Title: Geography of central Florida (FGS:13th Annual Report) 1919-1920
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000133/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geography of central Florida (FGS:13th Annual Report) 1919-1920
Series Title: Geography of central Florida (FGS:13th Annual Report) 1919-1920
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Office of Environmental Services
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000133
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA1636
ltuf - AAA7300
 Related Items
Other version: Alternate version (PALMM)
PALMM Version

Full Text




Introduction ..--.---......-_---------. ----------------- 75- 83
Plan of description and sources of information ----------------- 77- 81
Selection of illustrations, etc. --------- -------------- 81- 83
Regional descriptions ------ ---------------------------------- 84-153
I. West coast islands ----...---------........------------.. 84- 87
2. Gulf hammock region (Table 1) ---------------------- 87- 93
3. Middle Florida flatwoods -------------------------------- 93- 94
4. Lime-sink region (Table 2) ---------------------------------- 95-103
5. Middle Florida hammock belt (Table 3) ----------------- 104-II0
6. Hernando hammock belt (Table 4) ----------------------I--n 1-18
7. Peninsular lake region (Table 5) -------- ----------- 119-129
8. Peninsular flatwoods, western division (Table 6) ---------- 130-136
9. Peninsular flatwoods, eastern division (Table 7) ----------136-143
io. East coast strip (Table 8) ---------------------------------. 143-153
General features ----------------------------------------------- 154-287
Stratigraphy ------------------- ---------------------------- 155-157
Economic geology .---. -----_______----------------------_ 157-160
Topography .......___------------------------------_ 160-1t5
Hydrography, or drainage ........------- .------------------ 166-170
Soils ----------------.-----------------------..-- 170-194
Upland or dry soils -----.------------------------------ 171-175
Damp soils ------- -------------------------------------- 175-178
Wet soils .........__---_-------------------------- 178-179
Miscellaneous soils ---------------------------------------- 179-180
Mechanical analyses (Tables 9-14) -----------------------... 180-186
Chemical analyses (Tables 15-18) ---------------------- 186-194
Climate (Table 19) --------. ------------------------ 194-197
Vegetation .. _____----------_ -----------_ ---------- 197-222
Places with no vegetation .--. ... ___--- -----------------_ 199
Herbaceous vegetation ..... ------ ------------------- 199-204
Shrubby vegetation .--...._______--- ------------------- 204-205
Small trees, or thickets .---.......--- ----------------._ 205-206
Tall trees, or forests .--..--. ____---- -----------------. 206-217
Census of timber trees (Table 20) ----_----------- 218-219
Utilization of native plants (Table 21) ......------------ --- 219-222


General Features-Continued. Page.
Wild animals, or fauna -------------------------------------- 223-233
Population, etc. ---------------------------------------- 234-257
Density, composition, and nativity ------------------------ 234-236
Rural and tirban population (Table 22) ------------------ 237-239
Cities and towns (Table 23) -------------------------------240-241
Winter resorts, and tourist business ------------------------ 241-245
Illiteracy (Table 24) ------------------------------------- 245-248
Schools (Tables 25, 26) -------------- ------------------ 248-253
Noted persons ---------------------------------------- 254
Religious denominations (Table 27) ----------------------- 255-257
Political parties ---------------------------------------- 257
Agriculture ------------------------------------------ 258-280
Conditions at successive census periods (Tables 28-35) ------ 258-274
Variations in size of farms ---------------------------- 274-275
Crops -------------- ---------------------------------- 275-278
Relative importance (Table 36) --------------------- 275-276
Average yields (Table 37) ------------------------- 276-278
Animal products (Table 38) ---- ---- -------------- 278-280
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------- 281-282
Transportation --------------------------------------- 282-286
Waterways ------------------------------------- -- 282-283
Railroads (Table 39) ---------------------------------- 283-284
Roads -------- ----------- ------------------- 284-286
Automobiles --------------.--------------------------- 286
Newspapers and other periodicals ---------------------------- 287
Additions and corrections --------------------------------------- 288
Index ---------- ------------------------------ 289


Figure. Page.
2. Regional map of central Florida ------------------------------- 82
West Coast Islands:
3. Salt marshes on east side of Way Key ----------------- 85
4. Palm savanna vegetation on Long Key ---------------------- 85
Gulf Hammock Region:
5. Railroad through the Gulf Hammock -------------------------- 87
6. Power-house on Withlacoochee River ------------------------- 88
7. Head of Homosassa River -- ------- ---------------- 89
Lime-sink Region:
8. Silver Spring ----------------------------------------- 96
9. High pine land. Citrus County ------------------------------- 97
Io. Shallow pond in pine forest, Citrus County --------------------- 98
II. Open scrub, Citrus County ---------------------------------- 98
Middle Florida hammock belt:
12. Pit of Flo-ida Lime Co. near Ocala -------------------------- 104
13. Semi-calcareous hammock near Ocala ------------------------ 105
14. Palmettos in cultivated field ------------------------------- 107
Hernando hammock belt:
15. Looking north up hill near Spring Lake -------------------------- 12
16. Sink of Choocochattee Prairie ---------------------- ---- 113
17. Beginning of clearing in Choocochattee Hammock -------------- 114
r Lake Region:
18. Rock Spring, Orange County ----------------------------------- 120
19. Small lake among high hills, Lake County ------------------- 121
20. Lake Alfred, Polk County -------------- ------------------- 122
21. Palmettos on south shore of Lake Monroe ----------------------- 123
22. Small lake near Ellsworth Junction, Lake County -------------- 123
SWestern Flatwoods:
23. Open flatwoods. Pasco Count ----------------------------- 131
24. Cypress pond. Pasco County -------------------------------- 131
25. Low hammock near Peace River, Polk County ----------------- 132
Eastern Flatwoods:
26. Prairie bordering Lake Tohopekaliga ------------------------ 137
27. Asphalt road through the wilderness, Osceola County ---------- 137
28. Edge of St. Jchn's River prairies, Brevard Count ------------ 140


Figure. Page.
East Coast Strip:
29. Turnbull Hammock, Volusia County ------------------- 144
30. Coquina rock on shore of lagoon north of New Smyrna -------- 145
31. Spruce pines on old dunes west of Mims _--------------- 145
32. Pool in palm savanna, Merritt's Island ---------------------- 146
33. Outermost dunes near Melbourne Beach -------------------------146
34. Shell mound on Indign River opposite Melbourne -------------- 147
Vegetation types:
35. Marshy margin of Lake Apopka, Lake County --------------- 199
36. Saw-grass marsh bordering Lake Harris --------------------- 201
37. Mangrove swamp on Long Key --------------------------- 205
38. Typical scrub, Lake County ----------------------------- 20
39. Sandy hammock, Marion County ----------------- -------- 214
40. Calcareous hammock, Citrus County ------------------------ 215
41. Red oak woods, Marion County __--------- -------- ------ 216
Statistical Graphs:
42. Density of population, total and rural, 1850 to 1920 ------------- 234
43. School population curves, 1915-16 ---------_ ---------------- 253



This report is a sequel to one on the geography and vegetation of
northern Florida, published in the Sixth Annual Report, late in
1'914, which covered that part of the. state north of latitude 29030'.
The present investigation begins where the former left off and
covers 15 counties on the peninsula, extending south to about lati-
tude 27040'. These. Central Florida* counties, from Levy, Marion
and Volusia on the north to Hillsborough, Polk, Osceola and Bre-
vard on the south, cover about 13,900 square miles or 26% of the
area of the state, and included 3%o of its total population and
34% of its white population in 1915.
In the six years that have elapsed since the northern Florida re-
port was written considerable additional information about the re-
sources of the state has accumulated, or been unearthed from var-
ious publications, and at the same time a number of improvements
in the methods of geographical description have.been made. There
are only half as many natural regions to be described in central as
in northern Florida, and the regional descriptions in the present re-
port are more condensed, especially as regards vegetation, for
quantitative plant lists, although very significant to those who know
how to interpret them, can probably be fully appreciated only by
a small minority of readers. Much greater use than before is here
made of statistics, and a multitude of fundamental facts about each
region, which it would take at least ten times as long to write out in
sentences, is presented in the form of tables, with enough explana-
tion to bring out the salient features.
On the other hand the general features of the whole area are now
treated much more fully than was done for northern Florida, and
some interesting general principles not widely known hitherto are
brought out by means of statistics and otherwise. Statistics indeed

*This part of the State is sometimes arbitrarily called "Middle Florida"
by persons unfamiliar with its traditions, but Middle Florida, by long-established
usage (dating from a time when the peninsula was almost uninhabited) is
that part of the State between the Suwannee and Apalachicola Rivers. Central
Florida is a more or less arbitrary designation, but it is now used in the same
sense by the State Agricultural Department in dividlidng the State into five
groups of counties approximately equal in area.


make rather dry reading, but besides their brevity, they have the
great advantage of eliminating personal opinions, which have been
rather too prominent in much that has been written about Florida
heretofore. The source of most of our statistics is the state and
federal censuses, and these of course are not and never can be
absolutely accurate, but their errors (except in completeness of en-
umeration) are just about as likely to be in one direction as another,
thus balancing each other to a considerable extent when sufficiently
large numbers are used. And as they represent the work of a multi-
tude of enumerators, no individual investigator can hope to ap-
proach them in completeness, or to detect errors (other than typo-
graphical, etc.) in them by merely going over the same ground once
or twice.
The aim of this report is to answer as many as is possible in 200
pages or so of the questions that a prospective settler or investor
might ask. There is already a vast amount of literature about this
and other parts of Florida, in books and magazines and in hand-
somely illustrated circulars issued by boards of trade, railroads.
real estate companies, etc., but most of that is devoted to some limit-
ed area, which is usually painted in the most glowing colors, so
that it may not help the reader much in getting at the whole truth.
Every region on earth has its advantages and disadvantages, and
the well-nigh universal policy of minimizing or ignoring the latter
in the. effort to attract settlers is rather short-sighted, for if a new-
comer finds conditions too different from what he had been led to
expect he is liable to give up in despair and give the region a bad
The information in scientific works, soil-surveys, census reports,
etc., is much more likely to be accurate and impartial than that de-
signed merely to entertain the reading public, increase the business
of railroads, etc., but it is relatively inaccessible, and not easy for
the average unscientific person to digest and interpret.'And in spite
of all that has been published about Florida, it would be difficult
to find in previous works any definite statement about the prevail-
ing soil types, commonest plants, density of population, percentage
of illiteracy, leading religious denominations and foreign nationali-
ties, percentage of white and colored farmers, owners and tenants.
average size of farms, value of farm land and buildings, number of
animals of various kinds per farm. cost of labor and fertilizers.
leading crops and average yield of each. etc., for any of the regions


here described. But all of these points and many more are covered,
and some not only with reference to present conditions but also
historically, i.e., the changes that have taken place in several de-
cades are outlined.

The description of each region follows as nearly as possible the
outline given under General Features in the table of contents, but
that of the smaller regions is necessarily less complete, on account
of the lack of census statistics for areas smaller than counties.
The information about geology and underground waters is taken
mostly from previous reports of this Survey, and that about soil
texture from government soil surveys, which as yet however cover
less than one-fourth of the area under consideration. The principal
soil series and texture classes in each region sufficiently covered
by soil surveys have been determined by picking them out from
the maps, btt it is hardly worth while to calculate their percentages
until the work is more complete. Some of the chemical analyses of
soils are taken from I9th century publications, and some were made
for the Survey in 1915. from samples collected by the writer, by
L. Heimburger. one of the assistant state chemists at that time.
The climatic factors discussed are only a few of the simpler ones,
some taken direct and some computed, from publications of the
U. S. Weather Bureau, chiefly Bulletins Q and W.
The descriptions of vegetation are almost wholly from the
Writer's own observations. on about 1oo different days, mostly in
the months of February. March, April and July, and in the years
1908-1910, 1914. i915 and 1920. The importance of vegetation
as an indicator of soil conditions is probably more generally recog-
nized in Florida than in any other part of the United States: but in
order to make satisfactory correlations between vegetation and soils
it is necessary not merely to pick out certain species of plants sup-
posed to be characteristic of certain soils. but to study the vegeta-
tion quantitatively, as the census does population and agriculture.
The approximate relative abundance of the different species has
been determined by consolidating or digesting the field notes taken
in every county and region, on practically every mile of travel,
whether by train, boat, automobile or on foot.


In each region described the principal vegetation types (which
are discussed more fully in the general part of the report) are in-
dicated, and the commonest large trees (i.e., those large enough to
be sawn into lumber), small trees, woody vines, shrubs and herbs
are listed as nearly as possible in order of abundance; which besides
bringing out the general appearance of the vegetation also shows at
once each region's resources in timber and other wild products of
the vegetable kingdom. There are of course all gradations between
trees and shrubs,, and a species which is a small tree in one region
may be a large tree or a shrub in another, or even in different
habitats in the same region. But although no hard and fast lines
can be drawn, some sort of size grouping has to be used, for it is
impracticable to compare the relative abundance of plants differing
greatly in size, such as trees and grasses. Mosses, lichenls, fungi,
etc., are omitted entirely, partly because they form such an insig-
nificant fraction of the total bulk of vegetation, and also because
only a few specialists (of whom the writer is not one) can identify
them positively in the field.
It did not seem worth while to assign percentages to nearly all the
species, as was done in the northern Florida report, on account of
the incompleteness of the data, but in the general discussion there
is a census of timber trees, giving within certain limits the propor-
tion that each is supposed to constitute of the total,forest of each
region. And the percentage of evergreens in each region has been
estimated, as before, for that being made up of figures for a number
of species is more accurate than the percentage of any one species.
The significance of evergreens is that, other things being equal.
they are most abundant on the poorest soils; for a tree growing in
very poor soil has difficulty in getting enough nourishment to make
a complete set of leaves every year, and is almost obliged to keep
each leaf two or more years (sometimes a dozen years in the case
of some of the spruces of the far north, where the soil is frozen
about half the year) : while a tree in rich soil may take up mineral
matter in solution so fast that it has to have large leaves to store
the surplus in and shed them every year to get rid of it*

*For additional notes on the relation of evergreens to soils see 6th Ann.
Rep. Fla. Geol. Surv., 175-177 (footnote); Science II. 42:500-503. Oct. 8, 1915:
Bull. Geog. Soc. Phila. 16:111. Dec. 1918; Geol. Surv. Ala. Special Rep. No.
II, p. 90, 1920.


To save space and avoid boring readers not interested in botanical
matters the plant lists are made rather short, omitting the rarer
species that one would not be likely to encounter every day, though
in a few cases the lists have been extended just far enough to take
in certain species that are especially characteristic. The trees listed
in each case are probably only about half the number of species rep-
resented in any region, but they make up at least nine-tenths of the
bulk of the forest. The shrubs and herbs are listed less completely,
partly because they are less important, and partly because some of
them cannot be identified any day in the year as the trees can, and
the writer has not yet explored this area in the fall months, when
many herbs bloom that would hardly be noticed in the spring.
For each plant there is given its technical name, its .common name
(if any), and its usual habitat expressed in a word or two. The
technical names of evergreens are printed in bold-face type, and .in
the case of semi-evergreens only the specific name (second word) is
thus printed. There is some uncertainty as to just which herbs
should be classed as evergreens, partly because some of them have
not been sufficiently observed in winter, and partly because it is im-
possible to draw a sharp line between evergreens and non-ever-
greens. Some herbs whose leaves die down completely in winter
farther north are partly evergreen in the area treated and entirely
so farther south; and many that are not ordinarily thought of as
evergreen have rosettes of leaves close to the ground that live
through the greater part of the winter.
The technical names of weeds and other plants that seem to grow
only in places that have been more or less disturbed by civilization
are enclosed in parentheses. Good examples of plants which are
ordinarily regarded as indigenous but behave rather suspiciously are
the two tall dog-fennels, Eupatorium compositifolium and E.
capillifolium. The former is sometimes seen in apparently un-
disturbed high pine land, but it is more characteristic of roadsides
or even dim trails made by log-carts, and abundant in old fields.
The latter is common in lake basin prairies, etc., but may not have
been there in prehistoric times, when such places were not closely
pastured as they are now.* Amono the trees the persimmon, a sup-
posed native, is far more frequent in cultivated or abandoned fields
than it is in swamps, which may be its natural habitat.
*See 3d Ann. Rep., Fla. Geol. Surv., p. 318.


There is doubtless much room for improvement in the treatment
of common names, for the \\riter does not often stop long enough
in one place to interrogate the residents about the names they use for
wild plants. Such names enclosed in parentheses are either general
terms like grass and fern, or names used in Georgia or farther north,
which may or may not be in common use in central Florida. But
as a large proportion of the inhabitants of this area came from other
.tates. and some who will read this report are now living in other
states, these names ought Iito be more intelligible than they would
be in a region which has had very little immigration.
Statistics of population are taken from census reports, prin-
cipally the U. S. census of 1910. It would have been interesting to
carry the investigation back to 1830. when Florida first figured in
census returns, but previous to 1887 the counties in central Florida
were so few and large that it \\ouldl be difficult to get an adequate
representation of anv one region from county statistics. However,
some figures illustrating the growth and composition of the popula-
tion in the whole area in the early days are given in the general
discussion. Quite a number of additional data are taken from the
state census of 1915, which however does not go into as much detail
as the government censuses, and is not so free from typographical
errors. .t this writing the only returns of population from the
U. S. census of 1920 available are the total population of all the
counties and some of the cities and towns, but those have been used
as far as they go. (It will probably be several months yet before a
full analysis of the 1920 population by race. nativity, etcr. is ob-
The ioio census is also the main source of statistical information
about agricultural conditions, though others, as far back as 1850.
have been utilized as far as possible. The state agricultural depart-
ment took censuses of agriculture in connection with population in
1895 and 1905. and in recent years has taken censuses of crops.
livestock. etc.. at biennial intervals. These biennial enumerations
subdivide the crops more minutely than the government censuses
(which lump together most kinds of vegetables) ever did, and
indicate the value of each crop in each county, but give little or no
information about the number and size of farms, color and tenure
of farmers. value of land. buildings and other property, and expen-
ditures for labor. feed. fertilizers. etc. Worse still, thev are marred
b1 so many clerical or typographical errors that they have to he


used with caution. The principal use made of them here is to
determine the relative importance of different crops in 1913-14 and
1917-1918. Besides returning the crops in more detail, and giving
not only acreage but values by counties, another advantage of the
state census is that its crop year runs from July I to June 30, on
account of Florida's most valuable crops being harvested in winter
and spring, while the government census naturally returns the
crops by calendar years in Florida, for the sake of uniformity with
other states, all of which have colder winters and mostly summer
On account of the appropriation for the Geological Survey re-
maining at the same number of dollars per annum that it was when
money was worth twice as much as it is now, rigid economy has
had to be exercised in the selection of illustrations. Out of several
hundred photographs available for the purpose, the choice has been
narrowed down to 25 new half-tones and 14 old ones. This leaves
without illustration such interesting physiographic features as the
supposed highest hill in the state (in Polk County), the limestone
caves of Marion County, the noted natural race-course of Daytona
Beach, salamander hills, and several beautiful lakes and rivers;
such vegetation types as grassy dunes, peat prairies and several
other types of prairie, the characteristic low hammocks of the Gulf
hammock and lake regions, the short-leaf pine and hickory woods
of north-central Marion County, calcareous swamps of various
kinds, and the flatwoods, bays, and lake shore vegetation of the
lake region; and such artificial features as phosphate mines (both
hard rock and pebble), the "diatomaceous earth" plants'of Lake
County, clay pits, sawmills, turpentine stills, roads of crushed
limestone, brick, shells, or pine-straw, stone walls, rock chimneys,
cattle ranches, orange groves, sugar-cane fields, truck farms, types
of farm-houses, cities, towns, hotels, etc. And the counties of Sum-
ter and Hillsborough do not happen to be represented at all in the
illustrations, although many pictures have been taken in both. But
some of these features or places are well illustrated in previous pub-
lications of this Survey, or in easily accessible magazines and
Figures 3, 7 9, 1-13, 20-22. 29, 35, 36, 39 and 41 are from
earlier reports, and the remaining 25 are new. All are made from
photographs in the writer's private collection of American geo-
graphical views, except three that are otherwise credited. They


are printed in the text instead of on special paper for the sake of
economy, and also to bring them as near as possible to the corre-
sponding text and save the trouble of fitting two or three on one
The map used herewith (fig. 2) is too small to show fine de-
tails, but larger maps showing the towns, railroads, etc., are easily



L I 1

Fig 2. Map showing boundaries of the regions described herein, and
various other geographical features. Scale about 1:2,500oo,ooo or 40 miles to
the inch.

For various reasons, chiefly lack of time, no bibliography ha?
been prepared for this report, but those in the First, Third, Sixth
and Twelfth Annual Reports contain references to numerous im-
portant works dealing with central Florida or the whole state, and
a few other references are scattered through this report in the form
of footnotes. The natural resources of an area of about i,ooe
square miles around Ocala, with special reference to geology, vege-
E- o VA.

Ima~ w*msrA

-square miles around Ocala, Nvith special reference to geology-, vege-


station and soils, were described by Dr. E. H. Sellards and others
(including the present writer) in the Seventh Annual Report
(1915), and that will be referred to occasionally herein, especially
under the head of vegetation types.
That this report has many shortcomings the writer is well aware
(and he, rather than the Survey, should be held responsible for
them) : but those who may be inclined to condemn it as a whole on
account of a few misstatements or omissions with respect to some
particular locality should bear in mind that it is impossible for one
person to see all parts of such a large area in a few months or to de-
scribe it fully in 20oo pages, and even if time and money were unlim-
ited it would be impracticable to go to all the important places with-
in a few weeks of the time of going to press. Many places indeed
have not been visited by the writer since 1915, so that some condi-
tions described in the present tense may be things of the past now,
on account of the rapid development of this part of the state. Cur-
rent items in daily newspapers have been of considerable assist-
ance in keeping abreast of the times, however.
The writer (or his associates) will be glad to receive construct-
ive criticisms from any source, so that if another edition of this
work is ever called for, or if it should ever be incorporated into
a geography of the whole State, it can be made as complete and ac-
curate as possible.



(Figs. 3. 4, 37. Soil analyses O, P.)
This includes the Cedar Keys archipelago in Levy County, the St.
Martin's Keys and other small rocky islands along the coast ot
Citrus and adjoining counties, and a. narrow line of barrier-beach
islands (the Anclote Keys. Iong Key, etc. ) lying from half a mile
to three or four miles off shore in Pinellas County: the whole cov-
ering perhaps not more than ten or twelve square miles.
The Cedar Keys islands are mostly of sand heaped up by the wind
(to a height of about 45 feet on Sea Hlorse Ke.ey but there is con-
siderable calcareous material also, in the form of shell fragments.
Between them and the mainland the water is very shallow and dot-
ted with innumerable patches of salt marsh vegetation ( fig. 3 ). and
much of the bottom is covered with oyster bars. There is a wagon
road from Cedar Key to the mainland which up to a few years
ago was rather unique in being submerged twice at day at high tide.
There were a few bridges across the deeper places, and between
them stakes were driven along the road so that it could be followed
when the tide was up.
The "keys" of Pinellas County are also very sandy, but seem to
have a larger proportion of shell material than the Cedar Keys
group, and there is more lime-loving vegetation. I)unes are not ex-
tensively developed.
Some climatic data for Cedar Keys and Tarpon Springs are given
in Table 10, in the general part of this report. The climate re-
sembles that of the rest of central Flo2rida in having mild \inters
and wet summers, but the Gulf of M exico d doubtless makes the tem-
perature minre uniform than it is in the interior. The rarity of kill-
ing frosts is indicated by the occurrence of black man,(grove at Cedar
Kevs and red mangrove in Pinellas Countv.
The principal vegetation tvpes are the sparse coarse grass vege-
tatim characteristic of beaches and dunes, the salt marshes and
manerove -'vamins (fig. )-. scruhl- thickets difficult to classiif.
and sandy hammocks. Thlie sequence of the following pIlant list
cannot be regarded as very accurate. on account of the writer's


limited explorations in the region, but it ought to give a person fa-
miliar with the species named a pretty fair idea of what the vege-
tation looks like.

Fig. 3. Salt marshes on east side :f Way Kev. about ', mile north of Ce-
dar Key station, with oyster shells in foreground and black mangrove (.'lAi-
cc111nia) bushes in middle distance. AprI 2,. 19C9.

Fig. 4. Palm savanna vege:atioii n st;':.try dules containingg many
shell fragments). ,n Long Key about 2 mile, north of Pass-a-Grille. Pinellas
C,. March I 1915.



Sabal Palmetto
Pinus Caribaea
Pinns claaus
Juniperus Virginiana
Quercus Virginiana
Hicoria glabra?

Avicennia nitida
Ehizophora Mangle
Conocarpus erectus
agruncularia racemosa
Quercus geminata
Persea littoralls

Smilax auriculata
Ipomoea Pes-Caprae
Ernodea littoralli

Serenoa serrulata
Myrica cerifera
Yucca aloifolia
Coccolobis uvifera
Batis maritima
Quercus myrtifolia
Scaevola Plumieri
lex vomttoria
Sophora tomentosa
Batodendron arboreum

Uniola paniculata
Juncuns oemerianun
Spartina glabra
Opuntia sp.
Andropogon glomeratus?
Muhlenhergia filipes
Chamaecrista sp.
Oenothera humifusa
Eustachys sp.
Cassytha filiformis

Cabbage palmetto
Slash pine
Spruce pine
Live oak

Black mangrove
(Red) mangrove
White mangrove
Live oak
Red bay


Spanish bayonet
(Scrub oak)

Sea oats
(A grass)
Prickly pear
(A grass)
(A grass)
Partridge pea
(A grass)

Various situations
Various situations
Stationary dunes
Sandy hammocks

Mangrove swamps, and
scattered over marshes
Mangrove swamps
Edge of salt water
Edge of salt water
Stationary dunes, etc.
Sandy hammocks

Scrubby thickets
Beaches, etc.

Various situations
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy marshes
Scrubby thickets
Beaches and dunes
Inner shores, etc.
Sandy hammocks

Salt marshes
Salt marshes
Old dunes, etc.
Dune hollows
Dune hollows
Thickets, etc.

Something like 98/( of the trees and shrubs, but not so many of
the herbs, are evergreen.

Population and Industries. Although there are no exact figures
for the population of such a small area, the density is probably above
the state average, owing to a world-wide tendency of people to con-

gregate along the coast (where the climate or topography does not
interfere) to engage in fishing, commerce, etc. In 1915 Cedar
Kev town had 800 inhabitants and Pass-a-Grille (on Long Kev)
109, which together would make about go persons per square mile.
even if there were no other settlements. About 7094 of the popu-
lation of both towns was white.


Fish of various kinds. oysters an(l sponges are important pr1o-
ducts. Cedar for pencil wood was formerly cut in considerable
quantities at anld near Cedar Keys, but the supply is nearly ex-
haustedl nt1\\. The cabhlage palmetto is or has been utilized for fiber
at ( edlar Keys. .\ considerable part of the ~population makes a li\-
ing by catering to sportstmell and tourists, particularly at Pass-a-
;rille ain( other resorts inl Pinellas County. There is very little ag-
riculture, but a few cattle are raised oln sme of the islands, and
there is said to he even a dairy on ItLong ley..


( ligs. 3-7. soil analyses 1-5.

This extends along the (;ull coast from \\Wakulla Countv to the
solutherni elge of Pa, co. with another area, entirely disconnecctted
from the rest but hardlY di.tinguilishable from it in any w av, larthet
inland along the \\ithlacoonhee River, mostly in Suter County.l
Within Ioutr limits the coastal and interior portions are approxi-
ilately eCqual in extent, togtlher covering a;tlut 5I 2o square miles
TI here is nothing very similar farther south, or in an other state

Fig. 5. Scene on railroad (Seaboard Air Line), through the (;ulf llam-
mock about 4 miles southwest of EIllzy, Levy County; showing out-cropping
limestone, and telegraph poles braced because they are not planted very deep in
the rock. April 16, 1910.


The portion northwest of the Suwannee River was described in the
6th Annual Report, pages 302-309. and a few of the vegetation
types in Sumter County in the 7th.


Fig. 6. lydro-electric pwecr-hou-e with 20-foot dam (built in 1911). on
Withlacoochee River about o1 miles below Dunellon. March 4. 1015.

Topoyraphy and Gcology. The region is mostly flat and less
than 75 feet above sea-level, and is underlaid throughout with a
hard limestone ( Oligocene ) that is exposed in innumerable lwulder-
like or larger outcrops.* There are occasional irregular low sandl
ridges, scarcely distinguishable from parts of region No. 4, where
the depth to the rock is unknown. The coast is unlike any other of
equal extent in the world, as far as known, in being b)rdered bI
marshes instead of sandy beaches: the reason being apparently that
the slope of the ocean bottom here is so gentle as to practically eli-
minate wave-action on the shore, just as if there was a barrier beach
a few miles off shore. Stern-wheel steamers from the Suwannee
River ply the open Gulf from the mouth of that river to Cedar
Keys. The same limestone rock that characterizes the region is said
to crop out mo the bottom of the'fulf some distance out. Some of
the rivers have rocky shoals a few miles from their mouths, and
the one on the \ithlacoochee is utilized for power purposes.

*See fig. 5. The soil survey of ITernando, County howss one slid area
of rock outcrop in thle eastern end of the county covering ablut half a square


(Fig. 6.) Several of the smaller streams have large limestone
springs at their heads. (Fig. 7.)

,. 0-

Fig. 7. Large limestone spring at head of Homosassa River about a mile
northeast of Homosassa, Citrus County. May 23, 1909.
Soils. Only a small part of this region has been covered by soil
surveys (those of the "Ocala area" and Hernando County), so that
it is hardly worth while to try to estimate the percentages of the
different types of soil. The principal series thus far named are the
"Leon", "Norfolk", "Portsmouth''", "Hernando" and "Parkwood",
and the texture classes, in order of area, are fine sand (about one-
third of the total), swamp, sand, muck, fine sandy loam, tidal
marsh, and clay loam. Rock outcrop, presumably all limestone,
constitutes about one-third of IC of the total area as mapped.
\here the sand is not too deep, particularly in all the low hammocks
and swamps, the influence of lime is plainly shown in the native veg-
etation. In a few such places there are deposits of gypsum on or
near the surface. No chemical analyses of the soils of this region
are available, but they are probably more calcareous than the aver-
age for central Florida.
vegetation The vegetation is mostly of the flatwoods type, with
a few lime-loving plants, but low calcareous hammocks are more
frequent and extensive in this region than in any other, with the
possible exception of the east coast. (The great Gulf Hammock in
Levy County, shown in fig. 5, is the most typical example.) The


hammocks often grade into swamps, which are more or less calca-

reous too. The coast is bordered by marshes, as already stated,

and there are quite a number of shallow ponds an(d wet prairies,

particularly in Sumnter County.

The commonest plants are about as follms:


Pinns palustris
Sabal Palmetto
Taxodium distichunm
Pinus Caribaea
Taxodium i mnrlicarium i
Pinus Elliottit
Iiquidambar Styraciflua
Pinus Taeda
Acer rubhrlm
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus Virginiana
Juniperns Virginiana
Pinus clausa
T'lmnis Florid:mna
Tilia pullbescens?
Fraxiilnus prot'ililnd:?
Quercus hybrida?
Quorcus Miucha:uxii
Qnurenus nigra
Celtis occihd ntalis?

Carpinus CParolinhiia
Salis lonRiips?
QullercO s (':1itesls li
Magnolia glauca
Qloellns cinlel'ea
Querle s g enii l uta
'Frl ii lls l ir ill xini n
Persea pubescens
Osmanthus Americana
Ostrya Virgrinin;inn

e c 'imx i s\iix ll iiiix l
Rh'lins r ;llii e i l
Gelsemium seimpervirens

Smilax laurifolia

Serenoa serrulata
Myrica cerifera
Ilex glabra
(orll s Sl trict:ta?
Pieris nitida
Cholisma ferruginea
Quercus myrtifolia
Myrica pumila
Cophalantlis oecidentalis.
Asimina pygninea?:
Vihurnum obovatum
Vacciniunm nitidum
Quercus minima
Aralia spinosai
Sabal glabra
Itea Virginica
Rosa palustris
Hypericum fasciculatum


Lonig-le:af piine Pine lands
Cabaln' palmletto LTow halnmocks.
Cypress SwaImps and low
Slash pine Ti\\- pine lands
(Pond) cypress presses ponds
Slash pine L.aw ill. lands
Sw let giii TL,\ Ihaniimocks.
Shlrt-l if pinl I hllllmimocks.
iild mi pile S~wIIlls and loh\
Malgnol(iL 1 Inionmocls
Liveo iailk H:iLnimn k('hs. etc.
S'ce a r I .iw lii ninmolks.
Slruce pine Scrlu
l lni I.x \\ Iha1mmocks
ILin I ;I Iillin nks
Ash S \ liwmps
AVater oak l,i\v lilllmnocks
Sw impl cliestni i il Iiw\ liimmiolcks
TVat'l ak oll 1111n ]lml ocks
Itacklierry la.w h111u iocks

SMA.\I, TrllilHS.
Tron viwoo I" Ii lmilollnel Willow I ldges swam l
tlnck-jacl oik Ikli aih pine land
1 yv Sw i \\ iIps
'TurRokeyv mk li!h pin l land
ILive oak lliuh pine land,
A all S \\i 11 )S
liid bay Swanips

I SI; liI I 1 lIlln i S
V i 1, 1 :1111 l I '1:

'.Itl-ln l i\ [l lnnilo s s

1 tle I\' tl i wo 1 II o ]s

Prickly) ,ash ,ammock s
'Ihiw si ) lx- ,I] swliniiin'

1Oa \rnn.lhlds

Palmetto low hammiocks,
S wa In ps

(I.ildx rose) Swai iips

rtleSand myrtle Ponds, etc.s
S]'ulhr \" f Illt h) Hl l'. s nlx d xia
i ll i" in li ek

Myrtle I"xlht wxOls

(Oak litltin. rl) 'lI t woods
Prickly ash 1lammocks
l'alnmettx I.xw Jxaxmmontocks,
Siaxps lii ps
I VxVill rms) Swamps
Sand myrtle Ponds, etc.


haimmoc ks


ps, etc.






Tillandsia usneoides Spanish moss (on trees
Aristida stricta Wire-grass 1'in lands
Cladiun effusum Sawv-grass W\et prairies, etc.
l'terocaulon unduL.;tunl Black-root Flatwoods
Juncus Roemerianus (lRush) Brackish marshes
Sagittaria lancifolia \Vet prairies, etc.
Iris versicolor (Ilue flag) Wet prairies, etc.
Tillandsia tenuifolia Air-plant Low hammocks, etc.
lEupatorium capillifoliunl Dog-fentnrl Low prairies, etc.
Saururus cernuus hRich swamps
SSpartina Bakeri S\\itch-grass .round prairies, etc.
(Piaropus crassipes) \Water-hyacinth Lakes and runs
('a rphcphorus corymbosus Flatwoods
I'ontederia cordata \VWlipe P'onds and swamps
Nymphaea macrophylla I onnlets 'onds and streams
Alesosphaerum rugosunl Al.arly flatwoods, etc.
Polypodium polypodioides (A fern) On trees in hammocks
I(hynchospora miliacea (A sedge) Low hammocks
Mitchella repens TuIrkl'y-berry Ilimmocks
Pistia spathulata \\attr-lettuce Calcareous streams
Senecio lobatus Rich swamps
Tubiflora Carolinensis Low l;ammocks
About 75'c of the large trees and shrubs, but not so many of
the small trees and vines, are evergreen.
Fisheries. The shallow rock-bottomed waters of the Gulf ad-
jacent to this region afford a favorable habitat for many kinds of
fish. Besides the ordinary commercial fisheries, the region is visit-
ed in winter by many persons from outside the state who fish for
sport. Homosassa is a favorite winter resort for Georgia fisher-
men. The sponges brought in to Cedar Keys and Tarpon Springs
(which are in other regions) must also be counted among the sub-
marine resources of the (iulf hammock region. The bird guano
industry is described in the chapter on animals.
Population. This region does not cover enough of Levy, Citrus,
Hernando and Pasco Counties to enable us to get any accurate
statistics of the coastal portion from census reports, but the por-
tion along the \ithlacoochee River is approximately coextensive
with Sumter County. Previous to 1887, when it was reduced to its
present size, that county included a considerable part of the lake
region also, so that census returns from it for earlier periods have
little geographical value. The number of inhabitants per square
mile increased gradually from 9.1 in lr89o to 14.1 in 1920. None
of the population is classed as urban by the U. S. census, but 20.4%0
of the people were living in incorporated places at the time of the
state census of 1915. In 1910 about 66%7 of the population was
native white, 0.4(% foreign white, and 33.7% of African descent.
At the same time 3% of the native whites over o1 years old, none ot
the foreign whites. and 26.9% of the negroes were unable to read
and write.


The largest towns in the Gulf hammock region in central Florida
in 1915 were Crystal River, with 900 inhabitants, Center Hill, with
495, Coleman, 389, Bushnell 343, and Webster 307. In 1916 the
leading religious denominations among the white church members
in Sumter County were Baptist, southern Methodist, Church of
God, southern Presbyterian, and Church of Christ; and among tnt
negroes, Baptist. African Methodist, Colored Methodist, Primitive
Baptist, and A. M. E. Zion.
Agriculture. For statistics of agriculture we are practically com-
pelled to depend on the returns for Sumter County, for the same
reason already given under population. The leading features of
agriculture in that county in 1889-90, 1899-1900, and I0o9-10 are
shown in Table I.
Agricultural Statistics of Gulf Hammock Region (Sumter Co.), 1890-1910.
1889- 11899- 1909-1910
S 1 18901 19001 Total I White |Color'd
Per cent of land in farms ------- -- 22.8 1 21.8 20.5 19.4 1 1.1
Per cent of land improved ---.---- 6.2 | 5.5 6.1 5.5 0.7
Improved acres per inhabitant------- 4.3 3.3 I 3.4 4.7 1.3
Inhabitants per farm ------_------_ 5.0I 8.2 8.8 7.3 15.8
Per cent of farmers white --.------ -- 83.6 81.0
Per cent of farmers, owners --------- 1 89.7 82.4 83.4 79.0
86.3 1
Per cent of farmers, managers ------ 1 0.9 0.4 0.5 0
Per cent of farmers, tenants ------ 13.7 9.4 I 17.1 | 16.1 21.0
Average number of acres per farm --1 80.2 | 109.2 101.2 118.21 28.1
Average improved acres per farm -- 21.9 | 29.0 I 30.4 I 33.8 19.7
Value of farm land per acre ($) ------ .. 6.201 17.921 17.90] 18.25
Value of farm land per farm ---- i 45 678] 18151 21211 512
Value of buildings per farm --____--- 205 409| 472 13
Value of implements and machinery___ 30! 58] 1231 1441 34
Value of live-stock. poultry, etc. 1_ 641 338 480| ______
Number of dairy cows per farm -__ 1.60 2.3 8.4 | 10.2 I 0.6
Number of other cattle per farm -_|- 11.1 I 28.5 1 14.0 _------I__ ___
Number of horses per farm --_--------- 1.0 1.8 1 1.8 I 1.8 1.0
Number of mules per farm -------- 0.1 0.2 | 0.2 | 0.2 0.1
Number of hogs per farm -__- ____ ] 10.1 | 12.5 ] 22.7 __-
Number of sheep per farm -____--_' 2.1 I 1.5 2.0 _I___ __
Number of poultry per farm -_______ 16.3 42.5 24.3 _---_ -
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer___ 17.00! 23.801 99.00 --- ----
Expenditures per farm for labor __--__! 39.401 189.001 -----I ------
Expenditures per farm for feed ------- ______ 42.501 _____--I --__
Annual value of crops per farm _--- i i i 895| ----I ---
S288 3891
Annual value of animal products -- I I 881
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved-___ 0.77] 0.861 3.261 --__ ___
Expend. labor per acre improved-- 1.43- 6.251 -_-_. I ______
Value of crops per acre improved -- --- 29.50 ---- --


The figures for dairy cows per average farm in 1910 seem rather
excessive in comparison with other times and adjacent regions, and
may indicate an error of some kind, or some exceptional condition
not explained by the census, such as a temporary accumulation of
cows on one or two large farms.
The leading crops in 1909, in order of value, as estimated from
the U. S. census of 1910, were "vegetables" (about 72% of the
total), corn, oranges, grape-fruit, peanuts, hay, oats, sweet potatoes,
and sugar-cane (the value for the last representing the syrup made
from it). In 1913-14, according to the state, agricultural depart-
ment, the order was cucumbers, tomatoes, oranges, cabbages, corn,
(string) beans, hay, peanuts, sweet potatoes, watermelons, sugar-
cane (syrup), velvet beans, and lettuce. But of course if the lime-
sink portion of the. county in the northeast corner, could be sepa-
rated this sequence might be changed a little. (There are no data
for 1917-18, because the agricultural enumerator for Sumter
County failed to make a report that year.)

This region extends from north of our limits through Levy
County to the \ithlacoochee River a few miles west of Dunnellon,
where it seems to terminate abruptly. The greater part of it is in
Middle Florida (west of the Suwannee River), and it was described
in the 6th Annual Report, pages 310-313. About 300 square miles
of it lies within the area of the present report, and a small part
of it is covered by the soil survey of the "Ocala area."
It is a level region, perhaps nowhere more than 75 feet above
sea-level, with many shallow ponds and bays, and some sluggish
coffee-colored creeks. The ground-water is nearly everywhere close
to the surface, and there are no known outcrops of limestone, so that
the soil is rather sour. Most of the soil in this region within
the limits of the "Ocala area" has been classed as "Leon fine sand."
The vegetation is mostly of the palmetto flatwoods type, inter-
spersed with numerous cypress ponds, bays, and non-alluvial
swamps. The commonest plants recognizable in February, March
and April seem to be as follows:




Pinus palustris
Taxodium imbricarium
Pinus Elliottli
Pinus serotina
Acer rubrum

Quercus Catesbaei
Magnolia glauca

Smilax laurifolia
Smilax Walteri

Serenoa serrulata
Pieris nitida
l1ex glabra
Hypericum fasciculatum
Aronia arbutifolia
Bejaria racemosa
Quercus minima
Cholisma fruticosa
Vaccinium nitidum

Tillandsia usneoides
Anchistea Virginica
Sarracenia minor
Pterocaulon undulatum
Erigeron vernus
Aristida strict
Polygala cymosa
Andropogon scoparius?
Pontederia cordata
Eriocaulon compressum
Nymphaea macrophylla
Centella repanda
Bartonia verna
Syngonanthus flavidulus

Long-leaf pine
(Pond) cypress
Slash pine
Black pine
Red mdple
Black-jack oak
Bamboo vine

(Hurrah bush)
Sand myrtle
(Oak runner)
(Poor grub)
Spanish moss
(A fern)

Ponds and bays
Ponds and swamps
Damp flatwoods

Drier spots
Swamps and bays

Swamps and bays
Swamps and bays

Flatwoods, etc.
Damp flatwoods, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Edges of swamps

On trees
Cypress ponds
Cypress ponds
Creeks, etc.

About 80%o of the trees and shrubs are evergreen, about one-
third of the shrubs (both individuals and species) belong to the
heath family (Ericaceae) and allied families, and leguminous
plants are very scarce, as already observed in the portions of this
region situated farther north.
This region does not cover enough of any one county to enable
us to study it statistically, but it is evidently very thinly settled.
Lumbering, turpentining and grazing seem to be the leading indus-
tries, and several of the shrubs could furnish a great deal of honey
if there were enough people living near to take advantage of the


(Figs. 8-II, 40. Soil analyses 6-9.)
This extends from a few miles north of the northern boundary ol
the state southward through the western half of the peninsula to the
neighborhood of Tampa. Its southern limits are ill-defined, or at
least insufficiently explored, but there is at least one area of con-
siderable size in Hillsborough County, entirely disconnected from
the rest. It reaches the coast in Pinellas County, which seems to
be the only place in peninsular Florida where any high land otlei
than dunes and shell mounds can be seen from the ocean. Its area
in central Florida is about 2,400 square miles.
Geology. The greater part of the area is underlaid at no great
depth by a comparatively pure limestone now regarded as of uppei
Eocene age, which is practically the oldest rock outcropping in
Florida. Toward the southern end of the region this is supposed
to dip southward and be overlaid by the Tampa limestone, of
Oligocene age. Extending nearly the whole length of the region are
irregular deposits or pockets of hard-rock phosphate, apparently de-
rived mostly from a re-working of the underlying rock by'geological
processes, btLt.containing many vertebrate fossils of Pliocene age,
and digted by geologists as the Alachua 'formation. Practically
the whole surface is covered by several feet of incoherent sana
whose age is problematical, and there may be a stratum of clay
between the sand and rock in some places, not as extensive in
central Florida as farther north, however.
The underground water, tapped by many artesian wells at depths.
usually from 50 to Too feet below the surface, is good to drink.
but unsuited for boiler purposes on account of the large amount of
limestone dissolved in it. For this reason the Atlantic Coast Line
R. R. uses water-softeners at its tanks at Ocala Junction, Dunnellon
and Croom, and rain water cisterns are used in some of the towns
Topography and Drainage. The highest elevations known are a
little over 200 feet above sea-level. The topography is everywhere
undulating, with many basins of various sizes and shapes, pre-
sumably formed by the solution of underlying limestone. Some of
these have sinks or caves in their bottoms, some are sandy and al-
ways dry, some are inundated part of the time, and some contain
permanent water, making ponds or lakes (fig. o1). The dry basins


. ,
~ ^ -;"

7 i-77

Fig. 8. Silver Spring, Marion County. By E. Peck Greene, 1908.


are. commonest northward, and the lakes most numerous in Hills-
borough County, where the ground-water is nearest to the surface.
(This southern portion is not very different from the lake re-
gion farther east.)
Streams and swamps are rather scarce., on account of most oi
the ,drainage being subterranean, through the deep sand and cavern-
ous limestone. There are several large limestone springs, The
most noted being Silver Spring (fig. 8), a few miles east of
Ocala, which is one of the largest in the world.
Soils. The greater part of the soil is a cream-colored or ligli
buff fine-grained sand, varingy toward white or broqwn~and usually
qitP inform in teytiir to a depth of several or many feet. A1out
half of this region in central Florida is now covered by soil sur-
veys, from which it appears that by far the greater part of the soils
are referable to the "Norfolk" series, with a scattering of "Gaines-
ville," "Hernando," "Leon," "Fellowship," "St. Lucie," etc
(which names however may mean little to persons not thoroughly
familiar with the publications of the U. S. Bureau of Soils, to which
they are at present chiefly confined). The leading texture classes
are fine sand (about 75% of the total), sand, fine sandy loam,

Fig. 9. High pine land with scattered oaks (the most conspicuous, one a
live oak, (Quercus gemninata), about 5 miles west of Inverness, Citrus County.
March 14, 1914.


Fig. o1. Shallow basin containing water, in open pine forests about 4 miles
west of Inverness. There is no fringe of bushes around this pond, a fact doubt-
less correlated with its considerable seasonal fluctuations, which make the
-edge of the area subject to fire variable. (Compare with fig. 22.) March 14,

Fig. II. Interior of rather open scrub about 5 miles west of Inverness,
taken from a point about 20 feet up a tree. March 14, 1914.


swamp, and loamy sand. Scrub, or white sand, under the various
designations of "Norfolk sand with scrub oak vegetation," "Leon
fine sand, scrub phase," "St. Lucie sand," and "Leon fine sand,
rolling phase," makes up about 2% of the total. A few mechanical
analyses are given in the general chapter on soils, but no reliable
chemical analyses seem to be available yet.

Vegetation. High pine land, with or without a lower story of.
black-jack or turkey oak or both, makes up at least three-fourths of
the total native vegetation. (See figs. 9, l0.) The oaks seem to
increase in numbers wherever the pines are cut off, perhaps chiefly
because that allows the ground to dry out a little more and they
prefer the driest soils. There are a good many hammocks, mostly
along rivers and on lake peninsulas and islands, and a few patches
of scrub (fig. II), ranging in size from a few acres to several
square miles.
As there is more high pine land than all other vegetation com-
bined, a census of plants, especially herbs, for .the whole region
bears considerable resemblance to that for high pine land in the
"Ocala area," published in the 7th Annual Report (pages 166-167).
The commonest species seem to be as follows, except that herbs
that bloom in late summer and fall are probably not represented
as well as they should be, for lack of observations at that time of
year. The first tree listed is, or was originally, probably at least
fifty times as abundant as its nearest competitor.



Pinus palustris
Taxodium distichum
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Pinus clausa
Quercus laurifolia
Quercus Virginiana
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus falcata
Sabal Palmetto
Pinus Taeda
Taxodium imbricarium
Persea Borbonia
Acer rubrum
Hicoria glabra
Hicoria alba

Quercus Catesbaei
Quercus cinerea
Quercus geminata
Batodendron arboreum
Osmanthus Americana

Long-leaf pine
Sweet gum
Spruce pine
Live oak
Red oak
Cabbage palmetto
Short-leaf pine
(Pond) cypress
Red bay
Red maple

Black-jack oak
Turkey oak
Live oak

High pine land
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Hammocks, etc.
Richer uplands, northward
Low hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Rich uplands

High pine land
High pine land
High pine land and scrub
Sandy hammocks
Sandy hammocks


Quercus Margaretta
(Diospyros Virginiana)
Cornus florida
Quercus Chapmani
Salix. longipes?
Crataegus Michauxii?
Ilex opaca
Magnolia glauca

Vitis rotundifolia
Rhus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Vitis aestivalis
Decumaria barbara
Smilax auriculata

Serenoa serrulata
Cholisma ferruginea
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Myrica cerifera
Myrica pumila
Vaccinium nitidum
Ceratiola ericoides
Quercus myrtifolia
Ceanothus microphyllus
Ilex glabra
Phoradendron flavescens
Asimina speciosa?
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Rhus copallina
Hypericum fasciculatum
(Baccharis halimifolia)
Asimina reticulata?
Quercus Catesbaei (shrubby)
Callicarpa Americana
Viburnum obovatum
Asimina augustifolia
Rhus Toxicodendron

Aristida stricta
Tillandsia usneoides
Kuhnistera pinnata
(Eupatorium compositifotium)
Eriogonum tomentosum
Andropogon Virginicus
Carphephorus corymbosus
Chamaecrista fasciculata?
Actinospermum angustifolium
Eupatorium aromaticum
Pterocaulon undulatum
Pteris aquilina
Croton argyranthemus
Cladium effusum
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Zupinus diffusus
Stillingia sylvatica
Psoralea canescens
Spartina Bakeri
Hellanthus Radula
Stenophyllus Warel
(Piaropus crassipes)
(Eupatorium capillifolium)

(and about 270 others)

Post oak
(Red) haw


Poison ivy
Yellow jessamine
Wild grape



(Scrub oak)

Sand myrtle
Black-jack oak
French mulberry
Poison oak
Spanish moss
(Summer farewell)


Partridge pea

(A fern)

Queen's delight

(A sedge)

High pine land
Old fields, etc.
Rich uplands
Sandy hammocks
Edges of swamps
High pine land, old fields, etc
Sandy hammocks, etc.

Low hammocks

Various situations
Sandy hammocks
High pine land
Low hammocks, etc.
Pine lands
High pine land, etc.
Scrub, etc.
High pine land
Low pine land
On oaks mostly
High pine land
Ponds and swamps
Low places
High pine land
High pine land
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
High pine land
High pine land

High pine land
Hammocks, etc.
High pine land
Highpine land and oldfield,
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
Along streams, etc.
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
High pine land
Around prairies, etc.
High pine land
High pine land
Lakes and streams
Low prairies, etc.

About 83% of the large trees and still more of the shrubs arc
evergreen, but Ericaceae (heath-like plants) are comparatively


scarce, and Leguminosae (leguminous plants) seem to be more
abundant here than iin most other parts of central Florida,
which indicates that the soil is not as poor as it might look tb a
new-comer who had spent most of his life in clayey regions.
The long-leaf pine is, and doubtless will long continue to be,
an important source of lumber, fuel, and naval stores. Near some
of the phosphate mines it has been cut off pretty completely to
furnish heat for drying the phosphate rock, leaving a very des-
olate-looking country, but it comes back as fast as it is allowed
to, without any assistance. The wire-grass and other herbage of
the pine lands afford an abundance of free pasturage for cattle.
Population. This region does not cover enough of any one counn
to enable us to estimate the density of population very accurately,
but there are probably at least thirty inhabitants per square mile.
It includes most of'the settlements in Levy and Citrus Counties,
from the statistics of which we can approximate the composition
and some other characteristics of the population.
These two counties have no places with over 2,500 inhabitants,
and therefore no population classed as urban by the U. S. census, but
8.7% of the people were living in the three incorporated towns in
1915. The largest towns in the region at that time were Tarpon
Springs, with 1938 inhabitants, Clearwater, with 1932, Inverness,
with about iooo (but not returned separately from the precinct in-
cluding the town), Dunnellon 979, Williston 800, Dunedin 429,
Anthony 406, and Wildwood-385. (The 1920 census puts Clear-
water ahead of Tarpon Springs, but returns for the smaller places
have not been published yet).
In Levy and Citrus Counties in 1910 about 50.1% of the inhabit-
ants were native white, i % foreign white, and 49% negro. At the
same time 5.9% of the native whites, 14.8% of the foreign whites,
and 30% of the negroes werc .illiterate. The illiteracy percentage
for foreign whites is-considerably higher than it usually is in pri-
marily agricultural, regions, and probably indicates.a considerable
number of foreign-born unskilled laborers employed in the phos-
phate mines.,,, The foreigners ,canme.-mpst!y from Ilaly, Greece,
England, Germany, Canada and Svedea: but of course there is no
telling how many of them are .fishermen and spongers, living on
the coast of these two counties, and therefore entirely outside of
the lime-sink region. There is a large colony of Greeks, supported


mostly by the sponge, business, at Tarpon Springs in Pinellas
In 1916 the leading religious denominations among the whites
were Baptist, Methodist (southern), Church of Christ, Episcopalian
and Presbyterian; and among the negroes Baptist and African
Agriculture. Agricultural conditions here are. more like those of
the typical South or cotton belt than in most other parts of central
Florida. The ratio of farm land and improved land to total area
is indeterminate, for the same reason as density of population, but
in Levy and Citrus Counties in 1900 and 1910 there were 2.56 im-
proved acres per inhabitant, a lower figure than in a purely agricul-
tural region with American standards, and indicating the employ-
ment of a considerable part of the population in mining, lumbering,
fishing, etc. (This is especially noticeable in the case of the negroes,
who have less than one improved acre per inhabitant). Although
it is impossible to get any accurate data on the subject from existing
census reports, there are probably nearly as many families sup-
ported by phosphate mining as by farming, and even more may be
engaged in exploiting the forests for lumber and turpentine.
The salient features of agriculture for the last three census
periods previous to 1920 are shown in the following table.

The leading crops in these two counties in 1909, in order of value,
were "vegetables", peanuts, corn, cotton (both kinds), sugar-cane,
oats, sweet potatoes, oranges, hay, peaches, grape-fruit, pears, and
Irish potatoes. Peanuts had probably increased in relative impor-
tance since 1899, judging by the increase in number of hogs per

1 :- *

I -


Agricultural Statistics of Lime Sink Region (Levy & Citrus Cos.) 1890-1910.

|1889- 11899- 1909-1910
18901 19001 Total | White |Color'd
Improved acres per inhabitant --- 3.83 2.561 2.56 4.4 0.64
Inhabitants per farm ------------- 10.0 12.7 17.1 10.7 45.2
Per cent of farmers .white _- ---- 82.3 81.4 --- --
Per cent of farmers, owners ---- 92.4 81.7 81.2 82.8 74.6
Per cent of farmers, managers ----- i 2.8 0.7 0.8 0
Per cent of farmers, tenants 7.6 15.5 18.1 16.4 25.4
Average number of acres per farm --- 136.3 109.0 159.0 180.0 68.7
Average improved acres per farm 38.8 32.7 43.9 47.3 28.8
Value of farm land per acre ($) ---- --- 5.401 7.36 7.25 8.63
Value of farm land per farm -- --- 1- 5881 1170 1305 594
Value of buildings per farm ----. 2321 340 3791 168
Value of implements and machinery-__ 461 38 98 1131 32
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. ----- 253 358 538 --- ----- -
Number of dairy cows per farm .---- 4.9 3.0 3.3 3.6 1.4
Number of other cattle per farm ---- 14.7 26.6 26.5 ---- ---
Number of horses per farm _------ 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.2
Number of mules per farm ------- 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1
Number of hogs per farm --- ------ 15.2 16.9 31.4 I- --
Number of sheep per farm ----------- 1.8 3.0 1.1 -- ---
Number of poultry per farm 28.2 27.3 29.8 1- ---- ---
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer--- 3.74 1.451 29.80 ---- ---
Expenditures per farm for labor ------ 25.10 49.50-- --
Expenditures per farm for feed ------ --- 36.60 -------
Annual value of crops per farm ----)- ( 620 ---- ---
[ 2721 3401
Annual value of animal products -----.I 2221-
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved- .10 .04 .68 -----
Expend. labor per acre improved --- -77 1 .13 .---.---
Value of crops per acre improved --- --- 14.10

In 1917-18, according to the state agricultural department,'
the leading crops were sea-island cotton, peanuts, corn, sweet
potatoes, velvet beans, (including hay thereof), sugar-cane,
cucumbers, cow-peas (including hay), cabbage, oranges, (grass)
hay, oats, watermelons, pecans, Irish potatoes, peaches, egg-
plants, squashes, pears, castor beans (a "war crop," not raised
much before or since), tomatoes, string beans, upland cotton,
lettuce and plums. If we had data for the lime-sink portions of
Hernando, Pasco, Hillsboro and Pinellas Counties no doubt
oranges would take a much higher rank and peanuts and cotton
*a lower. This region leads the rest of central Florida in the rel-
ative importance of peanuts, as it does in hogs.




(Figs. 12-14, 39, 41. Soil analyses 10-26, A, B, Q-U)
This has its greatest development in northern Florida, and its
southern terminus in Marion County, where it covers only about
250 square miles., Unlike the portions in Alachua, Bradford,
Columbia and Hamilton Counties, which occupy a slope between
the high flatwoods on the east and the less elevated lime-sink region
on the west, the portion south of Orange Lake has sandy lime-sink
country on both sides of it, and is more or less interrupted, like a
row of fertile islands in a sea of sand. The difference in elevation
is not very marked, but the hammock belt averages a little higher
than adjacent portions of the lime-sink region.
Geology and Topography. In this belt the Ocala limestone, ot
uppermost Eocene age, comes to the surface in many places, and as
it is usually pure enough to dissolve readily, and considerably

Fig 12. Pit of Florida Lime Co., near Ocala. By E. H. Sellards, Feb-
ruary, 191o.

elevated above the ground-water level, there are numerous sinks,
caves, and subterranean streams. The limestone is quarried in
several places (fig. 12), and mostly burned for lime. Some of the
hills are .partly capped by a friable sandstone of uncertain age.


Surface streams are few and small, and probably none of them
connect above ground with any river. Just north of our limits there
are a few large shallow lakes which become dry or .nearly so at
times. The highest elevations in the region seem to be about 190
feet above sea-level.
Soils. By both chemical and physical tests the soils average the
best in central Florida, running pretty high in clay and in lime, as
can be seen from the analyses in another chapter. In the soil
survey of the "Ocala area" they are referred to the "Gainesville,"
"Norfolk," "Fellowship" and "Leon" series, and the texture classes,
in order of area, are loamy sand, sandy loam, sand, and clay loam,
the first constituting about 38/% and the last about I o. Scrub
seems to be entirely absent.

Fig. 13. Semi-cajcareous hammock about a mile' southeast of Ocala. Feb.
13, 1915.
Vegetation. The vegetation types of the southern extremity
of the region were described in considerable detail and mapped in
the 7th Annual Report. In order of area the principal types seem
to be high pine land, red oak woods (fig. 41), high calcareous (or
semi-calcareous) hammocks (fig. 13), short-leaf pine and hickory
woods (this mostly north of the "Ocala area"), sandy hammocks


(fig. 29), and low calcareous hammocks. The commonest plants
are about as follows:



Pinus palustris
Quercus falcata
Sabal Palmetto
Pinna Taeda
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus laurifolia
Persea Borbonia
Quercus Michauxii
Hicoria alba
Quercus nigra
Hicoria glabra?
Tilia pubescens?
Quercus Virginiana
Fraxinus Americana
Celtis occidentalis?

Cornus florida
Crataegus Michauxii?
Ostrya Virginiana
Cercis Canadensis
Carpinus Caroliniana
Osmanthus Americana
lex opaca
Batodendron arboretum

Rhus radicans
Smilax lanceolata
Vitis rotundifolia
Gelsemium sempervirens
Bignonia crucigera
Rarthenocissus quinquefolia

Phoradendron flavescens
Serenoa serrulata
Myrica pumila
Myrica cerifera
Callicarpa Americana
Cephalanthus occidentalis
Ilex vomitoria
Cornus stricta?

Tillandsia usneoldes*
Aristida strict
Pteris aquilina
Tubiflora Carolineniis
Mitchella repens
(Eupatorlum compositifolium)
Oplismenus setarius
Dryopteris patents?
Smilua pumila
Eriogonum tomentosum
Houstonia rotundifolia
(Cassia Tora)
(Gnaphalium purpureum)

Long-leaf pine
Red oak
Cabbage palmetto
Short-Leaf pine
Sweet gum

Red bay
Water oak
Live oak

(Red) haw


Poison ivy
(Wild smilax)
Yellow Jessamine
Virginia creeper

French mulberry


Spanish moss
(A fern)
(A grass)
(A fern)


High pine land
Rich uplands
Hammocks and fields
Various situations
Sandy hammocks
Richer hammocks
Richer hammocks
Rich uplands
Low hammocks. etc.
Sandy hammocks
Rich hammocks
Various situations
Rich hammocks
Rich hammocks

Rich uplands
Old fields, etc.
High hammocks
Calcareous hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Sandy hammocks
Sandy hammocks

Low hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.

High hammocks, etc.
High pine land, etc.
Swamps, etc.
Low hammocks

On nearly all trees
High pine land
High pine land
Calcareous hammocks
Old fields, etc.
Calcareous hammocks
Sandy hammocks
High pine land
High pine land, etc.
Roadsides, etc.
Cultivated' fields

*About ten times as abundant as the next.


Only about 65% of the trees are evergreen, the lowest figure
of any region in this latitude in Florida. Ericaceous shrubs are
rather scarce, as in other calcareous regions, and leguminous plants
fairly well represented, especially among the weeds. Not much use
seems to be made of the native vegetation, except the pines for
lumber and turpentine, almost any of the trees for fuel, and the
Spanish moss for mattresses. In the early days the forest was
simply an encumbrance on the land, that the farmers had to get
rid of with much labor. At present it.is customary in this and
other hammock regions in Florida to let cabbage palmettos grow in
orange groves and other cultivated ground wherever they will (see
fig. 14). Some of these may be remnants of the original forest,
but probably most of them have been planted by birds, and are
left because they indicate hammock land and are ornamental and
do not take much light and nourishment away from the crops.

Fig. 14. Cabbage palmettos in cultivated field on hillside about 2 miles
south of Ocala. March 8, 1914.

Population. As this region covers only a small part of Marion
County, 'and contains a city of considerable size, it is not possible
to get any accurate information about the rural population from
census reports; but in number of inhabitants per square mile and


in proportion of negroes it is unquestionably above the average for
central Florida. In the whole county in 91io there were 387o
native whites, 1.3% foreign whites, and 60.7/o negroes. The pre-
dominance of negroes is characteristic of many other fertile regions
in the South, but in all such places the whites tend to congregate
in the towns and cities, making the number of the two races more
nearly equal there. In Ocala there were in 1910 and 1915 almost
exactly as many whites as blacks, and in some of the smaller towns
the whites are decidedly in the majority.
The incorporated cities and towns in 1915 were Ocala, with
5,370 inhabitants, Citra, with 400; McIntosh, 206; Reddick, 191;
and Belleview, 182. The 1920 census showed a slight decrease In
Ocala, probably due mainly to the migration of negroes from all
over the South to northern manufacturing cities during the recent
world war.
In 1880 (the latest year for which we have such data), when the
population of Marion County was still more concentrated in the
hammock belt than it is now, about 617% of the inhabitants of the
county were natives of Florida, 20% of South Carolina, and 7%7 of
Georgia, with Alabama, North Carolina and Virginia ranking next.
Less than 0.7% were foreign-born, the countries most largely
represented being England, Germany, Ireland, Canada and Sweden.
Thirty years later the proportions had changed but little, the leading
nationalities being English, German, Canadian, Scotch, Russian
(mostly Jews?), Italian, Swedish, and French.
In 1910 the percentage of illiteracy in Marion County was for
native whites over o1 years old 1.5, for foreign whites 1.7, and for
negroes 19.6. In the city of Ocala at the same time the census
enumerators found only one native white person over Io who could
not read and write, while 6.3% of the foreigners and 5% of the'
negroes were illiterate.
The leading religious denominations in the county in 1916 were,
among the whites, Baptist, southern Methodist, northern Metho-
dist(?)* southern Presbyterian, Episcopalian. Church of Christ,
Disciples of Christ, and Roman Catholics. Among the negroes,
Baptist, African Methodist, northern Methodist (?) A. M. E.
Zion. and colored Methodist.

*See explanation of statistical difficulties in the general chapter on re-
ligious denominations.


Agriculture. On account of its fertile soil this is probably the
most extensively cultivated region in central Florida, although the
percentage of improved land cannot be estimated, for the reasons
already given. But as it probably contains most of the farms in ,
Marion County, the statistics for the average farms in that county
ought to represent conditions in the hammock belt pretty well. (If
we should add to-or subtract from, as the case may be-the
Marion averages the differences between them and those for Levy
and Citrus Counties already given, we would probably come still
nearer to the actual conditions in the hammock belt, for outside of
that belt nearly all the farming in the county is done in the lime-
sink region).
In 1850 about half the farms in central Florida were in Marion
County, and the average farm (or plantation) in the county had
169 acres, of which 34.8 were improved. Its land and buildings
were worth $1,055, its implements and machinery $94, and its live-
stock $531. In the next decade there was a great expansion, and
the amount of improved land increased more than 70%. In 1860,
when the ante-bellum plantation system of the South had reached
its height, the average Marion County planter owned 450 acres,
of which 133.7 were improved, land and buildings worth $4,620,
implements and machinery $205, and live-stock $1,094. At this time
considerable sugar was being produced, an industry made possible
by the abundance of cheap labor, which does not exist in Florida
now.* The Civil War of course made many former slaves farm
proprietors, and thus reduced the average size of farms consider-
ably; but unfortunately the census did, not make any distinction
between white and colored farmers until 19oo. By 1880 the aver-
age farm in the county had shrunk to practically the same size
as in the pioneer days of 1850, having 15r acres, with 36.8 im-
proved. The land and buildings were then worth $903, implements
and machinery $31, and live-stock $204. The expenditure for fer-
tilizers the previous year was 86 cents per farm or a little over
2 cents per improved acre.
Agricultural conditions at the next three U. S. censuses are
shown in more detail in Table 3.

*But for this difficulty tea and silk could probably be produced here too.


Agricultural Statistics of Middle Florida Hammock Belt (Marion Co.), 1890-1910.

Improved acres per inhabitant --------
Inhabitants per farm ----------------
Per cent of farmers, white ---------
Per cent of farmers, owners ---

Per cent of farmers, managers ---....-
Per cent of farmers, tenants -------
Average number of acres per farm --..
Average improved acres per farm --..
Value of farm land per acre ($) ----
Value of farm land per farm --...

Value of buildings per farm ---- --
Value of implements and machinery_--
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. -----
Number of dairy cows per farm .----.
Number of other cattle per farm ----.
Number of horses per farm -----__
Number of mules per farm ---------
Number of hogs per farm -
Number of sheep per farm -- --
Number of poultry per farm

Expenditures per farm for fertilizer--
Expenditures per farm for labor ----.
Expenditures per farm for feed ------
Annual value of crops per farm ----_.

Annual value of animal products -----
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved---
Expend. labor per acre improved ------
Value of crops per acre improved -----

1889- 1899i-
1890 1900j










Total White IColor'd

2.98 3.24
9.7 12.5
49.4 53.2
82.3 86.7

3.3 2.2
14.4 11.1
79.9 1 101.5
28.8 40.5
6.001 14.21
482J 1441

2791 462
451 104
206 454
2.6 2.6
9.5 13.7
1.3 1.5
0.2 0.4
10.3 17.7
1.6 3.5
31.0 30.2

6.13 1.37
9.2 16.3

87.8 85.6

3.7 0.4
8.5 14.0
151.0 45.3
56.5 22.3
15.241 10.33
2295 468

6871 206
152 49

3.8 1.1

1.5 1.0
------0.6 0.1------
0.6 0.1
-.. .I -. .
-.. I . .

12.551 67.60U ------I ---
50.301 146.001
--. 2Q.101 -----------
I 8531 --- I ---
3761 I
j.1 173 ---
.431 1.671 ----I -_.-
1.74[ 3.621 __
--- 21.001 _------__

The leading crops in 1909 were "vegetables," corn, oranges,
peanuts, hay, oats, grape-fruit, sweet potatoes, cane syrup, cowpeas,
cotton (both kinds) and Irish potatoes.
In 1913-14 the order was, oranges, cantaloupes, sea-island cot-
ton, watermelons, corn, velvet beans, lettuce, tomatoes, (string)
beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cabbage, upland cotton, cucumbers,
cowpeas, cane syrup, (grass) hay, squashes, oats, egg-plants; and
in 1917-18 corn, sea-island cotton, peanuts, oranges, sweet potatoes,
Irish potatoes, string beans, syrup, velvet beans, (including hay),
upland cotton, watermelons, cowpeas, (and hay thereof), grass
hay, tomatoes, lettuce, oats, cabbage, cantaloupes, cucumbers, and
grape-fruit. '
The leading animal products in 1909 were hogs, beef cattle,
poultry and eggs, milk, butter, wool, and honey.

^- ^^'


i ^'^^~


(Figs. 15-17. Soil analyses V, W.)
In the Third Annual Report this was treated as an outlier of
the Middle Florida hammock belt, but it differs from the southern
extension of that in Marion County in being much less calcareous
and more hilly, and in the entire absence of red oak (the commonest
hardwood tree around Ocala), and it seems to merit separate treat-
ment. It occupies high land about equally distant from the
Withlacoochee River and the Gulf coast, as if it was an erosion
remnant left by the deepening of the valley of that river in pre-his-
toric times. The portions immediately north and south of Brooks-
ville have been called Annuttalaga and Choocochattee hammocks
respectively, but they are considerably larger and more diversified
than typical hammocks. The area of the belt is about 200 square
Geology and Topography. The Chattahoochee formation, an
impure limestone of Oligocene age, is exposed around Brooksville,
and may underlie the. whole area. It is pretty well covered up,
though, by clay (utilized for brick-making at Brooksville) and sand.
The topography is decidedly hilly, for Florida. Some of the hills
are among the highest in the state, though no reliable measurements
of them are available yet. The Atlantic Coast Line depot at Brooks-
ville is said to be 126 feet above sea-level, and the business portion
of the. town must be about Ioo feet higher, and other elevations
near by may be still higher. Blanton, in Pasco County, has an
altitude of io6 feet by the railroad survey, and some of the hills
a few miles northwest of there the writer would judge from walking
over them to be nearly 200 feet higher. Mirror Lake, near the
abandoned station of Lenard, a few miles northeast of Blanton,
was claimed in an advertisement a few years ago to be 330 feet
above sea-level; but the altitude of Lenard is given as 11'5 feet, and
the lake does not appear to be much higher tharr that, probably
not over 50 feet higher.
On account of the calcareous nature of the country rock, and the
still purer limestone of older formations below it, much of the
drainage is subterranean. There are a number of lime-sinks, the
best known of which is the Devil's Punchbowl, in the woods a few
miles northwest of Brooksville, a conical depression perhaps Ioo
feet in diameter and 50 feet deep. Apparently io streams from


this region reach the ocean by open channels. There are several
small creeks and branches among the hills, but as far as known
they all flow into sinks, or disappear in the. sand at or near the edge
of the surrounding lime-sink region. (This phenomenon recalls
conditions in the arid regions of the southwestern United States,
where there are many well-watered mountain ranges surrounded by
deserts which no streams cross.) The permanent ground-water.
level is in most places far below the surface. A well about 40 feet

Fig. 15. Looking north up hill about 75 feet high, on road from Brooks-
ville to Blanton, about a mile south of Spring Lake, Hernando County. The
most conspicuous trees are short-leaf pine (Pinus Taeda), and sweet gum.
March 9, 1915.


Fig. 16. Scene in Choocochattee Prairie, about 2 miles south-southeast of
Brooksville, looking toward the sink which drains it. A few sheep can be
seen grazing. Feb. II, 1909.

below the summit of a hill a few miles northwest of Brooksville,
and about 50 feet deep, was observed in March, 1915, to be dry to
the bottom.
There are quite a number of lakes, some of them small and
permanent, much like those in the lake region to be described pres-
ently, and others large and shallow, becoming prairie basins in
dry seasons or whenever their lime-sink outlets are sufficiently free
from obstructions. (Figure 16 shows the sink end of such a basin,
a type more frequent in the Middle Florida hammock belt and
Tallahassee red hills.*) To the former class belongs Mirror Lake,
previously mentioned. It covers a few acres near the top of a hill,
and if the water should rise only five feet higher than it was in
April, 1920 (which was probably about the average stage), it would
run over and down into a dry sandy valley about 50 feet lower.
The lake doubtless has a relatively impervious stratum of clay
under it.
Soils. Most of the soil seems to be above the central Florida
averagee in fertility. In the most typical portions, within a few miles

*This type of lake basin was discussed at considerable length by Dr. Sell-
ards in the 3rd Annual Report, pp. 43-76, pl. 6-9. (Reprinted with a few ad-
ditions in the 6th Annual Report.) See also 6th Ann. Rep., p. 271.


of Brooksville, it is usually rather loamy and retentive of moisture,
but in Citrus and Pasco Counties it is drier and sandier, though
often brownish in color. The central portion of this belt is covered
by the soil survey of Hernando County, published in 1915. In thai
by far the greater part of the soils are referred to the "Hernando'
series (a name apparently not used elsewhere, so that it meant
little to the reader). Other series in order of area are the "Gaines-
ville," "Norfolk," "Fellowship," "Portsmouth," "St. Lucie," and
"Leon." The prevailing texture classes are fine sandy loam (about
60o%), fine sand loamy fine sand, and stony clay loam. The scrub,
here called "St. Lucie fine sand," makes up about 3% of the total.
Two chemical analyses are given in the general chapter on soils.
Vegetation. Hardwood forests, or mixed hardwood and pine
cover hundreds of acres in the neighborhood of Brooksville (fig.
17), but toward the extremities of the region hammocks are chiefly
confined to depressions, and the uplands are mostly high pine land.
The vegetation -is decidedly less tropical than that of some places
farther east in the same latitude, and nearly all the plants range
at least as far north as Georgia. The short-leaf or loblolly pine
(Pinus Tacda), which is probably the most characteristic tree of

Fig. 17. Part of Choocochattee Hammock in process of clearing, about
3 miles southeast of Brooksville. Trees mostly live oak and sweet gum. March
9, 1915.


the whole South, grows nearly throughout this region, but no far-
ther south. The reason for all this is not apparent, but may be
connected with geological history in some way.* The scrub is
nearly all in one patch, a few miles south of Brooksville, and has
not been examined by the writer. The absence of the red oak has
been mentioned above, and the species of trees seem to be fewer
than in the Middle Florida hammock belt.
Nearly all the plants seem to be of fairly common and widely
distributed species (as in the Tallahassee red hills of northern
Florida,- and many other places where short-leaf pines abound),
and the most abundant seem to be as follows:



Pinas palnutris
Pinus Taeda
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus laurifolil
Quercus Virginlans
Quercus Michauxii
Hicoria glabra?
Quercus nigra
Ulmus alata
Tilia pubescens?
Celtis occidentalis?
Ulmus Floridana
(Diospyros Virginiana)
Persea Borbonia

Quercus Catesbael
Carpinus Caroliniana
Cornus florida
lex opaos
Omnanthus Amerioans
Batodendron arboretum
Quercus geminata
Ostrya Virginiana
Magnolia glance
Serenoa serralata*

Gelsemium sempervirens
Vitis rotundifolia
Rhus radicans
(Rubus trivialis?)
Bignonia crucigera

Long-leaf pine
Short-leaf pine
Sweet gum
Live oak
Water oak
Red bay
Black-jack oak
Live oak

Yellow Jessamine
Poison ivy

High pine land, etc.
Various situations
Low hammocks
Various situations
Low hammocks
Old fields

High pine land
Low hammocks
Sandy hammocks'
Sandy uplands
Along streams

Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Old fields, etc.

*The similarity of Hernando County (which then included the present ter-
ritory of Citrus and Pasco as well) to some places much farther north was
commented on nearly forty years ago by Dr. Eugene A. Smith (Tenth Cen-
sus U. S., vol. 6, p. 238. 1884).
tSee 6th Ann. Rep., p. 277.
SA form with ascending or erect trunk, sometimes ten feet tall.


Serenoa serralata
Viburnum semitomentosum
Myrica cerifera
Viburnum obovatum
Myrica pumila
Phoradendron flavescens
Vaccinium nitidum
Azalea nudiflora?
Chollsma ferruginea
lex glabra
Callicarpa Americana

Tillandsia usneodies
Aristida strict
Carphephorus corymbosus
Eriogonum tomentosum
Tillandsia tenuifolia
Pterocaulon undulatum
Pontederia cordata
Helianthus Xadula
Polypodium polypodioides
Houstonia rotundifolia
Pteris aquilina
Chamaecrista fasciculata
(Gnaphalium purpureum)
Tubiflora Carolinensis
(Eupatorium capillifolium)
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Salvia lyrata
Smilax pumaila
Mitchella repens
Eryngium prostratum?

French mulberry

Spanish moss

(A fern)
(A fern)



Pine land, etc.
Low hammocks
Pine lands
Pine lands
Sandy hammocks
Pine lands
Hammocks, etc.

Hammocks, etc.
Pine lands
Pine lands
High pine land
Low hammocks
Pine lands
Pine lands
On trees in hammocks
Pine lands, etc.
Pine lands
Pine lands
Fields and roadsides
Low hammocks
Lake prairies, etc.
High pine land
Lake shores, etc.

About 80% of the large trees and shrubs, but not so many of th,
small trees and vines, are evergreen. This difference is probably
due to the fact that the small trees and vines are chiefly confined
to hammocks with richer soil, as in regions 2 and 5.

Population. In attempting to estimate the density of population
we encounter the same difficulty as in most of the regions previously
described, for this belt does not cover as much as half of any one
county. But there must be at least forty persons per square mile.
As this is evidently the most populous part of Hernando and
Pasco Counties, the figures for those counties may represent
the composition of the population fairly well. In 19Io they
had 56.5% of native whites, 1.6% of foreign whites, and
41.8% of negroes. The percentage of illiteracy (in the population
over Io) was 3.1 among the native whites, 8.9 among the foreign
whites, and 31.2 among the negroes. The last is the highest fig-
ure found in central Florida, and that for foreign whites is rather
high, too, but both may be due to a large number of unskilled la-
borers in the phosphate mines of He'rnando County, which are en-
tirely outside of the hammock belt.


The largest towns are Dade City, with 1296 inhabitants in Jan-
uary, 1920, Brooksville, with ioII, and Zephyrhills (formerly Ab-
bott), with 577.
In 1880 nearly one-third of the inhabitants of Hernando County
were from other states, chiefly from Georgia, South Carolina,
Alabama, North Carolina, and Virginia, in the order named.
The leading religious denominations among the white people in
1916 were Baptist, southern Methodist, Roman Catholic, northern
Methodist (?), and southern Presbyterian; and among the negroes,
Baptist, African Methodist, and northern Methodist (?). The
Catholics seem to be chiefly concentrated near the western edge ol
the region in Pasco County, where there are several places whose
names begin with "San" or "St." founded about forty years ago,
and two Catholic schools.
Agriculture. The fertile soil attracted farmers at an early period,
and in 1850 Benton County (which corresponds with the present
Citrus, Hernando and Pasco) had 82 farms, averaging 167 acres
apiece, with 32.4 improved, land and buildings worth $966, imple-
ments and machinery $82, and live-stock $802. No returns were
received from this county in 1860, and those of 1870 are probably
not very accurate, but by 1880 the farms had increased in number
to 589, and diminished in size to 135 acres with 26.2 improved, land
and buildings worth $623, implements and machinery $16.80. and
live-stock $378. No fertilizer was reported as used there in 1879.
The cattle and hogs probably ranged mostly in the open pine lands
of the lime-sink region, as they do now.
Even yet farming in Hernando and Pasco Counties is chiefly
concentrated in the hammock belt, so that the following table, based
on the returns from these counties, ought to represent conditions in
this region from 1890 to 1910 pretty well.


Agricultural Statistics of Hernando Hammock Belt (Hernando & Pasco Cos.)
1889- 1899- 1909-1910
1890 1900| Total I White IColor'd

Improved acres per inhabitant __------
Inhabitants per farm ------- --
Per cent of farmers white
Per cent of farmers, owners --

Per cent of farmers, managers -------
Per cent of farmers, tenants ----
Average number of acres per farm --
Average improved acres per farm ---
Value of farm land per acre ($) --
Value of farm land per farm ----_---

Value of buildings per farm -----
Value of implements and machinery-_-
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. ----
Number of dairy cows per farm -----
Number of other cattle per farm -----
Number of horses per farm _- _
Number of mules per farm ----------
Number of hogs per farm --- _
Number of sheep per farm ----
Number of poultry per farm --
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer_--
Expenditures per farm for labor _--
Expenditures per farm for feed -----
Annual value of crops per farm _-----

Annual value of animal products -----
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved --
Expend. labor per acre improved
Value of crops per acre improved ----











, ____ 4



...... I









77.0 7Z.t
22.3 23.6
19.75 18.45
1520 1340

5231 162
871 51

----- ----

----- ------

------ ------

. ..------ -

The leading crops in 1909, by the U. S. census, were "vegetables,"
corn, oranges, sweet potatoes, cane syrup, tobacco (mostly near
Dade City), grape-fruit, peanuts, and strawberries.
In 1913-14, according to the state agricultural department, sweet
potatoes, oranges, corn, grape-fruit, tobacco, cowpeas, (including
hay), syrup, velvet beans (and hay), peanuts, (string?) beans, and
watermelons; and in 1917-18, sea-island cotton, corn, oranges,
grape-fruit, sweet potatoes, syrup, peanuts, upland cotton, cowpeas
(and hay), velvet beans (and hay), castor beans, watermelons,
peaches, and Irish potatoes.



(Figs. i8-22, 35, 36, 38. Soil analyses 37-45, C-E, J-M.)
This is the largest and in some respects the most interesting
region in central Florida, with an area of about 4,000 square, miles.
It extends along the axis or "backbone" of the peninsula from Clay
County to DeSoto County, and has no counterpart in any other
state, though there is a small lake region in West Florida (describ-
ed in the 6th Annual Report) that resembles it in some particulars.
Geology. Geologists have mapped most of the area as underlaid
by Upper Oligocene strata, but that is largely hypothetical, for ex-
posure of fossiliferous rock are rare. There are, also patches, belts
or pockets of Miocene and Pliocene formations in several places,
mostly not far from the St. John's River and its tributaries. Rock
Spring, in Orange County (fig. 18) is of interest as being the local-
ity where the first Miocene fossils were found in Florida.* The
vegetation in many low places near lakes and rivers seem to indi-
cate limestone or marl near the surface, and there are a few large
limestone springs in Volusia, Seminole, Orange and Lake. Counties.
On the summit of Iron Mountain there is a little, ferruginous
sandstone or conglomerate, a kind of rock common on non-calca-
reous uplands in the coastal plain from New Jersey to Texas, but
rare in peninsular Florida. A hard sandy clay, usually pinkish or
mottled (but bright red around Lake Wales in Polk County),
seems to be nearly everywhere present on the uplands, though nat-
ural exposures of it are scarce, for it is usually overlaid by a few to
several feet of loose sand. This clay is used in many places for road-
surfacing material, as is some of the marl. Still purer clays are
used for brick-making at Whitney, and some kaolin is mined near
Okahumpka.' There are vast deposits of peat in all the counties
(described in some detail in the 3d Annual Report), bordering the
larger lakes and rivers and completely filling many of the smaller
lake basins. One or two of the peat bogs in Lake County are rich
in diatoms, and have been used in a small way for "infusorial
Topography. The Ocklawaha and St. John's Rivers are border-
ed by flatwoods sometimes several miles wide, differing little from

*See E. A. Smith, Am. Jour. Sci. 121:309. April, 1881; Tenth Census U. S.
6:1go. 1884; Dall & Harris, U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 84:125. 1892; Matson &
Clapp, 2nd Ann. Rep, Fla. Geol. Surv. 114. 1909.


the flatwoods regions described elsewhere in this report; but most
of the region is rather hilly, with topography something like that ol
the lime-sink region but on a larger scale. The highest known ele-
vation in the State is Iron Mountain in Polk County, about 325 feet,
and there are probably several other points above 300, though we

.. W AI,

Fig. 18. Rock Spring, Orange County. The water rushes out audibly
from the base of a limestone cliff about 15 feet high. Feb. II, 1915.


Fig. 19. A small lake about a mile west of West Apopka, Lake County,
in a basin over Ioo feet deep among sandy hills. Surrounding vegetation all
high pine land. March 9, 1914.
have no definite data on that point yet. In the southern part of
Lake Couhty there are hills that rise even higher above the lakes
nearest them than Iron Mountain does. (See fig. 19.)*
There are a few dry funnel-shaped depressions, suggesting lime-
sinks, in the uplands of Orange and Polk Counties, but it has noi
been demonstrated that they were formed by solution. There is
said to be some lime-sink country on the west side of Lake George.
which the writer has not yet visited. The scrub areas (described.
farther on) are thought by some to represent ancient dunes, like
those of the east coast, but their topography is not typical dune
topography at all. However, it is quite possible that the wind has
moved the surface sands a little at a time through many centuries
and thus rounded off the hills and hollows.
The most striking characteristic of the region, and that which
contributes most to its scenic beauty, is its lakes, several thousand
in number, of all sizes from a few rods to several miles in diameter.
Some are traversed by or connect with rivers, while some have no

*An advertising booklet issued a few months ago by the Lake County
Chamber of Commerce (and paid for by the County Commissioners), which
contains a larger proportion of facts than many publications of its kind, gives
the altitude of Sugar Loaf Mountain, north of Minneola, as 312 feet, which
,seems reasonable. (See chapter on topography, farther on.)


outlet. They are. comparatively deep, and never go dry, though they
may fluctuate a few feet from one year to another with the amount
of rainfall. Many of the smaller ones at higher elevations beai
evidence, in the shape of young pine trees around their shores, of
being a little lower now than they were a generation ago. (See
fig. 22). This may be due to a permanent lowering of the ground-
water level by numerous artesian wells with outlets at lower levels.
Unlike those in the lime-sink region and hammock belts, none of the
lakes are known to have any subterranean outlets.
Streams are not very numerous, for most of the rainfall sinks
almost immediately into the deep sand which covers the uplands.
They are nearly all sluggish and coffee-colored. The St. John's ana
Ocklawaha Rivers are navigable for small steamboats all the way
through the lake region, and being bordered by tropical-looking
vegetation, are favorite scenic highways.

i I I ~ ~ I.. Il

Fig. 20. Lake Alfred, a clear lake in the highlands of Polk County, show-
ing a fringe of maiden cane and bonnets a few yards off the sandy shore and
parallel with it. AAy 18, 1910.
Soils. The soil of the uplands is mostly a slightly loamy sand
several feet deep, usually creamy or light buff in color, but varying
to yellowish, brownish, and ashy gray, the last being found chiefly
a few miles south of Lakeland, near the edge of the pebble phos-
phate country. There is probably more pure white sand (scrub) in
this region than in any other, but there are no dkta yet for making


Fig. 21. Looking west along shore of Lake
John's River system) about one-half mile west of
palmettos. May 20, 191o.

Monroe (part of the St.
Sanford, showing cabbage

Fig. 22. Small lake near Ellsworth Junction, Lake County, showing fringe
of saw-palmetto and gallberry, and long-leaf pine saplings encroaching on it.
Feb. 20, 1909.


an estimate of its area, for the region has scarcely been touched by
soil surveys yet.* In Marion County, northeast of Silver Springs,
are some clayey flatwoods, of unknown extent, which probably
belong to this region. The occurrence of marl and peat in low
places has been mentioned above under the head of geology. Some
of the low hammocks seem to contain gypsum deposits, as in the
Gulf hammock region.
Vegetation. The prevailing vegetation type on the uplands is
high pine land, very similar to that in the lime-sink region. (Fig. 19,
though intended for a different purpose, shows it pretty well).
Scrub (fig. 38) occurs in all sorts of situations topographically;
usually not far from lakes, but often on uplands remote from any
body of water. The level flatwoods bear the vegetation character-
istic of such places, and peat prairies and saw-grass marshes border
the larger lakes or completely fill small basins. Sandy shores of
lakes have quite a characteristic growth of sedges and other con-
paratively small and wiry plants (as do similar places in New Eng-
land), merging gradually into that of peat prairies in many places.
Peninsulas jutting out into lakes are commonly occupied by sandy
hammocks, and marly low places by low hammocks, much like those
in the Gulf hammock region. Small and non-calcareous streams
are usually bordered by non-alluvial swamps or bays, containing a
large portion of evergreens.
The commonest plants in the lake region seem to be as follows:

Pinus palustris Long-leaf pine Uplands
Sabal Palmetto Cabbage palmetto Low hammocks
Pinus Caribaea Slash pine Platwoods, etc.
Pinus claans Spruce pine Scrub
Pinus serotina Black pine Low pine land
Taxodium distichum Cypress Swamps
Pinus Elliotti Slash pine Bays, etc.
Taxodium imbricarium (Pond) cypress Around lakes and ponds
Liquidambar Stvraciflua Sweet gum Low hammocks, etc.
Magnolia grandiflora Magnolia Hammocks
Acer rubrum Red Maple Swamps
Pinus Taeda Short-leaf pine- Low hammocks, etc.
Gordonia Laslanthus Swamps and bays
Quercus Virginiana Live oak Hammocks
Quercus nigra Water oak Low hammocks, etc.
Nyssa biflora Black gum Swamps and ponds
Ouercus laurifolia Sandy hammocks
Hicoria glabra? Hickory Sandy hammocks

*The National Forest in eastern Marion County is said to be mostly scrub.


Quercus Catesbael
Quercus cinerea
Magnolia glauca
Quercus geminate
Cholisma ferrfginea
Quercau myrtifolia
Persea humilli
Salix longipes?
Myrica cerifera
Oumanthus Americana
Prunus umbellata
Quercus Chapmani
Cornus florida
Xlex Cassine
Carpinus Caroliniana

Smilae lanrifolia
Vitis rotundifolia?
Smilax auriculata
Ampelopsis arborea
Rhus radicans
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Berchemia scandens

Serenoa serrulata
Pieris nitida
Myrica cerifera
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius
Hypericum fasciculatumn

Ceratiola ericoides
Ceanothus microphyllus
Hlex glabra
Bejaria racemosa
Lupinus difusus var.*
Myrica pumila
Cephalanthus occidentalls
Vaccinium nitidum
Garberia frutioosa
CholiUma frUticosa
Prunus genlculatat
Rhus copallina
Sabal glabra

Tllandsia unneoides
Aristida striota
Kuhnlstera pinnata
Cladium eSfusmu
Spartina Bakeri
Pterocaulon undulatum
Pontederia cordata
Panicum hemitomon
Anchistea Virginica
Eriogonum tomentonum


Black-jack oak
Turkey oak
Live Oak

(Scrub oak)
Red bay

Hog plum



Bamboo vine

Poison ivy
Virginia creeper
Rattan vine


(Hurrah bush).

Sand myrtle




(Poor grub)


Spanish moss
(Summer farewell)
Maiden cane
\A fern)

Sandy uplands
Sandy uplands
Swamps and bays
Scrub, etc.
Sandy hammocks, etc.
Scrub, etc.
Edges of swamps
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Hammocks, etc.
Sandy hammocks
Low hammocks

Swamps and bays
Hammocks and swamps
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks

Various situations
Scrub, bays, etc.
Low hammocks, etc.
High pine land
Around lakes and
Scrub mostly
High pine land
High pine land
Swamps, etc.
Pine lands
High sandy hills
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks


On most trees
High pine land
High pine land
Marshes, etc.
Around lakes and prairies
Flatwoods, etc.
Lakes, etc.
Lake margins, etc.
Bays, etc.
High pine land

*This species is ordinarily
grows bushy, about three feet
winter, or earliest spring.

an herb, but in Polk County and elsewhere it
tall, and is full of leaves and flowers in mid-

tApparently confined to the lake region, ranging from Lake County to De-
Soto. In the original description (Torreya 11:64-67. March, 1911) the flowers
were said to be in few-flowered umbels; but they are really solitary and sessile
or nearly so.


(Eupatorium compositifolium)
Nymphaea macrophylla
Pteris aquilina
Sagittaria lancifolia
Osmunda cinnamomea
Croton argyranthemus
Doellingeria reticulata
Actinospermum angustifolium
(Piaropus crassipes)
Eriogonum Floridanum
Lupinus diffuaus
Saururus cernuus
Andropogon sp.
Carphephorus corymbosus
Eriocaulon compressum
Berlandiera subacaults
Castalia odorata
Psoralea canescens
Acnida australis
Aristida spiciformis
Andropogon Virginicus
Galactia Elliottii
Stenophyllus Warei
Centella repanda
Osmunda regalis
Helianthus Radula
Syngonanthus flavidulus
Fuirena scirpoidea
(and about 300 others)

(A fern)
(A fern)


(A grass)
(A sedge)
(A fern)

(A sedge)

Highpine land andold fields
Lakes and streams
High pine land, etc.
Lakes and marshes
Swamps, etc.
High pine land
High pine land
Lakes and rivers
High pine land
High pine land
Swamps, etc.
Peat prairies, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Lake margins, etc.
High pine land
Lakes, etc.
High pine land
Low pine land
High pine land
High pine land
Lake shores, etc.
Pine lands
Flatwoods, etc.
Lake shores, etc.

About 85% of the trees and 95% of the shrubs are evergreen.
As in many other regions with mainly non-calcareous soils,
Ericaceae are relatively abundant and Leguminosae rather scarce.
The species that are more abundant in the lime-sink region than
here* probably prefer more calcareous or potassic or phosphatic or
ferruginous soils, while those with an opposite tendency f are more
characteristic of acid soils, swamps, bogs, marshes, etc.
A few of the plants in the list, such as Persea humilis, Priuus
geniculata, and Eriogonum Floridanum,, and possibly fifty other
less abundant species not listed are confined to the lake region, or
nearly so, while probably an equal number occur in other regions
but not outside of Florida; the lake region being far ahead of other

*Such as Taxodium distichum, Liquidambar, Quercus laurifolia, Q. Vir-
giniana, Q. falcata, Hicoria alba, Quercus Margaretta, Cornus florida, Cercis,
Crataegus Michauxii, Vitis aestivalis, Asimina speciosa (?), C,'rhala.a ,l.r,
Carphephorus corymbosus, and Eupatorium aromaticum; nearly all of which
are deciduous.

tLike Pinus Caribaea, P. clausa, P. serotina, P. Elliottii, Acer rubrum,
Gordonia, Nyssa, Magnolia glauca, Persea humilis, Smilax laurifolia, S. au-
riculata, Serenoa, Pieris nitida, Hypericum fasciculatum, Bejaria, Vaccinium
nitidum, Garberia, Cholisma fruticosa, Prunus geniculata, Cladium effusum,
Spartina'Bakeri, Pontederia, Panicum hemitomon, Anchistea, Nymphaea, Os-
munda cinnamomea, and Doellingeria; most of which are evergreen.


parts of central Florida in the matter of local or endemic species,
and contrasting especially with the hammock belts in this respect.
The pines are used for fuel, lumber, turpentine, etc., as in other
regions, but have not been exploited quite so ruthlessly, whether
wholly because of topographic difficulties or partly from a slight
regard for the beauty of the scenery is not quite certain. Plans are
just being perfected for utilizing the saw-grass, which abounds on
Thousands of acres of marshes, for the manufacture of paper. As in
many other parts of Florida that are comparatively little cultivated,
honey-yielding plants are numerous and abundant, but that fact
does not seem to have been taken advantage of as fully as it might
Population. The statistics of population are based on the re-
turns for Lake County, which is wholly in this region, and Semi-
nole and Orange, most of whose population is in it. No accurate
estimates can be made for periods previous to 1887, when there
were great changes in county boundaries, but in 189o there were
9 inhabitants per square mile in the area just defined. This in-
creased, somewhat irregularly, to 19.4 in 1920. In 1910 the pop-
ulation was divided according to race and nativity into 57.5% na-
tive white, 3.3% foreign white, and 39.2% negro. The foreign-
ers were mostly from England, Germany, Canada, Sweden, Scot-
land and Ireland. The. percentage of illiteracy at the same time was
1.9 among the native whites, 1.7 among the foreign whites, and
23.0 among the negroes.
The incorporated cities and towns in 1915 were Lakeland, with
7,287 inhabitants (reported as having decreased a little by 1920,
which is hard to believe); Orlando, with 6,448; Sanford, 4,998;
DeLand, 3,490; Leesburg, 1,360; Winter Haven, -1,226; Eustis,
1,148; Winter Park, 787; Lake Helen, 786; Winter Garden, 648;
Mt. Dora, 615; Apopka, 598; Umatilla, 527; Auburndale, 511;
Orange City, 506; Tavares, 449, and Haines City, 378.
The leading religious denominations among the whites in 1916
were Southern Methodist, Baptist, Southern Presbyterian, Episco-
palian, Roman Catholic, Northern Methodist, Congregationalist,
Northern Presbyterian, Seventh Day Adventist, Disciples of Christ,
and Primitive Baptist. Among the negroes, Baptist, African Meth-
odist Episcopal, A. M. E. Zion, and northern Methodist.


Agriculture. Farming developed rather late in this region, and
is of a more specialized type than in theregions previously de-
scribed. Both in 1890 and in 1910 only about 16% of the area
was in farms and 3.2% improved. The principal features of agri-
culture in this region since the establishment of Lake County are
shown in Table 5.
Agricultural Statistics of Lake Region (Lake & Orange Cos.), 1890-1910

1889- 1899- 1909-1910
S 1890 1900! Total White IColor'd

Improved acres per inhabitant -------- 2.221 2.28 1.65 2.511 0.33
Inhabitants per farm ---------------- 5.971 9.131 11.3 7.55 43.0
Per cent of farmers white ------------ 92.8 89.7 ---- -----
Per cent of farmers, owners ---------- 75.2 I 80.6 80.2 83.7
97.9 1
Per cent of farmers, managers ---- ---- 18.4 I 11.9 12.6 5.7
Per cent of farmers, tenants ---- 2.1 6.4 1 7.5 7.2 10.7
Average number of acres per farm .-- 66.71 84.0 1 92.8 98.9 39.5
Average improved acres per farm 13.5 20.7 I 18.7 19.2 14.0
Value of farm land per acre ($) ---- -- ___ 19.301 41.80] 41.55 46.80
Value of farm land per farm ---- 4 ( 16201 3880 41101 1850
48501 1
Value of buildings per farm ---------- 513 1009 1070 495
Value of implements and machinery-_ 41j 571 147j 155 74
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. --- 1071 2601 4081 --- ---.
Number of dairy cows per farm ----- 2.3 1.5 I 1.1 1.2 0.8
Number of other cattle per farm --- 8.0 16.0 1 16.5 .--- --
Number of horses per farm ------ 0.6 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.7
Number of mules per farm ----------- 0.2 I 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2
Number of hogs per farm ------------ 2.2 9.3 9.8 ----- ----
Number of sheep per farm ----------- 0.1 0.8 0.3 ---------
Number of poultry per farm ...----. 17.7 21.4 | 21.7 ----- ----
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer--- 87.001 36.20 165.001 ---- ----
Expenditures per farm for labor ------ --- 77.20 190.001 ----- --.
Expenditures per farm for feed ------ ---- .. 86.40 ---- ----
Annual value of crops per farm --- --I 9261 --- ---
S3811 2821
Annual value of animal products ---- | 1 121-- ---
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--_- 6.421 1.74! 8.841 ------ ---
Expend. labor per acre improved --- I -- 3.72 10.20 -----
Value of crops per acre improved ----- ---- .... 49.701 .---- -

The census of 1910 reported two farmers in central Florida who
were neither white nor negro; one in Orange County and one in
Volusia. The writer has no information about the color of the
former, but the one in Volusia County is a Chinaman, who lives
near DeLand (therefore in the lake region), and has made some-
thing of a reputation with his oranges. By subtracting the re-
turns for negro farmers from those for all colored farmers, it


appears that he had in 1910 115 acres, of which 20 were improved,
land worth $4,ooo (or $34.80 per acre), buildings worth $1,ooo,
and implements and machinery $150. The one in Orange County
was probably Chinese or Japanese and a truck-'farmer, for he had
only two acres, all improved, worth $ioo or $50 per acre, buildings
worth $750, and no implements or machinery worth mentioning.
In several places in this region corporations have acquired large
tracts of land and sold it in small parcels, commonly of ten acres,
to persons who may have never been in Florida at all, to be planted
to oranges or other citrous* fruits. For the sum agreed upon the
corporations set out the trees desired, cultivate them, market the
fruit when it matures, and remit the profits (if any) to the absent
owners; and this sort of business if efficiently managed may be
very satisfactory to all concerned. Technically each individual
holding is a farm, operated by a manager, without buildings or live-
stock; but practically the owners are merely stockholders in a large
farming enterprise; and different interpretations of this point by
the census might make a considerable difference in the per farm
The leading crops in 1909, in order of value, by United States
census, were oranges (a little over half the total), "vegetables,"
grape-fruit, hay, corn, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, sugar-cane
(syrup), peaches, and pears. In 1913-14, according to the State
Agricultural Department, oranges (nearly half), celery, lettuce,
grape-fruit, tomatoes, watermelons, (grass) hay, corn, sweet pota-
toes, peppers, (string?) beans, cabbage and cucumbers. In 1917-
18, oranges, celery, corn, lettuce, cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes,
grape-fruit, watermelons, cabbage, Irish potatoes, "native grass"
hay, sweet potatoes, string beans, cowpeas (and hay), egg-plants,
Natal grass hay, sea-island cotton, beets, squashes, and upland cot-
ton. Peanuts, which constitute something like a fifth of the to-
tal crop value in the lime-sink region, make less than a thousandth
in the lake region, perhaps on account of the scarcity of lime in the
upland soils.

*It is a common and apparently growing-but not altogether com-
mendable-practice to write the noun citrus, the generic name of oranges, lem-
ons, kumquats, etc., instead of the adjective citrus.


(Figs. 23-25. Soil analyses 27-36, H, J, X.)
Besides the flatwoods already described, there is a much larger
area, covering the greater part of the peninsula south of our limits,
which may be divided into several regions when it is more thor-
oughly explored. In the latitudes under consideration it is divided
by the lake region into two parts, which may conveniently be
treated separately. The western portion, which will be discussed
first, has an area of about 1,700 square miles.
Geology. The strata beneath the surface sands range from Up-
per Oligocene to Pliocene, and are more or less calcareous and phos-
phatic; and although natural exposures are comparatively rare, they
influence the soil perceptibly in many places. The Pliocene is rep-
resented by the Bone Valley formation, which includes the pebble
phosphate deposits, and is chiefly confined to Polk County. The
mining of this phosphate is perhaps the most important industry
in the region. Flowing artesian wells can be had almost anywhere
near the coast. There are a, few mineral springs, such as Espiritu
Santo near Safety Harbor and Kissingen near Bartow.
Topography. The surface is comparatively level, as implied by
the name "flatwoods," but fairly "well drained." It has the ap-
pearance of having been' uplifted a little in comparatively recent
times, for near the coast and rivers one can in many places ascend
25 feet in less than a mile, and numerous creeks and branches have
cut narrow valleys below the general level. San Antonio, at the
upper edge of the region in Pasco County, is said to be 160 feet
above sea-level. Shallow depressions a few acres in extent, which
hold a foot or two of water in wet seasons, are very common, es-
pecially northward, but there are very few lakes, the ponds being
in most cases well filled with cypress and other trees. There are
more streams in proportion to area than in the other regions, but
none of them are considered navigable.
Soils. The soil is nearly everywhere sand, of various colors
from white to brown, but the underlying rock or marl seems to be
usually within a few feet of the surface, making calcareous soils
in many low places. The soil surveys of Pinellas and Hillsborough
Counties (1914 and 1918) cover the greater part of the area. 'In
those publications the soils are. referred to the "Leon," "Ports-


mouth," "Parkwood," "Scranton," "Plummer," "St. Lucie" and
"Fellowship" series, and the leading texture classes are fine sand
(about 80%), fine sandy loam, muck, tidal marsh, swamp, "water
and grass," and peaty muck." Swamp, marsh and muck together
constitute about 8%, and scrub, designated as "St. Lucie fine sand,"
and "Leon fine sand, rolling phase," is about 3% of the total.

Fig. 23. Open flatwoods with pines mostly Pinus Caribaea (slash pine),
about'two miles west of Odessa, Pasco County. April 18, 1909.

Fig. 24. Cypress pond with no pines and very few shrubs, in flatwoods
about half way between Drexel and Odessa, Pasco County. April 18, 19og.


Chemically, most of the soils seem to be pretty well supplied with
phosphorus, as would be expected from the occurrence of so much
phosphate rock.
Vegetation. The vegetation types include flatwoods with and
without saw-palmetto (fig. 23), a little high pine land, a few
patches of scrub, many cypress ponds (fig 24), wet prairies, high
and low hammocks (fig. 25), various kinds of swamps and bays,
and salt marshes along the shores of Tampa Bay. The cypress
ponds are chiefly confined to Pasco and Pinellas Counties, the
low hammocks to Hillsborough and Polk, and the high hammocks
to the neighborhood of the Peace River. Swamps are not very ex-

Fig. 25. Low hammock near Peace River about two miles southeast of
Bartow, showing cabbage palmetto, dwarf palmetto, sweet gum, rattan v:ne,
etc. March 13, 1915.

The commonest plants seem to be as follows, the first tree named
being apparently abotlt 15 times as abundant as its nearest compet-

Pinus palustris
Pinus Caribaea
Taxodium imbricarium
Pinus Elliottli
Pinus clause

Long-leaf pine
Slash pine
(Pond) cypress
Slash pine
Spruce pine

Cypress ponds
Branch-swamps, etc.


Liquidambar Styraciflua
Taxodium distichum
Acer rubrum
Sabal Palmetto
Quercus Virginiana
Nyssa biflora
Magnolia grandiflora
Quercus nigra
Quercus laurifolia
Ulmus Floridana
Quercus hybrida?
Juniperus Virginiana
Gordonia Iasianthus

Magnolia glauca
Quercus cinerea
Quercus Catesbaei
Quercus geminnata
Salix longipes?
Carpinus Caroliniana
Persea pubescent
Cornus florida

Smilax laurifolia
Rhus radicans
Parthenocissus quinquefolia
Gelsemium sempervirens
Vitis rotundifolia
Ampelopsis arborea

Serenoa serrulata
Asimina pygmaea?
Myrica cerifera
Hypericum fasciculatum
Ilex glabra
Chrysobalanus oblongifollus
Myrica pumila
Ceratiola ericoides
Cholisma ferruginea
Viburnum nudum
Vaccinium nitidum
Pieris nitida
Stillingia aquatica
Viburnum obovatum
Cholisma fruticosa
Quercus minima
Baccharis halimifolia
Phoradendron flavescens
Quercus pumila
Cornus stricta?
Cephalanthus occidentalis

Tillandsia usneoides
Aristida strict
(Eupatorium compositifolium)
Pterocaulon undulatum
Cladium effusum
Pontederia cordata
Carphephorus corymbosus
Andropogon scoparius?
Tillandsia recurvata
Saururus cernuus
Tillandsia tenuifolia
Juncus Roemerianus
Lupinus diffusus
Syngonanthus flavidulus
Panicum hemitomon
Spartina Bakeri
Kuhnistera pinnata

Sweet gum
Red maple
Cabbage palmetto
Live oak
Black gum
Water oak


Cedar /

Turkey oak
Black-jack oak
Live oak
Red bay


Bamboo vine
Poison ivy
Virginia creeper
Yellow jessamine

Sand myrtle


(Possum haw)
(Hurrah bush)

(Poor grub)
(Oak runner)

(Oak runner)

(Elbow bush)


Spanish moss



Maiden cane
Summer farewell

Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Low hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks
Swamps and bays

Swamps and bays
Dry pine land
Dry pine land
Scrub, etc.
Edges of marly swamps
Low hammocks

Swamps and bays
Low hammocks
Low hammocks
Low hammocks

Flatwoods, etc.
Sha'low ponds, etc.
Dry pine lands


Cypress ponds
Low hammocks

Edges of swamps
On hardwood trees

Marly swamps, etc.
Swamps and ponds

On nearl,v all trees
Pine lands
Pine lands, etc.
Pine lands
Ponds, prairies, etc.
Ponds, streams, etc.
On trees
Brackish marshes
Dry pine lands
Ponds and wet prairies
Margins of ponds, etc.
Dry pine lands


Tllandula fasciculata Air-plant Cypress ponds mostly
Osmunda cinnamomea (A fern) Swamps and bays
Sagittaria lancifolia Marshes and wet prairies
Actinospermum angustifolium Dry pine lands
Anchistea Virginica (A fern) Cypress ponds, etc.
Polygala Rugelii Flatwoods
Hellanthus Eadula Flatwoods
Sporobolus gracilis (A grass) Pine lands

About 88% of the trees and still more of the shrubs are ever-
green. Plants of the heath family are less abundant here than in
some other flatwoods regions that have less fertile soils. The pines
have been very largely 'exploited for lumber and naval stores, as
Population. A rough approximation of the, population condi-
tions may be arrived at by subtracting the figures for Tampa and
West Tampa from those for Hillsborough County (which included
Pinellas up to 1911). On this basis there were in 191o nearly 25
inhabitants per square mile, 12.8% of them in cities of over
2,500 population, 71.6% native white, 8.6% foreign white, and
19.7% negroes. (The foreign whites included a few hundred
Greeks at Tarpon Springs, which is in a different region, and now
in a different county.) In the population over o1 years old 1.7%
of the native whites, 19i.9 of the foreign whites, and 19% of
the negroes were illiterate.
Excluding Tampa, which belongs partly to a different region,
and West Tampa, which is separated only by an imaginary line,
the largest cities and towns in 1915 were St. Petersburg, with
7,186 inhabitants: Bartow, with 3,412; Plant City, 3,229; Fort
Meade, 2,150; Mulberry, 1,121; Port Tampa City, 1071; Largo,
552; and Bradley, 295. The returns from the 1920 census, as far
as available, give these places the same relative rank, and St. Peters-
burg nearly double the population. But these figures should be
used with some caution, for St. Petersburg is one of the most pop-
ular winter resorts in Florida, and the 1915 census was taken in
July and that of 1920 in January. Oldsmar, in the eastern edge
of Pinellas County, which was not on the map at all in 1915, may
be larger now than some of the places listed.
Agriculture. The flatwoods region includes less than half of
Pasco and Polk Counties, and Pinellas did not exist in 1910, so
that the best we can do for agricultural statistics is to use the
figures for Hillsborough County. A considerable part of that be-


longs to the lime-sink region, and the city of Tampa makes farming
more intensive in its vicinity, but there is some very intensive farm-
ing near Plant City anyway, so perhaps the results are not very
different from what they would be if we could separate the flat-
woods entirely from other regions.
The percentage of land in farms increased from 2.7 in 1850 and
8.8 in 1880 to 13.4 in 1910. In the latter year 3.7% of the area of
Hillsborough County was "improved," or 0.4 acres per inhabitant.
(Without Tampa it would be about 0.8 acres per inhabitant.) The
prevailing conditions from 1890 to 1910 are shown in the following
Agricultural Statistics of Southwestern Flatwcods (Hillsborough Co.), 1890-1910.

1889- 11899- 1 19
1 18901 19001 Total
Per cent of farmers, white ----------- 94.9 94.2
Per cent of farmers, owners ---------- 88.1 89.3 I
S 98.5 | I
Per cent of farmers, managers -------- 3.4 1 4.2
Per cent of farmers, tenants -------- 1.5 8.5 ] 6.5 I
Average number of acres per farm ----| 100.0 71.6 1 57.5 I
Average improved acres per farm ---- 17.4 1 15.5 1 15.8 I
Value of farm land per acre ($) --- -- ----- 25.011 63.251
Value of farm land per farm -. ) | 17901 36401
S3810 | I
Value of buildings per farm ( 4051 6491
Value of implements and machinery-- 421 52| 1251
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. --I 2941 252 4401
Number of dairy cows per farm ------ 4.9 I 2.7 I 1.6 1
Number of other cattle per farm -- 20.8 I 14.8 I 17.0 I
Number of horses per farm ----------- 1.1 1.0 I 1.0 j
Number of mules per farm ----------| 0.1 0.1 [ 0.2
Number of hogs per farm--- ------ 10.5 1 8.9 | 9.9 I
Number of sheep per farm ----------- 3.7 3.9 0.5 I
Number of poultry per farm --------- 34.1 1 42.3 1 44.8 I
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer-__ 17.801 34.751 108.001
Expenditures per farm for labor -----. -.-- 36.501 98.301
Expenditures per farm for feed ------- --.--[ ------1 117.001
Annual value of crops per farm ------|) I ( 6961
S517| 4611 I
Annual value of animal products .--) 1961
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--- 1.02[ 2.251 6.901
Expend. labor per acre improved ----- .. -- 2.37[ 6.25!
Value of crops per acre improved ----. [ ----. -- 44.251

White oColor'd
- - - I - - -
89.6 [ 84.3
4.2 I 5.2
6.2 1 10.4
59.1 | 32.1
15.9 1 13.6
63.401 56.65
37401 1820
670i 310
1281 65
1.6 1 0.6
1.0 '0.9
0.2 1 0.1

. '. I-- : : :

......1 i .....
......) ......
.- . . . .

The leading crops in 1909 were oranges, "vegetables," grape-
fruit, corn, hay, Irish potatoes, cane syrup, strawberries, and sweet
potatoes. In 1913-14 oranges (about 45%), strawberries, toma-



toes, corn, grape-fruit, sweet potatoes, celery, beans, Irish potatoes,
cucumbers, syrup, guavas, cabbage, cowpeas, watermelons, rice,
peaches, egg-plants, grass, hay, pepers, and peanuts. In 1917-18
oranges (about 30%), corn, strawberries, celery, sweet potatoes,
velvet beans includingn hay), Irish potatoes, syrup, cabbage, field
peas (and hay), grape-fruit, string beans, peanuts, watermelons,
"native grass" hay, tomatoes, lettuce, cucumbers, rice, peaches,
egg-plants, grapes (scuppernongs?), Natal grass hay, plums, pe-
cans, peppers and onions.

(Figs. 26-28. Soil analysis Y.)
The flatwoods east of the lake region cover about 3,600 square
miles in the counties under consideration (since Flagler and Okee-
chobee were cut off frpm Volusia and Osceola). At the north,
somewhere about the boundary between Flagler and Volusia Coun-
ties, there is a gradual transition from the peninsular flatwoods to
the East Florida flatwoods (described in the 6th Annual Report).
The most conspicuous difference between the flatwoods of East
Florida and those of the peninsula is that the cypress ponds of the
former nearly always have some slash pine in them, while in the
latter the pine usually stops several yards outside of the cypress,
leaving the ponds bordered by treeless strips. The cause oi this
difference is not yet known, but is probably connected with the
Geology. The strata near the surface are so featureless that the
whole area is usually mapped as Pleistocene. Considerably older for-
mations occur at no great depth, however, the Ocala (Eocene) being
encountered in wells along the east coast within 200 feet of the sur-
face. The surface is generally covered with deep sand, but there
is marl, presumably Pleistocene, in some hammocks and low spots,
and peat in some of the prairies and around lakes. Flowing ar-
tesian water can be obtained near the coast and along the St. John's
and Kissimmee Rivers and their lakes, but in about the latitude
of Titusville the water in some of the wells is salty.
Topography. The surface is for the most part monotonously
level, and seems to be nowhere more than Ioo feet above the sea.
Near the east coast south of Titusville, however, the general level


of the flatwoods is 10 to 25 feet above the Indian River, and there
are many little ravine-like valleys carved by short streams, as if the
area had been uplifted in comparatively recent times. Near the lake
region the topography is often a little undulating, and the transi-
tion from one region to the other gradual, though there are also
places where it is abrupt. Shallow depressions abound, ranging

Fig. 26. Prairie bordering Lake Tohopekaliga about 312 miles east of
Kissimmee, with a few cattle grazing. Abrupt transition to flatwoods with
long-leaf pine and saw-palmetto in middle distance. Feb. 18, 1gog.

Fig. 27. Asphalt road tltrough flatwoods in Osceola County, about ten
miles southeast of St. Cloud (the nearest town) and a mile from the nearest
house. April 27, 192o.


in size from lakes covering several square miles (most of these near
the lake region) to small wet prairies and cypress ponds. Streams
are few and sluggish, and the rivers have extremely shallow val-
Soils. There are no soil surveys of this region yet, except a nar-
row fringe at the extreme eastern edge, but the soils are very sim-
ilar in texture to those of the western division, and would presum-
ably be classed mostly as fine sand. Chemically the average soil
is probably less fertile than in the western division, especially in
phosphorus (if the vegetation is a safe guide); but the Kissimmee
River prairies are said to be much better than the flatwoods, and
to produce some good crops without fertilizer.
Vegetation. The principal vegetation types are palmetto flat-
woods, prairies of several kinds, cypress ponds, low hammocks,
swamps, fresh marshes, and a few patches of scrub. The prairies
are several miles wide along the two largest rivers, and those along
the Kissimmee (which the writer has not yet had opportunity to ex-
plore) are said to have an abundant and varied native fauna and to
be great cattle ranges, thus resembling some of the western plains
Other and probably different prairies border the lakes near Kis-
simmee (fig. 26), and there are numerous small wet prairies in
shallow depressions. The cypress ponds usually have narrow, prai-
rie-like margins, as stated in a preceding paragraph.
The commonest plants seem to be as follows:


. Plinu palnutris
Taw dlu n. imbricarium
Pinus Caribaea
Sabal Palmetto
Pinuu claula
Pinns serotlnia
Acer rubrum
Taxodium distfhum
Pinum Elliotti
Gordonis asLianthus
Nyssa biflora
Querous Virginiana
Liquidambar Styraciflua
Magnolla grandlflora

Magnolia clanca
Quercus Catesbael
Querons geminsta
Quercus cinerea
Persea pubescent-
Fraxinus Caroliniana
lex Cassine
Hicoria glabra?
Salix longipes?

Long-leaf pine
(Pond) cypress
Slash pine
Cabbage palmetto
Spruce pine
Black pine
Red maple
Sl0hl pine
Black gum
Live wal
Magn olla
Bay .;
Blacr-jack oak
Live oak
Turkey oak
Red bay

Cypress ponds
Low hammocks
Damp flatwoods
Bays, etc.
Swamps and ponds
Low hammocks

Swamps and bays
Drier spots
Drier spots
Drier spots
Swamps and bays
Sandy hammocks
Along streams.


Smilax laurifola
Rhus radicans
Vitis aestivalis?

Serenoa serrulata
Xypericum fasciculatum
Myrica cerifera
Quercus myrtifolia
Pierig nitida
nlex glabra
Myrica punmila
Cholisma fruticosa
Chrysobalanus oblongifolins
Vaccdnium nitidum
Ceratiola ericoides
Quercus minima
Cholisma ferraginea
Bejaria racemosa
Asimina pygmaea?

Tillandsia usneoides
Aristida strict
Pterocaulon undulatum
Spartina Bakeri
Cladlum effusum
Tillandsia fasciculata
Sarracenia minor
Tillandsa recurvata
Doellingeria reticulata
Polygala cymosa
Anchistea Virginica
Pontederia cordata
Dichromena latifolia
Andropogon sp.
Polygala Rugelii
Syngonanthus flavidulue
Aletris lutes
Nymphaea macrophylla
Sabbatia grandiflora
(Euthamia Caroliniana)
Aristida spiciformis
Osmunda regalis
Iris vernicolor
Centella repanda
Helanthus Radula
Chondrophora nudata
Galactia Elliottii
Tillandsia tenuifoias
Osmunda cinnamomea
Carphephorus corymbolsus
Chaptalla tomentoia

Bamboo vine
Poison ivy
Wild grape
Sand myrtle
(Scrub oak)
(Hurrah bush)
(Poor grub)
(Oak runner)


Spanish moss

(A fern)
(A sedge)


(A grass)
(A fern)

(A fern)

Low hammocks, etc.

Ponds and
Drier spots

wet prairies
and swamps

On most trees
Prairies, etc.
Marshes, etc.
Cypress ponds
Flatwoods and prairies
On trees
Cypress ponds
Cypress ponds
Ponds, etc.
Shallow ponds
Lakes and streams.
Ponds and prairies
Flatwoods, etc.
Swamps, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Swamps, etc.

About 90%o of the trees are evergreen, and Ericaceae are rela-
tively numerous among the shrubs, which indicates that the average
flatwoods soil is not the richest in the world. A very instructive
comparison of the soil conditions in the eastern and western di-
visions of the flatwoods can be made by noting which species of
plants are more abundant in one than in the other, as has already


been done in comparing the lime-sink and lake regions.* The spe-
cies that are commoner in the western division are more charac-
teristic of drier or more calcareous or more phosphatic soils, and
nearly all of them grow in Georgia if not farther north; while
those commoner eastward are more characteristic of cypress ponds,
bays, scrub, and sour soils generally, and are of somewhat tropical
affinities, some of them being confined to Florida and others nearly
so. The former list includes more trees, vines, oaks, and legumi-
nous plants, and the latter more evergreens, pines, palms, and Eri-
caceae. In fact this plant list resembles that for the lake region
about as much as it does that for the western division of the flat-

Fig. 28. Nearly treeless prairie in Brevard County about 7/2 miles west
of Melbourne and four miles from the St. John's River, looking northwest.
The few scattered slash pines (Pinus Caribaea) are the outposts of the pine
forests which extend eastward to the Indian River. Between this point and
the St. John's River there are practically no trees. Feb. 5, 1915.
*The following seem to be more abundant westward: Pinus Elliottii,
Liquidambar, Taxodium distichum, Quercus Virginiana, Magnolia grandiflora,
Quercus nigra, Q. laurifolia, Ulmus Floridana, Juniperus, Magnolia glauca,
Quercus cinerea, Q. Catesbaei, Salix, Carpinus, Cornus florida, Rhus radicals,
Parthenocissus, Gelsemium, Ampelopsis, Asimina pygmaea, Viburnum nudum,
Stillingia aquatic, Viburnum obovatum, Phoradendron, Quercus pumila, Cornus
stricta, Tillandsia usneoides, Eupatorium compositifolium, Pontederia, Carphe-
phorus, Saururus, Tillandsia tenuifolia, Juncus Roemerianus, Lupinus diffusus,
Panicum hemitomon, Kuhnistera, Sagittaria lancifolia, Actinospermum, ano
Sporobolus gracilis.
The reverse is true of Taxodium imbricarium, Pinus Caribaea, Sabal Pal-


Population. As Osceola County is almost entirely in this region,
its population is probably typical enough of the whole. The num-
ber of inhabitants per square mile ranged from 1.7 in 1890 to 3.1
in I910 and 6.1 in 1915, since when there seems to have been a de-
crease, though the cutting off of Okeechobee County in 1917 makes
exact comparisons between 1915 and 1920 impossible. In 191o the
proportion of native whites was 80.2%, the highest in central Flor-
ida; of foreign whites 2.9% and of negroes 16.8%. The only
incorporated places in the whole region were Kissimmee, with 4,221
inhabitants, St. Cloud, with 2,080 (all white, with a considerable
number of Union veterans), and Taft, with 216 (mostly negroes).
The leading religious denominations among the whites in 1916
were Baptist, Southern Methodist, Northern Methodist (?), Dis-
ciples of Christ, Northern Presbyterian, and Catholic; and among
the negroes Baptist, African Methodist, Northern Methodist (?),
Primitive Baptist, and A. M. E. Zion.
Agriculture. There. are great variations in size and type of farms
in this region, from small truck farms and orange groves such as
are found all over central Florida, and larger sugar-cane plantations
near the edge of the lake region, to enormous cattle ranches with
very little cultivated land, these last mostly near the Kissimmee
River.* On account of these variations the bare statistics for Os-
ceola County, or any similar area that we might have data for, give
a rather imperfect picture of the conditions.

metto, Pinus clausa, P. serotina, Gordonia, Ilex Cassine, Serenoa, Hypericum
fasciculatum, Quercus myitifolia, Pieris nitida, Cholismia 'fruticosa, Bejaria,
Spartina Bakeri, Tillandsia fasciculata, Sarracenia minor, Tillandsia recurvata,
Doellingeria, Polygala cymosa, Anchistea, Dichromena latifolia, Polygala Rug-
elii, Aletris lutea, Nymphaea, Sabbatia grandiflora, and Aristida spiciformis.

*Most of the cattlemen depend mainly on free range, and own very little
land, but there is one company with headquarters in the southeastern corner of
Polk County that is said to have 226,000 acres fenced and to own 36,000 cat-
tle. As in some of the grazing regions of the West, there have been some con-
flicts between the cattlemen and the small farmers who are gradually encroach-
ing on the free range, with occasional bloodshed.


The farms in Osceola County average the largest in central
Florida, and 4.3% of them were over I,ooo acres in extent in 1910.
If free range could be counted as farm land it would swell these
figures greatly. The ratio of farm land to total area in the county
increased from 0.6% in 1890 to 8.2% in 1910, and of improved
land from 0.16% to 0.5% in the same interval. Arid although
the average size of owners' farms in 1910 was 244 acres and of
tenant farms 234, farms operated by managers (doubtless mostly
cattle ranches) averaged 2,667 acres.
The status of agriculture in Osceola County since its establish-
ment in 1887 is summarized in'the following table:

Agricultural Statistics of Southeastern Flatwoods (Osceola Co.), 1890-1910.
11889- 1899- 1 1909-1910
1 1890 19001 Total White IColor'd
Improved acres per inhabitant -------- 0.581 1.53 1.051 1.25 0.07
Inhabitants per farm ----------------- 40.7 | 9.73 18.3 | 15.6 10.3
Per cent 'of land in farms -- ------- 0.601 4.9 1 8.2 ..1 ..---
Per cent of land improved -----------I 0.161 0.5 0.5 ---- -----
Per cent of farmers, white ------------ 99.2 | 97.0 --- ---
Per cent of farmers, owners ..-- ) ( 90.1 89.4 | 89.4 100.0
92.2 | I
Per cent of farmers, managers .-------. 0.3 2.7 2.7 0
Per cent of farmers, tenants ---------- 7.8 9.6 7.9 8.2 0
Average number of acres per farm ---- 88.0 155.7 307.0 315.6 35.3
Average improved acres per farm --- 23.4 14.9 19.1 19.5I 7.1
Value of farm land per acre ($) .. -- -- 7.66 21.351 21.301 33.90.
Value of farm land per farm --- ( 1190 65501 6720 1197
2920| 1 1
Value of buildings per farm ----- 187 5891 598 269
Value of implements and machinery_-- 381 31 991 1011 57
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. ... 6211 2210 2090 -- ----
Number of dairy cows per farm __- 15.7 5.3 3.0 -
Number of other cattle per farm ----- 77.9 215.7 168.0 ----- ----
Number of horses per farm ------_--- 2.3 2.7 1 2.5 .1 -- ----
Number of mules per farm ---------- 0.3 0.1 1 0.3 1 -----
Number of hogs per farm ------------ 13.9 19.0 16.3 | -- I
Number of sheep per farm ------__ 13.1 9.8 -----I--
Number of poultry per farm ------- 3.0 1 14.9 23.1 1 _---I ----
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer.- 22.801 7.651 48.00! ----- I__--
Expenditures per farm for labor ---- _---- 13.921 118.00 ------| ----
Expenditures per farm for feed ------- ---- -- ... 80.00 ---- ----
Annual value of crops per farm _---__- [ 593] I
380| 6471 \
Annual value of animal products -----) 2401 --|--
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved--- .971 .52 2.521 ----- ---_-
Expend. labor per acre improved ------ --- .94 6.201|
Value of crops per acre improved .-- I 31.00 I


The marked variations between different census periods are not
easy to explain, but are probably due largely to changes in the num-
ber of orange groves and truck farms, which greatly affect the av-
erage number of cattle, etc., per farm. At all three censuses, how-
ever, this region leads all the others in number of cattle per -arm.
The leading crops in 1909 were oranges, grape-fruit, "vegeta-
bles," corn, sweet potatoes, hay, and Irish potatoes; and the princi-
pal animal product beef cattle. In 1913-14 the order of valte of
crops was oranges, grape-fruit, corn, sweet potatoes (grass) hay,
Irish potatoes, egg-plants, cane syrup, beans, celery, cabbage, vel-
vet beans (including hay), and watermelons; and in 1917-18 or-
anges, corn, Irish potatoes, grape-fruit, "native" hay, sweet pota-
toes, syrup, cabbage, pineapples, cowpeas (and hay), and straw-
(Figs. 29-34. Soil analyses 46-51, N, Z.)
This includes the islands and barrier beaches of the east coast,
and a narrow strip of mainland averaging only a mile or two in
width, a total land area in Volusia and Brevard Counties of about
500 square miles. It extends both north and south of our limits
a considerable distance without much change. The boundary be-
tween this and the adjacent flatwoods is not always sharp, but is
marked for a considerable part of the distance by a line of ancient
dunes of white sand. Near the "head" (north end) of the Indian
River the dunes are two or three miles back from salt water, with
low hammocks and flatwoods east of them scarcely distinguishable
from some much farther inland. And Merritt's Island, although
presumably built up in comparatively recent times by the gradual
shifting eastward of barrier beaches, has large areas of flatwoods
very similar to those of Osceola County, except for containing no
long-leaf pine (a tree which is hardly ever found on islands of any
Geology and Topography. Geologically the region is very young,
having probably nothing older than Pleistocene very near the sur-
face. The material is mostly sand, but there are shells and shell
fragments mixed with it in many places, sometimes predominating
and hardened into coquina rock (fig. 30).


Shell mounds built up centuries age by the aborigines are rather
common along the lagoons, and many of them have been excavated
for road-surfacing material (Fig 34). Flowing artesian wells, with
more or less sulphurous water, can be had anywhere, and in some
places the pressure is sufficient to run dynamos or other machinery.
The ancient dunes west of the Indian River (fig. 31) are in
some places about 50 feet above sea-level, but this is probably due
largely to an uplift in comparatively recent times, for the modern
dunes next to the ocean are much lower. The outer beach in Vo-
lusia County is one of the most noted natural automobile race-
courses in the world, and speeds of 156 miles an hour have been
recorded there. The Indian River and other shallow' salt lagoons
behind the barrier beaches are navigable for small vessels, and in re-
cent years they have been connected by dredging canals through
intervening marshes and strips of sand, so that there is now an in-
side passage all the way up the coast to South Carolina. There
is practically no tide in these lagoons, on account of the inlets being
small and far apart.

Fig. 29. Scene in Turnbull Hammock, a typical low hammock, about a
mile west of Daytona, Volusia County. By E. H. Sellards, May 21, I9Io.
Soils. The soil survey of the "Indian River area," published in
1915, covers most of Merritt's Island and the neighboring barrier
beaches, and a little of the near-by mainland, giving a very typical


Fig. 30. Looking north albng rocky shore of Mosquito Lagoon, or North
Indian River, about a mile north of New Smyrna, Volusi'a County. (The rock
is coquina.) May 17, 1909.

Fig. 31. Looking east-southeast on old dunes about a mile west of Mims,
Brevard County, showing spruce pines of two different ages, the younger prob-
ably having come up since the last fire. Feb. 9, 1915..


section of the soils of the east coast. Separating the Brevard
County portion from that south of our limits, we find that the soils
are referred to the "St. Lucie," "Portsmouth," "Palm Beach,"
"Parkwood," "Norfolk," and "Gainesville" series, and the prevail-
ing texture classes are sand (over 50% without the coastal beach),
fine sand, tidal marsh, fine sandy loam, coastal beach, muck, and

Fig. 32. Small pool in vast damp calcareous palm savanna near head of
Newfound Harbor on-Merritt's Island, showing cabbage palmettos and switch-
grass (Spartina Bakeri), Feb. 7, 1915.
,,: .~~~ ~~ *., .9.

Fig. 33. Looking north along crest of outermost dunes, 15 or 20 feet high,
about a mile south of Melbourne Beach, Brevard County. Vegetation mostly
saw-palmetto and sea-oats. Feb. 4, 1915.


clay loam. Old dunes with scrub vegetation, mapped as "St. Lucie
sand" and-"St. Lucie fine sand," make up a trifle more than a third
of the total. A few mechanical and chemical analyses are given in
the general chapter on soils.

Fig. 34. Shell mound covered with tropical hammock vegetation and
partly excavated for road material, on east side of Indian' River about oppo-
site Melbourne. The shells are nearly all Chione cancellata, a small clam, and
there are many layers of humus in the mound. Feb. 4, 1915. (For a de-
scription and another view of the same place, taken a year or two later, see
J. F. Kemp, Econ. Geol. 14:3II, pl. 5 b. 1919.)
Vegetation. The flatwoods of the east coast differ from those
previously described in having more slash pine than long-leaf. The
old dunes (fig. 31) are generally covered with spruce pine and other
scrub vegetation much like that of the lake region, passing into
sandy hammocks where sufficiently protected from fire by the prox-
imity of water-courses,, etc. In marly places there are large areas
of low hammock (fig. 29), passing into swamps where traversed
by streams. The dunes near the ocean have vast thickets of saw-
palmetto (fig. 33). Less extensive types are the palm savannas
on Merritt's Island (fig. 32), and a little salt marsh and mangrove
swamp. The shell mounds are commonly covered with dense ham-
mocks of a decidedly tropical character.
The commonest plants are listed below, but on account cf the
indefiniteness of the inland boundary of the region in some places
the sequence cannot be guaranteed as accurate.



Pinus Caribaea Slash pine
Sabal Palmetto Cabbage palmetto
Pinus clansa Spruce pine
Pinus palustris Long-leaf pine
Pinls serotina Black pine
Acer rubrum Red maple
Juniperns Virginians Cedar
Quercus Virginians Live oak
Magnolia grandiflora Magnolia
Quercus myrtifolia (Scrub oak)
Hicoria glabra? Hickory
Quercus Catesbael Black-jack oak
Salix longipes? Willow
Quercus geminats Live oak
Quercus cinerea Turkey oak
Ananmomis dicrana
Magnolia glanca Bay
Avicennia nitida Black mangrove
(Xanthoxylum Clava-Herculis)


Flatwoods, etc.
Low hammocks and savan-
Old dunes
Flatwoods on mainland
Damp flatwoods
Edges of marshes
Hammocks, etc.

Old dunes
Old dunes
Driest spots
Edges of swamps
Old dunes
priest spots
Tropical hammocks
Salt marshes
Hammocks, etc.

Smlnlaz aurlculata
Vitis rotundifolia?
Rhus radicans

Serenoa serrulata
Myrica cerifera
Iva frutescens
Ceratiola ericoides
Batis maritima
Pleris nitida
Myrzic pumila
Ximenia Americana
Chrysobalanus oblongifollus
Cholimea ferrugine
Vaccinunm iatidumn
Bejaria racemosa
Cholisma fruticoss
Rhus copallina
Borrichia frutescens

Spartina Bakerl
Aristida strict
Tillandsia usneoides
Juncus Roemerlanus
Cladium effusum
Salicornia sp.
(Bidens leucantha)
Andropogon sp.
Sagittaria lancifolia
Aristida spiciformis
Cassytha filiformis
Flaveria sp.
Pterocaulon undulatum
Sericocarpus bifoliatus
Blechnum serrulatum
Erythrina herbacea
Abrostichum auream
Pteris aquilina
Solidago fistulosa

Poison ivy

(Hurrah bush)

(Poor grub)

Spanish moss
(A grass)

(A fern)

(A fern)
(A fern)

Old dunes
Hammocks, etc.
Low hammocks

Various situations
Hammocks and swamps
Edges of salt marshes
Old dunes
Sandy salt marshes
Old dunes, etc.
Flatwoods, etc.
Pine "lapds
Old dunes
Pine lands, etc.
Hammocks, etc.
Salt marshes

Edges of marshes, savannas
Hammocks, etc.
Salt marshes
Fresh marshes
Sandy salt marshes
Streets and vacant lots
Fresh marshes
Old dunes, etc.
Marly flats
Dry pine land
Edges of salt marshes
Pine lands
Damp flatwoods


Something like 96% of the vegetation is evergreen. A consid-
erable number of the species are mainly tropical in distribution, and
not found north of Florida. Comparatively little use is made of
the native plants. There is some lumbering and turpentining, but
that belongs more to the neighboring flatwoods, i. e., what few
sawmills and turpentine stills there are along the railroad get
part of most of their raw material from the flatwoods. More
honey in proportion to area'is produced here than in other pailts of
central Florida, but it may come from orange blossoms as much
as from native plants.
Climate. This is the warmest part of central Florida, at least
in winter, on account of the proximity of the Gulf Stream. Often
a whole winter passes without frost, in the southern portions at
least. As compared with other regions described herein, the total
rainfall seems to be a trifle less, but the proportion of it that comes
in late summer is a little greater.
Animals. Fishing is an important industry in the Indian River
and other lagoons, but no statistics of it have come to the writer's
notice. Titusville seems to be the principal center. Mosquitoes
seem to be more abundant here than in the other regions, and on
Merritt's Island they are in evidence practically every month in
the, year, on account of the rarity of frost. But they are more an-
noying than dangerous, for those of the malaria-bearing species
seem to be rare or absent, being more characteristic of regions with
fertile soil.*
Population. There have been some white settlements on the
east coast ever since the early Spanish days; and the bringing of a
colony of Greeks and Minorcans to New Smyrna by Dr. Andrew
Turnbull shortly before the American Revolution is a well-known
episode of Florida history.. But the population remained sparse
until the coming of the railroad in the 'So's. There is no way of
estimating the density of population accurately, but if we assume
that half of the inhabitants of Volusia County and all those of Bre-
vard are concentrated in the coast strip we will not be very far off.
That would give about 13 per square mile in 1890, 16 in 1900, 26
in 1910, and 40 in 1920. These figures are considerably above the
average for central Florida and the whole State, showing that not-

*See 6th Annual Report, page 288, last footnote.


withstanding the poor soil, a large part of the population gets its
living from the water, as is the case on most coasts all over the
world. The winter tourist business is a very important item here
too, and what farming there is is very intensive, as will be shown
About one-third of the population would be classed as urban by
the United States census definition, but about two-thirds of the peo-
ple live in incorporated places, the largest of which in 1915 were
Daytona, with 4,250 inhabitants; New Smyrna, with 2,012; Titus-
ville, 1,310; Ormond, 857; Cocoa, 807; Daytona Beach, 582, Eau
Gallie, 543; Seabreeze, 443; Melbourne, 408; Holly Hill, 378; Port
Orange, 296; and Hawks Park, 178. All of these are on the main
line of the Florida East Coast 'Railway, or on the barrier beach
east of it. (Stations on that railroad in central Florida average
about 3% miles apart.) They are all popular winter resorts, and
their combined hotel capacity, according to the latest estimates, is
ever 6,000.
The composition of the population may be deduced approximately
from the figures for Brevard County, although that contains less
than half the total. In 190o that county had 65.5% of native
whites, 4.7% foreign whites, and 29.7% negroes. If similar figures
for the eastern half of Volusia were available the proportion of for-
eigners (already the highest in central Florida outside of Hills-
borough County) and of negroes would doubtless be increased.
In the incorporated places above listed 37% of the population in
the summer of 1915 was colored, and Daytona and Ormond had
more negroes than whites. The leading foreign nationalities in
Brevard County in 19Io were English, German, Danish, Canadian.
Irish, Italian, Scotch, and Swedish, and in Brevard and Volusia
together English, German, Canadian, Swedish, Italian, Irish.
Scotch, Danish, Russian, Norwegian, and Swiss. Some of the na-
tive whites are descendants of Minorcans brought from the Bal-
earic Islands by Dr. Turnbull in the latter part of the i8th century.
On account of the dense population, mostly living in towns, and
the fact that a large proportion of the people (not ascertainable
for any census since 1880, however) have come from other states
and therefore almost necessarily learned to read before making the
journey, the illiteracy percentages are low. Among the persons


over 10 years old in Brevard County in 1910, only 1.1% of the na-
tive whites, 4-5% of the foreign whites, and 17.1% of the ne-
groes were illiterate. The figures for native whites and negroes
are the lowest in central Florida.

The leading religious denominations among the whites in Bre-
vard County in 1916 were Baptist, Southern Methodist, Northern
Methodist (?), Catholic, Episcopalian, Northern Presbyterian, Ad-
vent Christian, Disciples of Christ, and Congregationalist; and
among the negroes, African Methodist Episcopal Zion, Baptist,
A. M. E., and Northern Methodist.

Agriculture. Dr. Turnbull's Minorcan colony was primarily an
agricultural one, and it is said. that in 1772 they had about 3,000
acres of hammock land planted in indigo. But the modern intensive
agriculture goes back only about thirty years. On account of the
rather dense population, the mild climate, and the fact that most of
the farms are within a mile of a railroad that can take express ship-
ments to New York in less than two days (with double track most
of the way), farming is now more intensive and specialized here
than in any other region in Florida, although the soil probably av-
erages the poorest in the State.

The ratio of improved land to total area cannot be estimated ac-
curately, because the region does not cover as much as half of any
County, but the statistics for Brevard County illustrate agricultural
conditions very well in other respects.

The specialized farming that prevails here evidently sets too fast
a pace for the average negro, as shown by the considerably higher
proportion of whites among the farmers than among the total pop-
ulation. The proportion of farms operated by managers is very
large, and this probably indicates' that quite a number of orange
groves are owned by people who do not live in Florida at all, or
spend only the winter season here. (The census of 1900 was taken
in June, and that of 1910 in April.) The managers' farms in 1910
averaged 79 acres with 16.8 improved, and land and buildings worth


Agricultural Statistics of East Coast Strip (Brevard Co.), 1890-1910.
1889- 1899- 1909-1910
1890 19001 Total | White IColor'd
Improved acres per inhabitant ---... 0.68 1.41 1.02 1.31 0.33
Inhabitants per farm --------------- 21.8 8.4 11.0 8.8 26.4
Per cent of farmers white ------------ ----- 94.1 87.6 ---
Per cent of farmers, owners -- ----80.0 76.4 79.0 58.5
100 1
Per cent of farmers, managers ---.-- 16.1 | 19.9 18.6 28.4
Per cent of farmers, tenants ----- 0 3.9 3.7 2.4 13.2
Average number of acres per farm --- 114.5 62.0 59.7 63.8 31.4
Average improved acres per farm 14.8 11.8 11.2 11.6 8.8
Value of farm land per acre ($)-- -- 43.20 97.7 96.00 123.00
Value of farm land per farm -------- 2680 5830 61251 3860
10,8001 |
Value of buildings per farm.----- -785 1475 1590 656
Value of implements and machinery_ 27 43 81 831 63
Value of live-stock, poultry, etc. ----- 233 260 249---------
Number of dairy cows per farm ------ 1.7 1.1 0.7 ------ ---
Number of other cattle per farm 18.5 15.8 11.1 --
Number of horses per farm ------- 0.6 0.4 0.5 -
Number of mules per farm ----- -- 0.2 0.1 0.2 ------ --
Number of hogs per farm ----- 1.8 8.3 6.9 ----------
Number of sheep per farm ----------- 0 0
Number of poultry per farm ----- 37.1 19.1 18.4 -- ---
Expenditures per farm for fertilizer- 54.60 62.301 148.001 --- ---
Expenditures per farm for labor ----- --- 112.001 294.00- ---
Expenditures per farm for feed ------- -- --- 81.001 ----- ----
Annual value of crops per farm ---- I 1355 ----- ---
852 338 |
Annual value of animal products .--- 1 66 -- ---
Expend. fertilizer per acre improved-_ 3.68 5.26 13.15------------
Expend. labor per acre improved--- 9.481 26.101 ---
Value of crops per acre improved --- I ------ 120.501 --

The number of improved acres per inhabitant is low, on account
of the large town population, the importance of other industries
than agriculture, and the intensive farming. The farms average
the smallest in central Florida, but have the most valuable land and
buildings. Live-stock is relatively unimportant, the rather large
number of beef cattle per farm being probably due to a few cattle
ranches in the flatwoods part of Brevard County. (It is a curious
fact that neither State nor government censuses have ever found
any sheep in this county.) The number of work animals averages
less than one per farm, showing that some farms are worked by
hand labor only. The expenditures of all kinds per farm anl per
acre are very high, but so are the profits, in favorable seasons.


The leading crops in Brevard County in 19o9 were oranges (over
half the total), grape-fruit (about one-eighth), "vegetables," sweet
potatoes, Irish potatoes, pineapples, corn, cane syrup, and hay.
In 1913-14 oranges (nearly two-thirds), grape-fruit (nearly one-
fourth), (string?) beans, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, tomatoes,
watermelons, cucumbers, strawberries, cabbage, peppers, guavas,
bananas, onions, Japanese persimmons, egg-plants, and lettuce.
In 1917-18 oranges (about five-sixths), grape-fruit, Irish pota-
toes, velvet beans, string beans, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, corn,
sorghum, dasheens, cabbage, lima beans, cowpeas, onions, and grass
The average farm in 1909 produced only 43.3 gallons of milk,
4.5 pounds of butter (and sold 1.5, leaving only 3 pounds per farm
family per year), 25 chickens, 86.5 dozen eggs, and about one, cow
and one hog, but led all the rest of central Florida many times in
honey, producing 72.2 pounds per farm.

Under this head the various geographical features of central
Florida will be discussed by topics, and each subdivided by regions
as far as is possible or desirable. This naturally involves some re-
iteration of facts already brought out in the regional descriptions,
but the two treatments supplement each other just as the ground
plan and elevation of a building do, and this second part is best
adapted to illustrating general principles. It will also be useful
to persons who are interested primarily in dne thing, such as min-
eral resources, water, soil, climate, timber, population or agricul-
ture, and do not care to look through ten regional descriptions to
pick out the desired information.
The treatment begins with the structure of the earth's crust,
which as far as we know has not changed materially for ages, and
proceeds to topography, which changes a little more rapidly-
though almost imperceptibly in a human lifetime-to soil and cli-
mate, to vegetation-which is changing slowly all the time even
where man does not interfere with it-and finally to such very
changeable features as population and agriculture. Soil, which is
the top of the earth's crust, might perhaps most logically be treated
immediately after stratigraphy, but in the area under consideration
its character seems to depend as much on topography as on the na-
ture of the underlying rocks, so topography is taken up first.
A complete account would treat every topic historically as well
as geographically; but the changes in stratigraphy, soil, topography
and climate are so slow, and exact information about them so mea-
ger, that it is hardly worth while to speculate about them at all in
a work of this kind. Vegetation changes more rapidly, and in the
last 25 years there have been published hundreds of pages o~ the
supposed trends of development, or "succession," of vegetation in
various parts of the country, particularly the Middle West. But
in this report-vegetation is regarded as essentially static, except
for the depredations of civilized man and some comparatively short
cycles of succession after fire in pine lands, scrub, hammocks, etc.,
which will be alluded to at the proper places.
Population and agriculture have developed from almost nothing
to their present stage in less than Ioo years, and we have abundant


information about them in census reports, for several decades past.
However, previous to 1887 most of the counties in central Florida
were so large that statistics based on them give a very imperfect
idea of conditions in any one region, so that the statistical tables
in the foregoing pages begin with the census of 1890. But some
data from earlier censuses for the area as a whole are given in
the following chapters. And even if the counties had been reduced
to their present size much earlier, the information in the older cen-
suses is considerably less detailed than that in recent ones, and the
remote past does not concern us as much as the recent past anyway.
Some of the tables that follow contain the same ratios and per-
centages already given in the eight regional tables, but they are
arranged in an entirely different manner. In the preceding tables
one could follow the development of any phase of agriculture in a
given region through three census periods, while in the following
ones conditions in different regions at the same time are tabu-
lated side by side to illustrate the influence of different environ-
ments. There are also a number of additional tables to illustrate
conditions whose historical aspects are unknown or not considered,
such as soil analyses, climatic data, a tree census, illiteracy, schools,
religious denominations, relative importance and yield per acre
of different crops, and animal products of farms.
In all the statistical tables where different regions are contrasted
the highest ratio or percentage for each feature is printed in heav-
ier type and the lowest in italics (unless two or more numbers are
so nearly equal that it is impossible to decide between them); a
scheme which assists materially in picking out the salient features
of each region and also in locating the best and worst places within
our area for any particular thing, such as large and small farms,
farm machinery, mules, sheep, bees, cotton, oranges, sugar-cane,
Although a great deal of geological work has been done in this
and other parts of Florida in recent years, our knowledge of strat-
igraphic details is still very imperfect, on account of the scarcity
of outcrops of rocks that can be identified by their fossils or other-
wise. And even if deep wells had been drilled on every, square mile
and all the strata penetrated by them identified and measured it
would still be quite a problem to map the formations, because they


are in most places so nearly horizontal that they make very small
angles with the comparatively level surface, so that their edges
must always be ill-defined.
The oldest formations known in central Florida appear at the
surface in the northwestern quarter, and dip gently southward and
eastward from there. The oldest rock is a nearly pure limestone of
uppermost Eocene age, known now as the Ocala formation (per-
haps a continuation of the Marianna limestone of West Florida, the
St. Stephens limestone of southwestern Alabama, and the Vicksburg
and Jackson limestones of Mississippi), which is exposed about as
far east as Ocala and Sumterville and as far south as Tarpon
Springs. Most of the caves in our are. are in this formation, be-
cause it is almost the-only limestone pure.enough and thick enough
and sufficiently elevated above the ground-water to form caves.
It is quarried in several places (fig. 12), either for road-surfacing
material, for fertilizing purposes, or for burning into lime. The
eastward dip of this formation seems to be very slight, for it has
been encountered within 200 feet of the surface in wells drilled near
the east coast.
Next above it is the Tampa limestone, of Oligocene age, in our
area principally confined to Hillsborough County. Its exposures
are very limited and more or less silicified, so that it is of little ec-
onomic importance. The Miocene area of central Florida seems
to be approximately co-extensive with the lake region, but ex-
posures of the strata are very scarce. Perhaps the best one is the
limestone bluff at Rock Spring (fig. 18) in the northern part of
Orange County, where the first Miocene fossils in Florida were
The Pliocene is represented by the Nashua marl along the St.
John's River between Palatka and Sanford, and by the hard rock
and pebble phosphate deposits overlying the Eocene and Oligocene
in patches west of the lake region. The Pleistocene includes some
shell marls near the coast and rivers, and probably much if not most
of the peat and surface sand.
Most of the surface is covered by fairly homogeneous unconsol-
idated sand averaging several feet in thickness. A generation ago
this was commonly regarded as a Pleistocene deposit, and called the
Columbia formation; but the trend of opinion in recent years has
*See references on page 120.


been toward treating it as a mere product of weathering from the
sandy clay or rock underlying it. There are. some objections to
both hypotheses, however, and the question must be regarded as still
The most important mineral resource of central Florida is phos-
phate rock which is of two principal kinds, occurring in distinct
regions. The "hard rock," which is the highest grade, contain-
ing usually from 77% to 80% of tricalcium phosphate, occurs in
deposits of supposed Pliocene age in the lime-sink region, chiefly
in Citrus County and the western part of Marion (and north of our
present limits in Alachua). A variety known as "plate rock" wa
formerly mined near Anthony, which is in the same region but east
of the Middle Florida hammock belt. A low-grade by-product
known as soft phosphate was formerly discarded in mining, but
is now saved in some places and used as a fertilizer in its raw
"Land pebble," containing usually from 65 to 77% oi tri-
calcium phosphate, occurs in the Bone Valley formation (Pliocene),
which covers considerable areas in the flatwoods south of Lakeland
and Plant City. A variety known as "river pebble" was formerly
dredged out of the Peace River, chiefly south of our present limits.
Both the principal types of phosphate deposits are of considerable
scientific interest on account of containing many well-preserved
vertebrate fossils, representing sharks, crocodiles, armadillos,
horses, elephants, mastodons, whales, etc.
In 1913, the last full year before the export of phosphate was
interrupted by the great war, there were 14 companies mining hard
rock in Florida (some of them north of the limits of this report,
however), and 16 mining pebble phosphate. The total reported
production for the State in that year was 489,794 long tons of hard
rock and 2,055,482 of pebble, together valued at $9,563,084, or
about the same as the farm crops of central Florida in 1909. The
hard rock, being of higher grade, brings a higher price, and the only
reason the pebble can be marketed in competition with it is probably
q that the latter can be mined more economically, on account of the
deposits being more continuous, the use of hydraulic mining meth-
ods, etc. Much of the hard rock at present mined is below ground-
water level and has to be taken out with a dredge. Nearly all th


hard rock and about half the land pebble is exported to Europe in
normal 'times.*
Since the war the business has picked up again, and several new
mines have been opened in the flatwoods or pebble district, and more
attention is being paid to the soft phosphate formerly wasted in the
hard rock district. Another by-product, chiefly from the pebble
district, is a sandy rock containing too little phosphorus for ferti-
lizing purposes, but making a pretty good road-surfacing material.t
Limestone is probably next in importance to phsphate in our
area Tt has nlng been quarried in severalplaces around Ocala, and
recently-4i-southeastern Citrus County. Some of itis burned for
lime and some used for road material, and in a few places it has been
sawed into blocks and used for chimneys, walls, etc. A variety
known as coquina, composed of shell fragments rather loosely ce-
mented together, occurs in a few places along the east coast, and
has been used locally for building purposes.
Bog iron ore is said to have been mined and smelted near Levy-
ville in Levy County during the Civil War, for the Confederate
Deposits of kaolin or porcelain clay are being worked on the
south side of Lake Harris in Lake County, and brick is made at
Whitney in the same county, and formerly at Brooksville and a few
other places. Sandy clay suitable for road surfacing is widely dis-
tributed, particularly in the lake region.

*The exportation of so much valuable fertilizing material has been viewed
with alarm by some writers, but it is a natural result of the normal working
of the law of supply and demand. Substantially the same arguments might
be used against shipping coal, iron or lumber from states that have them to
those that lack them; but if other states or countries need these things and
have something of greater present value to us to offer in exchange it' is per-
fectly good business to make the trade. It seems to be generally true of min-
eral fertilizers that the soils near where they occur are pretty well supplied
with that particular substance, so that they have to be transported a consid-
erable distance to do the utmost good. By sending our phosphate to Germany,
Nebraska or California in exchange for potash both sides are benefited, pro-
vided the cost of transportation, etc., is not too great.
tFor a discussion of the Florida phosphates see papers by Dr. E. H. Sellards
in our Fifth and Seventh Annual Reports, and U., S. Geological Survey Bul-
letin 604, by G. C. Matson (1915). The first and last of these contain many
references to earlier papers, which need not be cited here.


Sand abounds nearly everywhere, and the pure white variety,
such as characterizes the scrub, ought to be well suited for the man-
ufacture of glass. Sand-lime brick is made at Lake Helen, in Volu-
sia County.
The marl in low hammocks and the shell mounds are used to
some extent for road-making. Gypsum is found in a few low ham-
mocks, but apparently not in commercial quantities, unless in the
western part of Sumter County.*
Peat abounds in the lake region and occurs in most of the others,
but has been little used as yet. It was discussed at considerable
length in the Third Annual Report, which the interested reader can
consult for details.
Artesian water is easily obtained anywhere in the area, but it
does not rise above the surface except near the coast and larger
rivers and lakes, and at a few other places at low elevations. The
highest artesian pressure found in the State is along the Indian
River in southern Brevard County, where the water rises about 50
feet above sea-level, and is used in a small way for running dy-
namos, etc. Most of the water from deep wells contains consider-
able salt, lime, sulphur, etc., but hardly ever enough to make it un-
fit for drinking purposes, except in some places near the upper St.
John's River, where the salt content is excessive. In the lime-sink
region, however, the water is often too "hard" for boiler purposes,
and water-softeners are used by the railroads. Rain-water cisterns
for private residences are used where the water is too deep to be
reached by dug wells, as in the lime-sink region, or too highly min-
eralized, as in some places along the east coast. Force-pumps are
also frequent in the lime-sink region and the higher parts of the lake
region, while ordinary suction pumps prevail in the flatwoods.

*The latest account of the Florida gypsum deposits, containing references
to important earlier papers, is by R. W. Stone in "Mineral Resources of the
United States for. 1918" (U. S. Geological Survey), part 2, pp. 293-296.


In recent years several test wells have been put down in the hope
of striking oil-one in Sumter County reached a depth of 3,080
feet before it was abandoned-but without success as yet.*


The subject of topography is not very well adapted to syste-
matic or statistical- treatment, especially in a region where so little
is known of the processes that produced the configuration of the
surface as is the case here. In most civilized countries the greater
part of the topography is evidently the result of either glaciation or
normal erosion or easily understood variations thereof, and persons
skilled in such matters can trace the developmental cycles with con-
siderable satisfaction; but surface erosion is probably an insignifi-
cant factor in our area, on account of the low altitude of some parts
and the very sandy soil or subterranean drainage of other parts,
and the origin of some of our topographic features is still an un-
solved problem. The treatment adopted here, therefore, is neces-
sarily somewhat empirical.
Uplands. Although the topography of central Florida seems to
have been shaped mostly by other means than surface erosion, as
just stated, the steepest average slopes are generally in the most el-

*It is a curious coincidence, perhaps not easily explained, however, that
all or nearly all the successful oil wells in the United States are in regions
where there is more rain in early summer (April to June) than in late summer
(August to October), and where the native vegetation is either predominantly
deciduous or treeless; a combination of conditions not found in Florida--hcugh
approached in the extreme northwest of the State-or anywhere near the c',ast
northeast of here.
According to an article by John K. Barnes in the "World's Work" for
April, 1920, the cost of drilling for oil in the United States in recent years
has greatly exceeded the value of the oil produced. So apparently we would
be better off financially if no oil wells had ever been drilled!
tAt first thought it might seem impossible to apply any sort of statistics
to topography. But in areas covered by reasonably accurate topographic maps
one could at least estimate the average slope of the surface of a given region
by drawing straight lines across the map in various directions, counting the
number of contours crossed in a unit distance, averaging the results, and apply-
ing a factor of about three-fourths to make a correction for the fact that mosi
of the contours will not be intersected at right angles. It would also be pos-
sible to estimate the areas lying between sea-level and 50 feet, 50 and ioo feet.


evated portions, as in most other parts of the world. As far as we
know at present the highest point in Florida is the summit of
Iron Mountain, about two miles north of Lake Wales, in Polk
County, which is said to be 324.3 feet above sea-level.* There
are some very similar high steep hills in the southern part of Lake
County, particularly between West Apopka and Clermont.t Cler-
mont is 105 feet above sea-level, and some. of the hills northeast
of there must be 150-if not 200 feet higher; and from at least one /
of them one can look directly westward over three lakes at once.
Col. Charles Ledyard Norton, in his Handbook of Florida (3d
edition, 1891, pp. 45, 274), referring to Lake County, says: "In
point of fact, the highest elevations in the State, nearly five hundred
feet above tide-water, are found in this county;" but in the light of
present knowledge that appears to be considerably exaggerated.
The high hills of the Hernando hammock belt have been noted
in the description of that region; and there are points in the lime-
sink region and Middle Florida hammock belt nearly if not quite
200 feet above sea-level. The Hernando hills commonly have clay
near the surface, at least on their slopes (fig. 15), and Iron Moun-
tain and some of the hills near Ocala are a little rocky on top, but
those of Lake County and many others have summits and slopes
alike covered with deep sand, Some of these sandy slopes are re-
markably steep, about 30o, but the outlines of the hills are smooth
and rounded, as if the wind slowly and imperceptibly filled up with

*Early in 1915 the corporation owning this "mountain" and considerable
adjoining land advertised it to be 385 feet high, but this seems to have been
based on an erroneous assumption as to the altitude of points on the recently
completed branch of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, which passed a little west
of the property. Revised figures seem to have been obtained from the railroad
a little later, and in the summer of the same year the corporation published a
small topographic map of the property, giving 324.3 feet as the altitude of the
summit, which seems reasonable. This was soon accepted by the U. S. Geolog-
ical Survey as the highest point in the State, and so published in the annual
New York World Almanac, beginning with the issue for 1917 (p. 67). About
the same time, however, it became known that Iron Mountain has a close rival
in a point near Round Lake in West Florida, 322 feet above sea-level. (See
our IIth Annual Report, 1918, p. 81, and 12th, p. 53.)
tSee E. A. Smith, Tenth Census U. S. 6:237. 1884; N. S. Shaler, Bull. Mus.
Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. 16:15T. 1890; Harper, Torreya 11:65. 1911; and fig.
19 of the present report.


sand any irregularities that might tend to -be formed by erosion,
burrowing animals, uprooted trees, etc.*

Lake basins. The hills of the lake region are interspersed with
:many saucer-like basins of various sizes and depths, some dry and
some containing water. Just how these basins were formed is an
unsolved problem. Some have ascribed them to solution and some
to the action of strong ocean currents when the land was sub-
mergedt but neither explanation fits all the facts. Basins, of some-
what similar outline but usually shallower are very common in the
lime-sink region, and as some of those are known to have been
formed by a sudden caving in of the roof of a subterranean passage
:and the subsequent smoothing of the sides by rain and wind, it may
be assumed that most of them originated in some such way. But
in the lake region sinks, caves, and other solution phenomena are
very rare, and no one seems to have ever observed the beginning
,of one of the basins in question. They could hardly have been
scooped out by the wind or the elevations around them piled up by
waves, either, for many of the hills have a hard clay substratum
in them considerably above the bottom of the basins. And lakes
:a short distance apart often differ considerably in elevation, show-
ing that they rest on an irregular surface of clay or some other
impervious material.

Lime-sinks. This term is used for several different things.
'Some lime-sinks are small dry sandy basins of the kind just de-
scribed, with no visible outlet, while others have rock outcropping
in them and a hole at the bottom through which water escapes,
-and some have steep banks and are more or less permanently filled
with water, which is usually bluish from dissolved limestone. The
dry sandy type is most common in the lime-sink region and the

*It seems probable that the wind has had a much larger share in shaping
the topography of the uplands of peninsular Florida than is commonly realized.
Although the sand does not move noticeably on windy days, except in culti-
vated fields (and even there there is little evidence of drifting after the wind
,dies down), in the course of centuries any minor irregularities must be pretty
-thoroughly smoothed out:
tSee pages 150-156 of the paper on the topography of Florida by Prof.
:Shaler, cited on the preceding page.


rocky type in the hammock belts. Those with permanent water in
them are apparently more common in northern than in central Flor-
ida, but examples can be seen near Sumterville and Lacoochee. *
In the Hernando hammock belt some of the intermittent lakes or
prairies have a small rocky lime-sink at one end or edge, through
which the water drains off (fig. 16). There are said to be some
lime-sinks on the west side of Lake George, which the writer has
mapped as being in the lake region, but not yet explored.
Caves. Limestone caves are not uncommon in and near the
hammock belt in Marion County, and there are a few small ones
in the southeastern part of Citrus County,* hardly large enough
to contain stalactites and stalagmites or to be easily entered.
Natural bridges in central Florida are of two types, which might
be called wet and dry. The former is the commonest, and is caused
by a stream entering a subterranean channel made by solution of
limestone, which it may follow anywhere from a few rods to a few
miles. It is of course impossible to go under such a bridge, and
sometimes one cannot even be sure where a disappearing stream
emerges again. Bridges of this type are reported near Homosassa
and Tarpon Springs, and there must be many unrecognized ones
made by small streams. A rarer and very different type is formed
by blocks of limestone falling against each other when the ground
under them settles irregularly from the slow solution of still deeper
calcareous strata. A few of this kind can be seen in the neighbor-
hood of. the caves of southeastern Citrus County just mentioned.
Flatwoods. Most of the country within twenty miles or so of
the coast on both sides of the peninsula is essentially level, except
where shallowly dissected by streams. The dissection is most pro-
nounced near the Peace and Alafia Rivers, and at certain points
near the coast where the general level of the country is 20 or 25
feet above the sea, as at Eau Gallie, Melbourne, and St. Petersburg.
The flatness is probably due to the fact that the sand and underlying
materials were deposited on a nearly level ocean bottom, and have
not been elevated high enough or long enough to be eroded much.
Beaches and dunes. The whole Atlantic coast of central Flor-
ida and the Gulf coast in Pinellas County, are bordered by rather
*For additional information about these see R. M. Harper, Am. Fern
Journal 6:68-81. 1916; Natural History (formerly American Museum Jouraal)
2:20I. 1919; J. K. Small, Jour. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 21:34-37. 1920.


narrow barrier-beaches, with lagoons one to five miles wide be-
tween them and the mainland. On these beaches the wind has
piled up low sand dunes, rarely exceeding io or I feet in height,
which seem to be moving very little at the, present time. (Dunes
are not as well developed in Florida, or anywhere in the tropics,
apparently, as they are north of latitude 40o, perhaps because in
our climate the vegetation covers the sand too quickly for the wind
to disturb it much. The wind has considerable force on the east
coast, however, as is indicated by the pines leaning inland at an
angle of ten degrees or more in many places.)
A mile or two back from the shore, at many places along the
east coast and also near Cedar Keys, Bayport, and probably else-
where on the west coast, are old dunes of thoroughly leached white
sand, which must have been formed at a time when the land stood
a little lower and the peninsula was narrower, for dunes do not
seem to be forming at present more than half a mile from the outer-
most beaches. The absence of such features farther in the interior
would seem to indicate that the land has not been depressed much
below its present position for a very long time; long enough for the
wind to level any dunes that might have existed and for the sala-
manders and other animals to mix the pure sand with the darker
Other shore features. The absence of barrier beaches along the
Gulf hammock coast has been commented on in the description of
that region. It seems to be correlated with the very gentle slope
of the ocean bottom along there, which keeps the waves from beat-
ing on the shore just as if there was a barrier beach a few miles out;
but just why that type of shore with a minutely irregular marshy
border, should be confined to the Gulf hammock region is an un-
solved problem. Very likely if there was as much wind on the Gulf
coast as on the Atlantic coast the shore would be different; but there
is evidently not, for the pines grow perfectly erect near the Gulf
coast, instead of leaning inland as most of them do on the other side
of the peninsula.

*The many patches of scrub (described farther on under soils and also
under vegetation) in the lake region are thought by some to represent old
dunes, but in many or most cases their topography seems to preclude any such


The larger lakes have sandy beach ridges on their more exposed
shores, and sand-bars forming across their embayments, as in lakes
with sandy shores the world over, but none of our lakes are large
enough to have any perceptible development of dunes around them.
Wave-cut cliffs are exhibited on a small scale in the clay bluffs
on the southeast side of Lake Weir, and perhaps on other lakes.
Minor topographic forms. In many places close to the Indian
River, St. John's River, Tampa Bay, and other navigable waters
there are shell mounds several to many feet high and usually an
acre or less in extent, which are commonly supposed to be Indian
"kitchen middens," though the possibility of some of them having
been partly built up by raccoons or other four-footed animals does
not seem to have been wholly eliminated. Some are composed
chiefly of oysters and others of other mollusks, especially along
rivers, where there are no oysters. One on the east side of the
Indian River about opposite Melbourne (fig. 34), which is being
excavated for road material (a fate shared by many others), shows
about ten feet of shells, nearly all Chione cancellata, a small clam-
like bivalve, resting on yellowish sand. There are thin layers of hu-
mus among the shells every few inches, presumably indicating that
the growth of the mound was frequently interrupted long enough
for a little vegetation to grow on it. Some of the mounds have
more sand than shells in them, and must have been formed in a
somewhat different manner; but the subject has not been suf-
ficiently investigated.
Terraces (?). The boundary between flatwoods and uplands
is sometimes gradual and sometimes rather abrupt, as for example
at or near Bronson, DeLand and Lake Helen. In recent years
these abrupt scarps have been regarded by some geologists as Pleis-
tocene shore lines, or terraces,* but they do not appear to be contin-
uous for any great distance, as terraces should be, and they lack
some of the characteristic features of shore-lines, such as dunes.

*See Matson & Sanford, U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 319 (1914),
pp. 31-35, 2io-2ii, and map (plate 5); and comment on same in Geog. Review
4:224-225. I917.


Lakes. There is perhaps no essential difference between a lake
and a pond, but the former term, in Florida as elsewhere, is,usually
applied to the larger and more permanent bodies of fresh water.
No close estimate of the number of lakes in central Florida has been
made, but it is certainly in the thousands. The majority are in the
lake region, as might be expected, but they are common in several
other regions, particularly the eastern division of the flatwoods.
The largest are Lakes George, Apopka and Kissimmee, each cover-
ing something like Ioo square miles. The smaller ones, some of
which are only a few acres in extent (and not as wide as some
parts of the St. John's River) are approximately circular and have
no visible outlets, being merely depressions extending below the
ground-water level; But they can hardly be called stagnant, for the
water is doubtless constantly seeping through the sandy soil in the
direction of the nearest river. The larger lakes are irregularly
shaped and have streams flowing into or out of them, or both, sev-
eral being simply wide places in the St. John's and Kissimmee Riv-
Few soundings have been made in our lakes, but judging from
the slope of their shores the deepest may not be over 50 feet deep.
As a rule they do not fluctuate more than two or three feet in the
course of a year. A few which are connected with sink-holes may
be lowered suddenly at long intervals in the manner described
by Dr. Sellards in the 3rd and 6th Annual Reports, and those on the
St. John's River of course share the fluctuations of that stream,
which however are only a few feet. Lake George, being just about
the head of tide-water on the St. John's, of course cannot rise much.
but Lake Harney, about 200 miles by water from the mouth of
the river, is said to have an extreme fluctuation of about seven feet.
Besides the seasonal variations in level, some of the lakes among
the uplands are evidently lower now than they were a generation or
so ago, as shown by the encroachment of young long-leaf pines on
their shores.* This may be due to a permanent lowering of the
ground-water level by numerous flowing artesian wells bored at
lower elevations, but the matter has not been sufficiently investi-

*See 3d Annual Report, p. 266.


The water of most of our lakes is comparatively clear, and some
in Seminole and Orange Counties are used for city water supplies
in preference to the hard and sulphurous artesian water. The
clearest lake of any size in central Florida is probably Lake Weir,
in the southern part of Marion County. Two or three small coffee-
colored branches enter its eastern end and tinge the water there a
little, but its western end, which is in the lime-sink region, is so
.clear that one can see the bottom where it is several feet deep. This
is probably correlated with a small amount of limestone in solution,
for a species of mussel (Unio Cunninghami) is common in the
western part of the lake.
Ponds and swamps. Shallow ponds, which may dry up com-,
pletely in dry seasons, varying in size from perhaps one to a hun.
dred acres, abound in the flatwoods and are fairly common in the
lime-sink region. They nearly always have considerable vegetation
in them, sometimes only maiden-cane, wampee, bonnets, and
other herbs, but more often bushes or trees or both. (Additional
details are given in the chapter on vegetation.)
The various types of marshes and peat bogs have been pretty
fully discussed in the Third Annual Report, and some of them will
be referred to farther on under the head of vegetation. The same
might be said of swamps, which are not very extensive in central
Springs. There is perhaps no equal area in the United States
that has more large springs than central Florida. Most of them arc
the points of emergence of subterranean creeks or rivers, which
usually come up through one or more irregular openings in the bot-
tom of bowl-like basins. They are most common in the lime-sink
region and near its edges, but there are also several in the Gulf
hammock region ahd a few in the lake region, particularly near the
St. John's River and on the edges of the great Wekiva River swamp
in Seminole and Orange Counties.
Silver Spring (fig. 8), a few miles east of Ocala, is one of the
largest springs known, about 200 feet wide and 35 feet deep. One
discharge measurement made of it gave about 150,000 gallons a
minute, or 333 cubic feet a second, and another, probably some dis-
tance down stream, about twice as much. The stream or "run"
issuing from it is so large that small steamers from the Ocklawaha
River can come right up into the spring; and this has been a fa-


vorite trip for sight-seers for many years. The spring is also used r
for bathing. Blue Spring in the same county near Juliette ha,
nearly as large a flow, but does not make a navigable stream. Other
well known springs in the same region are Weekiwachee Spring in
Hernando County and Sulphur Spring near Tampa. The former
is rather unique in being in the midst of a large area of scrub.
In the Gulf hammock region there are large springs at the head
of the Waccasassa, Crystal, Homosassa (fig. 7) and Chessahow-
itzka Rivers. In the lake region the best known springs are DeLeon
and Blue Springs in Volusia County, Palm and Hoosier Springs in
the western part of Seminole County, Clay or Wekiva Spring, the
main source of the Wekiva River, Seminole Spring, near Sorrento,
and Bugg Spring, near Okahumpka. Rock Spring, in the north-
western part of Orange County (fig. 18), differs from most other
Florida springs, and resembles some in the Appalachian Valley,
in that the water rushes out audibly from the base of a cliff, instead
of welling up from the bottom of a basin.
The water of all these large springs is highly charged with cal-
cium carbonate, and is very clear, with a slight bluish tinge. Its
temperature usually ranges between 700 and 750 the year round.* ,
Some have a very perceptible sulphurous odor too, particularly those
in Seminole County. Orange, Silver, Palm, Clay and Sulphur
Springs and perhaps others are used more or less for bathing pools.
Silver Spring, the largest and most accessible of all, is provided
with glass-bottomed boats, from which the bottom can be viewed.
The water of Green or Espiritu Santo Spring in Pinellas County
and one or two smaller ones is believed to have medicinal virtues.
There are a few salt springs near the St. John's River and some or
its tributaries, but little is known about them.
Streams. The streams of central Florida may be divided,
chiefly on a basis of size, into branches, creeks, runs and rivers.
The branches, generally speaking, are those, small enough to stop
running in dry weather, and they are not as numerous as in the
northern part of the State, where the. effects of erosion are more ev-
ident. They are mostly clear or slightly coffee-colored. The creeks
flow throughout the year, and vary from a few feet to several yards

*The temperature of a large spring in any part of the world, unless it is a
thermal spring, is usually very close to the average annual temperature of the
locality, so that it seems warm in winter and cold in summer, by contrast.


wide. They nearly all originate in and are bordered by swamps,
and are decidedly coffee-colored.
The outlets of the large springs, varying in size from creeks to
small rivers, are commonly called runs. They are clear and bluish
like the springs, but usually do not flow more than a few miles be-
fore they lose themselves in some larger coffee-colored stream or in
the ocean. Helena Run, in Lake County, is said to be transparent
when it flows eastward from Bugg Spring into Lake Harris, and
coffee-colored when it flows westward from the lake toward the
Withlacoochee River.*
The larger rivers are all coffee-colored in their natural state,
there being no naturally muddy water in peninsular Florida; but a
few like the Alafia and parts of the Withlacoochee are kept turbid
most of the time by washings from the phosphate mines in their vi-
cinity. The rivers are. as a rule sluggish, because the highlands of
the peninsula are so narrow that streams originating in them get
down into the flatwoods before becoming large enough to be called
There are, however, a few places where ledges of rock form
rapids, particularly in the Gulf hammock region within a few miles
of the coast. One such place on the Withlacoochee, about ten miles
from its mouth, and the same distance below Dunnellon, has been
made the site of a hydro-electric plant (fig. 6), with a 20-foot
dam, furnishing power to Dunnellon, Brooksville, several phosphate
mines, and even an orange packing house in Sumter County. There
is another such plant on the Hillsborough River a few miles from
its mouth (in what is regarded as a part of the. lime-sink region).
which however is said to be used only for emergencies, as it cannot
furnish enough power for the whole city of Tampa. There is said
to be a spring near Sumterville which furnishes power for a mill.f

*See 3rd Ann. Rep., p. 281.
tAccording to U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 319, p. 406. There has
been some talk of damming up other springs in central Florida for power pur-
poses, but just why a spring should be selected for that purpose, rather than
the same stream farther down where it is larger, is not clear, unless it is merely
a manifestation of a mania some people have for destroying or defacing objects
of natural beauty. Some attempts of this kind in West Florida are said to have
had the unexpected result of merely forcing the water to find a new outlet
through the cavernous limestone.


Most streams in our area are. too short or too near sea-level to
fluctuate much with the seasons, and besides the excess of rainfall
in late summer (see chapter on climate, farther on) tends to coun-
terbalance evaporation and thus keep their flow uniform, so that
floods are practically unknown. The St. John's River, the largest,
is unique in several ways. It rises in great marshes or wet prairies,
resembling the Everglades, near the southern edge of Brevard
County, within 25 miles of the ocean in a direct line and not ovei
S20 feet above it at low water, and flows northward approximately
parallel to the coast for over 200 miles, with a fall of only aboul
an inch to the mile. In the latitudes under consideration it is much
narrower than it is where influenced by the tide, except where, i
expands into lakes. Lake Monroe, between Sanford and Enter-
prise, is said to be five feet above sea-level, with a maximum depth
(at low water?) of only eight feet. Between there and Lake Har-
ney, the next lake above, the river is said to have an extreme fluc-
tuation of seven feet, which is perhaps the greatest of any stream in
central Florida, unless it is exceeded by the Peace or the Alafia
River; but that of course is very little compared with some of the
rivers farther north.
The Ocklawaha* and Withlacoochee Rivers resemble the St.
John's in flowing northward most of their length, a phenomenon
that deserves more attention from physiographers than it has re-
The soils of central Florida, although prevailingly sandy, are
considerably diversified within certain limits. Alluvial and red
clayey soils are scarce, but we have soils ranging in chemical com-
position, from nearly pure calcium carbonate and highly phosphatic
to nearly pure silica and peat.
S The correlations between soil and vegetation in this part of the
country are so close, and the natural vegetation nearly everywhere
so prominent, that most previous attempts to classify Florida soils

*In recent years this has often been spelled "Oklawaha," presumably by the
same sort of people who write "Suwanee' for Suwannee, "Hillsboro" for Hills-
borough, "Okechobee" for Okeechobee, etc., but this should especially be dis-
couraged, for it tends to give an erroneous impression of the first syllable.
(For the benefit of strangers it might be well to explain that the main ac-
cent is on the third syllable. Also that Kissimmee is accented in the middle.)

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs