the state to the close of 1910.

*Bulletin No. 3. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the
Choctawhatchee formation of Florida, 1930, 189 pp., 21 pls.

*Bulletin No. 4. The foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee forma-
tion of Florida, 1930, 93 pp., 12 pis.
*Bulletin No. 5. (1) A fossil teleost fish of the snapper family
(Lutianidae) from the Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2) the
foraminifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida, 1930, 67 pp.,
11 pls. 2 figs.
*Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene foraminifera of
Florida, 1931, 79 pp., 7 pls., 3 figs., 2 tables.
*Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola terrace and associated beaches
and bars of Florida, 1931, 44 pp., 8 figs., 1 map.
*Bulletin No. 8. Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee
formation of Florida, 1932, 240 pp., 34 pls., 3 figs.
*Bulletin No. 9. The foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and
part of the Lower Miocene of Florida, 1932, 147 pp., 17 pls., 2
tables, 1 map.
*Bulletin No. 10 (1) Miocene land mammals from Florida; (2)
New heteromyid rodents from the Miocene of Florida; (3)
Aphelops from the Hawthorn formation of Florida, 1932, 58 pp.,
30 figs.
*Bulletin No. 11. Ground Water Investigations in Florida,
1933, 33 pp.
*Bulletin No. 12. New Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods
from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida, 1935, 50 pp., 5 pls.
Bulletin No. 13. Ostracods of the Area Zone of the Choctaw-
hatchee Miocene of Florida, 1935, 47 pp., 4 pls. (5 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 14. Additions to the Molluscan Fauna of the
Alum Bluff Group of Florida, 1936, 82 pp., 10 pls. (8 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 15. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwannee lime-
stones of Florida, 1937, 334 pp., 21 pls. (22 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 16. Stratigraphy and micropaleontology of two
deep wells in Florida, 1938, 76 pp., 12 pls. (5 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 17. Scenery of Florida interpreted by a Geologist,
1939, 120 pp., 58 figs. (12 ozs.)
Bulletin No. 18. Notes on the Upper Tertiary and Pleistocene
mollusks of peninsular Florida, 1939, 76 pp., 4 pls., 2 figs., 5 tables.
(5 ozs.)

Press Bulletins
*Press Bulletin No. 1. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida,
February 6, 1913.

*Press Bulletin No. z. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida
during 1912, March 12, 1913.
Press Bulletin No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the
State Geologist at the Atlanta Meeting of the American Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Science, December 31, 1913. (1 oz.)
Press Bulletin No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January
15, 1914. (2 ozs.)
*Press Bulletin No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in
Florida during 1913, May 20, 1914.
Press Bulletin No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal
Remains Found Embedded in the Earth, January 1915. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick,
April, 1915. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2,
1918. (2 ozs.)
*Press Bulletin No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10,
Press Bulletin No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during
1918, June 5, 1919. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 11. Statistics on Mineral Production in
Florida during 1918, October 6, 1919. (2 ozs.)
Press Bulletin No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during
1920, May 9, 1921. (2 ozs.)
*Press Bulletin No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida,
April 4, 1931.

Report of Investigations
Report of Investigations No. 1. Mimeographed report on
Ground Water in Seminole County, Florida, 1934, 14 pp. (4 ozs.)
Report of Investigations No. 2. Mimeographed report on
Ground Water in the Lake Okeechobee Area. Florida, 1933, 31
pp. (8 ozs.)


Cole, W. Storrs and Ponton, G. M. New Species of Fabularia,
Asterocyclina. and Lepidocyclina from the Florida Eocene. American
Midland Naturalist. Vol. XV. No. 2. pp 138-147, 1934. (10 cents).

Gunter. Herman. Florida's Disappearing Lakes, The Florida Con-
servator, December 1934.

Stubbs, Sidney A. A Study of the Artesian Water Supply of Seminole
County. Florida, Florida. Academy of Science, Proc.. Vol. 11, pp 24-36,
1937. (10 cents).

Stubbs. Sidney A. Studies of Foraminifera from Seven Stations in
the Vicinity of Biscayne Bay, Florida Academy of Science, Proc., Vol. 4.
pp 225-230, 1939. (10 cents).

Stubbs. Sidney A. The Future of Florida Archeological Research.
Florida Academy of Science. Proc.. Vol. 4. pp 266-270, 1939. (10 cents).

Stubbs. Sidney A. Pliocene Mollusks From a Well at Sanford Florida.
Journal of Paleontology. VI. 14, N. 5. September 1940. pp 510-514, 1940.
(10 cents).


Fowler. Earl D., and others. Soil Survey of Polk County. Flcrida.
United States Department of Agriculture. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.
1927. (10 ozs.)
Taylor, Author E., and others. Soil Survey of Lake County. Florida.
United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils.
1928. (6 ozs.)
Gardner, Julia, The Molluscan Fauna of the Alum Bluff Group of
Florida. U. S. G. S. Prof. Paper 142-E, 1928. (8 ozs.)
Cole. W Storrs, Oligocene Orbitoids from near Duncan Church, Wash-
ington County, Florida Journal of Paleontology. Vol. 8. No. 1. pp 21-28.
March, 1934. (15 cents).
Martens, James H. C.. Beach Sands between Charleston, South Caro-
lina and Miami, Florida. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America,
Vol. 46, pp 1563-1596, 1935. (10 cents).
Mansfield. G. R.. Geological Surveys in Florida, State and Federal,
Florida Conservator, March, 1935.

Stringfield, V. T. The Piezometric Surface of Artesian Water in the
Florida Peninsula. American Geophysical Union, Trans., Sixteenth An-
nual Meeting; 1935. (5 cents).
Black, A. P. and others. Fluorine in Florida Waters, Florida Section
of the American Water Works Assoc., Ninth Ann. Convention, Proc.,
1935. (5 cents).
Mendenhall. Herbert Drummond, What the Phosphate Industry Means
to the Florida Engineers. Read at Spring Meeting of the American
Society of Civil Engineers, Jacksonville, Florida. April, 1938. (10 cents).
Richards, Horace G., Marine Pleistocene of Florida, Bulletin of the
Geolog. Soc. of America, Vol. 49, pp 1267-1296, 1938. (10 cents).
Campbell, Robert B.. Outline of the Geological History of Peninsular
Florida, Florida Academy of Science, Proc., Vol. 4, 1939. (10 cents).

The Second and Third Biennial Reports of the Geological Sur-
vey each contained a section of Archeology. This was a result of
the action taken by Governor David Sholtz on December 11, 1935,
when he suspended the State Archeologist on charges of mis-
feasance, malfeasance, and incompetency and neglect of duty
in office, and at the same time directing that the duties of the
State Archeological Survey be assumed by the State Board of
Conservation. This suspension was subject to Senate confirmation
at the 1937 session of the Legislature. On May 7, 1937, on the
recommendation of the committee appointed to study the case,
the Senate refused to confirm this suspension and Vernon Lamme
was automatically reinstated as State Archeologist. He officially
resigned on July 9, 1937, and the office was vacant until May 7,
1940, when he was again appointed State Archeologist by Governor
Fred P. Cone.
From December 11, 1935, until all work was completed in
September of 1937, the Archeological projects undertaken by the
Archeological Survey were sponsored and continued by the Geo-
logical Survey as a division of the Conservation Department. This
work was not new to the Geological Department because for years
prior to the passage of the bill creating an Archeological Survey,
the Geological Survey had taken an interest in such work and
offered facilities for storage of such artifacts as might be recovered
by various workers.
The State Archeological Survey, as created by the 1935 Legis-
lature, (Chapter 16,782, Act of 1935), has no provisions for salaries
or expenses. The position of State Archeologist becomes an hon-
orary position, therefore, and the intents and purposes of a State
Archeological Survey are lost. The State of Florida is rich in
Archeological sites and these should be carefully protected until
such a time as they may be examined by a reputable student of
the Florida Indian. Florida of all the States, should guard these
sites most zealously. They have an untold dollar value through
their fascination for the thousands of tourists who yearly visit
At the present time, there is a definite move to establish a
museum of the Florida Indian. This museum would be designed
to serve as a research center for study of Florida Indian lore and
as a display center where those only casually interested in the
Indian artifacts of Florida might go to obtain a rapid view of
the early history of Florida's aborigines. This museum would also

serve as a permanent storage space for State owned Archeological
A State Archeological Survey could be of great value in con-
nection with such a museum but as previously stated our present
Archeological Survey is entirely ineffective and exists in name
only. To make the present Survey effective would require an ap-
propriation not only for salaries but for supplies and equipment.
In the face of the demand for economy in State Government, an
appropriation of that magnitude does not seem justified when we
consider that the Archeological Survey could effectively operate
under departments already in existence and largely through funds
already appropriated.

Statistics collected in cooperation with the United States
Bureau of Mines and the United States Bureau of the Census.
The mineral industries of Florida represent the third largest
industry in the State, being surpassed by only the Agricultural
industry and the Recreational industry. During 1938 the total
value of minerals produced was $12,862,723, and in 1939 it was
$12,217,795. The 1939 figures show a slight decrease from the
1938 total. This is largely due to a sudden drop in phosphate
production on account of a decline of exports. The European war
stopped exports to Germany which has long utilized a large part
of the Florida phosphates, especially the hard rock. The domestic
trade is now, however, beginning to absorb a large part of the
production that was formerly exported.
The mineral production of the State has been fairly stable. At
present the general business trends are on an upward swing and
this is reflected in our mineral output. This is particularly true
in the production of building materials made of or derived from
limestone. The increased demand for limestone in the various
military bases of the State created the largest demand for crushed
limestone in the history of the industry. This stone was largely
used in road construction, but large quantities were used as con-
crete aggregate.
Through a cooperative agreement with the United States
Bureau of Mines and the United States Bureau of the Census,
statistics on production have been collected for the various mineral
industries. These figures are available only through 1939. In the
following discussions of the individual minerals the various pro-
ducing companies are listed. There are, of course, some companies
not listed because they have not shown returns. Had all mineral

producing companies in the State listed returns, the total mineral
production for these years would have been slightly higher.
Florida leads the world in the production of phosphate, ex-
ceeding that of any other State. Florida in 1939 produced a total
of 2,678,784 long tons of phosphates, including all kinds. Tunisia
is the next largest producer of the world showing a total of
1,934,200 long tons in 1938. Later figures are not available for
most foreign countries.
Three kinds of phosphate are produced in the State-hard
rock, soft rock, and land pebble. By far the most important of
these is the land pebble. The first phosphate was produced in
Florida in 1888 along the Peace River near Arcadia. This was the
type known as river pebble. It was only a short time later that
hard rock phosphate was discovered and mining operations begun
near Dunnellon. Hard rock production surged far ahead of the
river pebble and Dunnellon became a bustling town reminiscent
of the famous mining towns of the west. By 1890, mines were
also in operation in the land pebble phosphate district of Polk
County. For a number of years all three kinds of phosphate were
produced. The large supplies of land pebble phosphate and the
ease with which it was recovered eventually caused the river
pebble operations to be abandoned. The high quality of the hard
rock has caused a continuous demand for that product, but in 1939
there were only 89,096 tons of hard rock produced, as compared
with 2,678,784 long tons of land pebble.
Soft rock phosphate occurs with both the land pebble and the
hard rock deposits. For many years this material was lost in the
washing and crushing processes. Within recent years, however,
it has been found that this form of phosphate is decidedly bene-
ficial to the soil and can be used by direct application without
treatment of any kind. This has led to extensive working of the
old waste ponds for the recovery of this former waste and the
opening of some new deposits.
As previously reported, a Congressional Committee was ap-
pointed in 1938 to study the phosphate reserves of the United
States with a view of possible curtailment of production in Florida
in order to conserve the supply for future generations. The re-
sults of a hearing held by the Committee at Lakeland, November
28-30, 1938, have become available and show that Florida has an
enormous reserve. Based on the data presented and on present
consumption there is an estimated reserve that will last for some

1500 or 1600 years and there is little doubt that this figure will
become larger with more extensive information and refinements
in production methods. The accompanying table shows the re-
serves in Florida compiled from data presented at this hearing.
This table was prepared by Dr. George R. Mansfield of the United
States Geological Survey and is reproduced from his paper "Phos-
phate Deposits of the United States" in Economic Geology, Vol.
XXXV, No. 3, p. 417, May, 1940.
Hard Rock:
J. Buttgenbach & Co., P. O. Box 67, Lakeland. Mines: near Hernando,
Citrus County.
C. & J. Camp, Ocala. Mines: near Hernando, Citrus County.
Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Co., Savannah, Ga. Mines: near Her-
nando, Citrus County.
Soft Rock:
Colloidal Phosphate Sales Co., Dunnellon. Plant: near Dunnellon.
Dixie Phosphate Co., Ocala. Plant: Dunnellon. Marion County.
Lakeland Phosphate and Fertilizer Co., 225 E. Main St., Bartow.
Plant: near Bartow, Polk County.
Loncala Phosphate Co.. High-Springs. Plant: Clark, Alachua County.
Mineral Plant Food Co.. Orlando. Plant: Dunnellon, Marion County.
M. R. Porter. Ocala. Plant: near Hernando, Citrus County.
Soil Builders. Inc.. Dunnellon. Plant: Dunnellon, Marion County.
Superior Phosphate Co., Box 476. Dunnellon. Plant: near Dunnellon.
Marion County.
Land Pebble:
American Agricultural Chemical Co., 50 Church St., New York. Mines:
Pierce, Polk County.
American Cyanamid Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York. Mines:
Brewster. Polk County.
Coronet Phosphate Co., 19 Rector St.. New York. Mines: near Plant
City, Hillsborough County.
International Agricultural Corp., 61 Broadway, New York. Mines:
Mulberry, Polk County.
Pembroke Chemical Corp., Pembroke, Polk County.
The Phosphate Mining Co., 110 William St., New York. Mines: Nichols,
Polk County.
Southern Phosphate Corp., Baltimore Trust Bldg., Baltimore, Md.
Mines: Bartow, Polk County.
Swift & Co., Fertilizer Works, R. F. D. No. 1, Bartow, Polk County.

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Since long before the dawn of written history, limestone has
been an important commodity to man. The ancient pyramids of
Egypt and Mexico, the Temples of Babylon and Greece and the
palaces of the proud rulers of ancient Rome were all made of
massive blocks of limestone. It is little wonder then that the ex-
tensive limestones of Florida have played an important part in
the cultural and economic development of Florida.

In peninsular Florida the most important limestone formation
is the Ocala limestone. This is a fairly soft cream to white highly
fossiliferous limestone of exceptional purity. It outcrops in a
large area comprising most of Marion, Alachua, Sumter, Hernando,
Citrus and Levy Counties. Many quarries have been opened in
this area to produce crushed lime for road building, agricultural
lime, chemical lime, quick lime and large quantities have been
used with cement for the manufacture of structural blocks.

The following is a typical analysis of Ocala Limestone.
Analysis of Limestone from Cummer Lumber Company, near Ken-
drick (Survey sample D-6, Seventeenth Annual Rept. p. 160.)
Silica (Si0.) ....................................... .68
Iron and Alumina (FE+AL) ...................- ............ .32
Calcium carbonate (CaCO) .....................-.................... 98.16
Magnesium carbonate (MgCO) .................................. trace
Undeterm ined ......................-....--....- ................ .84

TOTAL ............... .........................100.00

In addition to the Ocala limestone the Suwannee and Tampa
limestones have been extensively quarried. These limestones are
harder and less uniform in physical character than the Ocala
limestone. They are used primarily for road construction and as
aggregate in concrete and in concrete products such as blocks
and tile.

Huge deposits of dolomitic limestone occur along the West
Coast of peninsular Florida from Wakulla County southward to
Manatee County. This material is widely used as a soil condi-
tioner and within the past few years the production of Florida
dolomite has begun and is expanding normally. Most of the
dolomite deposits are as yet not developed and considerable ex-
pansion may be expected as the demand for the product increases.

The following is a partial analysis of dolomitic limestone from
the Steinhatchee River near Clara, Taylor County. Analysis by
State Chemist May, 1938.
Laboratory No. M-762
Calcium Carbonate .................................. ......... 51.38%
Magnesium Carbonate ...... ........... ......... ....... 40.74%
During the past few years there has been a growing demand
for a more permanent type of construction for dwellings and small
buildings than is possible when using wood. To meet this demand,
Florida has an abundance of limestone that can be cut into de-
sirable building blocks, particularly the Marianna limestone of
West Florida, the Ocala limestone, phases of the Hawthorn for-
mation, the Miami Oolite, the Coquina of the Peninsula and the
coral limestone of the Keys. In addition to the natural cut stone
large quantities of crushed lime are being used with cement to
form attractive and desirable building blocks. No sand is used
in some of these blocks and these are said to be as durable as the
natural cut stone.
Many Florida formations contain varying quantities of silici-
fled limestone and flint. During limestone mining these must be
separated from the limestone. These are then crushed to suitable
size for concrete aggregate. Large amounts of this flint also occur
as residual boulders in areas where the original limestone has
been weathered away. The crushed flint is also used as railroad
ballast and in construction of jetties. Small amounts of uncrushed
flint are also used as building stones in the construction of rough
Limestone from a large quarry near Brooksville in Hernando
County is used with Florida clay for the manufacture of cement
by the Florida Portland Cement Company, of Tampa. There are
also many other limestone deposits situated near suitable clay
deposits that could be used for manufacturing high grade Port-
land cement.

Road Metal and Concrete Aggregate
The Broward Quarries Inc.. 2004 N. W. North River Drive, Miami.
Quarry: at Dania, Broward County.
Camp Concrete Rock Co.. Ocala. Quarry: near Brooksville, Hernando

Connell & Shultz, 204 Citrus County Bank Bldg., Inverness. Quarry:
Williston, Levy County; Lowell, Marion County.
Crushed Rock Co., Ft. Myers. Quarry: Hendry Creek near Ft. Myers,
Lee County.
Cummer Lime and Mfg. Co., Box 4640 Jacksonville. Quarry: Kendrick,
Marion County.
Dixie Lime Products Co., 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Quarry: Reddick,
Marion County.
L. F. Fernald Stone Co., 308 High St.. Tarpon Springs. Quarry: near
New Port Richey. Pasco County.
Florida Lime Products Co., P. O. Box 478, Ocala. Quarry: near Ocala,
Marion County.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., 1760 Purdy Ave., Miami Beach. Quarry: Ojus,
Dade County.
The McDonald Corp.. Citrus Center Bldg.. Lakeland. Quarry: near
Brooksville. Hernando County.
L. B. McLeod Construction Co., P. O. Box 1919. Orlando. Quarry:
Williston, Levy County.
Miami Lime and Chemical Co. Inc., Rt. No. 2, Box 815, Miami. Quarry:
Coral Gables, Dade County.
Miami Oolite Rock Co., P. O. Box 1751. Miami. Quarry: South Miami,
Dade County.
Mills Rock Co.. 301 N. W. 79th St., Miami. Quarry: near Miami,
Dade County.
H. L. Mills Estate Rock Co.. Miami. Quarry: Dade County.
Naranja Rock Co.. Inc.. Naranja. Quarry: Naranja, Dade County.
National Garden Coquina Rock Co., 314 No. Grandview Ave., Daytona
Beach. Quarry: near Ormond Beach. Volusia County.
Newberry Corporation, 512 Dyal Upchurch Bldg.. Jacksonville. Quarry:
at Haile. Alachua County.
Ocala Lime Rock Corporation. Ocala. Quarry: near Newberry,
Alachua County: Kendrick, Marion County.
Ocala Road Base Material Co., P. O. Box 107, Ocala. Quarry: near
Homosassa. Citrus County; York. Marion County.
Jack Quinn Inc.. 116 N. E. 29th St.. Miami. Quarry: Miami. Dade
Seminole Rock and Sand Co., N. W. 14th St. and Red Road, Miami.
Quarry: near Hialeah. Dade County.
S. P. Snyder and Son. Inc., Ft. Lauderdale. Quarry: at Dania. Broward
Thompson Williston Mine, c/o Duval Engineering and Constructing
Co.. 512 Dyal Upchurch Bldg., Jacksonville, Quarry: Williston, Levy

Troup Bros., 4151 Dixie Highway, Miami. Quarry: Coral Gables,
Dade County.
Williston Shell Rock Co., Ocala. Quarry: at Haile. Alachua County.
Curbing. Flagging and Paving
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. W. 7th St., Miami. Quarry: Islamorada
Key, Monroe County.
Miami Aggregate Company, P. O. Box 32, Miami. Quarry: near Miami.
Railroad Ballast
The McDonald Corporation. Citrus Center Bldg.. Lakeland. Quarry:
near Brooksville, Hernando County.
Seminole Rock and Sand Company, N. W. 14th St. and Red Road,
Miami. Quarry: near Hialeah. Dade County.

Rough Construction Stone
The Broward Quarries, Inc., 2004 N. W. River Drive, Miami. Quarry:
at Dania, Broward County.
H. L. Mills, 3905 N. W. 27th Avenue, Miami. Quarry: near Miami.
Mizner Products Inc., 503 Wm. Penn Road. Palm Beach. Quarry:
near Tavernier, Monroe County.

Dressed Building Stone
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. W. 7th St., Miami. Quarry: Islamorada
Key, Monroe County.
Mizner Products Inc.. 503 Win. Penn Road, Palm Beach. Quarry near
Tavernier, Monroe County.

Agriculture Limestone
Camp Concrete Rock Company, Ocala. Quarry: near Brooksville,
Hernando County.
Dixie Lime Products Company, 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Quarry: Red-
dick. Marion County.
Florida Lime Products Co., P. O. Box 478, Ocala. Marion County.
The McDonald Corporation, Citrus Center Bldg.. Lakeland. Quarry:
near Brooksville, Hernando County.

Dixie Lime Products Company, 19 N. Main St.. Ocala. Quarry:
Lebanon, Levy County.
Florida Dolomite Company, Pembroke. Quarry: at Pembroke, Sara-
sota County.
Gulf Dolomite Company. Quarry: Citrus County.
Cummer Lime and Mfg. Co., Box 4640, Jacksonville. Kiln: Kendrick,
Marion County.

Dixie Lime Products Company, 19 N. Main St., Ocala. Kiln: Reddick,
Marion County.
Florida Lime Products Company, P. O. Box 478, Ocala. Kiln: Ocala,
Marion County.
Miami Lime and Chemical Company. Inc., Rt. No. 2, Box 815, Miami.
Kiln: Miami, Dade County.
Alachua County Stone Company, High Springs. Crusher: High Springs,
Alachua County.
Standard Rock Company, Morriston. Crusher: Morriston. Levy County.
Sumter Flint Rock Company. Leesburg. Crusher: Linden, Sumter
M. M. Thomas Flint Rock Corporation, 109 E. Broadway, Ocala.
Crusher: Zuber. Marion County.

Florida Portland Cement Company, Tampa.


Sand is one of Floridas' most abundant minerals. Much of it
is, however, not suitable for the various commercial uses to which
sands are put. The finer sands used in mortar are widely dis-
tributed but deposits of coarse sand are less common.

Sands of a purity suitable for glass manufacture occur in
abundance. One factory, the Florida Glass Manufacturing Com-
pany, is now operating at Jacksonville. This concern manufac-
tures various types of glass containers such as bottles, jars and
jugs. These are of good grade and free from stain. Other glass
ware could be manufactured from Florida sand and in time this
industry will undoubtedly grow.

The gravel deposits of Florida occur principally in northwest
and western Florida. The largest commercial production has been
in Escambia County principally along the Escambia River, along
the Apalachicola River near Chattahoochee and in parts of Jackson

The statistical total sand and gravel production for 1939 shows
a very sharp drop. This figure, however, has a wide margin of
error because a large part of the total production was not reported.

PRODUCTION 1938-1939

Acme Sand Company, Eustis. Operating: Eustis, Lake County.
Howard Backus, Miami. Operating: Miami vicinity, Dade County.
Benton-Manson Company, Inc., P. O. Box 2215. St. Petersburg. Op-
erating: Pinellas County.
P. M. Carlisle, Panama City. Operating: near Panama City, Bay
Cummer Lime and Mfg. Company, P. O. Box 4640, Jacksonville.
Operating: Duval County: Leon County.
Alfred Destin Company, 235 S. W. 4th Ave.. Miami. Operating: Bears
Creek. Dade County.
Diamond Interlachen Sand Company, 111 W. Adams, Jacksonville. Op-
erating: Interlachen, Putnam County.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales. Operating: near Lake Wales,
Polk County.
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen. N. J. Operating: Edgar.
Putnam County.
Florida Gravel Company. Chattahoochee. Operating: Apalachicola
River, Gadsden County.
A. W. Hodges, Eustis. Operating: Orange County.
Lake Wales Concrete Sand Company, P. O. Box 715, Lake Wales.
Operating: Lake Wales, Polk County.
Maule Ojus Rock Company, 1760 Purdy Ave.. Miami Beach. Operat-
ing: Ojus, Dade County.
Panama Brick and Tile Company, Panama City. Operating: near
Panama City, Bay County.
Seminole Rock and Sand Company, N. W. 14th St. and Red Road,
Miami. Operating: near Miami, Dade County.
Southern Phosphate Corporation, Bartow. Operating: San Gully Mine;
Standard Mine. Polk County.


Diatoms are of two kinds, fresh water forms and salt water
forms. The diatomite deposits of Florida are all composed of
the fresh water forms and occur as an intimate mixture with peat,
making up the bottoms of many of our lakes and the basins of
some of our rivers. The fact that the diatomite occurs with the
peat has presented many production difficulties but these have
been worked out and an exceptionally pure product is now being

Extensive deposits that are not being worked are known in
many parts of central Florida and in west Florida. These deposits
should be carefully prospected.
The following company produced diatomite during 1938-1939.
American Diatomite Corporation, Clermont, Lake County.

Extensive deposits of peat are known in many parts of Florida.
Peat is formed by the slow accumulation of fiberous vegetable
matter under such conditions that complete decomposition does
not take place. Through the years, this produces a mass of par-
tially decomposed vegetable fibre.
Ordinarily peat is thought of as a fuel, but in Florida its
principal use is as a filler in fertilizers. It is also widely used as
a soil conditioner by direct application to the soil. It is beneficial,
used in this manner, because it increases the moisture holding
ability of the soil, adds some plant food and returns certain bene-
ficial bacteria to the soil.
Certain valuable waxes have been extracted from peat found
in continental Europe. During the present world crisis it has
become almost impossible to obtain these waxes from their original
source. It, therefore, seems that it would be advisable to thor-
oughly prospect the Florida peat deposits as a possible source
for such waxes.
The following plants produced peat during 1938-1939.
Florida Humus Company, Zellwood, Orange County.
Panama Humus Company, Panama City, Bay County.

There are numerous deposits of clay in Florida that can be
used in the manufacture of many types of pottery and clay struc-
tural material. In addition there are large and extensive deposits
of kaolin mixed with sand. The Florida kaolin is superior to any
known deposit in North America. One quality that is peculiar
to the Florida koalin is its plasticity. This means that a lower
percentage of ball clay is necessary in order to produce a proper
mix. In addition to these qualities the Florida kaolin vitrifies at
a higher temperature than other kaolins and it fires to an ex-
cellent white.
The largest deposits of pottery clays in Florida occur in West
Florida, particularly in Santa Rosa and Escambia Counties. Suit-

able deposits are also known in the Peninsula. To date, these clays
have not been extensively developed, but the quality of the products
now being made in the State will undoubtedly lead to further
At the present time there are a number of plants in the State
producing a good grade of common brick. Other clay structural
materials could be produced from the same clays that are now
going into brick manufacture. The present building program in
Florida is materially affecting the output of the brick plants and
adds materially to the total mineral production of the state.
Unfortunately, production figures for this industry are very
The following plants reported kaolin production during 1938-
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company. Edgar, Putnam County.
United Clay Mines Corporation. Hawthorn. Putnam County.

The following plants are known to have produced common
brick during 1938-1939.
A. B. Conner Brick Yard, Callahan, Florida.
Florida Brick & Tile Company. Jacksonville.
W. J. Hall & Son, Chipley. Florida.
Taylor Brick and Tile Company, Pensacola.
Neal Lumber & Manufacturing Company, Blountstown, Florida.
Ocklocknee Brick Company, Ocklocknee, Florida.

The following plants are known to have produced pottery from
Florida clay during 1938-1939.
The Floramics Company. Tampa. Hillsborough County.
Santa Rosa Pottery Company. Pensacola, Escambia County.
Crary Brothers. Bluff Springs. Escambia County.


Commercial production of fuller's earth in the United States
began in Florida in 1895 and until the year 1924, Florida ranked
first as producer of fuller's earth.
Fuller's earth is a form of clay possessing peculiar properties
that make it useful for clarifying and bleaching various oils and
fats, and for many years this was the only material available for
that purpose. The bulk of the production naturally went to the
petroleum refineries, but large quantities were also used in clari-
fying various vegetable and animal fats and oil.

The rise of the petroleum industry was accompanied by a
parallel increase in fuller's earth production until 1930. About
that time the fuller's earth production began to show a decline
in production and that decline has progressed steadily ever since.
The most important factor accounting for this sudden decline
was improved and changed, petroleum refining methods and the
discovery that other clays could be used more effectively and at
an ultimate cheaper cost. Chief among these were the activated
or acid treated bentonites. It was found that bentonitic clays
which occur much nearer the refineries than does fuller's earth,
could be treated by certain acids to produce a clay that was as ef-
fective as a bleaching and clarifying agent as the fuller's earth and
lasted longer in use. In more recent years it has been found that
bauxite can also be used as a substitute for fuller's earth, and that
it can be revivified indefinitely. It does not, however, seem appli-
cable to oils, other than those with a pariffin base.
There is, however, an encouraging outlook in the gloomy
picture of the fuller's earth industry. Outstanding among the
possible new uses for fuller's earth is its use in water treatment,
particularly industrial waste. waters containing oily matters or
other subtances that should be removed before disposal. The use
of the clay produces a heavy floe that reduces odors, and slows and
destroys bacterial action. In Florida this might be specifically
useful to plants disposing of waste matter underground through
drainage wells. By treatment with fuller's earth, it might be
possible to remove undesirable substances before the water enters
the drainage well and thereby almost pure water would be en-
tering the subsurface strata.
It has also been found that the absorptive powers of the Florida
clay can be greatly improved by special treatment. While damp
the clay is pugged or kneaded and then forced through slots.
This treatment produces a better product and makes it possible
to recover almost all the "fines" in granular form. This is the
form desired for the percolation method of oil refining.
It would therefore seem that the future of the fuller's earth
industry, in Florida is not entirely dark. This is one of the ex-
tensive and substantial minerals in the State and it is to be
expected that efforts toward finding substitute uses and markets
will be continued with increasing success.
The following Companies reported production of fuller's earth
during 1938-1939.
Floridin Company. Quincy and Jamieson. Gadsden County.
Superior Earth Company, Inc.. Ocala. Marion County.

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JANUARY 1st, 1939, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1939


Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count January 1st, 1939.......... 3,976.67
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund July 1, 1939-Chapter
19280, General Laws of 1939..... 16,320.00 $ 20,296.67

Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account
January 1st, 1939.............. 7,064.82
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund July 1st, 1939-Chapter
19280, General Laws of 1939..... 9,900.00 16,964.82 8 37,261.49


Traveling Expenses................
Printing and Stationery. ............
Postage and Post Office Box Rent....
Telephone and Telegraph ...........
Field and Office Equipment........
Office Supplies ................... .
Office Expense ................... .
Workmen's Compensation Insurance.
Operation and Upkeep of Cars.......
Moving Office from Martin Building
to Florida State College for Wo-
m en ...........................
Miscellaneous Field Expense........
Cooperative Work with United States
Geological Survey-Washington,
D .C .... .......................

Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count absorbed by General Rev-
enue Fund June 30th, 1939.....
Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account ab-
sorbed by General Revenue Fund
June 30th, 1939................

Balance in Salary Account December
31st, 1939.....................
Balance in Necessary and Regular
Expense Account December 31st,



366.67 $ 18.147.45


S 10,461.24


19,110.93 $ 37,261.49

JANUARY 1st, 1940, THROUGH DECEMBER 31st, 1940


Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count, January 1st, 1940......... $10,461.24
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund, July 1st, 1940-Chap-
ter 19280, General Laws of 1939.. 16,320.00 $ 26,781.24

Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account,
January 1st, 1940 ............. 8,649.69
By Appropriation from General Reve-
nue Fund, July 1st, 1940-Chap-
ter 19280, General Laws of 1939. 9,900.00 18,549.69 $ 45,330.93


Salaries.............. ......... $ 13,961.62
Traveling Expenses ................ 3,014.95
Printing and Stationery............. 920.21
Postage and Post Office Box Rent.... 142.14
Telephone and Telegraph ........... 59.40
Field and Office Equipment ......... 1,299.82
Office Supplies .................... 486.09
Office Expense ..................... 617.63
Workmen's Compensation Insurance. 21.69
Operation and Upkeep of Cars....... 143.31
Moving Office from Martin Building
to Florida State College for Wo-
m en ........................... 747.64
Miscellaneous Field Expense........ 2,261.33
Cooperative Work with United States
Geological Survey, Washington,
D.C......................... 1,980.87 $ 25,656.70

Unexpended Balance in Salary Ac-
count, December 31st, 1940...... 12,819.62
Unexpended Balance in Necessary
and Regular Expense Account,
December 31st, 1940............. 6,854.61* 19,674.23 $ 45,330.93

Of this amount there are unpaid bills in the Comptroller's Office amount-
ing to $2,501.81, which will be paid as soon as the money is available in the
General Revenue Fund. This would leave an actual unexpended balance in
Necessary and Regular Expense Account of $4,352.80.


3 1262 04424180 9


Date Due