A concise natural history of East and West Florida

Material Information

A concise natural history of East and West Florida Containing, an account of the natural produce of all the southern part of British America, in the three kingdoms of nature, particularly the animal and vegetable. Likewise, the artificial produce now raised, or possible to be raised, and manufactured there, with some commercial and political observations in that part of the world; and a chorographical account of the same
Romans, Bernard, ca. 1720-ca. 1784
Place of Publication:
New York printed
Sold by R. Aitken, bookseller, opposite the London Coffee-house, Front street
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
4, 342 (i. e. 340) p. : 6 pl. ; 18cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Natural history -- Florida ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Gulf States ( lcsh )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


General Note:
The numbers 176-177 are omitted in paging.
Statement of Responsibility:
By Captain Bernard Romans.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
023084696 ( ALEPH )
01575998 ( OCLC )
AAP1625 ( NOTIS )

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An AccouNT of the NATURAL PRODUCE of
all the Southern Part of BRITISH AMERICA, in the
Three Kingdoms of Nature, particularly the ANIMAL

L I K E W I S 1,
The ARTIeICIAL PRODUCE now raised, or poffible to be raised, and
Manufaaured there, with fome Commercial and Political Obferva-
tions in that Part of the World; and a Chorographical Account
of the fame.

By C A P T A I N



(Price, Bound, One Dsllar,)

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LC/YJf ,,-, t,)...' .z'j

-Ageut WorthtrVIovwLCr of 'Wt-'Florjda.

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P EFACES, at this present day becomefuch
impertinent things, that it is almoJl improper
to ofer one without an apology.
The many different reports which have prevailed
in America, Jince the cefion of the Floridas, concern-
ing their fJate, situation, and foil, joined to the na-
tural desire of thofe concerned, to fee a good account
of thefefo celebrated countries, I hope will be apology
enough in the present cafe.
Conscious of being, from experience, fuffcient y
enabled to give a jufl account of them, I have under-
taken the following fJetch, or out-lines, of a future
natural hiflory of thofe countries, in hopes that fome
abler hand may be thereby induced to take up the pen,
and furniJh the world with a complete work of that
kind for thefe provinces; being well affired, that no
part of Britijl America will furniJb the naturalist
with more variety.
I ofer this humble attempt without any recommen-
dations or praifes of my own ; only I beg to ajure my
reader, that I have, through the whole, adhered fo
firitly to truth, as to make no one deviation there-
from willingly or knowingly ; guarding, on the one
hand, against the mifreprefentations, wherewith the
authors of the numerous and noted pufs, concerning
thefe provinces, have fo plentifully interlarded their
labours; and, en the ether, againJt the prejudices of

thofe, who have taken fo much pains to render this
country undefervedly defpifed.
No elegance ofJ yle, nor flowers of rhetoric, mu/l
be expected from a person who is conscious that he is
not fuficiently acquainted with the language, to write
infuch a manner as willpleafe a critical reader; and
if he has wrote fo as to be underflood, he hopes the
candid will excufe fuch inaccuracies in compoftion,
as it is difcult for a foreigner to avoid.

R E A SON without experience can do nothing; being
no more than the mere dreams, phantafms, and me-
teors of ingenious men, who abufe their time.
There is need of much diligence and labour, before man
can be thoroughly inftruOted. LINNEU sA
All things contained in the compafs of the universe de-
clare, as it were with one accord, the infinite wifdom of
the Creator ; for whatever flrikes our fenfes, whatever is
the ohje&t of our thoughts, is fo contrived as to affift in
r.nU;l .;- the divine glory, i. e. the ultimate end which
God proposed in all his works. Whoever duly turns his
attention to the things on this our terraqueous globe, muff
ucceffarily confeis, that they are fo connected fo linked to-
gether, that they all tend to the fame end, and to this end
a vaft number of intermediate ends are neceffary.
Man, the fervant and explained of nature, observes and
pra&ifes as much as he has learned,, concerning her order,
effect, and power; further he neither knows nor can do.





Ealf and Wefl-Florida.
A DE S C R I B E R of countries, ought
in a great measure, to imitate a building
Engineer, in firft laying before thofe,
whom he will employ, accurate and di-
ftin& plans of his intended work, thereby enabling
them to judge more diftinaly of the execution
thereof. I think that in a work df this nature, i
could not do this better that by directing my
readers to the charts or plans accompanying it, in
which they will undoubtedly find materials to .frm
juft ideas of the places herein described.
To reduce my work to fome regularity, i hall
proceed from the Eaft, Weftward, and begin with
the Peninfula, dividing it into two parts, which i
will call climates, the one beginning at Amelia or
St. Mary's inlet, in latitude 3 : and extending
Southward to the latitude of 27 : 40 : this will in-
elude the rivers St. Mary, Naffau, St. John's or
Ylacco, and the Mufketo Lagoon (for furely no
one can call this laft a river) besides f:vr-ral tial-
icr ones, wh;ch will be mentioned in their places
A ;hd.-

there all empty themselves on the Eaftern fide of
- the Apalachicola (the boundary between the two
Floridas) the Ofkablafkna the Apalachian, St.
Juan de Guacaro, vulgarly called little Seguana,
the river Amaxura, and the Manatee, which laft
falls into thebay of Tampe, or harbour of Spirito
Santo, and which i have firft discovered.
The other, or Southern climate, beginning at
the latitude 27 : 40 : and extending Southward
to the latitude of 25, on the main, or to 24 : 17 :
including the keys; this contains a large river,
which empties itself into the new harbour, of
which i am the firft explorer, we have given it the
name of Charlotte harbour, but neither harbour
nor river have been described by the Spaniards in
their maps, and the Spanifh fishermen diftinguifh
the place by the names of its inlets, which are five,
and will hereafter be described ; next ig Carlos bay
and Carlos harbour, into which the river Coloofa-
hatcha empties itself; further South are not any
more deferving the name of rivers, but fuch as
they. :ire, i hall give them a place alfo ; on
the Eaft fide is only the river St. Lucia, with its
Southern branch, the river Ratones, and the La-
goon, known by the name of Aifa Hatcha, Rio
d'ais, or Indian river, fome others can fcarcely be
ranked among rivers, but will likewise be more
pr- icularly mentioned hereafter.
After this general division of the country, i think
it is not.iniproper to begin with an account of the
air, which this province enjoys very pure and clear
fogs are feldorn known any where except up-
on St. John's river, but the dews are very hea-
vy, the fpring and summer are in general dry,
the autumn vcry changeable; the beginning of

winter wet and ftormy, but the latter part very dry
and ferene from the end of September to the
end of June,.there is perhaps not any where a more
delightful climate to be found, but all July, Au-
guft, andmoft of September are exceffively hot, yet
the changes from hot to cold are not fo fudden, as
in Carolina, and froft is not frequently known, the
noon day's fun is always warm, the fevereft
cold ever known there affects not the tender
china .orange trees, which grow here to a very
great perfection, i fcruple not to fay, that this
fruit here exceeds in goodnefs every other of the
kind i have yet feen, however the change from
the middle of this climate, to the Northern part of
it is much more perceptible from heat to cold,
than it was to the fouthward from cold to heat, in
the year 1770 and 1771. I felt very fevere wea-
ther about the river Naffau, and to the fouthward
of the town of St. Auguftine, the climate changes
fo gradually, that it is not perceivable to the above
named lat. of 27 : 40: where there is no frofi at
all, and which I have always fet down as the line
of no froft. From this line to the southern extent
is a moft charming climate, the air almost always
ferene ; on the eaft fide the common trade wind,
and on the weft fide the Apalachian fea breeze
from the weft to the north-weft, refrefh this deligh-.
fil Peninfula during the summer; here we find
all the produce of more northern climes mixed
with the inhabitants of the Tropics, and this as
well in the water as on the land, nor is there ever
fo great a cold as tQ d,;l: .ry the fruits of the fourth,
por fo great a heat as to parch the produce of the
north; in all this Peninfula it is remarkable, that
rain is always prc.ign.lljliUt. one or twoQ days be-

(4 )
fore it falls, and this by either an immoderate dew
or no dew at all, fo that if a very heavy dew falls,
it is a certain fign of rain, and the fame if on a calm
fine night, there be no dew, but i cannot account
for this phenomenon.
The winds are not fo very changeable here as
they are further to the northward, but are during
the greatest part of spring, the whole summer, and
beginning of autumn, generally between the eaft
and fouth eaft, and during the laft of autumn, and
firft part of winter,they are commonly in the north
eaft quarter; the latter part of the winter, and firft
offering they are more generally weft and north
weft, the autumnal equinox is to be dreaded here,
as well two or three weeks before, as two or three
months after it, great forms will then happen, and
many veffels are drove on fhore, or otherwise dif-
abled: I have never heard of much mifchief in
the vernal equinox, and if a hurricane -was ever
known in this Peninfula, it was on the 29th
of October 1769, when there was a terrible
guft between the lat. 25 : io, and 25 : 50, which
blew many trees down, and drove the Snow Led-
bury a thore, where the remained dry on a key,
now diftinguifhed by her name, but heretofore
considered as, a part of what was improperly called
by the name of Key Largo.
The fatal hurricane of Auguft 30, 31, Septem-
ber I, 2, 3, anno 1772, was severely felt in Weft
Florida, it destroyed the woods for about 30 miles
from the fea coaft in a terrible manner, what were
its effects in the unfettled countries to the eaft-
ward, we cannot learn ; in Penfacola it did little
or no mifchief except the breaking down of all the
wharfs but one; but farther weftward, it was

'terrible; at Mobile every thing was in confufion,
Sveffels, boats, and loggs were drove up into the
ftreets a great distance, the gullies and hollows
as well as all the lower grounds of this town were
To filled with loggs, that many of the inhabitants
got the greatest part of their yearly provifion of
firewood there; all the vegetables were burned up
by the falt water, which was by the violence of
the wind, carried over the town, fo as at the dif-
tance of half a mile, it was icen to fall like rain;
all the lower floors of the houfes were covered
with water, but no houfes were hurt except one,
which flood at the water fide, in which lived a
joiner, a fchooner drove- upon it, and they alter-
nately destroyed each other; but the greatest fury
of it was fpent on the neighbourhood of the Pafca
Oocolo river; the plantation of Mr. Krebs there
was almost totally destroyed, of a fine crop of rice,
and a large one of corn were fcarcely left any re-
mains, the houfes were left uncovered, his finith's
fhop was almost all washed away, all his works
and out houfes blown flown ; and for thirty miles
up a branch of this river which (on account of the
abundance of that species of cyprefs* vulgarly cal-
led white cedar) is called cedar river, there was,
fcarce a tree left ftandifig, the pines were blowvn
down or b-oke, and thofe which had not entirely
yielded to this violence, were fo twisted, that they
might be compared to ropes; at Botereaux's cow
pen, the people were above fix weeks consulting on
a method of finding and bringing home their cat-
tle ; twelve miles up the river, live fone Germans
who, feing the water rife with fo incredible a rapi-
dity, ,were almost embarked, fearing an universal
flod, but the water not rifing over their land,
SCupreffus Thyoides. they

(6 )
they did not proceed on their intended journey to
the Cha&aw nation. At Yoani, in this nation, i
am told the effeas were perceivable in all this
tra& ofcoaft and country the wind had ranged be-
tween the fouth fouth eaft and eaft, but farther
weft its fury was between the north north eaft and
caft, a fchooner belonging to the government
having a detachment of the fixteenth regiment on
board, was drove by accident to the westward as
far as Cat Ifland, where fhe lay at an anchor un-
der the weft point, the water role fo high, that
when fhe parted her cables, fhe floated over the
island, the wind north by eaft, or thereabout fhe
was forced upon the Free mafons iflends, and lay
about 6 weeks before fhe was got off, ai.d if they
had not accidentally been discovered by a hunting.
boat, the people might have remained there and
died for want, particularly as water failed them.
already when discovered; the effe& of this diffe.
rent dire&ion of the current of air or wind was
here furprifing, the fouth eafterly wind having
drove the water in immenfewquantities up all the
rivers, bays, and founds to the westward, being
here counterated by the northerly wind, this bo,
dy of water was violently forced into the bay of
Spirit Santo at the. back of the Chandeleurs,
grand Gozier, and Breton Ifles, and not finding
sufficient vent up the rigolets, nor down the outlets
of the bay, it forced a number of very deep chan-
nels through thefe iflands, cutting them into a
great number of fmall iflands. The high ifland
of the Chandeleur had all the surface of its ground
wafhed off, and i really think, had not the clay
been held faft by the roots of the black man..
grove, and in fome places the myrtle (vyrica)

there would have been fcarce a veftige of the island
left; at the mouth of Miffifippi all the shipping
was drove into the marfhes; a Spanifh brig
foundered and parted, and a large crew was loft,
fome of the people were taken from a piece of her
at fea, by a loop from Penfacola a few days af-
ter; in the lakes at Chef Menteur, and in the
paffes of the rigolets, the water rofe prodigioufly
and coveredthe low iflands there two feet; at St.
John's Creek, and New Orleans, the tide was
thought extraordinary high, but at all there laft
places there was no wind felt, being a fine ferene
day with a fmall air from the eaftward.
The moft extraordinary effe& of this hurricane
was the produ&ion of a second crop of leaves and
fruit on all the mulberry trees in this country, a
circumstance into which i very carefully enquired,
but could not learn from the oldeft and moft curi-
ous observers that this had ever happened before;
this tardy tree budded, foliated, bloffomed, and
bore ripe fruit with the amazing rapidity of only
four weeks time immediately after the guft, and
no other trees were thus affected.
The fouth and fouth weft winds make a thick
heavy air, and are in my opinion hurtful to the
lungs; they alfo occasion the fultry weather, fo
much complained of in July and Auguft. The
winds from the eastern quarter every where be
tween the fourth eaft and the north eaft, are cool
and moift, and they caufe the frequent showers,
by which the very fand of this climate is endued
with fo prodigious avegetativepower that it amazes
every one. The winds from the eaft to the north
are agreeably cool, and from the north to the north
weft, occasion what is here called cold weather; i

have frequently kept thermometricaljournals, but
have none left now for infpe&ion.
I remember the general height of the mercury
on Fahrenheit's fcale, to have been, in the fhade
where the air was not prevented circulating freely
about it, between 84 and 88 and on fome fultry
hot days in July and Auguft, i have known it to
rife up to 94, when at the fame time by carrying
it out and exposing it to the fun, it will rife in a
very fort time up to i I4, nor can i remember
ever to have feen it above one or two degrees be-
low the freezing point; it is impollible for one to,
imagine how inexpreffibly temperate the weather
is here from the latter end of September to the lat-
ter end of June; the western part of this northern
division is not fo very hot in summer, as the whole
eastern fhore of the Peninfula is, but its fea fhore
is much more expofed to the bleak winter winds.
In the southern division i have never feen the
mercury in Fahrenheit's thermometer below the
temperate point, and i cannot remember ever to
have feen it higher than in the northern division.
This southern part of the Peninfula is in the
months of May, June, July, and Auguft very
fubjet, on its weft fide, to dreadful fqualls,
and there is a certainty of one or more of thefe
tornadoes every day, when during that feafon, the
wind comes any where between the fourth fouth
eaft, and fouth weft, but they are of very fort
duration; then alfo thunder and lightning is fre-
quent, but nothing near fo violent as in Caroli-
na and Georgia, nor do i rwnember any more
than one inflance of damage occafioned by it,
when it made a large hole in a tone wall of a
houfe at St. Auguftinc; yet very few e! *ric.:l
conductors are made ui.'- of there. Ec-

before i quit this fubje& of the air, i cannot
help taking notice of a remark, wfich i have read
fome where, made by Dr. James McKenzie,
which is that dampnefs or difcoloring of plaifter,
and wainfcoat, the foon moulding of bread, moift-
nefs of fpunge, diffolution of loaf fugar, rufting
of metals, and rotting of furniture, are certain
marks of a bad air; now every one ofthofe marks
except the laft, are more to be feen at St. Auguf-
tine, than in any place i ever was at, and yet i do
not think, that on all the continent, there is a
more healthy fpot; burials have been lefs frequent
here, than anywhere elfe, where an equal number
of inhabitants is to be found, and it was remark-
ed during my flay there, that when a detachment
of the royal regiment of artillery once arrived
there in a fickly fate, none of the inhabitants
caught the contagion, and the troops themselves
loon recruited i alfo know of federal afthmatic and
confumptive fubjeds, who have been greatly re-
lieved there; the Spanifh inhabitants lived here
to a great age, and certain it is, that the people
of the Havannah looked on it as their Montpe-
lier, frequenting it for the fake of health; i there-
fore afcribe the above circumstances to the nature
of the ftone, wherewith the houfes are built.
Haloes, or as they are vulgarly called circles
round the fun and moon, are very often feen, and
are fure forerunners of rain if not wind fiorms-
thofe of the fun are lefs frequent, but they are al
ways followed by very violent gales of wind; it is
remarkable, that if in thofe haloes a break is ob-
ferved, that break-isalways towards the quarter,
from whence the wind begins; water fpouts are
often feen along this coat, tut i cannot learn th4a
B they,

they ever occasioned any mischief, nor could i learn,
that earthquakes have ever been experienced in this
part of the world.
Of Weft Florida, there needs fcarce any thing
more to be faid, with regad to the article ofclimate,
or air, than what i have faid of my northern division
of Eaft Florida, it agreeing in every refpeA there-
wk'h, except that the winter is something more fe-
-vere, it often killing tender fruit trees; however,
as the ficknefs of 1765 at Mobile, has been a fub-
je& of much difcourfe, and as it has been fet up
(by people who would if poffible prevent the po-
pulation of fo fine a country) as a fcarecrow to
fuch, as are eafily deceived by appearances, and
-never enquire deeper than external fhews; this fa-
tal disorder has been followed by the entire ruin of
Mobile, and had nearly fpoiled the reputation of
Penfacola, which though fituate in as fine, airy,
dry and healthy a fite as any on the continent, and
at leaft at a distance of fixty miles from Mo-
bile, had yet the misfortune to be confounded
with it, and to be thought liable to the fame mif-
fortunes- i will give as faithful an account of that
illnefs, as has come within the verge of my know-
Mobile was originally built by the French, af.
ter they had left their old Fort Cond&, thirty
miles higher up the Tombecb6, having found that
situation very inconvenient; they now made at
leaft as injudicious a choice in another refpe&, by
placing themselves at a distance from good water,
on low ground, and direfly opposite to fome
marfhy iflands, at the division between the falt and
frefh water, a situation well known in America
not to be eligible forth fake of health, but the
I1 i771-2, it kill~ aipl and ea'cts, con-

( II )
convenience of the navigation up to it being the
belt in their poffeffion at that time, its being a bar-
rier against the Spaniards, and the eafy communi-
cation with the Chactaw and Upper Creek nations,
as well as with the Miffifippi, made people forget
the evils attending it, and it foon became, from a
fort, a pretty town, with fome very good houses
built i no inelegant tafte, yet the French inhabi-
raats duly-obferving the inconveniencies of this
unhealthy fpot, adapted their constitutions to it,
by a regular fober life, being uncommonly care-
ful to get their drinking water from a rivulet at the
distance ofthree miles, where it is very good, nei-
ther did they give into excefs of drinking fpiritu.
oas liquors and wine, and at the feafon, when the
continued heat caused a putrefa6tion of the water
in pools, and exhaled the moisture of this low
ground, thereby filling the air with noxious vapours,
and thus occafioning the acute epidemical disorders
(that proved fo fatal in the year 1765) thoie pru-
dent inhabitants retired to their plantations up or
down the river, fome even at a fmall distance,
there to enjoy a freer circulation of a lefs putrified
air, thus alfo by the depopulation of the town, the
remaining inhabitants suffered lefs by being lefs
crowded together, aud there were fuch instances
of longevity here as are not to be outdone in any
part of America. Let me beg leave to mention
among many others, one more commonly known,
it is the Chevalier de Lucere's family, who are
now all very old, and whofe mother not many
years fince died by breaking one of her legs, that
had been fo much calcarizated by the gout, that
it fnapped by stepping into bed, the died aged far
above one hundred years. One other i hall men.

12 )
tion, more familiar to me, which is that of one
Mr. FranCois, who lives now about five miles be-
low the river Poule: In September 1771, i cal-
led there, the old man told me he was then paft
eighty three years of age, that the old woman,
whom i faw putting bread into the oven, was his
mother; and that fhe was one of the firft women
that came from France to this country; i faw her
about her domeftick bufinefs in many ways; in a
very cheerful manner, singing and running from
place to place as brifkly as a girl of twenty; Mr.
Francois told me, that at the age offixty he fell out
of a pine tree, above fifty feet high, with his loins
over a fallen one, that he with difficulty recover-
ed, and that had it not been for that accident, he
would not, as he thinks, yet have been fenfible of
the heavy hand of time; that he was ftill a hearty
cheerful old man, was evidently to be feen; when
i came to the river Poule in O6tober 1772, i met
the fame old gentleman fishing at the mouth of the
river, on my afking him whether this diverfion
was agreeable to him, he told me; that his mother
had an inclination to eat fifh, and he was come to
get her a mefs; he was then on foot and had five
miles to come to this place, and as much back
with his prey, after catching it; a very dutiful
fon this at eighty five! He lives comfortably at
an agreeable place, and on the produce of a mid-
ling large ftock of cattle.
Many more of this kind might be mentioned,
but thefe two being more universally known, i
chofe to relate them only. Far otherwise was it
with our fons of incontinence, who upon their arri-
val, and after their firft taking poffeffion of this
country, lived there fo faft, that their race was

( 13 )
too foon hamperedd over; midnight carouz'-
and the converting day into night, and night into
day was all the ftudy of thofe gay, thofe thoug;ht-
lefs men, who fported with their lives; as with a
toy not worth efteeming; the fatal efflE(s of th:ir
debauches; joined to the consequences of the fitu-
ation of their residence, made their lives indeed
comparable to grafs, day, and wi-
thering to morrow; but as if a punishment for this
abandoned life, was not.fufficiently incurred by its
own fatality, in the year 1765 arrived a regiment
(i think the twenty firft) from Jamaica, with
them they brought a contagious diftemper; con-
traded either in the island, or on their paf'ihge
thefe men, like moft soldiers; lived a life of intem-
perance, and besides, drank the water out of the
Itagnated pools, which i myfelf have even in the
winter, feen fuch as to fill a man wih horror at
the thought of making ufe thereof, this and other
inconveniences of a soldier's life, joined to their
arriving in a bad feafon, fwept them off fo a'
scarce to leave a living one to bury the dead. See
there the true reason of the fickly character of the
climate, and of the deftru&ion of this once flou-
rifhing town, whofe situation by far exceeds that
of Savannah in Georgia, in every refped.
It is an almost invariable rule for people, who
intend going to a different climate, to confult
fome friend or acquaintance on the manner of life,
he would advife him to lead, i have never yet
heard of one going to JFlorida, who was not told
by his friend, that a free glafs was neceffary; how
true this is, i hall not pretend to fay, but certain
it is, that the advice is almost always too freely
followed, the free glafs generally degenerating in-
to a glafs of excefs. Not

( 14 )
Notw'ithlanding all i have above aflerted, it is
not to be denied, that during the hot months, the
air is not fo wholefome as in the other feafons, but
even then it does not fo much affe& careful ftran-
gcrs, and new comers, as thofe who have been
iboe time there and live irregular lives.
The night air is not fo much to be dreaded
here, as in countries where the fun is vertical, or
nearly fo, and consequently, by its long absence,
makes a chilling penetrating night follow a burn.
ing day, but here it is not long enough abfent to
cool the atmosphere sufficiently to hurt the unwea-
ry fleeper, who during the firft heat of a fultry
night perhaps has expofed his open pores to the
mercy of the air.
m The atmosphere is, during this feafon, fo burn
ing hot, that undoubtedly very fudden rarefaai-
ons of the humours are often experienced, which
caufe fuch abundant perspiration, that water, as
foon as drank, penetrates the open pores, fo that
the human fkin feems to be comparable to a wet
fpunge when squeezed; yet although the water is
here very cool (and if it has not this quality natu-
rally, it is artificially made to acquire it) we ne-
Ver hear of the fatal effects of water drinking, fo
often experienced in the cities of New York and
Philadelphia, the reason perhaps is, that it is fel-
dom if ever drank unmixed.
I will however venture to foretell, that on open-
ing the woods of this country for cultivation,
which will naturally drain ponds, gullies, &c. the
air will be here very little affected by thofe perni-
cious vapours, which have fo uncommon an influ-
ence over the humours and fibrous parts of the hu-
man frame, as to destroy their harmonious con,

( 35 )
tordance (may i be admitted the phrafe?) and
occafioning them to relax, and thereby producing
-weakneffes, latitudes, and finally dangerous and
fatal difbrders.
If we consider the effects of heat and humidi-
ty on the hardeft fubftances, fuch as wood, and
even metals, which are thereby expanded, and
have the union of their folid parts relaxed, it may
give us an idea, how much more their effe&s muft
be felt in the animal ceconomy at times, when
fire and water unite their diffolving powers to at
on all nature.
A very dry hot air, though lefs dangerous to
the body, than a hot moift one, has yet very near-
ly the fame effeas, as it partially dries the
Ponds, Marihes, Swamps, &c. leaving the re-
maining water and mud to exhale, and fpread
their noxious vapours through the atmosphere.
Every inhabitant of any part QAmerica knows,
that the fudden tranfitions from cold to heat fo
prevalent on that continent, are much more to be
dreaded, than any of the above named caufes of
immoderate heat, cold, moisture, and drought.
I am now to consider the nature and appearance
of the earth, which in this part of America, may
be divided into fix different forts, much the fame
as in Carolina, with this diftindion, that it is
much more unequally divided.
I hall treat of them by the names of pine land,
Hammock land, favannahs, fwamps, marches,
and bay, or cyprefs galls.
Firft the pine land, commonly called pine bar-
ren, which makes up the largest body by far, the
Peninfula being fcarce any thing elfe; but about
an:hundred miles towards the north weft from St.

( 16 )
'Augtiftine, and about two hundred from the fce
in Weft Florida, carry us entirely out of it. This
land confifts of a grey, or white fand, and in ma-
ny places of a red or yellow gravel; it produces a
great variety offhrubs or plants, of which i hall
hereafter describe fome, the principal produce
from whence it derives its name is the pinus foliis
longifimis ex .na theca ternis, or yellow pine and
pitch pine tree, which i take to be a variety of the
fame species, both excellent and good timber.
Alfo the chamcerops frondibus palmatis plicatis
flipitibus ferratis, of whofe fruit all animals are
very fond.
It is on this kind of land, that immenfe flocks
of cattle are maintained, although the moft natural
grafs on this foil is of a very harfh nature, and the
cattle not at all fond of it, it is known by the name
of wire grafs; and they only eat it while young;
for the procurinrt young or renewing this kind of
pafture, the woods are frequently fired, and at
different feafons, in order to have a fucceffion of
young grafs, but the favannahs that are interfperfed
in this kind of land furnifh a more plentiful and
more proper food for the cattle.
Some high pine hills are fo covered with two or
three varieties of the quercus or oak fo as to make an
underwood to the lofty pines; and a fpecies of
dwavrf chefnut is often found here; another fpecies
or a larger growth is alfo found in the lower parts,
particularly in the edges of the bay or cyprefs galls.
This barren and unfavourable foil in a wet fea,
fon bears many things far beyond expectation; and
is very ufeful for the cultivation of peach and
mulberry orchards; this land might alfo be ren-
dered useful for many other purposes, but either

the people do not choofe to go out of the old beaten
track, orcontent themselves with looking elsewhere
for new land improveable with lefs coift; the nme-
thod of meliorating it is certainly, obvious to the
meaneft capacity, as it every where, at a greater or
lefs depth, covers a ftiff marly kind of clay, which
i am certain, was it properly mixed with the land;
would render it fertile, and this: might be drie
with little expense, the clay lying in fome places
within half a foot or a foot. of the firface; in moft
places it is found at the depth of;three, four, or
five feet, confequently not very hard to come at.
In Eaft Florida, in the fouthetr part,; this kirid
of landis often very rocky, but especially from the
latitude.a 5: 50, fouthward to the point, where it is
a folid rock, of a kind of lime ftone covered with
innumerable fall, loofe and fharp ftones, every
where; .
In Weft Florida the pine land is alfo frequently
found rocky, with an iron ftone, elprcially neAr
where the pines are found growing in a gravelly
tra&, which is frequently the cafe here,
The hammock land fo called from its ap-
pearing in tufts among .the lofty .pines; fome
fall fpots of this kind, if feen at a distance, have.
a very romantic appearance; the large parcels of
it often divide fwamps, creeks,, or rivers from die
pine land, this is indeed its moft common fituati-
on; the whole of the up lands, remote from the
fea in the northern parts, is this kind of land, its
foil is various, in fome places a fand of divers co-
fours, and in Eaft Florida, often a white fand;
but the true hammock foil is a mixture of day and
a blackilh fand, and in fome fpots a kind of ochre,
in Eaft Florida foit of this is alfo sometimes
C found

( 18 )
found rocky; on every kind of this land lays a
firatum of black mould, made by the decayed
leaves &c. of the wood and other plants growing
upon it the falts contained in this ftratum render
it very fruitful- and when cleared this is the beft;
nay the only fit land for the production of indigo,
potatoes, and pulfe; the firft crops, by means of
the manure above mentioned, generally are very
plentiful, but the falts being foon evaporated, if the
foil over which it lay,. Should prove to be fand,, it
is not better than pine land the other fort bears
many :years planting; its naturalproduce is fo.
various ir this din ate, that the compleat defcrip-
tion of all, would oe more work thin one man's
life time would be sufficient for, the principal how-
ever ate the following:

,uercus alba rirginiana.
~uercus alba pumilis.

Suercus, follis obloagis
nonfinuatis, femper vi-.
rens ..
,Quercus nigra, folio noft
firrato, in fummitate
quafi itiangulo.

Q uercus nigra foliis cUnei
forfia, obfolete triio-

.Tiercas nig'a Marilandi-
-cia, flio trijdo, ad
/ accidente.


Virginian white oak.
Dwarf white oak, or
poft oak.
Evergreen oak with ob-
long entire leaves, or
live oak.
Black oak, with leaves
ferrated, and their
tops almost triangu-
Black oak, with wedge
shaped leaves, and
having imperfe&ly
three lobes.
Black Maryland oak,
with trifid leaves re.
fembling faflafras.


( rg )

fercus rubra Carolinen-
Jis, virens muricata.
Aftfs 'caftes!e folis,
1_O efW arbor.
y glats ala, f,'afu ova-
tm ~xmpreffo profi.'i.,
if'ulpto dtrfimo, ca-
Wtailt inus.winiwm.

Juglans Firginian al ba

VNuju'glans ni-a. .
Fagus f. mitis (feiu cafa-
nea, puemila) racemofa
fttnfu parve ; in capfi-
sis echinatis, jfngulo.

Fagits folNis lazeolats
ovalis, acate fa;-alis
fubtus. tomenlmfs, a-
mentis .fil.for;.'i nolo-
fts, ,frlud.t idu ^'ay/is
echinalis, Jai)ie .

MiZorussflissfi' ius tomni,.i
tofs amentis ic.'gi, di-
M cris.

..Mne, lotiarbor iilr/a',

Carolina red oak, prick-
ly when young.
Chefnut leaved oak of
a large fize,
White walnut, or hick-
ory with egg fhaped
fruit clofely grafped,
and buried, in a very
hard fhel, with the
hfnalleft inward cavi-
Small Virginian hicko-
Black walnut.
Smallelt fagus (ordwarf
chefnut) having the
fruir in biniches, and
cl.umaincd lingly in a
I)rickly pod, vulgo
Fagus, with leaves be-
tween\\ egg and (iear
flmpnd, fth-rply fe
rated and woolly
u.dsr-ieath, fender
-i; tt.r catkins, and :
doublk fruit i a A
li. ,.v -po ,

der part af die lea\ .
woolly, having long
catkins; a',d trecs ot
ii, >ent i~lxes.
. <:,;,Tivy ri.!S ?m[olm;.;






( 20 )
ramona; foliis ampii- the lote-tree full of
mis. branches; and large
forus folis palmatis, 4julberry with hand
cortice fllamentefa, shaped leaves a threa-
frutu nigro, radice dy bark,; black fruit,
tintoria. .and the root contain-
ing a dye.
)iofpyros guajacana. Parfimmon.
iquidambar, fyracijfua; Maple leaved liquidam-
aceris foio. ber, yielding ftorax
or fweet gum.
'raffusfrondibuspalma- Boraffus, with hand or
tis (feu) palma cocci- fan shaped leaves (or),
fera latifolof fruau a- fcarlet yielding palm,
pro purpureo, omnium -with broad leaves,
mininmo. and a deep purple
fruit which is the
left of all.
'alma humilis (feu) cha- Dwarf palm, or.cha-
mariphis. meriphis.
,aurus folis acuminatis, Laurel, with pointed
baccis t~lweis, pedicel -leaves, arid blue ber-
s longis rubr ifjidar ties, fitting on long
tibus. red foot talks.
.aurus. (feu cinnamomum Thd wild American cin-
fylveftre) Americana.' namori Laurel.
.aurus (feu) cornus mas The male fcented cornel
odorata, folio trefido, or laurel tree, with a
margine plano, faffa- trifid leaf, having
fras ditta. plain edges, called
iliodendrcn tulipifera, Tulip bearing lilioden-
tripartito, acerisfolio, dron, with a tripar-
tte' mape leaf, hav-
media inmg

( 2
media lacixia velut

a i/a. o m.e ore, ,,

.aiqs. -

A .oubhi al'hica,:z.
2 ..
Magniia fi r e 'ao, folio
major auenditc bhn4

Magnolia tripetakl atm-
i tii r" .' friuc-
tu accidie .,

ranthi a, ..t.

L'eis 'li l 'ir'J Caftl-

formal. 1
fifes Ainricana, cl'i,
f' fo.!, fr~ par' -
pureo '
Corr.'s.a (f,".) u',anus
,itf.l:',a ri,'... 2'l, fo-'


ing the middle piece
seemingly cut off.
Magnolia, with the lar-
geft flower, and the
lower fide of the
leaves ferrugineous.
Magnolia, with a grey
laurel leafwhitifh be-
Magnolia, with a white
lower, a larger point-
ed leaf, and hot
Mag.nolia, with a very
large white flower. of
three petals and a
scarlett fruit.
The four orange,

Starry. annifeed, -or
Kqalria_ with fmooth
lanceolate leaves, and
a corolla between fal-
ver and bell shaped.
American. fig, with a
citron leaf and a
ffmall purple fruit.
Coccoloba, or efa fide
plumb, growing in
bunches, an almost
round veined leaf, &

rf t ra .;', near PNrnrota, by a free Negro (Pompey) for.
Fner bilonging -C. '.' Julftk CFlifton, wlhih Necrd iIl hii VWr. way Is
A curious hCrba. "

osuts ceralen d ufi
p2ffpgre.. .
ci0.loJa folus 4',,g: o-
iwts ivwoff, 'wk' mti-
.:.,. sau, ,-i */.' is.

SZotoxyltua fpi efuj d ;- d
ka:, quafi fra:ini f~-
/.o ,"% e4pinf fruis -
4( Jtlf,'i'.

the fruit blue, inclirt-,
ed to purple.
Coccoloba, with oblong
egg thalpd veined
leaves, widi pohited'
grape like fruit kTi'
than currants.
Tooth ach tree, with
hire fpi salmoft an
Saflh kat, a'ndthe cap,
f'ulLun lik6 the fruit
of the fpindle tree,

The favanrnh's are in this country of two very
ai'.f:frent kinds, theone is to befound in the pin
hlanl ;t Hrd n.jrwh'ifuding the black appearance
of the ioll, dthy"areNas much a white fand as the
higher lands round them; true it is that clay is
very ofiae much nearer to their furface, than in
the :,igier pi ie linds, they are a kind of finks or
drains to those whighlr'laods, and their low fitua-
tonuOnly prevehns the growth of pines in them,
Tn.-':etweather the roads leading through them
are .alh'of ;'"-"iT ;"le'. On account of their pro.
during fbon species of grafs of a better kind than
the wire grafs, they are very often filed meadows,
and i believe, if they cold be improved by drain-
ing them, without taking away all their mojfture,
vcry ulfeful grafs night i(l in thpm, but on
drniining them compyply, they prove to be as
arrant a fand as any in this country. Thefe fa-
vannahs oiftn hive fpots in them more low than
common, and filhd widt water; they are over
-rown with different species of the crategau, or
S".thoern, as alfo very often a species of trub

( 23 1
b lingthe LaurJs in appc;ir.i -, i:
Itaa an opportunity of fcting :t n b:'..,
kLdkciibe it, fo as to adcr1:::: i '.-- r.c-i-
Qtp 9,in its frui: it i:; ,.::- .! 'ilrcn:
of the lavrel ki:.1, t!ha.t i:- un
peion-, it is a baic;- '.-v i "ith xv-ral cdl.s
eab r :acd like the coinmon ii, :
ilf Inldies; it is yof the fir of i I';-;
">K ,but more oblon-g we al.f I:" j i
| hanjks of rivers in Georgia, ..nd knic;
a!iwof the Ogeechee lime. Tho oi.her
very widely from theci, and -ar
be found in Welt Florida, they confitt
often with mall gentle rings in
am of a vaft extent, and on the wcit
They are faid to be manny days jour-
larged within my k.nowlldge is on
the Cha&aw to the Chicaatw Ilntion,
near forty miles over fioin nortir
rm 6m one end to the other, a bhoii.
iltQthatat fa, appears; thwer i'.g,: e-
tt one or other, or at each cend of
Sfirrie come to the rivcr banki ;
i have feen fone very lI;:ill
t huts, by which i judge, they
rfhabicd by indians; the foil h -I.
'in fwme i have feen foflil fl~c]ls ai
imb in others, flint, in others again,
Ialk andmarl; it is remarkable,-'hat c ;: r-
rond of the grafres growing hereI; 1C-i
ldfield,as itistermed, is a cleardemoli, r:,ti
lis, for thecattle will come to it fro, n ry Ji.-
even when the grafs fcarcely app)&a'- ;I iid
4ecircunjacent trad, are abundant( t 'i b)t.
a4fumnmr canes to be found, on. hich

they might more luxuriously feed. In thefe fyvan
nahs if a well or pond is dug, the water has a ve
strong nitrous tafte. 'I have feen fome very curi
Ous plants in this kind of ground, but there w
no time for my examining any of them, excet
a nondescript of the gehus fagetes of a fine cr;in
fon colour. I fall in fome measure defcribe an
give the figure of this plant: The only high growth
i have feen in thefe favannahs are fome willows a
other aquatic plants, by the fide of rivtilets, in 6
near them; fome of the smaller kind of oak and
few fmall junipers are alfo to be feen in thofe pl ace
thefragaria orftrawberry is very common'in then
Swamps ate alfo found of two kinds, 'river an
inland fWampS, thofe on the rivers are julT
efteemed ite moft valuable, and the more Ib,
they are in the tide way, because then the riv,
water may be at pleafure let on or kept our, wit
much lefs labour and expense than it the ot(l
kinds; thefe lands are the forces of riches in the
provinces, because where they lay between t
fandy pine barrens, they produce that valuable
ftaple Rice, and on the Miffiffippi (where muc I o
this river land is fttuated agreat deal higher, th.i
the common run of it in Ci':l i na, and otf iCr il 1
countries) this foil is the beft adapted for corn an
indigo, yet known; fome of thefe gofunds' are Cl ia
others fand, and others agairl partake of'
when ufed for rice, it matters not which of the
foils they are made up of, but I believe, were t
fandy ones to be quite drained, they would pro
barren enough; the ufe of water on rice is more
fupprefs the growth of noxious weeds and grant,
which would otherwife 'fifle the grain, than for
promoting the growth of the rice itilf, for none

( 25 )
of the graffes can fland the water, but rice does, as
long as it is not totally immerfed, therefore it is,
tht after weeding, the planter (if he has it con-
venient) lets on water to about half the height of
his grain by fwamps then in general is to be un-
Sderlood any low ground fubject to inundations,
qliiguilhed from marches, in having a large
gSth .of timber, and much underwood, canes,
reeds, wythes, vines, briars and fuch like, fo
matted together, that they are in a great measure
inpenetrable to man or beat; the produce of thefe
fwamps if fapdy is more generally the cyprefs tree,
which is here of three species; two of thefe grow
inthis kind of land; the common fort grows to an
enormous fize, but none fo large, as what is feen
on or near the banks of the Miffiflippi, the other
kind vulgarly mifcalled white cedar, is in great
quantities near Penfacola, particularly in the
tiamps of Chefter River; this likewife grows to
Sa tree which may be ranked among thofe of the
firft.magnitude: If thefe fwamps are not altogether
fand, but mixed with clay, and other earth, their
produce is in general.

Cuprefus Americana fo-
his deciduis.
.Cureffus femper vire7s
fe, cuprejfus Thyoides.
uercus alba aquatica fa-
licis folio breviore.

Qraisc folio long anguf-

American deciduous
Evergreen cyprefs, vul-
go white cedar.
White fwamp oak, with
a fhort willow leaf,
vulgo water oak.
Oak with a long nar-
row willow leaf, vul-
go willow oak.


( 26 )

tuercus alba foliis fuper-
ne latioribus, opposite
finuatis, finubus angu-
lif/ue obtujis.

Hlex floridana, folis den-
tatis, baccis rubris.

Acer foliis compofitis, fio-
ribus racenmois.

Acer foliis quinque par-
tito palmatis acumina-
to dentatis.
,4cer folis quinquelobis
fubdentatis, fubtusglau-
cis pedunculis fimplifi-
mis aggregatis.

Fraxinus floridana, folis
anguftioribus utrinque
acummatis pendulis.

.Tyfafoliis latis acumina-
tis et dentatis frur u
eleagni major.

Populus alba majoribus
folus fubcordatis.

Populus nigra folio' max-
imo, gemmis balfamum

White oak, with the up-
per leaves broad, op-
% politely finuated, tb~
finuffes having obtufe
angles, or the trud
white oak.
Floridan holly, with'
indented leaves and'
red berries.
Maple, with compofite
leaves and the flowers
ih bunches.
Maple, with a palmated
leaf of five parts
sharply indented.
Maple, with a five lo-
bed leaf faintly in-
dented, their lowei
part of a blue caft,
with simply aggre-
gate flower talks.
Floridan ath, with nar2
row hanging leaves
on both ends point-
Tupelo, with broad
pointed and indented
leaves, with a fruit
like the largeft wild
Great white popular,
with almoft heart,
shaped leaves.
Black popular, with the
largest leaves, whole

( 27 5

. odaratiiimum funden-
,.: tibus. .

.1latanus occidentalis foSis
l Obatis.

alix folio anguffizmo,
.. longifimo fubtus albo.

Bignonia folis fimplici-
bus cordatis, flore fo?-
.dide albo, intus macu-
lis c~ruleis etpurpureis
irregulariter adfperfis;
fi4que longinima et an-

Bignonia, fraxini folls.

Laurus foliis acuminatis,
baccis ceruleis; pedi-
cellis longis rubris infi-
'.-ata'gus fru7lu parvo
Genijla capfulo aromatico.

Vitis nigra, vulpina ditfa.

Yitis foliis api, uva co-

buds exude an odori
ferous gum or bal-
*Weftern plantane, with
lobated leaves (vul-
go) button wood,
water beech, or fyca-
Willow, with narrow
long leaves, being
white below.
Bignonia, or trumpet
flower, with single
heart shaped leaves,
flowers of a dirty
white, through whofe
inside blue and' pur-
ple fpots are irregj-
larly fcattered, hav-
ing a long and nar-
row feed pod (vulgoJ
Bignonia, with an afli
Laurel, with a pointed
leaf, blue berries fit-
ting on long foot-
Iawthorn, with a mall
red fruit.
Broom, with an aroma-
tic feed pod.
Black vine, called fox
Parfley leaved vine,

( 28 )

rymbofa purpura mi-
Vitis vinifera filvefris.
Betula nigra foliis rhom-
beis ovatis acuminatis
duplicato ferratis
Coriaria foliis gladiatis
ferratis (feu) nicotia-
na Indiorum.
Rhus vernix (feu) toxi-
codendron foliis alalis
fruz u rhomboide.

7uglans alba aquatica,
cortice glabro, arbor
humilis; frutii amaro.

Sambucus racemofa acinis
nigris, caula herbacea.

Sambucus ymis quinque-
partitisfoliis fubpinna-

Magnolia, glauca lauri
folio fubtus albicante.

Fagus foliis ovatis obfo-
lete ferratis; fruaEtt

,Myrica (feu) myrtus (bra-
bantica fiilis) florida-
na, baccifera, baccis
feilis; frualu cerifero.

with fmall purple
grapes in a corymbus.
Wild wine vine.
Black birch; with ovate
rhomboid leaves, be-
ing doubly ferrated.
Shumac, with ferrated
word like leaves, or
Savages tobacco,
Shumac or poifon tree,
with winged leaves,
and a rhomboidal
White fwamp hickory,
with a fnooth bark
being a dwarf tree
and a bitter fruit.
Elder, with bunches of
black berries, and an
herbaceous ftalk.
Elder, with the cyma
of five parts and im-
perfetly winged
Magnolia, with a green
laurel leafwhitifh be-
Beech, with almost egg
shaped lightly ferrat-
ed leaves and a trian-
gular fruit.
Florida berry-bearing
myrtle, the berries
fquat; and yielding

( 29 )

Canna foliis enervibus.

Cleditfia fpinofa, fpinis
trip'rcibus axillaribus,
capfula ovali, unicum
Sfmei claudente.
aalix folio angufiffimo
ferraft glabro, petiolis
dentatis glandu lo/is.

Reed, with very week
Jocuft, with triple
axillary pines, an o-
val feed pod inclofing
a single feed.
Willow, with very nar-
row fiooth ferrated
leaves, the talks
dentated and full of

The back or inland fwamps anfwer in situation
th what are called the meadows or favannahs
(among the pine lands) their fbil being rich, oc-
cafions them tobear trees. The true back fwamps,
that are in wet feafons full of standing water, bear
fearcely any other tree, than a variety of that fpc-
cies of Nyffa diftinguifhed by Botanifts by the
name of Nyfa foliis latis acuminatis non dentatis fruc-
tu eleagni minor, pedunculis multiflore, vulgarly
called bottle arfed tupelo; the continuance of wa-
ter on this kindof ground, is the reason why farce
any undergrowth found here. There are fwamps
alfo called back fwamps, but they are either at
the head of fome stream, or have more or lefs wa-
ter running through them; thefe are generally eafy
to drain. I would have confined my description of
back fwamps to the firft or standing ones, and rank-
ed the laft (which i think might properly be done)
among the river fwamps, but i was apprehenfive,
that it might have difpleafed bome perfon, who
entertains the more eftablijhed opinion; thefe laft
described often are found meer cyprefs fwamps,
in that cafe, they are almost impaffable, by reason

( 30 )
of the cyprefs fpurs, even when dry, and for
horfes, they are extremely dangerous, as they of-
ten get ftaked on thofe fpurs. This vegetable
monfter i hall hereafter describe; i do not remem-
ber to have ever feen it mentioned any where;
when this kind of fwamp is not over grown with
cyprefs alone, its product is the fame as that of
the river fwamps above mentioned, and in that
cafe the foil is certainly good; thefe laft when pro-
perly drained, are the beft land for the cultivation
of hemp.
The marches are next to be considered, they
are of four kinds, two in the falt, and two in the
frefh water; they are either foft or hard, the foft
marflies confifting of a very wet clay or mud, are
as yet of no ufe, without a very great expence to
drain them; the hard ones are made up of a kind
of marly clay, which in dry feafons is almroft
burned up, true it is they afford a pafture fuffici-
ent to keep any gramenivorous animals in good
order; but the milk and flefh of them in feafons,
when the cattle near the fea fide cannot find any other
food, and consequently feed on this alone, are of
fo horrible a tafte, that no stranger to the country
can make ufe of them. Hard marches in general
are fuch, whofe foil has too much folidity, for the
water to difunite its particles by penetrating them;
the foft marches are thofe, whofe fpungy nature
allows the water eafily to penetrate them; i have
feen of both kinds on Turtle River, about twenty
miles up, in which, at about eight or ten feet be-
low the surface, there are numbers of cyprefs and
other flumps remaining, but chiefly cyprefs, and
many of the fallen trees croffing each other; this
is only-to be feen at low water, and to the height

1,,-)4 ./~/

( 8i )
above named; there trees are covered with a rich
nitrous muddy foil; but i beg leave to exp cdt,
that better Naturalifts may explain this extraordi-
nary appearance; i believe them ruins of ancient
forefts on which the fea has encroached. *
The marches on frefh water are in every refpec
similar to thofe on the falt, except, that they are
not impregnated with the faline particles, of which
the firft are very replete; therefore the hard ones,
with little trouble, are adapted to cultivation;
the foft ones coft a considerable deal more of ex-
pence, to render them fit to anfwcr this purpose,
but when fo drained as to answer this end, they
certainly are by no means inferior to any land in
this country; in the lower part of thel marflies
grows a kind of hitherto undefcribed grain, of
which the western Indians make a great ufe for
bread, i never could fee it in bloffom, therefore,
cannot describe it, but joined to this is a figure of
it, nearly equal in fize to one eighth of the com-
mon growth of the plant when in perfeAion, it is
known by the name of wild oats.
This kind of land produces rice very willingly,
but if sufficiently made dry, always proves the befc
for corn, indigo and hemp; i have feen at Mr.
Brewington's plantation, about three miles below
favannah in Georgia, very good corn and rice to-
gether, with the two kinds of melons, and cu-
cumbers in great perfedion on this species of foil.
I hall next describe the bay and cyprefs galls,
thefe interfef the pine lands, and are feldom of
any breadth; the bay galls are properly water
courfes, covered with a fpungy earth mixed wih
The whole appearance ofthis river feems to jJ;1,t: fui;h n
Wa4 1nwemizdMij huaioafM 9P tb" par! s;f 0!1V cui.ti

( 32 )
a kind of matted vegetable fibres, they are fo very
unstable, as to fake for a great extent round a
person, who, landing on fome part thereof, moves
himself flightly up and down; t:ey often prove
fatal to cattle, aud onfmetinmej i have been detained
for above an hour at the nar rowcdt paftis of them,
they being fo dangerous to crofs, that frequently
a hor-e plunges in, io as to leave only his head in
fight; their natural produce is a Itately tree called
loblolly bay,* and many diFierent vines, briars,
thorny with, and on their edges a species of red
or summer cane, which together combine to make
this ground impeneut;.ble, as if nature had thus
intended to prevent the deftrucrion of cat le in thefe
difinal bogs, which would be particularly fatal to
many of them in fpring, when the early produce
ofgrafs and green leaves; in thife galls, might en-
tice them into this danger, was not Rfch a natural
obstacle in their way; as thcfe have generally vent,
they are sometimes drained, and rice planted there-
in, which for one or two years thrives there tole-
rably, but this ground is fo replete with vitriolic
principles, that the water Handing in them is im-
pregnated with acid, infonuch, that i have tafted
it four enough to have peilraded a person, unac-
quainted with this circumRnance, that it was an
equal portion of vinegar and water mixed toge-
ther, therefore it requires to lay open at leaft one
year before it will bear any thing, and they gene-
rally, by laying open four or five years without
any other draining, become quite dry, and might
be advantageously ufed for pafrure ground.
The cyprefs galls differ from thel>, in being a
firm fanndy foil, in having no vitriolic tafte in the
H inpieir fLuII Ccrdo'a L f'.hb/ .

( 33 )
water, and very feldom vent; i never knew thefc
made ufe of for the purpofe of planting, and the
cyprefs they produce, is a dwarf kind, not fit for
ufe, being very much twifted and often hollow,
there is no undergrowth here, but in dry feafons
fome tolerable grafs. Through all the above fpe-
cies of land we find a distribution of very fine
clay, fit for manufacturing the fineft i ever faw
is at the village on Mobile Bay, where i have feen
the inhabitants, in imitation of the Savages, have
several rough made vefiels thereof; there is alfo
a great variety of nitrous and bituminous earths,
foffills, marles, boles, magnetic and other iron
ore, lead, coal, chalk, flate, free ftone, chryf-
tals, and white topazes, thefe laft in the beds of
rivers; ambergris is sometimes found; one Stir-
rup a few years ago found a piece of a very enor-
mous fize on one of the keys; there is alfo much
of a natural pitch or afphalthus, vulgarly called
mungiac, thrown up by the fea: The uplands
alfo afford a metallic fubftance appearing like
mufket bullets, which on being thrown into the
fire go off in fmoak with a very fulphureous
The water in this country is very various as to
tafte, quality and ufe, there are falt, brackifh, ni-
trous, fulphureous, and good frefh springs in
moft parts of this country, as well as falt and frefh
lakes, lagoons and rivers, the rivers alfo vary in
many refpets, and fo does the fea as well in the
colour, and clearnefs of the water as in its degree
of faltnefs ; the water of St. Mary's and Naflau,
and all the brooks that run into them is very good,
wholefome, and well tafted, the colour in the ri-
vers is dark, as in all the American rivers of the
E fouthera

( 34 )
foutherndiflri ; St. John's is a curiosity among ri-
vers indeed, this rifes at a finally distance from the la-
goon called Indian river, somewhere in or near the
latitude of 27, perhaps out of the lake Mayacco,
which i have reason to believe really exifts, and
is the head of the river St. Lucia, as i am told by a
credible Spanilh hunter, who had been carried.
there by way of this laft river; from its origin it
runs through wide extended plains and marfhes,
till near the latitude 28, where it approaches the
lagoon much, it then continues its course with a
considerable current northward, and glides thro'
five great lakes, of which the latt, called Lake
George, is by much the moft considerable; in
this 1:,'. lake is about eight feet water, it is twenty
miles long and about eleven or twelve wide; all
the'e lakes and the river in general is very plea-
fant; endlcfs orange groves are found here, and
indeed on every part of the river; below thefe the
river grows wider, lofes it current, and has in
fome places none, in others a retrograde one, when
yet lower down it is again in its true dire&ion;
the banks of this river are very poor land. and ex-
hibit in a number of places fad monuments of the
folly and extravagant ideas of the firft European
adventurers and fchemers, and the villany of their
managers; the tide does not effeEt this river very
far up. In many places high up this river are
found fome extraordinary fprings, which at a
fmall difiance from the river on both fides, ruth
or boil out of the earth, at once becoming navi-
gable for boats, and from twenty five to forty
yards wide, their courfe is feldom half a mile be-
fore they meet the river; their water is (contrary,
to that of the river) clear, fo as to admit of the
f. rh ,l.',

( 35 )
feeing a fmall piece of money at the depth of teAt
feet or more; they finell strong of fulphur, and
whatever is thrown in them becomes foon incrufted
with a white fungous matter; their tafte is bitu-
minous, very difagreeable, and they in my opi,-
nion caufe the green cloudings we fee on the fur-
face of the water of this river, and make it putrid,
and fo unwholefome as experience has taught us
it is. I have no sufficient ground to decide upon
another circumftance, which i am told, viz: That
when rice is overflown with this river water, it
kills it; above thefe springs the water of the river
:is good: This river is from one and a half to
three miles wide, except at the houfe of Mr.
Rolle, who has here made an odd attempt towards
fettling and making an estate in as complete a fandy
defart as can be found; juft above this, it is full
of iflands, exhibiting every where a very romantic
appearance; there is a fine piece of water, called
Dun's Lake, this is about nine miles from the ri-
ver, eastward from this place, this empties itself
by a ftream into the river; another called the
Door's Lake, is on the weft fide, about fixty
miles from the mouth, we fee a variety of aquatic
plants floating thereon. In my journey by land
from the Bay of Tampe acrofs the Peninfula to St.
Auguftine,, i croffed twenty three miles from eaft
to weft of miferable barren fand hills, the grain of
the fand is very fmall and ferrugineous; thefe hills
rife a considerable height; on them is fome growth
of very fall pines, and a very humble kind
of oak grows fo thick, that with the addition
of fome wythes and other plants, to me ut-
terly unknown, they render it absolutely impe-
netrable. in this Ridge, which, as far as i can
1, '.,.i

( 36 )
learn, extends from North to South, between the
rivers St. John and Ocklaw-wawhaw, for about
an hundred and fifty miles. having no where any
water in its whole extent, and i am told, that
where we croffed it, is its narroweft place; my
Indian guide had the precaution to carry water
for ourselves and horses, which proved very fer-
viceable as it was a very hot day, no growth of
trees to fhade us, and fuch a burning fand for the
fun to reflect on; i leave the reader to judge what
we suffered, though it was but a fhort distance
over, both ourfelves and beafts often experienced
the neceffity of carrying water; what muft
travelling over this place be in a hot day, where it
is forty or more miles wide ?
Before i leave St. John's River, i muff not for-
get the river running from fouth to north, called
Pablo: This originates at a fmall distance from
St. Marks or North River, and empties into St.
Johns at a fmall distance from the mouth. The
water of this river is good, fo is the land on it; and
it is thought that a communication with St. Mark's
or the North River might be effected without
much difficulty: this would open an inland navi.
nation by canoes or boats, all the way from Ca.
rolina to near the Mufketo.
The river St. Mary although it is faid to origi-
nate in the Ekanphanekin fwamp has a current
of fine clear and wholefome water fupplied from
the pine lands through which it flows, with many
'fine springs, runs, and rivulets of very clear water,
Naffau has alfo the fame bleffings, but doth not
Spring far distant from the fea. On Amelia Ifland
near the fea, is a very good spring, which makes
a fine stream for fome miles, dividing the ifland al-

( 37 )
moft into two; but below the spring its water is
not commendable. On the beach between St.
John's and St. Auguftine, at or near a place called
the Horfeguards, there are three good springs
running into the fea, and in every part where the
beach is clear fand, water is obtained by digging.
About four miles north of St. Auguftine rifes St.
Sebaftian's Creek, being a good frefl spring, it
foon joins a creek in falt marlhes, and at a finally
distance from town it becomes very large and
deep; it empties into St. Anaftafia's Sound two
miles fouth of St. Auguftine, making a Peninfula
of this territory nearly in form of a crefcent; three
miles farther fouth is the mouth of the river St.
Nicholas not very confiderable; St. Cecilia in the
fame found, the North weft, fouth of the Matanra
and Penon; the Tomoke and Spruce Creek in
the Mufketo Lagoon, and in fhort every river and
creek in the country except thofe above named,
are excellent wholefome water; thus much i fup-
pofe will fuffice as to the nature and quality of
the water All the rivers and springs in Weft
Florida are good.
The aborigines of the country come moft natu-
rally under our next consideration, no one is ig-
norant, that the epithet of indians is given to thofe
people, though no doubt, the French name of
favage is a much more proper one, as the man-
ners of the red men are in every refpeft fuch as
betray that difpofition, and thew the favage thro'
the beft wrought veil of civilization; we might
-call them Americans, as the inhabitants of the old
world are each diftinguifhed by a name exprefiive
of, or relative to the quarters, from which they
refpetively originate, but this would be con-

( 38 )
founding them with the other natives, as well
white as black, which i think by no means rea-
Oldmixon with all his failings is undoubtedly
the only writer, who peaks with truth and per-
tinence on this fubject; all other Englifb, French,
and Spanifh authors, which have fallen in my way
(and they are not a few) have made of this flory
a confused heap of nonfenfe and falfhood; i hall
relate what i know and have found from real ex-
perience among four or five nations, and as i can
vouch for the fmilarity, that will be found among
them, i believe my reader will be of my opinion,
that from one end of America to the other, the
red people are the fame nation and draw their ori-
gin from a different force, than either Europe-
ans, Chinefe, Negroes, Moors, Indians, or any
other different fpecide of the human genus, of
which i think there are many species, as well as
among mofc other animals, and that they are not
a variety occafioned by a commixture of any of
the above species muft alfo appear.
The above account will perhaps raife a conjec-
ture that i believe the red men are not come from
the westward out of the eaft of Afia; i do not
believe it, i am firmly of opinion, that God cre-
ated an original man and woman in this part of
the globe, of different species from any in the
other parts, and if per chance in the Ruffian do-
minions, there are a people of similar make and
manners, is it not more natural to think they were
colonies from the numerous nations on the conti-
nent of America, than to imagine, that from the
fmall comparative number of thofe Ruffian fub-
jects, fuch a vaft country should have been fo nu-
,,,. ,

( 39 )
meroufly peopled, and by what we know from
the geographical difcoveries that have been made
within this century, it was undoubtedly eafier for
thefe people to have croffed out of America into
Afia, than it was for the white people we find in
Labrador to come from Lapland, yet who will
deny that a Laplander and i,. ',. :: are of the
fame original ftock; add to this, that i have both
faced and prophane history, besides daily expe-
rience on my fide to prove, that population, as well
as all other things we find in nature, have always
moved from the eaftward, and ftill continue fo to
do, why then fmould we infift on one part of this
fyftem to move in a retrograde way, when for a
further proof we find, by what we learn from the
favages that have been far to the northwefl, that
fome white people answering to the Japonefe,
sometimes come on that coat, but do not flay,
nor have ever attempted colonization.
But alas! what a people do we find them, a
people not only rude and uncultivated, but inca-
pable of civilization: a people that would think
themselves degraded in the lowdit degree, were
they to imitate us in any refpecl whatever, and
that look down on us and all our manners with
the higheft contempt: and of whom experience
has taught us, that on the leaf oppor-'uniLy they
will return like the dog to his vo-uit. See thece
the boafted, the admired flare of nacuire, in which
thefe brutes enjoy and pafs their time here! How
juftly did the above named author exlaim :--
" Let the learned 1ly all rlie i e things tht wit,
" eloquence, and art can inipire tchm with, of
" the simplicity of pure nature, and its beauty
" and innocence, thle fa-age wretchecs of A mer-ica

( 40 )
" are an instance, that this innocence is a
" downright fbupidity, and this pretended beau-
Sty a de-orminy, which puts man, the Lord of
" the creation, on an equal foot (yea below) the
" brute beaft. of the fitc.ds .nd borefts.
In defcribing a peopic an historian is obliged to
fpeak as they generally aie; Dr. d.ici.well, draw-
ing consequences from what he ima- ind a itate
of nature to be (and what i believe it may have
been) among mnoft o. the nations on the old con-
tinent, fays: ,
In the infancy of f{ttes, men generally re-
" femble the public constitution, they have on-
' ly that turn, which the rough culture of ac-
" cidents, perhaps difinal enough, through which
" they have paffed, could give them, they are ig-
Snoraht and undefigning, governed by fear,
" and fuperftition its companion; there is a vaft
" void in their minds, they know not what will
" happen, nor according to what tenor things
" will take their course, every new objeft finds
" them unprepared, and they gaze and ftare like
" infants taking in their firft ideas of light."
How opposite is the favage, he is cunning and
defigning, knows no fear, nor has he any idea of
religion to make him fuperftitious, on the contra-
ry, the pretended conjurer who lives with him,
runs a perpetual rifque of his life, he has no void
in his mind, but is very deliberate and careful in
his mifchief and cruelty; the Rtudy of what may
occur in the next war or hunting feafon always
employs him, he can ever fo plan his fchemes, as
to be certain of his future safety, and fuccefs;
without this laft he neither undertakes nor rifks
any thing; new objets are but a momentary fur-

( 41 )
prize to him, and his gazing and flaring always
end in sovereign contempt.
But to demonstrate more clearly the contrail be-
tween a savage and the people of the old corni
nent, i beg leave to oblerve a few things, which
have fallen under my infpedion and consideration,
which i apprehend will be thought pertinent to
this purpose: A favage comes into this world
- with all the poffibility of oppofirion to us; -hi
mother on her approaching labour, retires fron,
all company, aid, or afliftance, into Ibme lone-
fome wood, and there without perceptible pain or
inconvenience, difburthens herself, goes into cold
water to cleanfe herself and her offspring, and re-
turns to her daily vocation.
A favage has the moft determined resolution
against labouring or tilling the ground, the flave
his wife muft do that, and a boy of even or eight
years old is afhamed to be feen in his mother's
company. No greater difgrace can be thrown
on a man than calling him by the odiours ep.ti:et
Sof Woman; what other nation do we Iin. J I~?-
folutely negle&ing agriculture? What people are
afhamed to be feen eating or drinking in company
with the fairer fex ?
Our women carry their children with their fi-
ces towards their own, a the favage put.s the baci:
of hers towards her own back. When we make
fire, we pile the fuel parallel to each other;
the favage puts his wood in a circular form, Flightr
the central ends, and by the help of one of the
flicks, which he fhoves always to the center, Ih
keeps it in.
.We make war in an open rave way, a tavacg
by hiding himfelffurprizes; our priloncrs are li~ic
rF of

( 42 )
of life, tl e prifoner of a favage is fure to die by
cruel tortt r s. When we take a fweat, we keep
ourfelvcs warm with the utmoit care; a f:vage
with his open pores, plunges head long into the
almoiL frozen river, or into a hole in the ice if
quite frozen.
A favage man discharges his urine in a fitting
poflure, and a favage woman standing, i need
not tell how opposite this is to our common prac-
A favage never eats faulted meats, nor boils any
thing in failed water, though he has fait in abun-
dance, but when he has been a long while from
filt and then gets it, he will frequently eat a
pound of it without any thing elfe. A savage ei-
ther buries none of his dead, or if he does he puts
the body in a fitting or flandiug pofture; in a
word, if they had always ifudied to be in contract
with us, they could not be more fo, than nature
hias made ihem.
0 Deus! iowines et homines c :f, .
All fiavages, with whom i have been acquaint-
ed, are, generally speaking, well made, of a good
feature, and neatly limbed; crooked, lame, or
otherwise deformed priiions are f idomn or never
fecn among hefe people; and if pe,- chance we
find a filvage labouring under thele misfortunes,
we always find them accidental, never natural.
Their colour resembles that of cinnamon, with a
copperifh cafe; they are born white, but retain
that hue a very fort time; their hair is lank,
frronn, black, and long; they prevent the growth
of what little beard nature has given them, by
plucking it out by the roots; they never fuffer
any hair to grow on any part of the body except

( 43 )
fhe head, their eyes are black, lively and pierc-
ing, and they are bleffed with an amazing faculty
of discovering objects at a vait distance; their
teeth are very good, and to the laft they retain
them, being never fubjea to the tooth ach; they
are strong and active, patient in hunger and
the fatigue of hunting and journeying, but im-
patient and incapable of bearing labour, they are
incredibly fwift of foot; their difcourfc is gene-
rally of war, hunting, or indecency; their wo-
men are handsome, well made, only wanting the
colour and cleanlinefs of our ladies, to make
them appear lovely in every eye; their strength
is great, and they labour hard, carrying very
heavy burdens a great distance; they are lafcivi-
ous, and have no idea ofchaftity in a girl, but
in married women, incontinence is severely pu-
nifhed; a favage never forgives that crime. Ti. y
are capable of an attachment, rather than a friend-
fhip; addicted to lying in a high degree; their
feeming candour and simplicity is an effect& of dif-
fimulation; they know how to fave appearances,
and will always find ways to cover their knavifh,
thieving tricks; their notions of faith and honour
are fuch as make them violate their word of pro-
mife, even when they are in treaty, unlefs com-
pelled to be true by fear or force. They are bru-
tal and have not the moft distant idea of decorumr
without tafte they are terrible drunkards, in which
laft ftate, there is no villany nor crime, they v.1il
not commit, and when they recover their fenfes,
throw the blame on the liquor, holding themselves
entirely excufed; no religion of any kind can iwe
trace among them. Pofleffed of inli-, ir.. and
Want of sentiment, they drag themfvlves through

( 44 )
a kind of life, which would make us pafs our
days very irkfomely, and tire us in a fort time
with the difagreeable fimilitude of our hours; in
a word, they have nothing in their way of life to-
tempt a man of the leaft refle&ion, to envy them
their miserable late of nature.
But with all thefe bad qualities, they have one
virtue, which is hospitality, and this they carry to
excefs; a favage will fare his laft ounce of meat
with a vifitant stranger. What travellers have
related of their giving their daughters to tranfient
perfons, is not true, and it is not till after fome
acquaintance, that they will give a white man,
what thlcy call a wife, unlefs he choofes an aban-
doned proftitute, which are here to be found as
well as elsewhere. Among the nations, which i
have frequented, a young ftran-er (led away by
the notion of this traveller's fRory) that would
attempt, on his firfl acquaintance, to aik a man
for his daughter, might pay dear for it. The
Cha&aws, who have a greater idea of a meum and
tuun than any of their neighbours, are not fo
hospitable as they; but although they will on this
principle require pay for even the left morfel,
they fet before one, yet the fame idea of proper-
ty has taken off much of their favage difpofitions
in many other cafes.
I cannot think it foreign to my fubje& to men-
tion, before i proceed to the particular dcfcripti-
on of each nation, something farther about the
origin of the native Americans: Great pains
have Leen taken to prove thefe people defcended
from the Phxenicians; among others i find an ano-
nimous Gentleman, who gravely tells us, that
Phcnicians or Erythreans in Greek, carry the fame

( 45 )
fenfe as Efau or Edom in Hebrew, both meaning
red, hence that nation was red, fo are the fava-
ges, ergo, they are the fame people; as ridicu-
lous as this argument is, the pains taken to flew
that the extensive navigation of the I'Phnicians
amounts to a proof of their having croffed rhe
Atlantic to America, is no lefs void of fenfe, al-
though far fetched annotations are made ufe of to
prove their naval power, by Cambyfes being o-
bliged to renounce his defign on C.: .' ', by r;a-
fon of the Phenicians refusing to put to fea, yet
neither that, nor the proof of their having built
Leptis, Utica, Iippo, Adrumetum, ori the African
continent, nor Calis, and T'artef/s in Europe, or
their colonizations in Iberia, and Lybia, nor all
the power afcribed to them by Curtius, feems in the
leaft to indicate any tranfit to this western world.
Equally abfurd are the reveries of Coemteus, of
thofe who conflrue the island discovered by the
Phanicians (which Diodorus Siculus mentions L. 6
C. 7, and the paffages of Pliny L. 5 C. i and
.Pomponius Mela L. i C. 4) likewife the common
wealth of the allegorical dialogue between Midas.
and Silenus by Y'heopomnpus, and the quotation of
Paufanias concerning the discovery of the Satyri-
des by Euphemius of Caria) into America; alfo Bc:;
father Lafftcau, du Pratz, and others, as tlce re-
futation of thefe would be unintcrefting and there-
fore tedious, i fall content mnyflf with having
only mentioned thean, and proceed to take fome
notice of the more general hypothesis; tiha tie
ravages are the difperfions of the ten lobf tribes of
We are told, that the Americans agree in ma-
Sny of their customs with the Jews'; but in which ?

( 46 )
We fee not the fmalleft fimilarity in any of their
ways, unlefs the federation of women among the
Chicafaws, at the time of their Catamenia; but
not to urge how naturally this fashion might
point itself out, and its being confined to one
fmall tribe only, let us argue a little on the jew-
ifh grand and chara6teriffic ceremony of circum-
cifion, of which the boldeft genealogift in this
way, cannot find any the leaft mark, nor traces
among thofe people. How have the jews ne-
gleted to introduce this fign of the covenant
here, when they have made it obtain among fo
many of the Eafterns where they lived even as
flaves and exiles; and they always thought their
salvation dependent thereon? How many tribes
in Africa fill retain that cuftom, though with-
out any other of the Ifralitifh rites, which they
have forgot? but where can we discover even the
moft diftant appearance of this ceremony in Ame-
Juft fo is it with that pretended migration to
Affaretb, as mentioned in the fourth book of
Efdras, in the thirteenth chapter; but without
infifting on the apocryphal quality of this evi-
dence, i would only afk, why this Affareth should
be more America, than any other far diftant
country? And how they found their way by the
Euphrates to this continent ? Further it is evi-
dent, that St. Jerome (who flourished under The-
cdofius in the latter end of the fourth century,
lived in Afia, and held a clofe correfpordence
with the Jews, for the fake of learning their lan-
guage) plainly tells us in his Ezech : L. 5, and
Jerem: L. 6, that thofe very ten tribes, were then
groaning under the fevere yoke of flavery, in the

( 47 )
cities of Media and Per.ia; this i judge to be
proof enough to invalidate this journey to Affareth,
and rank it along with the fables of the lofs of the
whole law, the confinement of fouls in fubterra-
neous apartments, and with the childish tales of
Bd.':l:', and Leviathan in the fame fourth book
of E7dras.
Yet, as a farther proof of the falfhood of this
American expedition, by the ten tribes of Ifrael,
i would beg leave to afk my readers, whether
they can imagine, that fo prodigious a migration
could poffibly happen at a time of the moft defpe-
rate wars, and defolat.ons in the very countries
through which they muft neceffarily pafs, for it
Sis evident, that fince St. Jerome's time, although
,the Perfians had again regained their empire, yet
fpr several centuries together, they were con-
tantly warring with the Romans, Indians, and
orhe? Eaftern nations, and laftly with the Saracens.
'Till the famous Tartarian expedition under Zen-
gis Chan, this whole country fwam in the blood
* its natives, and before this period, the Greci-
an wars, the conquefts of Alexander, with the di-
yifions of his captains at his death, furnished as
little opportunity for this journey, which alfo
muft have been firangely overlooked, by fuch a
number of historians of credit, as flourished dur-
ing. the above fpace of time. I could with as
inuch force of argument invalidate Emanuel de
Moras (a Spaniard;) who, to prove that Ameri-
ca is peopled from Carthage, and by the Jews,
lakes numerous far fetched comparisons, of the
manners of thefe nations and the Brazilians; nor
can i think, that after this, any of the favourers
ofthis.Jewifh anceftry will infift, that the natives

( 48 )
of America are defended from the other two
tribes, fiance they were not only not allowed to fee the
land of their fathers, even in quality of travellers,
but on pain of death, were they forbid to allemble
in large con- panics, which it was however ne-
cefiiry they fnould do for fuch a migration ; but
i am afraid my reader, as well as myself, is by
this time tired of fo much argumentation a:1i:111
fo filly :n Hypothefis.
No lefs idle is the argument ufed by Grotius
concerning the Mexicans telling the Spaniards,
that they came out of the North, where he thinks
to find the Norwegian decent in the city Norum-
elya, but who can find in North America, traces
of any ancient city at all? That the Americans
divide their time by nights (or fleeps, as they
file them) is true, alfo their dipping new born
infants in cold water, their going naked, and
their eating separate from the women, with many
other cuffoms of the favages, fimilar to the anci-
ent manners of the Germans, but this only proves
to me, that in the times of 'acitus and the other1
Roman historians, the Teutonick nations were in as
favage a fate of nature, is we now fee the Ame-
ricans; a famenefs in colur, and feature, as well
as, or rather than fimilarity of Languages is to
me a requifite proof, and for that reafon i believe,
that the EJkimaux came from Lapland, but by
what accident, we are ignorant of, and fo we
might guefs at forne eventual paffage of the red
favages, were we able to trace any fimilarity be-
tween them and any nation of the mold world,
but we fee none; yet all the iflands of America,
even New Zealand, are peopled by the fame race
as this vaft continent therefore i will rather fup-

( 49 )
pofe, that the favages, have fent out colonies,
than that they are a colony from any other part
of the earth. The fame Gentleman endeavours
to fetch the Peruvians from China, but with as
little foundation in truth. Mr. i' ..I.:l's ftory of
Maddock the Welihman's voyage, cannot be
thought fit, to afcribe a Welfh origin to the fava-
ges, because they could by no means either grow to
fuch numbers, nor degenerate fo much in colour,
as they muft have done, in two centuries; yet
even this has been made ufe of by a certain Dutch
writer, whofe name i do not now recolled; and
how unluckily does Boffu here bring forth the
black headed Pinguin, to prove that the Welfh
word Pen-gwin, was given to this bird for a name,
by Maddock's followers, because Pen is head,
and gwyn is white, and Mr. Fofter in his note on
that paffage, is as unlucky in faying Penguin is
Spanifh for a fat bird.
I find a more powerful argument ufed by thofe
who bring the favages from 7artary; because i
do not at all doubt, from my judgment of
geography, that America joins Afia; but the ex-
pedition of Hoccota, the fon of C,:.t.fl.r, firft
King of the Tartars, as mentioned by Michalon
Lituanus, in his Ennead 9, L. 6, which has like-
wife been conftrued to have reached America, is
alfo too late to allow them time to become fo nu-
merous a people; because this man lived about
the year 1240; but although i believe a poflibili-
ty of the paffage by land, yet i cannot find, that
there is any fimilarity in the perfons of the North
Eaftern Tarters. and the American favages, and
much lefs in their manners; and if there is be-
tween thofe of Kamfchatka and America, i ftill
G think,

( 50 )
think, that the firft are more naturally to be fup-
pofed a fmall colony from the latter, than that the
latter prodigious numerous people are fprung
from fo finally a tribe as the Kamfchatkans; every
one of the red men over the whole continent, and
thofe who fill remain in a few of the iflands, is
exactly similar in person to his neighbour, and
their numbers are to this day vaftly great, not-
withftanding the cruel depredations of the federal
European nations,
The contemptible light, in which Bo[fu en-
deavours to place the number of the favages, is
well confuted by Mr. Hutchin's account of the
nations near our settlements, who having mutu-
ally destroyed each other, and been destroyed by
the fword, and liquid fire of the Europeans, at a
shocking rate, yet amount by that Gentleman's
moderate calculation, even at this day, to near
three hundred thousand fouls; therefore it is not
their fmall number, but the vaft extent of this
continent, that caufes their nomadic life.
But to treat more particularly against this no-
tion, of the American decent from the Tartars,
who can fuppofe that their darling animal, as
well for food, labour, and war, as other ufes, i
mean the horfe, should not have been brought
along with the colony? Who knows not, that
the Tartars ufe moft, and can leaft fpare this no-
ble creature? Does not all their martial power
confift in horfemen? Does not their very main-
tenance deperd on horfes ? Have we not fuffici-
ent proof, that many Tartarian Lords keep hun-
dreds of horfes, and even table them ?
None are fo poor as not to have two or three;
when they fhift their abode, dp not horfes carry

( 51 )
their tents and provisions? When all other food
fails them, garlic and mare's milk is their re-
fource; the very blood out of the veins of the ie
animals supplies the place of an agreeable drink;
what fiream fo rapid which they do not crofs on
their horfes backs, or by holding their manes,
and guiding them with a twig, while they fwim
at their fide? making a fmall raft of their bag-
gage, they tie it to the tail, and thus crofs every
river in their way; a horfe's fkin makes a boat
to crofs a very wide river, lake, or even an arm
of the fea; the fuppofed narrow division between
Afia and America, near Cape T'chukjhi, could
then by no means, be an obstacle to the tranf-
portation of thefe animals; the division of the fe-
veral places, named by Boffu, through earth-
quakes, is abfurdly introduced, to prove that this
migration happened before fuch a convulfion
of nature, which prevented the return of any
of thefe emigrants. A Tartarian army ap-
pears larger than it is, on account of each man
ag two or three horfes; and notwithstanding
Sir horfes die by the fivord, or are killed for
food, yet many thousands are yearly delivered to
Ruffia, by the European Tartars only; this much
premifed, how had the favages no horfes on the
arrival of the Spaniards ? Had the Tartars in-
habited a country near America, the very horfes
would have increased fo as to come over to this
continent; how many instances do we find even
among the fettled provinces of America, of horfes
going wild! but the greatest proof, that this
muft have infallibly happened, is to be found in
South America, where now many millions are
found wild, in the great plains fouth of Brazil,

( 52 )
efpeciaily near Rio de la Plata; yet thefe take
their origin from the Northern America, and have
crofled vaft mountains; how came it then, that
a dozen or two of horfemen routed myriads ofAme-
ricans ? only one objeaion remains to be confuted;
there may be an arm of the lea between Afia and
America, and this colony came by water; but
can it even then be fuppofed, that thefe people
would have forgot their favoutite horfes ? or will
any fay that if the horses could come by land,
yet every climate does not maintain them; one
summer would fuffice for the journey: A horfe
when travelling alone, is experienced to go very
faft forward on his journey, and we learn alfo
from the fame great teacher (experience) that
thousands of horfes in North Am-rica, even
breeding mares, live in the woods in deep fuows,
through hard winters;, without hum'-an affiftance;
but no, theQe Tarrars could not brniig horfes,
nor other useful anuinals, and yc: a colony of
Panthers, Lynxes, Wolves, Foxes, Otters, and
other di;..cti.e animals mul: be fr.-'
have found their way as well as the fe i ,-
Here language is tortured into a proof; a certain
Abraham, a iVMylis has found out, that in the em-
pire of Calhay, which lays nearest America, they
peak the f'eutonic diale&, and this fame empire
being divided, into even provinces, the Eaftermoft
is called ifn'Thbuk, very like to beet c;nde des
ibeks, or the end of the point, and Anyan is
very like, !;- -_., or paflage (a paffage to be
fure out of Tartary, to America;) again beyond
Anyan, is the vafi country of Bergo, this certainly
is very much like Bergen, or sheltering, because
the Scythians ....,: their native country, fhel,

( 53)
mlbfelves here; fine Etymology! noble
Ihy !.(rifum teneatis amici !)
S -page from Afia to America, is by no
Sjieans proed by the pretended Elephants bones
-found in th(fwamp near Ohio, fince by later ob-
ifrvations, and examinations of the bones, by
, men of more knowledge than the meer vulgar,
- tey appear never to have belonged to elephants,
,but more probably are the remains of fome Hip-
pdpeptami, especially as near that river, the Indians,
often at this day, discover large foot fteps, and
bear great bellowings, both proceeding from ani-
mals they never fee themselves.
SI think if Mr, Bofu had obliged us with the
knowledge of the particular nation that calls the
Ginfeng,* Gareloguen, he would have thrown more
light on his far fetched notion of the parallel
between the Tartars and Savages; and fince- he
has himself invalidated the pretended etymology,
i would beg leave to deal with his fimilar fignifi-
ns in the fame manner, for why should not
e idea ftrike Boffus's nation and the Mant-
Tartars upon fight of the Ginfeng, and
e both compare it to men's thighs? But as
but one nation among fo many has accepted this
idea, it cannot be allowed, .even as the moft
diftant proof; the fable of the Efcaaniba by Boffu
alfo, is too ridiculous and abfurd to merit confa-
Nothing now remains, but a few words about
the migration of the Chinefe into Peru, from
whence fome fuppofe America is peopled, but
,how different the colour and figure of the. peo-
*ple! and where do we find any Chinefe fineffe a--
Saong the favages? besides, what Geographer
SPanak Quinquefolihi does

f 54 )
dos not know that the Chinefe might fho
fily, have cone over to the eastern Ihore of
fima, atrosi the Atlantic, than overt.the
Wider, and tmore ~i -my South Sea, to land
P~n's or rigks' uFthofpitable floreg where o
t~ge European vetels can fcarcely live, mu
l~ a. Cibiefe junk; nor did the Peruvians kno
My thing of large Veffels till the arrival of t
Spaniards; ftrage indeed, that their nav
knowled, -atd ~her country, should be th
foiS .the o fc e fo, as it is much eafier, t
go wt'Amwrica to China, than the contrary
by reason of the constant eafterly winds reigning
thre, which alfo make it more improbable that
the GWinefe veffels came here by chance, or Itrcl
of weather; nor could they in that cafe, but by
chance, be provided with the provisions neceffary
for fo long a voyage.
Methinks i hear fome critical person fay,
whence then came the favages ? That indeed, is
t diicult question to answer; it is eafier to
flte the different opinions, than to fay an
with certainty on this head, more efpecia
thefe people want all manner of record; ye
tolerable gefs may be made to extricate us out
of this difficult labyrinth.
Without doubt Mofes's account of the Creati-'
oAittrue, but why Ihould this Hiftorian's books',
in.tlis one thing,- be taken fo universally, when
he evidently has confined himself to a kind of
chronicle concerning one fmall part of the earth,
and in this to one nation only; this account
therefore moft be understood with the fame limi-
tation as many othes il holy writ are general
allowed to be, i think therefore that (as menti-

m e d we dd not a all dergate frfn God*
fanr in any ways dithonour the facred
given us by his Frvants, when we
dicJ,. thlat there were as many A4ts and .&w
Sy body knows thefe names to have an alle4
Sfenfe)- as we find different species of the
genus; is this not more natural wsy,
S~geiing more with the proceedirns df 6 God& f
Sttier, than the filly fuppofitions -t thee variety
irKeffe of chance, much lefs a consequence of
r iares? the more fo, as neither has any four
Sdaion in God's holy word; why muft we think
tl the curfes of a head of a family, fboud
f& each race with a peculiar fet offetures, and
lape of body ? Or one tribe with a redy a fe-
cand with a fallow, a third with a yellow, and a
fourth with a black colour, &c? Bfides we
read aofbut one curfe of this kind; they are dif-
fiant species then, Anatoniy has taught us,
t the bone of aNegroe's fkul, is always black,
fides the Tunics of which our fkins are
d, they have an additional one, confift-
numerous vehicles, filled wish a black
e humour; fee here then two characer-
ir~ks, besides the blacknefs of the fkin, where-
by this fable race is diftinguifhed; may not ex-
perience teach us, that when the other fpecies
am more carefully examined, they will all be
fund to have fome fuch peculiar character of
diftin&ion Why then fall we involve our-
Sfekes into numberlefs, needles difficulties about
the origin of thefe fo singular people, fo very dif-
Catt from all other tribes on the globe, yet fo
similar to each other: Throughout their
oon continent their wild manners are univerfally

( 56)
alike; their languages only differ; why then c
we not take the more eafy way in faying, _
has created an original pair here as welr as elfe-.
where: Is not this opinion supported by our,
finding numberlefs other kinds of thl animal
kingdom on this continent peculiar t6 itfelfV,
where besidess in America) do we find the Bos
.Americanus? Where the Paca, and Vecunha (both
American theep?) where the Urfus Lufcus or
racoon, the Armadilto, the Agouti, the Lacerta
.idai.ew, called Leguana? the Ignavo (an a-
nimal called the American Sloth?) where the
fame kind of Simie, and the Vefpertilio Cynoce-
pbalus? where the Warri or the Pecairi (two
species of the Sus?) The many kinds of Myr-
mee phaga, theMusMarfupialis, Mus.Scalopes, Meus
Palufiris hifpidus, of the fame kind, as thofe in
America? Where again the Struthio Americanus,
or the immenfe variety of the Pfittacus, peculiar
to America? Where the Toucan, the Phanicop
teros and Arquato, with the red Platea?
the beautiful wood duck, and the kinds
fianus called Quama and Curafoa? Wh
little Mellifuga, or the beautiful, and remarkale
aquatic Mufcophagus, called a fun bird? and ma-
ny more of the quadruped and winged tribes,
laroe and finally, too tedious to enumerate ?
WEere again the rattle Snake, and others of the
reptile kind? Even among Fifhes, the fame
obfervation- holds; has Pliny among all his fabu-
lous animals, described any like thefe really ex.
lifting ones ?
Again, whence was America stocked with mej
in our likenefs? Where were the oxen, tl4W
horses, the wine, dogs, cats, or even rats? or

(57 )
fkete were our poultry to be found on this con-
tinent ? Yet we fee how immenfely they have
m'ulti p Lfince their firft importation, fo that-
the aisfid food are certainly well adapted to
them; a wife effect of providence, which knew
this quarter muft one day become inhabited by
animals not originally created in it.
What -can now be faid against, this my argu-
ment for a separate origin of the favages ? No-
thing that will amount to an abfolute proof of
the contrary. But a difficulty arifes as to the ef-
fe&t of the deluge; to remove which i muft
obferve, that America, even in its mountains, re-
tains very few if any of the fo often quoted marks
of this inundation; on the contrary, itis a finooth
regularly rifing country; and i think, that to
believe the flood fo far partial, as to have reach-
ed the only lands of Egypt, Palefline, Armenia, and
Greece, is by io means an abfurd opinion, nor
inconfiftent with the deffru&ion of the race of
of which Mofes treats, nor with the water
fifteen cubits above the highest hill then
n, fuppofed to be Arrarat; and had it been
absolutely universal, yet the Andes, Cordileras,
Aceytas, and Santa Martha, are many hundred
cubits higher and consequently, might remain
a vaft way dry; but grant the deluge univerfa,
who will dispute with me, that the omnipotent
Lord of the universe could create a red man after
his own image, fuffer him to fall as well as a
white man, deftroy his pofterity except a few,
and find a way to fave a remnant of man and
beat, and then for reasons, into which we have
Sno right to enter, any more than the clay has to
contend with the potter, leave this race without
H extending

extending his tender mercies to them, as he di
to 'us, not even fending his apoftles into thi
quarter of the world; and when the chriflians,
fo called, arrived here firft, to fuffer the pretend-
ed Miffionaries to preach a falfe, abfurd do6rine
to thofe wretches, nay, even to this day to harden
their hearts against the light drawn from under a
bufhel, and placed confpicuouily on a candle-
However among none of the favages do we.
fi~d any tradition of fuch a-flood, except among
fome southern nations, who tell of fix perfons
creeping out of a hole, whereby the earth was
peopled; thefe have been confirued into Noah's
fons and their wives.
The Cha&aws have told me of a hole between
their nation and the Chicafaws, out of which
their whole very numerous nation walked forth
at once, without fo much as warning any' neigh-
bours; i cannot find any relation between this
and a deluge; On the Ifthmus of Darien i h ve
indeed been warned by the favages of
preaching flood on a certain day, and when
ftayed till then and faw the event to be nothing,
i ridiculed them about it; and they told me that
a great while ago they had fuch an inundation,
and that their Sukies or conjurors, had foretold a
similar one now, but had proved themselves ly-'
ars this is the only hint i could ever tra-e of any
notion of a great flood; and i leave my reader to
judge of the weaknefs or force of this evidence,
and of the juftnefs of the opinion advanced,
which i offer only because i think that truth.
Should be the obje& of man's enquiries, and
that God has given us the only advantage we



-Calf 6(111, Iwe")

( 59 )
have over brutes, in order to fpur us on to en-
quiries into the myfteries of nature.
I fall now treat of the four moft noted nati-
ons conne&ed with Florida in particular, begin-
ning with the Chicafaws, they being (although
a fmall tribe) accounted the mother nation on
this part of the continent, and their language,
universally adopted by moft, if not all the weft-
ern nations. This is the moft fierce, cruel, infolent,
and kh,ujnhty people, among the southern nati-
ons; they are very intrepid in thewars with their
Meridional neighbours, and the French under
Meffis. Artaguette and Bienville, in 1736 expe-
rienced their valour (when aided by a few En-
gliflhmen of tried courage) and in 1752, and
1753, Meffrs.menoift and Reggio likewise found
them fuccefsfu to their coft; but with the nor-
thern nations it ftands otherways; the Kikaposs,
Piancashas and others are their terror; notwith-
th-nJingr their boaft of fcalps from the northward,
it has appeared that, except fome private murders
among nations, who think the infult to come from
fome other quarter, and fome flaves and fcalps
obtained from the daftardly, they have
really not been able fo much as to find the Kika-
poos, Piatcasba, Wqyogtan, Sbhgteys, Mrtfqtakey,
Otogami towns; this appeared clearly while i was
in the Chical'w nation in the winter of 1771 and
1772, when one Mr. James (who had been :
prisoner with the Kikapoos, for the face of three.
years, and had found means to c-,ip-- from them
arrived there, and told, that in all that time ne
ver one of the Chicafaws appeared, or did mif
chief among thefe nations, nor could he lear
they ever did; yet it is evident that their corn

( 60 )
to the very Chicafaw towns to commit depredati-
ons, as well as in their hunting grounds, where
the Chicafaws always take care to fortify them-
It is alfo obfervable, that to the north of their
towns they never venture any plantations, and to
the fouthward they have many; nay they fcarcely
venture to get fire wood north of their habitati-
on; in thort they have never fhewn their brave-
ry but against the Chaftaws and Creeks, with
the French their allies; the Northerns have al-
ways been their mailers, and the- Arkanfas and
Catawbas their match; the Cherokees have gene-
rally had the worft of the wars between them;
they have always been ftaunch allies to the Eng-
lifh, but i think there is no very great dependance
to be had on them now, for i can (not without
reason) affirm, that that alliance was all owing to
the French being their irreconcilable, and mortal
enemies; now thefe are out of the way, little re-
liance is to be had on them; and in the winter
of 1771 and 1772, the traders were under daily
apprehensions of a quarrel. It is true that thofe
monsters in human form, the very fcum and out
caft of the earth, are always more prone to favage
barbarity than the favages themselves; but it is
no lefs true, that the traders were of as diffolute a
life, and of as profligate manners, with as great
an inclination for deceit and over reaching during
the French time,' as they are now; but then the
policy of thefe favages curbed their thoughts of
revenge; whereas now they frequently dare to
vent threats of a difagreeable nature, which are
the more dangerous because thofe favage politics,
ans are always very. much upon their guard when

( 61 )
they are treating with our men in office, how
they behave themselves in this refpe&, well
knowing that the ancient fame of their faithful
alliance is fufficiently rooted in the hearts of the
open minded Englilh, to enable them to impofe
on their credulity.
SAs an instance of Chicafaw honour or faith,
which is indeed equal to that of any nation of
American favages whatever; i would mention
the tryal that has been made for concluding an
union between the Arkanfas, 9!appas, or Kappas,
and the Chicafaws; the firft attempted at leaft an
alliance with the latter fo long ago as 1764, but
no kind of folemn embaffy, or deputation was
employed for the eiffeing this before the summer
1771, and then at this meeting the infolence of
the Chicatfws run fo high, as to infult one of the
Quapa deputies by calling him a woman, and fpit-
ting rum in his face, which was put up with;
but the ..*, :;f '.. never have made an attempt to
finish the treaty fince, and i dare venture to fore-
tell, that flch an union would by no means be
for our good, let it happen when it may.
The morals of this nation are more corrupt
than thofe of any of their neighbours; the Chac-
taws are faid to be thieves, but i can affure the
reader that the. Chicafaws are a thousand times
more fo; i have had ample proof of it by losing
incomparably more in one day at the Chicafaw
town than i did in two months going through fe-
venty four Chacaw towns, notwithstanding i had
been warned, and was on my guard against the
Chicafaws; my razors and a cafe of instruments,
and other trifles of no real ufe to them, besides
every lIorfe i had with me, vanished in one day

( 62 )
among thefe deceitful people. Their difcourfe is
really intolerable, nothing but filth is heard
from them; the vanity of being accounted great
hunters and warriors has the better of every con-
fideration, and rather than condefcend to culti.
vate the earth (which they think beneath them)
they will fit and toy with their women ; or if
they fend them to labour, they play on an auk-
ward kind of flute made of a cane, lolling thus
their time away with great indifference, which
obliges them yearly to apply for corn and pulie
to the CI.., L'I a.s.
They live nearly in the center of a very i.:g'
and somewhat uneven favannah, of a diameter of
above three miles; this favannah at all times has
but a barren look, the earth is very Nitrous,
and the favages get their water out of holes or
wells dug near the town; in any drought the
ground will gape infiifures of about fix or even
inches wide, and again, two or three days rain
will caufe an inundation; the water is always ni-
trous, and this field abounds, with flinr, marl,
and thofe kinds ofanomilous foffils ::i:.: i for
oyfter fhells, which cannot be burnt into lime;
yet this produces a grafs of which cattle are fo
fond as to leave the riiCIthilt cane brakes for it;
and notwithftanding the foil appears barren and
burnt up, they thrive to admiration; it alfo af-
fords a vaft, or even immenfe ffore of the falu-
brious Fragaria, vulgarly known by the name of
wood strawberry.
They have in this field what might be called
one town, or rather an affemblage of hutts, of
the length of about one mile and a half, and
very narrow and irregular; this however they

divide into even, by the names of Melattau
(i. e.) hat and feather, Cbatelaw (i. e.) copper
town, Chukafalaya (i. c.) long town, Hikihaw
(i. e.) Rand itill, Chucalifa (i. e.) great town,
I'uckahaw (i. e.) a certain weed, and AJhuck boo-
ma (i. e.) red grafs; this was formerly inclofed
in palifadoes, and thus well fortified against the
attacks of fmall arms, but now it lays open; a
second Artaguette, a little more prudent than the
firft, would now find them an eafy prey.
The neareft running water, is about one mile
and a half off, to the fouth of the town, in the
edge of the field, but it is of no note; the next
is four miles off; and at high times, canoes
might come up here out of the river Tombechb;
this place is a ford, which often proves difficult,
and on this account is called Nahoola Inalchubba
(i. e.) the white mens hard labour.
Horfes and cattle thrive well in this nation, their
breed of the former was once famous, being de-
fcended from fome Arabian horfes brought from
Spain to Mexico, but of late they have fo mixed
them with meaner kinds, as to caufe them to de-
S,generate much.
The traders who for fear of caufing jealoufy
by their difcourfe have formed nick names for all
the favage nations, have called thefe by the
whimfical name of the breed as cunningly fuf-
picious as the favages are, yet i never found that
any of them ever took notice of this diftin6tion.
One remarkable thing i cannot omit of this na-
tion: There were in 1771, only two real origi-
nal Chicafaws left; one of them, who goes by
the name of North Weft, fcruples not to tell
them all very often, that they are of a flave
race, Their

( 64 )
Their grand Chief is called Opaya Mataha, and
it is faid he has killed his man upwards of forty
times, for which great feats he has been raised to
this nominal dignity, which by aJl iavages is as
much regarded, as among us a titular nobleman
would be if he should be obliged to be a journey-
man taylor for his maintenance.
Thefe favages are the only ones i ever heard of
who make their females obfcrve a separation at the
time of their Menfes (fome ancient almost extirpated
tribes to the northward only excepted, and thefe
ufed to avoid their own dwelling houses) the wo-
men then retire into a fmall hut fet apart for that
purpose, of which there are from two to fix
round each habitation, and by them called moon
The whole tribe are remarkably ftrong made
fellows, but few of their women have regular
features, or deferve to be called handsome; thefe
labour vaftly hard, either in the field for culti-
vation of corn, or fetching nuts, fire wood and
water, which they chiefly carry on their backs;
the two firfl articles generally two or three miles,
and the laft often a mile, their burthens would
amaze a ftranger, being rather fit for affes than
women to carry.
This nation is the moft imperious in their car-
riage towards their women, of any i have met
with; they are very jealous of their wives, and
adultery in them is punished by the lofs of the tip
of the nofe, which they sometimes cut, but more
generally bite off, but this does not deter them,
for they are a very falacious race, and the mark
is pretty general. They are all good fwimmers,
notwithstanding they live fo far from waters, but

( 65 )
they learn their children to fwim in clay holes,
that are filled in wet feafons by rain.
They are the moft expert of any perhaps in
America in tracking what they are in purfuit of,
and they will follow their flying enemy, on a
long gallop, over any kind of ground without
Since i am on this fubjet, i cannot forbear
,taking notice of one thing related by many wri-
ters on America; which is the knowledge the
favages have by the track of what kind of people
they purfue; this is very true, and this fagaci-
ous particular deserved admiration, but the won-
der muft ceafe when i tell my reader, that i have
found in it much of a juggle, for instead of
knowing it by the foot fteps (which they pretend
to measure very ceremonioufly with their hands)
they know it by the ftrokes of the hatchets in the
trees and branches as they go along, which no
two favage nations agree in, be it in the height
from the ground, or in the flope of the cut; they
can alfo diftinguifh the different ways of making
camps and fires; for instance; a Chaaaw war
camp is circular, with a fire in the center, and
each man has a crutched branch at his head to
hang his powder and fhot upon, and to fet his
gun against, and the feet of all to the fire; a
Cherokee war camp is a long line of fire, against
which they alfo lay their feet; a Chataw makes
his camp in travelling in form of a fugar loaf; a
Chicafaw makes it in form of our arbours; a Creek
like to our iheds, or piazzas, to a timber houfe;
in this manner every nation has fome diftinguifh-
ing way.
The Chicafaws are eitee-ed good hunters, they
i have

( 66 )
have extenfive hunting grounds, and make excel.
lent ufe of them; they extend them to the branch of
the Ohio, called T,;~'./;, Hogoheechee or Cherokee ri-
ver, and claim to the mouth of the Ohio, but this
ground they frequent with great caution, only in
the depth of winter when their northern enemies
are clofe at home; they are often furprifed on
the rivers Margot and Tafoo, but below the Tafoo
as far eaft as the eastern branches of Tombechb,
and as low as Oka 9'ibehaw, they hunt fafely;
this laft they regard as their boundary with the
Cha&aws, but thefe two nations are by no means
jealous of each other in this refpe&, and hunt in
each others grounds without lett or hindrance
from either fide; although their country abounds
in beaver, they kill none, leaving that to the,
white men; they think this kind of hunting be-
neath them, faying any body can kill beaver,
but men only deer; this is exaaly the reverfe of
a northern Indian; they hunt like all their neigh-
bours with the fkin and fro'ltal bone of a deer's
head, dried and stretched on elaftic chips; the
horns they fcoup out very curioufly, employing
fo much patience on this, that fuch a head and
antlers often do not exceed ten or twelve ounces;
they fix this on the left hand, and imitating the
motions of the deer in fight, they decoy them
within fure fhot. I cannot forbear to mention a
merry accident on this occafion; a Cha6taw In-
dian, who was hunting with one of thefe decoys
on his fifth, faw a deer, and thinking to bring it
to him, imitated the deer's motions of feeding
and looking round in a very natural way, ano-
ther favage within fhot, mistaking the head for a
real one, ihot the ball through it, fcarcely mifling

( 67 )
the fingers of the firft; the affair ended in fifty
cuffs, but was no farther refented.
Their habitations at home confit of three
buildings, a summer houfe, a corn houfe, and a
winter houfe, called a hot houfe; the two firfi
are oblong fquares, the latter is circular, they
have no chimnies but let the fmoke find its way
out through a hole at the top in their dwelling
houfes, but in the hot houfes, where it can; in
there they make large wood fires, on the middle
of the floor, which being by evening all coals,
they enter in, and fleep, on benches made round
the infide of the building-; this would flifle any
one not ufed to it, and be it never fo fharp a
morning, they come out sweating and naked as
foon as it is day; i believe this proceeding kills
numbers of them, as in attitude 35 oo, where
they live, it is often very cold; they alfo ufe for
an univerfal cure of all difeafes, exceffive fweat-
ing in thefe hot houfes, and then with their pores
open jump into a hole of cold water, this treat-
ment of thofe that had the fmall pox killed num-
bers; thefe hot houses of a morning emitting
fmoke through every crevice, feem to a stranger
to be all on fire on the infide.
Their common food is the zea or the Indian
corn, of which they make meal, and boil it;
they alfo parch it, and then pound it; thus tak-
ing it on their journey, they mix it with cold wa-
ter, and will travel a great way without any
other food; they begin to have the knowledge of
keeping cattle; but at present they enjoy little or
Sno frefh meats while at home, but in the hunting
feafon in the woods, it is almoft the only food
they make ufe of; they have alfo a way of dry-

6( 68
ing and pounding their corn, before it comes to
maturity; this they call Boota 0Cc..'1& (i. e.) cold
flour; this, in fmall quantities, thrown into cold
water, boils and fwells as much as common meal
boiled over a fire; it is hearty food, and being
feet, they are fond of it; but as the procefs for
making it is troublesome, their lazinefs feldom
allows them to have it; they likewife ufe hickory
nuts in plenty, and make a milkey liquor of
them, which they call milk of nuts; the procefs
is at bottom the fame as what we ufe to make
milk of almonds; this milk they are very fond
of, and eat it with feet potatoes in it; they alfo
make a great ufe of Bears fat as oil; the flefh
the traders have learned them to make into ba-
con, exactly refembling that of a hog; but all
thefe dishes fuit but ill the palate of an European,
and when they have any deer or buffalo flcfh at
home, it is fo dried as to have no tafte in it.
The knowledge they have of cattle keeping is
borrowed from the traders among them, who,,
notwithstanding the ordinance against fettling on
Indian grounds, have many of them plantations,
and raife cattle and hogs; one Caldwell has the
greatest ftock; and Opaya Mingo Luxi went in
1771 to complain of it, but Caldwell, knowing
that no favage can withfland the words of a white
man, took advantage thereof, and fo intimidated
the favage, by his meer presence at Penfacola,
when in the Ip~ in[r:rJ;ant's hall, in order to
lodge his information, and make his complaint
that Opaya ~i /"'; Luxi himself faid he had
'nothing against him; 'but as the very Com-
nmffary has a plantation and 'cattle, and keeps
negrdes &c. for the'cultivation thereof (though

( 69 )
he keeps his cattle under the same of Opaya Ma-
taha) i think very little will be done to hinder
it; and upon the whole, i think the affair of ad-
vantage to the favages, who muft foon ge-
nerally give into this way of life for their own
preservation, or elfe remove further from us.
This office ofCommiffary feems to me the moft
needles expence the crown is at, as it only ferves
for a fubje&t of ridicule both to the traders and
favages, which laft fcruple not often to give the
officer in this nation the (among them) fcanda-
lous epithet of old woman; and he can do but
little towards preventing disorders among them,
or in regulating the standard of the trade; besides,
i am fure that whatever Commiffiary dared to
pretend to be any thing more than a cypher,
would run an imminent rifque of his life.
Their numbers have been very large, and
they themselves have a tradition that they were a
colony from another nation in the Weft, and that
they firfl fet themselves down near the Ohio, but
foon removed to their present Site; the greatest
number that their gunmen can now be reckoned
at, does not exceed too hundred and fifty; it is
really amazing, to think, that fuch a handful
keeps about ten thousand of the men of the other
tribes from destroying them; but their ferocity
and the way of making war among the favages
which gives no advantage to numbers, because
the war parties of a fmall nation are as numerous
as thofe of a larger one) has long faved them
from deftruEtion.
Strong liquors make a fad havock among thefe
as among all other nations of the favages in the

( 70 )
They are ftrongs and fivift of foot, and their
exercise at home is chiefly their ball play, a very
laborious diverfion.
They are horridly given to fodomy, commit-
ting that crime even on the dead bodies of their
enemies, thereby (as they fay) degrading them
into women.
In their war parties, they have
who has done moft mischief to the enemy for
their leader; but he is fo far from having a com-
mand, that an attempt, to do more than pro-
pofing whether fuch or fuch an undertaking
would not be moft advifeable, or at molt per-
fuading them to it, would at leaft be followed
by a total defertion.
They are very ceremonious in their preparati-
ons for war, and their fondnefs for witchcraft
makes them look for omens of futurity.
They and all other favages have the greatest
fhare of patience imaginable; when a fcalp or
prifoner is in question, they will travel hundreds
of miles in the defarts, with amazing precaution,
enduring hunger, and often thirit, at a great
rate; nay if their provisions fail before they ftrike
the blow, they have been known to return to
hunt for more in fome fifte place, and without
going home, to make a second or third attempt.
i h,_ make war by firatagem, furprife or am-
bufh, defpifing us as fools for exposing ourselves
to be fliot at like marks. A man's valour with
them confifts in their c :i,',~ .. and he is deemed
the g,'.2iri' hero who employs moft art in fur-
prifing his enemy; they never firike a blow un-
lefs they think themselves fure of a retreat, and
the lofs of many men is an infamous crimelaid to
the charge of the party, They

( 7I )
They bury their dead almost the moment the
Breath is out of the body, in the very fpot under
the couch on which the deceafed died, and the
neareft relations mourn over it with woeful la-
mentations; the women are very vociferous in it,
but the men do it in filence, taking great care
not to be feen any more than heard at this bufi-
nefs; the mourning continues about a year, which
they know by counting the moons, they are eve-
ry morning and evening, and at firft throughout
the day at different times, employed in the exer-
cife of this laft duty.
A people who by many peculiar cuftoms, are
very different from the other red men on the
continent, will next amufe us: They are the
Chataws, more commonly known by the name
of the Flatheads. Thefe people are the only na-
tion from whom i dould learn any idea of a tra-
ditional account of a firft origin; and that is
their coming out of a hole in the ground, which
they fhew between their nation and the Chica-
faws; they tell us alfo that their neighbours were
furprifed at feeing a people rife at once out of
the earth; dark as this account of a firft ex-
ifience of thefe people is to us, we discover in it
a higher idea of an origin than a!nn.._; their
neighbours, who never pretend to tell from
.whence they came, and have only loore ideas of a
migration from the north weft; which prevail
among the Chicaflaws and all other ifuthern nati-
The Cha&aws may more properly be c ilkil a
nation of farmers than any favagcs i have met
with; they are the moft considerable people in
Florida, and their fituaion may be known by

( 72 )
the annexed plan of their country: Their hunt-
ing grounds are in proportion lefs considerable
than any of their neighbours; but as they are ve-
ry little jealous of their territories, nay with eafe
part with them, the Chicafaws and they never
interrupt each other in their hunting; as i menti-
oned before.
They are in their warlike temper far from be-
ing fuch cowards as people in general will pre-
tend, but it is true they are not fo fond of wan-
dering abroad to do mifchief as the other favages
are; few of fuch expeditions are undertaken by
them, and they give for a reason, that in going
abroad they may chance to be obliged to content
themselves with a woman's or child's fcalp, but
in fraying at home and waiting the attack of the
enemy, they by pursuing them, are fure to take
men, which is a greater mark of valour: be this
as it will, it is certain they are carefully, cun-
ningly, and bravely watchfull at home, and on
several occasions they have, after many infults,
boldly offered to meet their enemies in equal
numbers on a plain, which has always been by
the other favages treated with fcorn, as cowar-
dice; however when it has happened by chance
that they meet fo, we have feen them brave and
vicorious. Even in the very town of Mobile,
an action of this kind happened deferving a re-
cord, when they drove their enemies (the Creeks)
through the river, and but for their inability to
fwim, they would have totally delfroyed them;
the Captain Hooma or red Captain fighting with
forty Men against three hundred Creeks, and
with his own hand destroying thirteen of their
Chiefs, even when fighting on his knees, and



( 73 )
when he fell, bravely telling who he was, and
his being flead alive for his heroifm, is fo frefh in
every one's memory (being not above fix Years
ago) that many living evidences can teftify it;
I thought the a&ion worthy of this attempt, to
fave it from oblivion. They have defeated ma-
ny of their eaftern frontier towns fince their pre-
fent war with the Creeks, but during my flay
in their nation, i faw four or five instances of
their not suffering their enemy to efcape unpu-
nifhed, when he dared to commit depredations,
and they valued themselves on the event of the
present war, when in 1771, news coming among
the Traders, that the Creeks computed their
lofs at near three hundred perfons, and they
having gueffed the number oftheir's, loft much
the fame; they faid, we have loft many women
and children and even of them fome Scalps have
been retaken, but we like men, have killed
men only, and got all the marks thereof; this
war began in Auguft 1765; the readers may
judge at the greatnefs of their exploits, when i
affure them, that that number was the total lofs
during all that time.
Thefe favages were the ftaunch and firm
friends of the French while they continued on
the continent, until fome Englifh traders found
means to draw the eaft party, and the diftrit of
Coofa (which together are called Oypat-oocooloo,
or the fall nation) into a civil war with the
western divisions called Oocooloo-Falaya, Oocooloo-
Hanali, and Chickafawhays, which after many
conflicts and the deftruftion of eaft Congeeto,
ended with the peace in 1763. I believe they
are a nation whofe word may be depended on
K when

when they give into the interest of any person,
and that their faith is to be better relied on than
that of the Chicafaws or Creeks, which two laft
are really verfed in all the garlic tricks of deceit.
At the congress of 1771, there were two thou-
fand three hundred of this nation nearly all men,
at Mobile on the fuperintendants books; in the
nation i found at above feventy of their villages,
about two thousand men, and in the woods and
hunting grounds, i was at and heard of as many
camps as could make no lefs than fix hundred
men more. The French ufed to keep them very
poor, but the yearly finall gifts they Were ac-
cuftomed to, were more proper to leave an idea
of gratitude on the mind of a favage, than our
feptennial great ones.
Monfieur de Kerlerec and others made a fine
.',gl:e and kind of monopoly of this trade, which
was very ill brooked by the French;' but al-
though i make no doubt of the Gentlemen's hav-
ing gone beyond the orders of their court, and
notwithftanding i am a bitter enemy to unreafon-
able regraters, yet i am certain that a nmoopoly
of this trade under proper reftrietions would
prove an advantage and security to the colonies,
fince now the vilainous over reaching, chica-
nery, and mutual calumniations of the abandoned
wretches, who refide among the favages, joined
to their worfe than brutifh or favage way of life,
tend to the rendering the nation to which they
belong infamous, defp~cable, and carndalous a-
mong the favages, as well as to turn the hopes
of advantage into a real disadvantage; and i
dare venture'to fay, that unless fich ref riftions
take place, the diiierent favages will always find

(75 )
Srafon to complain against the colonies, and join
'in cabals against the poor fettlers in the, remote
counties, and at laft oblige the colonies to take
the difagreable flep of realizing our mock au-
thority, by extirpating all favages that dare to
remain on the Eaft of the Mififfippi.,
But to return to the war-like inclinations of
the Chaftaws, and not to involve myself in poli.
ticks; i take them to be a brave people, who can
upon occasion defend themselves very coolly, for
during my flay in the nation, a woman of that
tribe made a bargain with me to give her ammu-
nition for fome provisions i bought of her; and
when i expreffed my furprife threat, fhe in.
formed me that fie kept a gun to defend her-
felf as well as her husband did; and i have feve-
ral times feen armed women in motion with the
parties going in purfuit of the invading-enemy,
who having completed their intended murder,
were flying off.
They never exercised fo much cruelty upon
their captive enemies as the other favages; they
almost always brought them home to fhew them,
and then dispatched them with a bullet or hatch-
et; after which, the body being. cut into many
Sports, and all the hairy pieces of ikin converted.
into fcalps, the remainder is buried and the above.
trophies carried home, where the women dance
with them till tired; then they are expofed on
the tops of the I't h'obufes till they are annihiliated.
The fame treatment is exercifed on thofe who are
killed near the nation, but he.that falls'in battle
at a distance is barely fcalpedi '"
Their addiCtednefs to pre witchcraft
leads them into a very fuperiffti behavour

( 76 )
when on an expedition which is remarkable, they
carry with them a certain thing which they look
on as the genius of the party; it is moft com-
monly the ftuffed flin of an owl of a large kind;
they are very careful of him, keep a guard over'
him, and offer him a part of their meat; should
he fall, or any other ways be difordered in pofi-
tion, the expedition is frustrated; they always
fet him with his head towards the place of defti-
nation, and if he should prove to be turned di-
retly contrary, they consider this as portending
fome very bad omen, and an absolute order to
return; should therefore any one's heart fail him,
he needs only watch his opportunity to do this
to fave his character of a brave or true man.
,There is alfo a species of Motacilla (which i often
endeavoured to catch, in vain) whofe chirping
near the camp, will occasion their immediate re-
Their war camps are already mentioned.
They are given to pilfering, but not fo much
as the Chicafaws.
They are the fwifteft of foot of any favages in
'America, and very expert in tracking a flying
enemy, who very feldom efcapes.
Their leader can not pretend to command on
an expedition, the moft he can do, is to endea-
vour to persuade, or at the extent, he can only
pretend to a greater experience in order to en-
force his counsel; should he pretend to order,
defertion would at leaft be his punishment, if
not death.
Their exercifes agree pretty much with what i
have feen among other nations: from their infan-
cy they learI te ufe of bows and arrows; they

( 77 )
are never beaten or otherways rudely chaftifed,
and very feldom chid; this education renders
them very willful and wayward, yet i think it
preferable to the cruel and barbarous treatment
indiscriminately ufed by fome European parents,
who might with flight punishments by the ex-
cellency of wholefome chriftian Admonitions,
work in a very different manner on the tender
inclinations of pliable infancy.
The young favages alfo ufe a very ftrait cane
eight or nine feet long, cleared of its inward
divifions of the joints; in this they put a finally
arrow, whofe one end is covered one third of
the whole length with cotton or something fimi-
lar to it: this they hold their mouth and
blow it fo expertly as feldom to mils a mark
fifteen or twenty yards off and that fo violently
as to kill fquirrils and birds therewith; with
this instrument they often plague dogs and other
animals according to the innate difpofition to
cruelty of all favages, being encouraged to take
a delight in torturing any poor animal that has
the misfortune to fall into their hands; thinking
beft of him, who can longeft keep the victim
in pain, and invent the greatest variety of tor-
ture. When growing up, they ufe wreftling,
running, heaving and lifting great weights, the
playing with the ball two different ways, and
their favourite game of cbunki, all very violent
The excefs in fpirituous liquors to which they
ufe themselves, is really incredible.
Their meetings about ferious matters are at
night. Their belief in charms and exorcilms is
firm and out of reason, and he that should idar

( 78 )
openly to boaft of this gift is fure to lofe his life
on the firft misfortune in the town where he re-
fides; but if it is only pretended to extend to
the cure of wounds and difeafcs it is overlooked;
when they prepare for war, and when they return
they ufe exorcifns, they call them all phyfic
though only bare words or actions; and if they
prove unfuccefsful, they fay the phyfic was not
strong enough; it is no finall diverfion to fee a
Chat&aw during this preparation at all his flrange
geftures, and the day before his departure paint-
ed fcarlet and black almost naked and with fwan
wings to his arms run like a bacchant up and
down through the place of his abode; not drunk
neither, as rum is by them avoided like poifon
during this preparation.
While i was in this nation, i had the misfor-
tune to be afflicted with a violent fever which
ended in a flux; my own fl ill being baffled, i
applied to my guide, who had the reputation of
being a knowing Phyfician well acquainted with
the fimples ufed among them. I fubmitted to his
prescription; he got fome herbs and roots, and
made a decod-ion of them; i drank it; while the
effect was expected, he alternately burnt fome of
the fimples and fat down by me blowing upon
me to drive away the diforder; i found no bene-
fit by it; and on my refusing an other trial he faid
i was a fool, the next time the phyfic would be
stronger, but he was not affronted.
The French have made great attempts to ren-
der this nation Chriftians; at Chicafawhav there
refided a mifflonary and a chapel was built, but
they were absolutely unfuccefsful; the favages
always derided the Jefuit, called him a woman,

( 79 )
and would frequently defire him to take away
his phyfic, thereby meaning he would undo his
ceremony of bapt:ifn; and when the Englifh ar-
rived there they would go up to the altar and
imitate all the jefuiical farce, telling them that
they were not fuch fools as to hear him; the cha-
pel was deftroyed before i came there in 1771,
but the crofs (being of lightwood*) food yet.
Their piay at ball is either with a fmall ball of
deer ikin or a larhg one of woollen rags ; the firft
is thrown with bLtckdores, the ilcond with the
hand only; this s 'a tria of fkill between village
and village; after having appointed the day and
field for :rectin-, they airemble at the time and
place, fix two poles across each other at about
an hundred and fifty feet apart, they then at-
tempt to throw the ball through the lower part of
them, and the :r party trying to prevent
it, throw it back among themselves, which the
firft again try to prevent; thus they attempt to
beat it about from one to the other with amazing
violence, and not feldom broken limbs or diflo-
cated joints are the condcquence; their being al-
m 1". naked, painted and ornamented with fea-
thers, has a good efifet on the eye of the by
flander during this violent diverfion; a number
is agreed on for the fcore, and the party who firft
gets this number wins.
The women play among themselves (after the
men have done) difputing with as much eagernefs
as the men; the fakes or betts are generally high;
There is no difference in the other game with the
large ball, only the men and women play pro-
mifcuoufly, and they ufe no battledores.
Their favourite game of chlnkte is a plain proof
of the evil confequcnces of a violcnt paffion for
*' The L.e:al cf yenl_,v pine. garni g

( So )
gaming upon all kinds, claffes and orders of
men ; at this they play from morning till night,
with an unwearied application, and they bet
high; here you may fee a favage come and bring
all his fkins, flake them and lofc them; next his
pipe, h is beads, trinkets and ornaments; at laft
his blanket, and other garment, and even all
their arms, and after all it is not uncommon for
them to go home, borrow a gun and foot them-
felves; an instance of this happened in I771 at
Eafi Tafoo a fhort time before my arrival. Sui-
cide has alfo been pra&ifed here on other occafi-
ons, and they regard the acE as a crime, and bury
the body as unworthy of their ordinary funeral rites.
ri mannncr of playing this game is thus:
They make an alley of about two hundred feet in
length, where a very finooth caly ground is laid,
which when dry is very hard; they play two to-
gether having each a freight pole of about fif-
teen feet long; one holds a ftone, which is in
flape of a truck, which he throws before him
over this alley, and the infant of its departure,
they fet off and run; in running they caft their
poles after the ftone, he that did not throw it
endeavours to hit it, the other firives to ftrike the
pole of his antagonist in its flight ob as to prevent
its hitting the ftone; if the firft should firike the
tone he counts one for it, and if the other by
the dexterity of his caft should prevent the pole
of his opponent hitting the ftone, he counts one,
but should both mifs their aim the throw is re-
newed; and in cafe a fcore is won the winner
cafts the ftone and eleven is up; they hurl this
flone and pole with wonderful dexterity and vio-
lence, and fatigue themifelvs much at it.

( 81 )
The women alfo have a game where they take
a fmall flick, or something elfe off the ground
after having thrown up a finall ball which they
are to catch again, having picked up the other;
they are fond of it, but afhamed to be feen at it.
I believe it is this propenfity to gaming which has
given thcfe ravages an idea of a meum and tuum
above all other nations of America.
They are extravagant in their debauches;
when met for a drinking match fome women at-
tend them, when thefe find the men beginning
to be heated with liquor they will take away all
the weapons found near them and return with a
callebafh under their wrappers, then mixing
with them, the men offer them their bottles,
they take a draught and when not observed they
empty it into the callebafh, which when full they
empty into bottles brought for that purpose, and
thus they will accumulate two or three bottles
full, and with the help of a little water, fill
make them more; after a while rum fails among
the men, and the women acquaint them, that
they have got fome; they are told to fetch it;
they refuse, saying it coft them much and they
cannot give it for nothing; a bargain enfues,
they receive the confederation firft, and then bring
it; in this way of trade they will often get all
the effe&s the men can command for fuch a deli-
cate near.
I have a great opinion of a Cha&aw's faith-
fully performing his promises, i have feen several
little instances thereof; they deteft a liar, and
fhew gratitude to a man that keeps his word;
my guide whofe name was Poo/kPs Mingo gave

( 82 )
me an inifance of this; when i left him he faid i
had satisfied him for every thing like a true man,
but if i would give him a speaking paper to the
great white man at Mobile (meaning John Stuart
Efq) then he would fill better know it; i gave
him a note recommending him to that gentleman,
and because he had been of extraordinary service
on the journey, begged he would allow him
something more than common; it had the defired
effea, he got a good many things extraordinary;
whIn i was afterwards miffing, and it was thought
the Creeks had destroyed us in coming from the
Chicafaw nation, this favage armed to avenge
my death, and was a&ually taking the war phy-
fick as they term it, when news was brought to
the nation of my arrival at Mobile.
They are well made both men and women;
the women have agreeable features and counte-
nances, but their nafty way of life in general dif-
figures them; thofe that are cleanly are really at-
tra&ive; the women disfigure the heads of their
male children by means of bags offand, flattening
them into different shapes, thinking it adds to their
beauty; both men and women wear long hair, ex-
cept fome young fellows who begin to imitate the
Chicafaw fashion, and both fexes mark their
faces and bodies, particularly the women with
indelible blue figures of fancy, among which is
a great deal of voluted work of vaft variety.
Before the Englifh traders came among them,
there were fcarcely any half breed, but now they
abound among the younger fort.
Both fexes are wanton to the highest degree,
and a certain fashionable diforder is very com-
nion among them. Sodomy is alfo pratifed but

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P 82,

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( 83 )
not to the fame excefs as among the Creeks and
Chicafaws, and the Cinedi among the Chaclaws
are obliged to drefs themselves in woman's attire,
and are highly defpifed especially by the women.
Their buildings are exactly similar to. thofe of
the Chicafaws.
Their way of life in general may be called in-
duftrious, they will do what no uncompelled fa-
vage will do, that is work in the field to raiie
grain; and one may among them hire not only a
guide, or a man to build a houfe, or make a fence,
but even to hoe his grounds; nay they will for
payment be your menial fervants to the meaneft
offices; no other unfubdued favage will do any
more of all thefe than be your guide; they
are very ingenious in making tools, utenfils and
furniture; i have feen a narrow tooth comb made
by one of thefe favages with a knife only out of
a root of the Diofpyros that was as well finished as
i ever faw one with all the neceffary tools; this
fhews their patience.
The Chaftaws are very hofpitable at their hun-
ting camps, and there only they will entertain a
stranger at free coft.
Here i muft relate a particular cuffom of thefe
people: When a deer or bear is killed by them,
they divide the liver into as many pieces as there
are fires, and fend a boy to each with a piece,
that the men belonging to each fire may burn it,
but the women's fires are excluded from this ce-
remony, and if each party kills one or more ani-
mals, the livers of them are all treated in the fame
Horfes of a good kind are in fuch plenty as to
be fold for a kegg of four gallons half water half

( 84 )
rum; they would be excellent were it not that
they back them before the animals attain two
years of age.
They cultivate for bread all the species ,and
varieties of the Zea, likewise two varieties of
that species of Panicum vulgarly called guinea
corn; a greater number of different Phafeolus
and Dolichos than any i have feen elsewhere; the
efculent Convolvulus (vulgo) feet potatoes, and
the Helianthus Giganteus; with the feed of the
laft made into flour and mixed with flour of the
Zea they make a very palatable bread; they have
carried the spirit of hufbandry fo far as to culti-
vate leeks, garlic, cabbage and fome other gar-
den plants, of which they make no ufe, in order
to make profit of them to the traders they alfo
ufed to carry poultry to market at Mobile, al-
though it lays at the distance of an hundred and
twenty miles from the neareft town; dunghill
fowls. and a very few ducks, with fome hogs,
are the only efculent animals raised in the nation.
They make many kinds of bread of the above
grains with the help of water, Eggs, or hickory
milk; they boil the efculent convolvulus and eat
it with the hickory milk; they boil green ears of
corn, they boil corn and beans together, and
make many other preparations of their vegetables,
but frefh meat they have only at the hunting
feafon, and then they never fail to eat while it
lafts; of their fowls and hogs they feldom eat
any as they keep them for profit.
In failure of their crops, they make bread of
the different kinds of Fagus, of the Diofpyros, of
a species of Convolvulus with a tuberous root
found in the low cane grounds, of the root of a

( 86 )
species of Smilax, of live oak acorns, and of the
young (hoots of the Canna; in summer many
wild plants chiefly of the Drupi and Bacciferous
kind fupply them.
They raife fome tobacco, and even fell fome to
the traders, but when they ufe it for fmoaking
they mix it with the leaves of two species of the
Carriaia or of the Liquidambar Styraciflua dried
and rubbed to pieces.
They prepare a kind of cloth out of the bark
of a species of Morus, and with its root dye it
yellow; i have all the reafon in the world to be-
lieve, that this cloth might be manufactured into
Buffaloe's wool alfo furnifhes them a material
for a ufeful manufacture.
They likewise make blankets and other co-
verings out of the feathers of the breafts of wild
turkies by a procefs similar to that of our wig
makers, when they knit hair together for the
purpofe of making wigs.
They have a root by means of which they dye
moft fubftances of a bright lasting fcarlet, but
hitherto i have not been able to discover what it
Many among them are well acquainted with
plants of every kind, and apply them judicially
both externally and internally; to others again
they attribute supernatural virtues; for instance,
there is one which they make ufe of to procure
rain; for this purpose they have a number of
people in their nation called rainmakers; thefe
affemble in a defeated field, and they boil this
plant in a large pot, dancing and finging round
it with numberlefs aukward geftures; then if it

( 86 ) i
should happen to rain foon after, the jugglers
boat the virtue of the plant; but should no rain
follow, they fay the phyfick was not firong
enough; they take care however not to employ
this rain compelling herb unlefs a cloudy day
forebodes rain. The plant is very fingular, and
i believe a nondefcript; i faw two species of it,
but could not ascertain the genius; the favages
call it Efla Hoola or the moft beloved.
The moft remarkable thing of thefe favages is
their inability to fwim, occafioped by their being
remote from large waters; this art the people of
C;.,.." i' and 'oani who live on the banks of
the Paj~a Oocooloo enjoy alone, and incredible as
it may appear, even moft of their horfes partake
of this inability, as many people and among
others the Commiffary for the nation have in-
formed me from their own experience.
They help their wives in the labour of the
fields and many other works, near one half of
the men have never killed a deer or turkey dur-
ing their lives. Game is fo fcarce, that during
my circuit through the nation we never faw any,
and we had but two or three opportunities
of eating venifon in as many months; they
take wives without much ceremony, and live to-
gether during pleasure, and after separation
which is not very frequent, they often leave the
second to retake the firft wife.
Fornication is among them thought to be a
natural accident, therefore a girl is not the worfe
looked on for ten or a dozen flips; but although
they are not over jealous of their wives, they pu-
nifh adultery in the woman, unlefs the happens
to belong to a stronger or more noted and nume-

( 87 )
rous family than the husband; in which cafe he
fcarce ventures even to put her away; but if the
is doomed to suffer, her punishment is to be at a
public place (for that purpofe fet apart at every
town) carnally known by all who choofe to be
prefent, young and old; thus the poor wretch
after defending herself and struggling hard with
the firft three or four, at laft fuffers motion-
lefs the brutality of perhaps an hundred or an
hundred and fifty ofsthefe barbarians; the fame
treatment is undergone by a girl or woman who
belonging to another town or quarter of the na-
tion, comes to a place where fhe is a stranger
and cannot give a very good account of herfelf
and bufinefs, or the reafon of her coming there;
this they call running through the meadow, and
if a white man happens to be in the town, they
fend him an offer or invitation to take the firit
heat; they plead in excuse for fo barbarous a cu-
ftom, that the only way to difgult lewd women
is to give them at once what they fo conflantly
and eagerly pirfue.
The education of their children i have already
The women suffer no more by child birth than
any other favage women; they retire into a place
of folitude at the time, and after delivery return
to their daily labour; however while i iLaid at
Oka Altakkala in this nation one died in labour
within about eighty yards of the houfe i refided
There are no laws or regulations obfervable
among thefe people, except the Lex 7 !iowis, and
although they have a ftrict notion of diftin&ion
in property, and even divide their lands, we ne-

( 88 )
ver hear them quarrel about boundaries; the
above law is fo ftriftly followed, that i am fur-
nifhed with the following anecdote: It hap-
pened that a young Chacaw having done fome-
thing deferving reproof, he was therefore chid by
his mother, this he took fo ill as in the fury of
his fhame to refolve his own death, which he ef-
fected with a gun; his fifter as his neareft rela-
tion thought herself bound to avenge his death,
and knowing the circumftance told her mother
the had caufea her brother's death and muft pay
for his life; the old woman resigned herself to her
fate, and died by the hands of her daughter, who
flot her with a gun which the had provided for
the catastrophe.
In ficknefs the juggling Quacks are consulted,
and as they are naturally good connoiffeurs in
fimples, and judge pretty well of the nature of
difeafes, they often fucceed; but if a disorder is
obftinate or incurable, the relations of the pati-
ent aflemble in his houfe, bewail his misfortune,"
cry bitterly, take their leave of him, and he tells
them how tired he is of life, that his misfortunes
are unfufferable, and that it is good he should
die; upon this an universal howl is raised, the
neareft male relation jumps on him, and violent-
ly in a moment breaks the neck of the patient,
and then they rejoice that his mifery is over, but
lamentations for his departure foon fucceed.
The following treatment of the dead is very
strange, yet we find Apollonius Rbhdius mention a
similar cuftom of the inhabitants of Colchis near
Pontus; we find Ives in, his voyage relating the
like of the remainder of the ancient Perfians, and
we find again in Hawkefvorth's voyage the peo-


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