Florida bird life

Material Information

Florida bird life
Howell, Arthur H ( Arthur Holmes ), 1872-1940
Florida -- Dept. of Game and Fresh Water Fish
United States -- Bureau of Biological Survey
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher's agents, Coward-McCain, Inc.
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
xxiv, 579 p. : col. front., plates (part col.) maps (1 fold.) ; 26 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Birds -- Florida ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Target Audience:
Appr. for PKY


"Bibliography of Florida ornithology and references to other literature": p. 476-555.
General Note:
Colored plates accompanied by guard sheets with descriptive letterpress.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Arthur H. Howell ... color plates from original paintings by Francis L. Jaques ... Published by Florida Department of game and fresh water fish in coöperation with Bureau of Biological Survey, United States Department of Agriculture.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
023070587 ( ALEPH )
01187470 ( OCLC )
AAA6769 ( NOTIS )
32026061 ( LCCN )

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Senior Biologist, United States Bureau of Biological Survey
Fellow of the American Ornithologists' Union

of the American Museum of Natural History

in cooperation with


Printed in the United States of America by

P UBLICA TIONof this work has
been made possible through the kindly
interest and financial assistance of
Marcia Brady Tucker, of New York


The United States Biological Survey, in pursuance of its program of studying the
wild life and mapping the life zones of North America, instituted in 1918 a systematic
survey of the birds and mammals of the State of Florida, assigning the work to the di-
rection of Arthur H. Howell, Senior Biologist in the Division of Biological Investigations.
During succeeding seasons field work was continued and the report on the bird life
and the natural life zones was prepared. The manuscript was completed in 1930, at a
time when lack of sufficient funds for its publication in an adequate manner indicated
indefinite postponement. Fortunately, however, the generous offer of financial assis-
tance from a friend interested in Florida birds made possible the immediate consumma-
tion of the project.
A cooperative agreement was thereupon entered into between the Bureau of Bio-
logical Survey and the Florida Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish, under whose
auspices the present work is now issued.
Chief, Biological Survey.
U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Biological Survey,
Washington, D. C.
November 11, 1931.

INTRODUCTION .................. ...... 1
ILLUSTRATIONS ... ....... . 4
INDEX ..................... .. 559

PLATE 1. Carolina Paroquets in cypress trees .. ... Frontispiece
2. Fig. 1.-Scrub vegetation on the beach at Jupiter. Fig. 2.-Slash pines with saw-
palmetto undergrowth on Long Key, southern Everglades .. 58
3. Fig. 1.-Fresh-water vegetation on Panasoffkee Lake. Fig. 2.-Cypress swamp on
Taylor Creek, Osceola County . .. 59
4. Fig. 1.-Royal Palm Hammock, in the southern Everglades. Fig. 2.-Cabbage palms
on coastal prairie near Cape Sable . .. 60
5. Fig. 1.-Tropical jungle in Royal Palm Hammock, showing a royal palm and a West
Indian holly. Fig. 2.-Tropical jungle in Royal Palm Hammock, showing tall ferns
and lianas ... .. ... 61
6. Fig. 1.-Salt marsh on Fort George Island, Duval County-habitat of Wayne's Clap-
per Rail. Fig. 2.-Everglades bordering Lake Hicpochee .. 62
7. Fig. 1.-Fresh-water marshes near head of St. Johns River. Fig. 2.-River scene on the
Caloosahatchee 63
8. Map of the life zones of Florida . 66
9. Birds of the lagoons: Common Loon, Florida Cormorants, Red-breasted Mergansers,
Lesser Scaup Ducks, Ringneck Ducks, Ruddy Ducks, Osprey, and Bald Eagle .. 82
10. Fig. 1.-Brown Pelicans nesting in trees. Fig. 2.-Brown Pelicans nesting on the ground 86
11. Fig. 1.-Florida Cormorants nesting in a pine. Fig. 2.-Ward's Heron on nest 87
12. Brown Pelicans at their rookery .. 88
13. Herons in the Everglades: American Egret, Snowy Heron, Little Blue Herons, Louisiana
Herons, and Ward's Heron .. 90
14. Fig. 1.-Nest and eggs of Water-Turkey on a limb over water. Fig. 2.-Water-Tur-
keys nesting in a cypress swamp . .. 94
15. Fig. 1.-Young Wood Ibises on their nests. Fig. 2.-Young Wood Ibises standing on
their nests ... .. 95
16. A flock of Flamingoes in the southern Everglades . .. 102
17. Fig. 1.-Nest of Bald Eagle in a pine. Fig. 2.-Nest and eggs of Limpkin in a marsh 103
18. Birds of the cypress swamps: Water-Turkeys, Black-crowned and Yellow-crowned
Night Herons, and Wood Ducks ... . 104
19. Birds of Florida Bay: Great White Heron, Ward's Heron, Wardemann's Heron, and
W hite Ibis 106
20. Birds of the St. Johns River marshes: Glossy Ibises, American Bittern, Limpkin, Marsh
Hawks, and Everglade Kites .. . .. 112
21. Birds of the southern Everglades: Wood Ibises, Roseate Spoonbills, American Egrets,
and Swallow-tailed Kites . ..... 118
22. White Ibises circling over the Everglades . .. 124
23. Birds of the salt marshes: Florida Ducks, Black Ducks, Wilson's Snipe, Spotted Sand-
piper, Black Rail, and Wayne's Clapper Rail . .. 158
24. Kites and falcons: White-tailed and Mississippi Kites and Sparrow Hawks 172
25. The larger hawks: Florida Red-tailed Hawks, Florida Red-shouldered Hawks, and
Short-tailed Hawks . . 174
26. Fig. 1.-Nest of Osprey in a cypress on Lake Istokpoga. Fig. 2.-Young Everglade
Kites in nest in saw grass . .. 178
27. Flight silhouettes and patterns of soaring kites and hawks ... .178

PLATE 28. Flight silhouettes and patterns of soaring hawks, eagles, and vultures 178
29. Fig. 1.-Nest and eggs of Swallow-tailed Kite. Fig. 2.-Nest and eggs of Everglade
Kite in cypress tree on Wakulla River .. 179
30. Birds of the prairies: Florida Cranes, Audubon's Caracaras, and Florida Burrowing
Owls 180
31. Birds of the prairie borders: Florida Turkeys, Florida Bob-whites, Mourning Doves,
and Ground Dove ................ .. .. 202
32. Fig. 1.-Nest and eggs of Short-tailed Hawk. Fig. 2.-Nest and eggs of Limpkin in a
cypress tree 206
33. Fig. 1.-Nest and eggs of Florida Crane on the Kissimmee Prairie. Fig. 2.-Florida
Burrowing Owls at their nest burrow on the Kissimmee Prairie .. .207
34. Birds of the fresh-water lakes: Florida and Purple Gallinules, Coots, King Rail, Pied-
billed Grebe, Least Bitterns, and Green Heron 208
35. Birds of the sea beaches: Oyster-catcher; Wilson's, Piping, Semipalmated, and Snowy
Plovers. 214
36. Birds of the sand flats: Hudsonian Curlew, Dowitchers, Knots, Turnstones, and Black-
bellied Plovers ................... 220
37. Birds of the mud flats: Willet, Black-necked Stilts, Greater and Lesser Yellow-legs,
Killdeer, and Solitary Sandpiper .. 226
38. Sandpipers: Sanderlings; Least, Semipalmated, Western, and Red-backed Sandpipers 232
39. Gulls rising from the beach: Herring Gulls, Ring-billed Gulls, and Laughing Gulls 254
40. The smaller terns and Bonaparte's Gull: Common Terns, Forster's Terns, Least Terns,
Black Terns, and Bonaparte's Gulls 260
41. The larger terns and the Black Skimmer: Caspian Terns, Royal Terns, Cabot's Terns,
and Black Skimmers ...... .266
42. Breeding colony of Sooty Terns on Bird Key, Tortugas 270
43. Fig. 1.-Noddy Tern on nest, Bird Key, Tortugas. Fig. 2.-Sooty and Noddy Terns
in their breeding colony, Bird Key, Tortugas 271
44. Birds of the Florida Keys: White-crowned Pigeons, Maynard's Cuckoo, Yellow-billed
Cuckoo, Black-whiskered Vireo, Florida Prairie Warbler, Great White Heron,
Royal Tern, and Wilson's Plovers 272
45. The smaller woodpeckers: Southern Hairy, Southern Downy, Red-bellied, and Red-
headed Woodpeckers. . .. 290
46. The larger woodpeckers: Ivory-billed and Pileated Woodpeckers, Flicker, and Yellow-
bellied Sapsucker 304
47. Flycatchers: Kingbird, Gray Kingbird, Crested and Acadian Flycatchers, Wood Pewee,
and Phoebe 318
48. Birds of the scrub: Florida Jays, Loggerhead Shrike, Mockingbird, White-eyed Tow-
hees, and Myrtle and Palm Warblers 332
49. Birds of the pine woods: Red-cockaded Woodpecker, White-breasted and Brown-
headed Nuthatches, Pine and Yellow-throated Warblers, and Pine-woods Sparrow 334
50. Wrens: House Wren, Bewick's Wren, Florida Wren, Short-billed Marsh Wren, and
Long-billed Marsh Wrens 340
51. Thrushes and water-thrushes: Hermit Thrush, Wood Thrush, Olive-backed Thrush,
Gray-cheeked Thrush, Northern Water-Thrush, and Louisiana Water-Thrush .. 358
52. Vireos, kinglets, and the Gnatcatcher: Red-eyed Vireo, Yellow-throated Vireo, Solitary
Vireo, White-eyed Vireo, Ruby-crowned and Golden-crowned Kinglets, and Blue-
gray Gnatcatcher ... 372
53. Warblers: Prothonotary, Hooded, Parula, Bachman's, and Swainson's Warblers, and
Florida Yellowthroats 418
54. Blackbirds: Boat-tailed and Florida Grackles, Bobolinks, and Florida Red-wings 432
55. Orioles and tanagers: Baltimore and Orchard Orioles; Summer and Scarlet Tanagers 434
.56. Buntings and grosbeaks: Indigo and Painted Buntings, and Blue Grosbeaks .. 440


PLATE 57. Sparrows of the uplands and the Pipit: Savannah, Vesper, Song, White-throated, Eastern
Grasshopper, and Florida Grasshopper Sparrows; and the Pipit .. 442
58. Sparrows of the salt marshes: Dusky, Cape Sable, Smyrna, and Wakulla Seaside Spar-
rows; and Eastern and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows 456

Fro. 1. Bird refuges in Florida .
2. Breeding localities of the Pied-billed Grebe .
3. Breeding colonies of the Brown Pelican .
4. Breeding localities of the Florida Cormorant .
5. Range of the Great White Heron .
6. Breeding localities of the American Egret ..
7. Breeding localities of the Snowy Egret .
8. Former breeding localities of the Reddish Egret .
9. Range of the American Bittern ...
10. Range of the Wood Ibis .....
11. Range of the Glossy Ibis .
12. Present and former range of the Roseate Spoonbill .
13. Range of the Florida Duck .
14. Breeding localities of the Swallow-tailed Kite .
15. Range of the Mississippi Kite .
16. Range of the Everglade Kite .
17. Range of Cooper's Hawk .....
18. Range of the Broad-winged Hawk ....
19. Range of the Short-tailed Hawk .
20. Range of Audubon's Caracara .....
21. Range of the Bob-white .....
22. Breeding localities of the Florida Crane .
23. Breeding localities of the Limpkin .
24. Breeding localities of the King Rail .
25. Breeding localities of the Clapper Rail ..
26. Breeding localities of the Black Rail .
27. Breeding localities of the Purple Gallinule .
28. Range of the American Coot .
29. Breeding localities of the Cuban Snowy Plover .
30. Range of the Killdeer .
31. Range of the Woodcock .
32. Breeding localities of the Black-necked Stilt .
33. Breeding colonies of the Laughing Gull .
34. Breeding localities of the Least Tern .
35. Range of the Black Skimmer .
36. Breeding localities of Maynard's Cuckoo ..
37. Range of the Florida Burrowing Owl .
38. Range of the Belted Kingfisher .
39. Breeding localities of the Gray Kingbird ..
40. Breeding area of the Crested Flycatcher .
41. Breeding area of the Acadian Flycatcher .
42. Breeding area of the Eastern Wood Pewee .
43. Breeding localities of the Rough-winged Swallow ..
44. Breeding area of the Blue Jay .
45. Range of the Florida Jay .
46. Breeding areas of the Florida Crow and the Southern Crow

. 77
. 100
. 102
. 104
.. 111
. 114
. 120
. 133
. 165
.. 167
.. 168
. 173
. 178
. 180
. 187
.. 194
.. 197
. 200
.. 202
.. 204
. 208
. 210
. 213
. 217
. 221
. 226
. 250
. 259
. 267
. 274
.. 287
. 294
. 304
. 317
. 320
. 324
. 326
. 331
. 337
.. 339
. 341

FIG. 47. Range of the Southern White-breasted Nuthatch .. 345
48. Ranges of the Carolina Wren and the Florida Wren 351
49. Breeding localities of the Long-billed Marsh Wrens 353
50. Range of the Catbird .. 357
51. Range of the Brown Thrasher .. . ... .359
52. Breeding area of the Wood Thrush 362
53. Breeding area of the Bluebird .. 366
54. Records of occurrence of the European Starling .. 374
55. Breeding area of the Yellow-throated Vireo .. ... 377
56. Breeding localities of the Black-whiskered Vireo .. 380
57. Breeding area of the Red-eyed Vireo ... 381
58. Breeding area of the Prothonotary Warbler 385
59. Breeding localities of Swainson's Warbler 386
60. Range of the Southern Parula Warbler 393
61. Breeding area of the Pine Warbler !. .... 405
62. Breeding localities of the Florida Prairie Warbler .. 408
63. Breeding localities of the Yellow-breasted Chat .. 419
64. Breeding area of the Hooded Warbler .... 420
65. Breeding area of the Red-winged Blackbird 427
66. Breeding area of the Orchard Oriole .. 430
67. Breeding area of the Cardinal .. 438
68. Range of the Painted Bunting. ... .... 442
69. Breeding area of the Towhee .. .. 448
70. Breeding localities of the Grasshopper Sparrow .. .. .... 452
71. Breeding localities of the Seaside Sparrows. ... .. .458
72. Breeding areas of the Pine-woods Sparrow and Bachman's Sparrow 465


LooNs: Family Gaviidae.
Common Loon .
Red-throated Loon .
GREBES: Family Colymbidae.
Holboell's Grebe/ .
Horned Grebe ...
Pied-billed Grebe .
Sooty Shearwater .
Audubon's Shearwater .
Greater Shearwater ..
Black-capped Petrel .
STORM PETRELS: Family Hydrobatidae.
Wilson's Petrel .. .
White-bellied Petrel .
TROPIC-BIRDS: Family Phaethontidae.
Yellow-billed Tropic-Bird .
PELICANS: Family Pelecanidae.
White Pelican .
Eastern Brown Pelican .
BOOBIES and GANNETS: Family Sulidae.
Atlantic Blue-faced Booby .
White-bellied Booby .
Gannet .
CORMORANTS: Family Phalacrocoracidae.
Double-crested Cormorant .
Florida Cormorant .
DARTERS: Family Anhingidae.
Water-Turkey .
MAN-O'-WAR-BIRDS: Family Fregatidae.
Man-o'-war-bird .
Great White Heron .
Ward's Heron .
Great Blue Heron .
American Egret .
Snowy Egret. .
Reddish Egret .
Louisiana Heron .
Little Blue Heron .
Eastern Green Heron .
Black-crowned Night Heron .
Yellow-crowned Night Heron .
American Bittern .
Eastern Least Bittern .



Gavia immer immer .
Gavia stellata .

Colymbus grisegena holboelli
Colymbus auritus .
Podilymbus podiceps podiceps .

Puffinus griseus .
S. Pufinus Iherminieri lherminieri
Puffinus gravis .
Pterodroma hasitata .

Oceanites oceanicus .
S. .Fregetta tropica tropica .

S. .Phaethon lepturus catesbyi .

S. .Pelecanus erythrorhynchos .
Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis .

Sula dactylatra dactylatra .
S. .Sula leucogaster leucogaster .
S. .Moris bassana .

S. Phalacrocoram auritus auritus
S. .Phalacrocorax auritus floridanus

S. .Anhinga anhinga .

S. Fregata magnificent .. ..
S. .Ardea occidentalis ...
Ardea herodias wardi ..
Ardea herodias herodias ..
S. Casmerodius albus egretta
S. .Egretta thula thula ...
S. Dicromanassa rufescens rufescens .
S. .Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis
S. .Florida caerulea caerulea .
S. .Butorides virescens virescens
S. .Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli
S. .Nyctanassa violacea violacea .
Botaurus lentiginosus ..
S. Iobrychus exilis exilis .

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WOOD IBISES: Family Ciconiidae.
Wood Ibis . Mycteria americana ...

IBISES and SPOONBILLS: Family Threskiornithids
Eastern Glossy Ibis ..
White-faced Glossy Ibis .
White Ibis .
Scarlet Ibis .
Roseate Spoonbill .

FLAMINGOES: Family Phoenicopteridae.
American Flamingo .

DUCKS, GEESE, and SWANS: Family Anatidae.
Whistling Swan .
Canada Goose .
Hutchins's Goose .
American Brant .
Lesser Snow Goose .
Blue Goose .
Common Mallard .
Red-legged Black Duck .
Florida Duck .
Mottled Duck .
Gadwall .
European Widgeon .
Baldpate .
American Pintail .
Bahama Pintail .
Green-winged Teal .
Blue-winged Teal .
Cinnamon Teal .
Shoveller .
Wood Duck ... .
Redhead .
Ring-necked Duck ... .
Canvasback .
Greater Scaup Duck .
Lesser Scaup Duck .
American Golden-eye .
Buffle-head .
Old-squaw .
Eastern Harlequin Duck ...
White-winged Scoter .
Surf Scoter .
American Scoter .
Ruddy Duck .
Hooded Merganser .
American Merganser .
Red-breasted Merganser .

AMERICAN VULTURES: Family Cathartidae.
Turkey Vulture .
Black Vulture .

SPlegadis falcinellus falcinellus .
SPlegadis guarauna .
SGuara alba .
SGuara rubra .
Ajaia ajaja .

SPhoenicopterus ruber .

Cygnus columbianus .
Branta canadensis canadensis
.Branta canadensis hutchinsi
SBranta bernicla hrota .
Chen hyperborea hyperborea
Chen caerulescens .
SAnas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos .
Anas rubripes rubripes .
SAnas fulvigula fulvigula .
SAnas fulvigula maculosa .
Chaulelasmus streperus .
SMareca penelope .
.Mareca americana ..
SDafila acuta tzitzihoa .
SDafila bahamensis bahamensis
Nettion carolinense .
Querquedula discors .
Querquedula cyanoptera .
SSpatula clypeata .
SAix sponsa .
Nyroca americana .
Nyroca collaris .
Nyroca valisineria
Nyroca marila .
Nyroca aiis .
Glaucionetta clangula americana
Charitonetta albeola .
Clangula hyemalis .
SHistrionicus histrionics histrionicus
Melanitta deglandi .
Melanitta perspicillata .
Oidemia americana .
SErismatura jamaicensis rubida .
SLophodytes cucullatus ..
SMergus merganser americanus
SMergus serrator .

Cathartes aura septentrionalis .
Coragyps atratus atratus .

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S 117
S. 117
. 119
S 119

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S. 27
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S. 137
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S. 161
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HAWKS, EAGLES, and KITES: Family Accipitriidae.
White-tailed Kite .
Swallow-tailed Kite ..
Mississippi Kite .
Everglade Kite .
Eastern Goshawk .
Sharp-shinned Hawk .
Cooper's Hawk .
Eastern Red-tailed Hawk .
Florida Red-tailed Hawk .
Florida Red-shouldered Hawk .
Insular Red-shouldered Hawk .
Broad-winged Hawk .
Swainson's Hawk .
Short-tailed Hawk .
Golden Eagle .
Southern Bald Eagle .
Marsh Hawk .
American Osprey .
Audubon's Caracara .
Duck Hawk .
Eastern Pigeon Hawk .
Western Pigeon Hawk .
Little Sparrow Hawk .
Eastern Sparrow Hawk .
QUAILS: Family Perdicidae.
Eastern Bob-white .
Florida Bob-white .
Key West Bob-white .

TURKEYS: Family Meleagrididae.
Florida Turkey .
CRANES: Family Gruidae.
Whooping Crane .
Florida Crane .
COURLANS: Family Aramidae.
Limpkin .

Elanus leucurus majusculus
Elanoides forficatus forficatus .
Ictinia misisippiensis .
Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus
Astur atricapillus atricapillus .
Accipiter velox velox .
Accipiter cooper .
Buteo borealis borealis .
Buteo borealis umbrinus .
Buteo lineatus alleni .
Buteo lineatus extimus .
Buteo platypterus platypterus .
Buteo swainsoni .
Buteo brachyurus .
Aquila chrysaitos canadensis .
Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus .
Circus hudsonius .
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis .
Polyborus cheriway auduboni .
Falco peregrinus anatum .
Falco columbarius columbarius .
Falco columbarius bendirei .
Falco sparverius paulus .
Falco sparverius sparverius .

Colinus virginianus virginianus
Colinus virginianus floridanus
Colinus virginianus insulanus .

. ... Meleagris gallopavo osceola .

.. Grus americana .
Grus canadensis pratensis .

. .. Aramus pictus pictus .

RAILS, GALLINULES, and CooTS: Family Rallidae.
King Rail .. Rallus elegans elegans .
Florida Clapper Rail .. .Rallus longirostris scotti .
Wayne's Clapper Rail .. Rallus longirostris waynei .
Northern Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris crepitans
Mangrove Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris insularum
Virginia Rail ... .Rallus limicola limicola .
Sora .... Porzana carolina .. ..
Yellow Rail .. Coturnicops noveboracensis
Black Rail Creciscus jamaicensis stoddardi .
Purple Gallinule .... onornis martinica .
Florida Gallinule .. Gallinula chloropus cachinnans .
American Coot .. Fulica americana americana
JACANAS: Family Jacanidae.
Jacana .. Jacana spinosa .

. 164
. 191






. 214



OYSTER-CATCHERS: Family Haematopodidae.
American Oyster-catcher .
PLOVERS: Family Charadriidae.
Piping Plover .
Cuban Snowy Plover .
Semipalmated Plover .
Wilson's Plover ... .
Mountain Plover .
Killdeer .
American Golden Plover .
Black-bellied Plover .
Ruddy Turnstone .
SNIPES and SANDPIPERS: Family Scolopacidae.
American Woodcock .
Wilson's Snipe .
Long-billed Curlew .
Northern Curlew .
Hudsonian Curlew .
Upland Plover .
Spotted Sandpiper .
Eastern Solitary Sandpiper .
Eastern Willet .
Western Willet .
Greater Yellow-legs ...
Lesser Yellow-legs .
Green-shank .
American Knot .
Purple Sandpiper .
Pectoral Sandpiper .
White-rumped Sandpiper .
Baird's Sandpiper .
Least Sandpiper ..
Red-backed Sandpiper .
Eastern Dowitcher .
Long-billed Dowitcher .
Stilt Sandpiper .
Semipalmated Sandpiper .
Western Sandpiper .
Buff-breasted Sandpiper .
Marbled Godwit .
Sanderling .
AVOCETs and STILTS: Family Recurvirostridae.
American Avocet .
Black-necked Stilt .
PHALAROPES: Family Phalaropodidae.
Red Phalarope .
Wilson's Phalarope .
Northern Phalarope .
JAEGERS: Family Stercorariidae.
Pomarine Jaeger .
Parasitic Jaeger .
Long-tailed Jaeger .

SHaematopus palliatus palliatus .

Charadrius melodus .
SCharadrius nivosus tenuirostris .
SCharadrius semipalmatus .
SPagolla wilsonia wilsonia .
. Eupoda montana .
. Oxyechus vociferus vociferus .
SPluvialis dominica dominica .
SSquatarola squatarola .
SArenaria interpres morinella .

SPhilohela minor .
SCapella delicate .
SNumenius americanus americanus .
SNumenius americanus occidentalis .
SPhaeopus hudsonicus .
SBartramia longicauda .
SActitis macularia .
STringa solitaria solitaria .
SCatoptrophorus semipalmatus semipalmatus
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus
Totanus melanoleucus .
Totanus flavipes .
Totanus nebularius .
Calidris canutus rufus .
SArquatella maritima .
Pisobia melanotos .
Pisobia fuscicollis .
. Pisobia bairdi .
SPisobia minutilla .
SPelidna alpine sakhalina .
SLimnodromus griseus griseus .
SLimnodromus griseus scolopaceus
SMicropalama himantopus .
.Ereunetes pusillus .
. Ereunetes maurii .
STryngites subruficollis .
SLimosa fedoa .
Crocethia alba .

SRecurirostra americana .
Himantopus mexicanus .

SPhalaropus fulicarius .
SSteganopus tricolor .
SLobipes lobatus .

SStercorarius pomarinus .
. Stercorarius parasiticus .
SStercorarius longicaudus .









GULLS and TERNS: Family Laridae.
Glaucous Gull .
Iceland Gull .. .
Great Black-backed Gull .
Herring Gull .
Ring-billed Gull ...
Laughing Gull .
Bonaparte's Gull .
Atlantic Kittiwake .
Gull-billed Tern .
Forster's Tern .
Common Tern .
Roseate Tern .. .
Eastern Sooty Tern .
Bridled Tern .
Least Tern .
Royal Tern .
Cabot's Tern .
Caspian Tern .
Black Tern .
Noddy Tern .
Black Skimmer .
AUKS, MURRES, and PUFFINs: Family Alcidae.
Great Auk (extinct) .
Dovekie ... ..
PIGEONs and DovEs: Family Columbidae.
White-crowned Pigeon .
Scaled Pigeon .
Zenaida Dove .
Eastern Mourning Dove .
Western Mourning Dove .
Passenger Pigeon (extinct) ..
Eastern White-winged Dove .
Eastern Ground Dove .
Key West Quail-Dove .
Ruddy Quail-Dove .
PARROTS and PAROQUETS: Family Psittacidae.
Carolina Paroquet (extinct?) .
CUCKOos and ANIs: Family Cuculidae.
Maynard's Cuckoo .
Jamaican Mangrove Cuckoo .
Yellow-billed Cuckoo .
Black-billed Cuckoo .
Smooth-billed Ani .
Groove-billed Ani .
BARN OWLS: Family Tytonidae.
American Barn Owl .
TYPICAL OWLS: Family Strigidae.
Florida Screech Owl .
Great Horned Owl .
Florida Burrowing Owl .
Florida Barred Owl .
Long-eared Owl .
Short-eared Owl .

.Larus hyperboreus .
.Larus leucopterus .
Larus marinus .
.Larus argentatus smithsonianus .
S. Larus delawarensis .
.Larus atricilla .
Larus philadelphia .
S. Rissa tridactyla tridactyla .
Gelochelidon nilotica aranea .
Sterna forsteri .
.Sterna hirundo hirundo .
.Sterna dougalli dougalli .
.Sterna fuscata fuscata .
Sterna anaethetus melanoptera
.Sterna antillarum antillarum
Thalasseus maximus maximus
Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus
.Hydroprogne caspia imperator
Chlidonias nigra surinamensis .
Anois stolidus stolidus .
.Rynchops nigra nigra .

.Plautus impennis .
Alle alle ..

Columba leucocephala .
Columba squamosa .
.Zenaida zenaida zenaida ..
.Zenaidura macroura carolinensis
Zenaidura macroura marginella.
S. Ectopistes migratorius .
S. Melopelia asiatica asiatica .
S. Columbigallina passerina passerina
.Oreopeleia chrysia .
.Oreopeleia montana .. ..

Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis

Coccyzus minor maynardi .
Coccyzus minor nesiotes .
Coccyzus americanus americanus
Coccyzus erythropthalmus .
Crotophaga ani .
Crotophaga sulcirostris sulcirostris .

Tyto alba pratincola .

Otus asio floridanus .. ..
Bubo virginianus virginianus
S Speotyto cunicularia floridana
S. Strix varia alleni .
.Asio wilsonianus .
Asio flammeus flammeus .

S. 255
S 255
S 256
S 260
S 261
S 261
S 262
S 263
S 264
S 265
S 266
S 266
S. 268
S 270
S 271
S 272
S. 273

. 275
S 275

S 275
S 277
S 277
S 280
. 280
S 282
S 283


S 286
S 288
S. 289
S 289

S 291

S 292
S 293
S. 293
S 296
. 296


GOATSUCKERS: Family Caprimulgidae.
Chuck-will's-widow .
Eastern Whip-poor-will. .
Eastern Nighthawk ..
Florida Nighthawk .
SWIFTS: Family Micropodidae.
Chimney Swift .. ....
HUMMINGBIRDS: Family Trochilidae.
Ruby-throated Hummingbird .
KINGFISHERS: Family Alcedinidae.
Eastern Belted Kingfisher .
WOODPECKERS: Family Picidae.
Southern Flicker .
Northern Flicker .
Pileated Woodpecker .
Red-bellied Woodpecker .. ..
Red-headed Woodpecker .
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker .
Southern Hairy Woodpecker .
Southern Downy Woodpecker .
Red-cockaded Woodpecker .
Ivory-billed Woodpecker .
TYRANT FLYCATCHERS: Family Tyrannidae.
Kingbird .
Gray Kingbird .
Arkansas Kingbird .
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher .
Southern Crested Flycatcher .
Northern Crested Flycatcher .
Eastern Phoebe .
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher .
Acadian Flycatcher .
Alder Flycatcher .
Eastern Wood Pewee .
Olive-sided Flycatcher .
Vermilion Flycatcher .
LARKS: Family Alaudidae.
Prairie Horned Lark .. .
SWALLOWS: Family Hirundinidae.
Bahama Swallow .
Tree Swallow .
Bank Swallow .
Rough-winged Swallow .
Barn Swallow .
Northern Cliff Swallow .
Cuban Cliff Swallow .
Purple Martin .
Cuban Martin .
JAYS and CROWS: Family Corvidae.
Southern Blue Jay .
Florida Blue Jay .
Florida Jay .
Florida Crow .
Southern Crow. .
Fish Crow .

Antrostomus carolinensis
.Antrostomus vociferus vociferus.
Chordeiles minor minor .
Chordeiles minor chapman .

Chaetura pelagica. .

.Archilochus colubris .

.Megaceryle alcyon alcyon

.Colaptes auratus auratus.
S. Colaptes auratus luteus .
S. eophloeus pileatus pileatus
Centurus carolinus .
S. Melanerpes erythrocephalus .
. Sphyrapicus various various
Dryobates villosus auduboni .
.Dryobates pubescens pubescens
.Dryobates borealis .
Campephilus principalis. .

S Tyrannus tyrannus .. ..
S Tyrannus dominicensis dominicensis
. Tyrannus verticalis ....
. Muscivora forficata ..
. Myiarchus crinitus crinitus .
. Myiarchus crinitus boreus
. Sayornis phoebe .. ...
.Empidonax flaviventris ..
SEmpidonax virescens .
.Empidonax trailli trailli
. Myiochanes virens ..
. Nuttallornis mesoleucus ..
. Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus

.Otocoris alpestris praticola .

.Callichelidon cyaneoviridis .
.Iridoprocne bicolor ..
.Riparia riparia riparia .
.Stelgidopteryx ruficollis serripennis
SHirundo erythrogaster .
. Petrochelidon albifrons albifrons
. Petrochelidon fulva cavicola .
. Progne subis subis .
.Progne cryptoleuca .

.Cyanocitta cristata cristata .
.Cyanocitta cristata semplei .
.Aphelocoma coerulescens .
Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus .
.Corvus brachyrhynchos paulus
.Corvus ossifragus ..

. 301

. 302

. 303

S 305
S 306
. 306
S. 307
S. 308
. 309
. 310
. 311
. 312

. 327

. 328
. 328
S. 332
S. 334
S. 334
S. 336

S. 336
S. 338
S. 338
. 340
. 341
S. 342


TITMICE: Family Paridae.
Florida Chickadee .
Tufted Titmouse .
NUTHATCHES: Family Sittidae.
Southern White-breasted Nuthatch
Red-breasted Nuthatch ..
Gray-headed Nuthatch ..
CREEPERS: Family Certhiidae.
Brown Creeper .
WRENS: Family Troglodytidae.
Eastern House Wren .
Western House Wren .
Eastern Winter Wren .
Bewick's Wren .. .
Carolina Wren .
Florida Wren .
Long-billed Marsh Wren .
Marian's Marsh Wren .
Worthington's Marsh Wren .
Louisiana Marsh Wren ..
Prairie Marsh Wren .
Short-billed Marsh Wren .

S. Penthestes carolinensis impiger .
S Baeolophus bicolor .

.Sitta carolinensis carolinensis .
.Sitta canadensis .
SSitta pusilla caniceps .

Certhia familiaris americana .

Troglodytes aedon aedon .
Troglodytes aedon parkmani .
.Nannus hiemalis hiemalis .
S. Thryomanes bewicki bewicki ..
Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovicianus .
Thryothorus ludovicianus miamensis
S. Telmatodyles palustris palustris.
S. Telmatodytes palustris mariana
Telmatodytes palustris griseus .
S. Telmatodytes palustris thryophilus .
S. Telmatodytes palustris iliacus .
S. Cistothorus stellaris .

Eastern Mockingbird .. Mimus polyglottos polyglottos
Catbird .. Dumetella carolinensis .
Brown Thrasher .... Toxostoma rufum... ..

. 343
. 344

. 346

. 347

. 355

. 355
. 359

THRUSHES and BLUEBIRDs: Family Turdidae.
Eastern Robin .
Southern Robin .
Wood Thrush .
Eastern Hermit Thrush .
Olive-backed Thrush .
Gray-cheeked Thrush .
Veery .
Eastern Bluebird ..
Vidi: /i Blbi A

S Turdus migratorius migratorius.
S Turdus migratorius achrusterus .
Hylocichla mustelina .
Hylocichla guttata faxoni
. Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni .
. Hylocichla minima aliciae .
. Hylocichla fuscescens fuscescens .
. Sialia sialis sialis .
Sial n *i n7 rta

ro a ue r .
KINGLETS and GNATCATCHERS: Family Sylviidae.
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. ... Polioptila caerulea caerulea .
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa satrapa .
I Eastern Ruby-crowned Kinglet Corthylio calendula calendula
WAGTAILS: Family Motacillidae.
American Pipit ... Anthus spinoletta rubescens .
Sprague's Pipit Anthus spraguei .
WAXWINGS: Family Bombycillidae.
Cedar Waxwing .. .Bombycilla cedrorum .
SHRIKES: Family Laniidae.
Loggerhead Shrike .. Lanius ludovicianus ludovicianus
STARLINGS: Family Sturnidae.
European Starling Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris

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. 364
. 364
. 365
. 365
. 366

. 367
. 368
. 369

. 370
. 371

. 371

. 372

. 373


VIREOs: Family Vireonidae.
White-eyed Vireo .
Key West Vireo .
Yellow-throated Vireo .
Blue-headed Vireo .
Mountain Vireo .
Black-whiskered Vireo .
Red-eyed Vireo .
Eastern Warbling Vireo .
HONEY CREEPERS: Family Coerebidae.
Bahama Honey Creeper .
WOOD WARBLERS: Family Compsothlypidae.
Black-and-White Warbler .
Prothonotary Warbler .
Swainson's Warbler .. .
Worm-eating Warbler .
Golden-winged Warbler .
Blue-winged Warbler .
Bachman's Warbler .
Tennessee Warbler .
Orange-crowned Warbler .
Nashville Warbler .
Southern Parula Warbler .
Northern Parula Warbler .
Western Parula Warbler .
Eastern Yellow Warbler .
Magnolia Warbler .
Cape May Warbler .
Black-throated Blue Warbler .
Cairns's Warbler .
Myrtle Warbler .
Black-throated Green Warbler .
Cerulean Warbler .
Blackburnian Warbler .
Yellow-throated Warbler .
Chestnut-sided Warbler .
Bay-breasted Warbler .
Black-poll Warbler .
Northern Pine Warbler .
Florida Pine Warbler .
Kirtland's Warbler .
Northern Prairie Warbler .
Florida Prairie Warbler .
Western Palm Warbler ..
Yellow Palm Warbler .
Oven-bird .
Northern Water-Thrush .
Grinnell's Water-Thrush .
Louisiana Water-Thrush .
Kentucky Warbler .
Connecticut Warbler .. ...
Mourning Warbler .
Maryland Yellow-throat .

SVireo griseus griseus .. 375
Vireo griseus maynardi 376
Vireo flavifrons .. 377
Vireo solitarius solitarius 378
Vireo solitarius alticola 379
Vireo calidris barbatulus ... 379
Vireo olivaceus .. 380
Vireo gilvus gilvus 382

Coereba bahamensis 382

SMniotilta varia .. 383
. Protonotaris citrea 384
SLimnothlypis swainsoni 385
SHelmitheros vermivorus .. 387
SVermivora chrysoptera 388
SVermivora pinus 388
Vermivora bachmani 389
Vermivora peregrina 390
Vermivora celata celata 391
Vermivora ruficapilla ruficapilla .391
Compsothlypis americana americana 392
SCompsothlypis americana pusilla .394
SCompsothlypis americana ramalinae 394
SDendroica aestiva aestiva 394
SDendroica magnolia 395
SDendroica tigrina. 396
SDendroica caerulescens caerulescens. 397
SDendroica caerulescens cairnsi 398
SDendroica coronata coronata ... 39
.Dendroica virens virens .. .399
SDendroica cerulea 400
. Dendroica fusca 401
Dendroica dominica dominica 402
SDendroica pensylvanica 403
SDendroica castanea .. 403
SDendroica striata 404
SDendroica pinus pinus 405
SDendroica pinus florida 406
SDendroica kirtlandi 406
SDendroica discolor discolor 407
SDendroica discolor collins .... .408'
SDendroica palmarum palmarum 409
SDendroica palmarum hypochrysea .410
Seiurus aurocapillus 411
SSeiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis .412
SSeiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 413
SSeiurus motacilla. 414
SOporornis formosus 414
SOporornis agilis ..... 415
SOporornis philadelphia ... .416
SGeothlypis trichas trichas 416


Northern Yellow-throat Geothlypis trichas brachidactyla .
Florida Yellow-throat .Geothlypis trichas ignota .
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens virens ..
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina .. ..
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis ..
American Redstart .. Setophaga ruticilla ..
WEAVER FINCHES: Family Ploceidae.
English Sparrow Passer domesticus domesticus

Bobolink .
Southern Meadowlark .
Eastern Meadowlark .
Yellow-headed Blackbird .
Eastern Red-wing .
Florida Red-wing .
Maynard's Red-wing .
Gulf Coast Red-wing .
Orchard Oriole .. .
Baltimore Oriole .
Rusty Blackbird .
Boat-tailed Grackle .
Florida Grackle .
Eastern Cowbird .
TANAGERS: Family Thraupidae.
Scarlet Tanager .
Summer Tanager .
Florida Cardinal .
Eastern Cardinal .
Rose-breasted Grosbeak .
Eastern Blue Grosbeak .
Indigo Bunting .
Painted Bunting .
Grassquit .
Melodious Grassquit .
Dickcissel .
Eastern Purple Finch .
Northern Pine Siskin .
Eastern Goldfinch .
Red Crossbill .
Red-eyed Towhee .
White-eyed Towhee .
Alabama Towhee .
Eastern Savannah Sparrow .
Eastern Grasshopper Sparrow ..
Florida Grasshopper Sparrow .
Leconte's Sparrow .
Western Henslow's Sparrow .
Eastern Henslow's Sparrow .

Dolichonyx oryzivorus .
Sturnella magna argutula .
Sturnella magna magna .
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus
Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus .
Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi
Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus .
Agelaius phoeniceus littoralis
Icterus spurius ..
Icterus galbula .
Euphagus carolinus .
Cassidix mexicanus major
Quiscalus quiscula quiscula .
Molothrus after ater .

Piranga erythromelas .
Piranga rubra rubra .

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. 426
. 426
. 427
. 428
. 429
. 429
. 430
. 431
. 432
. 433
. 434

. 435
. 436

Richmondena cardinalis floridana .
Richmondena cardinalis cardinalis .
Hedymeles ludovicianus ....
Guiraca caerulea caerulea ..
Passerina cyanea ...
Passerina ciris ...
Tiaris bicolor bicolor .. ...
Tiaris canora .......
Spiza americana .. ....
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus
Spinus pinus pinus ..
Spinus tristis tristis .. ...
Loxia curvirostra pusilla ..
Pipilo erythrophthalmus erythrophthalmus .
Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni ..
Pipilo erythrophthalmus canaster
Passerculus sandwichensis savanna.
Ammodramus savannarum australis
Ammodramus savannarum floridanus
Passerherbulus caudacutus .. ..
Passerherbulus henslowi henslowi .
Passerherbulus henslowi susurrans .



Eastern Sharp-tailed Sparrow .
Acadian Sharp-tailed Sparrow. .
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow .
Bishop's Sharp-tailed Sparrow .
Northern Seaside Sparrow ..
Macgillivray's Seaside Sparrow .. ..
Wayne's Seaside Sparrow .
Smyrna Seaside Sparrow .
Scott's Seaside Sparrow .
Wakulla Seaside Sparrow .
Howell's Seaside Sparrow .
Louisiana Seaside Sparrow .
Dusky Seaside Sparrow .
Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow .
Eastern Vesper Sparrow .
Eastern Lark Sparrow .
Pine-woods Sparrow .
Bachman's Sparrow .
Slate-colored Junco .
Eastern Chipping Sparrow .
Eastern Field Sparrow .
White-crowned Sparrow .
White-throated Sparrow .
Eastern Fox Sparrow .
Lincoln's Sparrow .
Swamp Sparrow ..
Eastern Song Sparrow .
Eastern Snow Bunting .

Wandering Albatross .
Leach's Petrel .
Red-footed Booby .
Cuban Sparrow Hawk .
Eskimo Curlew ..
Franklin's Gull .. ..
Blue-headed Quail-Dove
Green Paroquet .. .
Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker
Least Flycatcher .
Bell's Vireo .
Philadelphia Vireo .

Ammospiza caudacuta caudacuta
Ammospiza caudacuta subvirgata
Ammospiza caudacuta nelsoni
Ammospiza caudacuta diverse
Ammospiza maritima maritima
Ammospiza maritima macgillivraii.
Ammospiza maritima waynei .
Ammospiza maritima pelonota .
Ammospiza maritima peninsula
Ammospiza maritima juncicola .
Ammospiza maritima howelli
Ammospiza maritima fisher
Ammospiza nigrescens ..
Ammospiza mirabilis ..
Pooecetes gramineus gramineus .
Chondestes grammacus grammacus .
Aimophila aestivalis aestivalis .
Aimophila aestivalis bachmani
Junco hyemalis hyemalis
Spizella passerina passerina.
Spizella pusilla pusilla .
Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys
Zonotrichia albicollis ..
Passerella iliaca iliaca ..
Melospiza lincolni lincolni .
Melospiza georgiana .. ..
Melospiza melodia melodia .
Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis


. ... Diomedea exulans .
. ... Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa
. ... Sula piscator ... .
... Falco sparverioides ..
Phaeopus borealis
. ... Larus franklin ..
..... Starnoenas cyanocephala.
.. Aratinga holochlora holochlora
. Picoides arcticus .
..... Empidonax minimus .
... Vireo belli belli ..
.. Vireo philadelphicus ..



Florida occupies a unique position biologically among the States of the Union and has
been a Mecca for naturalists since the days of Bartram, a century and a half ago. Com-
prising, as it does, a long narrow peninsula projecting southward into the tropics, and
provided with myriad lakes, ponds, marshes, and tidal lagoons, it is an attractive lane of
migration for many birds and furnishes an ideal home at all seasons for immense numbers
of waterfowl, shorebirds, and swamp-loving species. Birds of these groups include the
largest and most striking elements of the avifauna, and nowhere else in North America
can be found such populous rookeries of pelicans, Water-Turkeys, egrets, herons, and
ibises. In pioneer days, and down to about 1880, the bird life of Florida was astonish-
ingly abundant, and this, in conjunction with the salubrious climate, was the means of
attracting hundreds (later thousands) of tourists, hunters, and scientific collectors to
the State.
Before the days of travel by rail, automobile, and airplane, the route of easiest access
to central and southern Florida was by steamboat on the St. Johns to Lake Monroe,
which was the head of navigation for all but the very small steamers that were able to
reach Salt Lake, about 45 miles above Lake Harney. From this point a short trip over-
land brought the traveler to the Indian River, which furnished easy entrance by an inside
channel to points farther south on the east coast. Another favorite route to central Flor-
ida was by steamer up the St. Johns and Oklawaha Rivers to Silver Spring and Lake
Harris. A vivid picture of the bird life along these waterways is presented in Edward H.
Forbush's description (1929, vol. 3, pp. xxviii-xxix)1 of his first trip to Florida in 1877.
He writes:

We took the first boat up the St. Johns River, and from there during the journey to southern Florida
we saw what no man ever will see again. Along the upper St. Johns and the Oclawaha the Florida wilder-
ness came down to the river banks and encroached upon and even overhung the stream. In many places
on the Oclawaha the semi-tropical foliage with its drapery of Spanish moss entirely overarched the water,
so that a steamboat plowing its way along the river, seemed to float in a tunnel of luxuriant verdure.
Alligators in numbers swam in streams and ponds or rested on the shores. Uncounted swarms of water-
fowl of many species inhabited the waters in innumerable multitudes. Great flocks of White Egrets
and ibises, among them the lovely Roseate Spoonbills, possessed the land. Every turn in the river
brought into view a new scene, to be scanned for novel forms of interesting life. When we arrived at
Lake George, wild ducks were scattered over the lake as far as the eye could see or the glass could make
them out; and when, later, we reached Indian River Lesser Scaup Ducks or Bluebills floated upon the
water in vast dense flocks, a mile or more in length. Shore birds were seen in multitudes along the coasts
and lagoons. Eagles, hawks and owls were common. Wild Turkeys and deer were plentiful and the
tracks of bears, panthers and wildcats could be seen on the sands.
Practically all tourists were armed with rifles, shotguns, revolvers, or all three. These armed men
lined the rails of the steamboats and shot ad libitum at alligators, waterfowl or anything that made an
1 Figures in parentheses refer to the literature citations beginning on page 476.


attractive target. There were practically no restrictions on shooting, although the steamers never stopped
to gather in the game, but left it to lie where it fell.

In addition to the great colonies of gregarious marsh- and swamp-inhabiting birds,
there are many other species of unusual interest to be found only in peninsular Florida,
such as the Flamingo, the Florida Crane, the Limpkin, the Everglade Kite, the Short-
tailed Hawk, the Florida Burrowing Owl, and (formerly) the Carolina Paroquet.
To the naturalist Florida has always been a region of great attractiveness, not only
because of its wealth of bird life and the many peculiar and interesting species comprised
in its fauna, but also because of the tropical element in the fauna, providing an associa-
tion of species not found elsewhere in the United States. As early as 1871, the classic
paper of Dr. J. A. Allen on the mammals and winter birds of east Florida directed the
attention of naturalists to the racial variations presented by the birds of the Florida
peninsula and laid the foundation for the delimitation of the life zones of the continent,
which was later worked out in greater detail and with wider application, both by him and
by Dr. C. Hart Merriam.
With the accumulation of large collections of birds' skins from Florida, initiated about
1870 by Allen and Maynard, it became evident that there existed in the peninsula several
well-marked species and many local races of wide-ranging birds, developed there under
the peculiar environment. A considerable number of these variant forms have since
been named; though some have proved too slightly characterized to be recognized in
nomenclature, most of them are now admitted to the State list.1
To the sportsman also, Florida has from early days possessed the lure of a bountiful
supply of game and a mild winter climate that permitted a long hunting season. The
inevitable result has been a great depletion in the numbers of the game animals, particu-
larly of the larger species. Quail are still found in abundance on the prairies and pine
flats, and wild turkeys have survived in the more remote sections longer than in most
other parts of the Eastern States. Ducks and geese, while much less numerous than in
primitive times, are still plentiful during the winter on the extensive marshes and water
areas of the State.
In Pleistocene times, Florida evidently possessed a varied and abundant avifauna.
Sixty-five species of birds found in fossil deposits in various parts of the State are listed by
Wetmore (1931). Of these, 53 species are now living in Florida and 3 are extinct;2 the
following are living species, formerly, but not at present, found in the State:
Manx Shearwater (Puffnus puffinus) California Vulture (Gymnogyps californianus)
Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) Whooping Crane (Grus americana)
Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus buccinator) Wood Rail (Aramides cajanea)
South American Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura A South American eagle (Geranoa&tus sp.)

The list of Florida birds, herein treated, numbers 423, comprising 362 species and 61
additional subspecies. A hypothetical list is appended of 12 species of birds that have
been recorded on evidence considered to be insufficient.
1 See list of species and subspecies originally described from Florida, p. 38.
2 The extinct species are a teal, Querquedula foridana; a turkey Meleagris tridens; and a large condor.
Teratornis merriami, originally discovered in the asphalt pits at Rancho La Brea, California.


The birds of the State may be divided into the following categories: Permanent resi-
dents, 134; summer residents (departing southward in autumn), 31-a total of 165 breed-
ing species and subspecies; winter residents (those species that arrive in autumn from
more northern breeding grounds), 136; regular transient visitors (migratory species pass-
ing through the State in spring and fall), 69; accidental or casual visitors, 50; species ex-
tinct within historic times, 3.
While the number of breeding species is not large in comparison with that of some
other States, the combined lists of winter residents and of permanent residents total
270-an unusually large winter population. This, of course, is accounted for by the
mildness of the winter climate and the abundance of bird food available.
The Florida peninsula furnishes a highway for thousands of the smaller land birds
during their migrations in spring and autumn to and from the West Indies and South
America. Even greater numbers of migrants, as Cooke (1915, p. 13) has shown, pass
over northwestern Florida in their flights across the Gulf of Mexico, though by no means
all the species, and only a fraction of the individuals, alight on Florida soil. The light-
houses along the coasts annually lure to destruction many hundreds and sometimes
thousands of migrating birds, which, confused by foggy weather and dazzled by the light
of the lantern, dash themselves against the glass or the iron framework around the light.
The largest flights of migrants are reported from the lighthouses off the southern tip of
the peninsula-Sombrero Key and Alligator Reef. The frequent tropical hurricanes that
blow across the Florida peninsula are doubtless responsible for the occurrence in the
State of a number of Antillean species, such as the Anis, the Jacana, the two Grassquits,
the Bahama Honey Creeper, the Bahama Swallow, the Cuban Cliff Swallow, the Cuban
Martin, and several West Indian doves and pigeons.

Many of the data on which this work is based were obtained by the author and his
assistants during eight trips into various parts of the State;1 these were supplemented by
field notes of other members of the Biological Survey staff and by the incomparable
series of records in the files of that organization. In addition, more than a score of bird
students and collectors have given their hearty cooperation by generously making their
field notes available for examination or by collecting important specimens on request.
Besides this original material, the author has carefully scanned the literature treating of
Florida birds, and has examined thousands of Florida specimens in various museums
and private collections.
Records of the migratory movements of birds in Florida have been coming to the
Biological Survey from a score of voluntary observers over a period of 46 years, and this
has resulted in the accumulation of much important information on migration. All
these records have been used in summarizing the periodical movements of migratory
The general ranges of the species have been abridged from the fourth edition of the
American Ornithologists' Union's Check-List of North American Birds, and the scientific
names agree in most cases with that list. The few exceptions consist in the inclusion of
1 For the itinerary of these trips, see pp. 36-37.


certain subspecies not recognized by the A. O. U. Committee, but which, as a result of
special studies, are considered recognizable.

The thirty-seven illustrations in color and the two plates in black and white of soaring
hawks are reproduced from original paintings in oil and watercolor by Francis L. Jaques,
of the American Museum of Natural History. It has been the intention to portray the
more striking and unusual birds characteristic of Florida, together with those other
species most likely to be confused in the field.
It has usually been the custom to group on one color plate birds of one family. In
the field, however, an observer naturally sees numbers of different kinds of birds asso-
ciated in their respective habitats. In fifteen of the paintings, therefore, Mr. Jaques has
depicted varieties of habitat areas, each with the species most often found there. It is
hoped that this innovation in the illustration of a book on birds may prove pleasing
and helpful to the reader.
The other illustrations are from photographs, many of them furnished by cooperating
The paragraph on recognition marks has been included to assist amateur bird
students in the identification of birds in the field or of specimens in the hand. These
descriptions have been prepared by the author from museum specimens, and in order to
have a definite standard for the names of colors, Ridgway's "Color Standards and Color
Nomenclature" has been followed whenever possible. Since this book, however, is not
readily accessible to the general reader, the color names used by Ridgway have in some
instances been followed by an explanatory term in parentheses. The measurements
have been taken mainly from Coues's "Key" and Forbush's "Birds of Massachusetts."
The paragraph on food has been omitted in the case of some of the rarer species and in
those species concerning which no definite information is available.

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the many ornithologists who
have aided in the preparation of this work. Among those who have contributed field
notes or photographs are the following: Miss Lillian Arnold, Edward J. Brown, Amos W.
Butler, Oscar E. Baynard, John H. Baker, A. C. Bent, W. S. Blatchley, Thomas D.
Burleigh, Mrs. Hiram Byrd, Dr. Frank M. Chapman, Bayard H. Christy, Edward J.
Court, Philip A. DuMont, Elon H. Eaton, L. E. Ekvall, H. L. Ferguson, Earle R. Greene,
Ludlow Griscom, E. G. Holt, W. J. Hoxie, S. R. Ingersoll, B. M. Kinser, Miss Phoebe
Knappen, C. J. Maynard, Miss Catherine A. Mitchell, John T. Nichols, C. J. Pennock,
James Savage, Wilbur F. Smith,Herbert L. Stoddard, F. M. Uhler, and 0. C. Van Hyning.
Especial mention should be made of the assistance given by R. J. Longstreet, of
Daytona Beach, D. J. Nicholson, of Orlando, and Francis M. Weston, of Pensacola, in
furnishing extensive field notes based on long experience in their respective localities.
Dr. Paul Bartsch has permitted the use of his unpublished records from the Florida Keys
and has furnished photographs taken on the Tortugas. W. W. Worthington, of Shelter
Island Heights, New York, loaned for examination his catalogues containing records of


more than 7,000 birds collected in Florida. Herbert W. Brandt, of Cleveland, Ohio, and
William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Michigan, furnished original data and photographs, in
addition to financial assistance in carrying on field investigations; John B. Semple, of
Coconut Grove, provided transportation and personal assistance on a field trip to Cape
Sable; Dr. Charles T. Simpson, of Little River, and Charles A. Mosier, of Miami, greatly
assisted in studies of the flora of south Florida. R. W. Williams, in addition to preparing
the chapter on bird protection in Florida included in this volume, furnished many original
notes and generously made available a complete series of bibliographic references to
Florida birds culled with painstaking care from the files of Forest and Stream and The
American Field.
For the loan of specimens in their charge and for other courtesies acknowledgment is
made to Outram Bangs and James L. Peters, of the Museum of Comparative Zo6logy,
Cambridge; Dr. Frank M. Chapman, of the American Museum of Natural History, New
York City; W. E. Clyde Todd, of the Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; T. Van Hyning, of
the Florida State Museum, at Gainesville; Arthur H. Helme, of the Brooklyn Institute
Museum; and Charles H. Rogers, of the Princeton (New Jersey) University Museum.
In the preparation of the book and in the identification of specimens of Florida birds,
various members of the staff of the Biological Survey have freely rendered assistance.
John H. Baker, of New York City, acting as the representative of the guarantor, has
offered many valuable suggestions and has given generously of his time in handling many
details in arranging for publication of the book.



The earliest recorded observations on Florida birds, so far as I have been able to
learn, are those of the French explorer Jean Ribaut, who landed at the mouth of the St.
Johns River on May 1, 1562. His report of the expedition has been preserved in the
British Museum and has recently been reprinted by the Florida State Historical Society
(Connor, 1927). In it Ribaut describes the appearance of the country and mentions a
number of birds seen. He called the river the "River of May," and set up at its mouth
a monument to claim the region for the king of France. A granite shaft was recently
erected there to mark the event; the town at that point is now called Mayport. In the
English translation of Ribaut's account, we read:

And the sight of the faire medowes is a pleasure not able to be expressed with tonge, full of herons,
corleux, bitters bitternss], mallardes, egertes [egrets], woodkockes, and of all other kinds of small birds,
with hartes, hyndes, buckes, wild swyne, and sondry other wild beastes Also there be cunys, hares,
guynia cockes [turkeys ?] in marvelous numbre, a great dele fairer and better than be oures .

In 1763 appeared a small volume by William Roberts entitled "An Account of the
First Discovery and Natural History of Florida," in which it is stated that "Birds are
here in great plenty, such as partridges, jays, pigeons, turtle doves, thrushes, crows,
hawks, herons, cranes, geese, ducks, and an infinite number of others."
Another early work on the State is that by Dr. William Stork who resided for some
years on a plantation on the eastern shore of Lake George. In 1766 he published a small
volume entitled "Account of East Florida," in which he mentions briefly a few birds-
wild turkeys, pheasants (?), American partridges, wild pigeons, cranes, curlews, pelicans,
sea-gulls, and some others.
In the winter of 1765-66, John Bartram, who had been appointed by King
George III "Botanist for the Floridas," made a journey from St. Augustine "up the
River St. Johns as far as the Lakes," taking with him his son William. Portions of his
journal made on this trip were published in 1769 by William Stork in his Description
of East Florida; the journal treats the flora in detail, but mentions birds only
Captain Bernard Romans, in 1771, explored nearly the entire coast of Florida, round-
ing Cape Sable, visiting the Lower Keys, and sailing up the west coast to Pensacola. He
also traveled across the peninsula, from Tampa Bay to St. Augustine. His book, A
Concise Natural History of East and West Florida, published in 1775, contains extended
descriptions of the country and of the Indians, but only brief mention of birds. At the
mouth of the St. Lucie River he killed numbers of deer and turkeys.


In April, 1774, William Bartram, under the patronage of Doctor Fothergill, a wealthy
Quaker naturalist of England, began a series of explorations of great importance. His
account of his journeys (1791) has become a classic and contains interesting and valuable
descriptions of the flora and fauna of the regions visited. Starting from Cow-ford, on the
St. Johns River (near the present site of Jacksonville) in a small boat, for which he paid
3 guineas, he sailed alone up the river and into Lake George. Of this trip he says:
"My little vessel being furnished with a good sail, and having fishing tackle, a neat light
fusee, powder and ball, I found myself well equipped for my voyage, about 100 miles to
the trading house." Camping on the shores of Lake George, he tells of hanging some
pieces of broiled fish left from his supper on the snags of some shrubs overhead, and while
he was asleep they were carried off by a wolf. He attributes his escape from bodily harm
to the protecting care of his "guardian angel." After the completion of this boat trip,
he made a journey overland with some companions to the Alachua Savanna, and later a
more extended journey to Tallahassee and Cuscowilla. In August, 1777, he visited
Pensacola, going there from Mobile in a sailing vessel.
Although primarily a botanist and engaged in collecting plants, Bartram recorded
many observations of birds. Writing of his experiences soon after he entered Florida,
near Amelia Island, he says:
We pitched our tent under the shelter of a forest of Live Oaks, Palms, and Sweet Bays; and having
in the course of the day, procured plenty of sea fowl, such as curlews, willets, snipes, sand birds, and
others, we had them dressed for supper, and seasoned with excellent oysters Our repose, however,
was incomplete, from the stings of musquetoes, the roaring of crocodiles [alligators] and the continual
noise and restlessness of the sea fowl, thousands of them having their roosting-places very near us, particu-
larly loons of various species, herons, pelicans, Spanish curlews, etc.; all promiscuously lodging together,
and in such incredible numbers, that the trees were entirely covered.
Of his journey up the St. Johns River, he writes: "Parroquets are commonly seen
hovering and fluttering on their tops [cypress trees]; they delight to shell the balls, its
seed being their favourite food."
Concerning the region near the Alachua Savanna, Bartram says (op. cit., p. 247):
There was a little hommock or islet containing a few acres of high ground, at some distance from the
shore, in the drowned savanna, almost every tree of which was loaded with nests of various tribes of
water fowl, as ardea alba, ar. violacea, ar. cerulea, ar. stellaris cristata, ar. stellaris maxima, ar. virescens,
colymbus, tantalus, mergus and others; these nests were all alive with young, generally almost full grown,
not yet fledged, but covered with whitish or cream coloured soft down. We visited this bird isle, and
some of our people taking sticks or poles with them, soon beat down, and loaded themselves with these
squabs, and returned to camp; they were almost a lump of fat, and made us a rich supper; some we
roasted, and made others into a pilloe with rice; most of them, except the bitterns and tantali, were so
excessively fishy in taste and smell, I could not relish them.
Again, after describing a "savanna crane" that had been killed by the party, he says:
"We had this fowl dressed for supper and it made excellent soup; nevertheless, as long as
I can get any other necessary food, I shall prefer their seraphic music in the ethereal
skies, and my eyes and understanding gratified in observing their economy and social
communities, in the expansive green savannas of Florida." Bartram's description of


this bird formed the basis for the name now in use for the Florida Crane, Grus canadensis
At that early date little was known about the migrations of birds. Bartram, how-
ever, had observed the migratory movements with some care, and in his book he gives a
list of 215 species, indicating (a) those that migrate north to Pennsylvania to breed;
(b) those that breed farther north and winter in Pennsylvania, the Carolinas, and Flori-
da; (c) those that reach Florida and Carolina from the south and breed but do not pass
farther north; (d) those that are permanent residents in Carolina and Florida; and (e)
those that are permanent residents in Pennsylvania. His list of permanent residents in
Florida and Carolina numbers 20 species, and that of migratory species summering there,
15. Many of the species given in the other lists probably were observed in Florida, but
can not with certainty be accredited to the State.
The names used by Bartram are in many cases quite unlike those now in use, but the
majority of the birds are identifiable, either by the names themselves or from the brief
descriptions that accompany them. Dr. Elliott Coues (1875) studied the list with great
care and was able to identify all but 52 of the species. Bartram described the Limpkin,
or "crying bird," as Tantalus pictus; the White Ibis in adult plumage as Tantalus albus,
and in immature plumage as Tantalus versicolor-both called "Spanish curlew"; and
described the Wood Ibis as Tantalus loculator-called "wood pelican." He also de-
scribed two supposedly new species of vultures. One was the well-known Black Vulture,
or Carrion Crow; the other was his famous "painted vulture," Vultur sacra, an apparently
mythical species having some of the characters of the King Vulture of South America
(Gypagus papa), but differing from it in having a white tail and "a large portion of the
stomach hanging down on the breast, in the likeness of a sack or half wallet." These
vultures he reported as gathering in numbers on the prairies after a fire to feed on "roasted
serpents, frogs, and lizards." No such bird has been seen by later observers, and we are
forced to the conclusion that Bartram in this case drew on his imagination or repeated
some tale related to him by others.


After Bartram's explorations there was a cessation of ornithological activities in
Florida for many years. In 1795, Louis Bosc described and named the Florida Jay, but
the source of his information is not known.
Vieillot, well known French ornithologist, spent some two years in America early in
the 19th century, collecting specimens and obtaining information that he used in his
work on American birds. In the introduction to this book (1807, p. 3), he writes of hav-
ing collected in Florida, but no details of his visit are recorded. In 1817, he described
the Florida Jay, under the name Corvus cyaneus, based without doubt on a specimen taken
by himself.
In February and March, 1818, George Ord, of Philadelphia, patron of Alexander
Wilson, journeyed to Florida in company with William McClure, Thomas Say, and Titian
R. Peale, the last a youth of 18 years. They ascended the St. Johns River to "Picolata"
[Palatka], and crossed from there to St. Augustine on foot, where they presented their


passports to the Governor of Florida, which was then a Spanish province. On account of
the hostility of the Indians they were forced to give up further explorations and return
home to Philadelphia.1 At the meetings of the Philadelphia Academy on May 19 and
26 of that year, Ord presented brief papers on the habits of the Boat-tailed Grackle and
the Florida Jay.
Titian R. Peale, a talented young artist and enthusiastic naturalist, was engaged by
Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1824 to go to Florida in search of new or rare species of
birds. He kept a manuscript diary of his journey and this was found many years later
by S. N. Rhoads in a shop in Philadelphia. After passing into the possession of Colonel
John E. Thayer, it was presented by him to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, where
presumably it still is, though unfortunately it can not now be found. Bonaparte (1825,
p. 28) recorded the birds that Peale had added to the Florida fauna, but omitted any
statement of their habits or of the localities where they were taken. These were the
White-tailed Kite, White-crowned Pigeon, Zenaida Dove, and Limpkin-the last two
described as new. He also named an egret for Peale, Ardea pealii, but this is now known
to be the white phase of the Reddish Egret. The details of Peale's journey are not
known, but his capture of the Zenaida Dove indicates that he must have gone to the
Florida Keys, since this species has never been found on the mainland.
John Lee Williams published a small volume in 1827 entitled "A View of West
Florida," which contains a list of 119 species of birds accredited to the State. He ad-
mits that his ornithology was very imperfect, but mentions those birds that are most
common. On comparison of his list with that of Bartram (1791) it is evident from the
similarity of the Latin names and the arrangement that Williams copied largely from
Bartram, and he added practically no new information. In his preface he states that he
had resided for seven years in Florida and had "made a minute survey of the coast, from
St. Andrew's Bay to the Suwannee, as well as of the interior of the country in which
Tallahassee is situated."
Ten years later, in 1837, Williams published another book on The Territory of Florida,
covering the entire State. He says:
I have traversed the country in various directions and have coasted the whole shore of the Peninsula,
from Pensacola to St. Mary's, examining, with minute attention, the various clusters of Keys or Islets,
that are grouped on the margin of the coast. I have ascended many of the rivers, explored the lagoons
and bays, traced the ancient improvements, scattered ruins and its natural productions, by land and
by water.
His geographical information is detailed and apparently accurate, but he was no
ornithologist. In this volume he listed 77 species, with few annotations, made up from
his previous list, with some omissions and a few additions. Many of the names are
quaint and there are numerous typographical errors. Evidently the large birds im-
pressed him most, for he devotes a paragraph each to the Sandhill Crane, the Spoonbill,
and the Flamingo. Of the Water-Turkey he says: "It is supposed to be the Ibis of the
Egyptians. It haunts the streams and lakes of the interior. These birds usually sit
over the water on some pendant limb, from which they suddenly drop, when disturbed,
and sink to the bottom, where they may be seen walking, if the water be clear."
I Cf. Weiss and Ziegler, "Thomas Say," pp. 54-60, 1931.


Although three volumes of Audubon's Ornithological Biography had been published
by this time, Williams's work shows no evidence of his having consulted them.
In the spring of 1830, Thomas Nuttall, botanist and ornithologist, made a journey
through the Southern States, from Charleston to northern Alabama, then south to west-
ern Florida and into southern Georgia. So far as known, no account of the trip has been
published, and our knowledge of his itinerary is fragmentary, gathered from casual refer-
ences in his Manual (1832-1834). He refers several times to observations made in
western Florida in the month of March, and mentions seeing the Carolina Wren at

John James Audubon, our greatest pioneer ornithologist, had long desired to explore
"the Floridas"; and in the winter of 1831-32 he was enabled to do so. Leaving Wash-
ington about October 15, 1831, with two assistants-Henry Ward, an English taxi-
dermist, and George Lehman, a Swiss landscape painter-he stopped for field work at
Charleston, and there made the acquaintance of the Rev. John Bachman, who took the
party under his hospitable roof. They remained there about a month, and thus began
the lifelong friendship between Audubon and Bachman which so profoundly influenced
the careers of both men. On November 15, the party sailed for Florida on the Govern-
ment schooner Argus. On November 24 they were at St. Augustine (Audubon writing
to Richard Harlan) and here they spent about three weeks. After sailing down the
Matanzas River about 35 miles they were entertained for 10 days at the plantation of
General Hernandez.
On Christmas morning they set out afoot for the plantation of John Bulow, 15 miles
farther south. On December 28, they made a trip with Mr. Bulow down the Halifax
River to a spot called Live Oak Landing. Here they ran into a cold "northeaster"
that blew most of the water out of the river and marooned the party on a mud flat.
Describing hig experiences, Audubon writes (1832b):
The wind freshening, the cold augmenting, the provisions diminishing, the waters lowering, all-all
depreciating except our enterprising dispositions. We found ourselves fast in the mud about 300 yards
from a marshy shore, without the least hope of being able to raise a fire, for no trees except palm trees
were near, and the grand diable himself could not burn one of them. Our minds were soon made up what
to do-what? Why, roll ourselves in our cloaks, and lay down, the best way we could, at the bottom of
our light and beautiful barque. Good God, what a night! To sleep was impossible; the cold increased
with the breeze, and every moment seemed an hour but the morn came, clear as ever morn was
and the north-easter as cold as ever wind blew in this latitude. Our only resort was to leap into
the mire, waist deep, and to push the barque to a point, some 500 or 600 yards, where a few scrubby trees
seem to have grown to save our lives on this occasion. "Push, boys, push! Push for your lives!"
cry the generous Bulow, and the poor Audubon. "All hands push." It took us two hours and a
half to reach the point .

After more wading they finally reached a solid shore and abandoned the boat, walking
back to Bulow's home.
On January 6, 1832, the party went to Spring Garden Creek and Dexter's Lake,
where Audubon suffered further disappointment in the loss of a pair of ibises which he
believed to be new to science, but which he was unable to recover because of the muddy


bottom of the pool into which they had fallen. His impressions of northern Florida
were, on the whole, rather unfavorable. He writes on this occasion (1832c):
Here I am in the Floridas, thought I, a country that received its name from the odours wafted from
the orange groves and which from my childhood I have consecrated in my imagination as a garden
of the United States. A garden, where all that is not mud, mud, mud, is sand, sand, sand; where the
fruit is so sour that it is not eatable, and where in place of singing birds and golden fishes, you have a
species of ibis that you cannot get when you have shot it, and alligators, snakes, and scorpions.
And yet, judged by present day conditions, he must have had good success in collect-
ing. At one place he says: "The birds, generally speaking, appear wild and few-you
must be aware that I call birds few when I shoot less than 100 per day." However, as
Doctor Herrick has pointed out, most of the birds killed were utilized, either made into
skins and sent to European museums or kept in his private collection to be used in de-
scribing the variations in the species. Large numbers of anatomical specimens, also,
were preserved for MacGillivray's use in the technical studies that he made for Audubon's
Early in February a voyage was made in the Government schooner Spark from St.
Augustine into the St. Johns River, to a point about 100 miles from the mouth. On
February 12, however, the vessel, being in need of repairs, was suddenly recalled, and
Audubon thereupon engaged two men to take him and his two assistants in a smaller
boat by a short cut to St. Augustine. Traveling all day, about 40 miles, they landed
where they expected to find a wagon, but being disappointed, one of the party was left
in charge of the baggage, while Audubon and the other assistant, with their Newfound-
land dog, started to walk to St. Augustine, a distance of 18 miles. Night overtook them
and a violent thunderstorm descended upon them, but they kept on and finally arrived
at their hotel, drenched and mud-covered.
On April 15, 1832, the opportunity came to visit southern Florida, and on that date
Audubon's party proceeded down the coast in the revenue cutter Marion, commanded by
Robert Day. There is no record of any explorations by them along the east coast until
they reached Indian Key on April 24. During May, Audubon visited Key West, Mule
Keys, the Tortugas, and Sand Key, 6 miles south of Cape Sable. At Sand Key he
found birds very abundant, and recorded as breeding there the White Ibis, Brown Peli-
can, Purple (Little Blue?) Heron, Louisiana Heron, White Heron, Green Heron, Purple
Gallinule, Florida Gallinule, Cardinal Grosbeak, and pigeons (White-crowned?). Of
this locality he writes (1834, vol. 2, pp. 316, 345):
The flocks of birds that covered the shelly beaches, and those hovering overhead, so astonished us
that we could for awhile scarcely believe our eyes. The first volley procured a supply of food sufficient
for two days' consumption. Our first fire among a crowd of the Great Godwits laid prostrate 65 of
these birds. Rose-colored Curlews stalked gracefully beneath the mangroves. Purple Herons rose at
almost every step we took, and each cactus supported the nest of a White Ibis.
On Sand Key, May 28, 1832, Audubon shot three European Greenshanks; since that
time no other specimens have been obtained in America. In these waters, also, he made
the acquaintance of the Great White Heron, which he described in 1835 in his Ornithologi-
cal Biography. On certain of the keys near Indian Key he found the Zenaida Dove breed-
ing, and on Key West, the Key West Quail-Dove, both apparently in some numbers; later


collectors have failed to find either species breeding there, and only three specimens of
the Quail-Dove have since been taken in Florida. Audubon mentions having filled a
cask with water "from a fine well, long since dug in the sand of Cape Sable, either by
Seminole Indians or pirates," but apparently he did no hunting on the mainland shore.
He thus missed the opportunity to secure the Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow, which was not
discovered for nearly a hundred years (1918).


Following Audubon's intensive studies in the State, very little was added to the
knowledge of Florida birds for more than a decade. This was perhaps due in part to
the disturbed state of the country during the war with the Indians.
One of the first expeditions into the Everglades was conducted not primarily for
exploration or for nature studies, but in search of Indians, during the Seminole War in
1842. The expedition, which was under the United States Navy, consisted of 83 sailors
and marines, with their officers, and one negro, one Indian, one squaw, and one papoose.
They traveled in 16 canoes, which at times had to be hauled through the saw grass.
Entering the Everglades a little north of Miami, the expedition worked northward along
the eastern side of the glades to Lake Okeechobee, thence coasted the southern and west-
ern shores of the lake, past Fish-eating Creek, and up the Kissimmee River to Lake
Tohopekaliga, and returned by much the same route.
George Henry Preble, then a young midshipman (later a rear admiral) commanding
one of the divisions, kept a diary of the trip, in which almost daily he entered notes on the
birds seen or shot for food. Unfortunately, this was not published until long after his
death (Preble, 1905, pp. 26-46). It presents a graphic picture of primitive conditions
in this then remote and practically unexplored wilderness. A few quotations from it
will serve to indicate the abundance of the bird life there:
Sunday, March 6-[on Fish-eating Creek] saw immense flocks of cranes [herons], pink spoonbills,
curlew [ibis], and wild turkeys in plenty. The day was rendered harmonious by the warblings of
multitudes of feathered choristers, and the night hideous with the splash of alligators, hooting of owls,
and screaming of unquiet night-birds.
Monday, March 7.-At sundown landed and pitched our tents under a cypress grove and feasted
sumptuously on wild turkey, broiled and fried curlew, plover, and teal, stewed crane, grecian ladies
[Water-Turkey] and fried fish, our spoils of the day.
On the lower Kissimmee River Preble mentions seeing large flocks of "green paro-
quets" and immense flocks of "curlew" (White Ibis) "flying in two irregular columns,
each apparently miles in length." The expedition subsisted largely on birds and other
game killed along the way. On one day, in the Everglades, he writes: "Captured forty
white cranes [egrets], and might have taken a thousand had I wanted, and hats full of
eggs; also a dozen water turkeys and some fish."
Edward Harris, of Moorestown, New Jersey, friend and patron of Audubon, visited
southern Florida in the spring of 1844, and on April 29, near the head of the Miami
River, discovered the Everglade Kite and collected the first specimens taken in the
United States. No further details of his trip seem to have been recorded.


Four years later, in May, 1848, John Krider, well-known taxidermist of Philadelphia,
conducted an expedition to Florida, working at Miami, Key West, and Charlotte Harbor.
Dr. A. L. Heermann, ornithologist, later connected with the Pacific Railroad Surveys,
was in the party, and at Charlotte Harbor where most of his collecting was done, he
obtained the first specimens of the Black-whiskered Vireo taken in the United States.
William Gambel, ornithologist, and associate of Nuttall, is known to have visited
Florida in 1848, but no record of his trip has been found. Possibly he was with Krider
and Heermann during a part of their journey.
During the decade from 1850-1860 Dr. Henry Bryant, ornithologist, of Boston,
traveled extensively in Florida, but little seems to be recorded as to the dates or details
of his trips. His most extended paper on his Florida observations (1859a), presented,
in his absence, before the Boston Society of Natural History on January 19, 1859, treats
of 25 species and contains full notes on the habits of many little-known Florida birds,
including Audubon's Caracara, the Florida Jay, Limpkin, Florida Crane, Wood Ibis,
Great White Heron, and Brown Pelican. Scanning the localities mentioned in the paper
we learn that Doctor Bryant resided at New Smyrna; that he explored the St. Johns
River from its mouth to Lake Harney; visited Pelican Island, in Indian River; ascended
the St. Sebastian River to its head; was at Jupiter Inlet and on the Miami River; and
visited Sandy Key, near Cape Sable, the Florida Keys, and the Tortugas. He found the
Ivory-billed Woodpecker abundant near Enterprise and the Roseate Spoonbill breeding
in great numbers at Pelican Island-so numerous that a hunter was reported to have
killed 60 in a day.
In the German ornithological journal, Naumannia (1854), there is a brief article
by Alexander Gerhardt, who was living in Florida at the time, giving a running account
of a number of birds he observed on February 23 of that year, at the mouth of the St.
Johns River.
Gustavus Wiirdemann, in charge of tidal observations of the United States Coast
Survey on the Florida reefs and Gulf of Mexico, from 1856 to the time of his death in
1859, devoted considerable energy to collecting birds. During those years, he sent to
the Smithsonian Institution 188 specimens of birds obtained on the Tortugas, the Florida
Keys, Key Biscayne, Amelia Island, the lower St. Johns River, and at Charlotte Harbor
and Cedar Keys. Among these were the Noddy and Sooty Terns, Limpkin, Man-o'-war-
bird, Ani, White-crowned Pigeon, Flamingo, and other rare or interesting species. His
notes (1861, p. 426) on the birds' habits contained much that was new, and his account of
pursuing and capturing alive about a hundred Flamingoes, which by reason of having
molted their wing feathers were unable to fly, is most interesting. About 500 birds were
seen in the flock discovered among the small keys near Indian Key. One of the herons
collected by Wirdemann was named by Professor Baird as a new species, Ardea wilrde-
manni, but this is now believed to be a hybrid between the Great White and the Great
Blue Herons. A specimen of the Bahama Honey Creeper obtained on Indian Key
was made the type of Certhiola bairdii by Cabanis; this is now referred to Coereba
From March 14 to April 7, 1859, Dr. James G. Cooper, author of Ornithology of
California, collected birds on the Miami River, as is indicated by the records of 93 speci-


mens listed in the catalogue of the United States National Museum, though apparently
he never published anything about the trip.
Dr. Joseph B. Holder, later connected with the American Museum of Natural His-
tory, was medical officer at Fort Jefferson, Dry Tortugas, from 1859 to 1869, and some
years later he published articles in The American Sportsman (1874, pp. 276, 290) on the
habits of the Frigate Bird and Brown Pelican observed at that station.
George Cavendish Taylor, an English zoologist, was in Florida from March 24 to
April 18, 1861, collecting birds at New Smyrna, Enterprise, Orange Mills (near Palatka),
and along the St. Johns River. His report, published in The Ibis (1862, p. 127), lists 61
species observed and contains many notes on their habits. He obtained a few Paroquets
but no Ivory-billed Woodpeckers. Roseate Spoonbills were breeding then on the Indian
River and some young individuals were brought to him by the natives.
John Muir, while on a thousand-mile walk in the fall of 1867 from Louisville, Ken-
tucky, to the Gulf, crossed Florida from Fernandina to Cedar Keys. Arriving there on
October 23, he was taken seriously ill with typhoid fever, and in a weakened condition
was obliged to remain until January, when he sailed for Cuba on a lumber schooner.
As indicated by the notes in his published journal (1916), Muir was chiefly interested in
the plant life of the country, but although not acquainted with many of the birds, he
mentions a number seen at Cedar Keys, including pelicans, geese, Robins, Bluebirds,
Mockingbirds, Mourning Doves, and "the delightful Brown Thrashers." The Crows,
he remarks, "are here, some of them cawing with a foreign accent." His well-known
charming literary style is illustrated by a quotation from his journal at Cedar Keys:
It is delightful to observe the assembling of these feathered people from the woods and reedy isles;
herons white as wave-tops, or blue as the sky, winnowing the warm air on wide quiet wing; pelicans com-
ing with baskets to fill, and the multitude of the smaller sailors of the air, swift as swallows, gracefully
taking their places at Nature's family table for their daily bread. Happy birds!

The expedition conducted by J. A. Allen in the winter of 1868-69 marked the be-
ginning of intensive studies of the Florida avifauna. During that season, for a period of
three months, he made extensive collections along the St. Johns River, between Jackson-
ville and Enterprise. Of this trip, Doctor Allen writes (1916, p. 20):
This journey was made, with two volunteer assistants [Rev. Thomas Marcy and J. E. Brundage], in
a ship's yawl fitted with a large sail. As the country was then only slightly settled above Palatka, our
boat was our home and base of supplies, but at times we occupied rude huts that had been deserted by
their former occupants. Parakeets were still abundant, and alligators had almost undisputed possession
of the bayous and river banks.
Large series of specimens were obtained for the Museum of Comparative Zoilogy,
which he was then representing, and these furnished the basis for Doctor Allen's epochal
paper (1871) on variation and life zones.
During the same winter that Allen was in Florida (1868-69), Charles J. Maynard,
naturalist, of West Newton, Massachusetts, began a long series of observations and collec-
tions in the State, which led eventually to the publication of an important work, The


Birds of Eastern North America. His account (1881, p. 181) of his initial experiences in
Florida shows his enthusiasm for ornithology and his method of approach:
On the thirty-first day of December, 1868, I found myself for the first time, gun in hand, in the piny
woods of Florida. As this was then, comparatively speaking, an unknown section to ornithologists, I
was naturally anxious to find what birds occurred there. I had not gone far when I saw a Flycatcher
perched on the lower branch of a pine, but some distance above my head; this I instantly shot, and, upon
picking it up, was a little disappointed at finding that it was a Phoebe, for after traveling so far I expected
to find something with which I was not quite so familiar, but later in the day I secured several fine birds
that I had never seen living before, and as I always consider it necessary to actually shoot every species,
in order to be absolutely sure of their identification, I was contented for I had proved beyond a doubt
that this Flycatcher wintered in Florida.

This first expedition, described by him in a series of articles in the American Sports-
man for 1874, was made in a sailboat from Jacksonville to Mandarin (December 30-
January 26), thence by steamer to Lake Harney (January 28-31), overland by wagon to
Sand Point on the Indian River, and across by boat to Haulover Canal, where a perma-
nent camp was established (February 7). Here he remained until March 19, when he
sailed north through Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River to "Beauleaugh's Landing," 1
then went by wagon to Long's Landing on Matanzas River, and from there to St.
Augustine in a sailboat. His camp on Indian River was just north of the Haulover
Canal and about a mile and a half from the famous Dummitt's Grove on Mosquito
Lagoon. The specimens taken there were labeled "Dummitt's" and many of them were
listed in Alien's paper on Mammals and Winter Birds of East Florida (1871). May-
nard's account of the trip (1874b; 1928b) contains many interesting details of their
experiences, as well as an outline of the life of Captain Dummitt.
Maynard went to Florida again in the fall of 1870, this time accompanied by Henry
W. Henshaw, later chief of the Biological Survey. They arrived at Cedar Keys on
November 6, but Maynard, finding conditions rather unsatisfactory for collecting, left
after a few days for Key West, where he stayed from November 11 to January 1. On
January 4, 1871, he visited Indian Key, and on January 8 he and Henshaw established
themselves at Miami, where they worked together until April 22, collecting large series
of birds, after which Maynard and his wife started on a cruise among the Florida Keys
to Key West, which lasted until May 1. While at Key West, on December 1, 1870,
Maynard took a specimen of the Mountain Plover-the first one known from east of the
Mississippi River. In the Everglades, near the head of the Miami River, he and Hen-
shaw made the acquaintance of the Everglade Kite (which at that date had been seen
only a few times in Florida) and obtained several sets of its eggs. This experience was
interestingly described by Maynard in his Birds of Eastern North America (1881, p. 285).
Large series of bird skins, chiefly of the common land birds, were obtained at Miami by
Maynard and Henshaw. On January 19, 1871, Henshaw took a specimen of the Grass-
quit (Tiaris bicolor), a Bahaman species, of which this is the only United States record.
In the spring of 1872, Maynard made his third trip to Florida, and explored the St.
Johns River region near Blue Springs (January 4 to late in February) and revisited his
old collecting station near Dummitt's grove on Indian River (April and May). At Salt
Apparently the same place mentioned by Audubon as "Bulow's."


Lake, a few miles west of Titusville, on March 17, 1872, he first discovered the Dusky
Seaside Sparrow. In 1874, he worked at Cedar Keys from January 26 to March 1.
From there, in a small yacht he went down the coast as far as Clearwater, but from that
point he was obliged to return home on account of illness, leaving his assistants to com-
plete the trip, which took them as far as the Tortugas. In company with August Koch,
he went to Florida in the yacht Nina in the fall of 1876, reaching Nassau River on
January 11, 1877, and doing some collecting along the lower St. Johns River until Feb-
ruary 1. In October and November, 1881, and again from November 4,1883, to January
6, 1884, he collected at Rosewood, in Levy County, and explored the near-by Gulf
Hammock; and in January, 1884, he visited Key West on his way to the Bahamas.
From March 1 to May 25, 1885, he camped on the Sackett Place on Banana River,
exploring the northern portion of Merritt Island, and from September 26 to October 26,
1887, he was located at Sanford, studying the migration. During the winter of 1900-01
(December 25 to February 22), he collected along the St. Johns River from the mouth to
Lake Harney, living on the yacht Cleopatra, owned by Marland L. Pratt. From Feb-
ruary 22 until April 10, 1901, with the exception of a week at Lake Ashby, he worked in
the vicinity of Enterprise. For many of these details, I am indebted to Mr. Maynard,
who furnished the data a short time before his death.
Maynard's researches and publications played a very important part in the develop-
ment of Florida ornithology. His work, The Birds of Florida, was issued in 9 parts from
1872 to 1878; these were later included in the Birds of Eastern North America (1881),
a revised edition of which was issued in 1895. Two new subspecies were described by
him--Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus from the Florida Keys, and Dendroica pinus florida
from Lake Ashby; he described, also, the White-eyed Towhee and the Dusky Seaside
Sparrow, but, unfortunately for him, both had previously been named by others. The
thousands of specimens he collected furnished material for critical studies by Dr. J. A.
Allen and other naturalists. His descriptions of Florida scenery and of the habits of the
birds are both accurate and interesting.
During three successive winters, 1868-1870, George A. Boardman visited Florida,
collecting at St. Augustine and Fernandina on the east coast, and at Jacksonville, Green
Cove Springs, and Enterprise, on the St. Johns River. His specimens, numbering about
200, were presented to the Smithsonian Institution, and an annotated manuscript list of
the birds observed was furnished to Dr. J. A. Allen, who utilized many of the records in
his paper on winter birds of east Florida, published in 1871. Some years later Boardman
visited Florida several times; at Palatka, February 22, 1881, he obtained the second speci-
men of the Short-tailed Hawk taken in the State.
N. B. Moore lived for a number of years, between 1869 and 1879, at Manatee. He
studied and collected birds in that vicinity and around Sarasota Bay, and he kept detailed
notes on his observations; the manuscripts are now in the United States National
Museum, together with about 40 of his specimens. Doctor Brewer, in A History of
North American Birds (Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway), frequently quotes from Moore's
field notes on the habits of Florida birds. Moore was the first to discover the Florida
Burrowing Owl, and his specimens, taken 16 miles east of Sarasota Bay, were made the
basis of a new subspecies described by Ridgway (1874, p. 216). In the same paper ap-


peared a detailed account by Moore of the habits of these owls. Among other rarities
discovered by him were two Avocets and a nest of the White-tailed Kite.
Dr. J. W. Velie, of Chicago, visited Florida in 1872, 1875, 1877, and 1880, but little is
known of what he did there. Ridgway (1880, p. 122) reported that Doctor Velie, on
one of his trips (doubtless to the Florida Keys), had collected specimens of the Great
White Heron and found nests containing both white and blue young.
In April, 1873, Dr. C. Hart Merriam, later chief of the Biological Survey, traveled by
steamer up the St. Johns and Oklawaha Rivers from Jacksonville to Okahumpka, on
Lake Harris. In his account of the journey (1874, p. 85) he listed 71 species of birds ob-
served. In March, 1893, he made a short trip to Winter Park, of which nothing has
been recorded.
By 1873, northern Florida, especially the St. Johns River region, had been pretty
thoroughly examined by ornithologists, and the coasts and islands had practically all
been visited. The great interior lake, Okeechobee, and the vast area of the Everglades,
however, were still practically unknown, and astonishing tales were current as to the
wonders of these inaccessible regions and their inhabitants. The publishers of Forest
and Stream, shortly after the magazine was launched, organized an expedition to pene-
trate to Lake Okeechobee and gain first-hand information concerning it. Fred A. Ober,
field collector and author of books on the West Indies, was selected to lead the expedition,
and in February, 1874, the members of the party proceeded in a boat, constructed for the
trip, from New Smyrna to Fort Pierce. Hauling the boat by wagon from Fort Pierce to
Fort Bassenger, they launched it on the Kissimmee River, February 20, sailed down river
to the lake and around its shores, and returned March 17. Ober (1874a) wrote several
letters to Forest and Stream describing the country and his experiences, and on his return
published a list (1874b) of 62 species of birds seen on the trip. Thus the myths about the
big lake were exploded and its true character was made known.
The same winter an expedition to Florida was organized by Prof. J. W. P. Jenks, later
connected with Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, who was accompanied by
Fred Jencks and Erwin I. Shores. The party ascended the St. Johns River, from Jack-
sonville to Salt Lake, and reached the Indian River by way of Snake Creek; procuring a
sail boat, they journeyed southward to Fort Capron. There they met Fred Ober, who
was likewise headed for Lake Okeechobee, and the parties proceeded together to Fort
Bassenger and down the Kissimmee River to the lake. At Fort Capron on the Indian
River, on February 11, 1874, Shores collected a specimen of the Bahama Honey Creeper
-the second continental record (Henninger, 1917). Professor Jenks wrote a series of
articles in Forest and Stream (1887) describing their experiences in detail.
W. E. D. Scott, naturalist and field collector, began in 1876 a long series of observa-
tions and collections in Florida, which proved of great value in making known the facts
about Florida bird life. His first expedition was from Jacksonville to Silver Spring by
boat, thence by ox-team to Panasoffkee Lake, where he settled on a plantation belonging
to Richard Conover, of South Amboy, New Jersey, a patron of Princeton College mu-
seum, by which Scott was employed. The Oklawaha River at that date was famous for
its abundant bird life. Scott mentions the Roseate Spoonbill as conspicuous along its
banks and speaks of constantly seeing Paroquets in flocks of 40 to 100. At Panasoffkee


Lake, also, he found bird life abundant, and was particularly impressed with the Limp-
kins and Everglade Kites, both of which were common. He remained there from Janu-
ary 1 until late in March, when he returned to Princeton with a load of specimens that
required a six-ox team to haul out to Silver Spring.
In the fall of 1879, Scott decided to explore the Gulf-coast region of Florida. A point
near the mouth of the Withlacoochee River, some 20 miles south of Cedar Keys, was his
first objective, reached from Jacksonville by a boat trip up the Oklawaha to Silver Spring
and thence overland by wagon. He was greatly impressed by the marked reduction in
bird life along the river, as compared with what he had seen four years earlier. This
scarcity he attributed to the common practice of allowing passengers to shoot from the
deck of the steamer at any living thing in sight, bird or beast. Camping on a small island
near the mouth of the Withlacoochee, Scott and his party collected birds from late
October to the third week in January, after which they moved headquarters to Clear-
water Harbor, where they remained until the last of March. Here they found bird life
very abundant, being not far from the great Maximo Rookery in Tampa Bay, then in the
height of its glory with vast numbers of breeding egrets, ibises, cormorants, and pelicans.
At that period the Reddish Egret, now practically extinct in Florida, was common, and
the Roseate Spoonbill was found in such numbers that a single flock, seen closely bunched
on a mud flat, was estimated to cover more than an acre of ground.
Scott resumed his studies of the bird life of the Gulf coast in the spring of 1886, locat-
ing at Tarpon Springs. He made this his headquarters for about four years, during
which period he surveyed the whole of the west coast from that point southward to
Cape Sable, Key West, and the Tortugas. During these years he published a series of
papers in The Auk, detailing his observations and recording many new facts of distribu-
tion. In the course of his researches, several new races of birds were discovered, includ-
ing the Florida Clapper Rail (Rallus 1. scotti), Florida Turkey (Meleagris g. osceola),
Scott's Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza m. peninsulae, and Marian's Marsh Wren (Telma-
todytes p. marianae). He was the first naturalist, also, to settle the question of the rela-
tionship of the two phases of the Short-tailed Hawk by finding a mated pair preparing to
nest, one in the light, the other in the dark phase.
During his voyages down the west coast in 1886 and 1890, he was impressed by the
almost entire absence of any rookeries of herons or egrets, which in former years had been
very numerous on this coast. The disappearance of these birds was attributed to the
destruction wrought by plume hunters, who for a number of years had been systemati-
cally "shooting out" these rookeries. Scott met a number of these men, and in his
papers in The Auk he gave details of their methods, which he strongly deprecated. In
fact, these papers are believed to have been very largely responsible for arousing public
sentiment in favor of bird protection in Florida.
Scott's extensive collections were distributed to various museums, principally the
American Museum of Natural History, the Museum of Comparative Zo6logy, the Mu-
seum of Princeton University, and the British Museum.
Edward Howe Forbush, later State ornithologist of Massachusetts, visited Florida in
1877, collecting birds and other objects of natural history, which were sent to the
Worcester [Massachusetts] Natural History Society and to other museums. Following


the customary route at that period, he and his party went up the St. Johns and Oklawaha
Rivers on a steamer; from Lake George they crossed overland to Port Orange on the
Halifax River, where they outfitted with an old flatboat and a small skiff with a sail,
and proceeded southward by easy stages as far as the Sebastian River. The return trip
was made through Snake Creek to Lake Harney. Forbush never published a full account
of this journey or its results, but in a biographical sketch by Doctor May (1928) some of
his experiences are detailed in his own words. He made a second collecting trip in 1886,
and also visited the State in 1900 and 1905.
William Brewster, ornithologist, of Cambridge, Mass., later honorary curator of
birds in the Museum of Comparative Zoilogy, traveled up the St. Johns and Wekiva
Rivers in March, 1877, and on his return published a charming account of his experiences
under the title "With the Birds on a Florida River" (1881, pp. 38-44). He saw a single
Ivory-billed Woodpecker and a troop of Carolina Paroquets. Limpkins were abundant,
and he described their habits and appearance in detail. Brewster made a second trip
to Florida, in company with Frank M. Chapman and Charles Slover Allen, in the spring
of 1890. The party explored the Suwannee River from Branford to the mouth of the
river, floating down the stream on a flatboat provided with a cabin. The period covered,
from March 11 to April 1, corresponded approximately with the height of the spring
migration. The paper describing the trip (Brewster and Chapman, 1891, pp. 125-138),
which presents a delightful picture of this attractive and little-known region, lists 116
species of birds and contains extended notes on the habits of those observed. At the
same time Brewster published a special paper on Bachman's Warbler, which was found
to be an abundant migrant on the Suwannee. Forty-six specimens of this rare warbler
were collected, and Brewster's paper furnished the first detailed account of the bird's
habits after that of Audubon.
Charles B. Cory, later curator of zoology in the Field Museum, Chicago, first went
to Florida in the winter of 1877-78, and an account of the trip was published under the
title "Southern Rambles"--a book written in jocular style. His travels carried him up
the St. Johns River as far as Lake Harney. In the winter of 1884-85, says his biographer
(Osgood), "he rediscovered Florida, fell thoroughly in love with it and adopted it as his
own. For the next 20 years without a break he spent all or part of every winter in this
state Florida suited him exactly and likewise he suited Florida." He collected
many specimens of birds, chiefly on the east coast, from Cape Canaveral to New River,
and about 1893 he built a small museum at Palm Beach in which were "four or five
hundred mounted birds, a lot of nests and eggs, and a dozen groups of mammals."
This collection was destroyed by fire about 1903. Cory's principal contribution to the
literature of Florida birds is in a book entitled "Hunting and Fishing in Florida, including
a Key to the Water Birds Known to Occur in the State" (1896). The statements in this
list concerning bird distribution are of a rather general nature, but include many definite
records, and some of considerable importance. In the same year he published a nominal
list of the birds of Florida, numbering 352 species.
Col. S. T. Walker, in 1879, collected about 180 specimens of birds at Clearwater,
Sarasota, Tampa, and Manatee; among them was the type specimen of Strix varia alleni.
In 1881, he collected about 57 skins at Milton.


Dr. James A. Henshall, noted fish culturist and writer on angling, spent two winters in
Florida, 1878-79 and 1881-82, cruising on the St. Johns and Indian Rivers, among the
Keys, and on the west coast as far as Cedar Keys. In Forest and Stream for 1879 he
published a few notes on the birds seen, and in his book, Camping and Cruising in Florida
(1884), gave a nominal list of 133 species observed in the State. In the spring of 1889 he
journeyed from Biscayne Bay around Cape Sable and up the west coast to Tampa; he
noted a great scarcity of egrets and Roseate Spoonbills.
Robert Day Hoyt, who lived at Seven Oaks, near Clearwater, from 1881 until his
death in 1918, built up a considerable collection of mounted birds, birds' skins, and birds'
eggs, which is now in the Florida State Museum at Gainesville. He was a skillful taxi-
dermist and his services were much in demand. He mounted a large number of birds
for John Lewis Childs, most of which are now in the Brooklyn (New York) Museum.
His published writings were three short papers in The Warbler, treating of the nest-
ing habits of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Ward's Heron, and the Roseate Spoonbill.
Charles Willis Ward, conservationist, of Michigan, spent several weeks in 1881
(January 20 to April 10) on Mound Key in Estero Bay, where he studied the habits of
the various breeding water birds and collected the type specimen of Ardea wardi, named
for him by Ridgway. In Ridgway's article (1882, p. 1) are quotations from a letter by
Ward, containing notes made by him on the habits and characteristics of the herons.
In a later paper Ward (1884, p. 161) gives additional information on Ardea wardi,
gained from his observations on the Kissimmee River, Lake Okeechobee, and Charlotte
Harbor. Although Ridgway considered this bird a distinct species, Ward was convinced
that it is a race of Ardea herodias. At a later period, Mr. Ward became interested in
bird conservation, and in December, 1912, he organized an expedition under the leader-
ship of Capt. J. F. Menge, bird collector and steamboat captain, which proceeded by
steamer up the Caloosahatchee River, across Lake Okeechobee and down the New River
Canal to Fort Lauderdale, this being the first time such a trip had been possible. An
account of the expedition, with mention of the abundant bird life in the Everglades, was
published in The Outdoor World and Recreation for February, 1913.
Robert H. Lawrence, of New York City, visited Pelican Island in the Indian River in
mid-March, 1882, and found the Pelicans breeding in abundance. Nests containing eggs
and young birds in all stages of development covered the ground so closely that it was
difficult to avoid treading upon them.
John C. Cahoon, field naturalist, of Taunton, Mass., accompanied by his brother,
C. E. Cahoon, spent several weeks in November, 1883, exploring the bays and rivers of
the gulf coast of Florida. The only record of the trip is a brief article in The Ornithologist
and 06logist (1885, p. 21) on the breeding of the Florida Burrowing Owl as observed near
Charlotte Harbor.
William L. Ralph, later honorary curator of oilogy in the United States National
Museum, made numerous trips to Florida between 1883 and 1893, but we have no full
record of them. He furnished Major Bendire, however, with extended accounts of the
habits of certain Florida birds, chiefly the Raptores, which were published under quota-
tions in Life Histories of North American Birds (1892-96) and constituted an important
contribution to that work. Doctor Ralph was primarily interested in birds' eggs and


his large collection of these was presented to the National Museum. From the records in
the museum catalogues and from Bendire's book we learn that Doctor Ralph was collect-
ing at San Mateo in April, 1883; April, 1885; April, 1887; March and April, 1888; Jan-
uary to March, 1891; March to May, 1892; and April, 1893; at Rock Ledge and Merritt
Island in February and December, 1886, and February, 1887; and at Matanzas Inlet,
May 18, 1888. Among the rarities in his collection are two eggs of the Short-tailed
Hawk, taken near San Mateo in 1893 and 1899.
Shortly after the organization in 1883 of the American Ornithologists' Union Com-
mittee on Bird Migration, of which Dr. C. Hart Merriam was the first chairman, migra-
tion records began to be sent to the Committee from several of the Florida lighthouses.
Most of these, however, were of little scientific value, because of the carelessness or ignor-
ance of the observers, but there was one notable exception. M. E. Spencer, keeper of the
light on Sombrero Key, a small islet in the Strait of Florida, about 35 miles south of Cape
Sable, proved to be an exceptionally careful and enthusiastic reporter. Knowing little
about birds, Spencer was careful to send in specimens of the heads and wings of the birds
striking the light, numbered to correspond with his schedules; his records, therefore, are
unusually reliable, the care he took to avoid mistakes being equal to that of a trained
naturalist. This is illustrated by one of his letters in which he says:
Enclosed I send you head and wings of five birds for identification; please return them as soon as
possible. Please give English and Latin names and annex the number used in National Museum Bulle-
tin, of which please send me one of latest issue. .. I received identified specimens marked Cape May
Warbler (Dendroeca tigrina) which [name] does not agree with No. 90 in Bulletin No. 21 [there listed
as Perissoglossa tigrina].
Spencer's first observations, covering the period from April to September, 1884, were
published by Doctor Merriam in the first report of the Committee (Auk, 1885, p. 61).
Later records, continued until May, 1889, and largely still unpublished, are in the files of
the Biological Survey. These records are of extreme importance in the study of the bird
migrations passing across the sea from Cuba to Florida, furnishing usually the dates of
earliest appearance in the United States in spring and the latest occurrence in fall for
many species. In addition to great numbers of common warblers and a few rare ones,
the list of birds striking the light included a specimen of the Melodious Grassquit (Tiaris
canora)-the only United States record. A specimen of Bachman's Warbler, killed
March 21, 1887, constituted the first record of the bird from the United States after its
discovery by Audubon, and the numerous records of Swainson's Warbler were also a
surprise to ornithologists.
The years 1884 and 1885 were signalized by the work of several ornithologists whose
observations added considerably to our knowledge of its bird life. Edwin M. Hasbrouck,
field collector, later connected with the U. S. Geological Survey, collected in Florida from
October, 1884, to March, 1885, chiefly in the vicinity of Palatka and on Lake George.
In The Ornithologist and 06logist for 1885 he presented a series of articles under the
title "Florida Bird Life," relating some of his experiences. In 1891, he published in The
Auk extended papers on the habits and distribution of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and
the Carolina Paroquet, based in part on his observations in Florida.
Col. N. S. Goss, author of the History of Birds of Kansas, visited Cape Sable and


possibly other parts of southern Florida in March, 1885. While there he obtained a
specimen of the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, and made notes on the feeding habits of White
Pelicans, which he later published in The Auk.
In the spring of 1885, Dwight D. Stone, of Oswego, New York, spent a few weeks at
Warrington, on the west coast of Florida. In The Ornithologist and 06logist for October,
1885, he published a few notes on the bird migration at that place, including an account
of two nights spent in the lighthouse, watching migrating birds. He made another visit
to the State in the winter of 1895-96, collecting birds and eggs on the Indian River, in the
Lake Okeechobee region, and on Pine Island; near Fort Thompson he took some Burrow-
ing Owls.
Horace A. Kline was in St. Marks in 1885 and 1886, and made observations of birds
and collected specimens at that place and along the shore of Wakulla County. He
visited, also, Lakes Jackson, lamonia, and Lafayette. An article in Forest and Stream
(1887a) contains some of his bird notes and presents an excellent picture of the abundant
bird life on the Gulf shores at that date. Roseate Spoonbills and American Egrets were
found in some numbers, and a breeding colony of Laughing Gulls and a few Ivory-billed
Woodpeckers were observed.
R. C. Stuart collected birds on the west coast of Florida in 1886 (perhaps also in other
years); three specimens of Ardea wiirdemanni and one of Ardea occidentalis, taken by
him near Cape Sable, are in the National Museum collection. He is probably the "Mr.
Stuart" quoted frequently by Davie in his Nests and Eggs of North American Birds.
In 1886 (and for some years previously), J. W. Atkins, a telegraph operator, was lo-
cated at Punta Rassa and had at that time a collection of 129 birds. Here W. E. D.
Scott became acquainted with him in May, 1886, and for several years following pub-
lished numerous bird records furnished by Atkins. The following year Atkins was trans-
ferred to Key West, where he lived for many years and where he continued to observe
and collect birds. In July, 1888, he obtained the only specimen known of the local
race of the Bobwhite, which some years later was named by Reginald Heber Howe, Jr.
Other rarities taken by him on Key West were a White-winged Dove, a Ruddy Quail-
Dove, a Scaled Pigeon (only record), two Scissor-tailed Flycatchers, and numbers of
Bachman's Warblers.
T. Gilbert Pearson lived at Archer, Florida, from 1886 to 1890, during which period
he was enthusiastically collecting birds' eggs and studying the habits of the birds of the
region, with particular attention to the herons and other water birds. He published a
number of articles in The Oalogist and in The Ornithologist and O6logist during those
years, and later when he became President of the National Association of Audubon Socie-
ties he was able to draw upon his knowledge of these birds to prepare a number of life
histories for publication in Bird-Lore. His important services in securing protection for
Florida bird rookeries are well known. In June, 1918, he made an extended journey along
the Gulf coast from Corpus Christi, Texas, to Key West, Florida, studying the feeding
habits of the Brown Pelicans in order to be able to refute statements of certain persons
who were advocating the destruction of the birds as a measure of conservation to save
food fishes. The results of this study are published in The American Review of Reviews
for May, 1919.


Philip Laurent, of Philadelphia, spent the month of March of the years 1886, 1887,
and 1904 at Gulf Hammock, Levy County. In The Ornithologist and 06logist (1887,
p. 157) he published a list of 75 species of birds seen during the first two visits, and in
Bird-Lore (1906, p. 67), a list of 26 species observed in 1904.
In the spring of 1886, Barton W. Evermann, now director of the Museum of the
California Academy of Sciences, spent several weeks (March 18 to April 13) in the Gulf
of Mexico, collecting fishes for Dr. David Starr Jordan. He cruised from Pensacola to
St. Joseph Point, taking notes of the bird life, and at the completion of the trip he pub-
lished in The Ornithologist and 06logist (1886, p. 81) a list of the birds observed, num-
bering 93 species.
Frank M. Chapman, now curator of birds in the American Museum of Natural His-
tory, spent the winter of 1886-87 (November 27-May 27) at Gainesville, and the follow-
ing year he published in The Auk a list of 149 species of birds observed there, with brief
annotations. In January, 1889, he again collected at Gainesville, and in March and
April of that year went to Oak Lodge, on the peninsula opposite Micco. From that point
he made a journey to the headwaters of the Sebastian River in search of Carolina Paro-
quets, where he found about 50 of these fast-disappearing birds and collected 15 specimens
during the week's hunt. In the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York for
1890, he published the results of his observation of these birds. His trip on the Suwannee
River in 1890 in company with William Brewster has already been described.
Doctor Chapman visited Pelican Island in 1898, 1900, 1904, 1905, 1908, and 1914,
obtaining an interesting series of photographs of the Pelicans in their natural haunts.
His Bird Studies with a Camera (1900) contains a chapter on the bird life on Pelican
Island, and this furnished the chief inspiration of the American Ornithologists' Union's
committee on bird protection to obtain protection for Pelicans and other species of non-
game birds in the State law of 1901, and likewise was the means of starting the movement
which resulted in 1904 in making Pelican Island a Federal bird reservation. A chapter
in his Camps and Cruises of an Ornithologist is devoted to a full account of his observa-
tions on Pelican Island, and other chapters describe his excursions in other parts of
southern Florida, where he continued his studies, with the aid of the camera, of the vari-
ous members of the heron tribe. In March, 1898, he collected a series of 17 skins of the
Dusky Seaside Sparrow on Merritt Island.
In the spring of 1904, Doctor Chapman made a tour of observation in southern
Florida, descending the Kissimmee River to Lake Okeechobee, and going thence by
wagon to Sebastian. He camped for a week near the north shore of Okeechobee Lake
and while there observed 12 Carolina Paroquets, the last, so far as known, ever seen in
life by a naturalist. Accompanied by A. C. Bent and Louis Fuertes, Doctor Chapman,
in the spring of 1908, visited some of the Florida Keys and the famous Cuthbert Rookery,
near the southern coast of Florida.
Henry Nehrling, ornithologist, then connected with the Milwaukee Public Museum,
was in Florida as early as 1886, and by 1893 (or perhaps earlier) he had acquired an
orange grove and ornamental plantation at Gotha where, about 1902, he took up his
permanent residence. In 1924, or thereabouts, he moved to Naples-on-the-Gulf. His
best known work is a two-volume book, Our Birds of Song and Beauty, the first part of


which appeared in 1889. Volume one was completed in 1893 and volume two in 1896.
Casual references in the work indicate that the author traveled rather widely in Florida,
since he mentions being at Pensacola, Chattahoochee, Tallahassee, Monticello, Jackson-
ville, Suwannee River, and Lake Apopka. The book contains many references to birds
seen in Florida, with notes on their habits. In The Warbler for 1904 and 1906, Nehrling
published two articles on birds observed in his garden, treating the habits and food
preferences of about 16 species.
Thomas H. Jackson, oilogist, of West Chester, Pennsylvania, was in Florida in
March, 1887, and in a brief article in The Ornithologist and 06logist for September of
that year he related some of his experiences in the country between Enterprise and
August Koch, taxidermist, of Williamsport, Pennsylvania, went to Florida in Jan-
uary, 1877, with C. J. Maynard, doing a little collecting on the St. Johns River near
Jacksonville. His next visit was in March and April, 1887, to the Apalachicola River
region, where he saw the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and found Paroquets numerous,
collecting a number of specimens. The account of his experiences appeared in Mittheil-
ungen des Ornithologischen Vereines in Wien (January and February, 1888). In Forest
and Stream, September 24, 1891, he described the habits of the Carolina Paroquet as
observed on this trip. In 1891 Koch took specimens of the Dusky Seaside Sparrow at
Indianola, and thus extended the known range of this bird of limited distribution.
Charles J. Pennock, of Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, later state ornithologist of
Delaware, first visited Florida in December, 1887, collecting two birds at St. Marks.
Late in March, 1889, he went again to the same region, camping for about 10 days near
Shepherd's Spring in the vicinity of Goose Creek, Wakulla County. While there he
found a nest of the Short-tailed Hawk, and some weeks later his guide took one egg from
it, together with the adult bird. This was the first egg of the species taken in North
America and this discovery materially extended the known range of the bird northward.
Mr. Pennock resided in St. Marks from May, 1913, until December, 1919, and while
there collected birds assiduously and kept careful records of all birds observed. He
published several papers under the name of "John Williams" in The Wilson Bulletin
and in The Auk, the most extended being an annotated list of 239 species recorded by him
in Wakulla County. In the spring of 1920 (February to April) he was located at Talla-
hassee, from which point he made frequent excursions into Wakulla County.
A part of each winter from 1921 to 1930 (January to April) was spent at Punta
Gorda and vicinity. In March, 1922, he made a journey of four weeks in a small boat to
Cape Sable, camping along the way and exploring among the Ten Thousand Islands. He
spent ten days, in March, 1924, in the big marshes of the upper St. Johns River, between
Malabar and Deer Park, and in 1926 and 1927 made four trips to Lake Okeechobee. He
collected near Punta Gorda a large series of Burrowing Owls and made a study of their
characters. He also obtained a large series of skins of the resident Clapper Rail of the
Gulf coast and a specimen of Sprague's Pipit. His careful notes, which he has kindly
placed at my disposal, have been of great assistance in working out the ranges of certain
George W. Field, later connected with the United States Biological Survey, in charge


of reservations, spent the first half of 1888 in Florida, collecting for Brown University
and the United States National Museum. He made headquarters at Mrs. F. E. B.
Latham's famous hostelry at Oak Lodge, on the peninsula opposite Micco, where he met
Frank Chapman and Prof. J. W. P. Jenks. Doctor Field explored the region at the head
of the Sebastian River, where at that time Everglade and Swallow-tailed Kites, Wood
Ibises, and Carolina Paroquets were numerous. Later he made a journey by ox-team
to the Halpatiokee Flats and Palm Beach.
Walter John Hoxie, naturalist, at that time residing on St. Helena Island, South
Carolina, went to Florida in 1888, and collected there from August 2 to November 7 in
the interests of Dr. C. Hart Merriam. He worked at Titusville, Cape Canaveral,
Melbourne, Eau Gallie, St. Lucie, Fort Drum, and on the Kissimmee Prairie and Taylor
Creek, near Lake Okeechobee. The Roseate Spoonbill was at that time fairly numerous
on the Indian River, and the Carolina Paroquet was common on Taylor Creek, and of
frequent occurrence at Fort Drum. Twelve specimens of the latter bird were obtained.
At Cape Canaveral, on August 29, Hoxie shot a Caribbean Bridled Tern, this constituting
the second record for the State and the only one from a definitely known locality. This
specimen is now in the British Museum and is recorded in its published catalogue (vol.
25, p. 106). After completing his engagement with Doctor Merriam, Hoxie traveled on
foot across the State from Fort Lauderdale to Sam Jones Old Town and to Estero-a
15 months' trip-living much of the time with the Seminole Indians. In The Ornitholo-
gist and O6logist for 1889 and 1890 he published a number of interesting accounts of his
experiences, treating of the Carolina Paroquet, the Burrowing Owl, and the Florida Jay.
Frank C. Baker, now curator of the natural history museum, University of Illinois,
collected birds in Brevard County between January 5 and April 15, 1889, and examined
the stomach contents of a considerable number; the results of his examination of 52
species were published in The Ornithologist and Oblogist for September, 1889.
Willis S. Blatchley, geologist and entomologist, of Indiana, spent six weeks in the
spring of 1899 at Ormond and while there made notes on the birds of the region, which
later were published in a book entitled "A Nature Wooing" (1902). His most important
discovery was the finding of a wing bone of the Great Auk in a prehistoric shell heap,
the first account of which was published by Hay in The Auk (1902, p. 255). In 1913 he
purchased a small tract of land at Dunedin, on the shore of Clearwater Harbor, and two
years later built a house on the property, which he has occupied during a portion of each
winter since that date. From a lookout in a leaning oak he made extended notes on birds'
observed during a period of 17 years, and these were published in his book entitled "My
Nature Nook" (1931).
In 1890, from April 19 to May 9, Harry K. Jamison, of Philadelphia, collected birds'
eggs on the Gulf coast from Little Sarasota Bay to the Ten Thousand Islands. Among
other species of herons, he found the Reddish Egret breeding there in small numbers.
Robert Morris Gibbs, writer on the birds of Michigan, visited the Pelican Island
rookery on'February 17, 1891, which he estimated to contain at that time from 4,000 to
10,000 breeding Pelicans. Several articles by him describing the colony appeared in
The Oilogist, The Osprey, and Forest and Stream. He was accompanied by G. Sirrom,
who collected a number of specimens of the birds and their eggs and wrote a description


of the rookery in The Ornithologist and O6logist for May, 1893. In the spring of 1894,
Doctor Gibbs visited Palm Beach, Micco, Sanford, Kissimmee, Tampa, Cedar Keys, and
Jacksonville. He was particularly interested in the migrations of birds, and in The
06logist for June, 1894, he published a few notes on the appearance of Chimney Swifts
at various points in Florida.
Samuel N. Rhoads, ornithologist and mammalogist, of Philadelphia, visited Florida
in April, 1891, and while there made a study of the breeding habits of the Burrowing Owl,
which he found abundant at Nicodemus Slough, near Lake Hicpochee. In The Auk for
January, 1892, appeared a complete account of his observations.
Arthur T. Wayne, author of Birds of South Carolina, was collecting birds on the
Suwannee River in the vicinity of Branford from March to August, 1892, and at Old
Town, in November; 1892, and from February to May, 1893. He published a brief
report on his observations in The Auk, listing 44 species, with some life history notes.
He took a large series of Bachman's Warbler, and found Swainson's Warbler breeding
abundantly-the first breeding record of that species for Florida. He obtained 13
specimens of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker and saw about 10 others. In 1893, also, he
collected a number of Carolina Paroquets near Kissimmee. From February 9 to June 15,
1894, he was working in the vicinity of Waukeenah, Jefferson County, and on the Wacissa
and Aucilla Rivers. His report of the expedition, which appeared in The Auk for
October, 1895, consists of a nominal list of 161 species, with life history notes on a few.
His most important observation was of an invasion of Everglade Kites in May, when he
obtained about 20 specimens, these constituting the most northerly record for the bird.
The appearance in 1892 and 1896 of the two volumes of Bendire's Life Histories of
North American Birds added materially to the knowledge of Florida birds, particularly
as to their nesting habits. Most of the information from Florida in this work was
furnished by Dr. W. L. Ralph, well-known oblogist and later successor to Major Bendire
as honorary curator of o6logy in the United States National Museum, and by Capt.
J. F. Menge, a resident of Fort Myers interested in bird life.
Robert W. Williams, now on the staff of the Biological Survey, who had resided in
Tallahassee since 1882, began to study the birds about his home in 1893. In 1895 he sent
short notes to The Nidiologist and later to The Osprey and The Auk. In March, 1901,
he took a specimen of the Vermilion Flycatcher near his home, the only record of the
bird in the eastern United States. In 1904 he published in The Auk a list of the birds
'of Leon County, numbering 156 species, supplementing this by several later additions
in the same periodical, and in 1919 he presented a list of the winter birds of East Goose
Creek, Wakulla County, numbering 90 species.
In the spring of 1893 (March 1 to April 15) Ned Hollister, later director of the
National Zo6logical Park, collected in the vicinity of Starke, Bradford County, obtain-
ing 31 birds and a number of sets of eggs. He compiled a list of 46 species that he had
observed, and published a short article on the trip in The O6logist for June, 1893.
SL. W. Brownell, oilogist, spent the spring of 1894 at Enterprise, and on April 17 he
visited Pelican Island, where he collected a series of Pelicans' eggs. In a short article
in The Osprey for January, 1899, he narrates his observations at the rookery and mentions
also having visited numerous other rookeries in Florida, including those at Cape Sable.


Col. Wirt Robinson, naturalist and collector, in May, 1894, took about 100 bird
skins on Anastasia Island and in the Matanzas River near the Inlet. These are now in
the United States National Museum.
Bradford Torrey, well-known nature writer, made two trips to Florida, the first about
1894, the second nine years later. On the first, described in A Florida Sketch Book,
he visited St. Augustine, Daytona Beach, New Smyrna, Sanford, and Tallahassee; the
second took him to Ormond and Miami, with "a peep at the Everglades" at the head of
the Miami River. Ten chapters in his Nature's Invitation are devoted to his experiences
on this journey. Both books are full of bird lore, told in Torrey's inimitable style.
Outram Bangs, now curator of birds in the Museum of Comparative Zo5logy, col-
lected at Oak Lodge, on the peninsula opposite Micco, in the winter and spring of 1895
(January 30 to March 9). From February 4 to April 6 of the following year he worked
on the Matanzas River and Anastasia Island, and at Eau Gallie and Gainesville. Al-
though devoting most of his time to mammals, he collected some birds and described
as new a number of subspecies believed to be peculiar to the peninsula, viz.: the Florida
forms of the Kingbird, Brown-headed Nuthatch, Tufted Titmouse, Carolina Chickadee,
Bluebird, Meadowlark, and Red-tailed Hawk, and the Red-shouldered Hawk of the Keys.
In the spring of 1895, Robert Ridgway, then curator of birds in the United States
National Museum, Edward J. Brown, and William Palmer, also of the National Museum,
joined forces for a month's sojourn (February 25 to March 24) on the Kissimmee River,
at Orange Hammock, a few miles above Fort Kissimmee. Palmer recorded their obser-
vations in The Osprey for 1901, listing 113 species. He had previously published in The
Auk for April, 1896, his studies of the Burrowing Owl. In Harry Harris's biography of
Ridgway (1928), some of the interesting experiences on this trip are related by Mr.
Ridgway himself. Following his stay at Orange Hammock, Mr. Brown went by himself
in search of Paroquets and was successful in obtaining four near the village of Campbell.
In March of the following year he returned to the same place and collected 38 skins and
two living birds.
In February and March, 1896, Ridgway went again to Florida, accompanied by his
son Audubon. They worked at Fort Bassenger, on the Kissimmee Prairie, on Taylor
Creek, near Lake Okeechobee, and at Chandler's Hammock, near the northwestern edge
of the Everglades. Their collections numbered about 130 birds, including a series of 15
Paroquets taken on Taylor Creek. From January 16 to March 5 of the following year,
Ridgway extended his Florida researches farther south, going to Fort Myers and up the
Caloosahatchee River to Lake Flirt, thence across country to Lake Trafford, and into
the Big Cypress south of Immokalee. On this journey he collected 165 birds and was
successful in finding two pairs of Ivory-billed Woodpeckers-the special object of his
search. In The Osprey for November, 1898, he related some of his experiences while
hunting these rare birds.
Edward J. Brown, following his two trips already mentioned, located at Lemon City
in 1897, living there until 1908. During this period he collected a few birds for the United
States National Museum and published a brief paper in The Auk recording a few observa-
tions. Later he resided at Eustis and Coconut Grove, and continued to send notes on
birds to the National Museum.


Joseph C. Ingersoll, in the winter of 1895-96, at Lake Harney, Mullet Lake, and
Sebastian, obtained 140 specimens of birds, which were purchased by the United States
National Museum.
Willis W. Worthington, bird collector, of Shelter Island, New York, has made 11
trips to Florida and probably has collected more birds in the State than any other person,
having taken more than 7,000. His first visit was in 1897, from January 19 to March 5,
at which time he sailed up the St. Johns River in a catboat as far as Puzzle Lake, above
Lake Harney. In the winter of 1902-3, from November 15 to May 14, he worked in
western Florida in the interests of the Carnegie Museum, with headquarters at Whitfield,
on Choctawhatchee Bay, during which time he collected 1,364 birds. He was joined by
W. E. Clyde Todd from March 21 to May 6, and they published the results of their
studies in The Wilson Bulletin for December, 1926, listing 160 species observed. During
the following winter (December 17, 1904, to May 23, 1905) Worthington sailed in a gaso-
line launch from Charleston, South Carolina, to Fernandina, Florida, thence to the St.
Johns River, and up that stream as far as Persimmon Hammock (about west of Titus-
ville). On November 15, 1905, he established headquarters on Amelia Island and lived
there for 14 months, collecting during that period more than 2,300 birds. On January 21,
1907, he sailed into the St. Johns River in his power boat Ornis, went up the river to San-
ford, and from there shipped the boat by railroad to Kissimmee. There he launched it
on Lake Tohopekaliga, and went down the Kissimmee River into- Lake Okeechobee,
across the lake, and down the Caloosahatchee River to Alva, where he arrived April 17.
He remained at Bassenger Landing from February 23 to April 8, making side trips on the
Kissimmee Prairie and to Taylor Creek, near Lake Okeechobee, in search of Carolina
Paroquets. He failed to find any, however, the last having been killed, apparently,
some time between April, 1904, when Chapman saw 12 birds on this creek, and the date
of Worthington's visit (March, 1907).
From January 1 to May 13, 1910, Worthington worked at Eau Gallie and Merritt
Island; from December 14, 1913, to April 28, 1914, he was at Eau Gallie and on the Indian
River; and from May 8 to September 2, 1914; January 20 to May 9, 1916; and December
24, 1917, to May 15, 1918, at Amelia Island. In the winter of 1919-20 (November 21 to
February 5) he was collecting on the St. Johns River as far up as Welaka; in the winter of
1920-21 (November 29 to April 23) at Wilson, on Merritt Island; and in the winter of
1922-23 at Miami Beach (November 27 to January 26) and Wilson (February 3 to
April 16).
The great majority of Worthington's birds were of the commoner species and they
have been distributed among various large American collections, chiefly those of the
Carnegie Museum, the Dwight Collection in the American Museum of Natural History,
and the collection of Dr. Louis B. Bishop. The stomachs of most of the birds taken were
sent to the Biological Survey, and the migration records kept by Worthington are in the
files of that bureau.
Two trips to Florida made in 1897 by individuals resulted in minor contributions to
our knowledge of Florida birds. George K. Cherrie, then associated with the Field
Museum, Chicago, visited Santa Rosa Island, February 23 to April 2, 1897, and took 19
specimens of the Cuban Snowy Plover. Hugh L. Willoughby crossed the Everglades


from the head of Harney River to Miami in a canoe; in his account of this journey (1898)
he gives casual notes on a few birds seen-Limpkin, Everglade Kite, egrets, and herons.
Louis Agassiz Fuertes, late famous bird artist, visited Florida in the spring of 1898,
in company with Charles R. Knight and Abbott and Gerald Thayer. Some of their
experiences in the marshes near the headwaters of the St. Johns River are interestingly
described by Alden H. Hadley in an article in American Forests for February, 1931.
Dr. Edgar A. Mearns, an associate of the United States National Museum, collected
in southern Florida from March 17 to May 11, 1901, on the Kissimmee Prairie and at Blue
Cypress Lake; during this period he obtained 236 bird skins, which he presented to the
United States National Museum. At Padgett Creek, Brevard County, on April 18, he
took 5 Carolina Paroquets, these being among the last specimens of this species to be
collected. Other rarities obtained on this trip were a pair of White-tailed Kites and
several specimens of the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow, a new subspecies described by
him on his return.
Reginald Heber Howe, Jr., naturalist, of Quincy, Mass., accompanied by Le Roy
King, was in Florida from February 23 to April 2, 1902, visiting St. Augustine, Enterprise,
Sanford, Kissimmee, Lake Okeechobee, Fort Myers, Titusville, Miami, the Florida Keys,
and Flamingo. In a paper published in Contributions to North American Ornithology
(1902, pp. 25-32), he presented notes on 22 species of birds observed on the trip, with
original descriptions of the Florida races of the Sparrow Hawk and the Crested Fly-
catcher. Near Flamingo, on March 26, 1902, he was fortunate in finding a flock of
500 to 1,000 Flamingoes, apparently the last appearance of this bird in such numbers in
Florida. In 1903 he began publication of a list of the birds of Florida, of which only
three parts, covering 17 species, were issued.
Arthur Cleveland Bent, a collaborator of the United States National Museum and
author of Life Histories of North American Birds, visited Florida in April and May, 1902,
working at various points along the Indian River, from Titusville to Sebastian, and in the
marshes of the upper St. Johns River. The following year, at the same season, he cruised
in the waters at the southern end of the peninsula, from Miami to Cape Sable, making
trips to Cuthbert Lake, Alligator Lake, and other points on the southern coast. His
special object was to observe the breeding habits of the herons, egrets, and ibises, and
the results of his studies appeared in The Auk for January and April, 1904. In March
and April, 1908, he went again to the Cape Sable region and the Florida Keys, in com-
pany with Frank M. Chapman and Louis A. Fuertes. Their experiences in the Cuthbert
Rookery are described by Doctor Chapman in Camps and Cruises of an Ornithologist,
and other details of their observations are mentioned by Bent in his North American
Marsh Birds. Mr. Bent spent the winter of 1924-25 on the Gulf coast in the vicinity of
Tampa Bay; in the spring of 1930, with the cooperation of John B. Semple, of Coconut
Grove, he collected a series of skins of the Florida Red-tailed Hawk in Glades County.
Herbert K. Job, author, photographer, and lecturer on birds, visited Pelican Island in
April, 1902, and took a series of photographs of the nesting Pelicans. The next spring, in
April and May, he accompanied A. C. Bent on an extended cruise among the Florida
Keys, and visited the principal bird rookeries on the mainland near Cape Sable-those
at Bear Lake, Cuthbert Lake, and Alligator Lake. He spent four days on Bird Key,


in the Tortugas, obtaining a series of remarkably fine photographs. These journeys are
charmingly described in detail in his book, Wild Wings, issued in 1905. In company
with Dr. Herbert R. Mills, in the spring of 1915, Mr. Job made explorations along the
Gulf coast to obtain motion pictures of bird life for the National Association of Audubon
Societies. Starting from Tampa, the party visited most of the egret rookeries along the
coast to Cape Sable, and then went to Key West and the Tortugas. A brief account of
the trip appeared in Bird-Lore (1915, p. 507).
During the winters of 1902-3 (January-April) and 1903-4 (December 10-April),
Arthur H. Helme, ornithologist, of Millers Place, New York, who was then located in
southeastern Georgia, made several brief collecting trips to Nassau County, Florida.
In the winter of 1905-6 and the three succeeding winters, he made headquarters at Cedar
Keys, and during the first three of these seasons, in March and April, he cruised up the
coast as far as the Aucilla River, collecting in the big swamps bordering the Fenholloway,
Aucilla, and Wacissa Rivers. In the spring of 1908 (February 17 to March 27) he cruised
southward from Cedar Keys to Key West and other Florida Keys, stopping in numerous
bays along the route. During these six years, Helme collected about 1,250 bird skins,
which are now deposited in the Brooklyn (New York) Museum, under his care.
Two papers published in 1903 added to our knowledge of Florida bird life. In Bird-
Lore (1903, p. 77), Dr. Joseph Thompson had a paper on the Tortugas tern colony, giv-
ing a detailed account of the life history of the terns breeding there, with some excellent
photographs of birds and nests; and Rev. J. M. Keck, located at Fruitland Park from De-
cember 29, 1902, to April 20, 1903, published his observations on the birds of the region
in The Wilson Bulletin (June, 1903), listing 91 species.
In June, 1904, Henry W. Fowler, ichthyologist, of the Academy of Natural Sciences
of Philadelphia, cruised among the Florida Keys, between Cape Sable and Marquesas
Keys, in search of land snails. He kept notes on the birds observed and in The Auk for
October, 1906, published an annotated list of 33 species.
J. J. Ryman, who lived at Palm Beach for a number of years (1904-1918), made a
considerable collection of birds' eggs and mounted birds, now in the Florida State
Museum. He was particularly interested in the larger birds, such as the Bald Eagle,
Everglade Kite, and Swallow-tailed Kite.
During the period from January 9 to April 1, 1906, Mrs. Lucas Brodhead lived on
Upper Matecumbe Key, and in Bird-Lore for October, 1910, she gave a brief account of
the birds seen there. She spent 16 days in March, 1909, at Miami and recorded 50
species of birds observed in that period.
Prof. John B. Watson, psychologist, of New York City, lived on the Tortugas from
May 2 to July 18, 1907, and carried on a study of the behavior of the Noddy and Sooty
Terns, including experiments on the homing instinct of these birds, which showed a sur-
prising ability to return to their nests from far distant points. Marked birds carried to
Key West, Havana, Galveston, and Cape Hatteras, and there liberated found their way
back to their nests on Bird Key in from one to five days. He continued his investigations
in 1910 (May 2 to June 21) and in 1913, in the latter year having Dr. K. S. Lashley asso-
ciated with him. The results of these studies were published in Papers from the Depart-
ment of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, under the auspices of


which organization the work was carried on. Condensed accounts of the experiments
appeared also in Bird-Lore, December, 1907; Harper's Magazine, October, 1909; and
Science, October 7, 1910.
Donald J. Nicholson has lived in Orange County, Florida, all his life, and has been
interested in birds from a very early age. In 1908, at the age of 16, he traveled down the
Kissimmee River in company with Gilbert R. Rossignol, Jr., of Savannah, mainly in
search of birds' eggs. The following year another visit to the Kissimmee Valley was
made, also with Rossignol, and in January, 1910, Nicholson started off by himself in a
22-foot rowboat from Lake Kissimmee. After about a month's work in that region he
proceeded early in March down the river to Istokpoga Lake, where he remained until
April 17, camping near the mouth of Istokpoga Creek. Here among other things he
found three nests of the rare Short-tailed Hawk, one with young birds, one with two eggs,
and one ready for eggs.
Nicholson went to the Kissimmee Prairie several times in 1920, in company with Fred
W. Walker, a region which he has visited every season since then. In 1925 he made two
journeys to the St. Johns River marshes west of Fellsmere, and collected eggs of the
Everglade Kite and Limpkin. In 1926, he joined forces with William Leon Dawson,
who had projected a work on Florida birds, in making explorations on the Kissimmee
Prairie and on Merritt Island. In July of that year, on Merritt Island, Nicholson col-
lected four sets of eggs of the Black Rail, the first to be found in Florida. In company
with Dawson, he went to Cape Sable in 1927, and there found three nests of the rare Cape
Sable Seaside Sparrow, one with 4 eggs, the others with young. In 1928 he made two
visits to Collier County, in southwestern Florida, where he studied the habits of the
Swallow-tailed Kite.
Mr. Nicholson's collection of eggs of Florida birds is undoubtedly the most complete
one in the State, and is especially valuable for the full data preserved with the eggs. He
has published a number of articles on the nesting habits of Florida birds, notably those
of the Everglade Kite, Swallow-tailed Kite, Limpkin, Florida Crane, Audubon's Cara-
cara, Black Vulture, and Black Rail.
Rubert J. Longstreet, now president of the Florida Audubon Society, began to study
Florida birds about 1906. He has resided at Coronado, De Land, and Daytona Beach,
and has written many short articles for ornithological magazines. In The Florida Nat-
uralist for April, 1928, he published a list of the more common Florida birds, numbering
174 species, annotated to indicate the manner of occurrence and, in some cases, the habi-
tat. Among the rarities recorded by him at Daytona Beach are a Blue Goose, a Moun-
tain Plover, several specimens of Audubon's Shearwater, and a Noddy Tern. In 1930
he issued a manual for the use of beginners in bird study, entitled "Bird Study in
Florida"; this contains brief descriptions and notes on habits of most of the birds of the
State, with a field key to the common birds, a nominal list of 241 species, and an anno-
tated list of 203 species recorded from the region around Daytona Beach.
G. Clyde Fisher, of the American Museum of Natural History, spent a week in
December, 1909, on Lake Wimico, near Apalachicola, and later published in The Wilson
Bulletin (1910b, p. 41) a brief account of the trip, with a list of 49 species of birds


In 1909 and 1910, Commander F. M. Bennett, of the United States Navy, was cruis-
ing along the coasts of Florida, inspecting lighthouses. At Key West, April 14, 1909,
and at the Tortugas, six days later, he observed an unusually large flight of migrating
birds that had been delayed and in part destroyed by a violent thunderstorm. An
article by him relating this experience appeared in Bird-Lore for June, 1909. The follow-
ing year he published a brief paper in the same periodical, in which he tells of seeing great
numbers of ducks of several species at various points along the Florida coast from Pensa-
cola to Charlotte Harbor, and in Key Biscayne Bay.
Oscar E. Baynard, oilogist, made observations on birds at Micanopy in the spring of
1909; and from March 19 to 22, 1910, he recorded 79 species seen on the Oklawaha River
near Orange Springs. He was the first warden in charge of the bird reservation on Orange
Lake, purchased in 1911 by the National Association of Audubon Societies. In The
Oblogist for January, 1911, is a list of 21 species observed by him on Bird Island in the
lake, with estimates of the numbers breeding there. While acting as warden he took
many excellent photographs of the nesting birds from blinds and made careful studies of
the food brought to the young. In The Wilson Bulletin for December, 1912, he pre-
sented a summary of his findings on the food of herons and ibises, and in the number for
September, 1913, published a full account, illustrated by numerous photographs, of the
nesting and feeding habits of the Glossy Ibis. In the spring of 1911 he spent two months
camping in the Everglades bordering Lake Okeechobee, an account of which trip ap-
peared in The O6logist (1913c). In The Auk for April, 1913, is a list compiled by him of
98 species of breeding birds of Alachua County.
Henry Thurston, of New York, spent some time in 1910 and 1912 at Seven Oaks, on
Old Tampa Bay, following which he published articles in The Warbler (1913b) on the
habits of the Snowy Heron and Wilson's Plover, and in Bird-Lore (1913c) on the habits
of the Gray Kingbird.
P. B. Philipp, o6logist, of New Jersey, camped on the shores of Orange Lake for eight
days in May, 1911, and in Bird-Lore for December of that year he wrote an account of
the birds breeding on the lake.
In March, 1912, Frank M. Phelps, o6logist, of Elyria, Ohio, accompanied by Oscar
E. Baynard, went by boat up the Caloosahatchee River, from Fort Myers to Lake Okee-
chobee. In The Wilson Bulletin for September, 1912, he described their experiences and
listed 93 species of birds observed. During March and April of the following year, he
again collected in southern Florida, visiting the Big Cypress Swamp and the Okaloa-
coochee Slough in northern Collier County. In The Wilson Bulletin, June, 1914, he
published an account of his observations, listing 65 species. At the big Corkscrew
Rookery he found the Wood Ibis nesting in enormous numbers, and in much smaller
numbers the American Egret and Roseate Spoonbill.
Paul Bartsch, curator of mollusks in the United States National Museum, has visited
the Florida Keys almost every year from 1913 to the present, engaged upon studies and
experiments with Bahaman mollusks, and during this period he has made careful notes
on the birds observed and has collected many specimens. Articles detailing the results
of his observations appeared in the Year Book of the Carnegie Institution of Washington
for the years 1913 to 1919, and all of his field notes have been available to the writer in


the preparation of this work. In the Smithsonian Report for 1917 (1919) Doctor Bartsch
published an extended paper on The Bird Rookeries of the Tortugas, illustrated with
numerous photographs of the bird colonies found there. The terns and the Man-o'-war-
bird are treated at length, and a list of 128 species known from the islands is added.
Frederic H. Kennard, ornithologist, of Newton Center, Massachusetts, explored the
Big Cypress Swamp and the Okaloacoochee Slough in 1914 (February 14 to March 27),
traveling in an oxcart from Fort Myers to Deep Lake, and on a gasoline railcar to
Everglade. His main object was to observe and collect Ivory-billed Woodpeckers, but
only one of these birds was found. In two papers in The Auk for 1915, he relates his
experiences and gives important notes on the habits and distribution of the birds seen.
Ludlow Griscom, now research curator of zoology in the Museum of Comparative
Zo6logy, has made several short trips to western Florida, chiefly to points in Leon County
and to Goose Creek on the coast of Wakulla County. On December 29, 1915, at the
latter place, he recorded 95 species of birds. This list, with other short notes from Leon
County, has been published in Bird-Lore and The Auk. In 1920, in collaboration with
John T. Nichols, he described a dark race of the Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza m. jun-
cicola), the type of which had been obtained at Goose Creek.
Mrs. Hiram Byrd, who lived in various parts of Florida from 1886 until her death in
1926, began to study birds in Florida about 1915; she contributed many notes on migra-
tion to the Biological Survey, and as chairman of the Committee on Conservation of
the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs and Secretary of the Florida Audubon Society,
she exerted an important influence on protection of bird life in the State.
Francis M. Weston took up his residence at Pensacola in February, 1916, and at once
began to make detailed notes on the birds of the region. He published two short papers
in the Bulletin of the Charleston Museum in 1916-17, and in August, 1924, he began to
send bi-monthly reports to Bird-Lore, which were published in the series on The Season.
For several years Mr. Weston has been cooperating with the Biological Survey by collect-
ing needed specimens and by watching for rare or unusual birds. In April, 1928, he
took the first specimen of Baird's Sandpiper recorded from the State. In The Florida
Naturalist for that year appears a historical account by him of the ornithology of the
region west of the Apalachicola River.
Theodore Roosevelt, ex-president, spent about a week during the spring of 1917 in
the vicinity of Captiva Island, hunting devilfish. In an article in Scribner's Magazine,
September, 1917, describing his experiences, he included notes on pelicans, ibises, herons,
and other water birds seen.
In March and April, 1917, John Treadwell Nichols, associate curator of fishes in the
American Museum of Natural History, cruised around the southern end of Florida from
Miami to Long Key, Cape Sable, and to Sanibel Island on the west coast. His report
on the birds observed, filed with the Biological Survey, lists 85 species. Many migrating
shore birds were noted oh the beaches of the west coast and a considerable number of
migrant land birds on Sandy Key, April 16. In the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society
of New York for 1918 he presented notes on about 40 species of birds seen on the cruise.
Seymour R. Ingersoll spent the winter of 1917-18 at New Smyrna and at the close
of the season he sent to the Biological Survey a manuscript report of the birds observed,


numbering 149 species. Later he took up his residence at New Smyrna and from 1922
to the present year has been reporting annually on bird migrations in that vicinity. His
records, some of which have been published in The Florida Naturalist, have been used
in the preparation of this work.
Clifford H. Pangburn, of Chappaqua, New York, was in Pinellas County from Janu-
ary 22 to April 29, 1918, and in The Auk for 1919 is a report by him on 135 species of
birds observed during that period.
Winthrop Sprague Brooks, in the spring of 1920, collected specimens among the
Florida Keys, obtaining among other birds a new form of the Clapper Rail on Big Pine
Key, which he described (1920, p. 53) as Rallus longirostris insularum.
Harold H. Bailey, who has resided in Miami since 1921, has written a number of
short papers on Florida birds, which have appeared chiefly in The Wilson Bulletin and
The OSlogist. In 1925 he published a book on The Birds of Florida, treating 425
species and subspecies, illustrated with colored plates of nearly every species, from draw-
ings by George Miksch Sutton.
Allan Brooks, nature artist, of Okanagan Landing, British Columbia, visited Florida
in January, 1921, and succeeded in adding a bird to the Florida list-the Kittiwake Gull,
a specimen of which he shot at Jupiter, January 24, 1921.
William G. Fargo, of Jackson, Michigan, has spent a part of every winter since 1923
at Pass-a-Grille and in the Tampa Bay region, making frequent excursions into the
country lying north of Tampa Bay, thus covering a part of the territory worked by
W. E. D. Scott between 1879 and 1890. The Wilson Bulletin for September, 1926, con-
tains an annotated list, compiled by Mr. Fargo, of 184 species of birds of Pinellas and
Pasco Counties. In 1928, he dug up the bones of a Goshawk that had been buried near
St. Petersburg, and thus established the most southerly record for this hawk.
From January 12 to February 6, 1924, Ernest G. Holt, field naturalist, then connected
with the Cleveland Museum, studied birds in southern Florida, from Royal Palm Ham-
mock to Cape Sable and the near-by Keys. Later in the same season (March 11 to
April 4) George Miksch Sutton worked over some of the same territory and northward
to Miami and the Everglades along the Tamiami Trail. A paper under the joint author-
ship of Holt and Sutton, issued in April, 1926, describes the results of the two expeditions,
listing 123 species of birds and containing copious field notes on many of them. The
paper includes also an excellent colored drawing of the Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow by
Sutton. Holt continued his observations and collections on the Kissimmee Prairie
during February and March, and later in the region around Micanopy. In 1928, he
published a paper on The Status of the Great White Heron and Wiirdemann's Heron, em-
bodying the results of his studies of these birds on their breeding grounds in Florida Bay.
From March, 1924, to September, 1930, Herbert L. Stoddard, residing on a planta-
tion 4 miles southwest of Beachton, Georgia, and within about half a mile of the Florida
line, conducted a detailed study of the habits of the Bob-white for the Biological Survey
in cooperation with a committee of sportsmen representing The Quail Study Fund. His
work took him frequently into adjacent parts of Florida, as far as the coast of Wakulla
County, where he made many notes on birds and collected a number of important
specimens. Two preliminary reports on the progress of the Quail investigations were


issued in 1925 and 1926, and the final report appeared in May, 1931, under the title
"The Bobwhite Quail: Its Habits, Preservation, and Increase."
Arthur A. Allen, professor of ornithology in Cornell University, spent about three
months in the spring of 1924 in Florida; with headquarters at St. Cloud, he explored the
St. Johns River marshes and the Jane Green Swamp, near Deer Park. On Taylor
Creek, northern Osceola County, he found two pairs of breeding Ivory-billed Wood-
peckers, and was fortunate in getting photographs of one bird in life.
Edward J. Court and Louis Weber, in March and April, 1925, explored the coast of
southern Florida from Naples to Cape Sable, and collected birds' skins and eggs. At
the Cape, Mr. Court found a nest of the Short-tailed Hawk, and a set of five eggs of the
Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow. His notes on the birds seen have been used in preparing
the present report.
Bayard H. Christy studied the bird life of southern Florida in February and March,
1927, visiting Coconut Grove, Cape Sable, Lake Okeechobee, the Everglades, Immokalee,
and the Big Cypress. In The Auk (1928, p. 283) he wrote a charming and accurate de-
scription of the region, with notes on some 40 species of birds seen on the trip. In a
later paper (1928, p. 423), he described a visit to the Alligator Lake rookery, near Cape
Sable, and estimated the numbers of birds nesting there at 879 pairs of 10 species.
Elon Howard Eaton, author of The Birds of New York, and James Savage, of Buffalo,
during February, 1930, traveled through Florida by automobile, noting every bird seen.
They visited nearly every section of the peninsula, from Fernandina to the upper Keys,
crossed the Everglades on the Tamiami Trail, and explored the Ten Thousand Islands,
the Tampa region, and the Kissimmee Prairie. Their list of birds observed numbers
190 species and includes such rarities as a Glaucous Gull and a Snow Goose.

The earliest work done by the Survey in Florida was concerned chiefly with studies of
mammalian life. Morris M. Green, now of Ardmore, Pennsylvania, while in the employ
of the Survey, in April and May, 1889, collected a few birds at Titusville, Cape Canaveral,
Eden (St. Lucie County), and Lake Worth. John Alden Loring, in the spring of 1895,
collected mainly mammals, but obtained 28 specimens of birds at Oak Lodge (opposite
Micco), Palm Beach, Miami, Key Largo, Key West, and Everglade.
Waldo L. McAtee visited St. Vincent Island twice in 1910 (January 7 to 15; October
27 to 29). He devoted himself to a study of wintering waterfowl and the collection of
their stomachs.
In January and February, 1917, Francis Harper traveled through eastern Florida as
far south as Okeechobee Lake, noting particularly the waterfowl conditions. He visited
the principal ducking grounds along the east coast, from Amelia Island to Pelican Island,
near Sebastian; he went up the St. Johns River to Lake Harney, and down the Kissimmee
River to Lake Okeechobee. Later he worked on Lake Apopka, Lake Harris, Lake
Griffin, and Orange Lake, and went by launch from Silver Springs to Palatka, via the
Silver, Oklawaha, and St. Johns Rivers. His manuscript report contains detailed notes
on waterfowl conditions, as well as on heron and egret rookeries and bird life in general,
and has been drawn upon for the present work.


Alexander Wetmore, then on the staff of the Biological Survey, now assistant secre-
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, was in Florida from January 16 to March 6, 1919,
chiefly to obtain data on the economic status of the Brown Pelican. He made observa-
tions and collected specimens at St. Petersburg, Bradenton, Pass-a-Grille, Sarasota Bay,
Punta Gorda, New Smyrna, Sebastian, Fort Lauderdale, Miami Beach, Royal Palm
Hammock, West Lake (near Cape Sable), and Key Largo.
Harold N. Vars, in the employ of the Biological Survey, collected in 1923 on Merritt
Island (March 21 to April 19) and Amelia Island (April 23 to May 12), obtaining 214
specimens of birds.
Most of the bird students who have visited Florida were there chiefly in winter or
early in the spring. Of the many published papers on Florida birds, less than half a
dozen contain local lists of breeding birds; and prior to 1918 no systematic survey of the
bird life of the State had been undertaken. In January of that year, the present writer
was commissioned by the Biological Survey to begin such a survey and, as little was
known about the land birds of southern Florida, it was decided to start work there.
Two trips were made in 1918 to Royal Palm Hammock, then recently set aside as a State
Park, one from January 15 to February 5, the other from June 11 to 19. A report on the
birds of this park, listing 128 species, appeared in The Auk for April, 1921. Other places
visited that season were Cape Sable (February 8 to 19); Lake Okeechobee (February 23
to March 4); Auburndale (March 10 to 13); Jupiter (March 14 to 18); Seven Oaks, near
Clearwater (June 4 to 8); Miami (June 20 to 23); and Fort Lauderdale (June 24 to 27).
A cruise by motor boat along the Gulf coast from Sarasota to Homosassa (May 9 to
June 3) permitted studies of the breeding birds of the marshes and of the migrating shore
birds. The work at Cape Sable resulted in the discovery of a new species of Seaside
Sparrow (Ammospiza mirabilis) inhabiting the brackish, rather dry marshes on the coast
prairie, and the explorations in May and June furnished much new information on the
ranges of the breeding birds. Charles H. M. Barrett accompanied me on the boat trip
in May, 1918, and in June he worked independently at Braden River, Miakka Lake,
and Punta Gorda. In 1920, he was with me at St. Marks and on the Aucilla River, and
in St. Andrews Bay from February 4 to 18 he again conducted investigations inde-
In 1919, with Arthur H. Hardisty as assistant, I explored the southwestern coast,
from Fort Myers to Chokoloskee. We then went up the Caloosahatchee River to Moore
Haven and Citrus Center on the Okeechobee Prairie, across the Lee County prairies to
Immokalee and the edge of the Big Cypress Swamp, and to Deep Lake, on the southern
side of the swamp. In January and February, 1920, the winter birds of the northern
Gulf coast were studied, from the Aucilla River westward to Apalachicola, and a brief
visit was made to Cedar Keys and the Chassahowitzka River.
In company with Herbert W. Brandt, oologist of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1923, I worked
on the Kissimmee Prairie in the vicinity of Istokpoga Lake and Fort Bassenger, and in
the region about Sebring. We collected also at Orlando and on the Sebastian River, and
made a journey by boat through canals in the Everglades, from Palm Beach to Okeelanta
and out to Fort Lauderdale. Our search for Everglade Kites in their old haunts in the
Everglades and in the Loxahatchee Marsh was unsuccessful, but after Mr. Brandt's


departure I met Henry Redding, a resident hunter, who took me to the big marshes at
the head of the St. Johns River, where the Kites were breeding in considerable numbers.
Our most important find that season was a nest with eggs of the Short-tailed Hawk at
Istokpoga Lake.
In 1925, I began the season on April 15 at Sarasota, going from there by automobile,
accompanied by H. L. Ferguson, of Sarasota, through Polk and Osceola Counties, south
to Illahaw, and east to the edge of the St. Johns marshes. Having received information
concerning the location of some Ivory-billed Woodpeckers, I hoped to find this fast-
disappearing species, but although I employed a guide who took me to the spot where
Dr. Arthur Allen had seen several of the birds the previous spring, not one could be found
after a prolonged search. After a short trip to the Emeralda Marsh with Edward J.
Brown, where we found Limpkins abundant, I went with Donald J. Nicholson by auto-
mobile to Fellsmere. Leaving our car on the edge of the marshes west of town, we walked
along the canal bank about 7 miles into the big marsh, where we studied the habits of a
nesting colony of Everglade Kites and collected a few specimens.
From May 15 to 30, with B. J. Pacetti, then Federal warden, in charge of the Florida
district, in the Biological Survey launch, I explored the east-coast marshes and beaches
from Merritt Island northward through Mosquito Lagoon, Halifax River, and other
inland waterways, to Matanzas River at the southern end of Anastasia Island. In June,
visits were made to Panasoffkee Lake; Ocala and Silver Spring; Orange Lake; Gaines-
ville; Old Town (on the Suwannee); San Mateo; Shell Bluff (on Crescent Lake); Orange
Park (on the St. Johns River); Amelia Island; and to the St. Mary's River, near Bou-
logne. At Panasoffkee Lake, where Scott collected in 1876, I found conditions about
as primitive as when he was there, but failed to discover any Everglade Kites, which he
had reported numerous. This work furnished important data on the breeding ranges
of many land birds.
In company with John B. Semple, of Coconut Grove, and with Wallace B. Grange
as assistant, I visited Cape Sable again from March 26 to April 7, 1926. After consider-
able search we found a colony of the Cape Sable Seaside Sparrows several miles distant
from the spot where they had been discovered in 1918, and obtained 12 specimens for the
Biological Survey collection. During the rest of the season (April 14 to May 27) we
cruised along the Gulf coast from Pensacola to Cedar Keys, and up the Apalachicola, St.
Marks, Aucilla, and Suwannee Rivers. A popular account of this journey appeared
in The Florida Naturalist for January, 1930. The scientific results included the discov-
ery of a new race of Red-winged Blackbird and much new information on the breeding
birds of that coast. During June Mr. Grange worked independently at Orange Lake
and in Madison County, and in cooperation with Herbert L. Stoddard in Leon County.
In May, 1929, with W. Howard Ball as assistant, I traveled by automobile through
northern and central Florida to determine as definitely as possible the ranges of the
breeding birds of that region. These studies carried us from Jacksonville south to the
Kissimmee Prairie, where we discovered a colony of Florida Grasshopper Sparrows and
obtained a good series of specimens. We then drove west to the Gulf coast near St.
Petersburg, and north along the western side of the peninsula to Cherry Lake, Madison
County, on the Georgia boundary, and from there back to Jacksonville.


*Puffinus auduboni Finsch (= Puffinus Iherminieri) .. Cape Fl
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1872, p. 111.
*Procellaria meridionalis Lawrence (= Pterodroma hasitata) ... Indian I
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 4, p. 475, July, 1847.
*Procellaria brevirostris Lawrence (= Pterodroma hasitata) .. Indian I
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 4, Nos. 8, 9, April, 1847.
*Pelecanus albicollis Maynard (= Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis) Cedar K
Amer. Sportsman, vol. 3, p. 379, March 14, 1874.
Carbo floridanus Audubon (= Phalacrocorax auritus floridanus) Florida
Birds Amer. (folio), vol. 3, pl. 252, 1835.
Plotus leucogaster Vieillot (= Anhinga anhinga) Florida.
Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Natur., vol. 1, pp. 545-546, 1816.
Ardea occidentalis Audubon Keys ner
Birds Amer. (folio), vol. 3, pl. 281, 1835.
Ardea wardi Ridgway (=Ardea herodias wardi). Oyster [
Bul. Nuttall Orn. Club, vol. 7, p. 5, January, 1882.
*Ardea wirdemannii Baird (considered a hybrid) .. Florida.
Pacific R. R. Reports, vol. 9, p. 669, 1858.
*Ardea pealii Bonaparte (=Dicromanassa rufescens) Florida.
Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 2, p. 154, 1828.
*Ardetta neoxena Cory (= Ixobrychus exilis) Caloosah
Auk, vol. 3, p. 262, April, 1886. Lake C
*Guara alba longirostris Bailey (= Guara alba) .. Florida.
Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist. [Miami, Fla.], Bul. 4, April 1, 1930.
Anas obscure var. fulvigula Ridgway (=Anas fulvigula fulvigula). Dummiti
Amer. Nat., vol. 8, p. 111, February, 1874.
Vultur atratus Meyer (= Coragyps atratus atratus) .. St. John
Zool. Annalen, vol. 1, p. 290, 1794.
Rostrhamus sociabilis var. plumbeus Ridgway (=Rostrhamus sociabilis
plumbeus) .. Head of
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway, Hist. North Amer. Birds, vol. 3,
p. 209, 1874.,
Buteo borealis umbrinus Bangs .. Miakka.
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 2, p. 68, July 31, 1901.
Buteo lineatus alleni Ridgway .Tampa.
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 7, p. 514, February 25, 1885.
Buteo lineatus extimus Bangs .. Cape Flo
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 7, p. 35, January 16, 1920.
*Haliaeetus floridana Bailey (= Haliaeetus leucocephalus leucocephalus) Lower F]
Bailey Mus. and Libr. Nat. Hist. [Miami, Fla.], Bul. 4, April 1, 1930.
Polyborus auduboni Cassin (= Polyborus cheriway auduboni) .. Florida.
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1865, p. 2.

ype locality

Liver Inlet.

Liver Inlet.



ar Key West.

=Estero] Bay.

atchee River, near

ts, Indian River.

s River.

Miami River.


lorida Peninsula.

SNames marked with an asterisk (*) are not now recognized as valid.


Type locality
Cerchneis sparverius paulus Howe and King (= Falco sparverius paulus). Miami.
Contrib. North Amer. Orn., vol. 1, p. 28, May 21, 1902.
Ortyx virginianus var. floridanus Coues (= Colinus virginianus floridanus) Enterprise.
Key North Amer. Birds, 1872, p. 237.
Colinus virginianus insulanus Howe .. ... .. Key West.
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 17, p. 168, December 27, 1904.
Meleagris gallopavo osceola Scott ... Tarpon Springs.
Auk, vol. 7, p. 376, October, 1890.
Grus pratensis Meyer (= Grus canadensis pratensis) Clay County.
Zool. Annalen, vol. 1, p. 286, 1794.
Tantalus pictus Meyer (=Aramus pictus pictus) St. Johns River.
Zool. Annalen, vol. 1, p. 287, 1794.
*Tantalus ephouskyca Barton (=Aramus pictus pictus) ... Florida.
Trans. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 12, pt. 1, p. 18, 1817.
*Rallus giganteus Bonaparte (=Aramus pictus pictus) .. Florida.
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 5, pt. 1, p. 31, June, 1825.
Rallus longirostris scottii Sennett .. Tarpon Springs.
Auk, vol. 5, p. 305, July, 1888.
Rallus longirostris insularum Brooks Big Pine Key.
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 7, p. 53, June 24, 1920.
*Rallus longirostris helius Oberholser (= Rallus longirostris insularum) Newfound Harbor gr
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 33, p. 33, July 24, 1920. Florida Keys.
Gallinula chloropus cachinnans Bangs .. Arbuckle Creek, De
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 5, p. 96, May 17, 1915. County.
*Glottis floridanus Bonaparte (= Totanus nebularius) .. Sandy Key, off Cape S
Geog. and comp. list birds Europe and North Amer., p. 51, 1838.
Columba zenaida Bonaparte (= Zenaida zenaida zenaida) Florida Keys.
Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, vol. 5, p. 30, 1825.
*Zenaidura macroura peninsulari Bailey (= Zenaidura macroura carolinensis) Miami Beach.
Wilson Bul., vol. 35, p. 100, June, 1923.
Geotrygon chrysia Bonaparte (=Oreopeleia chrysia) .. Florida.
Compt. Rend., vol. 40, p. 100, 1855.
Coccyzus maynardi Ridgway (= Coccyzus minor maynardi) Ten Thousand Islands.
Manual North Amer. Birds, September, 1887, p. 274.
Scops asio var. floridanus Ridgway (= Otus asio floridanus) Indian River.
Bul. Essex Inst., vol. 5, p. 200, December, 1873.
Speotyto cunicularia var. floridana Ridgway (=Speotyto cunicularia flori-

dana) .
Amer. Sportsman, vol. 4, p. 216, July 4, 1874
Strix nebulosa alleni Ridgway (= Strix varia alleni) .
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 3, p. 8, 1880.
Chordiles popetue chapman Coues (= Chordeiles minor chapman)
Auk, vol. 5, p. 37, January, 1888.
*Phloeotomus pileatus foridanus Ridgway (= Ceophloeus pileatus pileatus)
Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 24, p. 33, February 21, 1911.
*Tyrannus tyrannus vexator Bangs (= Tyrannus tyrannus) .
Auk, vol. 15, p. 178, April, 1898.
*Myiarchus crinitus residuus Howe (= Myiarchus crinitus crinitus)
Contrib. North Amer. Ornith., vol. 1, p. 30, May 21,. 1902.
*Progne subis floridana Mearns (= Progne subis subis) .
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 24, p. 918, June 2, 1902.




16 miles east of Sarasota


Prevatt's Camp, 24 miles
southwest of Kissimmee.
Merritt Island.

Istokpoga Lake.

Lake Kissimmee.


Type locality
*Cyanocitta cristata florincola Coues (= Cyanocitta cristata cristata) Welaka.
Key North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, p. 421, 1884.
Cyanocitta cristata semplei Todd .... Coconut Grove.
Auk, vol. 45, p. 364, July 6, 1928.
Corvus coerulescens Bose (=Aphelocoma coerulescens) North America (=Florida).
Bul. Soc. Philom. Paris, vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 87, 1795.
*Garrulus cyaneus Vieillot (=Aphelocoma coerulescens) St. Augustine.
Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vol. 12, p. 476, 1817.
*Corvus floridanus Bonaparte (=Aphelocoma coerulescens) Florida.
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, vol. 2, p. 58, 1826.
C[orvus] a[mericanus] pascuus Coues (= Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus) Vicinity of Miami.
Auk, vol. 16, p. 84, January, 1899.
Parus carolinensis impiger Bangs (=Penthestes carolinensis impiger) .Deep Creek, near Lake
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 4, p. 1, March 16, 1903. Ashby.
*Parus bicolor floridanus Bangs (= Baeolophus bicolor) .. Clearwater.
Auk, vol. 15, p. 181, April, 1898.
Sitta carolinensis atkinsi Scott (=Sitta carolinensis carolinensis) Tarpon Springs.
Auk, vol. 7, p. 118, April, 1890.
Sitta pusilla caniceps Bangs ... Clearwater.
Auk, vol. 15, p. 180, April, 1898.
Thryothorus ludovicianus var. miamensis Ridgway (=Thryothorus ludo-
vicianus miamensis) .. Miami River.
Amer. Nat., vol. 9, p. 469, August, 1875.
Cistothorus marianae Scott (= Telmatodytes palustris marianae) Tarpon Springs.
Auk, vol. 5, p. 188, April, 1888.
*Minus [= Mimus] carolinensis grisifrons Maynard (= Dumetella carolinensis). Key West.
Birds Eastern North Amer., [ed. 2], p. 710, 1896 (= Dec. 24, 1895).
Sialia sialis grata Bangs .. Miami.
Auk, vol. 15, p. 182, April, 1898.
Vireo noveboracensis maynardi Brewster (= Vireo griseus maynardi) : Key West.
Auk, vol. 4, p. 148, April, 1887.
*Certhiola bairdii Cabanis (=Coereba bahamensis) .. Indian Key.
Journ. f. Orn., vol. 13, No. 78, p. 412, 1866.
*Mniotilta varia longirostris Baird (=Mniotilta varia) .Cape Florida.
Pac. R. R. Rept., vol. 9, pp. xxxi, 236, 1858.
*Helminthophaga celata var. obscura Ridgway (= Vermivora celata celata) Enterprise.
Hist. North Amer. Birds, vol. 1, p. 192, January, 1874.
Pinacantor vigorsii florida Maynard (=Dendroica pinus florida) .Deep Creek, near Lake
Directory Birds Eastern North Amer., pt. 9, p. 244, 1907. Ashby.
Dendroica discolor collins Bailey .. South Florida.
Bailey Mus. Nat. Hist. [Miami, Fla.], Bul. 3, November 16, 1926.
*Dendroica discolor paludicola Howell (=Dendroica discolor collins) .Anclote Key.
Auk, vol. 47, p. 41, January 2, 1930.
Geothlypis trichas ignota Chapman ... Tarpon Springs.
Auk, vol. 7, p. 11, January, 1890.
Sturnella magna argutula Bangs .. Dunedin.
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 1, p. 20, February 28, 1899.
Agelaius phoeniceus floridanus Maynard Key West.
Birds Eastern North Amer., p. 698, pl. 40, 1895.
Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi Howell and van Rossem .. Alligator Bluff, Kissimmee
Auk, vol. 45, p. 159, April 16, 1928. River.


Agelaius phoeniceus littoralis Howell and van Rossem .
Auk, vol. 45, p. 157, April 16, 1928.
*Quiscalus aglaeus Baird (= Quiscalus quiscula quiscula) .
Amer. Journ. Sci., ser. 2, vol. 41, p. 84, January, 1866.
Cardinalis cardinalis floridanus Ridgway (=Richmondena cardinalis
floridanus) .
Manual North Amer. Birds, ed. 2, p. 606, 1896.
Pipilo alleni Coues (= Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni) .
Amer. Nat., vol. 5, p. 366, August, 1871.
*Pipilo leucopis Maynard (= Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni) .
Birds of Florida [= Birds Eastern North Amer.], pt. 5, p. 113, 1878.
Coturniculus savannarumfloridanus Mearns (=Ammodramus savannarum
floridanus) .....
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 24, p. 915, 1902.
Ammodramus maritimus peninsula Allen (=Ammospiza maritima
peninsula) .
Auk, vol. 5, p. 284, July, 1888.
Passerherbulus maritimus juncicola Griscom and Nichols (= Ammospiza
maritima juncicola) .
Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. New York, no. 32, p. 25, November 3, 1920.
Ammodramus maritimus var. nigrescens Ridgway (=Ammospiza nig-
rescens) .
Bul. Essex Inst., vol. 5, p. 198, December, 1873.
*Ammodramus melanoleucus Maynard ( =Ammospiza nigrescens)
Amer. Sportsman, vol. 5, p. 248, January 16, 1875.
Thryospiza mirabilis Howell (=Ammospiza mirabilis) .
Auk, vol. 36, p. 86, January 5, 1919.
Melospiza melodia beata Bangs .
Proc. New England Zool. Club, vol. 4, p. 85, June 5, 1912.

Type locality
Santa Rosa Island, oppo-
site Mary Esther.
Cape Florida.


Dummitts, Indian River.

Dummitts, Indian River.

Kissimmee Prairie, 7 miles
east of Alligator Bluff.

Tarpon Springs.

East Goose Creek, Wakulla

Merritt Island.

Indian River, near Dum-
Cape Sable.




That Floridian is indeed an ingrate who does not view with deep and lasting gratitude
the wealth of bird life, specifically and numerically, with which Nature has so bounti-
fully endowed his State, and who will not wish, as we are wont to do with our worldly
possessions, to preserve and transmit to posterity an equitable share of it. Yet there
are those, fortunately diminishing in numbers with each succeeding year, who, reckless
of this great heritage and of the rights and interests in it of their fellow citizens and those
to come hereafter, must needs be restrained in their venatic excesses by the strong hand of
the law.
And so it is that the author has asked me to write a chapter for his book on the history
of bird protection in Florida. This history must be gathered largely from the acts of its
legislative bodies since it became a part of the United States, to which I shall add refer-
ences to measures taken by the Federal Government and to some activities of unofficial
organizations for bird conservation in this State.
Florida was organized as a Territory in March, 1822, and the first legislature (then
called the legislative council) met in Pensacola in June of that year.
The Territory was then sparsely inhabited, the southern, or peninsular, section hardly
at all. The forests, swamps, and prairies were primeval and of vast extent, abounding
in wild life of every indigenous species. Travel was slow and tedious, firearms were
crude, and markets for the fruits of gun or trap were practically nonexistent. Hence
the need for bird protective measures at that time was not apparent, and the early legis-
latures were not much concerned with the subject. As time went on, however, the
human population increased, more efficient firearms and modes of travel were developed,
market requisitions for game and plumage made their appearance, and protective
measures of more or less limited operation began to press for attention. Finally, in the
last twenty years, with the advent of modern conditions as they affect birds, few legis-
latures have met that have not considered and enacted conservation measures of exten-
sive scope and operation, albeit many were restricted to one or a few counties.
The session laws disclose four quite distinct and well-marked periods of general legis-
lation in regard to bird protection: (1) From 1827 to 1875, during which measures adopted
were rather for the protection of persons and property affected by hunting than for pro-


tection of the wild life; (2) from 1875 to 1891, when the laws extended limited protection
to deer and to Turkeys, Quail, sea and plume birds, and the Mockingbird; (3) from 1891
to 1913, during which restrictions on hunting and catching deer, Turkeys, and Quail were
increased; ducks, otter, and beaver were protected by close seasons; and comprehensive
protection was given to all nongame birds except a few regarded as injurious; and (4)
from 1913 to the present time, during which protection has been extended to all game
birds and fur-bearing animals; modern restrictions on taking, use, and disposition of
game have been imposed; and efficient state-wide measures adopted for enforcement.
Laws passed during the first period need not be considered here. During the second
period (1875-1891) deer, Turkeys, and Quail were the only game considered worthy of
or requiring protection, and such protection was at best very meager.
The first regulation providing a close season and protection for nests, eggs, and young
of birds was included in the act of 1877, prohibiting hunting, killing, or capturing deer,
Turkeys, Quail, and Mockingbirds between April 1 and September 1, and destruction of
the nests, eggs, or young of the birds. But the season was for only five months, and the
regulation was not applicable to owners hunting on their own enclosed lands or killing
deer or Turkeys to protect crops, and, furthermore, the act was to become operative in
any county only in the event the county commissioners should publish it in their county.
Inclusion of the Mockingbird in the protection accorded by this act, though it was
for only five months in the year, and the passage during the same year of an act to prevent
wanton destruction of nests, eggs, and young of sea birds and birds of plume, mark the
beginning of legislation for the protection of nongame birds, due to an awakening to the
devastation caused by the merciless operations of agents of millinery houses in the North.
The act was repealed two years later and nothing substituted until 1891.
In 1879 aliens were forbidden to kill plume birds. There was no further legislative
activity for the protection of birds until twelve years later, and it truly may be said that
from 1879 to the close of this period in 1891 there was virtually no protection by law
for wild life of any kind in the State.

By 1891 the necessity for protection of a more comprehensive nature than formerly
in effect was plainly manifest, and that year was marked by a resumption of legislative
interest in wild life. Hunting or killing Turkeys or Quail except from November 1 to
March 1 was prohibited, and the possession and sale of these birds in close season after
they had been killed were made unlawful. It was forbidden to take or kill any Turkey
or Quail at any time with trap, net, or snare, or to set a net, trap, or snare to take them,
or to possess or sell them when so taken; but it was provided that these prohibitions
should not apply to persons trapping Turkeys or Quail on their own enclosed lands.
Penalties prescribed were not less than $5 nor more than $10 for each bird illegally killed,
trapped, netted, or snared, sold, or had in possession. Nothing in the act was to pre-
vent any person from protecting his crops from depredations of deer, Turkeys, or Quail.
Informers were allowed half of the fine; the other half went to the county school fund.
Another effort was made at this session to curb the destruction of plume birds by an


act prohibiting the killing of cranes, egrets, ibises, curlews, and herons for sale or
traffic. While far in advance of any former attempt to protect nongame birds, this
failed to accomplish its purpose owing to inadequate means of enforcement.
In 1893 the first complete nonexport law was enacted, but it was limited to Quail,
the shipment of which from the county where killed or trapped was prohibited, under
penalties of $100 to $500, or sixty days in jail.
In 1895 an act was passed that virtually codified, with some important amendments,
the meager game laws then in force. It was made unlawful to hunt Turkeys and Quail
between March 15 and November 1 except on one's own enclosed premises, or to sell or
possess them in close season; trapping Quail at any time except on one's own enclosed
premises was forbidden; and prohibition of shipment of Quail from the county where
killed was extended to venison and Turkeys, with the exception that hunting parties
might take their game home with them in the State but could not sell it. For the first
time a limit on the number of Turkeys and Quail that might be killed in a day by each
hunter or party of hunters, except on their own enclosed premises, was prescribed-
4 Turkeys and 25 Quail by an individual, 50 Quail by a party. Five years' absolute pro-
tection was given to pheasants, which had been recently introduced into the State, and
the hunting-trespass law was extended to unenclosed posted lands.
Despite these laws, excellent as far as they extended, game and other birds continued
to be killed at all seasons and without limit, as ordinary officers of the law either counte-
nanced violations or were too busy with other duties to prevent them. Hence, in 1897
an act was passed to authorize the Governor on the recommendation of the county
commissioners to appoint a game warden for each county, with power to arrest offenders
and seize implements used by them. The term of office was four years, and the salary
was to be fixed and paid by the commissioners. It was made a misdemeanor for any
warden to fail to take cognizance of and prosecute any violation coming to his attention.
In 1899 the game law of 1895 was, in effect, re-enacted with modifications and addi-
tions. The open season on Turkeys and Quail was reduced by elimination of the first
15 days in March, but "except on his own enclosed premises" still persisted. The daily
bag limits with exception in favor of persons hunting on their own enclosed premises re-
mained the same, except for the addition of a limit of 6 Turkeys for a party of two or
more. The sale of Turkeys and Quail was still allowed in the open season. Trapping
Quail, with the stereotyped exception about owners of enclosed premises, continued to
be forbidden. A very important advance was made at this session by the enactment for
the first time of a law to protect wild ducks, but it merely prescribed a close season-
April 1 to October 1.
Although some restrictions on nonresidents had been in force at one time or another
since 1851, the modern nonresident hunting license did not appear until this act, by
which every such person wishing to hunt deer, Turkeys, and Quail was required to ob-
tain a $10 license in the county in which he proposed to hunt. The proceeds were to
be devoted to payment of the salary and fees of county game wardens, and if there was
no game warden in the county, they were to be added to the fine and forfeiture fund.
Despite the laws for their protection, the ruthless slaughter of plume birds continued
unabated, until these birds, once so numerous, had been reduced to the verge of extermina-


tion. For years other nongame birds had been shot, trapped, and otherwise persecuted,
greatly to the detriment of the agricultural and horticultural interests of the State,
which suffered through the destruction of these efficient checks on the increase of injurious
insects, and on the spread of noxious weeds.
Finally, in 1901, the so-called American Ornithologists' Union model nongame bird
law was enacted, with certain minor changes. It was an all-embracing measure for the
protection of wild birds other than game birds and a few species regarded locally as
harmful, such as Sharp-shinned and Cooper's Hawks, Great Horned Owls, crows,
jackdawss," ricebirdss," Meadowlarks, and Butcherbirds; and game birds were spe-
cifically defined as-

Anatidae, commonly known as swans, geese, brant, and river and sea ducks; Rallidae, commonly
known as rails, coots, mud-hens, and gallinules; Limicolae, commonly known as shore birds, plovers,
surf-birds, snipe, woodcock, sandpipers, tatlers and curlews; Gallinae, commonly known as wild turkeys,
grouse, prairie chickens, pheasants, partridges and quails; also turtle doves, tame and wild pigeons, and

The foregoing definition of game birds, with the elimination of pigeons and Robins,
has persisted in every comprehensive general game law and in several local laws subse-
quently enacted, and it is not too much to say that it has inspired the extension, belated
though it was, of protection to those large groups of shore and marsh birds and to doves
and some wild fowl that previously had received no legislative consideration.
Though long delayed, this act marked the turning point in wild-bird protection in
Florida. Immediately following its passage, protection, which had been impossible
under previous restricted laws, was extended to the only known nesting colony of Brown
Pelicans on the east coast, and shortly afterwards Pelican Island in Indian River, on
which the colony was located, was made a Federal reservation by order of President
Roosevelt. This was the first national bird reservation to be established in this country
and was the forerunner of 13 others of like nature in Florida and many others scattered
throughout the United States and Alaska.
With the basic principles of nongame-bird protection now legislatively established,
attention at the next session of the legislature, in 1903, again reverted to Turkeys and
Quail. The restrictions imposed by the act of 1899 in behalf of these birds were materi-
ally increased, and the exception that had allowed owners of enclosed lands to kill them
at any time thereon was eliminated. While the daily bag limits remained the same, the
exception in favor of those hunting on their own enclosed lands was eliminated, and
the prohibition against trapping Quail, except on one's own enclosed premises, was
now changed so that the exception applied only to enclosed cultivated premises. Pro-
hibition of sale of game at any time was now extended to Turkeys and Quail, and, as
formerly, their shipment beyond the county in which killed was prohibited, except by
hunters taking their game with them to their homes in the State, not for sale.
In 1905, sections 3 and 6 of the act of 1903 were amended so that the daily bag limits
on Turkeys and Quail were reduced from 4 and 25, respectively, to 2 and 20, and for a
party of two or more, from 6 to 4, and 50 to 40, respectively, and a yearly limit of 5
Turkeys was now prescribed for each hunter, but the prohibition of trapping Quail was


eliminated. Other acts forbade the killing of Turkey hens in Polk County for five years,
and of Limpkins and alligators on the Oklawaha River at any time.
From 1907 to 1913 the only legislation of any significance or importance affecting
game or other birds was the act of 1909 to encourage the establishment of unenclosed
game preserves and the introduction and propagation of game birds. It authorized
owners or lessees to post not exceeding 640 acres of unenclosed lands for raising introduced
and native game birds and forbade others to hunt thereon, the owners or lessees to be
subject to the laws regulating hunting. Every one was forbidden to hunt or kill any
Hungarian Partridge, Ring-necked Pheasant, or other non-native game bird placed,
raised, or propagated on any game preserve or elsewhere in the State for three years.
General legislation for the protection of the game birds of the State continued to lag.
The only general laws in force at the end of the third period (1891 to 1913) for the pro-
tection and preservation of this natural resource were:
(1) A law prohibiting the hunting or possession of Turkeys and Quail from March 1
to November 1; the killing in a day by one person of more than 2 Turkeys and 20 Quail,
and by a party of two or more of more than 4 Turkeys and 40 Quail; the killing of more
than 5 Turkeys a year by any person; sale of Turkeys and Quail, and their shipment out
of the county in which killed, except by hunters taking their game with them to their
homes in the State, not for sale.
(2) A law prohibiting the shooting of wild ducks between April 1 and October 1.

A new era in the conservation of wild life began in 1913 with the enactment of two
modern, comprehensive, and complementary acts, one entitled "An Act to Protect
Game and Birds in the State of Florida," and the other, "An Act Creating a Department
of Game and Fish of the State of Florida and Creating the Office of State Game Com-
missioner." The first, embracing 27 sections, opened with the declaration that the title
and ownership of all wild birds and game in the State are vested in the State for the
purpose of regulating the use and disposition thereof. While the declaration was un-
necessary from a legal viewpoint, since such ownership was already in the State without
the declaration, it served to warn that he who should essay to hunt, take, or otherwise
molest or deal with game and wild birds must first look to the act to ascertain what privi-
leges it granted or withheld.
The act defined game birds as they had been defined in the 1901 nongame-bird law,
but omitted pigeons and Robins, fixed an open season (November 20 to February 20)
for deer, squirrels, Turkeys, Quail, doves, swans, geese, brant, ducks, rails, coots, sand-
pipers, curlews, snipe, and plover, and prohibited hunting or trapping of imported game
birds before December 1, 1915. It forbade the use of pitfalls, deadfalls, scaffolds, cages,
snares, nets, saltlicks, blind pens, baited hooks, baited fields, or any similar device, or
explosives, for capturing or killing birds or animals protected by law, but added the
phrase "except upon his or her own enclosed lands" that had so long persisted, in one
connection or another, in the game laws of the State. It prohibited the killing of hen
Turkeys at any time; it prohibited night hunting (between dark and daylight) of all
birds; it embodied all the substantive provisions of the nongame-bird law of 1901 and


included prohibition of the taking, at any time or place, of nests or eggs of all wild birds,
whether game or nongame. It fixed daily bag limits of 2 Turkeys, 20 Quail, and 25 birds
of any other species, and seasonal limits of 5 Turkeys and 500 of any other game-bird
species, and it made unlawful the possession of game birds more than 5 days after the
close of the open season. It prohibited the sale or barter of game birds at any time, as also
their shipment or transportation out of the State or in the State except when in the per-
sonal possession of the licensed owner, and made common carriers liable for transporting
game under any other circumstances. It prescribed many procedural short cuts to sim-
plify enforcement and required all circuit judges and judges of concurrent jurisdiction to
give the act in charge to the grand juries and urge inquiry into infractions thereof. It re-
pealed all local and general laws in conflict with it.
The second act mentioned, embracing 35 sections, established a Department of Game
and Fish and the Office of State Game and Fish Commissioner. The Commissioner and
wardens were empowered to serve criminal process, to arrest without warrant persons
violating the game laws, and to seize all birds caught, killed, and possessed in violation
of law. Sheriffs, their deputies, constables, policemen, and other peace officers were made
ex officio deputy game wardens. Any person desiring to hunt game was required to
obtain a license, as follows: Residents of the State to hunt in their own counties, $1,
and to hunt anywhere in the State, $3; nonresidents and aliens to hunt in a single county,
$15; owners and lessees of land were allowed to hunt on their own lands without a license.
The Commissioner was authorized to issue a certificate to a properly accredited person,
upon payment of $1, to collect birds and their nests and eggs for strictly scientific pur-
poses, and to issue a permit to any person, on payment of a like sum, to take and trans-
port, in or out of the State, not more than ten pairs of any species of bird for scientific or
propagating purposes. All laws in conflict with the act were repealed.
Another act of this session, relating solely to the Robin, forbade any one to kill,
wound, catch, sell, ship, transport, or possess, living or dead, such bird, except for scien-
tific or economic purposes by a department of the State or Federal government, under
permit from the Commissioner of Agriculture.
The first State Game and Fish Commissioner, E. Z. Jones, stated in his second annual
The game and fish laws, as enacted by the Legislature of 1913, at first met with strong disfavor,
especially when efforts were made to rigidly enforce them. There was much defiance of the officers of
this Department in the enforcement of the game and fish laws, but I have met the opposition fairly suc-
cessfully. ... It is a great satisfaction to me to be able to say that the country people, especially the
farmers, are falling in line of support of the laws governing this Department. .. When this Depart-
ment was created Florida quail were being shipped to various States and countries at not more than fifty
cents each, and the price generally was twenty-five cents each. By reason of the fact that I have refused
permission for animals and birds to be shipped from this State for commercial purposes, prices have
been steadily going up. There is a ready market for quails at thirty dollars per dozen; wild turkey hens,
twenty dollars each; and gobblers, sixteen dollars each.
Mr. Jones reported for the year March 1, 1914, to March 1, 1915, receipt of $42,177
from hunting licenses, and the prosecution of 413 persons for violations of the game and
fish laws. Thus did the State's obligation to conserve its wild-life resources seem to be
on the way to measurable fulfilment. But it was not destined long to be so.


In 1915, after passing "An Act to encourage the destruction in the State of Florida
of the birds commonly called Turkey Buzzard and Black Vulture," which recited that it
had been made to appear that these birds distribute hog cholera and other disease germs
that cause great destruction of animals and loss to the people of the State, and provided
that it should be lawful to kill and destroy them at any time, the legislature enacted a
statute declaring the ownership and title to all wild birds and game in the State to be
vested in the respective counties of the State for the purpose of regulating the use and
disposition of the same, and repealing the two acts of 1913 and all general and local laws
in conflict therewith. This statute embraced 40 sections and was almost a literal com-
posite of the two acts of 1913, with some changes in seasons, bag limits, and other like
particulars, and with modifications necessary to meet the scheme of its administration
by the several counties through their boards of county commissioners. It extended the
open season on game birds to March 10; removed Mud Hens and Marsh Hens from pro-
tection of a close season; removed the restrictions on killing hen Turkeys; increased the
seasonal bag limit on Turkeys to 10, but reduced the seasonal limit on other species of
game birds to 300, and eliminated the privilege that owners had had under the previous
act to trap, net, snare, bait, poison, etc., birds or animals on their own enclosed lands.
It required the board of county commissioners in each county to employ and fix the
salary of a resident of the county to be county game warden until January, 1917, and
thereafter to employ as such warden the person recommended by nomination in the
preceding primary election, the term to be two years.
Thus ended for a time the Department of Game and Fish of the State of Florida and
the hopes and aspirations of all those far-sighted citizens who had labored so earnestly
and so long to see the game laws administered by the State itself through a central
agency adequately equipped for effective accomplishment.
In 1917 the open seasons on game birds were shortened and made uniform-No-
vember 20 to March 1; in 1921 the open seasons were still further shortened-November
20 to February 15; seasonal bag limits on Turkeys were reduced to 5, and a limit of 5
Turkeys was prescribed for a party of three or more persons hunting or camping to-
gether at any one time or during any one camping or hunting trip.
In 1921 the requirement of six months' residence in the county to entitle a resident
of a county to a license to hunt therein was eliminated, and the license fee was increased
to $1.25. At the same time, the license fee required of a resident of the State to hunt in
any county other than his own was increased to $3.50, and the nonresident and alien fee
to $25; the privilege of hunting in one's own voting precinct without a license was
eliminated; sheriffs were required to enforce the law in counties having no warden.
At the same session a concurrent resolution was adopted, reciting the rapid destruc-
tion of wild life in Florida, the importance of conserving it, and the dependence in most
part on the attitude of the citizens of the State for enforcement of the game laws, and
resolving that all good citizens of the State be called upon to organize in every community
a "Florida Wild Life League" under articles of organization similar to those adopted by
such an organization of Orange County, Florida. Then follow those articles in full. The
resolution concludes "That the Wild Life League of Fort Myers, in Lee County, Florida,
shall be recognized as the parent organization in the State of Florida, and that Dr. George


S. Stone, of Fort Myers, Florida, the founder of the League, shall be recognized as such
throughout this State."
It is said that nothing is ever settled until rightly settled. The expediency of entrust-
ing administration of the game laws to the several counties had now been tested since
1915. Six years thereafter, as heretofore stated, the Legislature, in a concurrent resolu-
tion, recited the rapid destruction of wild life in Florida and the importance of con-
serving that life, and called upon the citizens to organize a wild-life league in every
community, but the Legislature itself postponed action of an effective nature until
At the 1925 session an act was passed creating a Department of Game and Fresh
Water Fish and the office of State Game and Fresh Water Fish Commissioner, with
powers appropriate to the exigencies of game- and fish-law enforcement. The Com-
missioner was authorized to employ deputies, whose commissions should cover the entire
State, and, vested with the same powers as deputy sheriffs and peace officers, they were
authorized to arrest without warrant when offenses were committed in their presence.
The act provided that nothing therein should be deemed to alter, repeal, or modify
any present or future local or special law or the power of local authorities to enforce
them or this act. It repealed all general laws in conflict with it and thereby abolished
the system of county game wardens established by the act of 1915 and its amendments,
but it left in operation any existing local system of game wardenships. At the time this
act was passed there were in force no fewer than eighty local game laws, to say nothing
of acts to protect fresh-water fish. A few of the counties had their own wardens.
Under the administration of J. B. Royall, State Game and Fresh Water Fish Com-
missioner from 1925 to 1929, progress was made in the cause of bird protection in the
State. In his second annual report, among many other things, he reported an increasing
number of citizens organizing for wild-life conservation and an increasing number of
conservation departments being established by civic organizations, and mentioned the
prominent place being given in school programs to nature study. He alluded to the
recognition granted his Department by his appointment by the Secretary of Agriculture
as one of the fifteen members of the Federal Advisory Board under the migratory-bird
treaty act. He recommended the enactment of a state-wide game- and fresh-water fish
law and the abrogation of the local laws, of which there were then more than one hundred
and sixty.
Twenty days prior to the date of the commissioner's second report, above referred to,
that is to say, on June 10, 1927, the governor had approved an act of 77 sections passed
by the legislature of that year. This act repealed all general and special laws relating to
game, fur-bearing animals, birds, and fresh-water fish, whether or not in conflict with it.
With meticulous detail the act prescribed the restrictions on hunting, trapping, fishing,
or in any wise dealing with game, fur-bearing animals, birds, and fresh-water fish. It
asserted the State's title to and ownership of all nonmigratory birds and all game and
fur-bearing animals and assumed, consistently with the laws of the United States, the
conservation and protection of all migratory birds. It defined game birds as they had
been defined in the nongame-bird act of 1901, omitting, like its predecessors, pigeons and
Robins; and all wild birds other than these were classed as nongame birds. A Depart-


ment of Game and Fresh Water Fish, the office of State Game Commissioner, and a Wild
Life Conservation Commission were created.
The Governor was required to appoint a Wild Life Conservation Commission, com-
posed of five members, one from each congressional district and one for the State at
large, and these were required to have intimate knowledge of wild life. Their terms of
office were four years, and they were to assist and advise with the State Game Com-
missioner in the establishment of fish hatcheries, game farms, game refuges, game breed-
ing grounds, and in the acquisition of State game lands.
With the advice and approval of the Governor and the Wild Life Conservation Com-
mission, the Commissioner was authorized to establish game farms and breeding grounds,
and breeding grounds for nongame birds and fur-bearing animals; to acquire lands and
waters suitable for the protection and propagation of game, fish, nongame birds, and fur-
bearing animals, and for hunting purposes, any purchase not to exceed $10 an acre; to
close any lake or stream for breeding grounds for game, fish, nongame birds, and fur-
bearing animals; and to close any county or part thereof to hunting or trapping for such
period as agreed upon. With approval of the Governor, in emergencies such as floods,
fires, and storms, the Commissioner was authorized to close to hunting any area affected.
He was empowered to establish and maintain State game refuges and to lease shooting
privileges on lands surrounding such refuges for public shooting grounds and to take
game, fur-bearing animals, and nongame birds at any time for propagation, restocking,
and scientific purposes, as well as to permit the Biological Survey of the Federal Depart-
ment of Agriculture to take specimens of birds, game, and fur-bearing animals for scien-
tific purposes.
Open seasons were prescribed as follows: Quail, November 20 to February 15;
Turkeys, doves, geese, ducks (except Wood Ducks), brant, coots, gallinules, and Wilson's
Snipe, November 20 to January 31; rails (formerly not protected), September 15 to
November 30, and then only on salt-water marshes; and it was provided that no open
season should be permitted on any other game birds.
Persons were forbidden to kill any birds, except those for which an open season was
prescribed and a few regarded as injurious, including buzzards, or to take their eggs at
any time, except for scientific purposes under permit from the Commissioner, who was
also authorized to issue a permit to property owners to kill nonmigratory nongame birds
destroying crops on their property; but when the birds were found in the act of destroy-
ing such crops and other property, they might be killed without permit. The use for
domestic or commercial purposes of the flesh or feathers of birds thus killed, in close
season, was forbidden.
Bag limits were as follows: Daily, 2 Turkeys; 15 each of Quail, ducks, snipe, and
gallinules; 25 each of doves and rails, or 25 rails and gallinules in the aggregate; 20
Coots; and 5 each of geese and brant. Seasonal, 5 Turkeys and 200 of any other species
of game birds.
Game birds could be taken only in the daytime between half an hour before sunrise
and sunset, and with a shotgun not larger than 10 gauge fired from the shoulder, or with
a rifle. They could not be taken from an automobile or train, or by aid of any lights,
nets, traps, snares, salt-lick, or poison, or from an airplane, power boat, sailboat, or


boat under sail, or any device towed by a power boat or sailboat, or on any baited.field
or waters. Persons were forbidden to shoot Quail while they were on the ground, or to
hunt Turkeys with dogs.
Licenses were provided for, as follows: For residents, hunting in county of residence,
$2; in any other county, $5; in State at large, $10. For nonresidents, hunting in State
at large, $25; for aliens, hunting in State at large, $50. The sale and purchase of game,
as well as of nongame birds, were prohibited at all times. Transportation of game was
forbidden except by persons holding hunting licenses and then within very circumscribed
At the same session of the legislature two companion and identical acts were passed
to establish a game and bird and wild-life sanctuary on the area one mile on either side
of the center line of the Tamiami Trail in Dade and Collier Counties. It was made un-
lawful within the sanctuary to discharge a firearm or to kill, hunt, chase, injure, trap,
capture, or destroy any birds, animals, or other wild life, and the sheriffs, constables,
peace officers, and game wardens in these counties were required strictlyto enforce the acts.
By a Senate concurrent resolution of April 23, 1927, the Mockingbird was designated
as the State bird of Florida.
Mr. Royall, in his third annual report as State Game Commissioner, announced the
establishment of thirty-six breeding grounds and refuges closed to all shooting, aggre-
gating 4,660 square miles, and the restocking of covers with Quail and Turkeys. A
deputy of the Department spent nine months organizing bird-study clubs in elementary
schools, a work that resulted in the enrollment of 8,000 boys and girls." This deputy
also devoted some time to organizing camps for boy scouts and for the "4-H clubs of the
rural sections. Other activities of the Department included exhibits at fairs, a moving-
picture exhibit of 10,000 feet of film depicting the native wild life of the State, and distri-
bution of educational literature.
Governor Carlton, on February 25, 1929, appointed C. C. Woodward, of Tampa, to
succeed Mr. Royall, and he entered upon his duties on that date, at Tallahassee. On
June 10, 1929, exactly two years after approval of the act of 1927, the Governor approved
an act of 75 sections, repealing all other general or special laws relating to game, fresh-
water fish, birds, alligators, and fur-bearing animals, whether or not in conflict with it.
This act is now in force and is in the main a repetition of that of 1927. The Wild Life
Conservation Commission was abolished. Consent was given to acquisition by the
United States, in accordance with section 5 of the act of Congress of February 18, 1929,
of areas for migratory-bird refuges. The open season on Turkeys and migratory game
birds, such as ducks, was extended to February 15. This was inoperative, however, as
to migratory game birds under the then existing Federal regulations, which closed the
season on these birds after January 31.1 The section relating to the killing of birds that
were destroying crops and other property was reduced to the simple provision that noth-
ing in the act shall prevent one from killing the birds on his own property when found
destroying crops and other property, but not with poison except under special permit
from the Commissioner.
1 Under the Federal regulations now (1931) in force, the season on migratory waterfowl is November
20 to December 19, inclusive.


At the same session an act was passed to regulate the establishment and operation
of private game preserves and farms, which are to be enclosed and limited to 640 acres.
Game raised or produced on such preserves or farms is considered to be private property
and may be sold or disposed of under the various restrictions imposed by the act.
An act was also passed, applicable to Collier County only and saved from repeal by
the general act, prescribing a closed term until July 1, 1934, for Turkeys, and forbidding
possession thereof,
dead or alive, during -.--. ..
the term. Certain I .
other provisions were
made concerning
Quail and the seasons
during which they
might be lawfully

Woodward, among
many other regula-
tions of interest to FIG. 1.-BIRD REFUGES IN FLORIDA
conservationists, has Federal refuges black; State refuges
closed to hunting 44 shaded
areas throughout the State, aggregating nearly 5,000
square miles, or approximately 10 per cent of the area of
the State (see fig. 1); has established a game farm at the
State Prison Farm, at Raiford, where he is carrying on
investigations in the propagation of deer, Turkeys, Quail,
and pheasants; has conducted experiments in restocking \ p
depleted areas; has had frequent wild-life exhibits at
State and local fairs; published a number of issues of an
attractive and instructive quarterly periodical, Florida ., .a -
Woods and Waters, devoted to conservation of the
State's wild-life resources; and has inaugurated a monthly bulletin distributed widely, in
which statistics are given on the operation of the game law and on the finances of his
Department, together with current items of interest relating to wild life.

On May 25, 1900, the United States, for the first time, entered the general or nation-
wide field of game and bird conservation when the President approved what is popularly
known as the Lacey Act, its author and sponsor being the late John F. Lacey, a repre-
sentative in Congress from Iowa, which State, it may pertinently here be recalled, was
admitted to the Union simultaneously with Florida.
The act enlarged the duties and powers of the Department of Agriculture to include
the preservation, distribution, introduction, and restoration of game and other wild birds.
It forbade the importation into the United States of the mongoose, flying fox or fruit bat,


English Sparrow, and Starling, and such other species as the Secretary of Agriculture
should declare to be injurious, and prohibited interstate commerce in the dead bodies of
wild animals or birds killed in violation of the laws of the State in which killed. It
subjected to the operation of State laws the dead bodies or parts thereof of all wild game
animals and game or song birds coming into the State from elsewhere, whether in original
packages or not.
The act was intended as, and soon developed to be, an efficient check upon illicit
shipments of wild animals and birds and their skins and plumage to markets in States
other than those in which they had been killed; and thus it greatly assisted the States in
obtaining better observance of their game laws.
With its duties extended to wild-animal and bird conservation and with enforcement
of the penal provisions of the act, the Department of Agriculture, through its Division
(now Bureau) of Biological Survey, immediately entered upon a program of cooperation
with the States; and in the following year, 1901, Dr. T. S. Palmer, then in charge of the
administration of the Lacey Act in the Biological Survey, attended a joint meeting of
the Senate and House committees on game of the Florida Legislature and gave valuable
expert information relating to the bill then pending before them, which resulted in the
epochal act of 1901 for the protection of all nongame birds in the State other than a few
noxious species.
This act gave impetus to the extension of Federal activity in Florida for conserva-
tion of wild life, and in 1903, as heretofore stated, President Roosevelt, by the first
Executive order of its kind ever issued, set aside, under control of the Secretary of Agri-
culture, the Federal-owned Pelican Island, in Indian River, as a reservation and breeding
ground for native birds. The reservation included the breeding home of a large colony
of Brown Pelicans, which has attracted the attention of tourists and nature lovers during
the last hundred years. Thirteen other reservations of a similar character have been
created in the State. Most of these reservations embrace numerous islands or keys,
largely of the mangrove type, and serve their highest usefulness as sanctuaries for the
interesting forms of wild life that resort to them. The most important reservations are
policed, either all the year or during the breeding season, by wardens maintained by the
Biological Survey. (See fig. 1.)
Under the act of Congress of February 18, 1929, the United States Department of
Agriculture has acquired a large tract of marsh land on the coast of Wakulla, Jefferson,
and Taylor Counties, east of St. Marks Light, which has been set aside as the St. Marks
Migratory Bird Refuge, to be administered by the Biological Survey.
In 1908 Congress directed officials of the Forest Service to aid in every way practi-
cable in the enforcement of the laws of the States for the protection of game and fish,
and in 1930 Congress authorized the President to designate areas in the Ocala
National Forest, in Marion County, as game refuges in which no hunting would be
After the adoption of regulations under the original migratory-bird law in 1913, the
Biological Survey maintained a warden in Florida, and under the migratory-bird treaty
act of 1918, it now has a game protector stationed in the State, who coSperates with the
State Game Department in conservation activities.



Pelican Island
Passage Key
Indian Key
Tortugas Keys
Key West
Pine Island
Matlacha Pass
Palma Sola
Island Bay
Cedar Keys
St. Marks

Date established
March 14, 1903
October 10, 1905
February 10, 1906
April 6, 1908
August 8, 1908
September 15, 1908
September 26, 1908
September 26, 1908
October 23, 1908
July 1, 1920
October 21, 1925
August 10, 1927
July 16, 1929
January 1,1931

Indian River, near Sebastian
Mouth of Tampa Bay
Boca Ciega Bay, near Maximo Point
Tortugas Keys, about 60 miles west of Key West
Near Key West
In Pine Island Sound at entrance to Charlotte Harbor
East of Pine Island
Palma Sola Bay
Charlotte Harbor, near Boca Grande
Near Fort Myers
Southern part of Mosquito Lagoon, near Merritt Island
Matanzas River, near Matanzas Inlet
Suwannee Sound, near Cedar Keys
Between St. Marks Light and mouth of the Aucilla River


The long and unremitting, but finally triumphant, struggle of the National Associa-
tion of Audubon Societies for the rescue from extinction of the plume birds of Florida
presents a record probably unparalleled in the annals of conservation in this or any other
country. No organization has ever encountered more disappointments and more bitter
discouragement in its efforts, and none has ever overcome them with more splendid
success. It is an interesting and inspiring story of devotion to a worthy cause and of
the power of grim determination. But space here forbids more than a meager summary
of the Association's activities in Florida.
By 1886 traffic in wild birds and their plumage had become so widespread and alarm-
ing in the United States that ornithologists and others began to think about ways and
means to combat it. The American Ornithologists' Union appointed a committee on
protection of North American birds to seek some means of curbing the rapid destruc-
tion of wild birds, especially the nongame species, which committee led to the establish-
ment of the United States Biological Survey.
In 1886, Forest and Stream, in a timely editorial, proposed the organization of a
society for the protection of wild birds to be named in honor of the great American orni-
thologist, John J. Audubon. Such an organization was soon in existence, and a magazine
devoted to bird protection was issued, but after a few years the society practically ceased
to function. Meanwhile, in several States, led by Massachusetts in 1896, Audubon
Societies had been formed and had become active. The Florida Society was organized at
Maitland in March, 1900.
In November, 1901, the societies of the several States formed the National Com-
mittee of the Audubon Societies, which began active work early in the next year, with
headquarters in New York City. Each State society retained its identity and continued
to operate within its respective State as an agency in wild-life conservation. In January,
1905, this National Committee was incorporated under the laws of New York as the
National Association of Audubon Societies.


In 1892 a single millinery agent reported that in the previous year he had shipped
130,000 birds from Florida for millinery purposes; and so general had become the fashion
to decorate women's hats with birds and their plumage that the plume birds of Florida
had been reduced to such scanty numbers that two of them, the American and Snowy
Egrets, were well-nigh extinct. This situation early engaged the attention of bird lovers,
and in May, 1901, William Dutcher, chairman of the committee on bird protection of
the American Ornithologists' Union, procured the introduction in the Florida Legislature
of the so-called model nongame-bird bill drafted and proposed by the Union and already
in force in several of the Northern States. He also appeared before the legislative com-
mittees in advocacy of the measure, and the bill was enacted into law at that session
and has been in force in this State ever since. The following year the National Commit-
tee of the Audubon Societies employed four wardens to guard several rookeries of plume
birds in the southern part of the State and continued thus to protect them for several
years. In July, 1905, one of these wardens, Guy M. Bradley, patrolling the Cape Sable
region, was brutally murdered by plume hunters, and another, Columbus G. McLeod, of
the Charlotte Harbor section, was killed in 1908. While these reverses temporarily
checked the activities of the Society in this State, they only served to stimulate its deter-
mination to save the remnant of the plume birds.
The National Association of Audubon Societies, throughout its activities in Florida,
has distributed much literature in the form of books, pamphlets, circulars, charts, and
the like, relating to birds and their protection. It has organized 2,000 Audubon clubs
among the children of the State, the total membership of these as of November 1, 1930,
being 71,435. Its lecturers have spent many months in the schools and colleges of the
State. Most of the bird reservations in Florida were established by the Presidents of
the United States through its efforts, and it has from time to time either wholly or par-
tially financed the wardens at the more important of these. It has furnished efficient
launches and boats for patrol duty at these reservations, and has itself purchased and
protected an important area of forty acres in Orange Lake in central Florida, where num-
bers of the State's most interesting and beautiful species of water birds congregate to
nest. It guards an important rookery of mixed species of water birds at Micanopy, in
Alachua County, one in Jefferson County, and one on the Sebastian River. It has ex-
pended many thousands of dollars in Florida both in educational work and in policing
breeding colonies of birds, and has furnished funds for procuring evidence of violations
of the State's bird laws and cooperated closely with the State Game Department, furnish-
ing many hundreds of pamphlets and circulars for distribution throughout the State.
In 1908 it procured an order of the Treasury Department that put a stop to the bringing
into Key West of great quantities of eggs of sea-birds from the Bahamas, a practice
that had furnished cover for the entry of similar eggs unlawfully taken in this country.
For the season of 1930 the Association paid the salaries and expenses of eight United
States game protectors working in the Everglades.
To-day, as a result in very great measure of the work of this Association, one can see
in suitable territory in practically any part of Florida goodly numbers of the American
and Snowy Egrets, which only a few years ago were virtually on the verge of extirpation.
Not only this, but other beautiful and useful species, such as the ibises, the Great Blue,


Little Blue, Green, Louisiana, and Black-crowned and Yellow-crowned Night Herons,
have greatly increased in numbers.
State Game Commissioner E. Z. Jones, in concluding his second annual report, in
1915, had this to say concerning the assistance rendered him by the National and State
Audubon Societies:
The work of the Audubon Societies in the country can hardly be estimated. For several years they
have been energetic and spending money in untold amounts for the protection of birds, and that all
laws pertaining to the protection of birds have been based upon the results of their work can hardly be
questioned. In this report may be found an article, "Florida Bird Life," by the Secretary to the Na-
tional Association of Audubon Societies, 1974 Broadway, New York City. The members of the Audubon
Societies have rendered me great assistance in this State in the enforcement of the laws pertaining to
birds, which should be appreciated by the citizens of the State.

The executive head of the National Association of Audubon Societies for the past
twenty years has been Dr. T. Gilbert Pearson, whose youth was passed in Florida and
who has a deep interest in the wild life of the State.

Name Date established Location
Orange Lake Rookeries 1911 Orange Lake, Alachua County
Micanopy Rookery 1913 Micanopy, Alachua County
San Sebastian Rookeries 1917 Sebastian River, near Roseland
May's Pond Rookery 1923 May's Pond, Jefferson County
Shark River Rookeries 1930 Shark River, Monroe County
Manofwar Key 1930 Florida Bay
Okeechobee Rookeries 1930 Fish-eating Creek, Glades County
'Gator Lake Rookeries 1930 Alligator Lake, near Cape Sable
Loop Rookery 1930 Tamiami Trail, Monroe County

In March, 1900, several winter residents and other persons of Maitland, Florida,
and vicinity, met and formed the Florida Audubon Society, with Bishop H. B. Whipple,
of Minnesota, as president. He died not long afterwards and was succeeded by L. F.
Dommerich, of New York City, who served until 1912, when he resigned because of
failing health. At his death he bequeathed to the National Association of Audubon
Societies the sum of $5,000, the income from which was directed to be expended in Flor-
ida, perpetually, for the purposes of the society.
In 1902 the society was incorporated under the laws of Florida. It has had a steady
and healthy growth; and to-day, with a much increased membership, it is one of the chief
agencies of conservation in this State. Dr. William F. Blackman, now honorary presi-
dent, was for a long period its leader.
During the decade following 1900 the Florida Audubon Society, with its affiliating
national and local societies, was virtually the only voice to be heard in Florida for
genuine state-wide wild-life conservation. This society may well be credited with the
establishment in 1913 of the first State Game Commission in Florida, which, though in


existence only two years, undoubtedly paved the way for the game commissions that
have since been established and the one now in such effective operation. Any descrip-
tion of the work and activities of the National Association of Audubon Societies in
Florida necessarily includes, in large part, those of the Florida Society, for the State
organization has closely cooperated with the National, furnishing funds as well as workers
from its membership. It has shared, too, with the National Association the discourage-
ments and triumphs in the great undertaking.
Prior to the establishment of the State Game Commission, and to a considerable
extent since, the Florida Society distributed synopses of the Federal and State game and
bird protective laws throughout the State, and enlisted the support of many newspapers
in its publicity work. It purchased and loaned to schools colored charts of the com-
moner birds of the State and employed lecturers to instruct the people, especially the
children, regarding the value and utility of the birds about them. It distributed large
numbers of pamphlets, circulars, and other forms of literature to promote the cause
of the birds, made appropriate exhibits at county fairs and elsewhere, and deposited
interesting books and other literature on birds in the public libraries of the State. It
has given many prizes to children for work in bird study and has organized clubs of school
children for promotion of bird study and conservation. The Society procured the ob-
servance of Bird Day in many schools, and finally was successful, in cooperation with
the Women's Clubs, in procuring the law that requires that half an hour each school
week shall be devoted to study of birds and other forms of wild life. In 1913 it obtained
the removal of the Robin from the game-bird list and the enactment of a law specially
protecting it. It has proposed and encouraged the establishment of several of the
State's bird sanctuaries, such as that at Winter Park, and has maintained a watchful eye
on proposals of legislation inimical to conservation. With the financial cooperation of
the National Association of Audubon Societies it publishes an attractive and instructive
quarterly magazine called "The Florida Naturalist," devoted to wild life and its pro-
tection, and is now offering bird study as a correspondence course, through the extension
division of the University of Florida.
There are also active and efficient local Audubon societies in many cities, including
Tampa, Coconut Grove, St. Petersburg, and Daytona Beach. The one at the last-
mentioned place, the Halifax River Bird Club, has recently published a useful primer of
Florida ornithology, written by R. J. Longstreet, now president of the Florida Audubon
Society, entitled "Bird Study in Florida."
Referring to the splendid work of this Society in Florida in the cause of wild-life
conservation, State Game Commissioner Jones in his second annual report very appro-
priately said that it was hard to estimate the value of the work of the Audubon Societies
to the State, a work that ought to be appreciated by every citizen.

No history of wild-life conservation in Florida would be complete without mention
of the work on this line of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs. To this organization
of genuine and outspoken conservationists is due a part of the credit for the existence
to-day of the State Game Commission, equipped with powers adequate to the fulfilment


of its functions, and for the law that makes bird study, the beginning and foundation
of conservation, a part of the public-school course.
This Federation procured the establishment of and now maintains the Royal Palm
State Park, in Dade County, an inviolate sanctuary for wild life, unique in its tropical
setting and one of the most interesting areas in this country. For many years the Fed-
eration has cooperated closely with the Audubon Societies, aiding and assisting in the
dissemination of useful information about wild life and its protection. It has been watch-
ful of measures inimical to wild life and has not been timid in opposing them. It is a
powerful factor in the progress of conservation in Florida.

Of more recent origin, but none the less entitled to recognition on the roll of potent
forces supporting and working for conservation in Florida, is the Izaak Walton League of
America, with its chapters in a number of counties. It has participated in the advocacy
of effective laws for the protection of wild life, and through its large membership through-
out the State has advocated and practiced those doctrines of true sportsmanship that
promise not only present but future enjoyment of wild life. In no inconsiderable measure
it has cooperated with the State Game Commission in the enforcement of the laws
and in educational undertakings. It is a forceful factor in directing public sentiment
There have been and now are some few local sportsmen's organizations, such as the
Crescent City Sportsman's Club in Putnam County and the Highlands County Game
Protective Association, that have contributed their quota to the progress of conservation
in this State, and reference has already been made in this chapter to the resolution of the
Florida Legislature of 1921 regarding the Wild Life Leagues of Lee and Orange Counties.
In some sections of the State the Boy Scouts have rendered excellent and honorable
service in the cause. Much of the comparatively recent local county legislation for
wild-life protection manifests the presence in those counties of some earnest and devoted
protagonists of game conservation. With all these agencies, both official and unofficial,
earnestly at work in the great cause of conservation of wild life, and holding steadfast
in their faith, the perpetuation of our wild neighbors is reasonably assured.



(Photo by E. G. Holt)





Although reaching elevations of only about 360 feet, Florida nevertheless exhibits
considerable topographic diversity. The topography and vegetation have been treated
in detail by Dr. Roland M. Harper (1910, 1914, 1921, 1927) in a series of publications
issued by the Florida State Geological Survey. In the first of these papers Doctor Harper
listed the natural divisions of the State, as follows:
West Florida Coast Region Lake Region
West Florida Pine Hills East Florida Flatwoods
West Florida Limestone Region East Coast Strip
Middle Florida Hammock Belt South Florida Flatwoods
Lime-sink Region Miami Limestone Region
Middle Florida Flatwoods Coast Prairie
Gulf Hammock Region The Keys

From the standpoint of bird distribution in Florida, a somewhat different grouping
of the prominent physiographic features will better serve present purposes. The regions
as here treated are as follows:
Flatwoods Everglades
High Pineland Salt Marshes
Hammocks Sea Beaches
Sand Scrub Prairies
Swamps The Keys

Probably the most extensive of the physiographic areas here treated are the pine
flats, or flatwoods, as they are frequently called. According to Harper, the greater part
of the peninsula south of Pasco and Brevard Counties is occupied by this type of forest,
and ani arm of the same character extends northward on the east coast to the Georgia line.
There are smaller areas in northwestern Florida, particularly in Calhoun, Liberty,
Franklin, and Wakulla Counties.
The surface is nearly level for long distances, and the soil supports open forests of
tall pines (either Pinus palustris or P. caribaea), usually with a dense undergrowth of
saw palmetto (Serenoa serrulata), which may be from one to five feet high, and other
shrubs, such as myrtle (Myrica cerifera), gallberry (Ilex glabra), huckleberry (Gaylus-
sacia sp.), rosemary (Ceratiola ericoides), and hurrah bush (Pieris nitida). The ground
is wet in spots, and occasional depressions contain ponds in which cypress, black gum
(Nyssa biflora), and other water-loving trees prevail. Many of these ponds support


also a dense growth of shrubs, and they are then frequently called "bays," or "bay-
Bird life in the flatwoods is moderately abundant, the most characteristic species
being Bob-whites, Nighthawks, Meadowlarks, Pine-woods Sparrows, Towhees, Pine
Warblers, Yellow-throated Warblers, Brown-headed Nuthatches, Flickers, Red-cockaded
Woodpeckers, and Bluebirds.
The Miami Pineland (Plate 2) may be included as a division of the flatwoods, al-
though, because of the character of the soil and the difference in latitude, the vegetation
is quite different. In this area, which comprises a narrow belt along the southeastern
coast from Dania south to Florida City, and on Long Pine Key, there is little sand or other
soil, the vegetation growing directly on the limestone rock (Miami o6lite), which here
outcrops at the surface. Slash pine (Pinus caribaea) is the prevailing tree in the forests,
which are relatively dense, with a thick undergrowth of saw palmetto and a scattering
growth of low shrubs, mostly of tropical species. Small hammocks are interspersed in
this pineland. The birds breeding commonly in this area are the Red-bellied and Red-
cockaded Woodpeckers, the Southern Crested Flycatcher, the Florida Bluebird, and the
Florida Pine Warbler.
Though less extensive than the flatwoods areas, the high pinelands are found in a
large part of the State. This type is best developed, perhaps, in the lake region, which
occupies the interior ridge, or "backbone," of Florida, from Clay County south to south-
ern Highlands County. Here occurs a succession of sand hills, the highest of which reach
an elevation above the sea of slightly more than 300 feet, clothed chiefly with open forests
of longleaf pine and having comparatively few undershrubs. In the depressions are
thousands of clear lakes of varying size, mostly with circular outlines (Plate 3). Large
tracts in this region are now under cultivation, being planted to groves of oranges and
In western Florida, also, from the Alabama border eastward to Gadsden County,
there are extensive areas of rolling, sandy pineland. Bird life is rather scarce on these
pine hills, except where hammocks occur. The most characteristic species are the Sum-
mer Tanager, the Pine Warbler, and the Yellow-throated Warbler.

Hammock is a term widely used in Florida, but as its meaning is frequently misunder-
stood by nonresidents, it will be well to define it, quoting from Doctor Harper (1910,
p. 217), as a "dense growth of trees other than pines in comparatively dry soil (or at least
not wet enough to be called a swamp), in a region where open pine forests predominate.
. An intermediate condition between hammock and swamp is often called low
Hammocks of all sizes and of varying composition occur nearly throughout the State.
The largest single area of this character is the Gulf Hammock, of Levy County, with
similar tracts extending along the Gulf coast from Pasco County northward to Wakulla
1 Frequently confused with "hummock," a word of entirely different meaning.








County. The surface of these big hammocks is usually level or slightly undulating,
though sometimes hilly; the vegetation is dense and of a varied character, comprising
pines of several species-cabbage palmetto, cypress, magnolias, oaks, holly, red bay
(Persea borbonia), and many others.
Smaller hammocks are scattered widely throughout the pine forests of the State,
and as a rule bird life is more abundant in them than in the open pine forests. On the
prairies small hammocks, composed chiefly of cabbage palmetto, live oak, and black gum,
are of frequent occurrence, these furnishing nesting sites for Barred Owls, Red-tailed
and Red-shouldered Hawks, Caracaras, Turkey Vultures, Black Vultures, Barn Owls,
Florida Crows, and Red-bellied Woodpeckers.
The tropical hammocks of southern Florida are of a different character from the
hammocks of the middle and northern parts of the State, being composed very largely of
trees and shrubs of West Indian origin. Many of these unusual hammocks along the
east coast have been destroyed to make room for town or villa sites, but the largest and
best known one-Royal Palm Hammock, or Paradise Key-situated in the southern
Everglades, southwest of Homestead, has been preserved and set aside as the Royal Palm
State Park (Plates 4 and 5).
Reports on the fauna and flora of this hammock are contained in papers by J. K. Small
(1916; 1917, pp. 99-100), W. E. Safford (1919), and the writer (1921). According to
Doctor Small, 162 native species of flowering plants and 13 species of ferns are known
from the Royal Palm Hammock, and the list of trees found there comprises 46 species.
Of these, the most striking are the royal palms, many of which tower above the rest of
the jungle to a height of more than 100 feet. Although the great majority of the plants
in the Hammock are of tropical origin, no tropical birds are found there. The most
abundant breeding species are the Florida Cardinal, the Florida Wren, and the White-
eyed Vireo; occurring less commonly are the Southern Pileated Woodpecker, the Chuck-
will's-widow, the Yellow-billed Cuckoo, and the Summer Tanager.
On the coastal prairie near the southern tip of the peninsula, numerous dense ham-
mocks occur, containing a great variety of tropical trees, many epiphytic orchids and
bromeliads, and an abundance of spiny cactuses climbing over the trees.

Sand scrub is a term applied to a type of vegetation peculiar to Florida that occupies
scattered areas of whitish sand in the lake region, a narrow strip along the east coast,
and smaller tracts on the west coast from Manatee County south to Collier County.
The characteristic plants of the scrub are the sand pine (Pinus clausa) and shrubby oaks
of several species (Quercus myrtifolia, Q. geminata, Q. catesbaei). These oaks, with saw
palmetto and rosemary (Ceratiola ericoides), form dense and almost impenetrable thickets
(Plate 2). The scrub is the chosen home of the Florida Jay, with which are found White-
eyed Towhees, Gnatcatchers, and Cardinals.

The swamps of Florida are numerous and extensive and occur in all parts of the State.
The lower courses of the larger rivers on the west coast are bordered for many miles with


heavy swamps of cypress, gum, and other trees; similar areas are found also at many
points in the interior, notably the Oklawaha Swamp, in Marion County; the Jane Green
Swamp, in Osceola County; the Istokpoga Swamp, on the east and south sides of Istok-
poga Lake; and the Big Cypress Swamp, in Collier County. In addition to these there
are innumerable smaller swamps scattered throughout the State (Plate 3). On the
coasts, from Mosquito Lagoon and Tampa Bay southward, mangrove swamps are of
frequent occurrence; and at the southern end of the peninsula, from Marco to Cape
Sable and around the shores of Florida Bay to Key Biscayne Bay, there is a nearly con-
tinuous series of wet swamps, composed mainly of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle),
black mangrove (Avicennia nitida), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and button-
wood (Conocarpus erecta).
The swamps are usually well populated with bird life. They were the chosen home of
the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, and are still inhabited by Pileated Woodpeckers, Red-
bellied Woodpeckers, Red-shouldered Hawks, Short-tailed Hawks, and many of the
smaller birds, including the Red-eyed and White-eyed Vireos, Parula and Prothonotary
Warblers, Acadian Flycatchers, Florida Cardinals, Florida Wrens, and Florida Chicka-
dees. The mangrove swamps harbor Florida Prairie Warblers, Black-whiskered Vireos,
and Maynard's Cuckoos.
The Everglades of Florida are its most striking topographic feature, but their real
character is often misunderstood by those who have never seen them. Probably such
pictures as were in the old geographies of a generation ago, showing gloomy forests of
cypress with snakes hanging from the branches, are partly responsible for these miscon-
ceptions. In reality, the Everglades form a vast, inland fresh-water marsh, filling a
basin underlaid with limestone rock, its waters being held by a rock rim, through which
only the Caloosahatchee and a few smaller rivers permit drainage to the sea. This
remarkable basin occupies an area more than 100 miles long from the southern and eastern
shores of Okeechobee Lake to Whitewater Bay and more than 50 miles across at its
widest part. The central portion of it is one vast, open expanse of saw grass, with scarcely
a tree or a bush to break the monotony, but around the borders and in the southern
portion scores of small, low hammock islands occur, bearing numerous shrubs and trees
and enough soil to permit the cultivation of crops (Plate 6). At the northern end a
deep layer of muck overlies the limestone; but toward the southern end the rock ap-
proaches the surface, and one at times can walk with comparative ease through the marsh
on a rock bottom.
The digging of numerous drainage canals on the eastern side of the Everglades has
resulted in lowering the water level several feet and has permitted the use of the land
for agricultural purposes. With these profound changes in the character of the big
marsh, many of the birds formerly living there have been driven out. Before the Ever-
glades were drained, they furnished a home for thousands of Florida Ducks, herons,
egrets, Limpkins, and Everglade Kites, most of which have been compelled to leave the
region entirely. With the extension of the dry land area and the growing of shrubs, trees,
and farm crops, other species have penetrated the region, and numbers of Kingbirds,


(Photo by Francis Harper)






Cardinals, White-eyed Vireos, Florida Yellowthroats, Florida Wrens, and Meadowlarks
are now seen along the borders of the canals, while Boat-tailed Grackles, Red-winged
Blackbirds, and King Rails continue to find favorable nesting sites there, as of old.
Smaller areas of fresh-water marsh, similar to the Everglades, occur in other parts of
the State; the most extensive of such tracts lies in Brevard and Indian River Counties,
forming the headwaters of the St. Johns River. Here numbers of Limpkins, Everglade
Kites, Snakebirds, ibises, and herons have found a safe and congenial home (Plate 7),
but recently this area has been drained in part. A vast marsh bordering the north side
of Lake Apopka furnishes an ideal breeding place for large numbers of Florida and Purple
Gallinules as well as Limpkins and Florida Cranes.

Extensive salt marshes, overflowed daily by the tides, occur along the east coast from
Cumberland Sound to Matanzas Inlet, and in Mosquito Lagoon and the Indian River
(Plate 6). On the west coast there is a nearly continuous series of salt marshes from
Apalachee Bay southward to Charlotte Harbor, while in northwestern Florida similar
marshes are found on St. Vincent Island and in St. Andrews, Choctawhatchee, and Pen-
sacola Bays. There are no large marshes on the southern end of the peninsula, their
place being taken by mangrove swamps.
The characteristic species of birds living in the salt marshes are Clapper Rails,
Seaside Sparrows, and Long-billed Marsh Wrens. The vegetation varies somewhat in
different localities. On the east coast it consists of glasswort (Salicornia) and switch
grass (Spartina), in varying proportions, with occasional patches of sharp-pointed rushes
(Juncus) and scattering mangrove bushes. On the west coast Juncus is the principal
component, forming sometimes dense and almost impenetrable tangles 4 to 6 feet high.

The sea beaches of Florida support an abundant bird life during the migration seasons
and in winter, when large numbers of shorebirds, gulls, terns, cormorants, and pelicans
may be seen feeding along the shores. Extensive areas of sea beach backed by sand
dunes occur along the east coast from Amelia Island to Miami Beach. These dunes vary
in height, some of them reaching an elevation of 60 feet (Sanford, 1909, p. 183). On the
west coast, dunes are much less numerous than on the east, and are more irregularly
distributed. At Caxambas,:on Marco Island, however, is a series of dunes that in places
reach a height of 80 feet above sea level. There are no dunes at Cape Sable, but a flat
sand beach on which have been planted several large coconut groves. Low sand beaches
occur on most of the coastal islands from Sanibel Island north to Anclote Keys, but from
that point northward to Apalachee Bay the shores are mostly marshy. Extensive
dunes are found on the islands and shores from Lighthouse Point westward to Pensacola
During the breeding season the characteristic inhabitants of the beaches are Wilson's
and Snowy Plovers, Willets, Least Terns, and Black Skimmers, with small numbers of
nonbreeding shorebirds, including Knots, Turnstones, Sanderlings, and Semipalmated
Sandpipers, and occasionally a few Black-bellied Plovers.


The higher parts of the beaches are clothed with patches of sea-oats (Uniola panicu-
lata) and a few low shrubs; back of the dunes a dense jungle of saw palmetto and
shrubby oaks is frequently found, in which Towhees, Mockingbirds, Ground Doves,
Florida Jays, and a few other land birds make their homes.

The largest and best known of the prairies of central and southern Florida is the
Kissimmee Prairie, extending from St. Cloud in northern Osceola County southward to
Lake Okeechobee and westward to Lake Istokpoga. There is a small prairie west of
Melbourne, and large prairie areas in Manatee, Sarasota, De Soto, Charlotte, Glades,
and Collier Counties. Small hammocks and clumps of cabbage palmetto are scattered
over the prairies, and these merge more or less abruptly into the adjacent flatwoods.
The prairie vegetation consists of various grasses, with a stunted growth of saw palmetto
and low shrubby oak (Quercus minima). The characteristic birds are Nighthawks,
Loggerhead Shrikes, Meadowlarks, Burrowing Owls, Caracaras, Red-tailed Hawks, and
Florida Cranes. In the prairie hammocks, and wherever there is suitable cover, Mock-
ingbirds, Towhees, Pine-woods Sparrows, and numerous other species are found.
At the southern end of the peninsula, bordering the southern part of Key Biscayne
Bay and the shores of Florida Bay, is an area of marl prairie, which is usually more or less
wet, being subject to overflow from the waters of the ocean or the Gulf. The vegetation
there consists chiefly of a tall growth of switch grass (Spartina juncea) with clumps of
small bushes and a few cabbage-palm trees. On these prairies Meadowlarks are abun-
dant, and the switch grass areas near Cape Sable are the home of the Cape Sable Seaside
Sparrow. Bordering the Gulf at certain points are dense areas of scrubby hammock,
made up largely of tropical trees and shrubs, in which Florida Crows and Florida Red-
shouldered Hawks are numerous.

The geological structure of the Florida Keys may be made clear by the following
quotation from Sanford (1909, pp. 196-197):
The shores of the main line of keys, extending from opposite Biscayne Bay to Key West and Boca
Grande, in places are rocky, in others are bordered by wide flats of marl or calcareous sand. In places
the surface of the keys is bare rock, in others it is sand or marl. Most of the keys have few wide strips
of land attaining an elevation of as much as six feet above the highest spring tides.
The longest of the keys, Key Largo, has an extreme length of thirty miles, but is nowhere over three
miles wide, and the maximum width of ground above the level of high spring tides is considerably less.
Big Pine Key is ten miles long and has an area of high ground nearly two miles wide, with a greatest
elevation of thirteen feet; while Key West is four miles long by one mile wide, and the highest ground,
which is near the center of the city of Key West, has an elevation of thirteen feet.
A glance at a map of the Florida Keys shows that the islands are separated by Bahia Honda Channel
into two distinctly differentiated divisions. East of the channel the islands are narrow and lie along a
sweeping arc curved toward the southeast [= southwest]. Outside this arc is the Strait of Florida,
inside are the Bay of Florida, Blackwater Sound, Card Sound and Biscayne Bay.
West of Bahia Honda the keys form an archipelago roughly triangular in outline. In this bunch of
islands, the westward prolongation of the arc in which lie Bahia Honda and the keys to the east and
northeast is found in the southern shore line of the keys, but instead of lying parallel to this arc the keys


themselves have a prevailing north-northwest, south-southeast arrangement, perpendicular to the arc.
The causes of this striking dissimilarity in position are twofold, a difference in rock structure and a differ-
ence in the direction of the forces which have shaped the islands.
Bahia Honda and the keys east of it represent an uplifted coral reef more or less covered with sand
and marl, hence their basement rock ridges have the trend of the coral patches of the old reef. The
foundation of the keys west of Bahia Honda is an oolitic limestone formed from deposits in a broad ex-
panse of shallow water; hence there was no original ridge-like upbuilding, no pronounced trend to the
rock structure. Variations in resistance to erosion have resulted in irregularities of the rock surface,
which, as along the old reef to the east, has been more or less covered with marl and calcareous sand.

Small (1913, p. III), writing of the flora of the Florida Keys, says:
The Upper keys are naturally clothed with a dense hammock growth of tropical hardwood shrubs
and trees, and palms; they closely resemble many of the Bahama islands. The Lower keys are more
varied in their vegetation, supporting large areas of pineland and palmland, as well as extensive ham-
mocks. Their vegetation indicates close relationship to Cuba, and the pinelands are almost identical
with those of the Miami Limestone Region or Everglade Keys. The Lower Sand keys are little more
than sand-bars, and they support, like the ocean side of all the Florida Keys, only, or mainly, the char-
acteristic strand-flora of most of the West Indies.
The whole chain is surrounded by tropical waters. The western extension lies in the Gulf of Mexico.
. The outer side of the reef is swept by the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. Thus we find here a
tropical flora made up almost wholly of West Indian elements, and closely related to the floras of
Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Cuba.

Following is a list of the principal species of land birds breeding on the Florida Keys:

White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala)
Eastern Mourning Dove (Zenaidura macroura
Eastern Ground Dove (Chaemepelia passerina
Maynard's Cuckoo (Coccyzus minor maynardi)
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)
Insular Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus
Little Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius paulus)
Florida Screech Owl (Otus asio floridanus)
Florida Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor chapman)
Red-bellied Woodpecker (Centurus carolinus)
Gray Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis domini-

Southern Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus
Florida Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata semplei)
Florida Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus)
Eastern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos poly-
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus ludovi-
Key West Vireo (Vireo griseus maynardi)
Maynard's Red-wing (Agelaius phoeniceus flori-
Florida Cardinal (Richmondena cardinalis flori-


Of the broad transcontinental life zones into which the United States is divided, two
are found in Florida. One of these, the Lower Austral Zone, includes the greater part
of the State; the other, the Tropical Zone, embraces the Florida Keys and a belt around
the southern end of the peninsula. The Lower Austral Zone, in its eastern humid or
Austroriparian division, may be subdivided in Florida into the Floridian and Louisianian
Faunas. The northern extension of the Tropical Zone is not subdivided in Florida.
(Plate 8.)

The Lower Austral Zone is currently recognized as embracing the greater part of the
Gulf States and of the South Atlantic States from southern Virginia to Florida. It is
abundantly characterized by a large number of species, of which the following are the
most important:

Lower Austral Birds Occurring in Florida

Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus atratus)
Purple Gallinule (lonornis martinicus)
Ground Dove (Chaemepelia passerina passerina)
Chuck-will's-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis)
Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Dryobates borealis)
Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus ludovi-

Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsoni)
Yellow-throated Warbler (Dendroica dominica
Boat-tailed Grackle (Cassidix mexicanus major)
Pine-woods Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis aesti-

Lower Austral Mammals Occurring in Florida

Mahogany bat (Nycteris seminola)
Evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis)
Florida weasel (Mustela peninsula)
Old-field mouse (Peromyscus polionotus subspecies)
Cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus subspecies)
Southern golden mouse (Peromyscus nuttalli

Swamp rice rat (Oryzomys palustris subspecies)
Cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus subspecies)
Florida wood rat (Neotoma floridana floridana)
Florida pocket gopher (Geomys tuza subspecies)
Marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris subspecies)

Lower Austral Trees and Shrubs Occurring in Florida

Old-field pine (Pinus taeda)
Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)
Slash pine (Pinus caribaea)
Sand pine (Pinus clausa)
Swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum)
Pond cypress (Taxodium ascendens)

Cabbage palmetto (Sabal palmetto)
Saw palmetto (Serenoa serrulata)
Water hickory (Hicoria aquatic)
Turkey oak (Quercus catesbaei)
Water oak (Quercus nigra)
Laurel oak (Quercus laurifolia)

1 Additional species listed under Floridian Fauna.


Bluejack oak (Quercus cinerea) Titi (Cliftonia monophylla)
Scrub oak (Quercus myrtifolia) Cassena (Ilex cassine)
Live oak (Quercus virginiana) Yaupon (Ilex vomitoria)
Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) Southern sugar maple (Acer floridanum)
Winged elm (Ulmus alata) Red maple (Acer rubrum drummondii)
Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) Swamp black gum (Nyssa biflora)
Evergreen magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Ogeechee lime (Nyssa ogeehe)
Red bay (Persea borbonia) Tupelo gum (Nyssa aquatica)
Swamp bay (Persea pubescens) Water ash (Fraxinus caroliniana)
Leatherwood (Cyrilla racemiflora)

Subdivisions of the Lower Austral Zone
Several attempts have been made by zohgeographers to subdivide the Austroriparian
area of the Lower Austral Zone. J. A. Allen, in his classic paper on life zones (1871,
p. 391), proposed a Floridian Fauna, occupying the southern part of the Florida penin-
sula from the latitude of Lake George southward, the more northern portion of the
Austroriparian being designated as the Louisianian Fauna. His remarks concerning
this fauna and his list of characteristic species indicate that his purpose was to delimit
the Tropical element in Florida. Later investigations, chiefly those of Schwarz and
Simpson (see p. 70), have shown, however, that the Tropical Zone is confined to a belt
around the southern end of the peninsula, reaching in dilute form on the east coast to the
southern end of Merritt Island. In a paper on The Geographical Distribution of North
American Mammals, published 21 years later, Doctor Allen (1892, p. 234) accepted the
conclusions of Merriam and others with reference to the limits of the Tropical fauna, but
used for it the name "Floridian," which he had previously used for the greater part of
the Florida peninsula.
A subdivision of the Austroriparian faunal area, designated as the "Gulf Strip of
Lower Austral Zone," was proposed by Merriam, in his paper on Life Zones and Crop
Zones of the United States (1898, p. 49). This subdivision, as shown on his map, com-
prised all of Florida north of the Tropical Zone, together with the coastal region of Ala-
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. Of the seven species of birds mentioned by
him as characterizing this area, two-namely, the Florida Barred Owl and the Florida
Nighthawk-have been found to range throughout the Austroriparian Zone; the White-
tailed Kite breeds locally in California, Texas, Oklahoma, and South Carolina, as well
as in Florida; this leaves but four species, namely, the Florida Screech Owl, the Ground
Dove, the Florida Grackle, and the Boat-tailed Grackle, as marking this subdivision.
Another subdivision of the Austroriparian area was proposed by Rehn and Hebard
(1916, p. 104). It was called the Sabalian Zone and comprised a narrow strip along the
Atlantic coast from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, south into Florida, its southern and
western boundaries not determined. The zone was said to extend to the border of the
Tropical and to be characterized by the cabbage palmetto and by a considerable number
of species of insects that range southward to southern Florida, or at least to the central
or north-central parts of the State. A. H. Wright, in a paper on the Vertebrate Life
of Okefenokee Swamp (1926, p. 77), adopted the "Sabalian Zone" without further de-
fining its limits. Of his list of 23 "Sabalian" birds ibidd., p. 86), 14 are known to range


more or less completely throughout the Austroriparian area,' six are mainly Floridian,2
while only three-the Florida Cormorant, the Ground Dove, and the Florida Grackle-
are found throughout the "Sabalian."
Recent field studies in Florida by the writer have led to the conclusion that neither
the "Gulf Strip" of Merriam nor the "Sabalian Zone" of Rehn and Hebard can be
successfully characterized on the basis of bird distribution. Considering the large
assemblage of species of birds and mammals peculiar to the Florida peninsula, it seems
desirable to establish a subdivision of the Austroriparian area extending from the latitude
of Gainesville in the interior and the mouth of the St. Johns River on the east coast,
southward to the edge of the Tropical belt and westward to the Wakulla River. This
area may most appropriately be designated the Floridian Fauna, as a portion of it was
originally named by Allen. The northern part of the Austroriparian area may be called
(following Allen) the Louisianian Fauna.

Birds Mainly Limited in their Southward Range by the Louisianian Fauna

Mississippi Kite (Ictinia misisippiensis)
Eastern Bob-white (Colinus virginianus virgini-
Northern Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus
Eastern Wood Pewee (Myiochanes virens)
Southern Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos paulus)'
Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovi-
Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)
Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis sialis)3
Yellow-throated Vireo (Lanivireo flavifrons)

Northern Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus pinus)s
Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens virens)
Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina)
Eastern Red-wing (Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus)'
Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)
Eastern Cardinal (Richmondena cardinalis cardi-
Indigo Bird (Passerina cyanea)
Alabama Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus can-
Bachman's Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis bach-

Birds Mainly Limited in their Northward Range by the Floridian Fauna

Florida Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus flori-.
Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)4
Florida Duck (Anas fulvigula fulvigula)4
Everglade Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus)4
Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus)4
Florida Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo borealis um-
Florida Bob-white (Colinus virginianus floridanus)
Florida Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo osceola)
Florida Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis)

Limpkin (Aramus pictus pictus)4
Florida Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia
Gray Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis domini-
Southern Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus
Florida Blue Jay (Cyanocitta cristata semplei)*
Florida Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens)
Florida Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos pascuus)'

These are: Anhinga anhinga, Strix varia alleni, Sturnella magna argutula, Passerina ciris, Helinaia
[=Limnothlypis] swainsoni, Chordeiles virginianus chapman, Geothlypis trichas ignota, Mycteria ameri-
cana, Buteo lineatus alleni, Sitta carolinensis atkinsi, Ardea herodias wardi, Falco sparverius paulus,
Conuropsis carolinensis, and Campephilus principalis.
2 Pipilo erythrophthalmus alleni, Peucaea aestivalis aestivalis, Cyanocitta cristata florincola, Agelaius
phoeniceus floridanus, Otus asio floridanus, and Grus "mexicana" [ pratensiss].
3 Another race of the species occurs in the Floridian Fauna.
4 Occurs also in the Tropical Zone.


Florida Chickadee (Penthestes carolinensis im-
Florida Brown-headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla
Florida Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus miamen-
Florida Bluebird (Sialia sialis grata)'
Florida Pine Warbler (Dendroica pinus florida)'
Florida Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor

Florida Red-wing (Agelaius phoeniceus mearnsi)
Florida Cardinal (Richmondena cardinalis flori-
White-eyed Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus
Florida Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus
savannarum floridanus)
Dusky Seaside Sparrow (Ammospiza nigrescens)
Pine-woods Sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis aesti-

Mammals Mainly Limited in their Northward Range by the Floridian Fauna

Little mole (Scalopus aquaticus parvus)
Anastasia Island mole (Scalopus aquaticus anas-
Florida little shrew (Cryptotis floridana)
Florida spotted skunk (Spilogale ambarvalis)
East Florida pocket gopher (Geomys floridanus
West Florida pocket gopher (Geomys floridanus
East Florida beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus
Anastasia beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus
Florida old-field mouse (Peromyscus polionotus

Anastasia cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus
Florida cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus
Florida white-footed mouse (Peromyscus flori-
Florida rice rat (Oryzomys palustris natator)
Florida cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus littoralis)
Florida pine mouse (Pitymys parvulus)
Florida water-rat (Neofiber alleni)'
Florida cottontail (Sylvilagusfloridanus floridanus)
Florida marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris paludi-

As already shown (p. 67), the presence of a Tropical element in the Florida biota
was recognized by Allen in his pioneer paper on zo6geography (1871, p. 392). At that
time little accurate information was available as to the distribution of birds in southern
Florida, and Doctor Allen was mistaken in supposing that the Tropical fauna extended
north to the latitude of Lake George. Schwarz (1888, p. 165), in a paper on the insect
fauna of semitropical Florida, showed that this fauna, as well as the flora with which it
is associated, is wholly of West Indian origin, and is confined to the southern tip of
the peninsula and to small island-like colonies in a narrow belt along the east coast as
far north as the southern end of Merritt Island.
Merriam (1890, p. 26, map 5), on his first provisional zone map of North America,
indicated the Tropical Zone as a narrow belt around the southern end of the peninsula,
reaching about to Merritt Island on the east coast and to Tampa Bay on the west.
Allen (1892, p. 234) adopted nearly the same limits for the Tropical area, but designated
it as the "Floridian Fauna," which term in 1871 he had proposed for the entire peninsula
from Lake George southward. Merriam (1894, pl. 14), in his paper on the Laws of
Temperature Control of the Geographic Distribution of Terrestrial Animals and Plants
extended the limits of the Tropical Zone to include almost the entire lower half of the
Florida peninsula, this modification of his former views being apparently the result of
his studies of temperature data in relation to zonal distribution of life.
'Occurs also in the Tropical Zone.

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