Notes on nomenclature of Citrus and some related genera


Material Information

Notes on nomenclature of Citrus and some related genera in 3 parts, alphabetical by scientific name, by common name, and common cultivars
Physical Description:
13 leaves : ; 22 x 28 cm.
Coile, Nancy C ( Nancy Craft ), 1940-
Florida -- Division of Plant Industry
Florida Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, FL
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Citrus -- Nomenclature   ( lcsh )
Citrus -- Nomenclature (Popular)   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )


Statement of Responsibility:
Nancy C. Coile.
Includes bibliographical references (leaf 13).
Additional Physical Form:
Also available on the World Wide Web.
General Note:
Title from cover.
General Note:
"December 1995."
General Note:
Botany contribution 33

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
ltqf - AAA0293
notis - AME9058
alephbibnum - 002443837
oclc - 36472045
lcc - QK495.R98 C65 1995
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Full Text
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Part 1. Nomenclature of Citrus and other genera in Subfamily Aurantoideae (Rutaceae)


Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr. 3 species in genus Leaves 3-foliate; deciduous; highly variable. Two types of twigs: normal, and "spur shoots"
Hindu sacred tree. with very short distances between leaves. Flower with 30 to 40 stamens. Fruits hard shelled.
origin: India to Burma
common names: bael, Bengal quince, golden apple

Aeglopsis chevalieri Swingle 5 species in genus Leaves simple. Petiole no winging, no articulation. Fruits hard shelled, brilliant orange-
origin: Africa brown; 5 to 6 segments; numerous seeds in gelatinous pulp.
common name: Chevalier's aeglopsis

Afraeglepaniculata (Schum.) Engl. 4 species in genus Leaves trifoliate (sometimes 1-foliate by abortion). Fruits hard shelled; 8 segments;
origin: Africa numerous seeds.
common name: Nigerian powder-flask

Atalantia ceylanica (Arn.) Oliv.: very seedy Leaves of Atalantia similar to Citrus, but with more side veins and the veinlets form network
Atalantia citroides Pierre ex Guillaumin: long stalked flowers between the side veins. Fruits with sessile pulp cells (Citrus has stalked juice cells).
Atalantia linearis (Blanco) Merr.: a rheophyte
Atalantia longipedunculata (Merr.) Guill.=Paramignya longipedunculata
Atalantia monophylla (L.) Corr.: balloon-like calyx; source of fruit oil
origin for the genus: Philippines to India

Balsamocitrus dawei Stapf 2 species in genus Leaves trifoliate, thick. Fruit hard shelled; 8 segments; many seeds in jelly, very little pulp.
origin: East Africa
common name: Uganda powder-flask

Burkillanthus malaccensis (Ridl.) Swingle I species in genus Leaves 1, 2, or occasionally 3-foliate. Petiole articulated, may have narrow wings. Fruit
origin: western Malaysia with unusual cylindrical, saclike, stalkless, juice cells.
common name: Malay ghost-lime

Subfamily Rutoideae: Leaves opposite or whorled, dark green. Flowers showy in large panicles.
Calodendrum capense (L. f.) Thunb. I species in genus This species (subfamily Rutoideae) was cited in laboratory tests on citrus canker.
origin: Africa
common name: Cape chestnut


X Citrofortunella floridana J. Ingram & H.E. Moore
hybid of lime X Fortunellajaponica
cvs : Eustis, Lakeland
common name: limequat
X Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands
synonym= X C. mitis (Blanco) J.Ingram & H.E. Moore
hybrid of Citrus reticulata X Fortunella sp.
common names: calamondin, Panama orange
X Citrofortunella swinglei J. Ingram & H.E. Moore 'Tavares'
hybrid of lime X Fortunella margarita
common name: limeauat

Leaves of genus simple. Petiole narrowly winged. Fruits intermediate between parents.

X Citroncirus [See X Citroncirus webberi] Leaves often 3-foliate. Characteristics intermediate between parents. Rootstock for Citrus.
hybrid of grapefruit X trifoliate-orange
cvs. Citrumelo, Swingle
common name: citrumelo

X Citroncirus webberi J. Ingram & HL E. Moore Fruits acid, bitter, to 3". Cold hardy in Zone 7. Used as rootstock for Citrus.
hybrid of sweet orange X trifoliate-orange
cvs. Morton, Rusk, Troyer (=Carrizo citrange)
common name: citrange

Citropsis gilletiana Swingle & M. Kellerman 8 species in genus Spines to 2" long. Leaves 3 and 5-foliate; ca. 5" long; with winged rachis. Fruits ca. 1"
rootstock for Citrus wide; 4 to 5 sections, each with I large seed. Rootstock for Citrus.
origin: Africa
Citropsis schweinfurthii (Engl.) Swingle & Kellerm.
origin: Uganda
common name: African cherry orange

Citrus spp. Spines single in leaf axils or lacking. Leaves 1-foliate, not leathery, have only a few lateral
Centuries of cultivation and the ease of hybridizing has smeared the veins and no obvious net-like veining. Petioles articulated and winged (sometimes slightly).
boundaries between species. Chemical studies have demonstrated there are Petals usually 5 (4, 6-8 possible), thick, gland-dotted. Fruit a hesperidium (berry with
only three ancestral species: C. medical, C. reticultata and C. maxima. separable leathery rind), peel dotted with oil glands, with 8 to 18 sections, with stalked
fusiform juice cells.
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle Leaves to 3" long, pale green. Petioles narrowly winged. Flowers white in bud. Fruit with
includes C. latifolia, C. davaoensis, C. excelsa 9-12 sections; oval or roundish, often a papilla; greenish-yellow when ripe; peel thin. Seeds
hybrid of Citrus medical X 9 oval, white inside.
cvs. Bearss (Calif.; see C. limon), Key Lime (=Mexican), Seedless,
origin: tropical Africa
common names: lime, Key lime. Persian lime



Citrus aurantium L. Leaves medium-sized, round to cuneate at base. Petioles to I" long, broadly winged, wide at
hybrid, probable introgression between C. maxima X C. reticulata top and narrowing to wingless base. Flowers very fragrant, up to 12% male flowers. Fruit
cv. Chinotto roundish, depressed at both ends, hollow at maturity, with 10-12 sections; peel thick, orange
origin: Southeast Asia (escape in Florida) with reddish tint when ripe; acid juice. Seeds numerous.
common names: sour orange, Seville orange, bigarde, marmalade

Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit. Leaves ovate-oblong. Petioles long, winged. Flowers small, fragrant. Fruit round to pear-
cvs. Bergamont, Castagnaro, Feminello shaped; to 4" across; pale to bright yellow; peel thin, with green oil; acid, aromatic juice.
origin: developed in Italy Yields bergamont oil used for liqueurs (e.g. Curacao, Cointreau), in Earl Grey tea, used in
common name: bergamot hair oil, and scents, etc.

Citrus hystrix DC. Leaves to 6" long; roundish-ovate, lanceolate or ovate-oblong; tip often notched; lower
origin: Southeast Asia surface densely gland dotted. Petiole with wings broadest at top; to 3V4" long and 1V2" wide
common names: Mauritius papeda, caffre lime (2/3 as long as leaf blade). Flowers white tinged with red; stamens free. Fruit roundish with
slightly depressed tip; to 2V2" across; yellow or greenish yellow when ripe; peel thick, bumpy;
pulp yellowish green, very sour, with droplets of oil. Not eaten; used as insecticide.
Citrus ichangensis Swingle Leaves to 4'2" long; 4 to 6 times longer than wide; acute tip. Petioles to 2V2" long; broad,
origin: China rounded shoulders; narrow base (triangular); surface area often equals blade area. Flowers to
common name: ichant papeda I" wide, white and tinged purple; stamens joined at tips. Fruit blunt at both ends; to 2"
across; 7-9 sections; hollow center; peel thick, rough, bumpy, easily separated, lemon yellow
to brownish orange; pulp acid, few juice cells. Seeds large.
The hardiest evergreen Citrus.
Citrus jambhiri Lushington Leaves toothed, tip notched with bristle, lemon-scented. Petiole wingless or with narrow
cvs. Estes, Rough, Estes margin. Fruit egg-shaped to round, with apical papilla; to 3" across; 9-12 sections; hollow in
origin: India center; peel thick, lemon-yellow; pulp very sour, pale lemon yellow. Tropical.
common name: Jambhuri orange lime loose-jacket

Citrus limetta Risso Leaves to 4" long, acute at tip, toothed at base; cupped shape. Petioles short, not winged or
origin: unknown very slightly winged. Fruit oval, round-pointed at ends, apical papilla to almost 1" wide; up
common names: Tunisian sweet-lime, sweet-lemon, Moroccan limetta to 3" long; about 10 sections; peel yellow tinged with green, not aromatic; pulp pale green,
slightly sweet, insipid (=tasteless).
Citrus limettioides Tan. Leaves ovate or elliptic, often mucronate at tip. Petiole unwinged. Fruit roundish; peel
cv. Palestine sulphur-yellow, thin; pulp sweet, not aromatic, very juicy.
origin: India
common name: sweet lime


Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. Leaves elongate ovate, pointed at tip; pale green, flushed with red when young. Petioles
cvs. Bearss (in FL), Eureka, Lisbon, Ponderosa narrowly winged; obvious joint with blade. Flowers white, purplish on lower petal surface.
probable hybrid of lime X C. medical Fruit oval, broad apical papilla; up to 6" long and 3" across; 8-10 sections; peel thick,
origin: unknown glandular dotted, yellow when ripe; pulp very sour.
common name: lemon

Citrus x limonia Osbeck (includes C. volckamericana and C. otaitense) Spines few, small. Leaves oblong to elliptic; dull green. Flowers flushed with purple. Fruit
hybrid of C. limon X C. reticulata roundish, often depressed at ends, often with short apical papilla; 8-10 sections, easily
origin: garden crosses in China separated; peel loose, thin, orange (may be tinged yellow or red); pulp orange colored, very
common names: potted orange, Rangpur lime, mandarine lime, sour.
These dwarfs (and X Citrofortunella microcarpa) are the Christmas
trade miniaturee orange."

Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (includes C. grandis, C. decumana) Twigs angled and hairy when young. Spines lacking, or blunt, thin and bowed. Leaves very
A presumed ancestral species. large, ovate elliptic, pointed at tip, base rounded; glossy dark green above, hairy beneath.
cvs. Kao Pan, Thong Dee. Oroblanco & Melogold are hybrids. Petioles winged, heart-shaped. Fruit roundish to pear-shaped; very large, to 8" or more; peel
origin: Malaysia very thick, light lemon-yellow; pulp tasty, juice cells large and easily separated. Source of
common names: pummelo, pomelo, shaddock, pompelmous bitter narinijin used in drinks and sweets.

Citrus medical L. Twigs purplish when young. Spines stout, short. Leaves elliptic ovate, tip rounded and base
A presumed ancestral species. rounded or wedge-shaped; toothed; to 7" long. Petioles short, slightly winged. Fruit oblong,
cvs. Buddha's Hand (split into finger-like sections), Diamantee, Etrog large, up to 1' long and V2' wide; peel thick, rough, fragrant, lemon-yellow; pulp acid or
(used in Jewish Feast of Tabernacles) slightly sweet, pale green.
origin: uncertain; India or Mesopotamia. [Note: Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (Cucurbitaceae) is also called
common name: citron citron; its rind is also preserved and often used in fruit cakes.]

Citrus meyeri Tan. Similar to lemon, except: fruit more rounded, ca. 3" wide, papilla very small; peel thin and
probable hybrid of C. limon X C. sinense very smooth.
cv. Meyer Suspected as a symptomless carrier of viruses, especially citrus tristeza virus.
origin: China
common name: Meyer lemon, dwarf lemon

Citrus x nobilis Lour. Spines on sucker branches, not on flowering branches. Leaves ovate- oblong, to ovate-
probable hybrid of C. reticulata and C. sinensis lanceolate, tip and base variable; to 3" long. Petiole ca. 3" long, very narrowly winged.
cvs. King, Murcott (=Honey), Ortanique, Temple Fruit roundish, depressed at tip; peel thin, easily removed, green to orange.
origin: Vietnam
common names: king mandarin, tangor, Florida orange,


Citrus x paradise Macfad. Spines usually present. Leaves ovate, blunt at the tip, round at base; glabrous; scent of
probable hybrid of C. maxima and C. sinensis, then backcrossed with grapefruit. Petiole broadly winged, touching the base of blade. Fruit roundish to flattened;
C. maxima sometime in 1700s larger than sweet orange and smaller than pummelo; peel thick, smooth, bitter (due to
origin: cross in West Indies naringin), yellow or tinged with orange; pulp pale yellow to deep red.
cvs. Duncan, Marsh, McCarty, Red Blush, Rio Red, Ruby
common name: grapefruit

Citrus reticulata Blanco (see C. unshiu) Spines present. Leaves lanceolate; ca 1 /2" long. Petiole narrowly winged. Fruit roundish
includes C. benikoji, C. clementina, C. deliciosa, C. reshi, to flattened; 10 to 14 sections; peel thin, easily removed leaving network of stringy fibers
C. succosa, C. sunki, C. tardiva, C. tangerina, etc. over the sections, yellow-orange to brilliant orange; pulp sweet, aromatic. Seeds pointed on
A presumed ancestral species. one end, small.
common names: mandarin, tangerine
cvs. Clementine, Cleopatra, Dancy (the Christmas tangerine),
Fallglo, Ponkam mandarin, Sunburst
Robinson is a hybrid: 'Clementine' tangerine x 'Orlando' tangelo.

Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Spines when present flexible, slender, blunt. Leaves medium-sized, pointed at the tip,
includes C. funadoko, C. lijo, C. sunkokan, C. tamurana, C. ujukitsu rounded at the base, orange-scented. Petiole narrowly winged, jointed at both the blade and
hybrid, probably introgressed between C. maxima & C. reticulata at the stem. Fruit roundish to flattened, 10-13 sections, never hollow; peel thin, not bitter,
origin: probably China orange or golden; juice sweet, orange (reddish in blood oranges). Major fruit types: blood
common names: sweet orange, orange (red pigmentation), navels (with small rudimentary fruit embedded at the tip of the orange),
cvs. Hamlin, Midknight, Moro (blood) Navelina, Parson Brown, acidless oranges, and common oranges.
Pineapple, Robertson (navel), Shamouti (=Jaffa), Valencia,
Washington (navel), etc.
'Ambersweet' is a cross of C. sinensis with the hybrid from
C. reticulata "'Clementine' X C. x tangelo 'Orlando'

Citrus x tangelo J. Ingram & H. E. Moore Characteristics intermediate between grapefruit and mandarin. Fruit 9-11 sections; peel
grapefruit cross with C. reticulata by Swingle & Webber in 1897 aromatic, thin, bright orange; juice sweet-tart.
cvs. Minneola (=Honeybell), Nova, Orlando, Osceola, Page
common names: tangelo, ugli

Citrus unshiu (Mack.) Marc (Often included in C. reticulata) Spines almost none. Leaves lanceolate, large, veins prominent above and below. Petiole
cvs. Owari, Silverhill long, slender, wing-margined. Fruit roundish with neck, navel may be present; 10-12
origin: probably India sections, hollow; peel thin, leathery, with oil glands, easily removed; juice orange, sweet.
common name: satsuma
Umatilla tangor is a cross of 'Owari' with blood orange


Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. 23 species in genus Spines none. Leaves are odd-pinnate with an unwinged rachis; anise-scented when crushed.
Clausena dentata (Willd.) M. Roemer (taste is like blackcurrants) 10 stamens in 2 whorls, outer whorl longer. Fruits oval to roundish; 2 to 5 sections.
Clausena excavata Burm. f. Origin for the genus: South Asia, tropical Africa, Australia and Pacific islands.
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels (lime-like fruit); common name: warn
Clymeniapolyandra (Tan.) Swingle I species in genus Spines none. Leaves elliptic, base and tip long-pointed. Petiole very short, wingless, not
origin: Bismarck Archipelago articulated at all from blade. Stamens 50 to 100, in many whorls. Fruit lemon shaped, short
common name: a-mulis papilla; peel thin; pulp sweet; seeds many.

Eremocitrus glauca (Lindley) Swingle I species in genus Spines stout, up to 3" long. Seedlings with cladophylls rather than true leaves. Leaves held
origin: Australia vertically; oblong, linear, blunt tips; to 1�" long and /4" wide; with gray hairs and thick
common name: Australian desert lime cuticle with sunken stomata. Fruit oval, to '2" long; 3 to 5 sections; peel thin, with oil
glands; pulp acid, juice cells stalked like Citrus but are loosely held together; 2 seeds per
section. Useful as rootstock for Citrus. Xerophyte.
Subfamily Rutoideae: Leaves 3-foliate. Fruits 4 or 5-celled woody capsules.
Esenbeckia hartmanii ca. 20 species in genus
Esenbeckia berlandieri Baill. =E. runyonii

Feronia = Limonia

Feroniella lucida (R.Scheffer) Swingle 3 species in genus Leaves with 3 leaflets or 6 opposite leaflets and I terminal; rachis winged. Petiole winged.
common name: Java feroniella Stamens 4 times the number of petals; unusual in the hairy appendages at base of filaments.
Feroniella oblata Swingle Fruits roundish with a thick woody shell; a single cavity formed by confluence of the 5 to 6
common name: Indo-china feroniella sections.
Feroniella pubescens Tan.
common name: velvety feroniella


Fortunella crassifolia Swingle 'Meiwa' 6 species in genus
common name: hybrid oval kumquat
Fortunella hindsii (Champ.) Swingle
common name: Hong Kong wild kumquat, golden bean
Fortunellajaponica (Thunb.) Swingle "'Marumi'
common name: round kumquat
Fortunella margarita (Lour.) Swingle 'Nagami'
common aname: oval kumquat
Fortunellla obovata Hort. ex Tanaka
common name: hybrid Changshou kumquat
Fortunella polyandra (Ridley) Tanaka
common name: Malayan kumquat

Fortunella differs from Citrus in having: 2 seeds per locule; a cavernous stigma with oil
glands; under surface of leaves pale green with deep green glandular dots; many, very small
fruits with a thick, sweet edible peel and an acid pulp. Seeds have green cotyledons.
Hybridizes with other genera, resulting in: limequats, orangequats, citrumquats, calamondin,
procimequat, citrangequats, citrangedins, faustrimedins, etc.

Glycosmis spp. ca. 50 species in genus No spines. Leaves I foliate, 3-foliate or odd-pinnate. Fruits dry or juicy berries with 2-5
origin: Southeast Asia, Philippines, East Indies, Northeast Australia sections, one seed per section. Young twigs and leaves covered with rusty-red hairs (unique

Hesperethusa = Naringi_

Limnocitrus = Pleiospermium

Limonia acidissima L. I species in genus Spines to 1 V/2" long. Leaves deciduous; 2 to 3 pairs of leaflets and terminal leaflet, basal
=Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle leaflets largest (up to IV2" long); rachis narrowly winged. Petioles narrowly winged. Fruit
origin: India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Indo-china, Malaysia, Indonesia roundish, to 2'/2" across; with woody shell; single cavity; numerous hairy seeds. Leaves and
common name: Indian wood apple twigs covered with tiny hairs when young. Rootstock for Citrus.

Luvunga spp. 12 species in genus Woody vines, climbs by recurved spines. Leaves trifoliate. Petioles wingless. Fruits small,
origin: Southeast Asia round or oval; rough peel, yellow; no juice, but sticky glue-like mass with a few seeds. Fruits
common names: trifoliate liana-limes similar to Paramignya.

Subfamily Rutoideae: Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple or trifoliate, gland-dotted. Flowers 4-merous (=parts in 4s);
Melicope triphylla (Lam.) Merr. ca. 150 species in genus 8 stamens; 4 honey-glands at base of ovary. Fruit dry, separates into four sections, each 1-
origin: Indomalaysia to Australia and New Zealand seeded. This species was cited in laboratory tests on citrus canker.

Merope angulata (Willd.) Swingle 1 species in genus Grows in tidal marshes. Spines often in pairs. Leaves thick and leathery. Fruit buckwheat-
origin: Java, Burma, New Guinea shaped (triangular); 3 sections; with very long seeds embedded in a mucilage.

Merrillia caloxylon (Ridley) Swingle I species in genus Spines lacking. Leaves pinnate with 13 leaflets, terminal ones largest; rachis narrowly
origin: Malaysia, Thailand, Sumatra winged. Flowers unique in Rutaceae: trumpet-like flowers to 2" long. Fruit roundish; 5
common name: flowering merrillia (sometimes 6) sections; peel thick and leathery; seeds 8 to 10 per section, covered by scales;
mucilaginousus gum.




Microcitrus australasica (F. J. Muell.) Swingle 5 to 6 species in*
common name: finger-lime
Microcitrus australis (Planch.) Swingle
common name: Australian round-lime
Microcitrus inodora (F. M. Baillon) Swingle
Microcitrus papuana H. F. Winters
common name: desert-lime
Microcitrus warburgiana (F. M. Baillon) Swingle
common name: New Guinea wild-lime. Other Microcitrus species
are from Australia.
X Microcitronella cv. Faustrimedin is a hybrid of M. australasica with
calamondin. 'Sydney' is also a hybrid cultivar.


Spines single, except paired in M. inodora & M. maideniana. Leaves dimorphic: small linear
leaves (earliest) and mature elongate-elliptical; leathery, strong veins. Flowers free stamens.
Fruit varies from long slender (M. australasica) to round in others; 3 to 5 sections with 2
seeds per section; juice sour.

Micromelum minutum (Forst. f.) Wight & Am. 10 species in genus Leaves similar to Murraya. Flower petals valvate (unique in Rutaceae); minutum refers to
origin: Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, New Caledonia, Northeast Australia, the tiny petals. Ovary sections twisted.
Melanesia, Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea north to Philippines,
Sumbawa, Borneo, and Vietnam. Most easterly range of any other
species in the subfamily.

Monanthocitrus cornuta (Lauterb.) Tan. 2 species in genus Spines usually paired, or 3. Leaves simple. Petioles not winged or articulated. Fruit
origin: Indonesia roundish, about 1" wide, papilla with 5 strange needle-like projections (hence the name
common name: spotseed-lime cornuta = horn); 5 sections; peel thin with oil glands; no pulp vesicles. Seeds with dark red-
brown spots.

Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel 4 species in genus Leaves with 10 to 20 alternate leaflets and a terminal one, each about I to I V2" long. Fruit a
origin: India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China. pea-sized berry; oblong; 2 sections, bluish-black.
common name: curry leaf Leaves always used in Asian curry.

Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (=Chalcas exotica) Leaves with several alternate leaflets and a terminal one, or trifoliate, each leaflet about 1V2"
origin: India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Indo-china, China, Malaysia, long; glossy. Flowers large, fragrant; blooms frequently. Fruit oblong, about /2" long; 2
Philippines, Australia, Melanesia sections; orange. Seeds hairy.
common name: orange-jessamine, Chinese-box Used for cutlery handles.

Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicholson I species in genus Leaves with 2 to 3 pairs of opposite leaflets and a terminal one; leaflets about I to 2: oblong;
(=Hesperethusa crenulata) conspicuously gland-dotted; rachis broadly winged, jointed. Flowers with 4 petals. Fruit
origin: Pakistan, India, Burma, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Laos, roundish, A4" wide; 4 sections; 1 seed per section.
common name: naringi

Oxantherafragrans Montr. 4 species in genus Spines lacking. Leaves simple, obovate, rounded tips; glabrous, glaucous. Petiole wingless.
origin: New Caledonia and Art Island Fruits elongate; longitudinally ribbed when young; about I" long; 2 to 6 sections.
common name: false orange, fragrant oxanthera




Pamburus missions (Wight) Swingle I species in genus Spines strong, sharp. Leaves unique in subfamily for the velvety surface; simple, elliptic-
origin: India oblong; to 4" long; dark green mottled with white spots. Fruit roundish, about I" wide; peel
common name: pamburus orange, thick, with oil glands; 4 to 5 sections; each section with I to 2 seeds; sticky gummy

Paramignya monophylla Wight 12 species in genus Vining shrub, climbing by sharp recurved spines. Leaves simple, oblong, elliptic, or obovate,
origin: India, Burma, Sri Lanka to 4/2" long. Petiole not winged, but pulvinoid; %" long. Fruit oval, slightly angled, about
common name: Indian paramignya, unifoliate liana-lime 1" long; peel yellow, odorous; I section; sometimes only I seed.

Pleiospermium alatum (Wight & Am.) Swingle 7 species in genus Leaves with strong lemon scent; trifoliate. Petiole narrowly winged. Fruit round; I" wide,
origin: India, Sri Lanka with 4 or 5 sections, 2 seeds in each and surrounded by a glue-like substance.
common name: Ceylon orangeaster

Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Only species in genus Spines stout. Leaves trifoliate (rarely with 5 leaflets), terminal leaflet to 2�" long;
cv. Flying Dragon is a monstrosity, cultivated for its oddly curved deciduous. Petiole winged. Fruit round, oval or pear-shaped, sometimes with a papilla; to
branches and spines. 2" wide; 6 to 8 sections; peel rough, to 1 cm thick, lemon-yellow, covered with fine hairs,
origin: China fragrant; juice very acid. Numerous seeds. Hybrids are usually sterile. Used as a rootstock
common name: trifoliate-orange for Citrus and as a hedge plant.

Severinia buxifolia (Poiret) Ten. 5 to 6 species Spines much shorter than leaves. Leaves simple, ovate; to 1/2" long; leathery, dotted with oil
origin: China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos glands. Petiole short, narrow, rounded Fruit roundish with depressed ends; small; peel
common name: Chinese box-orange dotted with oil glands, black when ripe. Hedge plant, Citrus rootstock.

Swinglea glutinosa (Blanco) Merr. I species in genus Spines large, solitary. Leaves trifoliate; terminal leaflet 4�" long, side leaflets less than half
(= Chaetospermum glutinosa) that length; hairy at the base. Petiole ranges from 1/16" to 2" long, flattened above, often
origin: Philippines winged. Fruit oblong oval; 8 to 10 sections; peel leathery and with radially arranged oil
common name: tabog glands; pulp mucilaginous. Seed hairy.

Subfamily Toddalioideae: Prickly scrambler; source of Lopez root, alkaloids, and yellow dye.
Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam I species in genus

Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson 3 species in genus Spines paired in leaf axils. Leaves trifoliate; terminal leaflet about 2" long. Petiole
origin: Southeast Asia, escaped in Florida wingless, to /4" long. Fruit oval, sometimes pointed at tip; about /2" long; 3 sections, each
common name: trifoliate limeberry with I seed; peel reddish-orange, with many small oil glands; pulp mucilaginous.

Wenzelia spp. 9 species in genus Leaves simple, rounded at base. Petioles very short, not articulated with leaf blades. Fruit
I small; filled with mucilaginous gum; 4 to 5 sections, each with 6 to 8 seeds.

cvs. = cultivars.

Part 2. Alphabetical listing by common name
and including some synonyms

African cherry orange, Citropsis gilletianca Swingle & M. Kellerman;
C schweinfurthii (Engl.) Swingle & Kellerm.
'Ambersweet' orange, see Citrus sinensis
a-mulis, Clymenia polyandra (Tan.) Swingle
Australian desert lime, Eremocitrus glauca (Lindl.) Swingle
Australian finger lime, Microcitrus australasica (F. J. Mucll.) Swmingle
Australian round lime, Microcitrus australis (Planch.) Swingle
bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. Serr.
Bearss cultivar, either: Cttrus limon (in Florida) or Citrus aurantiifolia (in Califl.)
Bengal quince, see bael
bergamont, Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit.
bigarde, see orange, sour
blood orange, see sweet orange
box, Chinese, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
box-orange, Severinia buxifolia (Poir.) Ten.
caffre-lime, Citrus hystrix DC.
calamondin, X Cilroforlunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands
Cape chestnut, Calodendrum capense (L.f.) Thunb.
carrizo citrange, X Citroncirus webberi J. Ingram & H.E. Moore cv Troyer
Chalcas exotica - Murraya paniculata
Chaetospermum glutmosa - Swmglea glutinosa
cherry orange, see African cherry orange
chevalier*s aeglopsis, Aeglopsis chevalieri Swingle
Chinese box, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
Chinese box-orange, Severima buxifolia (Poir.) Ten
citrange, X Citroncrus webberi J. Ingram & H. E. Moore
X Citrofortunella mitis - X Citrofortunella microcarpa
citron, Citrus medical L.
citron (watermelon genus), Citrullus lanatus var. citroides
citrumelo, X Citroncirus
Ctrus davaoensis - Citrus aurantifolia
Citrus decumana - Citrus mauximant

Citrus excelsa - Citrus aurantifolia
Citrus funadoka - Citrus sinensis
Citrus grandis - Citrus maxurima
Citrus latifolia - Citrus aurantifolia
Curus lijo - Citrus sinensis
Citrus macrophylla, hybrid of pummelo and papeda
Citrus otaitense - Citrus x limonia
Citrus sunkokan - Citrus sinensis
Citrus tamurana - Citrus sinensis
Citrus ujukgtsu - Citrus sinensis
Citrus volckamericana - Citrus x limonia
Clementine mandarin, Citrus reticulata, a parent of Osceola, Page, Robinson
Cleopatra mandarin, Citrus reticulata
curry leaf, Murraya koenigit (L.) Sprengel
desert kumquat, Eremocitrus glauca (Lindley) Swingle
dwarf lemon, Citrus meyert Tan.
Esenbeckia runyonii - Esenheckia berlandieri
Feronia limonia - Limonia acidissima
flying dragon, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. 'Flying Dragon'
gasparillo, Esenbeckta hartmamni
gasparillo, Esenbeckia runyomi C V. Morton
ghost-lime, Malay, Burkillanthus malaccensis (Ridl.) Swingle
golden apple, see bael
golden bean, Fortunella hindsih (Champ.) Swingle
grapefruit, Citrus x paradise Macfad.
herb of grace, see rue
Hesperetiusa crenulaca - Naringi crenulata
honey, Citrus x noblis Lour. 'Murcott'
honeybell, Citrus x tangelo J. Ingram & H.E. Moore 'Minneola
Indian wood-apple, Limonia acidissima L.
jambhuri orange-lime, Citrus jambhuri Lushington
Key lime, Citrus aurantiifoeha (Chnstm.) Swingle

Kit. -Siam, Citrus x nobilis Lour
kumquat, Hong Kong-, Fortunella hindsii (Champ.) Swingle
kumquat, hybrid Changshou-, Fortunella obovala Horl. cx-Tanaka
kumquat, Malayan-, Forlunella polyandra (Ridley) Tanaka
kumquat, Meiwa-, Fortutnella crassifolia Swingle 'Meiwa'
kumquat, oval-, Fortunellaa margarita (Lour.) Swingle 'Nagami'
kumquatl, round, Fortunella japonica (Thunb.) Swingle Marumi'
kumquat, see desert kumquat
lemandarin, Citrus x limonia Osbeck
lemon, Citrus Itmon (L ) Burm f
lemon, Meyer-, Citrus meyerii Tanaka
lemon, rough, Citrusjambhiri Lushington
lemon, sweet, Citrus limetia Risso
liana-lime, trifoliate, Luvunga sp.
liana-lime, unifoliate, Paramignya monophylla Wight
lime, Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle
Lime, caffre-, see caffre lime
lime, mandarin, Citrus limonia Osbeck
lime, Rangpur, Citrus limonia Osbeck
lime, sweet, Citrus hmeltiotdes Tan.
lime, see Australian lime
limeberry, trifoliate-, Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson
limelo, cross of lime with lemon
limequat, X Citrofortunella swinglei J. Ingram & H. Moore
limequal, X Citrofortunelaflaoridana J. Ingram & H. Moore
limeberry, Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson
Malay ghost-lime, Burkillaanthus malaccensis (Ridl.) Swingle
mandarin, Citrus reticulata Blanco
mandarin, king-, Citrus x nobilis Lour.
mandarin lime, see lemandarin
marmalade orange, see orange, sour
Mauritus papeda, Citrus hystrix DC.
Mediterranean orange, Citrus smensis (L.) Osbeck
Meiwa kumquat, Fortunella crassifolia Swingle
Meyer lemon, see lemon, Meyer
Moroccan limetta, Citrus limetta Risso
myrtle lime, see limeberry
naranja dulke, see sweet orange
naringi, Naringi cretllata (Roxb.) Nicholson
navel orange, see sweet orange
orange, bitter, Citrus aurantium L.
orange, blood, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck

orange, false-, Oxanthera fragrans Montr.
orange, marmalade, Citrus aurantirumn L.
orange, Mediterranean, Citrus smensis (L.) Osbeck
orange, navel, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
orange, Panama, X Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands
orange, potted, sec lemandarin
orange, Seville, Citrus aurantium L.
orange, sour, Citrus aurantiiim L.
orange, sweet, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
orange, trifoliate, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
orangeaster, Ceylon, Pletospermium alatum (Wight & Arn.) Swingle
orange-jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack
ortaniques, Citrus nobilis Lour. 'Ortanique'
pamburus, Pamburus missions (Wight) Swingle
Panama orange, see orange, Panama
papeda, ichant-, Citrus ichangensis Swingle
papeda, Mauritius-, Citrus hystrix DC.
paramignya, Indian-, Paramignya monophylla Wight
Paramignya longipedunculata - Atalantia longipedunculata
pomelo, Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr
potted orange, see lemandarin
powder flask, Nigerian-, Afraegle paniculata (Schum.) Engl.
powder flask, Ugandan-, Balsamocurus dawei Stapf
pummelo, Citrus maxima
satsuma, Citrus unshiu (Mack.) Marc.
shaddock, see pummelo
sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.
spotseed lime, Monanthocitrus cornuta (Lauterb.) Tan.
sweet lemon, Citrus limetra Risso
sweet lime, Citrus limetta or C. limettioides
sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck
tabog, Swinglea glultinosa (Blanco) Merr.
tangelo, Citrus tangelo J. Ingram & H. Moore
tangerine, Citrus reticulata
tangor, Citrus x nobilis Lour.
trifoliale limeberry, Triphasia trifolia (Burm. f.) P. Wilson
trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
Tunisian sweet-lime, Citrus limetta Risso
Ugandan powder-flask, Balsamocitrus dawei Stapf.
ugli, Citrus x tangelo J. Ingram & H.E. Moore
wampi, Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels
wood apple, Indian-, Limonta acidissima L.

Part 3. Some Common Cultivars

Ambersweet, hybrid sweet orange
Bearss, see lemon (FL) & lime (Calif.)
Bergamont, see sour orange
Bouquet, see sour orange
Citrumelo, see citrumelo
Clementine, see mandarin
Cleopatra, see mandarin
Dancy, see mandarin
Duncan, see grapefruit
Estes, see jambhuri
Etrog, see citron
Eureka, see lemon
Eustis, see limequat
Fallglo, see mandarin
Flying Dragon, see trifoliate-orange
Hamlin, see sweet orange
Honey, see Murcott
Honeybell, see Minneola
Jaffa, see sweet orange
Kao Pan, see pummelo
King, see tangor
Lisbon, see lemon
Marsh, see grapefruit
McCarty, see grapefruit
Melogold, see pummelo
Meyer, see lemon, meyer
Midknight, see sweet orange

Minneola, see tangelo
Morton, see citrumelo
Murcott, see king mandarin
Navel, see sweet orange
Nova, see tangelo
Orlando, see tangelo
Oroblanco, see pummelo
Osceola, see tangelo
Owari, see satsuma
Page, see tangelo
Parson Brown, see sweet orange
Pineapple, see sweet orange
Ponkam, see mandarin
Ponderosa, see lemon
Redblush, see grapefruit
Rio Red, see grapefruit
Robinson, see mandarin
Rough, see lemon, rough
Ruby, see grapefruit
Silverhill, see satsuma
Sunburst, see mandarin
Swingle, see citrumelo
Tahiti, see lime
Temple, see tangor
Troyer, see citrange
Valencia, see sweet orange
Washington, see citrumelo


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