Biennial report, Florida State Board of Conservation, Geological and Archaeological Divisions

Material Information

Biennial report, Florida State Board of Conservation, Geological and Archaeological Divisions
Caption title:
Biennial administrative report of the Geological Division, Florida State Board of Conservation
Florida -- Division of Geology
Florida -- State Board of Conservation
Florida -- Archaeological Division
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee, Fla.
Florida State Geological and Archaeological Divisions
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 v. : ill. ; 23 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Geology -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
Mines and mineral resources -- Periodicals -- Florida ( lcsh )
City of Ocala ( local )
City of Miami ( local )
City of Brooksville ( local )
City of Tampa ( local )
City of Marianna ( local )
Citrus County ( local )
Phosphates ( jstor )
Counties ( jstor )
Limestones ( jstor )
Geology ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Periodicals ( lcsh )
serial ( sobekcm )


Dates or Sequential Designation:
3rd (1937/38).
Numbering Peculiarities:
Biennium ending Dec. 31.
Statement of Responsibility:
Geological Division and Archaeological Division, Florida State Board of Conservation.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier:
AJV7946 ( notis )
020038715 ( alephbibnum )
01956545 ( oclc )
sn 87028634 ( lccn )

Related Items

Preceded by:
Biennial report to State Board of Conservation
Succeeded by:
Biennial report


This item has the following downloads:

Full Text


Biennial Report

Biennium Ending
Dec. 31, 1938


]Fllorida State Board

Assistant Supervisor Geological Division

R. L. Dowling, Supervisor


The activities of the Geological Division for the period
July 1, 1936 to December 31, 1938, are briefly set forth under
the following headings:
Activities and Accomplishments
Future Work
Mineral Production
Personnel: The members of the Geological Survey dur-
ing the period July 1, 1936 to December 31, 1938, have been
as follows:
Herman Gunter, Geologist and Administrative H~ead.
Frank Westendick, Assistant Geologist. (Services ended
August 1, 1937.)
Mary H. Carswell, Secretary. (Services ended Septem-
ber 1, 1937.)
Tinnie D. Williams, Secretary.
Pearl Gatlin, Stenographer.
J. Clarence Simpson, Office and Museum Assistant.
Activities and Accomplishments: The State Geologist,
as head of the Geological Division, has attended to the rou-
tine correspondence and to the consulting work of the office.
Interest in the potential oil, gas and other at present unknown
mmneral deposits in Florida has been most active and this
has placed an increasing demand for information about the
geology, structure and stratigraphy of Florida on the Geologi-
cal Division. This has been met in as satisfactory a manner
as possible although it is evident that with additional assist-
ance more details about such fundamentally important mat-
ters could be made available. Field trips collecting data for
reports and examining mineral properties have also from time
to time been made.
The State Geologist has served as a member of the Apa-
lachicola Basin Sub-Committee of the Mobile-Suwannee
Drainage Basin Committee and as a member of the sub-com-
mittee of Peninsular Florida Basin Committee on U~nder-
ground Water Resources. Two meetings have been attended,

one at Albany, Georgia and one at Jacksonville. Reports are
being formulated covering the findings and recommendations
of these committees for submission to the National Resources
At the request of the Florida Railroad Commission to
the Supervisor of Conservation the State Geologist prepared
a brief dealing with the mineral resources of Florida for pres-
entation at the Southern Commodity Rate Case Hearing of
the Interstate Commerce Commission held in Buffalo, N. Y.,
July, 1938. This case was originated by the Southern Gov-
ernor's Conference. It attacked the rates on certain, com-
modities from the South to the North as being preferential
of the northern manufacturer and prejudicial to the southern
shipper. The Florida Railroad Commnission presented perti-
nent data most comprehensively which reflected the position
of the southern shipper and those of Florida in particular.
That efforts of the IRailroad Commission in this matter will
be rewarded is suggested in the report rendered by Com-
missioner Lee of the Interstate Commnerce Commission and
Examiner Corcoran, which recommends that on most of the
commodities involved, rates from the South to the North be
made on basis of the scale within the North. If this report
is adopted by the Interstate Commerce Commission the result
will be of untold benefit to the southern shipper and manu-
facturer. It largely supports the contention of the Southern
During Novem~ber, 1938 the Congressional Committee
on Phosphate conducted a hearing at Lakeland, Florida, dur-
ing which time data were presented dealing with the Filorida
deposits. This meeting. in Florida was the concluding one by
the Committee, others having been held at Pocatello, Idaho
and Knoxville, TCennessee. The State Geologist was invited
to be present at this hearing by Representative J. H~ardin
Peterson, a member of the Committee. A paper wras present-
ed outlining the geology and the potentialities of the F'lorida
deposits. It was a very informative meeting and was suc-
cessful from the Florida point of view in that the Comzmittee
decided that it was not necessary to curtail production or to
restrict the exportation of phosphate. It was conclusivelyr
demonstrated that Florida had vast deposits of commercial
phosphate and, too, it was shown that the producers were
commendably using all possible refinement in mining meth-
ods, thereby reducing loss of phosphate to the minimum.
Formerly the soft and the very fine phospate was lost since
mechanical means alone were not sufficient for recovering
it. Flotation and tabling methods are now in use, both of
which are proving commercially successful.

The Assistant Geologist was engaged in a report on the
ground water supplies of western Florida. The field work
on this was completed at the time his services were termi-
nated and the report will appear in the near future. It is a
cooperative report between the United States Geological
Survey and the Florida Geological Survey.
Exhibits: The Geological Division participated in the
exhibits of the Conservation Department at the Florida Con-
stitution Centennial held at Port St. Joe during December
7-10, 1938. Preparations were also being made for displays
at the DeSoto Exposition and F'air to be held at Tampa in
the Spring.
It would seen that if State Departments are to regular-
ly take part in displays at various expositions and fairs it
would be wise to provide a fund for such purposes. With an
appropriation available it would be possible to plan more
definitely the character of exhibits and to make more ade-
quate preparations.
Accomplishments: For a number of years efforts have
continually been made to have owners and drillers of wells
save samples of the cuttings in addition to complete logs
and other information that may be of permanent value. It
is gratifying to record the response. There is now on file
in the Survey offices samples from nearly 400 wells located in
different parts of Florida. Some of these have gone to un-
usual depths, the deepest being 6,180 feet. Numbers of water
wells attain a depth of 1,000 feet but more often the range
is considerably less. Federal and State agencies, corpora-
tions, municipalities, engineers and individuals cooperate in
this matter of saving well samples so that the Survey is
building up an increasing amount of information about the
subsurface materials. The samples are studied by members
of the Survey and by other specialists in this field. The
results of these studies are on file and available to the public.
Publications: During the period covered by this report
the following bulletins have been issued:
Bulletin 15. Mollusks of the Tampa and Suwan-
nee Limestone of Florida, by W. C. ]Mansfield, 1937,
334 pp., 21 pls., 3 figs., 2 tables.
Bulletin 16. Stratigraphy and M~icropaleontology
of Two Deep Wells in Florida, by W~. Storra Cole,
1938, 76 pp., 12 pls., 3 figs.
The first mentioned report differentiates the limestones
of Florida that heretofore were included under the one for-

mation name, Tampa, and this new formation is termed the
Suwannee from typical exposures on the river of that name.
Difference in chemical composition between the two forma-
tions as well as distinct faunal content form the basis upon
which the new formation name of Suwannee was established.
It is a distinct contribution to the stratigraphy of the State.
The second bulletin listed gives a detailed study of the
samples from a well drilled as a test for oil northeast of
M~arianna, Jackson County, to a depth of 5,022 feet and a
1,037 foot well at Port St. Joe drilled as a test for water.
These bulletins have been well received and have helped to
fill the demand for more detailed knowledge about the strati-
graphy of Florida.
Other special literature of the Conservation Depart-
ment has been issued in which the work of the Geological
Division is brought to the attention of the general public.
This character of literature will do much toward populariz-
ing the work of the Conservation Department and acquaint
the citizens of the State with the constructive work the de-
partment is doing. Furthermore, press releases appear from
time to time which convey current information about inves-
tigations or contemplated developments.
Works Progress Aidministration Project : A vef'y broad
and inclusive mineral resource survey sponsored by the Super-
visor of Conservation was planned in connection with the:
Works Progress Administration and submitted to the State
Offices February 18, 1938. This project'proposed the inves-
tigation of every phase of Florida's economic geology, known
and potential, and making the results available in printed
form. It received the approval of the State Administrator
and was approved by certain district agencies and Federal
agencies in Washington. After thorough consideration by the
Washtington Works Progress Administration office it was
disapproved but without prejudice. Such action wras finally
taken for the reason that trained technical supervision could
not be supplied a project of such magnitude.
A second project proposing the survey of some of the
mineral resources of the State was submitted on October 1,
1938. This received State Application No. 30719 and the
approval of the State Admninistrator. After thorough review
the approval of Works Progress Administration in W~ashing-
ton was given as shown, by Presidential letter December 7,
1938, the project bearing the Official Project No. 665-35-C-
196. It is hoped that allocation of funds for this will soonl
be made so that work can be actively begun.

Cooperation: A cooperative policy has always been
maintained and has been found to be mutually advantageous.
Cooperation is maintained with the U. S. Geological Survey
in geologic, paleontologic, physiographic and ground water
studies. A report on the physiography of Filorida is in prep-
aration and will appear as a cooperative report very short-
ly after the completion of some additional field work
which is now in progress. Cooperation is also main-
tained with the U. S. Bureau of Mines and the U. S. Bureau
of Census in the collection of statistics on the mineral pro-
duction of the State. This avoids duplication of effort and
works toward uniformity of results. The cooperation of the
State Board of Health in the matter of data relating to drain-
age wells is deeply appreciated and acknowledged. The State
Road Department has also been generous in turning over
many cuttings and cores from overpass and bridge locations
in different parts of Florida. The State Chemist cooperates
in the matter of analyzing samples of rocks, soils and waters.
The Geological Survey has endeavored on every hand to co-
operate with various cities, towns, organizations and indi-
viduals in giving out information about the natural resources
and especially so in the development of adequate water sup-
plies. That such service is being made use of is shown by
the calls for it.
Future Work: Plans have been formulated for complet-
ing a report on the white burning clays of Florida through a
cooperative agreement with the United States Bureau of
Mines. The field work and much of the laboratory research
has already been accomplished but there yet remains some
unfinished work in both of these fields before the manuscript
can be completed and prepared for publication. Through
agreement with the Bureau of M~ines it will be possible to
utilize the excellent laboratory facilities of such Bureau at
both Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Norris, Tennessee. T~he Flori-
da Geological Survey by the terms of this agreement will
collect the samples desired and furnish transportation facili-
ties for the research worker.
Arrangements have also been made for a detailed geol-
ogical survey of two counties in Filorida by the Research
Division of the Louisiana Geological Survey. Through the
excellent and liberal support given that institution by the
State that survey has been able to issue very detailed reports
on a number of counties or parishes of Louisiana. These
publications have in turn been directly responsible for much
of the development work now under way in that State. The
Director of Research of Louisiana conferred with the Super-

visor of Conservation of Florida and the Geologist of the
Conservation Department during December 1938. As a result
of that conference an agreement wlas entered into whereby
the Research Di~vision of Louisiana can furnish a trained
and experienced worker to survey two counties of Florida
in a manner similar to that employed in Louisiana under
what is considered most satisfactory terms. It was further
agreed that if the plan was found satisfactory here in Florida
additional counties could be undertaken on terms tentatively
agreed upon. It is felt that this will initiate a type of work
not heretofore undertaken in Florida and that there will be a
demand for it after the results of these first two counties
become available.
There is a rapidly growing interest in the potential pos-
sibilities of the southeastern states as producers of oil, gas,
sulphur, salt and perhaps other as yet unknown minerals.
and Florida seems to be attracting many who are earnestly
seeking dependable data. Some deep wells have already been
drilled and from a number of these samples of cuttings and
cores have been saved and deposited with the Florida Geolo-
gical Survey. Rather deep water wells have also been drilled
so there is a gradually increasing fund of information to be
had from detailed studies of such samples. Most of the
samples have been studied by various persons and much has
been learned but with time there comes refinements in meth-
ods as well as changes in interpretations. These may or may
not alter the general conclusions already arrived at but re-
cently there has come the opportunity of having the samples
from key wells studied by a recognized micropaleontologist
at a very nominal cost and then have samples from inter-
vening wells studied by graduate students under his direct
supervision, but at no cost to the Florida Geological Survey.
T'is plan makes possible the study of samples from numbers
of wells throughout the State under the supervision of a
trained specialist which suggests uniformity of results that
may otherwise not be possible. This plan is nowr in progress
and it is hoped that upon completion of the studies of the
samples from this first well that others can be sent until
all the key wells have been completed.
Developments: The Escamnbia Pottery Company al Pen-
sacola has been reorganized and nowr operates under thne name
of Florida Ceramic Company. This compaiiy has a large
stock of varied wares, beautiful, artistic and attractive. In
the manufacture of these art wares F'lorida clay is used.
Also during the period covered by this report a new pottery
has been established near Tampa, The Floramics Company,

located about 2 miles north of Sulphur Springs. This pottery
is specializing in souvenir pieces of all kinds and manufac-
tures an interesting line. In. the manufacture of this ware,
too, Florida clay is used in goodly proportion.
The Cummer Lime and Manufacturing Company comn-
pleted a modern plant at Kendrick, M~arion County, for the
production of a complete line of lime products. These include
quick lime, hydrated lime for both chemical and masbunry
purposes, and a new masonry limestone building unit that
it is said possesses unusual characteristics as a building
material. Agricultural limestone is also produced as has
been done for years, as well as road material.
Interest is growing in the matter of prospecting for deep
lying structures that may be favorable to the trapping of
oil, gas or other valuable mineral deposits. Th~e Gulf Refining
Company has done extensive geophysical prospecting in sou-
thern Florida, particularly through Collier County. The Sun
Oil Company has also been engaged in this character of work,
centering their activities in Lee County. The results have
not been made public.
The deep test of the Oil Development Company of Flori-
da, south of Groveland, ILake County, which had a depth of
6,118 feet when the Second Biennial Report was printed,
reached a depth of 6,129 feet in May, 1937, and has been in-
active since. The well northeast of Marianna, Jackson Coun-
ty, was completed at the depth of 5,022 feet and reported
upon in Bulletin 16 of this Survey. The second well by Ma-
lone and Pope near Wimauma, H-illsborough, was abandoned
on November 15, 1936 at a reported depth of 964 feet. The
test by the Florida Oil Discovery Company near Cedar Key,
Levy County, is still active and has a reported depth of about
4,400 feet and the well by the St. Mary's River Oil Corpora-
tion north of Hilliard, N~assau County, is drilling at more
than 4,400 feet. Samples from some of these tests have been
submitted to the Florida Geological Survey and this coop-
eration, which is entirely voluntary on the part of those re-
sponsible for having the wells drilled, is much appreciated.
Such samples furnish information about the subsurface
materials that would otherwise not be known and it is upon
such data gradually accumulated from different parts of the
State that state-wide information about the underlying struc-
ture and stratigraphy is based.
Another well that is causing much interest is one begun
December 31, 1938, just south of the towrnsite of Pine Crest,
deep in the Everglades, Collier County. This is being drilled

by the Peninsular Oil and Refining Company under the su-
pervision of R. B. Campbell, Geologist, Tampa, Florida. A
very modern, heavy duty, rotary drilling rig is used which
is capable of drilling to depths greater than any yet reached
in Florida.
Appropriation Requested: The appropriation requested
for the Biennium 1939-1941 is shown belowv. This is a very
modest request for the operation of the Geological Division
but it is a substantial increase over the current appropriation.
The work of the Survey has suffered on account of lack of
personnel and equipment. Additional trained help is needed,
as well as additional equipment. The budget that has been
prepared and approved by the Supervisor of Conservation
makes provision for this needed help and with it the Geolo-
gical Survey can more nearly fill the important place of gath-
ering and disseminating information about the mineral re-
sources of the State to its citizens and others who may be
interested in their development.

State Geologist .. ...... ...... ................... $ 3,600
Assistant Geologist ................. ................... 3,000
Assistant Geologist ................... .................. 2,700
Research Assistant ................... .................. 2,400
Field and ]Museum Assistant ...................... ................ 1,800
Secretary .......... ..... .......................... 1,500
Stenographer ................ ................... 1,320
Drilling Operator ....................... ................ 1,620
Assistant Dr~illing Operator ....................... ..... ........ 1,200
Traveling Expenses .................. .....................$ 3,000
Printing and Stationery ......................... ................ 3,500
Field, Office and Museum Supplies ........................ 1,000
Postage, E-xpress, Freight, Telephone, Tele-
g ram s ............................................ ..... ........... 700
Clay Laboratory ]Equipmnent and Replace-
ments ................ ............. .... ....... 500
Cars, trade-in ................ .............. 600
Incidental Expenses .................... ............... 600
Cooperative Research Studie~s .................................... 7,500
One Core Drill and Operating Equipment...... 2,500
One 11%-ton Truck, Grico rear-end and power
w inch ............................ ..... ........ ............... 1,600
One f our-wheel Trailer with brakes ........................ 975
Replacements and Operation of Drilling
Outfit .................. ..... .............. 500

The total value of the mineral output of F'lorida during
1936 was $12,942,097, an increase of $1,281,542 over that of
1935. During 1937 the total value was $13,7'77,623 or $835,-
526 more than for 1936. These figures mnay not be entirely
complete for a number of producers of clay and clay prod-
ucts, sand, mineral waters are known not to have made re-
turns. If all such production figures could have been col-
lected the total would be somewhat more than above indi-
cated. Statistics on mineral production are collected in co-
operation with the United States Bureau of M~ines, Wash-
Filorida leads the nation in the production of phosphate,
producing approximately 80 per cent of the United States
total and it has held this position since 1894. Production
of Florida phosphate began in 1888 with the mining of river
pebble phosphate from Peace Creek, near Arcadia. The min-
ing of river pebble ceased a number of years ago, the com-
mercial phosphates now being the land pebble, hard rock and
Soft phosphate is associated with both the hard rock
and the land pebble deposits and most of it wvas formerly
lost in mining and washing operations. Through various
means this soft material is now being reclaimed along with
much fine phosphate that in the earlier days found its way
to the waste ponds. Quite an industry has sprung up in
the reclamation of this soft phosphate from the waste ponds
of former operations. The material is ground and used di-
rectly on the soils and also as a filler in fertilizers.
The great advances in mechanical and flotation meth-
ods now in use in mining phosphnate has made possible profit-
able exploitation of deposits that were formerly considered
non-commercial and so has added many thousands of tons
to the minable reserves of this mineral in Florida and in turn
has given many years of life to the industry at the present
rate of mining. The phosphates produced during 1936 to-
talled 2,624,900 long tons valued at $8,528,523 and during
1937, 2, 996,820 long tons valued at $9,142,985.
Amalgamated Phosphate Co., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New
York. Plant at BrewsteF.
American Agricultural Chemical Co., 50 Church St., New
York. Plant at Pierce.

Coronet Phosphate Co., 19 Rector St., New York. Plant
at Coronet.
International Agricultural Corp., 61 Broadwray, New
York. Plant at 1Vulberry.
Phosphate Mining Co., 110 William St., Newv York. Plant
at Nichols.
Southern Phosphate Corp., Baltimore, Md. Plant at Ridge-
Swift and Company, R.F.D. No. 1, Bartow.
J. Buttgenbach & Company, Lakeland. Plant near Fe-
licia, Citrus County.
C. & J. Camp, Ocala. Plant near Felicia, Citrus County.
Dunnellon Phosphate Mining Co., Savannah, Ga. Plant
near Hernando, Citrus County.
Colloidal Phosphate Sales Co., Dunnellon.
Connell and Shultz, Inverness.
Dixie Phosphate Co., Ocala.
Loncala Phosphate Co., Ocala.
1M. R. Porter, Ocala.
Soil Builders, Inc., Orlando.
Superior Phosphate Co., Dunnellon.
Lakeland Phosphate and Fertilizer Co., 225 E. 1Main St.,
The limestones of Florida have contributed generously
to the industrial development of the State, having a wide
range of chemical and physical properties they serve a wide
variety of useful purposes. The most extensive limestone
formation in Florida is the Ocala. This formation over a
large area in west-central peninsular Florida and in northwest
Florida in the Jackson County region. So far as shown by
well samples it underlies the entire State. It is a soft, light
colored, highly fossiliferous limestone of exceptional purity
and is admirably suited for road base material. The high
chemical purity of this stone makes it useful also for the
manufacture of chemical and agricultural limes. The fine
system of State Highways have been constructed largely with
this material as a base and its availability for this purpose
has greatly facilitated the industrial and recreational develop-
ment of the State.
The Ocala limestone is also the chief water-bearing for-
mation of the State, yielding most generously untold quanti-

ties of water for every purpose. Mining operators, factories,
mills, municipalities and individuals depend upon water from
this source and many of our largest and best known springs
are fed subterraneously from it.
There is at present, too, a more definite trend toward the
use of natural building stone for both private and public
construction and it is believed that as more people become
acquainted with the possibilities of our various limestones
that greater use will be made of then for construction pur-
poses. Several of the native limestones are used for building,
both the dressed product and the rough stone. The corralline
limestone of the keys of southern Florida, F~loridene stone of
Manatee County, the Miami oolitic limestone, the Coquina and
the Marianna limestone are most generally used for building
Within recent years the native dolomitic limestone has
come to the fore and it is being produced in Levy, Citrus and
Sarasota counties. Experiments have shown that soils in
the citrus belt are often deficient in magnesia and the appli-
cation of ground dolomnite or magnesian limestone, is said to
have a very beneficial effect. The production of this mineral
so close at hand should insure a reasonable and readily avail-
able supply at all times. It is known that dolomitic limestones
are found at localities other than those at which they are be-
ing at present produced and these deposits will undoubtedly
be utilized as the demand for this character of material
The Florida Portland Cement Company has a modern
plant at Tampa, the raw materials of clay and limestone
coming from pits and mines near Brooksville, H-ernando
County. Other uses for native limestones include riprap,
ballast, aggregate and top dressing for roads.
Silicified limestone or flint is sometimes used as a rough
building stone but finds its principal use as an aggregate in
concrete, for ballast and for top dressing for roads.
A total of 1,611,687 tons of limestone, lime and crushed
flint were reported during 1936 with a value of $1,770,952.
During 1937 the reported production wvas 1,636,399 tons
valued at $1,607,972.
The lists that follow indicate thne names and addresses of
the producers of various limestones and the purposes for
which used.

Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Brooksville.
Dixie Lime Products Co., Ocala. Dolomite plant at
Florida Lime Products Co., Ocala.
Florida Dolomite Co., Pembroke. Plant near Sarasota.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Key Largo Stone Quarries, Inc., Coral Gables.
Mizner Products Inc., Palm Beach. Plant at Islamorada.
Keystone Art Corp., 684 N. WV. 7th St., M~iami. Plant at
CKeystone Art Corp., 684 N. WV. 7th St., Miami.
Hobe Sound Stone Co., Stuart. Plant at Hobe Sound.
Seminole Rock & Sand Co., N. WV. 14th St. and Red Road,
Naranja Rock Co., Naranja.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Brooksville.
Cummer Lumber Co., Kendrick.
Ocala Limerock Corp., Ocala. Quarry also at H~aile.
W~illiston Shell Rock Co., Williston. Quarry also at Haile.
Newrberry Corporation, 512 Dyal-Upchurch Bldg., Jack-
sonville. Haile quarry.
Broward County Highway Dept., F~t. Lauderdale.
S. P. Snyder & Son, Inc., Ft. Lauderdale.
Ocala Road Base Material Co., Ocala. Quarry at Y'ork.
Bell Rock Co., Miami.
The Broward Quarries, Inc., 2004 N. WV. North River Dr.,
Seminole Rock & Sand Co., N. W. 14th St. & Red Road,
Mills Rock Co., 301 N. W. 79th St., Miami.
Naranja Rock Co., Inc., 4333 N. 27th Ave., Miami.
Maule Ojus Rock Co, Ojus.
Dade County Highway Dept., ]Miamni.
City of Miami,, Miami.

Consolidated Rock Products Co., Brooksville.
Camp Concrete Rock Co., Brooksville.
Mlarianna Lime Products Co., Marianna.
Crushed Rock Co., Ft. Myers.
Connell & Shultz, Inverness.
Thompson. Williston Mine, care Duval Engineering & Con-
tracting Co., 512 Dyal-Upchurch Bldg., Jacksonville.
L. B. IMcLeod Construction Co., Williston.
Cummer Lumber Co., K~endrick.
Dixie Lime Products Co., Ocala.
Martin County H~ighway Dept., Stuart.
Mizner Products, Inc., 503 Wm. Penn Road, Palm Beach.
Werner Rock Co., New Port Richey.
TI. A. Thompson, Branford.
National Gardens Coquina Rock Co., 314 N. Grandview
Ave., Daytona Beach.
Florida East Coast Railway, Broward County.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Marianna Limne Products Co., Marianna.
Cummer Lumber Co., Kendrick.
Miami Lime and Chemical Co., Inc., Rt. 2, Box 317, Myiamni.
Dixie Lime Products Co., Ocala.
Florida L~ime Products Co., Box 478, Ocala.
Florida Portland Cement Co., 305 Morgan St., Tampa.
Alachua County Stone, Inc., H~igh Springs.
M. M. Thomas Flint Rock Corp., 109 E. Broadway, Ocala.
Standard Rock Co., Morriston.
Fullers earth is a clay-like substance possessing the
property of clarifying and bleaching crude oils. These valua-
ble characteristics caused a great demand for the clay for
many years and Florida was for a long time the principal
producer of fullers earth. The industry in recent years has
suffered in competition with bentonite and bentonitic clays.
These clays when chemically treated have exceptional bleach-
ing properties and they have given the natural fullers earth
clays keen competition.

Florida is known to have deposits of these bentonitic
clays, although the extent and quality is yet but little known.
Perhaps with proper research in the field and laboratory
Florida may be able to recapture its former position as a
producer of bleaching clays.
The following companies are producers of fullers earth:
Floridin Company, 220 Liberty St., Warren, Pa. Mines
at Quincy and Jamieson, Gadsden County.
Fullers Earth Co., 10616 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, O. Mine
at Midway, Gadsden County.
Superior Earth Co., Inc., Ocala. Mine at Superior, Marion

Sand is one of the State's most abundant minerals, how-
ever, much of this sand lacks special properties needed for
various industrial uses. Here and there about the State are
deposits of sand ideally suited for mortar and good mortar
sand is also obtained as a by-product in mining kaolin and
other deposits.
There is one glass factory in Florida using native sand
and limestone. The Florida Glass Manufacturing Company
at Jacksonville makes a variety of glass jars and bottles.
Their products are well made, clear and free from stain.
Florida has deposits of white sand that it would seem
are suitable for the manufacture of different kinds of glass-
wares and it has unlimited supplies of almost pure high
calcium limestones. It seems possible therefore that the
State should produce not only glass for containers of all de-
scriptions but other types such as structural and plate glass
as well. With such a large demand for glass containers in a
fruit and vegetable producing state like Florida it would seem
that this field should be one of much promise.
Gravel has for many years been produced in Florida,
especially in the northern and western sections. The original
source of this gravel is in the states to the northward, from
which they have been transported by stream action. Com-
mercial production has centered mainly along the Apalachi-
cola and E~scambia Rivers and in Jackson County.
The total reported production of sand and gravel in 1936
was 629,662 tons with a value of $394,908, and for 1937 a
large increase was reported, the total being 965,322 tons
valued at $751,523.

The following reported production of sand and gravel:
P. H. Carlisle, Panama City.
Alfred Destin Co., 235 Southwest Fourth Ave., Miami.
Maule Ojus Rock Co., Ojus.
Seminole Rock and Sand Co., Miami.
Florida Gravel Company, Chattahoochee.
Acme Sand Company, Eustis.
Diamond Sand Company, Lake Wales.
Lake WI;ales Concrete Sand Company, Box 715, Lake
Southern Phosphate Corp., Bartow.
Diamond Interlachen Sand Co., Box 4667, Interlachen.
Benton Manson Company, Inc., P. O. Box 2215, St. Peters-
The clays of Florida in addition to fullers earth that are
produced commercially and from which clay products are
made may be grouped into kaolin, pottery dlays and common
brick making clays. The kaolin is a fine white burning clay
which is used in the manufacture of white wares of different
kinds, and because of its unusual qualities is in great demand.
The following companies operated in Florida during 1936 and
1937 and have for numbers of years:
Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company, Metuchen, N. J. Mine
at Edgar.
United Clay Mines Corp., 101 Oakland St., Trenton, N. J.
Mine at Crossley.
Florida clays are used in the manufacture of common
brick, tile, pottery and in the making of Portland cement.
Unfortunately figures are lacking on the value of clay
products, however, it is known that they contribute sub-
stantially to the annual mineral production and wealth of
the State, and are coming more and more in use.
Florida has large deposits of exceptionally pure and high
grade diatomaceous earth, both in western Florida and in
the lake region of the Peninsula. In Florida the deposits
occur much like peat, and may vary quite a great deal in
purity and thickness in different parts of the formation.
Because it occurs under conditions vastly different from con-
ditions prevailing in other sections of the United States, new
methods of mining, treatment and preparation for the market
are employed. Many troublesome factors in this respect have
been overcome and the industry is gradually growing. De-
tails as to extent of the different deposits should be de-

termined and with such additional details it is confidently
believed that development would follow. At present one com-
pany is operating in Florida, the American Diatomite Com-
pany, Clermont, Lake County, and they market a very superior
product. Another company at Clermont, The Air K~ondition-
ing Company, is manufacturing a cleaning cream, a polishing
cream and moisture proof salt and pepper shakers, in all of
which diatomaceous earth plays a most prominent part. It
is not unlikely that other utilitarian products will also, be
manufactured from diatomite.

Peat is formed by the slow decomposition of vegetable
matter under extremely moist or wet conditions. Its principal
use in foreign countries is for fuel and although not used
for that purpose here in Florida it has been found valuable
and helpful as a filler for fertilizer, for conditioning heavy
soils and for light soils lacking humus. Peat has the property
of both increasing the moisture retaining ability of a soil and
returning beneficial bacteria to soils that have been depleted
and it is widely used for these purposes.
The following companies reported production:
Florida Humus Company, 1Zellwood.
Panama Humus Company, Panama City.

1936 1937
Quantity Value Quantity Value
Pebble Phosphate (long
tons) .......................... 2,454,272 $ 7,845,767 2,872,413 $ 8,600,512
Hard Rock Phosphate*
(long tons) ......... .. 170,628 682,554 124,407 542,473
Limestone, Lime and
Crushed Flint ........._. 1,611,687 1,770,952 1,636,399 1,607,972
Sand and Gravel ............. 629,662 394,908 965,322 751.523
Kaolin and Fullers Earth 87,133 981,538 75,130 860,786
Peat, Diatomite, Cement 1,266,376 1,414,357
$12,942,097 $13,777,623
Including soft phosphate.

State Board of Conservation


January 1st, 1937 Through December 31st, 1937

Unexpended Balance for Salaries
January 1st, 1937 ........................$ 4,475.83
Bv Appropriation from General
Revenue ]Fund--Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 ................. .............. 8,000.00 $ 12,475.83

Unlexpended Balance for Necessary
and Regular Expenses Jan-
uary 1st, 1937........ ....... ... ...........
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fu~nd--Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937................................


4,500.00 8,816.73 $ 21,292.56

Salaries ..................... .................... 8,434.57
Traveling Expenses................ ........... 645.09
Printing and Stationery.................... 1,113.33
Postage and Post Office Box Rent.. 159.00
Telephone and Telegraph.................. 42.19
Field and Off ice Equipment....... ..... 1,410.05
Miscellaneous Office Supplies..._.... 396.81
Miscellaneous Office Expense ........ 234.87
Insurance and Bonds ...................... 78.64
Field Work Preparatory to a Report
on the Physiography of Florida 500.00

$ 13,014.55

Balance Absorbed by
General Revenue
Fund from Sal-
ary Account June
30th, 1937 ............$
Balance Absorbed by
General Revenue
Fund from Neces-
sary and Regular
Expense Account
June 30th, 1937....



$ 25.02

8,252.99 $ 21,292.56

Unexpended Balance
in Salary Account
December 31, 1937 4,016.67
Unexpended Balance
in Necessary and
Regular Expense
Account December
31st, 1937 ............. 4,236.32

Unexpended Balance for Salaries
January 1st, 1938 ......................$ 4,016.67
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fund--Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 ................................ 8,000.00

Unexpended Balance for Necessary
and Regular Expenses January
1st, 1938 ........................ ............... 4,236.32
By Appropriation from General
Revenue Fund--Chapter 17707
Laws of 1937 ................................ 4,500.00


Salaries ~................... ....................$ 8,040.00
Traveling Expenses .......................... 592.07
Printing and Stationery .................. 48.47
Postage and Post Office Box Rent 241.40
Telephone and Telegraph. ........._.... 46.23
Field and Office Equipment.......... 7.35
Miscellaneous Office Supplies...__... 166.19
Miscellaneous Office Expense........ 303.43
Insurance and Bonds.......................... 62.30
Miscellaneous Field Expense............ 204.06

Unexpended Balance
in Salary Account
December 31, 1938..$ 3,976.67
Unexpended Balance
in Necessary and
Regular Ex pense
Account December
31, 1938 ...................... 7,064.82

$ 12,016.67

8,736.32 $ 20,752.99


11,041.49 $ 20,752.99

State Board of Conservation


January 1st, 1938 Through December 31st, 1938