Citation
26 ecological communities of Florida

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Title:
26 ecological communities of Florida
Alternate title:
Twenty-six ecological communities of Florida
Creator:
United States -- Soil Conservation Service
Place of Publication:
<Washington D.C.?>
Publisher:
Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
268 p. in various pagings : ill., maps ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Soils -- Florida ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility:
Soil Conservation Service.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA0265 ( LTQF )
AFH1918 ( NOTIS )
030130261 ( AlephBibNum )
15747112 ( OCLC )

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SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE oe


26 ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES

OF FLORIDA


CVCB329 1151









TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE


Introduction . . . . . . 1

1 North Florida Coastal Strand ................. 2

2 South Florida Coastal Strand ................. 8

3 Sand Pine Scrub . . . . . 14

I Longleaf Pine Turkey Oak Hills . . . .. 20

5 Mixed Hardwood and Pine ....... . . 26

6 South Florida Flatwoods .... . . 32

7 North Florida Flatwoods .... . . 38

8 Cabbage Palm Flatwoods .... . . 44

9 Everglades Flatwoods ..... . .. 50

10 Cutthroat Seeps . ....... .... . 56

11 Upland Hardwood Hammocks ... . . 61

12 Wetland Hardwood Hammocks . . . 66

13 Cabbage Palm Hammocks .. ................ 71

14 Tropical Hammocks ....... . . 76

15 Oak Hammocks . ...... ... . 81

16 Scrub Cypress . ........ ... . 86

17 -Cypress Swamp . ...... ... . 91

18 Sa Marsh . ...... .... . 97

19 Mangrove Swamp . .... ....... . 102

20 Bottomland Hardwoods ..... . .. 107

21 Swamp Hardwoods ..... ... . . . 112

22 Shrub Bogs Bay Swamps .. ........... ... 118









TABLE OF CONTENTS


23 Pitcher Plant Bogs . .

24 Sawgrass Marsh . . . . .

2Z Freshwater Marsh . .

26 Slough . .

Climatic Zone Map .. ..... ....


. . 123

. . 128

. . 133

. . .. 141

. . 146


APPENDICES

Appendix A--Correlation of Soils Series with Ecological Community

Appendix B--Ecological Community Plant Tables

Appendix C--Ecological CommuniLy Animal Tables

List of Birds

ReSaerences


LIBRARY







INTRODUCTION


The ecological community concept as used in this booklet is based on the
awareness that a soil type commonly supports a specific vegetative community,
which in turn provides the habitat needed by specific wildlife species.

These vegetative communities form recognizable units in the landscape, most
of which are apparent to the casual observer after only a little training.
Even with no botanical training, an observer can soon distinguish between pine
flatwoods and pine-turkey oak sandhills; between hardwood hammocks and cypress
swamps; and between mangrove swamps and salt marsh. Once the community is
recognized, information can be found concerning the general characteristics of
the soil in which it occurs and the types of plants and animals that commonly
occur there.

In the mid-1970's, Soil Conservation Service plant and soil scientists began
to try to draw all this information together for the communities most often
encountered by SCS personnel in their work. Field studies were made, in
addition to consulting many reference works. Twenty-six different communities
were identified, although this is by no means a complete listing of
communities occurring in Florida. Strictly aquatic communities (such as
lakes, rivers and bays) were not included, and the 26 picked could obviously
be broken down more--or lumped together--depending on which characteristics
are of most interest. These 26 were picked based on how knowledge about them
would be useful in SCS field work, which constantly involves environmental
evaluations.

The information was sent to SCS field office Technical Guides as a "working
draft" in 1978. Since that time, field checks and refinements have been made
and this booklet presents the up-dated information. This booklet has been
developed primarily as a supplement to SCS Technical Guides for Florida.

The communities described are essentially the climax types that occur in
nature where man's influence has not greatly altered them. In other words,
they have evolved through natural plant succession over long periods of time.
Under this concept, even a cropfield would be expected to revert to a specific
type of climax community if man's influence were removed. For instance, a
Norfolk soil in northwest Florida that now supports a corn field was
originally a Mixed Hardwood-Pine forest community and would return to that
community within 50 to 75 years if the field were to be abandoned. By
contrast, a Hontoon muck in south Florida that has been drained and is being
used to produce vegetables would revert to a freshwater marsh within only a
few years if the drainage were stopped.

The more we recognize the characteristics and values of our natural ecological
communities, the wiser the decisions we can make regarding the use and care
of these resources. It is hoped that the information in this booklet will
help to lead to these wise decisions.











1 NORTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


*CAL9
so 20 W 30 40 mouca


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
UIDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TIXAS IU1


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-1
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


SAW.fP~





















Typical coastal
sFlorand n west
Florida


Coastal strands
from Panama City
to Alligator
Point are normal
y low in hleght

width


Soa oats, 101010

domn tot on Olse
duePttttoo oP
oootsal+roodo.


09R*I~' .-' ~_F;i~"j~~
c--


-Ji "







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 1 NORTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


OCCURRENCE

The North Florida Coastal Strand ecological community occurs along the
Atlantic Ocean north of Indian River County and along the Gulf of Mexico west
of Alligator Point in Franklin County. Individual communities are generally
large in size, being narrow and long, parallel to the coastal beaches. Small,
isolated communities can also be found along some bays or sounds. This
community generally encompasses the area affected by salt spray from the
ocean, Gulf and salt water bays.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. It is easily
identified by its location adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
and by plants that are adapted to or influenced by the salty environment.
Small areas of hammock may occur on the more inland parts of the community.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, mostly well to
excessively drained with some being moderately well drained or somewhat
poorly drained. They are coarse textured throughout. Representative
soils included: Canaveral, Corolla, Fripp, Newhan and Palm Beach. In
Escambia County, it is the areas mapped as coastal dune land and beach.
Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the
appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation of this community is low-growing grasses, vines,
and herbaceous plants with few trees or large shrubs. These trees and
shrubs often occur in stunted form due to the action of the wind. The
natural forces of wind, salt, and blowing sand make plant establishment
difficult on the foredunes. Plants which do establish here are well
adapted to disturbance and are pioneer species. The backdunes will often
have vegetation similar to the Sand Pine Scrub and the Wetland Hardwood
Hammock ecological communities. Plants which characterize this community
are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Sand live oak, Quercus
virginiana var. maritima; Live oak, _Quercus virginiana

SHRUBS Marshelder, Iva imbricata; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repenss; Spanish
bayonet, Yucca aloifolia; Yaupon holly, Ilex vomitoria; Red
bay, Persea borbonia








HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Blanket flower, Gaillardia pulchella;
Fiddleleaf morning-glory, Ipomoea stolonifera; Largeleaf
pennywort, Hydrocotyle bonariaensis; Sea purslane, Sesuvium
portulacastrum; greenbriars, Smilax spp.; Wildgrape, Vitis spp.

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Bitter panicum, Panicum amarum; Gulf
bluestem, Schizachyrium maritimus; Marshhay cordgrass, Spartina
patents; Sandbur, Cenchrus spp.; Seaoats, Uniola paniculata;
Seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum; Seashore panicum,
Panicum amarum; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Seashore saltgrass,
Distich-lis spicata

Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

A variety of shorebirds, terns, and gulls can be found on or near the
beach. This community provides a good food source as well as nesting
sites. Crustaceans such as crabs are numerous near the shorelines. This
area also serves as nesting grounds for sea turtles. Small mammals can
also be found on the coastal dunes and larger mammals behind the
fcredunes. The most common species are:

MAMMALS Bobcats, foxes, mice, raccoons, skunks, and similar mammals
also inhabit the community.

BIRDS American kestrel, gulls, pelicans, shorebirds, terns, and other
predatory birds and a number of songbirds in the backdune
areas.

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental_ Value as a Natural System

The coastal strand is highly endangered. Areas privately owned but
undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels, and motels. This urban
development can have serious effects on the community. Coastal strands
are important in regulating wave action along the coast. This action
tends to break away part of one beach and build up another. Unplanned
structures and development which alter this process accelerates beach and
coastal dune erosion. Clearing and leveling of dunes for development also
cause erosion through removal of native vegetation which helps hold the
dune together, and by removal of sand from the offshore transport system.

Recreational use and wildlife values on the coastal strand are important.
Recreation is much in demand in these areas but can cause damage due to
trampling and destroying vegetation. When these plants die, their
extensive root systems are no longer available to hold the soil together
and build the dune. Occasional use may also degrade this fragile
community. This community is not generally used for agriculture or
wood land.







2. RangReland


This community is not generally used for rangeland.

3. Wildlifeland

Well suited for a variety of shorebirds, gulls and terns. The native
grasses and legumes provide good food sources and nesting sites. The area
is important as a nesting ground for sea turtles. It is suited for
mammals such as mice, raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. Many
songbirds also inhabit the area.

4. Woodland

This community is not generally used for woodland.

5. Urbanland

The better drained areas inland from the ocean or gulf have few
limitations for urban development. Areas adjacent to the water may be
subject to coastal dune and beach erosion. This is especially true where
construction alters the natural processes and destroys excessive amounts
of native vegetation. The section on Environmental Value as a Natural
Sjste further explains these concerns. Vegetation is difficult to
establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, well to excessively
well drained and saline soils and the salt spray. Intensive vegetation
establishment and maintenance methods are needed for best results.
Without vegetation, water and wind erosion can become a problem during and
after construction.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for
beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage
palm, chickasaw plum, live oak, redbay, redcedar. slash pine, magnolia,
and sand pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, prickly pear cactus,
coontie, coral bean, yaupon holly, lantana, marshelder, partridge pea,
sawpalmetto, spanish bayonet, and waxmyrtle. Some of the grasses are sea
cats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore saltgrass, Gulf
bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore dropseed, common bermudagrass, and
shoredune panicum. Some of the herbs and vines are beach morning-glory,
fiddler-leaf morning-glory, blanket flower, largeleaf pennywort, sea
purslane, greenbriars, and wild grape.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds, shorebirds such as terns,
and gulls, and crustaceans such as crabs and sea turtles. Undisturbed
areas are also inhabited by other birds and various mammals. These areas
also provide food and escape cover for many forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND_ ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:
Gulfcoast lupine, Lupinus wystijnanus; Godfrey's blazing-star,
Liatris prcvincialis








The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Choctawhatchee beach mouse (Okaloosa, Walton and Bay Counties),
Peromyscus polionotus allophvrs; Goff's pocket gopher, Geomys
pinetis goffi; Pallid beach mouse (Atlantic Coast), Permoyscus
polionotus decoloratus; Perdido Bay beach mouse (Escambia
County only), Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis

BIRDS Eastern brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis;
Southeastern snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
tenuirostris; Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
coerulescens; Least term, Sterna antillarum; Southeastern
kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus; Peregrine falcon, Falco
peregrinus; Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii

REPTILES Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata;
Atlantic loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta caretta; Atlantic
green turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas; Atlantic ridley turtle,
Lepidocheyls kempi; Leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea











2 SOUTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
t I I I I I


Atlantic


Gulf


Mexico


Ocean


",U-


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1911


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-2
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770



















Coconut palm,
Cocos nucifera,

South Florida
coastal Lstrands.


Coastal strands
are important
recreational areas
in South Florida.


Australian pine
(Casuarina spp.) and
sea grape (Coccoloba
uvfra) are two woody
plants typically found
on strands along Flori-
da's southeast coast.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 2 SOUTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND


OCCURRENCE

The South Florida Coastal Strand ecological community occurs along the
Atlantic Ocean south of Brevard County and along the Gulf of Mexico south of
Pasco County. Individual communities are generally large in size, being
narrow and long, parallel to the coastal beaches. Small, isolated communities
can also be found along some bays or sounds. This community generally
encompasses the area affected by salt sprays from the ocean, Gulf and salt
water bays.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. It is easily
identified by its location adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
and by plants that are adapted to or influenced by the salty environment.
Small areas of hammock may occur on more inland parts of this community.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, mostly well to
excessively drained with some moderately well drained or somewhat poorly
drained. They are coarsely textured throughout. Representative soils
include: Canaveral and Palm Beach. It also includes areas mapped as
Coastal Beach and Coastal Beach Ridges. Appendix A contains information
on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation of this community is low growing grasses, vines,
and herbaceous plants with few trees or large shrubs. These trees and
shrubs often occur in stunted form due to the action of the wind. The
natural forces of wind, salt, and blowing sand make plant establishment
difficult on the foredunes. Plants which do establish here are well
adapted to disturbance and are pioneer species. The backdunes will often
have vegetation similar to the sand pine scrub or the wetland hardwood
hammock ecological communities. Plants which characterize this community
are:

TREES Australian pine, Casuarine equisetifolia; Cabbage palm, Sabal
palmetto; Coconut palm, Cocos nucifera; Sand live oak, Quercus
virginiana var. maritima

SHRUBS Bay cedar, Suriana maritima; Coco plum, Chrysobalanus icaco;
Inkberry, Scaevola plumieri; Marshelder, Iva imbricata;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa reopens; Silverleaf croton, Croton
punctatus; Spanish bayonet, Yucca aloifolia; Sea grape,
Coccoloba uvifera







HERBACEOUS


PLANTS AND VINES Bay bean, Canavalia maritima; Beach morning-
glory, Ipomoea pes-caprae; Cucumberleaf sunflower, Helianthus
debilis; Sea purslane, Sesuvium portulacastrum; Greenbriars,
Smilax spp.; Wild grape, Vitis spp.


GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -
cordgrass, Spartina
Uniola paniculata;
Seashore saltgrass,
spp.;


Bitter panicum, Panicum amarum; Marshhay
patens; Sandbur, Cenchrus spp.; Seaoats,
Seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum;
Distichlis spicata; Low panicum, Panicum


Additional plants that occur in this community are in Appendix B.

3. Animals

A variety of shorebirds, terns, and gulls can be found on or near the
beach. This community provides good food sources as well as nesting
sites. Small mammals can also be found on the coastal dunes. Larger
mammals also occur behind the foredunes. Some species that occur are:


MAMMALS Bobcat, fox, rabbits, skunks, raccoon, mice


BIRDS American kestrel,
songbirds


pelicans,


gulls, terns, shorebirds,


REPTILES Alligator, frogs, lizards


This area also serves as
such as crab are numerous
known to occur in specific

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS


nesting grounds for sea turtles. Crustaceans
near the shorelines. Information on animals
ecological communities is in Appendix C.


1. Environmental Value as a Natural System


The coastal strand in highly endangered. Areas privately owned but
undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels and motels. This urban
development can have serious effects on the community. Coastal strands
are important in regulating wave action along the coast. This action
tends to break away part of one beach and build up another. Unplanned
structures and development which alter this process accelerates beach and
coastal dune erosion. Clearing and leveling of dunes for development also
cause erosion through removal of native vegetation, which helps hold the
dune together, and by removal of sand from the offshore transport system.

Recreational use and wildlife values on the coastal strand are important.
Recreation is much in demand in these areas but can cause damage due to
trampling and destroying vegetation. When these plants die, their
extensive root systems are no longer available to hold the soil together
and build the dune. Occasional use may also degrade this fragile
community. This community is not generally used for agriculture or
woodland.







2. Rangeland


This community is not generally used for rangeland.

3. Wildlifeland

Well suited for a variety of shorebirds, gulls, and terns. The native
grasses and legumes provide a good food sources and nesting sites. The
area is important as a nesting ground for sea turtles. It is suited for
mammals such as mice, raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. Many
songbirds also inhabit the area.

4. Woodland

This community is not generally used for woodland.

5. Urbanland

The better drained areas inland from the ocean or gulf have few
limitations for urban development. Areas adjacent to the water may be
subject to coastal dune and beach erosion. This is especially true where
construction alters the natural processes and destroys excessive amounts
of native vegetation. The section on Environmental Value as a Natural
System further explains these concerns. Vegetation is difficult to
establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, well to excessively
well drained and saline soils and the salt spray. Intensive vegetation
establishment and maintenance methods are needed for best results.
Without vegetation, water and wind erosion can become a problem during and
after construction.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for beautifica-
tion and landscaping. This is because they are more easily established
and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, coco
plum, Florida thatch palm, Florida silver palm, Florida cherry palm,
live oak, pidgeon plum, redbay, slash pine, magnolia, wild tamarind, tree
hibiscus and sand pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, prickly pear
cactus, sea grape, coontie, coral bean, yaupon holly, lantana, marshelder,
partridge pea, sawpalmetto, spanish bayonet and waxmyrtle. Some of the
grasses are sea oats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore
saltgrass, Gulf bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore dropseed, common
bermudagrass, and shoredune panicum. Some of the herbs and vines are
beach morning-glory, fiddle-leaf morning-glory, blanket flower, largeleaf
pennywort, sea purslane, greenbriars, and wild grape.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants may occur in this community:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Beach star, Remirea maritima; Small-flowered
lily-thorn, Catesbaea parviflora (Keys)

The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:








MAMMALS Pallid beach mouse, Peromyscus polionotus decoloratus, Goff's
pocket gopher, Geomys pinetis goffi

BIRDS Arctic Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus tundrius; Eastern
brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis;
Southeastern snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus
tenuirostris; Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens
coerulescens; Least tern, Sterna antillarum; Roseate spoonbill,
Ajaia aiaia

REPTILES Atlantic green turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas (Atlantic coast
only); Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata
imbricata; Atlantic loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta caretta;
Atlantic ridley turtle, Lepidochelys kempi; Leatherback turtle,
Dermochelys coriacea













- SAND PINE SCRUB


SCALE
O 10 10 30 40 O MILES
I llI 1 I i


A tlan tic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Also commonly found inland from
coast as relatively small communities.


S~ a


ASI : -w
00-


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1M1


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-3
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770





















Typical, even-aged
stand of sand pine,
Pinus clause


Sand pine scrub in
South Florida often
have fewer sand
pine, Pinu clause,
and more shrubs than
those farther north.


Dense understory of
scrub naks, saw pal-
metto and other shrubs.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 3 SAND PINE SCRUB


OCCURRENCE

The Sand Pine Scrub ecological community occurs throughout Florida. It is
most commonly found inland from the coast and in the central portion of the
state in and around Marion County. Individual communities are generally
small in size, i.e., several hundred acres. A large community, several
thousands of acres in size, occurs just east of Ocala in the Ocala National
Forest. It typically has a few smaller communities of wetland types
interspersed throughout.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. Water
movement is rapid through the soil. It is easily identified by the even-aged
stands of sand pine or by the thick scrubby oak growth.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, acid, somewhat
poorly to excessively drained and coarse textured throughout.
Representative soils includes: Archbold, Daytona, Duette, Hobe, Paola,
Pomello, Resota, St. Lucie, Satellite and Welaka. Appendix A contains
information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological
community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation of this community may be typically even-aged sand
pine trees with a dense understory of oaks, sawpalmetto, and other shrubs.
Ground cover under the trees and shrubs is scattered and large areas of
light colored sand are often noticeable. In other cases, the sand pine
are scattered or absent, with oaks being the dominant vegetation.
Satellite soils, which have a high water table for part of the year,
support a scrubby growth also, but the myrtle oak, Chapman oak, and sand
pine become infrequent and gallberry becomes prominent. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES Bluejack oak, Quercus incana; Chapman oak, Quercus chapmannii;
Myrtle oak, Quercus myrtifolia; Sand live oak, Quercus
virginiana var. geminata; Sand pine, Pinus clausa

SHRUBS Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gopher apple,
Chrysobalanus oblongifolius; Prickly pear, Opuntia spp.;
Sawplametto, Serenoa repens

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Grassleaf goldenaster, Heterotheca
graminifolia; Deermoss, Cladonia spp.; Cat greenbriar, Smilax
glauca








GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans, Low
panicum, Panicum spp.

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Animals found in this community are adapted to high temperatures and
drought conditions. The wildlife food production is low. Dense
vegetation provides good escape cover for animals such as the white-tailed
deer. The palmetto and various species of oaks provide good food when
they are fruiting. Gopher apple is also a good wildlife food plant.

Typical animals of the sand scrub are:

MAMMALS Deer

BIRDS Florida mouse, Towhee, great crested flycatcher, scrub jay,
Bachman's sparrow

REPTILES Black racer, gopher frog, gopher tortoise, scrub lizard, sand
skink

AMPHIBIANS Gopher frog

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

The sand pine is a fire-based community. Understory vegetation is dense
and fuel supplies build up in the trees. The thick understory creates a
pathway for fire to the crowns of the trees. Fire normally occurs every
20-40 years. Sand pines have a low resistance to fire and the high
density, even-aged stands make fire devastating. Cones of the sand pine
require heat of a fire to open and release seeds. This method of
regeneration helps to form even-aged stands. Without occasional fire,
this community would tend to become a type of upland hammock community.

The sand pine scrub is a valuable ecological community. The coarse
textured, excessively well drained soils make the community important in
aquifer recharge. It is a unique ecosystem which gives it an important
scientific value. Heat and drought stress response by plants and animals
are often studied on these sites. Uncontrolled fire and damage to
vegetation by excessive feet or vehicle travel have adverse effects on the
community.

Sand scrubs are good producers of sand pine and some areas are utilized
for commercial wood production. Intensive management for wood production
will not cause excessive damage to the community if good silvicultural
practices are applied.







Native forage production is low and the community has limited use for
rangeland. Adverse soils conditions make it infeasible to convert this
community to cropland. It has been converted to some extent for citrus
production in South Florida. This community has fair to good value for
wildlife escape cover with proper management.

Areas of sand pine scrub communities, except in the Ocala National Forest,
are rapidly declining. Favorable conditions for residential use and
proximity to the coast make them prime sites for real estate development.

2. Rangeland

This community supports a fairly dense stand of trees and shrubs and
therefore has a limited potential for producing native forage. Livestock
do not use this site if other ecological communities are available. For
sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry
plant material varies from 1,500 to 3,500 pounds per acre. The variation
depends on plant growth conditions. From 15 to 40+ acres are usually
needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available.
The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 40
percent grasses, 40 percent trees and shrubs and 20 percent herbaceous
plants and vines.

3. Wildlifeland

This community is suited for deer and turkey, especially for use as escape
cover. Many birds inhabit this area including warblers, rufous-sided
towhees, great crested flycatchers, scrub jays, and quail. Several
varieties of native legumes furnish food (seeds) for bird life. The
palmetto, gopher apple and various species of oak provide good food when
they are fruiting. Timber harvest and other disturbances increase
wildlife food value by increasing the amount and types of herbaceous
plants and by sprout production.

4. Woodland

This community has a low potential for commercial wood production. There
are severe equipment limitations and moderate seedling mortality problems
due to loose, well to excessively well-drained and infertile soil
conditions. Sand pine is a commercial species suitable for planting. It
has a potential annual growth of approximately 0.5 cords per acre in north
Florida. South of Hernando County in the west and Orange County in the
east, the potential annual growth is 0.4 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

The moderately well to excessively well drained areas have few limitations
for urban development. The somewhat poorly drained Satellite soils,
although very drought in the surface layers, have a water table at 20
inches for part of the year and has more limitations. Vegetation is
difficult to establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, and
drought surface soils. Water moves rapidly through the soil. Intensive
vegetation establishment and maintenance methods, including irrigation are







needed for best results. Without vegetation, wind erosion can be a
problem during and after construction. Water erosion control and water
retention facilities are usually not needed.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for
beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are live oak,
sand live oak, sand pine, turkey oak, and Eastern red cedar. Some of the
shrubs are Adam's needle, coral bean, Carolina holly, gopher apple,
pawpaw, prickly pear cactus, rosemary, sawpalmetto, and shining sumac.
Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, crotalaria,
blanketflower, blazing star, goldenaster, goldenrod, lupine, morning
glory, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are birds such as warblers, towhee,
great crested flycatcher, and scrub jay. Gopher tortoise, sand skink,
scrub lizard, and snakes are some of the reptiles using this habitat.
Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

SHRUBS Four-petal pawpaw, Asimina tetramera; Pigmy fringetree,
Chionanthus pygmaea

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Curtis milkweed, Asclepias curtissii;
Dancing-lady orchid, Ocidium variegatum

The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

MAMMALS Florida mouse, Peromyscus floirdanus, Goff's pocket gopher,
Geomys pinetis goffi

BIRDS Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens

REPTILES Blue-tailed mole skink, Eumeces egregious lividus; Sand skink,
Neoseps reynoldsi; Short-tailed snake, Stilosome extenuatum











4 LONGLEAF PINE


- TURKEY OAK HILLS


SCALE
0 10 20 0 40 SO MILES


Gulf


Mexico


ad absop'l.


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-4
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


Atlantic





Ocean





















Typical Loagleaf Pine-
Tnrkey Oak Hills
Ecologi-al Coc-anity


The deciduous turkey
oak, urcus laevis,
gives a bare appear-
anne in the winter.


Ground cover under
the trees and shrubs
is usually very sparse.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 4 LONGLEAF PINE-TURKEY OAK HILLS


OCCURRENCE


The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community
Florida. It is most commonly found in the central part of
Lake Placid and in the Florida panhandle inland from the
Individual communities vary widely in size and limited
communities may occur within it.


occurs throughout
the state north of
Gulf of Mexicd.
numbers of other


DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on rolling land with nearly level to strong slopes.
Water movement is rapid through the soil. It is easily identified by the land
form and dominant vegetation of longleaf pine and turkey oak.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, acid, moderately
well to excessively drained, and mostly coarse textured throughout or
mostly coarsely textured in the upper part and moderately fine textured or
moderately coarse textured in the lower part. Representative soils are
Alpin, Bonifay, Candler, Chiefland, Cocoa, Deland, Eustis, Hurricane,
Kershaw, Lake, Lakeland, Orlando, Tavares, and Troup. Appendix A contains
information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological
community.

2. Vegetation

There are several variations of this community. Mature, natural stands of
trees which have not been logged have scattered longleaf pine as an
overstory. Areas on which pines have been removed are predominantly oaks.
Ground cover under the trees and shrubs is scattered and numerous bare
areas are noticeable. Plants which characterize this community are:

TREES Longleaf pine, Pinus palustris; Turkey oak, Quercus laevis


HERBACEOUS


PLANTS AND VINES Aster, Aster spp.; Blazing star, Liatris
tenuifolia; Bracken fern, Pteridum aquilinum; Butterfly pea,
Centrosema virginianum; Butterfly pea, Clitoria mariana;
Elephant's foot, Elephantopus spp.; Grassleaf goldenaster,
Heterotheca graminifolia, Partridge pea, Cassia spp.; Pineland
beggarweed, Desmodium strictum; Sandhill milkweed, Asclepias
humistrata; Showy crotalaria, Crotalaria spectabilis; Wild
indigo, Baptista spp.


GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Curtiss dropseed, Sporobolus curtissii;
Hairy panicum, Panicum anceps; Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum
nutans; low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pinewoods dropseed,
Sporobolus iunceus

Other plants that occur in this community are found in Appendix B.








3. Animals


Animals utilizing this community are adapted to stress conditions of high
temperature and drought. Many of the animals are burrowers. This helps
to prevent water loss and provides protection against high temperatures.
The most common animals of this community are:

MAMMALS Fox squirrel, pocket gopher, white-tailed deer

BIRDS Bobwhite quail, ground dove, rufous-sided towhee

REPTILES Gopher tortoise, fence lizard

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

The longleaf pine-turkey oak community is a fairly open forest community
influenced by fire, heat and drought. The most important influence is
fire which typically occurs frequently. The natural vegetation is adapted
to withstand the effects of occasional fire. Grasses cover large areas
and provide fuel for the fire and prevent competing hardwoods from
regenerating. Longleaf pine cannot tolerate hardwood competition and,
with fire, this species remains dominant. The community can be changed to
an upland hammock type by elimination of fires. Water moves rapidly
through most of the soil to the aquifer with little runoff and minimal
evaporation. This is important for aquifer recharge.

Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills are used to some extent for timber
production. In west Florida, sand pine is often planted because it is
better adapted than slash pine on these sites. Longleaf pine does not
replant well because of its nature to remain in the "grass "stage" for
several years.

Native forage production is low, so the community has limited value as
rangeland. Improved practices for rangeland have little effect on the
community.

This community has value for wildlife if proper management techniques are
used. Bobwhite quail utilize this area for food and cover and this makes
the hunting aspects especially important. In central and south Florida
most of this community has been planted to citrus.

In north Florida is is used for improved pasture, pine plantations, and to
a limited degree, for more intensive farming operation with use of
irrigation. Soil conditions are very favorable for urban development.
The community is decreasing rapidly in size because of the demand for
urban and agricultural uses.







2. Rangeland


The natural fertility of this community is low due to adverse soil
conditions. Forage production and quality are poor and cattle do not
readily utilize this ecological community if other communities are
available. For sites in excellent condition the average annual production
of air dry plant material varies from 2,000 to 4,000 pounds per acre. The
variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 10 to 35+ acres are
usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage
available. There will be little or no grazing when the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentage of annual vegetative
production by weight is 60 percent grasses, 20 percent trees and shrubs
and 20 percent forbs.

3. Wildlifeland

This community is suited for deer and turkey, especially for use as escape
cover. Many songbirds inhabit this area including warblers, towhees,
crested flycatchers, and quail. Several varieties of native legumes
furnish food (seeds) for bird life. Timber harvest and similar
disturbances improve wildlife food values by increasing the amount and
types of herbaceous plants and by sprout production.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderately high potential for commercial woodland
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to loose, well drained and infertile soil conditions.
Commercial species suitable for planting are sand pine, slash pine,
loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Potential annual growth is 1.2, 1.2,
1.0 and 0.6 cords per acre respectively. Potential productivity is 18
percent less for areas south of a line from Hernando County in the west to
Orange County in the east.

5. Urbanland

These moderately well to excessively drained areas have few limitations
for urban development. It is often difficult to establish vegetation
because of the infertile, coarse textured and well drained soil
conditions. Intensive vegetation establishment methods are needed and
irrigation is required for best results during dry seasons. Maintenance
becomes a problem without adequate fertilization and similar techniques.
Without vegetation, wind erosion can become a problem during and after
construction. Water erosion can also be a problem on the steeper slopes.

Plants native to the community should receive preference for
beautification and landscaping unless intensive establishment and
management practices are used. This is because they are more easily
established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are American
holly, chickasaw plum, longleaf and slash pine, live, oak, Southern
redcedar, sand pine, and turkey and bluejack oak. Some of the shrubs are
Adam's needle, American beautyberry, Carolina holly, coontie, coral bean,
Florida chinkapin, pawpaw, prickly pear cactus, sawpalmetto, shining
sumac, and yaupon. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm,







crotalaria, blanketflower, blazing star, goldenaster, lupine, morning
glory, goldenrod, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are birds such as warblers, towhees,
great crested flycatchers, dove and quail. Undisturbed areas provide good
escape cover, and food for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

SHRUBS East coast coontie, Zamia umbrosa; Florida coontie, Zamia
floridana


HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Godfrey's
provincialis


blazing star,


The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:


MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi;
Peromyscus floridanus


Florida mouse,


BIRDS Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus;
Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis


REPTILES -


Blue-tailed mole skink, Eumeces egregius lividus; Eastern
indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi; Short-tailed snake,
Stilosoma extenuatum


Liatris











5 MIXED HARDWOOD AND PINE


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 O0 MILES
1--t------t----~-f-- I


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


A"

~~,c9~a:8,


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-5
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770




















During winter, the
occasional pine and
evergreen hardwoods
contrast sharply with
the deciduous hardwoods.


Typical mixed hard-
wood and i eo
10gic., community
in Gadsden County.


Ground cover under
the trees and shrubs
is somewhat sparse.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 5 MIXED HARDWOOD AND PINE


OCCURRENCE

The Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological community is an extension of the middle
coastal plains hardwoods forest. It occurs only in west and north Florida.
Individual communities vary in size and are interspersed with other
communities and natural drainageways.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on rolling uplands. Water movement is gradual to the
natural drainageways. It can be easily identified by the mixed hardwood and
pine vegetation occurring in a predominately well drained area.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep to moderately deep,
acid, moderately well to well drained, with loamy to sandy surfaces, and
are underlain with fine textured materials. Representative soils include:
Benndale, Binnsville, Blakley, Boswell, Bowie, Carnegie, Chipola,
Clarendon, Compass, Cuthbert, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville,
Gritney, Kalmia, Magnolia, Marlboro, Maxton, Norfolk, Oktibbeha,
Orangeburg, Red Bay, Ruston, Shubuta, Sunsweet, Susquehanna, and Tifton.
Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the
appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

There is a variation in the type and amount of vegetation depending on the
successional stage. In the early successional stages of this community,
pine is present with shortleaf and loblolly predominating. As the system
matures, hardwoods replace pines. The natural climax- vegetation is
thought to be a beach-magnolia-maple association. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES American beech, Fagus grandiflora; American holly, Ilex opaca;
Eastern hophornbean, Ostrya virginiana; Flowering dogwood,
Cornus florida; Hawthorns, Crataegus spp.; Loblolly pine,
Pinus taeda; Mockernut hickory, Carya tomentosa; Pignut
hickory, Carya glabra; Southern red oak, Quercus falcata;
Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; White oak, uercus
alba; Water oak, Quercus nigra

SHRUBS Shining sumac, Rhus copallina; Sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum

GRASSES Broomsedge bluestem, Andropogon virginicus; Longleaf uniola,
Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Spike
uniola, Chasmanthium laxium








HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Aster, Aster spp.; Common ragweed Ambrosia
artemisiifolia; Partridge berry, Mitchella repens; Partridge
pea, Cassia spp.; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Violet,
Viola spp.; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia; Wild
grape, Vitis spp.

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Animals found in this community vary according to the stages of plant
succession. Areas of young growth attract wildlife that are widely
adapted and quick reproducing, such as cottontail rabbits and bobwhite
quail. In more mature stands, woodpeckers, moles, woodcocks, and other
narrowly adapted animals can be found.

Wildlife that occur in this community include:

MAMMALS Cottontail rabbit, gray squirrel, gray fox, cotton mouse,
white-tailed deer, raccoons

BIRDS Barred owl, bobwhite quail, pileated woodpecker, red-bellied
woodpecker, wild turkey, woodcock

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Unlike most communities, the mixed hardwood and pine do not have a
dominant stress factor. There is some competition between plants for use
of water, sunlight, and available nutrients. Once the mixed hardwoods and
pine are established, they can withstand disturbance due to the complex
and diverse vegetation and the excellent plant growth conditions. The
community is fire resistant but fire may occur during drought conditions.
Recovery of hardwoods after a fire is vigorous but damaged trees are often
attacked by disease and subject to rot.

Fire will keep the system in a predominantly pine stage. However, in
mature stands, fire is infrequent and plants that are not fire-tolerant
can become dominant.

The finer textured soils of this community have a relatively low
permeability. This results in a limited aquifer recharge and some surface
runoff. Mixed hardwood and pine communities are important for flood
control on watersheds. This community is a good producer of timber and
areas are used for timber production. Intensive management may cause a
low diversity of plants with an adverse change in some wildlife
populations.

The community has a high value for wildlife. This is especially true
where varying successional stages occur next to each other. The community








contains good agricultural soils. The acreage available in a natural
condition is not great--most is cultivated, used for residences, or held
at the pine stage of succession.

2. Rangeland

The soil's moisture-holding capacity and natural fertility is relatively
high and good quality forages are produced. This community is preferred
for grazing by livestock in the earlier stages of succession. Tree canopy
cover can become excessive and drastically reduce forage quality. For
sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry
plant material varies from 3,000 to 4,500 pounds per acre. The variation
depends on plant growth conditions. From 8 to 23+ acres are usually
needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages
available. There will be little or no grazing when the canopy cover
exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentage of annual vegetative
production by weight is 50 percent grasses, 30 percent trees and shrubs
and 20 percent forbs.

3. Wildlifeland

Mixed hardwood and pine are very good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel,
and many songbirds. Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and
berries) furnish a good source of wildlife food. Mature hardwoods and
snags provide good nesting sites for birds. Habitat is good for raccoons,
opposums, bobwhite quail and dove, fair for reptiles, and poor for most
amphibians.

4. Woodland

This community has a high potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are no serious management problems. Commercial species
suitable for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine. Potential annual
growth is 1.5 and 1.2 cords per acre, respectively. The potential annual
growth of longleaf pine is 0.8 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

These moderately well to well drained areas have few limitations for urban
development. This and the attractiveness of the hardwood and pine
vegetation make them prized areas for residential development. Water
erosion is often a problem on the steeper slopes. Special vegetative
establishment and maintenance practices are needed in situations where
water erosion is a concern.

Plants native to the community are easily established and require less
maintenance than introduced ornamentals. Some of the trees are American
holly, laurelcherry, chickasaw plum, dogwoods, fringetree, hickory,
southern magnolia, oak, pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, redcedar, and
sweetgum. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coral bean,
pawpaw, strawberry bush, shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. Some of
the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, blazing star, iris and
sunflower.







The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrels.
Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for most
forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

TREES Florida torreya, Torreya taxifolia; Pagoda dogwood, Cornus
alternifolia

SHRUBS Ashe's magnolia, Magnolia ashei; Miccosukee gooseberry, Ribes
echinellum; Orange azalea, Rhododendron austrinum

The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

Florida panther, Felix concolor corvi; Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides
borealis












- SOUTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


SCALE
0 t0 20 30 40 SOMILES
St I I


Atlantic


Gulf


HERNANDO


Ocean


Mexico


Loke
Okechobee


BROWARD


/
/
/


-.
~


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-6
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981


6







I',-'


Although numbers of
trees vary greatly
in different loca-
tions, South Florida
flatwoods are typical-
ly savannas, a type of
community intermediate
between grassland and
forest.


South Florida
flatwoods are used
extensively for
range.


Areas north and we
of Lake Okeechobee
have few trees.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 6 SOUTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The South Florida Flatwoods ecological community occurs throughout south and
central Florida. The northern limit of its occurrence is approximately on a
line from Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east. This
community covers more land area than any other in south Florida. Individual
communities may comprise several thousand acres and are typically interspersed
with smaller communities of other types, especially wetlands.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to
the natural drainageways, swamps, marshes, and ponds associated with this
community. During the rainy season, usually June through September, this
community may have water on or near the soil surface. It is easily identified
by the flat topography and pine and palmetto vegetation.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level, deep, acid, poorly to somewhat poorly drained,
and coarse textured throughout or coarse textured in the upper part and
moderately coarse textured or moderately fine textured in the lower part.
Representative soils included: Braden, Eaton, Electra, Elred, Heights,
Immokalee, Lawnwood, Myakka, Nettles, Palmetto, Pomona, Smyrna and
Waveland. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series
with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The landscape position of this community affects plant-water
relationships and causes slight differences in plant composition from
wetter to drier areas. Although these differences are recognized, they
are not significant enough to delineate as separate communities, the
natural vegetation of this community is typically scattered pine trees
with an understory of sawpalmetto and grasses. Some areas in extreme
south Florida have few, if any, trees. These areas are often called
prairies or dry prairies. The largest of these areas occur north and west
of Lake Okeechobee. Plants which characterize this community are:

TREES Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii;
South Florida slash pine, Pinus elliottii var. densa

SHRUBS Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gallberry, Iex glabra;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Tarflower, Befaria racemosa;
Shining sumac, Rhus copallina; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera







HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Chalky bluestem, Andorpogon capillipes;
Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium stoloniferum; Lopsided
indiangrass, Sorhastrum secundum; Fall panicum, Panicum
dichotomiflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pineland threeawn,
Aristida stricta

Information about plants that occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The South Florida Flatwoods is host to a diverse and numerous wildlife
population. Many larger animals are found in areas where the flatwoods
join other communities. These ecotones provide nesting sites, den sites,
food and cover.

Typical animals of the flatwoods are:

MAMMALS Armadillo, eastern cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, deer,
skunks, raccoon, opossum

BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, Bobwhite quail, brown-headed nuthatch,
meadowlark, pileated woodpecker, pine warblers, red-bellied
woodpecker, rufous-sided towhee, yellow-throated warblers

REPTILES Eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake, yellow
ratsnake

AMPHIBIANS Oak toad, chorus frog, pinewoods tree frog

Introduced feral hogs are common in much of the community. Information
about animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in
Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Fire and water are the major stress conditions of this community. Fire
controls hardwoods and promote the natural regeneration of pine. Removal
of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood community.

Flatwood communities are good cellulose producers and the original areas
of predominantly longleaf pine have been logged. Areas in the northern
part of the community are extensively used for timber production,
Intensive management for pulp production can cause major changes in the
vegetation. Without proper consideration this results in a low diversity
of plants and an adverse change in some wildlife populations.

Native forage production is good with proper management. Use for
rangeland has only a light effect on the community if properly managed.
Chopping and similar range practices result in more grasses and fewer
shrubs. With sufficient cover left, the resulting increase in diversity
usually leads to an increase in types and amount of wildlife.







This community has good wildlife values, especially with proper
management. It is especially important as a wildlife buffer zone between
urban areas occurring on better drained sites.

Water control practices and improved management techniques have
facilitated the use of flatwoods for improved pasture, vegetables, citrus,
and urban development. This is especially true in south Florida.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage such as creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem,
and indiangrass. It is Florida's most important community for the
production of cattle on native range. For sites in excellent condition,
the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000
to 6,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth
conditions. From 3 to 14+ acres are usually needed per animal unit
depending upon amount and type, of forage available, there will be little
forage available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative
percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 75 percent
grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent
herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

The South Florida Flatwoods community is well suited for deer, quail, and
turkey. It is fair for squirrels and well suited for many songbirds,
particularly warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat, skunks,
opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions. The commercial species suitable for
planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre.
The potential annual growth for longleaf pine is 0.5 cords per acre.
Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from
Hernando County in the west to Orange County in the east.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil and special techniques may
be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,
cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine.
Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean,
partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern







waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's
lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and
zephyrlily.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds like warblers.
Undisturbed areas also provide good escape cover for all forms of
wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor corvi; Mangrove fox squirrel,
Sciurus niger avicennia

BIRDS Crested Caracara, Polyborus plancus; Florida grasshopper
sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum floridanus; Southeastern kestrel
(Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus; Red-cockaded
woodpecker, Picoides borealis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi













- NORTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


GADSDEN
LEON MASON











SCALE
0 i0 20 30 d40 0 MILES




Gulf




ofo



Mexico


MARION


Atlantic


Ocean


/
I


.4


Map prepared by U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981 O


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-7
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770






















Typical North Florida
flatwoods are open
woodland, dominated hb
pine trees.


Woodland is a
common land se.


INX
'C :


Saw palmetto, Serenoa
ren, is a c on
shrub.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 7 NORTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The North Florida Flatwoods ecological community occurs north of a line from
Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east, and in the northwest
portion of the state. It is quite extensive, occurring most frequently in the
northeastern region of the state and the southern portion of the northwest
region. Individual communities may comprise several thousand acres and are
typically interspersed with smaller communities of other types, especially
wetlands.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to
the natural drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes associated with this
community. Wet conditions prevail during the rainy season with the water
table on or near the surface. It is easily identified by the flat topography,
slash pine and sawpalmetto vegetation.

1. Soil

Numerous soil types occur within this community. The soils are nearly
level, deep, acid, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured
or coarse textured in the upper part and moderately coarse textured or
moderately fine textured in the lower part. Representative soils include:
Chaires, Garcon, Leon, Lumber, Lutterluh, Lynn Haven, Mascotte, Olustee,
Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, Sapelo, Scranton, and Talquin. Appendix A
contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate
ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Slight differences in plant composition occur in this community depending
upon location but these differences are of minor consequence. As this
community is observed, a moderate to dense stand of pine trees is usually
noted. An understory of sawpalmetto and grasses are also evident.
Compared to the South Florida Flatwoods community, several differences are
apparent. A shorter growing season and colder temperature have helped
cause significant vegetative differences. More frequent interspersion of
hardwood and cypress strands coupled with higher pine tree density reduces
the open appearance.

Close study reveals the following characteristic plants:

TREES Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii

SHRUBS Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gallberry, Ilex 2labra;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Shining sumac, Rhus lanceoluta;
Tarflower, Befaria racemosa; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera







HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Blackberry, Rubus spp.; Bracken fern,
Pteridum aquilinum; Creeping beggarweed, Desmodium incanum;
Deer tongue, Trilisa odoratissima; Dog fennel, Eupatorium
capillifolium; Gayfeather, Liatris gracilis; Greenbriar, Smilax
auriculata; Milkwort, Polygala spp.

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Chalky bluestem, Andropogon capillipes;
Broomsedge bluestem, Andropogon virginicus; Yellow indiangrass,
Sorghastrum nutans; Lopsided indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum;
Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pineland threeawn, Aristida stricta;
Sedges, Cyperus spp.

Other plants that are known to occur in this community are found in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

The North Florida Flatwoods are host to a diverse and numerous wildlife
population. Mnay larger animals are found in areas where the flatwoods
join other communities. These ecotones provide nesting sites, den sites,
food and cover. Typical animals of the flatwoods are:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, fox squirrel,
gray fox, raccoon, opossum, skunk

BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, Bobwhite quail, pine warbler, red-bellied
woodpecker, red-shouldered hawk, rufous-sided towhee

REPTILES Eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake

AMPHIBIANS Chorus frog, cricket frog, grass frog, flatwoods salamander

Introduced feral hogs are common in much of the flatwoods community.
Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Fire and water are the major stress conditions of this community.
Modification of either condition will change the plant and animal
composition. Removal of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood
community.

Flatwoods communities are good cellulose producers because of their high
net productivity. The original areas of predominantly longleaf pine have
been logged. Extensive areas have been replanted to slash pine.
Intensive management for pulp production can cause major changes in the
vegetation. The result is a low diversity of plants and often adverse
changes in types and amounts of some wildlife.







Native forage production is good with proper woodland grazing practices.
Proper rangeland use has only a slight effect on the community and results
in more grasses and few shrubs. This often increases the type and amount
of wildlife.

Water control practices and improved management techniques have
facilitated the use of flatwoods for improved pasture, vegetable
production, and urban development. This effect is minimal in north
Florida. This community has good wildlife values with proper management.
It is also important as a buffer zone between urban areas.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage such as chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and
several of the panicum species. More pines occur in this community than
in South Florida Flatwoods. Vegetative production differs from the South
Florid Flatwoods community due to a shorter growing season and lower
winter temperatures. For sites in excellent condition the average annual
production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 5,500 pounds
per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 5 to
15+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and
type of forage available. For each 15 percent canopy cover, the stocking
rate is reduced 15 percent. There will be little forage available if the
canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual
vegetative production by weight is 65 percent grasses and grasslike plants,
25 percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

The North Florida Flatwoods community is well suited for deer, quail and
turkey. It is fair for squirrels and well suited for many songbirds,
particularly warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat, skunks,
opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions. The commercial species suitable for
planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre.
The potential annual growth for longleaf pine is 0.5 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be
required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,







cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine.
Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean,
partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's
lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and
zephyrlily.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds. Undisturbed areas also
provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this
community, but may occur in some instances:

SHRUBS Chapman's rhododendron, Rhododendron chapmanii

The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or
around the community:

MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus, Florida
panther, Felis concolor coryi

BIRDS Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus;
Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis; Florida sandhill
crane, Grus canadensis pratensis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus
leucocephalus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarshon corais couperi













8 CABBAGE PALM FLATWOODS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
I t s e l i l


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Occurs mostly south of this line
as small scattered communities
and often adjacent to coastal
areas, major drainageways and lakes.


"0d

la.V


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1961


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-8
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770















typical cabbage palm
flatwood in Colier
County,


Plant composition
depends partly on
soil drainage and
better drained
sites have more
cabbage palm,
Sabal palmetto.


Cabbage palm, Sabal
palmetto, charaterize
this community.


I F t








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 8 CABBAGE PALM FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The Cabbage Palm Flatwoods ecological community occurs throughout south
Florida and, to a limited extent, in central Florida. The northern limit of
its occurrence is approximately on a line from Levy County on the west to St.
Johns County on the east. Small, isolated areas are found north of this line.
Locally, it most often occurs adjacent to coastal areas, major drainageways,
and lakes. Individual communities are typically interspersed with smaller
communities of wetland types.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to
and through the natural drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes associated
with the community. During the rainy season, usually June through September,
the water table is on or near the soil surface.

1. Soil

Numerous soil types occur within this community. The soils are most often
nearly- level, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, shallow to deep, and
coarse textured to fine textured in the subsoil. Some parts of the
subsoil are calcareous or it is neutral to moderately alkaline. The
surface and subsurface layers are coarse textured. Representative soils
include Broward, Ft. Drum, Matmon, and Pinellas. Appendix A contains
information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological
community.

2. Vegetation

Slight differences in plant composition occur depending upon water
relationships. The slight wetter sites contain a higher percentage of
grasses and herbaceous plants. Although these differences are recognized,
they are not significant enough to delineate as separate communities.

The natural vegetation of this community is typically scattered pine and
cabbage pine with an understory of palmetto and grasses. There is
considerable uniformity and openness. It is similar to the South Florida
Flatwoods community except for a higher percentage of herbaceous plants
and the presence of cabbage palms. The plants which characterize this
community are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii

SHRUBS Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Tarflower, Befaria racemosa;
Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Caesar weed, Urena lobata; Creeping
beggarweed, Desmodium incanum; Deer tongue, Trilisa








odoratissima; Gay feather, Liatris gracillis; Greenbriar,
Smilax auriculata

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium
stoloniferum; Lopsided indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum;
Saltmarsh windmillgrass, Estachys glauca; Stiffleaf
windmillgrass, Estachys petraea; Pineland threeawn, Aristida
stricta

Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

The Cabbage Palm Flatwoods are habitat for a diverse and numerous wildlife
population. Larger animals are found where the flatwoods join other
communities, especially the wetlands. Typical animals are:

MAMMALS Cotton mice, cotton rat, cottontail rabbit, bobcat, deer,
opossum, raccoon, striped skunks

BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, bobwhite quail, red-shouldered hawk,
rufous-sided towhee

REPTILES Diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake, black racer,
yellow rat snake

AMPHIBIANS Chorus frog, cricket frog, oak toad

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Fire and water are the major stresses of this community. Fire is
important in control of hardwoods. Removal of fire will cause a
successional move to hardwoods. The kind of hardwoods will depend on soil
conditions such as drainage. Flatwoods are good cellulose producers and
nearly all of the original areas of pine have been harvested. Intensive
management for pulp production normally causes major changes in
vegetation. The result is a low diversity of plants and a reduction in
number and kinds of wildlife.

Native forage production is excellent with good management. Proper
rangeland use has only a slight effect on this community. Application of
range practices will increase the grasses and reduce the shrubs. This
brings about an increase in types and amount of wildlife.

The community has very good wildlife values that can be enhanced with
proper management. It is especially important as a buffer zone for
wildlife between urban areas occurring on better drained sites and the
natural drainageways. Water control practices and improved management
techniques have facilitated the use of Cabbage Palm Flatwoods for







extensive agricultural and urban land uses. This is especially true in
south Florida near the coast.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the
average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 4,500 to
9,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions.
From 3 to 14+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon
amount and type of forages available. There will be little forage
available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative
percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 70 percent
grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent
herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Cabbage palm flatwoods offer good food and cover to many species of
wildlife. Food value comes from palm and palmetto fruit, pine mast, and
acorns from associated oaks. Legumes and grasses furnish good food
sources to quail and other small birds. Habitat is well suited for deer
and turkey and offers refuges to migrating birds during winter months.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderately high potential productivity for commercial
wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant competition, the
commercial species suitable for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine.
Potential annual growth respectively is 1.2 and 1.0 cords per acre.
Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from
Hernando County to Orange County.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy season and
has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile soil. Special techniques may oe
required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
effort for establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American
holly, cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash
pine. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean,
partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern
waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's
lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and
zephyrlily.

The most common urban wildlife is songbirds. Undisturbed areas provide
escape cover and travel routes for most forms of wildlife.







ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this
community but may occur in some instances:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Virginia chain fern, Woodwardia virginica;

The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Mangrove fox squirrel,
Sciurus niger avicennia

BIRDS Southeastern kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus; bald eagle,
Haliaeetus leucocephalus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi












- EVERGLADES FLATWOODS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 O SMILES
1 =1=1 I


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


,
:\

p o~


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 11


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-9
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770























Typical Everglades
fl~too wst of
_lmesread


P--, pin-ace
limestone rock

obe -rface.


Grassy areas are
interspersed through-
out some Everglades
Flatwo.ds.


I~


"rcrt








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 9 EVERGLADES FLATWOODS


OCCURRENCE

The Everglades Flatwoods ecological community occurs only in the Everglades
region of south Florida. The largest area is west of Homestead in and round
the Everglades National Park. The tropical hammock ecological community is
generally interspersed throughout this community.

DESCRIPTION

This community occurs on nearly level land. It is underlain at shallow depths
by a porous pinnacle limestone rock. Many areas have little or no soil and
the pinnacle rock occurs on the surface. Water movement is rapid through the
porous limestone. Consequently, the sites are wet for only short periods
following heavy rains.

1. Soil

The soils are nearly level, shallow and coarse textured over porous
limestone rock. Representative soils are Dade, Hallandale and Rockdale.
Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the
appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation that occurs on this community is dominated by an
overstory of south Florida slash pine. The understory is mostly
sawpalmetto and grasses. There is considerable uniformity and openness.
The specific plants which characterize this community are:

TREES South Florida slash pine, Pinus elliottii var. densa

SHRUBS Marlberry, Ardisia escallonioides; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens;
Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Florida peperomia, Peperomia obtusifolia

GRASSES Cabanis bluestem, Andropogon cabanissi; Chalky bluestem,
Andropogon capillipes; Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium
stoloniferum; Low panicums, Panicum spp.; Saltmarsh
windmillgrass, Estachys glauca

Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in
Appendix B.







3. Animals


The Everglades Flatwoods are habitat for a variety of wildlife. Typical
animals are:

MAMMALS Bobcat, cotton mouse, five-lined skink, marsh rabbit, opossum,
raccoon, white-tailed deer

BIRDS Pine warbler, red-shoulder hawk

REPTILES Pygmy rattlesnake

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Values as a Natural System

Fire is the major stress condition of the community. It is important in
control of hardwoods and removal of fire will cause a successional move to
a hardwood community. With road and canal building, natural firebreaks
are produced which endanger the pineland.

Decaying plant material is important in that it produces a weak acid which
dissolves the rock and in time produces soil for seed germination.

Everglades Flatwoods are good cellulose producers but distance from
woodland markets generally limit commercial production. Native forage
production is good with proper management. Use for rangeland has only a
slight effect on the community. This community has good wildlife values,
especially with proper management. It affords a drier habitat for
wildlife species utilizing the wetlands nearer the Lake Ockeechobee and
the sawgrass marsh in the Everglades. A special importance is that it
serves as a buffer for wildlife between the wetlands adjacent to Lake
Okeechobee and urban development near the coast. Water control practices
and improved management techniques have facilitated the use of this
community for vegetables, fruit crops, and urban development. This .s
especially true near the coast.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of high quality forage such as creeping bluestem, chalky oluestem,
and indiangrass. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual
production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to ,000 pounds per
acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 3 to 14+
acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of
forage available. There will be little forage available if the canopy
cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual vegetative
production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15
percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants.








3. Wildlifeland


Due to its geographic position, this community is valuable to migrating
bird life headed to South America for wintering. It serves the same
purpose on the return trip, acting primarily as resting cover. It is well
suited for deer, bobcat, owls, and small rodents. Many reptiles find
suitable habitat in this community.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and severe seedling
mortality due to the rocky soil conditions. The commercial species for
planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre for
South Florida slash pine and 0.7 cords per acre for slash pine.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to some unique limitations for urban
development. The hard limestone rock is on or near the surface and
special equipment is needed for excavations evacuation. The most serious
limitations for urban development are those imposed by the above factor
and a high water table during the rainy season.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm,
live oak, myrsine, silver palm, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are
coco plum, dahoon holly, Florida fiddlewood, Florida privet, marlberry,
sawpalmetto, varnish leaf, and southern waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous
plants are aster, bunchflower, cone flowers, crotalaria, ferns, iris,
meadow beauty, partridge pea, rose-mallow, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and rabbit. Undisturbed
areas do provide good escape cover for many other forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants may occur in this community:

TREES Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata

SHRUBS Big pine partridge pea, Cassia kevensis; Pride-of-big-pine,
Strumpfia maritima

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Night scent orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum;
Pineland clustervine, Jacquemontia curtissii, Tiny milkwort,
Polygala smallii







The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:


MAMMALS


BIRDS

REPTILES


- Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi, Mangrove fox squirrel,
Sciurus niger avicennia

- Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis

- Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon coaris couperi; Miami black-
headed snake, Tantilla oolitica












10


- CUTTHROAT SEEPS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
I I I 1~tz


Atlantic


Gulf


Mexico


Occurs mostly in Polk and Highland
Counties as small communities below
Sand Pine Scrub and Longleaf Pine-
Turkey Oak Hills communities.


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-10
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


Ocean


11
CIN Alw.


















Dense cutthroat grass is
the most prominent fea-
ture of this community
at Lhil Polk County site.


Scattered slash pine
arees over a dense
ground cover of cut-
throat grass typifies
the appearance of
tll community.









ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 10 CUTTHROAT SEEPS

OCCURRENCE

The Cutthroat Seeps ecological community is found mostly in Polk and Highlands
Counties. It occurs to a limited extent in adjoining counties. Individual
size of the community is normally less than 100 acres. Much of the original
community has been destroyed and developed to intensive uses.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on nearly level to gently sloping or depressed areas
where water seeps from the adjacent Sand Pine Scrub and Longleaf Pine-Turkey
Oak Hills communities. The soil profile is wet most of the time.

1. Soils

The soils are nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained, deep and
coarse textured throughout. The Ona and St. Johns soil series are
representative of this community. Appendix A contains information on
correlation of soils series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The appearance of this community is distinctive. It has open scattered
pine trees, isolated sawpalmetto and waxmyrtle and a dense cover of
cutthroat grass that stays green the year round. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES Slash pine, Pinus elliottii

SHRUBS Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

GRASSES Cutthroat grass, Panicum abscissium; Chalky bluestem,
Andropogon capillipes; Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium
stoloniferum; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Toothache grass,
Ctenium aromaticum; Low panicums, Panicum spp.

Information about plants that occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Typical animals include:

MAMMALS Bobcat, cottontail rabbit, deer, raccoon, skunks, opossum

BIRDS Woodpeckers, several songbirds

REPTILES Pygmy rattlesnake, yellow ratsnake

Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix C.








LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS


1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Seepage water from the higher elevated and better drained areas is the
controlling factor of the Cutthroat Seep ecological community.
Development in and around.this site causes changes in water quality and
quantity which usually result in wide changes of plant composition.

These areas are not generally used for woodlands due to wetness, plant
composition and difficulty of harvest. They are sometimes used for
woodland if part of a larger flatwoods area. Native forage production is
very good with proper management. Rangeland use has only a slight effect
on the community. Range practices will'result in an increase of grasses
and reduction of shrubs. Wildlife values are good, especially with
improved wildlife management practices. Its different plant composition
from surrounding communities offers good cover and food for wildlife.

Environmental values are especially important. Water from better drained
areas "seeps" out to the ground surface at these communities. They then
serve as natural drainageways and help to improve water quality by
the filtering action and nutrient uptake of plants.

2. Rangeland

This ecological community has the potential for producing significant
amounts of good quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the
average annual production of air dry plant materials varies from 3,000 to
5,500 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions.
From 4 to 16+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon
amount and type of forages available. The relative percentage of annual
vegetative production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike
plants, 10 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Cutthroat seeps are well suited for deer, turkey, and songbirds. They are
fair for quail and good for many mammals, such as skunks, opossums, and
raccoons. Reptiles such as ratsnakes and rattlesnakes find suitable
habitat in the community. It is poorly suited for squirrel and dove.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial
woodland production. There are severe equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions. There are no commercial species
suitable for planting. Potential annual growth of existing slash and pond
pine is at 0.4 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables and has limitations for
urban development. Intensive water management systems are required for
urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep
channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques are usually







required in these situations.
sedimentation is usually a problem.
in the spring on unvegetated areas.


Without vegetation, erosion and
Wind erosion is also a severe problem


Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm,
longleaf pine, pond pine, ahd slash pine. Some of the shrubs are
sawpalmetto and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster,
ferns, iris, meadow beauty, partridge pea, and sunflower.


The most adapted urban wildlife is birds.
escape cover for many forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS


Undisturbed areas provide good


The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi


- Florida grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum
Little kestrel, Falco sparverius; Red-cockaded
Picoides borealis? Florida sandhill crane, Grus
pratensis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus


floridanus;
woodpecker,
canadensis


REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi


BIRDS












11- UPLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


SCALE
0 la 20 30 40 MILES


Atlantic


Gulf


Mexico


/
I
I


Ocean


xv


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORT, TEXAS teUt


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-11
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770













Winter brings about
e open appearance
as the deciduous
trees lose their
leaves.


This community
typically has a
very sparse ground
cover due to the
shading effect of
he larger trees
and understory
shrubs.


Typical upland hard-
wood hammock in the
spring.


ZI 1-1y",. I .-IQ-








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 11 UPLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Upland Hardwood Hammock ecological community occurs commonly in north
central Florida and sparingly in north and west Florida. Individual
communities vary in size from a few acres to several hundred. The largest
communities occur near Brooksville, Gainesville, and Ocala. This community is
generally considered to be a climax vegetation of ecological succession in the
Southern Coastal Plains. A climax community is one that perpetuates its kind
in equilibrium with the environment without influence of man.

DESCRIPTIONS

This community occurs on rolling terrain with nearly level to strong slopes.
Moderately moist regimes without excessive water or drought conditions
characterize this community. It can be readily identified by the occurrence
of thick stands of shade tolerant hardwoods and few pines. There is usually
more organic material and litter present than on drier sites.

1. Soils

The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, somewhat poorly to
well drained and coarse-textured throughout or coarse-textured in the
upper part with moderately coarse-textured to moderately fine-textured
subsoils. Representative soils included Blichton, Bonneau, Flemington,
Fort Meade, Gainesville, Hernando, Mabel, Millhopper, Shubuta, Sparr and
Zuber. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with
the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

This community is considered to be in a climax stage of vegetation when
only a few pines occur with hardwoods dominating. Under climax
conditions, understory vegetation may be quite sparse. Plants which
characterize this community are:

TREES American beech, Fagus grandifolia; American holly, Ilex opaca;
Black cherry, Prunus serotina; Eastern hophornbeam, Ostrva
virginiana; Flowering dogwood, Cornus florida; Hawthorns,
Crataegus spp.; Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia; Live oak,
Quercus virainiana; Pignut hickory, Carva glabra; Southern
magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; Sweetgum, Liquidambar
styraciflua

SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Arrowwood, Viburnum
dentatum; Sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum; Waxmyrtle, Mvrica
cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Aster, Aster spp.; Cat greenbriar, Smilax
glauca; Common greenbriar, Smilax rotunidifolia; Crossvine,
Bignoniu capreolata; Partridge berry, Mitchella repens;







Partridge pea, Cassia spp.; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicanaM
Ragweed, Ambrosia arteiaisifolia; Spanish moss, Tillandsia
usneoides; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus abrinqsfsla; Wild
grape, Vitis app.; Yellow jessamine, Gsalaaminm seerviarea
Dotted horsemint, Monarda Punctata; Blackberry, kRbus app.

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Low panicua, Panicam app.; Switchgrass,
Panicumn irtatum

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological comanities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The more common wildlife species include:

MAMMALS -Raccoon, opossum, southern flying squirrel, gray squirrel, gray
f i, bobcat, white-tailed deer, armadillo

BIRDS Bluebird, bluejay, cardinal, cedar waxwing, chickadee, ckuck-
wills widow, great crested flycatcher, eastern phoebe, eastern
mockingbird, loggerhead shrike, mourning dove, palm warbler,
summer tanager, robin, rufous-sided towhee, turkey, tufted
titmouse, woodpeckers, wrens

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Upland hardwood hammocks occur on some of the soils that are well suited
for a variety of uses and may undergo considerable stress and change.
From a purely aesthetic standpoint the interior of this community, if not
recently disturbed, usually is inspiring. Large hardwoods exhibit an
interesting diversity in growth forms. In the moist drainageways, true
mosses, several species of ferns and violets represent the fragile side of
nature. Many aspects related to environmental awareness such as the
function of microorganisms in decay and nutrient-cycling may be viewed in
this community.

Upland hardwood hammocks are valuable for watershed protection, and
hardwood products and are prized areas for residential development.

2. Rangeland

Upland hardwood hammocks have very poor potential for range and are
therefore not used for this purpose.

3. Wildlifeland

Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries) makes upland
hardwood hammocks good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, black bear, and
many songbirds. Maturing hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites








for squirrels, owls, and most woodpeckers. Habitat is good for raccoons
and opossums; poor for bobwhite quail and dove; fair for reptiles and poor
for most amphibians.

4. Woodland

When managed for hardwood production, this community produces quality
products. However, there has been a tendency to maintain these areas in
predominantly pine through species management due to quicker returns on
investment. The community has a high potential for commercial woodland
production. there are no significant management hazards and limitations.
Slash pine and loblolly pine are the commercial coniferous species
suitable for planting. Potential annual growth respectively is 1.5 and
1.2 cords per acre. Longleaf pine has a potential annual growth of 0.8
cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

The moderately well to well drained areas have few limitations for urban
development. This and the attractiveness of the hardwood vegetation make
upland hardwood hammocks prized areas for residential development. Water
erosion can be a problem on the steeper slopes. Special vegetative
establishment and maintenance practices are needed in situations where
water erosion is a concern. Plants native to the community should receive
preference for beautification and landscaping. This is because they are
easier established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are
American holly, cabbage palm,, laurelcherry, chickasaw plum, common
persimmon, dogwood, fringetree, live oak, loblolly pine, longleaf pine,
redbud, red maple, slash pine," magnolia, red cedar, swamp chestnut oak,
sweetgum, and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry,
beargrass, coral bean, elderberry, lantana, strawberry bush, shining
sumac, and waxmyrtle.

The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey,
raccoon and similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Threatened or endangered plants include:

SHRUBS Needle palm, Rhapidophyllum hystrix

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum;
Dwarf spleenwort, Asplenium pumilum; Sinkhole fern, Blechnum
occidentale

Threatened or endangered animals include:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Florida black bear,
Ursus americanus floridanus

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi













12 WETLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


HAMILTON


SCALE
0 ', o0 30 40 SO MILES




Gulf




of



Mexico






Numerous small communi-
ties also occur throughout
Central and South Florida.


MARION


Atlantic


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1911


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-12
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


ALACHUA


Ocean


Go 66





















Ditantneo o1-f
typinni -1tland
1, dnood-d hootk
i, TIylor County.
















































Typi ol .,llnd hi-dno-d
1 o-k.


Interior of a wetland
hardwood hamock.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 12 WETLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Wetland Hardwood Hammock ecological community is scattered east and west
of the Central Florida Ridge, extending northwesterly into the panhandle. It
predominates in the region from Hillsborough County to Wakulla County. One of
the largest areas is along the Gulf Coast north of the Withlacoochee River.

DESCRIPTION

This community is a wetland forest on poorly drained soils, soils subject to
constant seepage, or soils with high water tables. It has an evergreen
appearance since it is dominated by the laurel, live, and water oaks,
magnolia, and cabbage palm. In many areas red cedar is also one of the
dominants. The deciduous sweetgum is one of the trees. Red maple, various
bays, and cypress also occur but these species are not dominant in this
community. Topography is low and nearly level. These hammocks are not
flooded for as long a period of time are are associated swamp hardwoods. the
swamp hardwoods community is often found within depressional areas of the
wetland hardwood hammock. Wetland hardwood hammock may be distinguished from
bottomland hardwoods by the dominant plant species and the type of flooding.
If the inundating water derives from river overflow, it is a bottomland
hardwood; if inundated by local rainfall, it is wetland hardwood hammock.

1. Soils

Soils associated with this community are nearly level, somewhat poorly and
poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces. Many of these
soils have very thick sandy surface and subsurface layers. Representative
soils include Aripeka, Coxville, Herod, Matmon, Megget, Nutall, Oleno,
Portsmouth, and Plummer. Appendix A contains information on correlation
of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

This community supports a luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity
of species. Although supporting plants that are found in both drier and
wetter sites, this community has definite flora characteristics. Plants
which characterize this community are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Hawthorns, Craetaegus spp.;
Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia; Live oak, Quercus virginiana;
Red bay, Persea borbonia; Red maple, Acer rubrum; Sweetbay,
Magnolia virginiana; Sweetgum, Liquidambar stvraciflua; Water
oak, Quercus nigra; Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora

SHRUBS Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera; Witchhazel, Hamamelis virginiana;
Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens







HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea;
Crossvine, Anisostichus capreolata; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron
radicans; Royal fern, Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia
usneoides; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus quinquefolia; Wild
grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow jessamine, Gelsemium sempervirens


GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Longleaf uniola,
sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.


Chasmanthium


A list of plants that may occur in this community are in Appendix B.

3. Animals

Wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, skunk, mink, opossum, otter, raccoon, wild hog,
gray squirrel


BIRDS Mississippi kite, owls, turkey,
woodpeckers and numerous songbirds


red-shouldered hawk,


REPTILES Green anole

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS


1. Environmental Value as a Natural System


Wetland hardwood hammocks have high recreational values for
hiking, and nature study. They also have important aesthetic
Water quality and quantity control is one of the most important
provided, particular in the coastal areas.


hunting,
benefits.
benefits


2. Rangeland

Although some woodland grazing occurs in wet hardwood hammocks, it is
generally not recommended.

3. Wildlifeland


Wetland
wildlife
turkey,
is poor
reptiles


hardwood hammocks are one of the most productive and diverse
habitats. This community is good habitat for wild hogs, deer,
black bear, gray squirrel, woodpeckers, owls, and furbearers. It
for quail and dove and fair for many songbirds. It is good for
and amphibians, being moist most of the year.


4. Woodland

There has been considerable acreage of wet hardwood hammocks converted to
pine production. Drainage is needed for optimum growth of pines. The
drainage and conversion destroys this community as a viable unit. With
the value of hardwoods increasing, much of the remaining acreage may stay








in hardwood production. However, new markets are needed for hardwood
production, such as furniture stock, to keep these areas in hardwood
production.

This community has a moderately high potential productivity for commercial
wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant competition. The
commercial species for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine.
Potential annual growth is 1.2 and 1.0 cords per acres respectively.
Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from
Hernando to Orange Counties.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is usually difficult to establish vegetation
on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and
management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and
sedimentation is often a problem in water management systems. Wind
erosion can also become a problem in unvegetated areas. This is
especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,
cabbage palm, dahoon holly, fringetree, hawthorns, live oak, loblolly bay,
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, red maple, slash pine, southern magnolia,
red cedar, sugarberry, swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, and water oak. Some
of the shrubs are American beautyberry, shining sumac, yaupon holly,
sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster,
blackeyed Susan, cone flowers, dayflower, rose-mallow, meadowbeauty, and
sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey,
raccoon, and similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Threatened and endangered plants include:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Adder's tongue fern, Cheiroglossa palma; Auricled
spleenwort, Asplenium-auritum; Climbing dayflower, Commelina
gigas; Cuplet fern, Dennstaedtia bipinnata

Threatened or endangered animals may include:

MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus; Florida
panther, Felis concolor corvi












13 CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS


SCALE
oto 10 0 30 40 MILES


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Numerous small communities
also occur in Highlands, Okee-
chobee and surrounding
counties, and just inland
from the coast in peninsular
Florida.


4%
06--6 x7


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FMOT WORTH TEXAS 1991


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-13
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


f--,
/
/
/
















J. small Cabbage
Palm H mock has
been h-aily gra..d
by i ie t-k and
i the understoy
lar ly ds t oyed
-4vFr r-- -


Typic .1 -bb. g. pa I.
hammock in the back-
8 round with a saltgrass
marsh in foreground.


Interior view of a Cabbage Palm
Hammock shows the typical dense
o erstory with a spar se ground
cover.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 13 CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Cabbage Palm Hammock ecological community occurs predominantly in south
Florida. Counties having the most significant communities of this type are
Highlands, Okeechobee and surrounding counties. Communities are usually one
to several acres and rarely extensive in size.

DESCRIPTION

This community is easily identified by the occurrence of thick stands of
cabbage palm with a few scattered oak. It occurs mostly on slightly elevated
areas within the Slough and South Florida Flatwoods communities.

1. Soils

The soils are nearly level to gently sloping, poorly to somewhat poorly
drained, calcareous, and coarse textured. They occur mostly on low lying
poorly drained ridges or flats. Representative soils included Bradenton,
Hilolo, Parkwood, and Winder. Appendix A contains information on
correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The natural vegetation is dominated by tree species, especially cabbage
palms. Plants that characterize this community are:

TREES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia;
Live oak, Quercus yirginiana

SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Sawpalmetto,
Serenoa repens; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

GRASSES Creeping bluestem, Schizachrium stoloniferum; Low panicums,
Panicum spp.; Stiffleaf windmillgrass, Estachvs petraea

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Caesar weed, Urena lobata; Poison ivy,
Toxicodendron radicans; Wild grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow
jessamine, Gelemium sempervivens

Information on other plants that may occur in this community are found in
Appendix B.

3. Animals

Wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Armadillo, bobcat, gray squirrel, opossum, deer, skunk,
raccoons, wild hogs

BIRDS Owls, red-shouldered hawk, woodpeckers, numerous songbirds







REPTILES Diamondback rattlesnake


Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Normally standing as islands in the landscape-, cabbage palm hammocks have
high aesthetic values. Fire and water are the major stresses of this
community. The past removal of fires probably caused a successional move
to hardwoods and palms. The kind and mixture of hardwoods and palms will
depend on specific soil conditions such as drainage and closeness to
calcareous materials.

The areas are not generally used for woodland, range, or intensive land
uses due to type and composition of plants. Some areas have been utilized
for citrus production. However, this community has good wildlife values
that can be enhanced with good management. Cabbage palm hammocks offer
resting cover for both migratory and resident wildlife and serve as
refuges during wet conditions.

2. Rangeland

This community has low potential for producing forage due to the dense
canopy of palm trees. It does provide protection during cold, rainy
weather and shade during hot weather. It is usually severely grazed due
to the above factors. For sites in excellent condition, the average
annual production of air dry plant material varies from 2,000 to 4,000
pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From
10 to 30+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount
and type of forage available. There will be little forage available when
the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual
vegetation production by weight is 55 percent grasses and grasslike
plants, 25 percent trees and shrubs, and 20 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Cabbage palm hammocks are productive communities for many wildlife
species. They are good habitat for wild hogs, deer, turkey, woodpeckers,
and owls and poor for quail and dove, but fair for most songbirds and
squirrels.

4. Woodland

This community has a moderately high to high potential productivity for
commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and
seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant composition. The
commercial species suitable for planting are slash pine, loblolly pine,
sweetgum, and sycamore. Potential annual growth for the first threes is
1.5, 1.2 and 0.8 cords per acre respectively. Potential productivity is
18 percent less for soils south of a line from Hernando County to Orange
County.







5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on
steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be
required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a
problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in
unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, dahoon
holly, gumbo-limbo (south Florida), hawthorns, laurel oak, live oak, and
thatch palm (south Florida). Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry,
coral bean, dahoon holly, marlberry, myrsine, sawpalmetto, tetrazygia,
shining sumac, varnish leaf, waxmyrtle, and wild coffee. Some of the
herbaceous plants are aster, coneflowers, dayflowers, iris, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey, and
similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this community
but may occur in some instances:

TREES Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Adder's tongue fern, Cheiroglossa palma; Auricled
spleenwort, Asplenium auritum; cowhorn orchid, Cvrtopodium
punctatum, Night-scent orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum; Bird's
nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum

The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Everglades mink, Mustela vison evergladensis; Florida panther,
Felis concolor coryi

BIRDS Caracara, Caracara cheriway auduboni; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus
leucocephalus; Wood stork, Mycteria americana

REPTILES Eastern indigo snake, Drvmarchon corais couperi













14 TROPICAL HAMMOCKS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 S0 MILES
rt - -


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Tropical Hammocks occur in
Plant Hardness Zone 10b.


Oh'


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA -SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1961


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-14
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770























Stpical tropical
hammock with
Gumbo limbo trees

hiram '"I


j466I


Interior View of a Tropical Interior View of a Tropical
1Hammock with Royal Palms Hammock Showing a strangler
fig, Ficus area








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 14 TROPICAL HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Topical Hammock ecological community is confined to south Florida. It
occurs on elevated areas in the Everglades and along the limestone ridges of
the Florida Keys. Individual communities range in size from less than an acre
to several acres.

DESCRIPTION

Tropical hammocks generally appear as thick clumps of strands or small to
medium-sized trees. On the sites where disturbance has not occurred for
several years, a more "jungle-like" appearance is observed. A heavy canopy
closure, causing deep interior shade, is prevalent. This condition serves to
moderate temperatures and conserve moisture. Characteristically,trees of the
tropical hammocks have dense, heavy, strong wood and shallow spreading root
systems which adapt them to a harsh environment of wind, periodic droughts and
salt spray.

1. Soils

Soils are shallow to rock with only a few inches of organic material
overlying porous limestone and marl. Characteristic soils were mapped in
an older reconnaissance type soil survey and have not been classified into
the current soil classification system. Appendix A contains information
on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Tropical hammocks typically have a very high plant diversity. Most of the
vegetation is probably of West Indies origin. The following species are
characteristic:

TREES Bahama lysiloma, Lysiloma latisiliqua; Jamaica dogwood,
Piscidia piscipula; Mastic, Sideroxylon foetidissimum;
Poisontree, Metopium toxiferum; Strangler fig, Ficus aurea;
Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto

SHRUBS Marlberry, Ardisia escalloniodes; Snowberry, Chiococca alba;
Wild coffee, Psychotria nervosa

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Golden serpent fern, Phlebodium aureum; Resurrection
fern, Polypodium polypodioides; Stiff-leaved wild pine,
Tillandsia fasciculata

GRASSES Low paniucm, Panicum spp.; Sour paspalum, Paspalum coniugatum

Information on other plants that may occur in this community are found in
Appendix B.







3. Animals

Tropical hammocks serve as habitat for a variety of wildlife species, many
of which are not found elsewhere. Some species that occur are:

MAMMALS Everglades mink, Mustela vison; Gray squirrel, Sciurus
carolinensis; Key deer, Odocoileus virginanus; Key Largo cotton
mouse, Peromyscus Rossvpinus; Key Largo woodrat, Neotoma
floridana; Marsh rabbit, Sylvilagus palustris

Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Values as a Natural System

Tropical hammock communities are probably the most endangered ecological
type in Florida. Such endangerment lies in the fact that the communities
are not widespread in occurrence and have received considerable pressures
for other land uses. Special consideration should be given to
incorporating all existing tropical hammock into an overall land use plan.
Such a plan would insure the continued use of these communities as
hurricane protection, landscape and greenbelt areas, parks, and wildlife
habitat in an areas under tremendous population growth pressures.

2. Rangeland

Not recommended as a land use.

3. Wildlifeland

There are very specific requirements for the wildlife that occur in
tropical hammocks, particularly those resident species. Able to fulfill
the requirements of both local and migratory wildlife, tropical hammocks
naturally become good habitat for these species. A special function is
that of cover for many mammals during periods of high water and resting
and feeding areas for migratory birdlife.

4. Woodland

Not recommended for commercial production.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy season and
has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
required for urban uses. It is usually difficult to establish vegetation
on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and
management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and
sedimentation is often a problem in water management systems. Wind
erosion can also become a problem in unvegetated areas. This is
especially severe in the spring.








Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly,
cabbage palm, dahoon holly, live oak, loblolly bay, red maple, slash pine,
and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, shining
sumac, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are
aster, blackeyed Susan, cone flowers, dayflower, rosemallow, meadowbeauty,
and sunflower.

The most common urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey,
raccoon and similar forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS


Threatened or endangered plants of the tropical hammocks are:


TREES






SHRU-BS


- Brittle thatch palm, Thrinax morrissii; Buccaneer palm,
Pseudophoenix sargentii; Cupania, Cupania glabra; Florida
thatch palm, Thrinax parvitolia; Krug's holly, Ilex krugiana;
Lignum-vitae, Guaiacum sanctum; Manchineel, Hippomane
mancinella; Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata; Tree
cactus, Cereus robinii

- Pride-of-big-pine, Strumpfia martima


HERBACEOUS


PLANTS Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum; Bird's nest
spleenwort, Asplenium serratum; Cowhorn orchid, Cyrtopodium
punctatum; Dollar orchid, Encyclia boothiana; Everglades
peperomia, Peperomia floridana; Fragrant maidenhair fern,
Adiantum melanoleucum; 2uch's bromeliad, Guzmania monostachia;
Adder's tongue fern, Ophioglossum palmatum; Hattie Bauer
halberd fern, Tectaria coriandrifolia; Night-scent orchid,
Epidendrum nocturnum; Narrow strap fern, Campyloneurum
angustifolium; Powdery catopsis, Catopsis beteroniana; Slender
spleenwort, Asplenium dentatum; Star-scale fern, Pleopeltis
revoluta; Twisted air plant, Tillandsia flexuosa; Worm-vine
orchid, Vanilla barbellata; Young-palm orchid, Tropidia
polystachya


Threatened or endangered animals of the tropical hammocks are:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Key ieer, Odocoileus
virginianus clavium; Key Largo cotton mouse; Peromyscus
gossypinus allapaticola; Key Largo woodrat, leotoma floridana
small; Key Vaca raccoon, Procyon lotor auspicatus; Aangrove
fox squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia

BIRDS Bald eagle, Haliaeetis leucocephalus; White-crowned pigeon,
Columba leucocephala; Wood stork, Mycteria americana












15


- OAK HAMMOCKS


SCALE
0 10 20 30 40 SO MILES
r I I I i I



Gulf



of



Mexico





Oak Hammocks occur mostly as
relatively small communities east of
Leon County to Lake Okeechobee.


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-15
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770


a
C
^c
.J
-c


Atlantic


Ocean


w

























Many oak hammocks have
a park-like appearance.


Typical interior
of a oak hammock.


Oak hamrmock as seen
from a distance as it
typically occurs with-
in south Florida flatwoods.







ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 15 OAK HAMMOCKS


OCCURRENCE

The Oak Hammock ecological community occurs through central Florida in
scattered locations, south to the Everglades and west to about Tallahassee.
Typical examples of this community occur in Marion and Sumter Counties.
Although this community is a recognizable feature in the landscape, there is
some feeling that it may not be a separate, available community, but simply a
viable variation of either the upland or wetland hardwood hammock, induced by
man's influence.

DESCRIPTION

This community is readily identified by the dense canopy of predominantly
laurel and live oak trees on nearly level to rolling topography. The
understory is usually sparse.

1. Soils

Soils are nearly level to gently sloping, deep, and somewhat poorly to
poorly drained. Some have limestone rock occurring on or near the
surface. Representative soils include: Adamsville, Lochloosa, Nobleton,
and Pactolus. Appendix A contain information on correlation of soil
series with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Tree species consists of mostly laurel and live oaks associated with other
oaks and pine. there are few understory plants. Plants that characterize
this community are:

TREES Live oak, Quercus virginiana

SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Sawpalmetto,
Serenoa repens

GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans;
Purple nutsedge, Cvperus planifolius and C. rotundus; Longleaf
uniola, Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans;
Resurrection fern, Polypodium polypodioides; Spanish moss,
Tillandsia usneoides; Stiff-leafed wild pine, Tillandsia
utriculata

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix B.







3. Animals

The most common animals of this community are:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, foxes, armadillo, opossum, raccoon, skunks,
squirrels, rabbits

BIRDS Owls, rufous-sided towhee, songbirds, turkey, woodpeckers

AMPHIBIANS Southern toad

REPTILES Green anole, Southern fence lizard, diamondback rattlesnake,
hognose snake

Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Oak hammocks add considerable to the quality of the landscape. Spreading,
stately oaks in many hammocks offer desirable surroundings for homesites
and were used extensively for this purpose by many early settlers. They
are also important wildlife areas. This community offers both food and
cover to various species. Many areas have been cleared or altered
extensively for both urban and agricultural uses, predominantly improved
pasture.

2. Rangeland

Due to the usually dense canopy cover and relatively open understory,
cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting areas. For sites
in excellent conditions, the average annual production of air dry plant
materials varies from 2,000 to 3,500 pounds per acre. This variation
depends on plant growth conditions. From 12 to 35+ acres are usually
needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages
available, the relative percentage of annual vegetative production by
weight is 40 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 40 percent trees and
shrubs and 20 percent herbaceous plants.

3. Wildlifeland

Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds and berries) make oak hammocks
good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, black bear, and many songbirds.
Maturing hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites for squirrel,
owls, and most woodpeckers. Habitat is good for raccoons and opossums;
poor for bobwhite quail and dove; fair for reptiles and poor for most
amphibians.

4. Woodland

This community has a high potential productivity for commercial wood
production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling
mortality problems due to poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine,








loblolly pine, sycamore and sweetgum are the commercial species suitable
for planting. Potential annual growth is 1.5, 1.2, 0.8, and 1.5 cords per
acre respectively. Potential production is 18 percent less for areas
south of a line from Hernando County in the west to Brevard County in the
east.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to a high water table during the rainy season
and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are
usually required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish
vegetation on channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting
and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation erosion and
sedimentation is often a problem. Wind erosion can also become a problem,
especially in the spring.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm,
laurelcherry, hawthorns, live oak, common persimmon, and slash pine. Some
of the shrubs are beargrass, coral bean, lantana, pawpaw, sawpalmetto,
shining sumac, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster,
coneflower, standing cypress, and sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed
areas also provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community:

SHRUBS East coast coontie, Zamia pupila

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Dwarf spleenwort, Asjlen.iup pumilum; sinkhole fern,
Blechnurm occidental

Endangered and threatened animals are:

MAIMALS Florida panther, Felis cpncop.er cprj

REPTILES Short-tailed snake, Stilosoppa c: LiUDiatt'm













16 SCRUB CYPRESS


0 10 0 s Id o I


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


This community also occurs
In small areas over the south-
ern tip of the peninsula too
small to delineate at this
scale.


poh a


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS.FORT WOT. TEXAS IMI


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-16
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770








a"


A sp arse stand of stunted
cypr ess trees are a typi-
cal feature of te Scru
Cypress Comou th ru


Air plants, like
the one in eftrtt
le ft cen t r of
pict ure are often
found in the cy-
pre .s tr c ea


Scbh cypress as seen
from a distance.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 16 SCRUB CYPRESS


OCCURRENCE

The Scrub Cypress ecological community occurs in south Florida on marl and
rock that is frequently flooded. Eastern Collier County and northern Monroe
County have the largest areas of this community. This region is called "Big
Cypress."

DESCRIPTION

This community appears as a broad area of marshes with dwarf cypress (less
than 20 feet tall) scattered throughout. It is stressed by the extreme
seasonal change in water levels, and low level of plant nutrients. These
factors cause poor growing conditions with a lack of plant diversity and small
wildlife populations in comparison to the cypress swamp community.

1. Soils

Soils associated with this community are nearly level, poorly to very
poorly drained, with coarse to medium textured surfaces underlain by finer
textured material or fractured limestone. A representative soil is
Margate. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series
with the appropriate ecological community.

2. Vegetation

The vegetation is much like that of the freshwater marsh community.
Occasional air plants and orchids can be found in the scattered cypress
trees. Plants which characterize this community are:

TREES Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum; Pond cypress, Taxodium
distichum var. nutans

SHRUBS Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Stiff-leafed wild pine, Tillandsia fasiculata

GRASSES Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum; Clubhead
cutgrass, Leersia hexandra; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon

Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is
in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The poor soil and lack of plant nutrients that are responsible for the
relatively sparse plant life also account for a fairly scattered wildlife
population.








Wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Bobcat, deer, mink, panther, raccoon

BIRDS Roseate spoonbill, wood stork, herons

REPTILES Alligator, frogs, turtles, snakes

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

The scrub cypress community occurs primarily in southwest Florida.
Developments in and around the community cause changes in water quality
and quantity which results in wide changes in portions of the plant
community. The scrub cypress community is highly endangered.

Scrub cypress swamps provide water storage areas by holding excess water
and slowly releasing it into the water table. Water quality is enhanced
by the community, which functions like a waste treatment plant by
absorbing nutrients from the water.

2. Rangeland

This community has little or no use as rangeland.

3. Wildlifeland

Due to the sparseness of vegetative growth, this community is one of the
least productive of wildlife. Deer will range through these areas, but
the habitat is poor. The primary value is seasonal to frogs, turtles,
snakes, and salamanders which can adjust to the short hydroperiod and to
predators on these animals such as raccoons, mink, and the wading birds.

4, Woodland

These areas are not generally used for commercial woodland production.
However, this community does have a moderate potential productivity for
commercial woodland production on areas with adequate surface drainage,
There are severe equipment limitations due to the poorly drained soil
conditions. Slash pine is the species suitable for planting on areas with
adequate surface drainage. Potential annual growth is 0.7 cords per acre.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations
for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required
for urban uses.

It is difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and
infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching, selected plants and
and unusual seeding and plant management techniques may be required.









Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress,
cabbage palm, pond cypress and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are
buttonbush, dahoon holly, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbs are aster and
sunflower.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and water-adapted reptiles
and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel
routes for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following threatened and endangered plants may occur in this community:

HERBS Acuna's epidendrum, Epidendrum acunae; Auricled spleenwort,
Asplenium auritum; Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum;
Cow-horn orchid, Cyrtopodium punctatum; Dwarf epidendrum,
Encyclia pvgmaea; Hidden orchid, Maxillaria crassifolia;
leafless orchid, Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum; Night-scent
orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum; Nodding catopsis, Catopsis nutans

The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or
around this community:

MAMMALS Florida panther, Felis concolor corgi

BIRDS Wood stork, Mycteria americana

REPTILES American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis














17 CYPRESS SWAMP


SCALE
o 1O 0o Jo o0 10 MILES
I i I i i I /---


Atlantic


Gulf


Ocean


Mexico


Numerous small communities are
scattered over the state, especially
within the flatwoods and surrounding
lakes and streams.


v** -


Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965.
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE
USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981


FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-17
FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770
























A cypress "head" in
south central Florida.


Cypress often
occur along
lake edges.


Interior of a cypress
s-ap. Air plant.
are -.mo on the
cypress trees in south
Florida.
















































Interior of a
cypress swamp in
North Florida.


Typical cypress swamp
in Jefferson County
appears In the background.


Cypress swamps often
occur adjacent to
rivers and streams.








ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY


NO. 17 CYPRESS SWAMP


OCCURRENCE

The Cypress Swamp ecological community occurs along rivers, lake margins,
slough and strands, or interspersed throughout other communities such as
flatwoods and slough. It occurs throughout Florida, but is the predominant
swamp type in the area from Flagler County south through Polk County and in
southwest Florida. The "Big Cypress" area of Monroe and Collier Counties is
included in Ecological Community No. 16 Scrub Cypress.

DESCRIPTION

This community is poorly drained and water is at or above ground level a good
portion of the year. Bald cypress is the dominant tree and is often the only
plant which occurs in significant numbers. Cypress swamps growing on sand,
rock and shallow mucky pond areas are not as productive as those found on
alluvial floodplain soils. As the soil depth in muck ponds increases, so does
the growth rate of cypress. The submerged or saturated condition of the soil
and general absence of fire help reduce competition and keep the community
from a successional change to a swamp hardwood (Bayhead) community.

I. Soils

Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level or
depressional, poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces.
Representative soils include: Martel, Monteocha, and Surrency. Appendix
A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate
ecological community.

2. Vegetation

Bald cypress, along lakes and stream margins, is dominant and often is the
only plant found in large numbers. Pond cypress occurs in cypress heads
or domes which are usually found in flatwoods and prairies. The diversity
of trees is low in the cypress heads but increases in the strands and
stream margins. Plants which characterize this community are.

TREES Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum; Blackgum, Nyss6 sylvatica;
Coastal Plain willow, Salix caroliniana; Pond cypress, Taxodium
distichum var. nutans; Red maple, Acer rubrum

SHRUBS Common buttonbush, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Southern
waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea; Fall-
flowering ixia, Nemastylis floridana; Laurel greenbriar, Smilax
laurifolia; Pickerel weed, Pontederia cordata; Royal fern,
Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides; Stiff-
leafed wild pine, Tillandsic utriculata; Sphagnur moss,
Sphagnur. spp.








GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Narrowleaf
sawgrass, Cladium mariscoides

Other plants that occur in the community are found in Appendix B.

3. Animals

The most common wildlife species include:

MAMMALS Deer, mink, raccoon, otter

BIRDS Anhinga, barred owl, egrets, herons, limpkin, pileated
woodpecker, purple gallinule, prothonotary warbler, wood duck,
wood stork

REPTILES Alligator, frogs, turtles, salamanders, variety of water snakes

Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities
is in Appendix C.

LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS

1. Environmental Value as a Natural System

Cypress swamps are an extremely Valuable resource. They can be used for
environmental educational study, scientific research, and recreation.
They have a high value for use as wildlife habitat. This community has a
relatively low diversity of plant species due to the fluctuating water
levels and low nutrient availability. Both drastic changes in the water
level and a stabilized water level may change the plant community. Often
this will occur due to the effects of dams, dikes, or drainage channels.
The cypress swamp is not a prime area for residential development. When
ditched and drained, these areas may be used for pine production although
they are not as productive as the surrounding pine lands.

Fire is a stress factor, primarily on the drier portions, but water is
important in all areas. Water enters the swamp directly from rainfall or
runoff. The water level is highest in summer and peak productivity occurs
in early spring. Stagnant water will result in slow tree growth
especially if it occurs during the growing season.

Natural regeneration of cypress requires fluctuation of the water.
Flooding during the dry season will prevent the cypress trees from
reproducing. Water must be available to germinate the seeds because it
provides natural stratification. However, when the seedling starts to
grow its top must be maintained above water.

Cypress swamps provide water storage areas by holding excess water and
slowly releasing it into the water table. Water quality is enhanced by
the community, which functions like a waste treatment plant by absorbing
nutrients from the water.

2. Rangeland

This community has little or no value as rangeland.








3. Wildlifeland

This community is very important for wildlife refuge areas and as a turkey
roosting area. It is well suited for waterfowl and wading birds. Aquatic
animals may be found in large numbers. The permanent residents of cypress
heads are relatively few, but much of the wildlife of the flatwoods is
dependent on these ponds for breeding purposes.

4. Woodland

Extensive drainage would be required, thereby destroying this community.

5. Urbanland

This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations
for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required
for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep
channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as
mulching, special plants and unusual seeding and management techniques may
be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation are a problem
in some water management systems. Intensive management measures may also
be necessary to maintain design capacity.

Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum
establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress, button
mangrove, loblolly bay, pond cypress, red maple, slash pine, and sweetgum,
Some of the shrubs are buttonbush, coco plum, dahoon holly, and waxmyrtle.
Some of the herbs are aster, golden canna, cardinal flower, pine lily,
celestial lily, ferns, cone flower, cattail, rosemallow, iris, and
meadowbeauty.

The most important urban wildlife are songbirds, water fowl, and water
adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover
and travel routes for all forms of wildlife.

ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS

The following plants of this community are considered threatened or
endangered:

HERBACEOUS PLANTS Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum; Climbing
dayflower, Commelina gigas; Fuzzy-wuzzy air plant, Tillandsia
pruinosa; Giant water dropwort, Oxypolis greenmanii; Hidden
orchid, Maxillaria crassifolia; Nodding catopsis, Catopsis
nutans; Grass- of-parnassus, Parnassia grandiflora

The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this
community:

BIRDS Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis; Bald eagle,
Haliaeetus leucocephalus; Wood stork, Mycteria americana;


MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus




Full Text

PAGE 1

flQ./ ....... SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE tno -ECOLOGICAL OMMUNITIES OF FLORIDA "' ,, ___ i'" ,r ".., .. "MI" AA'J17 IV I CB32l1 1151

PAGE 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction .......... 1 -North Florida Coastal Strand 2 South Florida Coastal Strand J Sand Pine Scrub . . . 'I -Longleaf Pine -Turkey Oak Hills 5 Mixed Hardwood and Pine 6 South Florida Flatwoods 7 -North Florida Flatwoods 8 -Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 9 Everglades Flatwoods 10 -Cutthroat Seeps ... 11 -Upland Hardwood Hammocks 12 -Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 13 Cabbage Palm Hammocks 14 Tropical Hammocks 15 -Oak Hammocks 16 Scrub Cypress 17 Cypress Swamp 18 -SaIL Marsh 19 -Mangrove Swamp 20 Bottomland Hardwoods 21 Swamp Hardwoods ... 22 Shrub Bogs Bay Swamps PAGlc 14 20 26 32 38 44 50 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 97 102 107 112 118

PAGE 4

23 -Pitcher Planl Bug;,; 24 Sawgrass Marsh Freshwa ter Harsh 26 -Slough ... Climatic Zone Map TABLE OF CONTENTS APPENDICES Appendix A--Correlation of Soils Series with Ecological Community Appendix B--Ecological Community Plant Tables Appendix C--Ecological CommulllLy Animal Tables List of Birds References PAGE 123 128 n1 141 146

PAGE 5

INTRODUCTION The ecological community concept as used in this booklet is based on the awareness that a soil type commonly supports a specific vegetative community, which in turn provides the habitat needed by specific wildlife species. These vegetative communities form recognizable units in the landscape, most of which are apparent to the casual observer after only a little training. Even with no botanical training, an observer can soon distinguish between pine. flatwoods and pine-turkey oak sandhills; between hardwood hammocks and cypress swamps; and between mangrove swamps and salt marsh. Once the community is recognized, information can be found concerning the general characteristics of the soil in which it occurs and the types of plants and animals that commonly occur there. In the mid-1970's, Soil Conservation Service plant and soil scientists began to try to draw all this information together for the communities most often encountered by SCS personnel in their work. Field studies were made, in addition to consulting many reference works. Twenty-six different communities were identified, although this is by no means a complete listing of communities occurring in Florida. Strictly aquatic communities (such as lakes, rivers and bays) were not included, and the 26 picked could obviously be broken down more--or lumped together--depending on which characteristics are of most interest. These 26 were picked based on how knowledge about them would be useful in SCS field work, which constantly involves environmental evaluations. The information was sent to SCS field office Technical Guides as a "working draft" in 1978. Since that time, field checks and refinements have been made and this booklet presents the up-dated information. This booklet has been developed primarily as a supplement to SCS Technical Guides for Florida. The communities described are essentially the climax types that occur in nature where man's influence has not greatly altered them. In other words, they have evolved through natural plant succession over long periods of time. Under this concept, even a cropfield would be expected to revert to a specific type of climax community if man's influence were removed. For instance, a Norfolk soil in northwest Florida that now supports a corn field was originally a Mixed Hardwood-Pine forest community and would return to that community within 50 to 75 years if the field were to be abandoned. By contrast, a Hontoon muck in south Florida that has been drained and is being used to produce vegetables would revert to a freshwater marsh within only a few years if the drainage were stopped. The more we recognize the characteristics and values of our natural ecological communities, the wiser the decisions we can make regarding the use and care of these resources. It is hoped that the information in this booklet will help to lead to these wise decisions. 1

PAGE 6

1 -NORTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND .I ..J 'Ii j KALa 'r, ar ,. r""1oU Gulf of Mexico ..... Map prepared by U. S. Department of Cpmmerce. Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 2 COUll. Atlantic Ocean ,"". IUCM IIIOWAIIO FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-1 FEBRUARY 1968 eASE 4-L-25770

PAGE 7

C038t
PAGE 8

ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. I NORTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND The North Florida Coastal Strand ecological community occurs along the Atlantic Ocean north of Indian River County and along the Gulf of Mexico west of Alligator Point in Franklin County. Individual communities are generally large in size, being narrow and long, parallel to the coastal beaches. Small, isolated communities can also be found along some bays or sounds. This community generally encompasses the area affected by salt spray from the ocean, Gulf and salt water bays. DESCRIPTION --------This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. It is easily identified by its location adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and by plants that are adapted to or influenced by the salty environment. Small areas of hammock may occur on the more inland parts of the community. 1. EQ.U The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, mostly well to excessively drained with some being moderately well dr&ined or somewhat poorly drained. They are coarse textured throughout. Representative soils included: Canaveral, CoroUa, Fripp, Newhan and PalIr Beach. In Escambia County, it is the areas mapped as coastal dune land and beach. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series the appropriate ecological community. Thp natl'ral vegetation of this conm:unity is grasses, V1.DeS, and herbaceous plants with few or large shrubs. These trees and shrubs often occur in stJDted form due to the action of the wind. The natural foreps of wind, salt, and blowing sand make plant establishment difficult on the foredulles. Plants which do establish here are well adapted to disturbance and are pioneer species. The backdunes will often have vegetation similar to the Sand Scrub and the Wetland Hardwcod Hammock ecological communities. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS -Cabbage palw, Sab1ll .Lt.9; Sand live oak, virgj.pJ.!l var. mariJi!!1; live oak, virg iI,j.?P.? -Marshelder, Iva bayonet, aloifolJi!; bay, PeQ'Jea p--.9.!boni.e 4 Sa'''pa Imet to, Is:pen; Spanish Yaupon holly, vomi1.9si.?; Red

PAGE 9

HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VIRES -Blanket flower, Fiddleleaf morning-glory, Ipomoea Largeleaf pennywort, Bydrocotyle bonariaensis; Sea purslane, Sesuyium portulacastrum; greenbriars, Smilax. spp.; Wildgrape, ,Yiti spp. GRASSES GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Bitter panicum, Panicum Gulf bluestem, Marshhay cordgrass, Epar!ina Sandbur, spp.; Seaoats, pniola Seashore paspa lum, Pas-.PE,lu!II yagina!ll!Il; Seashore panicum, Panj..S..!1!ll llf@Ll:'!n; Low panicum, !'llpic.!l!l1 spp.; Seashore saltgrass, DisJi_c.bJi_s Additional plants that are known to occur In this community are in Appendix B. A variety of shorebirds, terns, and gulls can be found on or near the beach. This community provides a good food source as well as nesting sites. Crustaceans such as crabs are numerous near the shorelines. This area also serves as nesting grounds for sea turtles. Small mammals can also be found on the coastal dunes and larger mammals behind the fcredunes. The most common species are: NAt-1MALS -Bobcats, foxes, mice, raccoons, skunks, and similar mamrr,3 Is also inhabit the cOIilmunity. BIRDS -American kestrel, gulls, pelicans, shon:,birds, terns, and other predatory birds and 8 number of songbirds In the backdune areas. Information on animals knmyu to occur In specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. The coastal strand is highly endangered. Areas privately owned but undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels, and motels. This urban development can have serious effects on the community. Coastal strands are important in regulating wave action along the coast. This action tends to break away part of one beach and build up another. Unplanned structures and development which alter this process accelerates beach and coastal dune erosion. Clearing and leveling of dunes for development also cause erosionthruugh removal of native vegetation which helps hold the dune together, and by removal of sand from the offshore transport system. Recreational use and wildlife values on the coastal strand are important. Recreat ion IS much in demand in these areas but can caus.e damage due to t rmnpli ng and destroying vegetation. When these plants die, their Ec'xLpnsive root systems are no lenger available to hold the soil together and build the dune. Occasional use may also degrade this fragile cOTTllnunity. This community is not generally used for agriculture or Yload land.

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This community IS not generally used for rangeland. Well suited for a variety of shorebirds, gulls and terns. The native grasses and legumes provide good food sources and nesting sites. The area is important as a nesting ground for sea turtles. It IS suited for mammals such as mice, raccoons, bobcats, faxes, and skunks. Many songbirds also ir.habit the area. This communi t yis not generally used for woodland. The better drained areas inland from the ocean or gulf have few limitations for urban development. Areas adjacent to the water may be sub;ect to coastal dune and beach erosion. This is especially true where construction alters the natural processes and destroys excessive amounts of native vegetation. The section on __ __ Syst_ep1 further E'xplair..s these concerr.s. Vegetation is difficult to establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, well to excessively well drained and saline seils and the salt spray. Intensive vegetation estabJishment and maintenance methods are needed for best results. \lTithout vegetation, water and wind eresion can becone a problem during and construction. Plants native to the cOINnunity should receive preference for beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, chickasaw plum, live oak, redbay, redcedar. slash pine, magnolia, and sand pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, prickly pear cactus, coontie, coral bean, yaupon holly, lantana, marshelder, partridge pea, sawpalmetto, spanish bayonet, and waxmyrtle. Some of the grasses are sea oats, manhhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore saltgrass, Gulf bluest em, seashon paspa lur.1, seashore dropseed, common bermudagras s. and shoredune panicum. Some of the herts and vines are beach morning-glory, fiddler-leaf morning-glory, blanket flower, largeleaf pennywort, sea purslane, greenbriars, and wild grape. The most urban wildlife are songbirds, shorebirds such as terns, and gulls, and crustaceans such as crabs and sea turtles. Undisturbed areas are also ichabited by other birds and various mammals. areas also provide food and escape cover for n18r.y f(Jrms of "'ildlie. The follo\ving endangered and threat ened plant s may ()CCl!r in this community: Gulfcoast lupine, _s.till.?!l.!l_S; Godfrey's blazing-star, Liat]:"i..s 6

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The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Choctawhatchee beach mouse (Okaloosa, Walton and Bay Counties), Peromyscus polionotus allophyrs; Goff"s pocket gopher, Geomys pinetis goffi; Pallid beach mouse (Atlantic Coast), Permoyscus polionotus decoloratus; Perdido Bay beach mouse (Escambia County only), Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis BIRDS Eastern brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis; Southeastern snowy plover, Charadrius alexandrinus tenuirostris; Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens; Least term, Sterna antillarum; Southeastern kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus; Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus; Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii REPTILES -Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata; Atlantic loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta caretta; Atlantic green turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas; Atlantic ridley turtle, Lepidocheyls kempi; Leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea 7

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2 SOUTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND III E ...J I SCALI: o '0 20 30 C) SO ""LII:S t I i I I Gulf of Mexico Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1%0, Corrected as of April 1%5. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-FOAT WOATH. TEXAS 'II' 8 M[NDR' COLLIU Atlantic Ocean f FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-2 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Coastal strands are important recreational areas in South Florida. Coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, a r e common 1n South Florida coast a l strands. Austra. lian (lfne (Casuarina sPP.) and Ilvifera) are two .... ood y plants typically found on strands along Flori da's southeast coast.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 2 SOUTH FLORIDA COASTAL STRAND OCCURRENCE The South Florida Coastal Strand ecological community occurs along the Atlantic Ocean south of Brevard County and along the Gulf of Mexico south of Pasco County. Individual communities are generally large in size, being narrow and long, parallel to the coastal beaches. Small, isolated communities can also be found along some bays or sounds. This community generally encompasses the area affected by salt sprays from the ocean, Gulf and salt water bays. DESCRIPTIONS This community occurs on nearly level to strongly sloping land. It is easily identified by its location adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and by plants that are adapted to or influenced by the salty environment. Small areas of hammock may occur on more inland parts of this community. The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, mostly well to excessively drained with Some moderately well drained or somewhat poorly drained. They are coarsely textured throughout. Representative soils include: Canaveral and Palm Beach. It also includes areas mapped as Coastal Beach and Coastal Beach Ridges. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natural vegetation of this community is low growing grasses, vines, and herbaceous plants with few trees or large shrubs. These trees and shrubs often occur in stunted form due to the action of the wind. The natural forces of wind, salt, and blowing sand make plant establishment difficult on the foredunes. Plants which do establish here are well adapted to disturbance and are pioneer species. The backdunes will often have vegetation similar to the sand pine scrub or the wetland hardwood hammock ecological communities. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS -Australian pine, Casuarine eguisetifolia; Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Coconut palm, Cocos nucifera; Sand live oak, Quercus virginiana var. maritima -Bay cedar, Suriana maritima; Coco plum, Chrysobalanus icaco; Inkberry, Scaevola plumieri; Marshelder, Iva imbricata; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Silver1eaf .croton, Croton punctatus_; Spanish bayonet, Yucca a10if01ia; Sea grape, Cocc010ba uvifera 10

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HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Bay bean, Canavalia maritima; Beach morningglory, Ipomoea pes-caprae; Cucumberleaf sunflower, Helianthus debBis; Sea purslane, Sesuvium portulacastrum; Greenbriars, Smilax spp.; Wild grape, Vitis spp. GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS cordgrass, Spartina Uniola paniculata; Seashore saltgrass, spp. ; Bitter panicum, Panicum amarum; Marshhay patens; Sandbur, Cenchrus spp.; Seaoats, Seashore paspalum, Paspalum vagina tum; Distichlis spicata.; Low panicum, Panicum Additional plants that occur in this community are 1n Appendix B. 3. Animals A variety of shorebirds, terns, and gulls can be found on or near the beach. This community provides good food sources as well as nesting sites. Small mammals can also be found on the coastal dunes. Larger mammals also occur behind the foredunes. Some species that occur are: MAMMALS -Bobcat, fox, rabbits, skunks, raccoon, mice BIRDS American kestrel, songbirds pelicans, REPTILES -Alligator, frogs, lizards gulls, terns, shorebirds, This area also serves as such as crab are numerous known to occur in specific nesting grounds for sea turtles. Crustaceans near the shorelines. Information on animals ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System The coastal strand in highly endangered. Areas privately owned but undeveloped are in demand for residences, hotels and motels. This urban development can have serious effects on the community. Coastal strands are important in regulating wave action along the coast. This action tends to break away part of one beach and build up another. Unplanned structures and development which alter this process accelerates beach and coastal dune erosion. Clearing and leveling of dunes for development also cause erosion through removal of native vegetation, which helps hold the dune together, and by removal of sand from the offshore transport system. Recreational use and wildlife values on the coastal strand are important. Recreation is much in demand in these areas but can cause damage due to trampling and destroying vegetation. When these plants die, their extensive root systems are no longer available to hold the soil together and build the dune. Occasional use may also degrade this fragile community. This community 1S not generally used for agriculture or woodland. 11

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2. Rangeland This community is not generally used for rangeland. 3. Wildlife land Well suited for a variety of shorebirds, gulls, and terns. The native grasses and legumes provide a good food sources and nesting sites. The area is important as a nesting ground for sea turtles. It is suited for mammals such as mice, raccoons, bobcats, foxes, and skunks. Marty songbirds also inhabit the area. 4. Woodland This community is not generally used for woodland. 5. UrbanI and The better drained areas in,land from the ocean or gulf have few limitations for urban development. Areas adjacent to the water may be subject to coastal dune and beach erosion. This is especially true where construction alters the natural processes and destroys excessive amounts of native vegetation. The section on Environmental Value as a Natural System further explains these concerns. Vegetation is difficult to establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, well to excessively well drained and saline soils and the salt spray. Intensive vegetation establishment and maintenance methods are needed for best results. Without vegetation, water and wind erosion can become a problem during and after construction. Plants native to the community should receive preference for beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, coco plum, Florida. thatch palm, Florida silver palm, Florida cherry palm, live oak, pidgeon plum, redbay, slash pine, magnolia, wild tamarind, tree hibiscus and sand pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, prickly pear cactus, sea grape, coontie, coral bean, yaupon holly, lantana, marshelder, partridge pea, sawpalmetto, spanish bayonet and waxmyrtle. Some of the grasses are sea oats, marshhay cordgrass, bitter panicum, seashore saltgrass, Gulf bluestem, seashore paspalum, seashore dropseed, common bermudagrass, and shoredune panicum. Some of the herbs and vines are beach morning-glory, fiddle-leaf morning-glory, blanket flower, large leaf pennywort, sea purslane, greenbriars, and wild grape. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered or threatened plants may occur 1n this community: HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Beach star, Remirea maritima; Small-flowered lily-thorn, Catesbaea parviflora (Keys) The following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: 12

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MAMMALS -Pallid beach mouse, Peromyscus polionotus decoloratus, Goff's pocket gopher, Geomys pinetis goffi BIRDS -Arctic Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus tundrius; Eastern brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis; Southeastern snowy plover, Charadrius. alexandrinus tenuirostris; Florida scrub jay, Aphelocoma coerulescens coerulescens; Least tern, Sterna antil1arum; Roseate spoonbill, Ajaia ajaja REPTILES -Atlantic green turtle, Chelonia mydas mydas (Atlantic coast only); Atlantic hawksbi11 turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata3 At 1antic loggerhead turt 1e, Caretta. caretta caretta; Atlantic ridley turtle, kempi; Leatherback turtle, Dermochelys. coriacea 13

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3 SAND PINE SCRUB SCALE o 10 20 JO C) lIO M,LES I i I I Gulf of Mexico Also commonly found inland from coast as relatively small communities. I'OLK I Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apri I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDASCSfOAT WOATH TEXAS 'II' 14 HINDRY COLLllR Atlantic Ocean PALM IIACH llIOWUD FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-3 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Sand pine scrub in South F lorid a often fewer sand pine Pinus clauslI. an<.l m o!"!;! shrubs than those farther norlh. 15 Typical, even-aged s tand of sand pine, Pinus clausa Den s!;! understory of sc.rub oaks. saw p a l metto and o ther I'IIhrub s

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 3 SAND PINE SCRUB OCCURRENCE The Sand Pine Scrub ecological community occurs throughout Florida. It is most commonly found inland from the coast and .in the central portion of the state 1n and around Marion County. Individual communities are generally small in size, i.e., several hundred acres. A large community, several thousands of acres in size, occurs just east of Ocala in the Ocala National Forest. It typically has a few smaller communities of wetland types interspersed throughout. DESCRIPTION This community occurs on nearly movement is rapid through the soil. stands of sand pine or by the thick level to strongly sloping It is easily identified by scrubby oak growth. land. Water the even-aged The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, acidJ somewhat poorly to excessively drained and coarse textured throughout. Representative soils includes: Archbold, Daytona, Duette, Hobe, Paola, Pome110, Resota, St. Lucie, Satellite and Welaka. Appendix A contains information on corre1aLion of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natural vegetation of this community may be typically even-aged sand pine trees with a dense understory of oaks, sawpa1metto, and other shrubs. Ground cover under the trees and shrubs is scattered and large areas of light colored sand are often noticeable. In other cases, the sand pine are scattered or absent, with oaks being the dominant vegetation. Satellite soils, which have a high water table for part of the year, support a scrubby growth also, but the myrtle oak, Chapman oak, and sand pine become infrequent and gallberry becomes prominent. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS B1uejack oak, Quercus incana; Chapman oak, Quercus chapmannii; Myrtle oak, Quercus myrtifo1ia; Sand live oak, Quercus var. geminata; Sand pine, Pinus c1ausa Dwarf huckleberry, Gay1ussacia dumosa; Chrysoba1anus ob10ngifo1ius; Prickly pear, Sawp1ametto, Serenoa repens. Gopher apple, Opuntia spp.; HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND graminifo1ia; glauca VINES -Grass1eaf goldenaster, Heterotheca Deermoss, C1adonia spp.; Cat greenbriar, Smilax 16

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GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans, Low panicum, Panicum spp. Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities 1S in Appendix B. 3. Animals Animals found in this community are adapted to high temperatures and droughty conditions. The wildlife food production is low. Dense vegetation provides good escape cover for animals such as the white-tailed deer. The palmetto and various species of oaks provide good food when they are fruiting. Gopher apple is also a good wildlife food plant. Typical animals of the sand scrub are: MAMMALS BIRDS REPTILES -Deer Florida mouse, Towhee, great crested'flycatcher, scrub jay, Bachman's sparrow -Black racer, gopher frog, gopher tortoise, scrub lizard, sand skink AMPHIBIANS Gopher frog Information on animals known to occur 1n specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as The sand pine is a fire-based community. Understory vegetation is dense ,and fuel supplies build up in the trees. The thick understory creates a pathway for fire to the crowns of the trees. Fire normally occurs every 20-40 years. Sand pines have a low resistance to fire and the high density, even-aged stands make fire devastating. Cones of the sand pine require heat of a fire to open and release seeds. This method of regeneration helps to form even-aged stands. Without occasional fire, this community would tend to become a type of upland hammock community. The sand pine scrub is a valuable ecological community. The coarse textured, excessively well drained soils make the community important in aquifer recharge. It is a unique ecosystem which gives it an important scientific value. Heat and drought stress response by plants and animals are often studied on these sites. Unc0ntrolled fire and damage to vegetation by excessive feet or vehicle travel have adverse effects on the community. Sand scrubs are good producers of sand pine and some areas are utilized for commercial wood production. Intensive management for wood production will not cause excessive damage to the community if good silvicultural practices are applied. 17

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Native forage production is low and the community has limited use for rangeland. Adverse soils conditions make it infeasible to convert this community to cropland. It has been converted to some extent for citrus production in South Florida. This community has fair to good value for wildlife escape cover with proper management. Areas of sand pine scrub communities, except in the Ocala National Forest, are rapidly declining. Favorable conditions for residential use and proximity to the coast make them prime sites for real estate development. 2. Rangeland This community supports a fairly dense stand of trees and shrubs and therefore has a limited potential for producing native forage. Livestock do not use this site if other ecological communities are available. For sites in' excellent condition the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 1,500 to 3,500 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 15 to 40+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 40 percent grasses, 40 percent trees and shrubs and 20 percent herbaceous plants and vines. 3. Wildlifeland This community is suited for deer and turkey, especially for use as escape cover. Many birds inhabit this area including warblers, rufous-sided towhees, great crested flycatchers, scrub jays, and quail. Several varieties of native legumes furnish food (seeds) for bird life. The palmetto, gopher apple and various species of oak provide good food when they are fruiting. Timber harvest and other disturbances increase wildlife food value by increasing the amount and types of herbaceous plants and by sprout production. This community has a low potential for commercial wood production. There are severe equipment limitations and moderate seedling mortality problems due to loose, well to excessively well-drained and infertile soil conditions. Sand pine is a commercial species suitable for planting. It has a potential annual growth of approximately 0.5 cores per 2cre in north Florida. South of Hernando County in the west and Orange County in the east, the potential annual growth is 0.4 cords per acre. 5. Urbanland The moderately well to excessively well drained areas have few limitations for urban development. The somewhat poorly drained Satellite soils, although very droughty in the surface layers, have a water table at 20 inches for part of the year and has more limitations. Vegetation difficult to establish because of the infertile, coarse textured, and droughty surface soils. Water moves rapidly through the soil. Intensive vegetation establishment and maintenance methods, including irrigation are 18

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needed for best results. Without vegetation, wind erosion can be a problem during and after construction. Water erosion control and water retention facilities are usually not needed. Plants native to the community should receive preference for beautification and landscaping. This is because they are more easily established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are live oak, sand live oak, sand pine, turkey oak, and Eastern red cedar. Some of the shrubs are Adam's needle, coral bean, Carolina holly, gopher apple, pawpaw, prickly pear cactus, rosemary, sawpalmetto, and shining sumac. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, crotalaria, blanketflower, blazing star, goldenaster, goldenrod, lupine, morning glory, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife are birds such as warblers, towhee, great crested flycatcher, and scrub jay. Gopher tortoise, sand skink, scrub lizard, and snakes are some of the reptiles using this habitat. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife. The following endangered and threatened plants may occur 1n this community: SHRUBS -Four-petal pawpaw, AsimjpE tetramera; Pigmy fringetree, HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Curtis milkweed, Dancing-lady orchid, Asclepias curtissii; The following threatened wildlife species may be found 1n or around this community: MAMMALS BIRDS REPTILES -Florida mouse, Goff's pocket gopher, &9111 -Florida scrub jay, -Blue-tailed mole skink, Sand skink, reynoldsj; Short-tailed snake, extenuatum 19

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4 -LONGLEAF PINE TURKEY OAK HILLS SCAL.E o '0 2.0 30 l 50 "'L.ES f)! -==:=1 Gulf of Mexico Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apri I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981 20 HEND"Y COlLl[t Atlantic Ocean PALM lEACH FEBRUAR Y 1981 4-R-36720-4 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Thc dcciduous turkey -oak Quercus laevis, gives a bar e appi!aronce in the winter. 21 Typical Longlcaf PineTurkey Oak Hills Community Cround cover under the trel!s and shrubs is USUA I I y very sparse.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 4 -LONGLEAF PINE-TURKEY OAK HILLS OCCURRENCE The Longleaf Florida. It Lake Placid Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community is most commonly found in the central part of and in the Florida panhandle inland from the communities vary widely in size and limited may occur within it. Individual communities DESCRIPTION occurs throughout the state north of Gulf of Mexico. numbers of other This community occurs on rolling land with nearly level to strong slopes. Water movement is rapid through the soil. It is easily identified by the land form and dominant vegetation of longleaf pine and turkey oak. The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, acid, moderately weI} to excessively drained, and mostly coarse textured throughout or mostly coarsely textured in the upper part and moderately fine textured or moderately coarse textured in the lower part. Representative soils are Alpin, Bonifay, Candler, Chiefland, Cocoa, Deland, Eustis, Hurricane, Kershaw. Lake, Lakeland, Orlando, Tavares, and Troup. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation There are several variations of this community. Mature, natural stands of trees which have not been logged have scattered longleaf pine as an overstory. Areas on which pines have been removed are predominantly oaks. Ground cover under the trees and shrubs is scattered and numerous bare areas are noticeable. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES -Longleaf pine, Pinus palustris; Turkey oak, Quercus laevis HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Aster, Aster spp.; Blazing star, Liatris tenuifolia; Bracken fern, Pteridum aguilinum; Butterfly pea, Centrosema Butterfly pea, Clitoria mariana; Elephant's foot, Elephantopus spp.; Grassleaf goldenaster, Heterotheca graminifolia, Partridge pea, Cassia spp.; Pineland beggarweed, Desmodium strictum; Sandhill milkweed, Asclepias Showy crotalaria, Crotalaria spectabilis; Wild indigo, Baptista spp. GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Curtiss dropseed, Sporobolus curtissii; Hairy panicum, Panicum anceps; Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans; low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pinewoods dropseed, Sporobolus junceus Other plants that occur in this community are found in Appendix B. 22

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3. Animals Animals utilizing this community are adapted to stress conditions of high temperature and drought. Many of the animals are burrowers. This helps to prevent water loss and provides protection against high temperatures. The most common animals of this community are: MAMMALS Fux squirrel, pocket gopher, white-tailed deer BIRDS Bobwhite quail, ground dove, rufous-sided towhee REPTILES Gopher tortoise, fence lizard Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System The longleaf pine-turkey oak community is a fairly open forest community influenced by fire, heat and drought. The most important influence is fire which typically occurs frequently. The natural vegetation is adapted to withstand the effects of occasional fire. Grasses cover large areas and provide fuel for the fire and prevent competing hardwoods from regenerating. Longleaf pine cannot tolerate hardwood competition and, with fire, this species remains dominant. The community can be changed to an upland hammock type by elimination of fires. Water moves rapidly through most of the soil to the aquifer with little runoff and minimal evaporation. This is important for aquifer recharge. Longleaf pine-turkey oak hills are used to some extent for timber production. In west Florida, sand pine is often planted because it is better adapted than slash pine on these sites. Longleaf pine does not replant well because of its nature to remain in the "grass' stage" for several years. Native forage production is low, so the community has value as rangeland. Improved practices for rangeland have little effect on the community. This community has value for wildlife if proper management techniques are used. Bobwhite quail utilize this area for food and cover and this makes the hunting aspects especially important. In central and south Florida most of this community has been planted to citrus. In north Florida is is used for improved pasture, pine plantations, and to a limited degree, for more intensive farming operation with use of irrigation. Soil conditions are very favorable for urban development. The community is decreasing rapidly in size because of the demand for urban and agricultural uses. 23

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2. Rangeland The natural fertility of thiE community is low due to adverse soil conditions. Forage production and quality are poor and cattle do not readily utilize this ecological community if other commun1t1es are For sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 2,000 to 4,000 pounds per acre. The variation depertds on plant growth conditions. From 10 to 35+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. There will be little or no grazing when the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight 1S 60 percent grasses, 20 percent trees and shrubs and 20 percent forbs. 3. Wildlifeland This community is suited for deer and turkey, especially for use as escape cover. Many songbirds inhabit this area including warblers, towhees, crested flycatchers, and quail. Several varieties of native legumes furnish food (seeds). for bird life. Timber harvest and similar disturbances improve wildlife food values by increasing the amount and types of herbaceous plants and by sprout production. 4. Woodland This community has a moderately high potential for commercial woodland production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to loose, well drained and infertile soil conditions. Commercial species suitable for planting are sand pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. Potential annual growth is 1.2, 1.2, 1.0 and 0.6 cords per acre respectively. Potential productivity is 18 percent less for areas south of a line from Hernando County in the west to Orange County in the east. 5. Urbanland These moderately well to excessively drained areas have few limitations for urban development. It is often difficult to establish vegetation because of the infertile, coarse textured and well drained soil conditions. Intensive vegetation establishment methods are needed and irrigation is required for best results during dry seasons. Maintenance becomes a problem without adequate fertilization and similar techniques. Without vegetation, wind erosion can become a problem during and after construction. Water erosion can also be a problem on the slopes. Plants native to the community should receive preference for beautification and landscaping unless intensive establishment and management practices are used. This is because they are more easily established and require less Some of the trees are American holly, chickasaw plum, longleaf and slash pine, live, oak, Southern redcedar, sand pine, and turkey and bluejack oak. Some of the are Adam's needle, American beautyberry, Carolina holly, coontie, coral bean, Florida chinkapin, pawpaw, prickly pear cactus, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, and yaupon. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, 24

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crotalaria, blanketflower, blazing star, goldenaster, lupine, morning glory, goldenrod, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife are birds such as warblers, towhees, great crested flycatchers, dove and quail. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover, and food for all forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED pLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community: SHRUBS -East coast coontie, Zamia umbrosa; Florida coontie, Zamia floridana HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Godfrey"'s blazing star, Liatris provincialis The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Peromyscus floridanus Florida mouse, BIRDS -Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), Falco sparverius paulus; Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis REPTILES -Blue-tailed mole skink, Eumeces egregius lividus; Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi; Short-tailed snake, Stilosoma extenuatum 25

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5 -MIXED HARDWOOD AND PINE _CAl.I: o '0 20 30 l 50 "'1.1:_ I!! 1 Gulf of Mexico Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 960, Corrected as of Apr i I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS '98' 26 OUNG[ OSCEOLA H[NDRY COLL'U Atlantic Ocean '.L.N lEACH JROWAAD FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-S FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-2S770

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Typical mtxed hardwood and pine ecological community i n Gadsden Gounty. 27 During winter. the occasional pine and evergreen hardwoods contrast sharply with the deciduous hardwoods. (;round cover under the trees and shrubs is somewha t sparse.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 5 -MIXED HARDWOOD AND PINE OCCURRENCE The Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological community is an extension of the middle coastal plains hardwoods forest. It occurs only in west and north Florida. Individual communities vary in size and are interspersed with other communities and natural drainageways. DESCRIPTION This community occurs on rolling uplands. Water movement is gradual to the natural drainageways. It can be easily identified by the mixed hardwood and pine vegetation occurring in a predominately well drained area. The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep to moderately deep, acid, moderately well to well drained, with loamy to sandy surfaces, and are underlain with fine textured materials. Representative soils include: Benndale, Binnsville, Blakley, Boswell, Bowie, Carnegie, Chipola, Clarendon, Compass, Cuthbert, Dothan, Esto, Faceville, Fuquay, Greenville, Gritney, Kalmia, Magnolia, Marlboro, Maxton, Norfolk, Oktibbeha, Orangeburg, Red Bay, Ruston, Shubuta, Sunsweet, Susquehanna, and Tifton. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation There is a variation in the type and amount of vegetation depending on the successional stage. In the early successional stages of this community, pine is present with shortleaf and loblolly predominating. As the system matures, hardwoods replace pines. The natural climax' vegetation is thought to be a beach-magnolia-maple association. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES American beech, Fagus grandiflora; American holly, Ilex opaca; Eastern hophornbean, virginiana; Flowering dogwood, Cornus Hawthorns, Crataegus spp.; Loblolly pine, Pinus Mockernut hickory, Carya tomentosa; Pignut hickory, Carya glabra.; Southern red oak, Quercus falcata_; Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; White oak, Quercus alba; Water oak, Qyercus nigra SHRUBS -Shining sumac, Rhus copallina; Sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum GRASSES Broomsedge bluestem, Andropogon virginicus; Longleaf uniola, Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Spike uniola, laxium 28

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HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Aster, Aster spp.; Common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia; Partridge berry, Mitchella repens; Partridge pea, Cassia spp.; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Violet, Viola spp.; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus guinguefolia; Wild grape, Vitis spp. Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities in Appendix B. 3. Animals Animals this community vary according to the of plant succession. Areas of young growth attract wildlife that are widely adapted and quick reproducing, such as cottontail rabbits and bobwhite found in quail. In more mature stands, narrowly adapted animals can be woodpeckers, found. moles, woodcocks, and other Wildlife that occur in this community include: MAMMALS -Cottontail rabbit, gray squirrel, gray fox, cotton mouse, white-tailed deer, raccoons BIRDS -Barred owl, bobwhite quail, pileated woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, wild turkey, woodcock Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value .as a Natural System Unlike most communities, the mixed hardwood and pine do not have a dominant stress factor. There is some competition between plants for use of water, sunlight, and available nutrients. Once the mixed hardwoods and pine are established, they can withstand disturbance due to the complex and diverse vegetation and the excellent plant growth conditions. The community is fire resistant but fire may occur during drought conditions. Recovery of hardwoods after a fire is vigorous but damaged trees are often attacked by disease and subject to rot. Fire will keep the system in a predominantly stage. mature stands, fire is infrequent and plants that are not can become dominant. However, in fire-tolerant The finer textured soils of this community have a relatively low permeability. This results in a limited aquifer recharge and some surface runoff. Mixed hardwood and pine communities are important for flood control on watersheds. This community is a good producer of timber and areas are used for timber production. Intensive management may cause a low diversity of plants with an adverse change in some wildlife populations. The community has a high value for wildlife. This is especially true where varying successional stages occur next to each other. The community 29

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contains good agricultural soils. The acreage available in a condition is not great--most is cultivated, used for residences, at the pine stage of succession. 2. Rangeland natural or held The soil's moisture-holding capacity and natural fertility is relatively high and good quality forages are produced. This community is preferred for grazing by livestock in the earlier stages of succession. Tree canopy cover can become excessive and drastically reduce forage quality. For sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 4,500 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 8 to 23+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages available. There will be little or no grazing when the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 50 percent grasses, 30 percent trees and shrubs and 20 percent forbs. 3. Wildlife land Mixed hardwood and pine are very good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, and many songbirds. Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries) furnish a good source of wildlife food. Mature hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites for birds. Habitat is good for raccoons, opposums, bobwhite quail and dove, fair for reptiles, and poor for most amphibians. 4. Woodland This community has a high potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are no serious management problems. Commercial species suitable for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine. Potential annual growth is 1.S and 1.2 cords per acre, respectively. The potential annual growth of longleaf pine is 0.8 cords per acre. These moderately well to well drained areas have few limitations for urban development. This and the attractiveness of the hardwood and pine vegetation make them prized areas for residential development. Water erosion is often a problem on the steeper slopes. Special vegetative establishment and maintenance practices are needed in situations where water erosion is a concern. Plants native to the community are easily established and require less maintenance than introduced ornamentals. Some of the trees are American holly, laurelcherry, chickasaw plum, dogwoods, fringetree, hickory, southern magnolia, oak, pine, persimmon, redbud, red maple, redcedar, and sweetgum. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coral bean, pawpaw, strawberry bush, shining sumac, viburnum, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, beebalm, blazing star, LrLS and sunflower. 30

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The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes forms of wildlife. squirrels. for most ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered and threatened plants may occur 1n this community: TREES SHRUBS -Florida torreya, Torreya taxifolia; Pagoda dogwood, Cornus alternifolia -Ashe's magnolia, Magnolia ashei; Miccosukee gooseberry, Ribes echinellum; Orange azalea, Rhododendron austrinum The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or around this community: Florida panther, Felix concolor coryi; Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis 31

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6 SOUTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS SC"I...E o '0 20 30 l 50 "'I...E. Li 1 1-==1 Gulf of Mexico Ma p prepared by U. S. De partm-ent of Commerce, Bureau of The Cens us. I 960, Corrected as of Apr i I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981 32 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-6 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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South Florida fl.:ltwoods are used for To'Inge. 3J Although nUnll>er!:> of t rees vary greatly in different location!!, South Florida flatwoods are typical ly saV3nn3c.. {1 type of cOlIlDlunity between grassl;md and forest. Areas nnrth and of Luke Okeechobee have trees.

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ECOLOGICAL NO. 6 SOUTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS OCCURRENCE The South Florida Flatwoods ecological community occurs throughout south and central Florida. The northern limit of its occurrence is approximately on a line from Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east. This community covers more land area than any other in south Florida. Individual communities may comprise several thousand acres and are typically with smaller communities of other types, especially wetlands. This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to the natural drainageways, swamps, marshes, and ponds associated with this community. During the rainy season, usually June through September, this community may have water on or near the soil surface. It is easily identified by the flat topography and pine and palmetto vegetation. 1. SqJl The soils are nearly level, deep, acid, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured throughout or coarse textured in the upper part and moderately coarse textured or moderately fine textured in the lower part. Representative soils included: Braden, Eaton, Electra, Elred, Heights, Immokalee, Lawm'lood, Myakka, Nettles, Palmetto, Pomona, Smyrna and Waveland. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. The landscape posItIon of this community affects plant-water relationships and causes slight differences in plant composition from wetter to drier areas. Although these differences are recognized, they are not significant to delineate as separate communities. the natural vegetation of this community is typically scattered pine trees with an understory of sawpalmetto and grasses. Some areas in extreme south Florida have few, if any, trees. These areas are often called prairies or dry prairies. The largest of these areas occur north and west of Lake Okeechobee. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS -Live oak, virgini.f!na; S lash pine, e1li,Q.!:!ii; South Florida slash pine, Pin..!1_s g11iotj:j.i var. den.1!.? Dwarf huckleberry, Gay1usJl.f!sjp dumosa; Gallberry, glabra; Sawpalmetto, Seren2E repens; Tarflower, efaxia racemos.?; Shining sumac, Rhus copalllQ.?; Waxmyrtle, cerifeX2 34

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HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Chalky bluestem, Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum; dichotomiflorium; Low panicum, Panicum Aristida stricta Andorpogon capillipes; stoloniferum; Lopsided Fall panicum, Panicum spp.; Pineland threeawn, Information about plants that occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix B. 3. Animals The South Florida Flatwoods is host to a diverse and numerous wildlife population. Many larger animals are found in areas where the flatwoods other communities. These ecotones provide nesting sites, den sites, food and cover. Typical animals of the flatwoods are: MAMMALS BIRDS REPTILES -Armadillo, eastern cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, deer, skunks, raccoon, opossum Bachman's sparrow, Bobwhite quail, brown-headed nuthatch, meadowlark, pileated woodpecker, pine warblers, red-bellied woodpecker, rufous-.sided towhee, yellow-throated warblers -Eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake, yellow ratsnake AMPHIBIANS Oak toad, chorus frog, pinewoods tree frog Introduced feral hogs are common in much o the community. Information about animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Fire and water are the major stress conditions of this community. lire controls hardwoods and promote the natural regeneration of pine. Removal of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood community. Flatwood communities are good cellulose producers and the original areas of predominantly longleaf pine have been logged. Areas in the northern part of the community are extensively used for timber Intensive management for pulp production can cause major changes i.n the vegetation. Without proper consideration this results in a low diversity of plants and an adverse change in some wildlife populations. Native forage production is good with proper management. Use for rangeland has only a light effect on the community if properly managed. Chopping and similar range practices result in more grasses and fewer shrubs. With sufficient cover left, the resulting increase in diversity usually leads to an increase in types and amount of wildlife. 35

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This community has good wildlife values, especially with proper management. It is especially important as a wildlife buffer zone between urban areas occurring on better drained sites. Water control practices and improved management techniques have facilitated the use of flatwoods for improved pasture, vegetables, citrus, and urban development. This is especially true in south Florida. 2. Rangeland This ecological community has the potential for producing significant amounts of high quality forage such as creeping bluestem, chalky bluestem, and indiangrass. It is Florida's most important community for the production of cattle on native range. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 6,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 3 to 14+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type. of forage available. there will be little forage available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wildlifeland The South Florida Flatwoods is well suited for deer,. quail, and turkey. It is fair for squirrels and well suited for many songbirds, particularly warblers. It is also well suited for bobcat, skunks, opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove. 4. Woodland This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions. The commercial species suitable for planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre. The potential annual growth for longleaf pine is 0.5 cords per acre. Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from Hernando County in the west to Orange County in the east. 5. Urbanland This community is subject to water tables during the rainy seasons and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil and special techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of, the trees are American holly, cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean, partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern 36

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waxmyrt1e. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's lily, grass1eaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and zephyrli1y. The most Undisturbed wildlife. important urban wildlife are songbirds areas also provide good escape cover for like all warblers. forms of The following endangered and threatened wildlife species may be found 1n or around this community: -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Mangrove fox squirrel, niger avicennia BIRDS -Crested Caracara, plancus; Florida grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savanllarum f10ridanus; Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), sparverius_ paulus; Red-cockaded woodpecker, Bald eagle, Ha1iaeetus REPTILES -Eastern indigo snake, corais couperi 37

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7 NORTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS SCALIE o 10 20 ]0 .., 50 WtLS r I I Gulf of Mexico Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH TEXAS 1981 38 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-7 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Woodland is a cOlI'Imon .tRnd use. 39 Typical North Florida flatwoods are open woodland, dominated h} pine trees. Saw palmetto, Serenoa repens, fs a shrub.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 7 -NORTH FLORIDA FLATWOODS OCCURRENCE The North Florida Flatwoods ecological community occurs north of a line from Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east, and in the northwest portion of the state. It is quite extensive, occurring most frequently in the northeastern region of the state and the southern portion of the northwest region. Individual communities may comprise several thousand acres and are typically interspersed with smaller communities of other types, especially wetlands. DESCRIPTIONS This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to the natural drainageways, swamps, ponds, and marshes associated with this community. Wet conditions prevail during the rainy season with the water table on or near the surface. It is easily identified by the flat topography, slash pine and sawpalmetto vegetation. Numerous soil types occur within this community. The soils are nearly level, deep, acid, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, and coarse textured or coarse textured in the upper part and moderately coa'rse textured or moderately fine textured in the lower part. Representative soils include: Chaires, Garcon, Leon, Lumber, Lutterluh, Lynn Haven, Mascotte, Olustee, Pelham, Pottsburg, Ridgeland, Sapelo, Scranton, and Talquin. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Slight differences in plant composition occur in this community depending upon location but these differences are of minor consequence. As this community is observed, a moderate to dense stand of pine trees is usually noted. An understory of sawpalmetto and grasses are also evident. Compared to the South Florida Flatwoods community, several differences are apparent. A shorter growing season and colder temperature have helped cause significant vegetative differences. More frequent interspersion of hardwood and cypress strands coupled with higher pine tree density reduces the open appearance. Close study reveals the following characteristic plants: TREES SHRUBS -Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii Dwarf huckleberry, Gaylussacia dumosa; Gallberry, Ilex glabra; Sawpalmetto, repens; Shining sumac, lanceoluta; Tarf lower Befaria racemosa; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera 40

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HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Blackberry, Rubus spp.;Bracken fern, Pteridum aquilinum; Creeping beggarweed, Desmodium incanum; Deer tongue, Trilisa odoratissima,; Dog fennel, Eupatorium capillifolium; Gayfeather, Liatris gracilis; Greenbriar, Smilax auriculata; Milkwort, Polygala spp. GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Chalky bluestem, Andropogon capillipes; Broomsedge bluestem, Andropogon virginicus.; Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans; Lopsided indiangrass, secundum; Low panicum, Panicum spp.; Pineland threeawn, Aristida Sedges, Cyperus spp. Other plants that are known to occur 1n this community are found in Appendix B. 3. Animals The North Florida Flatwoods are host to a diverse and numerous wildlife popUlation. Mnay larger animals are found in areas where the flatwoods J01n other communities. These.ecotones provide nesting sites, den sites, food and cover. Typical animals of the flatwoods are: MAMMALS -Bobcat, deer, cottontail rabbit, cotton rat, fox squirrel, gray fox, raccoon, opossum, skunk BIRDS Bachman's sparrow, Bobwhite quail, pine warbler, red-bellied woodpecker, red-shouldered hawk, rufous-sided towhee REPTILES -Eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pygmy rattlesnake AMPHIBIANS Chorus frog, cricket frog, grass frog, flatwoods salamander Introduced feral hogs Information on animals is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS are common in much of the flatwoods known to occur in specific ecological 1. Environmental Value as a community. communities Fire and water are the major stress conditions of this community. Modification of either condition will change the plant and animal composition. Removal of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood community. Flatwoods communities are good cellulose producers because of their high net productivity. The original areas of predominantly longleaf pine have been logged. Extensive areas have been replanted to slash pine. Intensive management for pulp production can cause major changes 1n the vegetation. The result is a low diversity of plants and often adverse changes in types and amounts of some wildlife. 41

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Native forage production is good with proper woodland grazing practices. Proper rangeland use has only a slight effect on the community and results 1n more grasses and few shrubs. This often increases the type and amount of wildlife. Water control practices and improved management techniques have facilitated the use of flatwoods for improved pasture, vegetable production, and urban development. This effect is minimal in north Florida. This community has good wildlife values with proper management. It is also important as a buffer zone between urban areas. 2. Rangeland This ecological community has the potential for producing significant amounts of high quality forage such as chalky bluestem, indiangrass, and several of the panicum species. More pines occur in this community than in South Florida Flatwoods. Vegetative production differs from the South Florid Flatwoods community due to a shorter growing season and lower winter temperatures. For sites in excellent condition the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 5,500 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 5 to 15+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. For each 15 percent canopy cover, the stocking rate is reduced 15 percent. There will be little forage available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 65 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 25 percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wildlifeland The North Florida Flatwoods community is well suited for deer, quail and turkey. It is fair for squirrels and well suited for many songbirds, particularly warblers. It 1S also well suited for bobcat, skunks, opossums, and raccoons. It is poorly suited for dove. 4. Woodland This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions. The commercial species suitable for planting is slash pine. Potential annual growth is 0.9 cords per acre. The potential annual growth for longleaf pine is 0.5 cords per acre. 5. Urbanland This community 1S subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons and has limitations for urban Water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem 1n unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring. Native plants can be used establishment and maintenance. for beautification Some of the trees 42 and are require minimum American holly,

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cabbage palm, common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean, partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby's lily, grassleaf goldenaster, hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty, sunflower, and zephyrlily. The most important urban wildlife are songbirds. Undisturbed areas also provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered or threatened plants are not common in this community, but may occur in some instances: SHRUBS Chapman's rhododendron, Rhododendron chapmanii The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found or around the community: MAMMALS BIRDS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus, Florida panther, Felis concolor Southeastern kestrel (Sparrow hawk), FalcQ sparverius paulus; Red-cockaded woodpecker, borealis; Florida sandhill crane, Grus canadensis pratensis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocepha lus. REPTILES -Eastern indigo snake, Drymarshon corais couperi 43

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8 -CABBAGE PALM FLATWOODS SCALE o I Sf MILES Gulf of Mexico Occurs mostly south of this line as small scattered communities and often adjacent to coastal areas, major drainageways and lakes. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of Apri I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981 44 MEMORY COLLIER Atlantic Ocean "IOWARD FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-8 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Plant composition depends partly o n soil drainage and sites have more cabbagl;!" palm, IypLcd cabbage. p a l m f l ... tvood i n C ollie r County. Cabba}l;@ p alm, Sabal p a lmetto, t his communi t y

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 8 -CABBAGE PALM FLATWOODS OCCURRENCE The Cabbage Palm Flatwoods ecological community occurs throughout south Florida and, to a limited extent, in central Florida. The northern limit of its occurrence is approximately on a line from Levy County on the west to St. Johns County on the east. Small, isolated areas are found north of this line. Locally, it most often occurs adjacent to coastal areas, major drainageways, and lakes. Individual communities are typically interspersed with smaller communities of wetland types. DESCRIPTION This community occurs on nearly level land. Water movement is very gradual to and through the natural drainageways, swamps, ponds," and marshes associated with the community. During the rainy season, usually June through September, the water table is on or near the soil surface. Numerous soil types occur within this community. The soils are most often nearly" level, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, shallow to deep, and coarse textured to fine textured in the subsoil. Some parts of the subsoil are calcareous or it is neutral to moderately alkaline. The surface and subsurface layers "are coarse textured. Representative soils include Broward, Ft. Drum, Matmon, and Pinellas. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Slight differences plant composition occur depending upon water relationships. The slight wetter sites contain a higher percentage of grasses and herbaceous plants. Although these differences are recognized, they are not significant enough to delineate as separate communities. The natural vegetation of this community is typically scattered pine and cabbage pine with an understory of palmetto and grasses. There is considerable uniformity and openness. It is similar to the South Florida Flatwoods community except for a higher percentage of herbaceous plants and the presence of cabbage palms. The plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Slash pine, Pinus elliottii -Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; Tarflower, Befaria racemosa; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Caesar weed, Urena lobata; Deer tongue, Creeping Trilisa beggarweed, Desmodium inc anum; 46

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odoratissima_; Gay feather, Liatris gracillis; Greenbriar, Smilax auriculata AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium stoloniferum; Lopsided indiangrass, Sorghastrum secundum; Saltmarsh windmillgrass, Estachys glauca; Stiffleaf windmillgrass, Estachys petraea; Pineland threeawn, Aristida stricta Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in Appendix B. 3. Animals The Cabbage Palm Flatwoods are habitat for a diverse and numerous wildlife population. Larger animals are found where the flatwoods join other communities, especially the wetlands. Typical animals are: MAMMALS BIRDS REPTILES -Cotton mice, cotton rat, cottontail rabbit, bobcat, deer, opossum, raccoon, striped skunks Bachman's sparrow, rufous-sided towhee bobwhite quail, red-shouldered hawk, Diamondback rattlesnake, PYFmy rattlesnake, black racer, yellow rat snake AMPHIBIANS Chorus frog, cricket frog, oak toad Tnf (Irma t ion on an ima Is known to occur in spe cific eco logical communities is in Appendix C. 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Fire and water are the major stresses of this community. Fire 1S important in control of hardwoods. Removal of fire will cause a successional move to hardwoods. The kind of hardwoods will depend on soil conditions such as drainage. Flatwoods are good cellulose producers and nearly all of the original areas of pine have been harvested. Intensive management for pulp production normally causes major changes in vegetation. The result is a low diversity of plants and a reduction in number and kinds of wildlife. Native forage production is excellent with good management. Proper rangeland use has only a slight effect on this community. Application of range practices will increase the grasses and reduce the shrubs. This brings about an increase in types and amount of wildlife. The community has very good wildlife values that can be enhanced with proper management. It is especially important as a buffer zone for wildlife between urban areas occurring on better drained sites and the natural drainageways. Water control practices and improved management techniques have facilitated the use of Cabbage Palm Flatwoods for 47

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extensive agricultural and urban land uses. south Florida near the coast. 2. Rangeland This is especially true in This ecological community has the potential for producing significant amounts of high quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 4,500 to 9,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 3 to 14+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages available. There will be little forage available if the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 70 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 15 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wildlifeland Cabbage palm flatwoods offer good food and cover to many species of wildlife. Food value comes from palm and palmetto fruit, pine mast, and acorns from associated oaks. Legumes and grasses furnish good food sources to quail and other small birds. Habitat is well suited for deer and turkey and offers refuges to migrating birds during winter months. 4. Woodland This community has a moderately high potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant competition. the commercial specie.s suitable for planting are slash pine and loblolly ?ine. Potential annual growth respectively is 1.2 and t.O cords per acre. Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from Hernando County to Orange County. 5. Urbanland This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy season and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to vegetation on steep channel side slopes and inferti le soil. Special techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation often 1 problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem 1n Ilnvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the Native plants be used for heautification lnd require minimum effort for establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly, cabbage palm. common persimmon, live oak, longleaf pine, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coontie, coral bean, partridge pea, pawpaw, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, tarflower, and southern waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are blazing star, Catesby/s lily, grassleaf goldenaster. hibiscus, iris, meadowbeauty. sunflower, and zephyrlily. The most common urban wildlife is songbirds. Undisturbed areas provide escape cover and travel routes for most forms of wildlife. 48

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ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endanagered or threatened plants are not common in this community but may occur in some instances: HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Virginia chain fern, Woodwardia virginica; The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS BIRDS Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Mangrove fox squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia -Southeastern kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus; bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus REPTILES -Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi 49

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9 -EVERGLADES FLATWOODS SeAl.1: 0 '0 zo XI l lIO "'I.ES , I Gulf of Mexico I'OLK Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGR.lCULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOASCSFORT WORTH. TEXAS 1911 50 ORANG( Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-9 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Porous, pinnacle limestone rock often uccurs on the surface. 51 Typic;]l Everglades flatwoou west of Homestead Grassy area!>
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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 9 -EVERGLADES FLATWOODS OCCURRENCE The Everglades Flatwoods ecological community occurs only in the Everglades region of south Florida. The largest area is west of Homestead in and round the Everglades National Park. The tropical hammock ecological community is generally interspersed throughout this community. DESCRIPTION This community occurs on nearly level land. It is underlain at shallow depths by a porous pinnacle limestone rock. Many areas have little or no soil and the pinnacle rock occurs on the surface. Water movement is rapid through the porous limestone. Consequently, the sites are wet for only short periods following heavy rains. The soils are nearly level, shallow and coarse textured over porous limestone rock. Representative soils are Dade, Hallandale and Rockdale. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natural vegetation t:hat occurs on this community is dominated by an overstory of south Florida slash pine. The understory is mostly sawpalmetto and grasses. There is considerable uniformity and openness. The specific plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS South Florida slash pine, Pinus elliottii var. -Marlberry, Ardisia escallonioides; Sawpalmetto, Serenoa repens; WaXmyrtle, Myrica cerifera HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Florida peperomia, Peperomia obtusifolia GRASSES -Cabanis bluestem, Andropogon cabanissi; Chalky bluestem, Andropogon capi1lipes; Creeping bluestem, Schizachyrium Low panicums, Panicum spp.; Saltmarsh windmillgrass, Estachys glauca Additional plants that are known to occur in this community are in Appendix B. 52

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3. Animals The Everglades Flatwoods are habitat for a variety of wildlife. animals are: Typical MAMMALS Bobcat, cotton mouse, five-lined skink, marsh rabbit, opossum, raccoon, white-tailed deer BIRDS -Pine warbler, red-shoulder hawk REPTILES Pygmy rattlesnake Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Values as a Natural Systm. Fire is the major stress condition of the community. It is important control of hardwoods and removal of fire will cause a successional move to a hardwood community. With road and canal building, natural firebreaks are produced which endanger the pineland. Decaying plant material is important in that it produces a weak acid which dissolves the rock and in time produces soil for seed germination. Everglades Flatwoods are good cellulose producers but distance from woodland markets generally limit commercial production. Native forage production is good with proper management. Use for rangeland has only a olight effect on the community. This community has good wildlife values, especially with proper management. It affords a drier habitat for wildlife sDecies utilizing the wetlands nearer the Lake Ockeechobee and thesawgrass marsh in the Everglades. A special importance is that it serves as a buffer for wildlife between the wetlands adjacent to Lake OkeeChobee and urban development near the coast. Water control practices and improved management techniques have facilitated the use of this for vegetables, fruit crops, and urban development. This true the coast. '". Rangeland This ecological community has the potential for produc.1.ng :ngn1ficant amounts of high quality forage such as creeping bluestem, chalky Dluestem, and indiangrass. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 0,000 pounds ,er acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 2 to acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. There will be little forage available 1f the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of vegetative production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike plants, percent trees and shrubs, and 10 percent herbaceous plants. 53

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3. Wildlifeland Due to its geographic position, this community is valuable to migrating bird life headed to South America for wintering. It serves the same purpose on the return trip, acting primarily as resting cover. It is well suited for deer, bobcat, owls, and small rodents. Many reptiles find suitable habitat in this community. This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and severe seedling mortality due to the rocky soil conditions. The commercial species for planting is slash pine. Potential annttal growth is 0.9 cords per acre for South Florida slash pine and 0.7 cords per acre for slash pine. 5. Urban land This community is subject to some unique limitations for urban development. The hard limestone rock is on or near the surface and special equipment is needed for excavations evacuation. The most serious limitations for urban development are those imposed by the above factor and a high water table during the rainy season. Native plants can be used for beautification and require m1n1mum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, live oak, myrsine, silver palm, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are coco plum, dahoon holly, Florida fiddlewood, Florida privet, marlberry, sawpalmetto, varnish leaf, and southern waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, bunchf lower cone flowers, crotalaria, ferns, iris, meadow beauty, partridge pea, rose-mallow, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and rabbit. Undisturbed areas do provide good escape cover for many other forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered or threatened plants may occur in this community: TREES Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata SHRUBS -Big pine partridge pea, Cassia keyensis; Pride-of-big-pine, Strumpfia maritima_ HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Night scent orchid, EpidendrY@ Pineland clustervine, Jacguemontia curtissii, Tiny Polygala smallii 54 nocturnum; milkwort,

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The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi, Mangrove fox squirrel, Sciurus niger avicennia BIRDS Red-cockaded woodpeckeT, Picoides borealis REPTILES -Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon coaris couperi; Miami blackheaded snake, Tantilla oolitica 55

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lO-CUTTHROATSEEPS SCAl-I[ o 10 20 30 40 t=t= I I I Gulf of Mexico Occurs mostly in Polk and Highland Counties as small communities below Sand Pine Scrub and Longleaf PineTurkey Oak Hills communities. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS 1981 56 HENDRY Atlantic Ocean ItAtH llIOWARO FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-10 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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57 Dens!! cutthroat AraBs is the TI'IOst prominent fea tur e of thio community at this Polk County site. Scattered slash pin!'.: trees over a dense g round c .... vl!r uf cut throat gri'llli'\ typiFies the appearance of thls cummunity.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 10 CUTTHROAT SEEPS OCCURRENCE The Cutthroat Seeps ecological community is found mostly in Polk and Highlands Counties. It occurs to a limited extent in adjoining counties. Individual size of the community is normally less than 100 acres. Much of the original community has been destroyed and developed to intensive uses. DESCRIPTIONS This community occurs on nearly level to gently sloping or depressed areas where water seeps from the adjacent Sand Pine Scrub and Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills communities. The soil profile is wet most of the time. 1. Soils The soils are nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained, deep and coarse textured throughout. The Ona and St. Johns soil series are representative of this community. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soils series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The appearance of this community is distinctive. It has open scattered pine trees, isolated sawpa1metto and waxmyrtle and a dense cover of cutthroat grass that stays green the year round. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES Slash pine, Pinus e11iottii SHRUBS Waxmyrt1e, Myrica cerifera GRASSES -Cutthroat grass, Panicum abscissium; Chalky b1uestem, Andropogon capi11ipes; Creeping b1uestem, Schizachyrium sto10niferum; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Toothache grass, Ctenium aromaticum.; Low panicums, Panicum spp. Information about plants that occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix B. 3. Animals Typical animals include: MAMMALS -Bobcat, cottontail rabbit, deer, raccoon, skunks, opossum BIRDS Woodpeckers, several songbirds REPTILES Pygmy rattlesnake, yellow ratsnake Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. 58

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LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Seepage water from the higher elevated and better drained areas is the controlling factor of the Cutthroat Seep ecological community. Development in and around,this site causes changes in water quality and quantity which usually relult in wide changes of plant composition. These areas are not generally used for woodlands due to wetness, plant composition and difficulty of harvest. They are sometimes used for woodland if part of a larger flatwoods area. Native forage production is very good with proper management. Rangeland use has only a slight effect on the community. Range practices will'result in an increase of grasses and reduction of shrubs. Wildlife values are good, especially with improved wildlife management practices. Its different plant composition from surrounding communities offers good cover and food for wildlife. Environmental values are especially important. Water from better drained areas "seeps" out to the ground surface at these communities. They then serve as natural drainageways and help to improve water quality by the filtering action and nutrient uptake of plants. 2. Rangeland This ecological community has the potential for producing significant amounts of good quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant varies from 3,000 to 5,500 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 4 to 16+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages available. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 75 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 10 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wild life land Cutthroat seeps are well suited for deer, turkey, and songbirds. They are fair for quail and good for many mammals, such as skunks, opossums, and raccoons. Reptiles such as ratsnakes and rattlesnakes find suitable habitat in the community. It is poorly suited for squirrel and dove. 4. Woodland This community has a moderate potential productivity for commercial woodland production. There are severe equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions. There are'no commercial species suitable for planting. Potential annual growth of existing slash and pond pine is at 0.4 cords per acre. 5. Urban land This community is subject to high water tables and has limitations for urban development. Intensive water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques are usually 59

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required in these situations. sedimentation is usually a proble-. in the spring on unvegetated areas. Without vegetation, erosioD aDd Wind erosion is also a severe proble. Rative plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establisb.ent and Some of the trees are cabbage palm, lonaleaf pine, pond pine, ahd slash pine. Some of the shrubs are savpalmetto and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, ferns, iris, meadow beauty, partridge pea, and sunflower. The most adapted urban wildlife is birds. escape cover for many forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AIm TIIllEATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS Undisturbed areas provide good The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi BIRDS -Florida grasshopper sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum floridanus; Little kestrel, Falco sparverius; Red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides Florida sandhill crane, Grus canadensis pratenais; Bald eagle, Baliaeetua leucocephalus -Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi 60

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11 UPLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS .cALE o I z:.' ,., "MILD Gulf of Mexico ..... Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of April 1965. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-fOllT WOIIllt. TEll'" '.1 61 C:ou.II. ",$).: Atlantic Ocean IIOWAID FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-11 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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This communi ty typically has a very .'Ip"'rse g rouml cover due t o the. shading effect of the lare,er trees and understory shrub!; 62 Winter brings about iI open appearance as the deciduous trees lose their leaves. Typical upland h"'rd wood hammock in the spring.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 11 -UPLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS OCCURRENCE The Upland Hardwood Hammock ecological community occurs commonly in north central Florida and sparingly in north and west Florida. Individual communities vary in size from a few acres to several hundred. The largest communities occur near Brooksville, Gainesville, and Ocala. This community is generally considered to be a climax vegetation of ecological succession in the Southern Coastal Plains. A climax community is one that perpetuates its kind in equilibrium with the environment without influence of man. DESCRIPTIONS This community occurs on rolling terrain with nearly level to strong slopes. Moderately moist regimes without excessive water or drought conditions characterize this community. It can be readily identified by the occurrence of thick stands of shade tolerant hardwoods and few pines. There is usually mOre organic material and litter present than on drier sites. 1. Soils The soils are nearly level to strongly sloping, deep, somewhat poorly to well drained and coarse-textured throughout or coarse-textured in the upper part with moderately coarse-textured to moderately fine-textured subsoils. Representative soils included Blichton, Bonneau, Flemington, Fort Meade, Gainesville, Hernando, Mabel, Millhopper, Shubuta, Sparr and. Zuber. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation This community is considered to be in a climax stage of vegetation when only a few pines occur with hardwoods dominating. Under climax conditions, understory may be quite sparse. Plants which characterize this community are: .TREES American beech, Fagus grandigolia; American holly, Ilex opaca; Black cherry, Prunus .erotina; Eastern hophornbeam, Ostrya virginiana; Flowering dogwood, Comus florida; Hawthorns, Crataegus spp.; Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia; Live oak, Quercus yirginiana; Pignut hickory, Carya glabra; Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora; Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua SHRUBS American beautyberry, Callicarpa americana; Arrowwood, Viburnum dentatum; Sparkleberry, Vaccinium arboreum; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera l{ERBACEOJJSPLABTS AND VIRES -Aster, Aster spp.; Cat greenbriar, Smilax glauca; Common greenbriar, Smilax rotunidifolia; Crossvine, Bignoniu capreolata; Partridge berry, Mitchell! repens; 63

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Partridge p.a. Ca i, 'i'P.; Pot.on iVJ,'l'oxieo4t!\clUA tM'.'1 lapeed, Ambrq.ia art_i.ii&1ia;Spani.h .", til"".i. u.n.oide., Virginia cre.per, Parthepoci'lM q.iDq,."lia;Wilcl grape, Viti pp.; Yellow je .... i .. Gel,eai.'M"nir Dotted horae.int, lfoyrd. p,nctat,; Blackberry, l1aJ:ru. 'pp. GlASSES AND GRASSLID PLOTS to" panicua, Pgiga Ipp.; S"itchgra Panicg yirgatu. Information about plants occur in .pecific ecological i. in AppendixB. 3. Animals The more co..,n wildlife .pecie. include: HAHMALS .outheIll Iq'irrel(',;ay faX, bobcat, white-tailed deer, ,armadillo -,--BIRDS -Bluebird, bluejay, cardinal, ceda,r waxwiug, chickadee, ckuck willa widow .. great crested flycatcher, ea.tern phoebe, eastern mockingbird, loggerhead shrike, 1DOul11.ing dove, palm warbler, summer tanager, robin, rufou.-sided towhee, turkey, tufted titmouse, woodpeckers, wrens Information on animals known to occur in .pecific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAIO) USE IRTERPRITATIORS 1. EnyironmentalValue as a Natural System Upland brdwood hammo,cks occur on some of the soils that are well suited for a variety of uses and may undergo considerable stress and change. From a purely aesthetic standpoint the interior of this community, if not recently disturbed, usually is insp1r1ng. Large hardwoods exhibit an interesting diversity in growth forms. In the moist drainageways, true mosses, several species of ferns and violets represent the fragile side of nature. Many aspects related to environmental awareness such as the function of microorganisms in decay and nutrient-cycling may be viewed in this community. Upland hardwood hammocks are valuable for watershed protection, and hardwood products and are prized areas for residential development. 2. Rangeland Upland hardwood hammocks have very poor potential for range and are therefore not used 'for this purpose. 3. Wild life land Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds, and berries) makes upland hardwood hammocks good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, black bear, and many songbirds. Maturing hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites 64

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for squirrels, owls, and opossums; poor for for most amphibians. and most woodpeckers. Habitat is good for raccoons bobwhite quail and dove; fair for reptiles and poor 4. Wood land. When managed for hardwood production, this community produces quality products. However, there has been a tendency to maintain these areas in predominantly pine through species management due to quicker returns on investment. The community has a high potential for commercial woodland production. there are no significant management hazards and limitations. Slash pine and loblolly pine are the commercial coniferous species suitable for planting. Potential annual growth respectively is 1.5 and 1.2 cords per acre. Longleaf pine has a potential annual growth of 0.8 cords per acre. 5. Urban land The moderately well to well drained areas have few Limitations for urban development. This and the attractiveness of the hardwood vegetation make upland hardwood hammocks prized areas for residential development. Water erosion can be a problem on the steeper slopes. Special vegetative establishment and maintenance practices are needed in situations where water erosion is a concern. Plants native to the community should receive preference for beautification and landscaping. This is because they are easier established and require less maintenance. Some of the trees are American ho 11y, cabbage palm, chickasaw plum, common persimmon, dogwood, fringetree, live oak, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, redbud, red maple, slash pine, magnolia, red cedar, swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, beargrass, coral bean, elderberry, lantana, strawberry bush, shining sumac, and waxmyrtle. The most important urban wildlife is songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey, raccoon and similar forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS Threatened or endangered plants include: SHRUBS -Needle palm, Rhapidophyllum HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Auticled spleenwort, Asplenium Dwarf spleenwort, Asplenium pumilum; Sinkhole fern, occidentale Threatened or endangered animals include: auritum; Blechnum MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus REPTILES -Eastern indigo snake, Drymarchon corais couperi. 65

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12 WETLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS .:;::' .J (' """" .r ".OISON v/ \ ,J I ..... DUVAL \ \ IAI(EII ,. '---.--( I r\ ,---o '0 to JO <10 50 Mi LiES ! t=:::1 Gulf of Numerous small communities also occur throughout Central and South Florida. Mexico I \ SUWANNEE I COlU",,' \ '--' .,,) \ II "', ..-' uNION;/ l \ LAFAYETTE '-I., l.., I CLAY ; j"".v-" JOHNS l I I 'J.,; '\ ,'I' I r:l"''' : '\I. ... CHU... "IJTHAM 1 ____ \ I l \ \ L..-J \ VOlUS'A '\ \ H"OO[[ i '\. OKEECHOI[[ I "'\ ,UClHLANDS \ \" OE SOTO ttlNOJty COLLIER Atlantic Ocean 'ROWARO Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apr i I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-12 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770 USD"SCSFORT WORTH, TEX"S 1981 66

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Interior of a wetland hardwood hammock. 67 Distant vIew of a typical wetland hardwood hammock in Taylor County. Typical wetland hardwood hammock.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 12 -WETLAND HARDWOOD HAMMOCKS OC,CURRENCE The Wetland Hardwood Hammock ecological community is scattered east and west of the Central Florida Ridge, extending northwesterly into the panhandle. It predominates in the region from Hillsborough County to Wakulla County. One of the largest areas is along the Gulf Coast north of the With1acoochee River. DESCRIPTIOt{ This community is a wetland forest on poorly drained soils, soils subject to constant seepage, or soils with high water tables. It has an evergreen appearance since it is dominated by the laurel, live, and water oaks, magnolia, and cabbage palm. In many areas red cedar is also one of the dominants. The deciduous sweetgum is one of the trees. Red maple, various bays, and cypress also occur but these species are not dominant 1n this community. Topography is low and nearly level. These hammocks are not flooded for as long a period of time are are associated swamp hardwoods. the swamp hardwoods community is often found within depressional areas of the wetland hardwood hammock. Wetland hardwood hammock may be distinguished from bottomland hardwoods by the dominant plant species and the type of flooding. If the inundating water derives from river overflow, it is a bottomland hardwood; if inundated by local rainfall, it is wetland hardwood hammock. 1. Soils, Soils associated with this community are nearly level, somewhat poorly and poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces. Many of these soils have very thick sandy surface and subsurface layers. Representative soils include Aripeka, Coxvi11e, Herod, Matmon, Megget, Nuta11, 01eno, Portsmouth, and Plummer. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation This community supports a luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of species. Although supporting plants that are found in both drier and wetter sites, this community has definite flora characteristics. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS Cabbage palm, Saba1 palmetto; Hawthorns, Craetaegus spp.; Laurel oak, Quercus 1aurifo1ia; Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Red bay, Persea borbonia; Red maple, Acer rubrum; Sweetbay, Magnolia virginiana; Sweetgum,. Liguidambar styracif1ua; Water oak, Quercus nigra; Magnolia, Magnolia grandif10ra Waxmyrt1e, Myrica cerifera; Witchhaze1, Hamamelis virginiana; Sawpa1metto, Serenoa repens 68

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.' .. HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fern, Osmund a cinnamomea; Crossvine, Anisostichus capreolata; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Royal fern, Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides; Virginia creeper, Parthenocissus guinguefolia; Wild grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow jessamine, Gelsemium sempervirens GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Longleaf uniola, Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp. A list of plants that may occur in this community are in Appendix B. 3. Animals Wildlife species include: MAMMALS -Bobcat, deer, skunk, mink, opossum, otter, raccoon, wild hog, gray squirrel BIRDS -Mississippi kite, owls, turkey, red-shouldered hawk, woodpeckers and numerous songbirds REPTILES Green anole Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Wetland hardwood hammocks have high recreational values for hunting, hiking, and nature study. They also have important aesthetic benefits. Water quality and quantity control is one of the most important benefits provided, particulary in the coastal areas. 2. Rangeland Although Some woodland grazing occurs 1n wet hardwood hammocks, it is generally not recommended. 3. Wildlifeland Wetland wildlife turkey, is poor reptiles 4. Woodland hardwood hammocks are one of the most productive and diverse habitats. This community is good habitat for wild hogs, deer, black bear, gray squirrel, woodpeckers, owls, and furbearers. It for quail and dove and fair for many songbirds. It is good for and amphibians, being moist most of the year. There has been considerable acreage of wet hardwood hammocks converted pine production. Drainage is needed for optimum growth of pines. drainage and conversion destroys this community as a viable unit. the value of hardwoods increasing, much of the remaining acreage may to The With stay 69

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in hardwood production. However, new markets are needed for production, such as furniture stock, to keep these areas in production. hardwood hardwood This community has a moderately high potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant competition. The commercial species for planting are slash pine and loblolly pine. Potential annual growth is 1.2 and 1.0 cords per acres respectively. Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from' Hernando to Orange Counties. 5. Urban land This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are required for urban uses. It is usually difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a problem in water management systems. Wind erosion can also become a problem in unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly, cabbage palm, dahoon holly, fringetree, hawthorns, live oak, loblolly bay, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, red maple, slash pine, southern magnolia, red cedar, sugarberry, swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, shining sumac, yaupon ho lly, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, blackeyed Susan, cone flowers, dayf lower rose-mallow, meadowbeauty, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife is songbirds Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for deer, turkey, raccoon, and similar forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS Threatened and endangered plants include: HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Adder's tongue fern, Cheiroglossa palma; Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium -auritum; Climbing dayflower, Commelina gigas; Cuplet fern, Dennstaedtia bipinnata Threatened or endangered animals may include: MAMMALS -Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus; Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi 70

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13 CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS SCALE 'i::='iO=IO:t:::::::::::i30=::::jCt::::::3'f> MILES Gulf of Mexico Numerous small communities also occur in Highlands, Okee chobee and surrounding counties, and just inland from the coast in peninsular Florida. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corr.ected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SCS-FORT WOAT ... TEXAS ,., 71 Atlantic Ocean llIOWUD FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-13 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Interior view of a Cabbage Palm Hammock shows the typical dense overs tory ..... ith a sparse ground 72 This small Cabbage Palm Hammock has been heavily grazed by l.ivestock and the understory largel y destroyed. Typical cabbage palm hammock in the background with a saltgrass mat'6h 1 n foreground.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 13 -CABBAGE PALM HAMMOCKS OCCURRENCE The Cabbage Palm Hammock ecological community occurs predominantly in south Florida. Counties having the most significant communities of this type are Highlands, Okeechobee and surrounding counties. Communities are usually one to several acres and rarely extensive in size. DESCRIPTION This community is easily identified by the occurrence of thick stands of cabbage palm with a few scattered oak. It occurs mostly on slightly elevated areas within the Slough and South Florida Flatwoods communities. The soils are nearly level to gently sloping, poorly to somewhat poorly drained, calcareous, and coarse textured. They occur mostly on low lying poorly drained ridges or flats. Representative soils included Bradenton, Hilolo, Parkwood, and Winder. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natural vegetation is dominated by tree species, especially cabbage palms. Plants that characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS GRASSES Cabbage palm, Sabal palmetto; Laurel oak, Quercus 1aurifolia; Live oak, Quercus virginiana American beautyberry, Cal1icarpa americana; Serenoa repens; Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera Sawpalmetto, Creeping bluestem, Schizachrium stoloniferum; Low panicums, Panicum spp.; Stiff1eaf windmil1grass, Estachys petraea HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Caesar weed, Urena. 10bata; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Wild grape, Vitis spp.; Yellow jessamine, Gelemium sempervivens Information on other plants that may occur in this community are found in Appendix B. 3. Animals Wildlife species include: MAMMALS -Armadillo, bobcat, raccoons, wild hogs gray squirrel, opossum, deer, skunk, BIRDS Owls, red-shouldered hawk, woodpeckers, numerous songbirds 73

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REPTILES Diamondback rattlesnake Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities 1S in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Normally standing as islands in the landscape", cabbage palm hammocks high aesthetic values. Fire and water are the major stresses of community. The past removal of fires probably caused a successional to hardwoods and palms. The kind and mixture of hardwoods and palms depend on specific soil conditions such as drainage and closeness calcareous materials. have this move will to The areas are not generally used for woodland, range, or intensive land uses due to type and composition of plants. Some areas have been for citrus production. However, this community has good wildlife values that can be enhanced with good management. Cabbage palm hammocks offer resting cover for both migratory and resident wildlife and serve as refuges during wet conditions. 2. Rangeland This community has low potential for producing forage due to the dense canopy of palm trees. It does provide protection during cold, rainy weather and shade during hot weather. It is usually severely grazed due to the above factors. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 2,000 to 4,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 10 to 30+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. There will be little forage available when the canopy cover exceeds 60 percent. The relative percentages of annual vegetation production by weight is 55 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 25 percent trees and shrubs, and 20 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wild life land Cabbage palm hammocks are productive communities for many wildlife species. They are good habitat for wild hogs, deer, turkey, woodpeckers, and owls and poor for quail and dove, but fair for most songbirds and squirrels. 4. Woodland This community has a moderately high to high potential productivity for commercial wood production. There are moderate equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to wet soil conditions and plant composition. The commercial species suitable for planting are slash pine, loblolly pine, sweetgum, and sycamore. Potential annual growth for the first threes is 1.5, 1.2 and 0.8 cords per acre respectively. Potential productivity is 18 percent less for soils south of a line from Hernando County to Orange County. 74

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5. Urban land. This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy seasons and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a problem in some water management systems. Wind erosion is a problem in unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, dahoon holly, gumbo-limbo (south Florida), hawthorns, laurel oak, live oak, and thatch palm (south Florida). Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, coral bean, dahoon holly, marlberry, myrsine, sawpalmetto, tetrazygia, shining sumac, varnish leaf, and wild coffee. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, coneflowers, dayflowers, iris, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed areas provide good escape and travel routes for deer, turkey, and similar forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS. The followin$ endangered or threatened plants are not common in this community but may occur in some instances: TREES Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Adder's tongue fern, Cheiroglossa palma; Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum; cowhorn orchid, Cvrtopodium punctatum, Night-scent orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum; Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum The .following endangered or threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Everglades mink, vison evergladensis; Florida panther, Felis concolor corvi BIRDS -Caracara, Caracara cheriwav auduboni; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus; Wood stork, americana REPTILES -Eastern indigo snake, corais couperi 75

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14 TROPICAL HAMMOCKS SCALI: i=1:=1:::0=2l":0=:'i30:::::::::l40:::::;:j'f/ MILES Gulf of Mexico Tropical Hammocks occur in Plant Hardness Zone lOb. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1911 76 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-14 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Interior View of a Tropical lIammock with Royal Palms 77 Dense jungle-like appearance of a typical tropical hammock with Gumbo limbo trees Interior View of a Tropical Hammock Showing a strangler

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 14 TROPICAL HAMMOCKS OCCURRENCE. The Topical Hammock ecological community is confined to south Florida. It occurs on elevated areas in the Everglades and along the limestone ridges of the Florida Keys. Individual communities range in size from less than an acre to several acres. DESCRIPTION Tropical hammocks generally appear as thick clumps of strands or small to medium-sized trees. On the sites where disturbance has not occurred for several years, a more "jungle-like" appearance is observed. A heavy canopy closure, causing deep interior shade, is prevalent. This condition serves to moderate temperatures and conserve moisture. Characteristically,trees of the tropical hammocks have dense, heavy, strong wood and shallow spreading root systems which adapt them to a harsh environment of wind, periodic droughts and salt spray. Soils are shallow to rock with only a few inches of organic material overlying porous limestone and marl. Characteristic soils were mapped in an older reconnaissance type soil survey and have not been classified into the current soil classification system. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Tropical hammocks typically have a very high diversity. Most of the vegetation is probably of West Indies origin. The following species are characteristic: TREES SHRUBS -Bahama lysiloma, Lysiloma latisiligua; Jamaica dogwood, Piscidia piscipula; Mastic, Sideroxylon foetidissimum; Poisontree, Metopium toxiferum; Strangler fig, Ficus Live oak, Quercus virginiana; Cabbage palm, Saba1 palmetto -Marlberry, Ardisia escal10niodes; Snowberry, Chiococca alba; Wild coffee, Psychotria nervosa HERBACEOUS PLANTS Golden serpent fern, Ph1ebodium aureum; fern, Polypodium polypodioides; Stiff-leaved Ti1landsia fasciculata Resurrection wild pine, GRASSES -Low paniucm, Panicum spp.; Sour paspalum, Paspalum con;ugatum Information on other plants that may occur in this community are found in Appendix B. 78

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3. Animals Tropical hammocks serve as habitat for a variety of wildlife species, many of which are not found elsewhere. Some species that occur are: MAMMALS -Everglades mink, Mustela vison; Gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis; Key deer, Odocoileus virginanus; Key Largo cotton mouse, gossypinus; Key Largo woodrat, Neotoma floridana; Marsh rabbit, Sylvilagus palustris Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Values as a Natural System Tropical hammock communities are probably the most endangered ecological type in Florida. Such endangerment lies in the fact that the communities are not widespread in occurrence and have received considerable pressures for other land uses. Special consideration should be given to incorporating all existing tropical hammock into an overall land use plan. Such a plan would insure the continued use of these communities as hurricane protection, landscape and greenbelt areas, parks, and wildlife habitat in an areas under tremendous population growth pressures. 2. Rangeland Not recommended as a land use. 3. Wildlifeland There are very specific requirements for the wildlife that occur in tropical hammocks, particularly those resident species. Able to fulfill the requirements of both local and migratory wildlife, tropical hammocks naturally become good habitat for these species. A special function is that of cover for many mammals during periods of high water and resting and feeding areas for migratory bird1ife. 4. Woodland Not recommended for commercial production. 5. Urban land This community is subject to high water tables during the rainy season and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are required for urban uses. It is usually difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is often a problem in water management systems. Wind erosion can also become a problem in unvegetated areas. This is especially severe in the spring. 79

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Native plants can be used for bea.utification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly, cabbage palm, dahoon holly, live oak, loblolly bay, red maple, slash pine, and water oak. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, shining sumac, sawpalmetto, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, blackeyed Susan, cone flowers, dayf lower rosemallow, meadowbeauty, and,sunflower. The most common urban wildlife is songbirds areas provide good escape cover and travel raccoon and similar forms of wildlife. and squirrel. Undisturbed routes for deer, turkey, ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS Threatened or endangered plants of the tropical hammocks are: TREES Brittle thatch palm, Thrinax morrissii; Buccaneer palm, Pseudophoenix sargent11; Cupania, Cupania glabra; Florida thatch palm, Thrinax parvitolia; Krug's holly, Ilex krugiana; Lignum-vitae, Guaiacum sanctum; Manchineel, Hippomane mancinella; Silver thatch palm, Coccothrinax argentata; Tree cactus, Cereus robinii -Pride-of-big-pine, Strumpfia HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum;Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum; Cowhorn orchid, Cyrtopodium punctatum; Dollar orchid, Encvclia hoothiana; Everglades peperomia, Peperomia" floridana; Fragrant maidenhair fern, Adiantum melanoleucum; luch's bromeliad, Guzmania monostachia; Adder's tongue fern, Ophioglossum oalmatumj, Hattie Bauer 'halberd fern ,1'ectar ia ,cor iandrifo lia; Night-scent orchid, Ep1dendrum nocturnum; Narrnw strap fern, Campyloneurum .angustifolium; Powdery catopsis, Catopsis beteroniana; Slender spleenwort, Asplenium dentatum; Star-scale fern, Pleopeltis revoluta; Twisted air plant, Tillandsia flexuosa; Worm-vine orchid, Vanilla harbel1ata; Young-palm orchid, Tropidia polvstachya Threatened or endangered animals of the tropical hammocks MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor corvi; Key
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15 OAK HAMMOCKS SCAL.E o '0 20 30 ) 10 MIL.ES i! I I Gulf of Mexico Oak Hammocks occur mostly as relatively small communities east of Leon County to Lake Okeechobee. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOASCSFOAT WOATH, TEXAS 1911 81 Atlantic Ocean 'ALII! IUCH FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-15 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Typjcal intedor of a oak hammock. 82 oak have a park!.ike appearance. Oak hammock as seen from a distance as it typically occurs within south Florida flatwoods.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 15 OAK HAMMOCKS OCCURRENCE The Oak Hammock community occurs through central Florida in scattered locations, south to the Everglades and west to about Tallahassee. Typical examples of this community occur in Marion and Sumter Although this is a recognizable feature in the landscape, there is some feeling that it may not be a separate, available community, but simply a viable variation of either the upland or wetland hardwood hammock, induced by man's influence. DESCRIPTION This community is readily identified by the dense canopy laurel and live oak trees on nearly level to rolling understory is usually sparse. of predominantly topography. The Soils are nearly level to gently sloping, deep, and somewhat poorly to poorly drained. Some have limestone rock occurring on or near the surface. Representative soils include: Adamsville, Lochloosa, Nobleton, and Pactolus. Appendix A contain information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Tree species consists of mostly laurel and live oaks associated with other oaks and pine. there are few understory plants. Plants that characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS Live oak, Quercus virginiana American beautyberry, Serenoa repens Callicarpa americana; Sawpalmetto, GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Yellow indiangrass, Sorghastrum nutans; Purple nutsedge, planifolius and rotundus; Longleaf uniola, Chasmanthium sessiliflorium; Low panicum, Panicum spp. HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Resurrection fern, Polypodium polypodioides; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides; Stiff-leafed wild pine, Tillandsia utriculata Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is in ApP,endix B. 83

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3. Animals The most common animals of this community are: MAMMALS BIRDS -Bobcat, deer, foxes, armadillo, opossum, raccoon, skunks, squirrels, rabbits Owls, rufous-sided towhee, songbirds, turkey, woodpeckers AMPHIBIANS -Southern toad REPTILES Green anole, Southern fence lizard, diamondback rattlesnake, hognose snake Information on animals know to occur in ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Oak hammocks add considerable to the quality of the landscape. Spreading, stately oaks in many hammocks offer desirable surroundings for homesites and were used extensively for this purpose by many early settlers. They are also important wildlife. areas. This community offers both food and cover to various species. Many' areas have been cleared or altered extensively for both urban and agricultural uses, predominantly improved pasture. 2. Rangeland Due to the usually dense canopy cover and relatively open understory, cattle use these areas primarily for shade and resting areas. For sites in excellent conditions, the average annual production of air dry plant materials varies from 2,000 to 3,500 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 12 to 35+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages available. the relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 40 percent grasses and grasslike plants, 40 percent trees and shrubs and 20 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wildlifeland Hardwood mast (acorns, nuts, fruits, buds and berries) make oak hammocks good habitat for deer, turkey, squirrel, black bear, and many songbirds. Maturing hardwoods and snags provide good nesting sites for squirrel, owls, and most woodpeckers. Habitat is good for raccoons and opossums; poor for bobwhite quail and dove; fair for reptiles and poor for most amphibians. 4. Woodland This community has production. There mortality problems a high potential productivity for commercial wood are moderate equipment limitations and seedling due to poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine, 84

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loblolly pine, sycamore and sweetgum are the commercial species suitable for planting. Potential annual growth is 1.5, 1.2, 0.8, and 1.5 cords per acre respectively. Potential production is 18 percent less for areas south of a line from Hernando County in the west to Brevard County in the east. This community is subject to a high water table during the rainy season and has limitations for urban development. Water management systems are usually required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special planting and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation erosion and sedimentation is often a problem. Wind erosion can also become a problem, especially in the spring. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are cabbage palm, laurelcherry, hawthorns, live oak, common persimmon, and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are beargrass, coral bean, lantana, pawpaw, sawpa1metto, shining sumac, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, coneflower, standing cypress, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and squirrel. Undisturbed areas 8lso provide good escape cover for all forms of wildlife. I The follo\17ing endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community: SHRUBS -East coast coontie, Zami HERBACEOUS PLANTS Dw<>r spleenwort, EUmil.!!ID; sinkho Ie fern, iLcsJAePJilJ_e Endangered and threatened animals XMi1f.ALS 85

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16 SCRUB CYPRESS .., ..... e:e t:' .. .... Gulf of Mexico This community also occurs In small areas over the southern tip of the peninsula too small to delineate at this scale. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corr.ected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1.1 86 Atlantic< Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-16 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Air plants, like the one in extreme left center of picture are often found in the cypress trees. 87 A sparse stand of stunted cypress trees are a typical feature of the Scrub Cypress Community Scrub cypress as seen from a distance.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 16 SCRUB CYPRESS OCCURRENCE The Scrub Cypress ecological community occurs in south Florida on marl and rock that is frequently flooded. Eastern Collier County and northern Monroe County have the largest areas of this community. This region is called "Big Cypress." DESCRIPTION This community appears as a broad area of marshes with dwarf cypress (less than 20 feet tall) scattered throughout. It is stressed by the extreme seasonal change in water levels, and low level of plant nutrients. These factors cause poor growing conditions with a lack of plant diversity and small wildlife populations in comparison to the cypress swamp community. Soils associated with this community are nearly level, poorly to very poorly drained, with coarse to medium textured surfaces underlain by finer textured material or fractured limestone. A representative soil is Margate. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The vegetation is much like that of the freshwater marsh community. Occasional air plants and orchids can be found in the scattered cypress trees. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES -Bald cypress, Pond cypress, Taxogjum distichum var. nU!Ens SHRUBS -Waxmyrtle, HERBACEOUS PLANTS Stiff-leafed w1ld pine, Tillandsia GRASSES -Blue maidencane, IDuhlenbergiE.!ll!:!1!; Clubhead cutgrass, Maidencane, bemitomon Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix B. The poor soil and lack of plant nutrients that are resRonsib1e relatively sparse plant life also account for a fairly scattered population. 88 for the wildlife

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Wildlife species include: MAlIMALS -Bobcat, deer, mink, panther, raccoon BIRDS Ioseate spoonbill, wood stork, herons ItBPTILIS -Alligator, frogs, turtles, snakes Inforaation on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. WJ) USE IlfrBllPRETATIONS 1. EayirouaentalValue as a Natural System The cypress community occurs primarily in southwest Florida. Developaents in and around the community cause changes in water quality and which results in wide changes in portions of the plant CODmalnity. The scrub cypress commnnity is highly endangered. Scrub cypress swamps provide water storage areas by holding excess water and slowly releasing it into the water table. Water quality is enhanced by the community, which functions like a waste treatment plant by absorbing nutrients from the water. 2. Rangeland This community has little or no use as rangeland. 3. Wildlife land Due to the sparseness of vegetative growth, this community is one of the least productive of wildlife. Deer will range through these areas, but the habitat is poor. The primary value is seasonal to frogs, turtles, snakes, and salamanders which ean adjust to the short hydroperiod and to predators on these animals such as raccoons, mink, and the wading birds. 4. Woodland these -areas are not generally used for commercial woodland production. However, this commnnity does have a moderate potential product-ivity for commercial woodland production on areas with adequate surface drainage. There are severe equipment limitations due ,to the poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine is the species suitable for planting on areas with adequate surface drainage. Potential annual growth is 0.7 cords per acre. 5. Urban land This commun1ty is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required for urban uses. It is difficult to establish On steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching, selected plants and and unusual seeding and plant management techniques may be required. 89

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Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress, cabbage palm, pond cypress and slash pine. Some of the shrubs are buttonbush, dahoon holly, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbs are aster and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife are songbirds and water-adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for all forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following threatened and endangered plants may occur in this community: HERBS -Acuna's epidendrum, Auricled spleenwort, Asplenium auritum; Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratum; Cow-horn orchid, Cyrtopodium punctatum; Dwarf epidendrum, Encyclia pygmaea; Hidden orchid, Maxillaria crassifolia; leafless orchid, Campylocentrum pachyrrhizum; Night-scent orchid, Epidendrum nocturnum; Nodding catopsis, Catopsis nutans The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi BIRDS ,Wood stork, Mycteria americana REPTILES American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis 90

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17 CYPRESS SWAMP SCALI: 10 10 30 40 SO IoIILI:S Gulf of Mexico Numerous small communities are scattered over the state, especially within the flatwoods and surrounding lakes and streams. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDASCSFORT WORTH. TEXAS 1981 91 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 19814-R-36720-17 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Cypres:s often occur along lake edges. 92 A cypress "head" in south central Florida. Interior of a cypress swamp. Air plants are common on the cypress trees in south Florida.

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Interior of a cypress swamp in North Florida. 93 Cypress swamps often occur adjacent to rivet's and streams. Typical cypress swamp in Jefferson County appears in the background.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 17 CYPRESS SWAMP QCCURRENCE The Cypress ecological community occurs along rivers, lake margins, slough and strands, or interspersed throughout other communities such as flatwoods and slough. It occurs throughout Florida, but is the predominant swamp type "in the area from Flagler County south through Polk County and in southwest Florida. The "Big Cypress" area of Monroe and Collier Counties is included in Ecological Community No. 16 Scrub Cypress. DESCRIPTION This community is poorly drained and water is at or above ground level a good portion of the year. Bald cypress is the dominant tree and is often the only plant which occurs in significant numbers. Cypress swamps growing on sand, rock and shallow mucky pond areas are not as productive as those found on alluvial floodplain soils. As the soil depth in muck ponds increases, so does the growth rate of cypress. The submerged or saturated condition of the soil and general absence of fire help reduce competition and keep the community from a successional change to a swamp hardwood (Bayhead) community. Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level or depressional, poorly drained and have loamy subsoils and sandy surfaces. Representative soils include: Martel, Monteocha, and Surrency. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Bald cypress, along lakes and stream margins, is dominant and often is the only plant found in large numbers. Pond cypress occurs in cypress heads or domes which are usually found in flatwoods and prairies. The diversity of trees is low in the cypress heads but increases in the strands and stream margins. Plants which characterize this community are; TREES SHRUBS Bald cypress, distichum; Blackgum, sylvatica; Coastal Plain willow, Salix caroliniana; Pond cypress, distichum var. nutans; Red maple, Acer rubrure -Common buttonbushJ Cephalanthus Southern waxmyrtle, Myrica HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fernl Osmunda cinnamomea; flowering ixia, Nemastylis .floridana; Laurel greenbriar, laurifolia; Pickerel weed, Pontederia cordata; Royal Osmunda regalis; Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides; leafed wild pine, Tillandsic utricul.ata; Sphagnult Spnagnult. spp. Fall Smilax. fern, Stiff moss, 94

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GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Narrowleaf sawgrass, Cladium mariscoides Other plants that occur in the community are found in Appendix B. 3. Animals The most common wildlife species include: MAMMALS -Deer, mink, raccoon, otter BIRDS -Anhinga, woodpecker, wood stork barred owl, egrets, herons, limpkin, pileated purple gallinule, prothonotary warbler, wood duck, REPTILES -Alligator, frogs, turtles, salamanders, variety of water snakes Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Cypress swamps are an extremely valuable resource. They can be. used for environmental educational study, scientific research, and recreation. They have a high value for use as wildlife habitat. This community has a relatively low diversity of plant species due to the fluctuating water levels and low nutrient availability. Both drastic changes in the water level and a stabilized water level may change the plant community. Often this will occur due to the effects of dams, dikes, or drainage channels. The cypress swamp is not a prime area for residential development. When ditched and drained, these areas may be used for pine production although they are not as productive as the surrounding pine lands. Fire is a stress factor, primarily on the drier portions, but water is important in all areas. Water enters the swamp directly from rainfall or runoff. The water level is highest in summer and peak productivity occurs in early spring. Stagnant water will result in slow tree growth especially if it occurs during the growing season. water. from it to Natural regeneration of cypress requires fluctuation of the Flooding during the dry season prevent the cypress trees reproducing. Water must be available to germinate the seeds because provides natural stratification. However, when the seedling starts grow its top must be maintained above water. Cypress swamps provide water storage areas by holding excess water and slowly releasing it into the water table. Water quality is enhanced by the community, which functions like a waste treatment plant by absorbing nutrients from the water. 2. Rangeland This community has little or no value as rangeland. 95

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3. Wildlife land This community is very important for wildlife refuge areas and as a turkey roosting area. It is well suited for waterfowl and wading birds. Aquatic animals may be found in large numbers. The permanent residents of cypress heads are relatively few, but much of the wildlife of the flatwoods is dependent on these ponds for breeding purposes. 4. Woodland Extensive drainage would be required, thereby destroying this community. 5. Urbanland This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching, special plants and unu8ual seeding and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation are a problem in some water management systems. Intensive management measures may also be necessary to maintain design Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress, button mangrove', loblolly bay, pond cypress, red maple, slash pine, and sweetgum. Some of the shrubs are buttonbush, coco plum, dahoon holly, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbs are aster, golden canna, cardinal flower, pine lily, celestial lily, ferns, cone 'flower, cattail, rosemal low iris, and meadowbeauty. The most important urban wildlife are songbirds, water fowl, and water adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for all forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following plants of this community are considered threatened or endangered: HERBACEOUS PLANTS Bird's nest spleenwort, Asplenium serratumj Climbing dayflower, Commelina gigas; Fuzzy-wuzzy air plant, Tillandsia pruinosa; Giant water dropwort, Oxypolis greenmanii; Hidden orchid, Maxillaria crassifolia; Nodding catopsis, Catopsis Grass-of-parnassus, Parnassia grandiflora The following threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: BIRDS -Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus; Wood stork, Mycteria americana; MAMMALS -Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus 96

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18 SALT MARSH SC"L. o '0 20 ]0 l 50 ""L. Li i Gulf of Mexico Numerous small communities occur along c:oastal areas. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS fORT WORTH TEXAS UII' 97 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-18 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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,.. .... >I)-""'v'i." "'1'1 ""& .. \ \' . Black needle rush marsh of ten occurs along tidal rivers. 98 Large expanses of salt marsh such a::: this are more typical along the northeastern coast. Black needlerush marsh with cabbage palm and hardwood hammock in background. Typical of coastal a.t;'eas in Hernan do, Citrus Levy, Dixie, and Taylor CounLies.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 18 SALT MARSH OCCURRENCE The Salt Marsh ecolQgical community occurs along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts and inland along tidal rivers. An extensive area occurs along the Gulf of Mexico north of Tarpon Springs to St. Marks. DESCRIPTION This community appears as an open expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes. Usually there is a matrix of interconnected shallow natural channels that aid tidal influx. Soils commonly associated with this community are level. very poorly drained, muck or sandy clay loams underlain by loamy sand Qr organic soils ;lUder lain by day or sand or are clayey throughout. Many of the soi Is have a :tigh sulfur content. Some of the soils are soft and will not support the weight ()f a man or large anlUlal. Tidal action causes saturation of the soil with salt water and inundation to a depth of a few inches. :iepresentative soils are: Bohicket, Homosassa ,Lacoochee, Tisonia, Turnbull, and Weekiwachee. Appendix A contains informatlon on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. Vegetation Yegetation often ()ccurs in distinct zones within the salt marsh complex as a result of water levels from tidal action and salinity concentrations in water and soils. Some species have a wide tolerance range and nay be found throughout the grass marsh. Plants in this group are black needlerush and seashore saltgrass. Smooth cordgrass is more indicative of low, regularly flooded marsh, while the high marsh supports salt myrtle, marshhav cordgrass) marshelder, saltwort and sea oxeye. the Gulf COlt6t l1lOst lUSJ.rshes are dominante.:i by black ll.e-:!riloe'l"ush. A.long che ,iorth Atlantic Coast, smooth cordgras8 is usually dominant. that cnaractet'l.'ze the salt,nar$h community are: HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Sea blite. 3uaeda linearisj 3ea purslane, 3esuvium portulacastrum GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Big cordgrass, Spartina cynosuroides; Black needlerusht Juncus roemeiranus; Gulf cordgrass, Spartina spartinae; Marshhay cordgrass, Spartina patens; Olney oulrush, Scripus americanus; Seashore dropseed, Sporobolus Seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum; Seashore saltgrass. Distichlis spicata; Shoregrass, Monanthoch01e littoralis; Smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora Information about other plants that occur in this community are in Appendix B. 99

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3. Animals The salt marshes support a variety of wildlife. are: MAMMALS DeerJ otter, raccoon Some species that occur BIRDS Brown pelicans; cootsJ egrets, gulls, terns, seaside sparrow, many forms of waterfowl REPTILES -Alligator, diamondback terrapin, saltmarsh snake Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System The functions of salt marshes are probably the most important and least understood and recognized of all ecological communities. On low energy coastlines and estuariesJ the marsh functions as a transition zone from terrestrial to oceanic life. Salt marshes also perform an important function in the stabilization and protection of shorelines, especially during storm tides. Nutrients, sediments and detritus from upland systems are redistributed by tidal action, making the marsh one of the most productive natural ecological systems. The area serves as a habitat for the early life stages of numerous ocean species as they feed on countless invertebrate organisms. Many wildlife forms overlap normal ranges at least seasonally to become harvesters and, in many cases, part of the natural food chain. 2. Rangeland Salt marshes have a potential for producing significant 'amounts of cordgrass, sa1tgrass, and other grasses and forbs. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant materials varies from 4,000 to 8,000 pounds per acre. The variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 6 to 15+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 90 percent grasses, 5 percent shrubs and trees, and 5 percent herbaceous plants and vines. 3. Wildlife land Salt marshes are good habitat for a variety of wildlife. The habitat type is usually maintained by natural forces and influences such as tidal action and periodic hurricanes. Storms usually cause the creation of "open" water in salt and brackish marshes and also may change salinities. The resulting effect is that plant succession is set back and more favorable habitat may be created for waterfowl, furbearers, and some other forms of wildlife such as wading 100

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birds. Artificially created dikes to managing marsh plants for wildlife. technique used in mar.sh management. control salinity are Prescribed burning is used also in a 4. Woodland These soils are unsuited to commercial wood production. 5. Urbanland This community is subject to a high water table and periodic flooding. It therefore has very severe limitations for urban development. Very elaborate water management systems are required for urban uses. It is difficult to establish salt tolerant vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching and unusual seeding and management techniques will be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation become a problem. Intensive measures may also be required to maintain design capacity. Native plants can be used for beautification and require m1n1mum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees and shrubs are black mangrove, button mangrove, necklace pod, sea oxeye, southern redcedar, and white mangrove. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster and goldenrod. Some of the grasses are cordgrasses, seashore dropseed, and seashore saltgrass. The most important urban related wildlife are waterfowl and water-adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for many forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS There are no known endangered or threatened plants that would occur in this community. MAMMALS West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus 1atirostris BIRDS -Eastern brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis; Cape Sable seaside sparrow, Ammodranus maritimus mirabilis (Collier, Monroe, and Dade Counties); Dusky seaside sparrow (Brevard County), Ammodranus maritimus nigriscens; Least tern, Sterna antillarum; Arctic peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus tundrius; Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephilus; Wood stork, Mycteria americana REPTILES American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis; Atlantic green turtle, Chelonia mydas; Atlantic hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata imbricata; Florida ribbon snake, (Lower Keys population), Thamnophis. sauritus sackeni; Atlantic saltmarsh water snake, Nerodia fasciata taeniata 101

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19 MANGROVE SWAMP SC"L.E 10 20 30 ) 50 MIL.ES i::==:i=:i:::=:::i:===tl Gulf of Mexico Mangrove Swamps -also occur in small areas along the east coast fro m Brevard County south. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USO"-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEX"S 1981 102 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4R-36720-19 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4L-25770

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A small red man g rove with .:lts p rop root s stands out among the pneurnatophores of the s u r r ounding black mangroves. 103 Red mangrove. Rhizophora are characte ristic of most mangrove swamps. They are easily identified by their prop-roots arising f rom trunks and branc hes. Interior of a man g rove swamp dominated by black man g r o v e (Avicennia..8!!!!! nans), c h a racterized by vertical aera ting branches (pneuma tophores) arising from the

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 19 MANGROVE SWAMP The Mangrove Swamp ecological community occurs primarily along saltwater shorelines in sou'th Florida from Levy and Volusia Counties southward. Coastlines that host this community normally have mild wave action in the form of backbays' and estuary fringes. The Ten Thousand Islands in southwest Florida is the most extensive area of mangrove swamps in Florida. Mangroves appear as a medium-height 00-20 feet} thicket of fleshy-leaved woody plants in coastal areas. In most areas of its range, the red mangrove, Rhizophora is the most seaward emergent plant. Prop roots are characteristic of this plant while the black aud white species send up modified vertical roots to facilitate in respiration. Soils commonly associated with this community are level, very poorly drained, peat or fine sand underlain by sand or clays. Tidal action causes saturation of the soil with saltwater and inundation to a depth of several inches. Representative soils include: Bessie, Hallandale Tidal, and Turnbull Variant. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The most frequent species found in this community are the three mangroves: red, black, and white. However, depending on elevation and resulting tidal influx. considerable variation occurs in the composition of these threes species as well as associated species. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES -Black mangrove. Avicennia germinans j Button mangrove, Conocarpus erectus; Red mangrove, Rhizophora White mangrove. Laguncularia racemog HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Leather fern, Sea oxeye. Borrichia arborescens; Sea purs lane I Sesuvium portn lacss trum Other plants that occur in this community are in Appendix B. 3. Animals The mangrove swamps support a variety of wildlife. Animals inhabitating mangrove communities include: MAMMALS -Everglades mink. raccoon 104

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BIRDS -Boat-tailed grackle, blue heron, belted hawks, great white heron, brown pelican, vireos, prairie warbler, mangrove cuckoo, osprey, wood stork, southern bald eagle, green heron, Louisiana heron REPTILES American alligator, crocodile, rat snake kingfisher, gulls, little blue heron, roseate spoonbill white ibis, little Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System. The mangrove community is especially important for shoreline protection and stabilization. There is some evidence that mangroves serve a function in land-building by trapping ,sediments. Definitely, this community acts as a buffer of wind and waves during storm tides. Probably the most important function of this ecosystem is that of changing a detrital base that accumulates underneath into estuarine production and higher marine life. The attraction of water to man has caused many mangrove swamps to be lost or altered by dredge and filling for development. Adjacent activities may also cause changes in water flow patterns and affect the plant composition of this community. 2. Rangeland There is no potential for range use. 3. Wildlife land Wildlife is best served by assuring that the mangrove community is not destroyed. Mangrove plants themselves seem to be quite hardy appearing as specially adapted pioneer plants in a tenacious, but yet fragile ecosystem. The mangroves are especially valuable as nesting sites for many birds. 4. Woodland No commercial potential for developments. 5. Urbanland use of mangrove wood is known, however, there use of mangroves in landscaping coastal is some building This community is subject to a high water table and periodic flooding. It therefore has very severe limitations for urban development. Very elaborate water management systems and fills are required for urban uses. It is difficult to establish salt tolerant vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching and unusual seeding and management techniques will be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation become a problem. Intensive measures may also be required to maintain design capacity. 105

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Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees and shrubs are black mangrove, button mangrove, necklace pod, sea oxeye, southern red cedar and white mangrove. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster and goldenrod. Some of the grasses are cordgrasses, seashore dropseed, seashore saltgrass and shoregrass. The most important urban related wildlife are waterfowl and water adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for many forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered or threatened animals may occur in this community: BIRDS Arctic Peregrine falcon, Falco peregrinus tundrius; Bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus; Eastern brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis; White-crowned pigeon, Columba leucocephala; Wood stork, Mycteria americana REPTILES American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus; American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis; Florida ribbon snake, Thamnophis sauritus sackeni; Key mud turtle, Kinosternon bauri bauri The following endangered or threatened plants may occur in this community: HERBACEOUS PLANTS Powdery catopsis, Catopsis berteroniana.; Pricklyapple, Cereus. gracilis; Worm-vine orchid, Vanil1.!_ barbellata 106

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20 BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS 8CAI..IE "i:::t:='r.0=:li0'=::iJO=::ilt:=::::l"f "'I..IES Gulf of Mexico Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of Apr i I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE IJSDA-SCS-FORT WOIITH, TEXAS '91' 107 Atlantic Ocean 'AI.M ItACH FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-20 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Interior of a bot tomland hardwood e cological commu nity in the winter. 108 Bottomland hardwoods occur within the floodplains of river sys terns in wes t Florida. Vegetation is extremely diverse in bottomland hardwoods.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 20 BOTTOMLAND HARDWOODS OCCURRENCE The Bottomland Hardwood ecological community occurs within the floodplain of the river systems of west Florida. Forests of the Apalachicola River are typical of this community. Rather rapid rise and fall in floodwater and little or no inundation during the growing season distinguishes this community from swamp hardwoods. DESCRIPTION The moisture regime is probably the most significant factor in maintaining the bottomland hardwood community. The key to its perpetuation is the seasonal flooding and receding of water while depressional areas within the alluvial flood plain retain some water and support the associated community of swamp forests. Luxurious growth during the summer months and a deciduous forest during the winter season characterize the appearance of this community. The level to nearly level soils are alluvial in nature. Representative soils are Bibb, Mantachie, and Wahee. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Vegetation is extremely diverse in bottomland hardwoods. Shrubs, vines, grasses, and herbaceous plants grown profusely where sunlight penetrates the canopy. As the forest matures and competition for sunlight increases during the growing season, this community takes on an open, park-like appearance. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES American elm, Ulmus americana; American hornbean, Carpinus caroliniana; Black willow, Salix nigra; Green ash, Fraxinus. pennsylvanica; Overcup oak, Quercus lyrata; River birch, Betula nigra; Swamp chestnut oak, Quercus michauxii; Shumard oak, Quercus shumardii; Sweetgum, Liguidambar styrac1flua; American sycamore, Platanus americana; Water hickory, Carya aquatica; Water oak, nigra; Willow oak, Quercus phellos HERBACEOUS VINES -Crossvine, Bignonia capreolata; Greenbriars, Smilax spp.j Peppervine, Ampelopsis arborea; Poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans; Trumpet creeper, Campsis radicans; Wild grape, Vitis spp. 109

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3. Animals The bottomland hardwood community is diverse in wildlife. Common species include: MAMMALS -Bobcat, deer, flying squirrel, gray fox, gray squirrel, mink, opossum, otter, raccoon, swamp rabbit BIRDS Hawks, owls, songbirds, turkey, woodpeckers REPTILES -Alligator, moccasin canebrake and diamondback rattlesnake, water Information on animals known to occur .in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Probably the most important role of this community as a natural system is that of receiving floodwaters, sediments, pollutants and nutrients and assimilating these into the system through redistribution. The associated riverine system is part of the dynamics of this community and acts as a transport mechanism of organic detritus to receiving estuaries. These communities are valuable recreation and scenic systems with high aesthetic quality. 2. Rangeland The bottomland hardwood community is seldom used for grazing. Cattle use woody species occasionally, but very little forage is available. Overstocking by cattle can reduce reproduction of some woody plants. 3. Wild1ife1and This community hosts a large variety of wildlife. It is well suited for squirrel, deer, and birds such as chickadees and titmice, flycatchers, owls, towhee, turkey, vireos, warbler, cedar waxwing, woodpeckers and wren. The various species of hardwood vegetation provide good food and cover for these wildlife species. This community has a high potential productivity for commercial woodland production on areas with adequate surface drainage. There are severe equipment limitations and seedling mortality due to the poorly to very poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine, loblolly pine, eastern cottonwood, sycamore, and sweetgum are species suitable for planting in areas with adequate surface drainage. Potential annual growth respectively for the first three is 1.5, 1.2 and 0.8 cords per acre. 110

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5. Urbanland This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations for urban development. Elaborate water management systems which include diking are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching, special plants and unusual seeding and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation are a problem in some water management systems. Intensive measures may also be necessary to maintain design capacity. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly, Atlantic white cedar, southern bald cypress, cabbage palm, dahoon holly, dogwood, elm, fringetree, hickory, loblolly bay, redbud, redcedar, red maple, sweetgum, oaks, and willow. Some of the shrubs are American beautyberry, buttonbush, elderberry, sawpalmetto, shining sumac, strawberry bush, swamp privet, and waxmyrtle. The most important urban wiidlife are waterfowl and water adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for all forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community: TREES -Florida torreya, Torreya taxifolia; Florida yew, floridana; Pagoda dogwood, Cornus alternifolia SHRUBS -Needle palm, Rhapidophyllum Orange azalea, Rhododendron austrinum The following endangered and threatened wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS BIRDS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus; Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi; Gray bat, Myotis grisescens; Indiana bat, sodalis Bachman's warbler, Vermivora bachmanii; Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis REPTILES American alligator, Alligator III

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21 SWAMP HARDWOODS 'CA .. I: o 10 20 )0 l 50 W1 .. 1:. c:::i:= J Gulf of Mexico Many smaller swamp hardwood communities occur scattered throughout Florida. Map prepared by U. S', Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apr i 1 1965. U, S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USO"SCSFORT WORTH, TEX"S 1981 112 Atlantic Ocean 'lL ... ltACH I"OWARD FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-21 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Ferns and other shade-tolerant herbaceous plants are found within the interior of a swamp hardwoods ecological commu-. nity. llJ Typical swamp hardwoods. Buttressed trunks of cy press and tupelo are typical sight s in swamp hardwoods. Swamp hardwoods LITe found bordering many streams.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 21 SWAMP HARDWOODS OCCURRENCE The Swamp Hardwood ecological community occurs throughout Florida except for the extreme southeast portion of the state. This community is found bordering rivers and in basins which are either submerged or saturated part of the year. DESCRIPTION The vegetation is primarily deciduous trees. Periodic flooding is characteristic of the community. This community does not include cypress swamps or bottomland hardwood areas. These are in separate ecological communities. Soils associated with this community are nearly level, very poorly drained, dark colored and have coarse to medium textured surfaces underlain by finer textured material or are organic. Representative soils include: Bayboro, Bladen, Bluff, Dorovan, Grady, Mantachie, Myatt, Pantego, and Wesconnett. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soils series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation Swamp hardwood forests are characterized by hardwoods, a high percentage of which are deciduous. Common dominants are red maple, elm, black gum, water tupelo and cypress. Many areas may have originally been dominated by cypress, but when the large cypress were cut out, the hardwoods become predominant. The species composition is largely determined by the kind of soils that occur. Plants that characterize this community are: TREES Bald cypress, Taxodium distichum; Blackgum, Nyssa. sylvatica; Red maple, Acer rubrum; Water tupelo, Nyssa aquatica SHRUBS -Buttonbush, cassing; Cephalanthus occidentalis; Dahoon holly, Ilex HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Cinnamon fern, Osmunda cinnamomea; Lizard's tail, Saururus cernuus; Royal fern, Osmunda Wild pine, fasiculata Other plants that occur in the community are found in Appendix B. 3. Animals Animals found in this community are adapted to wet condieions and must withstand the flooding that occurs periodically. 114

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Dense vegetation provides good cover and food sources. include: Wildlife species MAMMALS -Black bear, bobcat, deer,gray squirrel, mink, otter, raccoon BIRDS -Barred owl, hawks, horned owl, pileated woodpecker, turkey, wood duck, various songbirds REPTILES -Turtles, various snakes Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Periodic flooding is essential to maintain this ecosystem and is the dominant factor for providing needed nutrients. If the system is drained or flooded for an extended length of time, a new community will result. Swamp hardwood areas are of great value for maintaining good water quality and quantity and for wildlife and wilderness values. Water plays an important part in this If the water cycle is maintained, the community will tolerate disturbance, but if the water table is lowered or periodic water is not available, the system will change. the community is highly endangered due to its sensitivity to changes in the water cycle. Practices such as improper channelization, drainage and impoundment are especially damaging. Swamp hardwood forests are natural storage areas for floodwater. They slow the flow of water, improve water quality and gradually feed water to the rivers. These areas also assimilate inorganic and organic waste and reduce pollution levels. Oxygen diffusion is great in the swamp forest because of the large airto-water surface area. The slow movement of the rivers and obstructions also help with the diffusion. Downstream systems, including estuaries, receive energy through detritus from this system. The swamp forest is not a prime area for intensive agricultural or residential development. Costly water management facilities are needed for any use that modifies the existing natural vegetation. Development would destroy the important wildlife and environmental values of this community. Wildlife often use swamp forests for food and cover and for travel lanes between developed areas. 2. Rangeland This community has little or no use as rangeland. 3. Wildlifeland This community hosts a large variety of wildlife. It is especially well suited for waterfowl, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals. Animals found in this community must withstand the flooding which occurs periodically. Gray squirrel, mink, raccoon, and river otter are the most commonly found mammals. Many birds inhabit this area including chickadees and titmice, 115

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yellow-billed cuckoo, wood duck, limpkin, Acadian flycatcher, woodcock, hooded warbler, cedar waxwing, woodpecker, and wren. various species of hardwood vegetation provide good food and cover these wildlife species. 4. Woodland owls, The for These areas are not generally used for commercial woodland production except for limited harvest of hardwoods. However, this community does have a high potential for commercial woodland production on areas with, adequate surface drainage. There are severe equipment limitations and seedling mortality problems due to the poorly to very poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine, loblolly pine, eastern cottonwood, sycamore, and sweetgum are species suitable for planting on areas with adequate surface drainage. Potential annual growth respectively for the first three is 1.5, 1.2 and 0.8 cords per acre. Potential production is 18 percent less for areas south of a line from Hernando County in the west to Orange County in the east. s. Urban land This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques such as mulching, special plants and unusual seeding and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation are a problem in some water management systems. Intensive measures may also be necessary to maintain design capacity. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are American holly, Atlantic white cedar, cabbage palm, loblolly-bay, Eastern red cedar, red maple, sweetgum, sweetbay, water oak, and willow. Some of the shrubs are buttonbush, dahoon holly, elderberry, sawplametto, swamp azalea, swamp privet and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plants are aster, dayflower, iris, pine-lily, and rose-mallow. The most important urban wildlife are waterfowl and water-adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for all forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following threatened or endangered plants may occur in this community: HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES Hanging club moss, Harperocallis flava Dwarf spleenwort, Asplenium Lycopodium dichotomum; Harper's pumilum; beauty, The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS Florida black bear, Ursus americanus floridanus; Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi 116

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BIRDS Bachman's warbler, Vermivora bachmanii; Ivory-billed woodpecker, Campephilus principalis; Bald eagle, Raliaeetus leucocephalus; REPTILES American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis 117

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22 SHRUB BOGS BAY SWAMPS o 10 20 1O 410 -,0 MIL.S 1 Gulf of Mexico Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apri I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE U50 ... SCSFORT WORTH. TEX ... S 1111 118 Shrub Bogs -Bay Swamps occur throughout Florida as relatively small communities, too small to delineate at this scale, particularly within flatwoods Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-22 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Bay swamp in sou th central Florida. 119 Bay swamp seen from a distance. Shrub bog (foreground) with titi trees in west Florida. Titi (Cyrilla racemiflora) is typical of many shrub bogs in west Florida.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 22 SHRUB BOG-BAY SWAMP OCCURRENCE The Shrub Bog-Bay Swamp ecological community occurs throughout Florida, although the dominant plants vary considerably in different areas. The ones dominated by black titi (Cliftonia monophylla) occur primarily in the panhandle area; the ones dominated by white titi (Cyrilla racemiflora) occur all across the northern part of the state; the ones dominated by large gallberry, staggerbush, and sweet occur primarily in the northeastern part of the state; while bay swamps occur throughout the state, with loblolly bay dominating in the northeast, sweet bay in the pandhandle, and mixtures of loblolly, red, and sweet bay in the peninsula. The shrub bogs-bay swamp range in size up to several thousand acres. DESCRIPTION This community may be found perched on hillsides, in depressions in flatwoods, filling ravines, or as linear strips along the edges of swamps. They are usually maintained by seepage from higher land. pine creek The shrub bog-bay swamp ecological community is dominated by evergreen vegetation, occurring on soils with a muck layer. Shrub bogs are predominantly dense masses of evergreen shrubby vegetation seldom exceeding twenty-five feet in height, while bay swamps are forested wetlands dominated by one or two species of evergreen trees. The bay swamp is considered to be a climax community with mature trees, while shrub bogs are in the earlier stages of plant succession. Periodic fire helps to keep some of these areas in this shrub bog or sub-climax stage, especially the titi types. The shrubs have many stems and thick foliage and often appear impenetrable. Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level to gently sloping, acid, somewhat poorly to very poorly drained, sandy or loamy soils adjacent to drainageways that are fed by seepage water. Representative soils are Charlotte, Dorovan Thermic Variant, Pickney, Rutledge and Samsula. Appendix A contain information on correlation on soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natural vegetation of this community is dominated by evergreen shrubs or trees. Several types of each phase are recognized. One type of shrub bog is that dominated primarily by a single species, either black titi or bay. Two other types burn at frequent intervals and form a nearly impenetrable thicket of various shrubs--in some areas these may be dominated by titi (Swamp cyrilla); while in others, mixtures of large gallberry, staggerbush, and sweet pepperbush dominate. The bay swamp may be dominated by sweet bay, loblolly bay, or mixtures of sweet bay, loblolly 120

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bay, and red bay. Scattered slash and pond pine and an occasional cypress are often noticeable, forming a very open canopy over the shrub bogs. In extreme south Florida, small circular bays are common on marl prairies of the Everglades that a're dominated by sweet bay, red bay, willow, cocoplum, Australian pine, and Brazilian pepper. Plants characterizing this community (although occurrence may greatly depending on type and location within the state) are: vary TREES SHRUBS -Atlantic white cedar, Chamaecyparis, thyoides; Blackgum, Nyssa silvatica; Buckwheat trees (Black titi), Cliftonia monophylla; Loblolly bay, Gordonia lasianthus; Pond pine, Pinus serotina; Redbay, Persea borbonia; Slash pine, Pinu. elliotti; Sweetbay, Magnolia virginiana -Black titi (Buckwheat tree), Cliftonia monophylla; Dog-hobble, Leucothoe spp.; Fetterbush, Lyonia lucida; Large gallberry, Ilex coricea; Myrtle-leaved holly, myrtifolia; Summersweet Clethra Titi (Swamp cyrilla), Cyrilla racemiflora HERBACEOUS PLANTS AND VINES -Greenbriars, Smilax spp.; Spaghnum moss, Spaghnum spp. A list of other plants that occur in the community are in Appendix B. 3. Animals Shrub bogs support a variety of wildlife. Most mammals, including bear, use shrub bogs for cover. Wading birds, such as egrets and herons often nest in the trees. Reptiles such as frogs, salamanders, and snakes are common. Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural Shrub bogs are important as fire buffers. Seepage water keeps them almost constantly wet and they protect adjoining swamps from fire during dry periods. They act as small reservoirs by receiving seepage water and metering it out in a small but steady supply. Drainage of the bog or immediately upslope will strongly modify or destroy these environments. Shrub bogs are aesthetically pleasing. 2. Rangeland, This community has little or no use as rangeland. protection for cattle during wet, cold weather. 3. Wildlifeland It does offer This community's primary value to game animals is the escape cover furnished to deer, turkey, and quail by the thick growth. This cover is also important to the black bear and Florida panther. Shrub bogs provide 121

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good habitat for a variety of frogs, salamanders, and crayfish and predatory snakes and raccoons. Wading birds, particularly in south Florida, find this community valuable as safe roosting or nesting habitat. 4. Woodland These areas are not generally used for commercial wood production, except for limited harvest of hardwoods. However, this community does have a high to moderate potential for commercial wood production on areas with adequate surface drainage. There are severe equipment limitations and seedling mortality problems due to the poorly to very poorly drained soil conditions. Slash pine, loblolly pine, eastern cottonwood, American sycamore, and sweetgum are species suitable for planting on areas with adequate surface drainage in north and central Florida. Potential annual growth respectively for the first three are 1.5, 1.2, and 0.8 cords per acre. Potential production is 18 percent less for areas south of a line from Hernando County in the west and Orange County in the east. This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations for urban development. Elaborate water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile soil. Special techniques such as mulching, special plants and unusual seeding and management techniques may be required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation are a problem in some water management systems. Intensive measures may also be necessary to maintain design capacity. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are Atlantic white cedar, dahoon, American holly, loblolly bay, slash pine, and sweetbay magnolia. Some of the shrubs are but tonbush elderberry, holly, and southern waxmyrtle. Some of the herbaceous plans are aster, and iris. The most important urban wildlife are waterfowl and water-adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for most forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS_ The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community: SHRUBS Chapman's rhododendron, Rhododendron chapmanii HERBS -Harper's beauty, Harperocallis flava The following threatened or endangered wildlife species may be found in or around this community: MAMMALS -Everglades mink, Muste1a vison evergladensis.; Florida black bear, Ursus floridanus; Florida panther, Felis conco lor coryi 122

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23 PITCHER PLANT BOGS SCAL.E to 10 30 Gulf of Mexico Most common in northwest Florida; west of Levy County on the Gulf of Mexico and St. Johns County on the Atlantic Ocean. Commu nities are usually less than 100 acres in sIze. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census. 1960. Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 123 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4R-23 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L

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124 Srattered pine and pitcher plants in a g rassland area are typical of pitcher p lant bogs. Pitcher plants characterize this ecological community.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 23 PITCHER PLANT BOGS OCCURRENCE The Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological community occurs primarily in north Florida. They are most Common in northwest Florida just inland from the coast. Individual communities vary in size but are usually no more than 100 acres. DESCRIPTION This community appears as an open expanse,of grasses, sedges, and pitcher plants with scattered, stunted pine and cypress. At times, the bogs are flamboyant with wild flowers. There is a predominance of insect-eating plants, dominated by pitcher plants. The erect "trumpets" of these spectacular plants protrude up through the grasses and sedges. The community occupies generally flat areas or seepage hillsides. Water frequently stands on the surface. 1. Soils Soils commonly associated with the community are nearly level to sloping, deep, acid, poorly or very po'orly drained, and developed from sandy or sandy and loamy materials. Representative soils are Mulat and Rutledge. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natura'! vegetation of this community is low-growing grasses and herbaceous plants with scattered trees or shrubs. There is a predominance of pitcher plants. Plants which characterize this community are: TREES SHRUBS Slasn pine, Pinus elliottii -Waxmyrtle, Myrica cerifera; Myrtle-leaved holly, Ilex cassine var. myrtifolia HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Hat pin sedge, Eriocaulon spp.; Pitcher-plant, Sarracenia spp.; Rush featherling, Pleea tenuifolia; Sundews, Drosera spp. GRASSES -Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum muhlenbergianum; Florida threeawn, Aristida rhizomophora; Pineland Aristida stricta; Toothachegrass, Ctenium aromaticum; Warty panicum, Panicum verrucosum A list of other plants that occur in the community is in Appendix B. 3. Animals This community is characterized by a low diversity of wildlife. The fauna is not well known but is largely burrowing, such as crayfish, earthworms, 125

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and salamanders. Herb bogs are excellent areas for obtaining earthworms. Some other species that occur are: MAMMALS -Armadillo, deer, raccoon BIRDS Meadowlark, little kestrel, marsh hawk, bobwhite quail REPTILES -Coral snake, Florida brown snake, garter snake" ringneck' snake Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Pitcher Plant bogs are maintained by very high water tables and frequent fire. Fire is necessary to invasion by shrubs and succession to shrubs bogs. Elimination of fire will destroy this rare ecosystem. This wetland is unique in the predominance of insect-eating plants. It is a valuable water storage area. In addition, this wetland has high aesthetic, educational, and scientific values. They are rapidly being destroyed by drainage and for the planting of pine or improved pasture. 2. Rangeland This ecological community has the potential for producing significant amounts of high quality forage.. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant materials varies from 5,000 to 10,000 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 3 to 13+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages available. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 80 percent grasses and grasslike plants,S percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent herbs. 3. Wildlife land This community is one of the least productive for wildlife, probably due to the low diversity of plant species and growth forms, which limits food and cover. It provides fair habitat for white-tailed deer and bobwhite quail. It is also suited for raccoons, armadillos, and open grass-country birds. 4. Woodland This is not generally recommended for woodland. 5. Urbanland This community is subject to high water tables and has severe limitations for urban development. Intensive and complex water management systems are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoils. Special techniques are usually required in these situations. Without vegetation, erosion and 126

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sedimentation is often a problem. Wind erosion can also be a severe problem, especially in the spring, on unvegetated areas. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the trees are bald cypress, pond pine, slash pine, and sweetbay magnolia. Some of the shrubs are myrtleleaved holly, and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbs are aster, cone flowers, iris, pitcher plants, marsh pink, meadowbeauty, and sunflower. The most important urban wildlife is birds. Undisturbed areas provide good escape cover and travel routes for most forms of wildlife. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS The following endangered and threatened plants may occur in this community; HERBACEOUS Harper's beauty, Harperocallis f1avaj'White-top pitcherplant, Sarracenia leucophylla The following endangered or threatened animals may be found or around this community: BIRDS -Southeastern kestrel, Falco sparverius paulus 127

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24 SAWGRASS MARSH CI c: ::.i I '0 Gulf SCAL-E 20 30 of .0 SO M'LoI: I Mexico I'OlK Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of April 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SC5-FORT WORTH, TEXAS Hili' 128 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-24 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4L-25770

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Sawgrass marsh i n Ever.g l a des National: Park. Sawgrass, this conununity 129 This community appears as an open expanse of sawgrass in marshy area.

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COMMUNITY NO. 24 .. SAWGRASS MARSH OCCURRENCE The Sawgrass Marsh ecological community occurs south of Lake Okeechobee in the area known as the Everglades. Individual vary widely in size. The large communities are many thousands of acres in size. Smaller sawgrass marsh areas outside the Everglades are included in Ecological Community No. 25 -Freshwater Marsh and Ponds. DESCRIPTION This community appears as an open expanse of sawgrass in an area where the soil is saturated or covered with surface water during part tne year. 1. -Soils Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level and very poorly drained with marly or organic surfaces underlain by limestone. Representative soils are Hialeah, Loxahatchee, Ochopee, Pahokee and Plantation. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. 2. Vegetation The natural vegetation of this community is dominated by sawgrass. Muhly grass increases and become obvious when the sawgrass is repeatedly exposed to fire and the hydroperiod is shortened. With natural conditions, the vigorous sawgrass is 6 to 10 feet tall and of such density that few other plants can survive. Other marsh plants invade the sawgrass where marginal conditions occur for sawgrass growth. These conditions include shallow organic soils and areas where the period of water submergence is short. Trees are not characteristic of this community, but a few may occur on the banks of gator holes. Plants that characterize this community are: GRASSES -Gulf muhly, Muhlenbergia capillaris var. filipes; Jamaica sawgrass, Cladium jamaicense; Plume grass, Erianthus spp. HERBACEOUS -Pickerelweed, Pontederia cordata and Pontederia lanceolata Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix B. 3. Animals Numerous birds use this community for wintering or year snails, and crayfish are common and serve as food for Animals that commonly occur in this community include: MAMMALS Deer 130 round. larger Frogs, animals.

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BIRDS Red-winged blackbirds, egrets, herons, ibis, bitterns, kites REPTILES Water snakes, alligator Information on animals know to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System The sawgrass marshes serve as filter systems for water. They protect natural bodies of water from eutrophication. Marshes will retain water during drought and also help slow down water at flood times. Their principal environmental values are related to water quality and quantity. Tall, dense sawgrass occurs in deep organic soils and requires water coverage of the rhizomes for most of the year. It also forms extensive, but shorter and less dense stands on marl soils in south Florida. Drainage, organic soils subsidence, and fires have reduced the amount of sawgrass and promoted the growth of other plants in many areas. The sawgrass community is one of the most resistant communities to change under natural conditions. Fires and water quantity reduction can completely alter the communities' characteristics within 10 to 20 years. 2. Wildlife land This community provides excellent habitat for many birds, especially wading birds and water fowl. It is also well suited for alligators and snakes. 3. Woodland This community is not generally recommended for woodland. 4. Urbanland This community is subject to very high water tables and has severe limitations for urban Intensive and complex water management systems 'are required for urban uses. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Special techniques are usually required in these situations. Without vegetation, erosion and sedimentation can become a problem. Much of the sawgrass marsh is now included in the Everglades National park and is not available for urban uses. ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMALS Threatened or endangered plants do not normally occur in this community. Threatened or endangered animals that may occur in sawgrass marsh communities included: 131

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MAMMALS BIRDS Everglades mink, Mustela vison evergladensis; Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi Snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis Wood stork, Mycteria americana REPTILES American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis 132

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25 FRESHWATER' MARSH SCAL-It 'i=t='XO=ZiO=::;30=:::ili:::=:::l'r M'L-1tS Gulf of Mexico Numerous small communities are scattered throughout Florida. Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apr i I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USOA-SCS-FORT WORTH, TEXAS '98' 133 Atlantic Ocean FEBRUARY 1981 4-R-36720-25 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Freshwater marshes are covered with wate r most of the 13 4 Freshwater marsh of sawgrass, C l adium cens e (background) and herbaceous plants. Distant view of a freshwater marsh in Polk County.

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,,""0" _10_"

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 25 FRESHWATER MARSH AND PONDS The Fl:eshwater Marsh and Pondo ecological community occurs throughout Florida. Individual communities vary widely in size. The largest communities, several thousaod aCl:es in si:l:e. generally occur in southeast Florida. This community appears as an open expanse of grssses. sedges, and rushes, and othel: hel:baceous plants in an areas wher", the soil i9 usually saturated or covered with surface water for two or more montho during the year. The extensive sawgrasB mal:Bh that occurs in the Everglades is not included within community, but smaller sawgrass areas are. Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level and very poorly drained with coal:se textured or organic surfaces underlain by clay or sand. Representative soils are Basinger depressional, Brightoo. Charlotte ponded, Dania, Everglades, Felda depressional, Iberia, KaJiga, Lauderhill, Monteverde, Micco, Ocoee. Okeechobee, Sanibel, Tequesta, and Torry. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the ecological community. Within Florida, eight major different types of freshwatl!r marshes have been described. Anyone marsh may be composed of sections of different major types. There is also intergrading of these types. The types are: include: Flag marshes dominated by pickerelweed, SawgrasB marshes, Arrowhead marshes, Fire flag and other non-grass herbs msrsh. Cattail marsh, Spike-rush marsh, Bulrush marsh, and Maidencane marsh that characterize this community (depending on type or marsh) GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS -Beak rushes, Rhychosponl spp.; Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum wuhlenbergianum; Bottlebrush threeawn. Bulrushes, Scirpus spp.; Carie sedges, Csrex app.; Clubhell.d cutgrass, ComlOOn reed, Phragmites spp.; Flat sedge, Cyperus spp.; Maidencane, Panicum hemitomon; Rush, Junclls app.; Sawgrsss, Clsdium jamaicense; Spike rushes, spp.; Umbrella grass, Fuirena spp.; Wild millet, Echinocloa spp.; HERBACEOUS PLANTS -Arrowhead, Saggitaris spp.; Blue flag, Iris hexagona oavannar,!!!!!.; Cattail, 1:RhA spp.; Fire flag, Thalia 137

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Picken-h,reed, Pontederia .fQdata _and Pontrleria lanceolats; Smartweed. Polygonum spp.; Pennywort. Hydrocotll! spp. -St. Johns wort, HypericU!l spp.; Primrose willow, lJ.Jdwigia spp.; Elderberry, Sambucus Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix B. 3. Animals The freshwater marshes aod ponds provide excl!llent habitats for many wildlife species. Numerous birds Bod waterfowl use this community for wintering or year-round. Animals that commonly occur in this community MAMMALS Otter, mink, raccoon, marsh rabbit, white-tailed deer, Florida -Herons, egrets, bitterns, ibis, sandhill cranes, rails, limpkins, gallinules, snipe, killdeer, Florida duck, red-winged blackbrids, caracara, marsh hawk, red-shouldered hawk, swallow tailed kite REPTILES Amphiuma, dwarf salamander, sirens, frogs (cricket frogs, bullfrog, leopard frog), turtles {mud turtle, red-bellied turtle, chicken turtle}, snakes, (horn, water, swamp, brown, cottonmouth, ribbon), alligator Information on animals know to occur in "pecific ecological communities i" in Appendix C. The freshwater marshes and ponds serve as a filter system for rivers and lakes. This protects the rivers and lakl!s from eutrophication and provides the marsh with nutrients that are used in the vegetative growth. Marshes will retain water during drought and large manhes also help slow down water flows at flood times. Fire snd water level fluctuation are the major factors affecting these wetland areaS. Variations in the water patterns on the marsh will change the plant diversity and productivity. Marsh-prairie systems will eventually move to a woody com.munity with exclusion of fire or with pennanent and lower water level changes. The freshwater marsh community is highly endangered. Many have been destroyed or at least degraded. S01lle examples of areaS where drainage has occurred for reclamation of land and for agricultural interests are: The Everglades. Kissimmee River marshes. Lake Isotokpoga marsh, and the upper St. Johns River marsh. Recreational uses of this community may cause much di"turoance. In fact, recreational vehicles, when used a great deal, will change the plant community found in the area.

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2. Rangeland ThiB eco10gic,\1 community has the potentisl for producing significant amounts of high quality forage. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant materials varies frum 5.000 to 10,000 pound per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 3 to 13+ acres are u5ually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forages available. The relative percentage of annual vegetative production by weight is 80 percent grasses and grssslike plants, 5 percent trees and shrubs, and 15 percent herbs. This corrnnunity providea excellent habitat for may wetland wildlife species. It includes sevE'ral endangE'red speciE'S. Many birds use this community year-round and/or for wintering. This cnrrnnunity iR not recommended for comtnercial woodland unless drainage has been provided. 5. Urhanland This community is subject to periodic flooding and has severe limitations for urbsll development. Elaborate water management systems are required for urban arE'BS. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile spoil. Specisl techniques sucb as mulching, special plants and unusual seeding and management techniques are often required. Without vegetation, erosion and sedilI\E'ntation may become a problem. Intensive measures way also be necessary to maintaiu design capacity. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum estahlishlI\E'nt and maintenance. Some of the trees are buttonbush, coastal plain willow. and persimmon. Some of the shrubs are elderberry and waxmyrtle. Some of the herbs are golden canna, cardinal flower. cone flower, rose-mallow, iris, marsh pink, and meadowbeauty. Tbe most important urban wildlife are wading birds, waterfowl, fish, and water-adapted reptiles and mammals. Undisturbed areas provide excellent cover and travel rout'B for all forms of wildlife. Threatened or endangered animals include: -Everglades mink, Key Vaca raccoon, lotor auspicatY.! (middle Florida KeyS only); Silver rice rut, Oryzomys argentat!!..!!. BIRDS -Cape Sable seaside sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus mirabilisj Crested caracara, Polyborus plancus; Florida sandhill crane, ni.!. canadensis'pw'w'u'!; Snail kite, Wood stork. american,! 139

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REPTILES American alligator, Alligator missis.jppiensi.; Florida ribbon snake, Thamnophis s8uritis (Keys population only); Key mud turtle, MID. (Keys population only)

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26 SLOUGH SCAL-It o 10 20 30 .., 50 MIL-ItS I I I I I Gulf of Mexico Occurs mostly in South Florida Flatwoods communi ties south of Citrus County on the Gulf of Mexico and St. Johns County on the Atlantic Ocean. OKALOOSA WALTOH JACKSON I V CALHOUN; I -J 1----. I : I I , I \ } Map prepared by U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of The Census, 1960, Corrected as of Apri I 1965. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE USDA-SCS-FORT WORTH. TEXAS 1911 141 OllAHGl GLADU HENDIIY COLLlEII Atlantic Ocean PALM llACH llIOWAIID DADE FEBRUAR Y 1981 4-R-36720-26 FEBRUARY 1968 BASE 4-L-25770

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Sloughs typically occur as relatively narrow drainage ways interspersed thTClugh south Florida [lutwClCld 11.2 A typical slough of south Florida presents un open vista, domina ted hy grasses and sedges. Sand cordgrass, SpRTt1na baker!, t" COlOmOIl OIl o:;:;ergrazedsloIlgh,'ire.'lR.

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY NO. 26 SLOUGH The Slough ecological community occurs throughout central and south but especially in the latter. Individual communities vary widely Most serve as drainageways for water during periods of heavy and rainfall. This community occurs mostly within the south Florida ecological community. DESCRIPTION Florida, in size. prolonged flatwoods This community appears as an open expanse of grasses, sedges, and rushes in an areas where the soil is saturated during the rainy season. Most sloughs are relatively long and narrow and slightly lower in elevation than the surrounding flatwoods or hammocks. Soils commonly associated with this community are nearly level and poorly drained with coarse textured surfaces underlain by clay or sand. Representative soils are: Anclote, Arze11, Basinger, Charlotte, Placid, and Pop1e. Appendix A contains information on correlation of soil series with the appropriate ecological community. Grasses are the most common plants found in sloughs. Sedges and rushes also occur, with scattered shrubs in some locations. Plants that characterize this community are: SHRUBS St. Peters wort, stans HERBACEOUS -Pickerel weed, Pontederia cordata; Sundew, Drosera spp.; Marsh pink, Sabatia spp.; Meadowbeauty, Rhexia spp.; Mi1kwort, Polygala spp.; Yellow-eyed grass, !YJis spp. GRASSES AND GRASSLIKE PLANTS Beak rushes, Rhynchospora spp; Blue maidencane, Amphicarpum muh1enbergianum; B1uejoint panicum, Panicum tenerum; Bott1ebrush threeawn, Aristida spiciformis; Panicum, Dichanthe1ium dichotomum; Low panicum, spp.; Sand cordgrass, Spartina bakeri; Sloughgrass, spp.; Soft rush, Juncus effusus Information about plants which occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix B. 3. Animals Sloughs are host to a diverse wildlife population. occur where sloughs join flatwoods and hammocks. sloughs are: 143 Many larger animals Typical animals of the

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MAMMALS BIRDS REPTILES -Bobcat, deer, gray fox, marsh rabbit, opoSSum, cotton rat, raccoon Bobwhite quail, cranes, egrets, herons, ibis, meadowlark, red-shouldered hawks, snipe Cottonmouth moccasin, eastern diamondback rattlesnake, pigmy rattlesnake, ringneck snake, yellow rat snake AMPHIBIANS -Frogs (chorus, cricket, grass, pig), salamanders Information on animals known to occur in specific ecological communities is in Appendix C. LAND USE INTERPRETATIONS 1. Environmental Value as a Natural System Sloughs serve as natural drainageways during high water periods. As such, they have great value in improving water quality by natural processes. They also retain water, help slow down water flows, and thereby increase water quantity and improve water quality. Fire and artificial water level fluctuations are the major factors affecting these areas. Variations in the natural sequences of either event will change the slough's diversity and productivity. With the exclusion of fire or permanent water level reduction, the plant succession will be to a wooded community. Native forage production is good with proper management. Use for rangeland has only a slight effect on the community if properly managed. The community has good wildlife values, especially with proper management. The installation of water control practices have facilitated the use of some sloughs for improved pasture, vegetables, and citrus. 2. Rangeland This ecological community has the potential for producing significant amounts of high quality forage such as blue maidencane, chalky bluestem and bluejoint panicum. For sites in excellent condition, the average annual production of air dry plant material varies from 3,000 to 6,000 pounds per acre. This variation depends on plant growth conditions. From 4 to 16+ acres are usually needed per animal unit depending upon amount and type of forage available. The relative percentages of annual vegetative production by weight is 85 percent grasses and grasslikes plants, 15 percent herbaceous plants. 3. Wildlifeland This community is productive in regards to food for bobwhite quail, deer, and wading birds. Its low growing vegetative growth provides poor cover for most wildlife species, but this is often offset by the "edge effect" of this community when it is located with flatwoods. 4. Woodland 144

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This community is not recommended for commercial woodland unless water control measures are provided. 5. Urban land. This community is subject to high water tables, especially during the rainy seasons. This causes limitations for urban development and water management systems are required. It is often difficult to establish vegetation on steep channel side slopes and infertile soils. Special planting and management techniques may be required. Without adequate vegetation, erosion and sedimentation is usually a problem. Severe wind erosion can also occur, especially in the spring. Native plants can be used for beautification and require minimum establishment and maintenance. Some of the shrubs are sawplametto and waxmyrtle. Some of herbaceous plants are aster, cone flower, iris, marsh pink, and meadowbeauty. The most important urban wildlife Undisturbed areas are important as wildlife. are songbirds refuge areas ENDANGERED AND THREATENED PLANTS AND ANIMAL. Threatened or endangered animals include: MAMMALS -Florida panther, Felis concolor coryi and wading birds. for many forms of BIRDS Dusky seaside sparrow (Brevard County only), Ammodramus maritimus nigriscens.; Florida sandhill crane, Grus canadensis pratensis 145

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ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES-CLIMATIC ZONES FLORIDA Atlantic Ocean. N 1 Mexico ----SOUTH TROPICAL 146 .JtTNE1978

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APPENDIX A CORRELATION OF COMMUNITY OCCURRENCE BY SOIL SERIES

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Ecological community occurrence is dependent on several environmental factors; however, within a specific area, the type of soil is most influential. The following table lists the soil series presently mapped in Florida with the ecoLogical community (or communities) found on each series. Some series are found with only one community type, while others may support several communities; however, where more than one community has been found, the change can usually be attributed to plant successional stages or regional location differences within the state. For example, if the influence of fire were to be diminished in a pine flatwoods area, it would be expected to move, through plant succession, to a hardwoods-dominated community. Another example would be a soil such as Albany, which supports a Mixed Hardwood and Pine community in the Florida panhandle, but an Upland Hardwood Hammock community in northeast Florida. These are similar hardwood communities, differing primarily by the dominant oak species in the locations. i

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Appendix A CORRELATION OF SOIL SERIES WITH ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY Soil Series Mapping Symbol Adamsville Adamsville thermic variants Alaga Alapaha Allanton Albany Alluvial Alpin Anclote Anclote, depressional I Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods Hardwood Hammocks 15-0ak Hammock 7-North Florida Flatwoods 15-0ak Hammock 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 21-Swamp Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland hardwood Hammocks 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 4-Longlea Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 21-Swamp Hardwoods 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Anclote, thermic variant Anclote, Tomoka Association Angie Ankona Ankona, depressional Apalachee Apopka Archbold Archer Ardilla Aripeka 2 Ecological Community 2l-Swamps Hardwoods 26-Slough 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 26-Slough 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 6-South Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills II-Upland Hardwood Hammock 3-Sand Pine Scrub II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 13-Cabbage Palm Hammocks

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Arrendondo Astatula Astor Bakersville Barth Basinger Basinger, depressional Bayboro Bayvi 3 Ecological Community 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 5-Mixed Hardwood Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 5-Mixed Hardwood Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 3-Sand Pine Scrub 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 17-Cypress Swamp 26-Slough 21-Swamp Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 26-S1ough 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods IS-Salt Marsh

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Beaches Benndale Bessie Bethera Bibb, Bibb -Association Bigbee Binnsville Bivans Bladen Bladen, ponded Blanton 4 Ecological Community I-North Florida Coastal Strand 2-South Florida Coastal Strand .5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 19-Mangrove Swamps I2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 7-North Florida Flatwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks

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Soil Series Blichton Bluff Boardman Boca Boca, depressional Boca, slough Boca, tidal Bohicket Bonifay Bonneau Boswell Bowie Mapping Symbol 5 Ecological Community II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 21-Swamp Hardwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 6-South Florida Flatwoods 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 26-Slough 8-Salt Marsh 18-Salt Marsh 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Braden Bradenton Brighton Broward Bulow Bushnell Cadillac Caloosa Canaveral Candler Canova 6 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 13-Cabbage Palm Hammocks 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks Man Made I-North Florida Coastal Strand 2-South Florida Coastal Strand 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Captiva Carnegie Cassia Centenary Chaires Charlotte Charlotte, thermic variant Charlotte, ponded Chewacla Chiefland Chipley Chipoia 7 Ecological Community 26-Slough 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 3-Sand Pine Scrub 6-South Florida Flatwoods 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 7-North Florida Flatwoods 26-Slough 22-Shrub Bog 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 2I-Swamp Hardwoods 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Chobee Clarendon Coastal dunes Cocoa Compass Congaree Copeland Cornelia Corolla Cowarts 8 EcolQ&ical Community 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine I-North Florida Coastal Strand 2-South Florida Coastal Strand 4-Longlea Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 4-Longlea Pine-Turkey Oak Hills I-North Florida Coastal Strand 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Coxville Croatan Cuthbert Dade Dania Daytona '/DeLand Delks Delray Denaud Dirego Dorovan 9 Ecological Community 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 9-Everglades Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 3-Sand Pine Scrub 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 6-South Florida Flatwoods l7-Cypress Swamp 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds IS-Salt Marsh 21-Swamp Hardwoods 22-Shrub Bog

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Soil Series Dothan Ducks ton Duette Dunbar Duplin Durbin Eaton Eaton. depressional EauGallie EauGallie. depressional Ebro Eglin Mapping Symbol 10 Ecological Community 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 2-North Florida Coastal Strand 3-Sand Pine Scrub 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine IS-Salt Marsh 6-South Florida Flatwoods 17-Cypress Swamp 6-South Florida Flatwoods 15-0ak Hammocks 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 21-Swamp Hardwoods 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Electra Electra, thermic variant Ellzey Elred Emera Ida Escambia Estero Esto Eulonia Eureka Eureka, ponded Everglades 11 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 7-North Florida Flatwoods IS-Salt Marsh 19-Mangrove Swamp 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 22-Shrub Bog 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Facevi1le Farmton Felda Felda, depressional Fellowship Flemington Florahome Florala Floridana variants and phases Fluvaquents Ft. Drum 12 Ecological Community 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 6-South Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 26-Slough 5-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 17-Cypress Swamp II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks II-Upland Hardwood Hammock 5-Mixed Hardwood Pines 7-North Florida Flatwoods l7-Cypress Swamp 2I-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Ft. Drum, thermic variant Ft. Green Ft. Meade Foxworth Freshwater Marsh Freshwater Swamp Fripp Fuquay Gainesville Galveston Garcon 13 Ecological Community 7-North Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 15-0ak Hammock ll-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 21-Swamp Hardwoods 2-North Florida Coastal Strand 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ll-Upland Hardwood Hammocks I-North Florida Coastal Strand 7-North Florida Flatwoods

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Gator Gentry Gilead Goldsboro Grady Greenville Gritney Gullied Land Gunter Hague Hague, thermic variant 14 Ecological Community 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 17-Cypress Swamp 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine N/A 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks

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Hallandale Hallandale, depressional Hallandale, slough Hallandale, tidal 6-South Florida Flatwoods 9-Everglades Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 26-Slough IS-Salt Marsh 19-Mangrove Swamps ----.-----------------------------------.----.------.--'--Hallandale, thermic variant 7-North Florida Flatwoods Handsboro IS-Salt Marsh Hannahatchee 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine ._-----_ .. _----------------------Heights 6-South Florida Flatwoods Hernando II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks Herod 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks Hobe 3-Sand Pine Scrub Hialeah 24-Sawgrass Marsh 15

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Soil Series Hilolo j Holopaw ,I Holopaw depressional Homosassa Mapping Symbol Ecological Community l3-Cabbage Palm Hammocks 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 26-Slough 17-Cypress Swamps 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 18-Salt Marsh -----------------------------------------------------------------------------J Hontoon Hornsville Huckabee Hurricane Hydraquents Iberia Ichetucknee 16 21-Swamp Hardwood 22-Shrub Bog 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 19-Mangrove Swamps 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks

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Soil Series v Immokalee V'Immokalee, thermic variant j Immokalee, depressional Irvington Isles Isles, depressional Isles, tidal Istokpoga Iuka soils, local alluvium Izagora Johns Johnston Mapping Symbol 17 6-South Florida Flatwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 26-Slough l7-Cypress Swamp 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 19-Mangrove Swamps 22-Shrub Bog 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 21-Swamp Hardwoods

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Jonathan Jonesville Jumper Jupiter Kaliga Kaliga variant (tidal) Kalmia Mapping Symbol Ecological Community 3-Sand Pine Scrub -------------------4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 19-Mangrove Swamp S-Mixed Hardwood and Pine Kanapaha Kenansville Kendrick Kenny 18 II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks IS-Oak Hammock S-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Kershaw Kesson Kinston Klej Kureb Lacoochee Lake Lakeland Lakewood Lauderhill Lawnwood 19 Ecological Community 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 18-Salt Marsh 19-Mangrove Swamp 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 3-Sand Pine Scrub 18-Salt Marsh 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 3-Sand Pine Scrub 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods

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Leaf Ledwith Leefield Leon Leon, ponded Local alluvial land, and local alluvial land, phosphatic Lochloosa Lokosee Loxahatchee Lucy Lumbee Mapping Symbol 20 Ecological Community 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds S-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds S-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks IS-Oak Hammocks 6-South Florida Flatwoods I2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 26-Slough 24-Sawgrass Marsh S-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Lutterloh Lynchburg Lynee Lynn Haven Mabel Magnolia Malabar Malabar, depressional Malbis Manatee Mandarin Mangrove Swamp 21 Ecological Community 7-North Florida Flatwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammock 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 6-South Florida Flatwoods 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 17-Cypress Swamp 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 3-Sand Pine Scrub 7-North Florida Flatwoods 19-Mangrove Swamps

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Mantachee Mantachee, overflow Margate Marlboro Martel Masaryk Mascotte Matlacha Matmon Maurepas Maxton 22 Eco lo.e;..}.cal COlllmunity 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 22-Shrub Bog 16-Scrub Cypress 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 17-Cypress Swamp 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills II-Upland Hardwood Hammock 7-North Florida Flatwoods Man Made 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks Swamp 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine

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Soil Series Meggett Meggett, hyperthermic variant Meggett, ponded Mckee Micanopy Micco Miccosukee .,/ Millhopper Montverde Monteocha Moultrie Mulat Mapping Symbol Ecological Community 7-North Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 6-South Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 19-Mangrove Swamps II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 17-Cypress Swamp IS-Salt Marsh 7-North Florida Flatwoods 23-Pitcher Plant Bog

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Myakka Myakka, depressional Myakka, tidal Myatt Narcoosee Nittaw Norfolk Nobleton Nettles Nettles, depressional Newhan Newnan 24 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds IS-Salt Marsh 21-Swamp Hardwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods IS-Oak Hammock 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds S-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks IS-Oak Hammocks 6-South Florida Flatwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds I-North Florida Coastal Strand II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks

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Soil Series Nittaw Nutall Ochopee Ocilla Ocilla, hyperthermic variant Ocoee Okeechobee Okeelanta Okeelanta variant (tidal) Okalwaha Oktibbeha Mapping Symbol 25 Ecological Community 2l-Swamp Hardwood l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 24-Sawgrass Marsh 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 19-Mangrove Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Oldsmar Oldsmar. aepres s iona 1 Oleno Olustee Ona Ona, depressional Orangeburg Orlando Orsino Ortega Osier 26 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 12-Wetland hardwood Hammock 7-North Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods IO-Cutthroat Seeps 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 3-Sand Pine Scrub 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 7-North Florida Flatwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods

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Soil Series Pactolus Pahokee Paisley Palm Beach Palmetto Palmetto, depressional Pamlico Pansey Pantego Pantego, ponded -/ Paola Mapping Symbol 27 Ecological Community S-Mixed Hardwood Pine IS-Oak Hammocks 24-Sawgrass Marsh 6-South Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland hardwood Hammocks 2-South Florida Coastal Strand 6-South Florida Flatwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 21-Swamp Hardwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods l7-Cypress Swamp 2S-Swamp Hardwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 3-Sand Pine Scrub

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Soil Series Parkwood Peckish Pedro Pelham Pelham, hyperthermic variant Pelham, ponded Pellicer Pendarvis Pennekamp Pennsuco Pennsuco, tidal Mapping Symbol 28 Ecological Community 12-Wetland hardwood Hammocks I3-Cabbage Palm Hammocks IS-Oak Hammocks 19-Mangrove Swamp II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 7-North Florida Flatwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 2I-Swamp Hardwoods 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds I8-Salt Marsh 3-Sand Pine Scrub 14-Tropical Hammocks 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds I9-Mangrove Swamp

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Pepper Perrine Perrine, variant (tidal) Pickney Pineda Pineda, depressional Pineda, thermic variant Pinellas Placid Plantation Plummer 29 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 18-Salt Marsh 19-Mangrove Swamp 22-Shrub Bog 6-South Florida Flatwoods 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 26-Slough 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 26-Slough 24-Sawgrass Marsh l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammock

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Pocomoke Pomello Pomnoa Pomona, thermic variant Pomona, depressional Pompano J Pompano, flooded Pompano, depressional Pompano, variant (tidal) Ponzer Pooler Popash 30 Ecological Community 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 3-Sand Pine Scrub 6-South Florida Flatwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods l7-Cypress Swamp 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 26-Slough l7-Cypress Swamp 2l-Swamp Hardwoods l7-Cypress Swamp 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 19-Mangrove Swamp 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds

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Soil Series Pople Portsmouth Potts burg Punta Rains Red Bay Redlevel Resota Ridgeland Ridgeland, ponded Riverview JRivl.era Mapping Symbol 31 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 26-Slough l2-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 7-North Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 6-South Florida Flatwoods 3-Sand Pine Scrub 7-North Florida Flatwoods l7-Cypress Swamp 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 8-Cabbage Palm Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 26-Slough

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Riviera, depressional Robertsdale Rockdale Rockland Ruston Rut lege St. Augustine St. Johns St. Johns, thermic variant St. Johns, depressional St. Lucie 32 Ecological Community l6-Scrub Cypress l7-Cypress Swamps 2l-Cypress Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 9-Everglades Flatwoods 24-Sawgrass Marsh 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine l7-Cypress Swamp 2l-Swamp Hardwoods 22-Shrub Bog 23-Pitcher Plant Bog Man Made 6-South Florida Flatwoods lO-Cutthroat Seeps 7-North Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 3-Sand Pine Scrub

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Soil Series Salerno / Samsula Sanibel Sapelo Satellite Savannah Sawyer Seffner Scoggin Scranton Seewee Symbol 33 Ecological Community 6-South Florida Flatwoods 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 22-Shrub Bog 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 7-North Florida Flatwoods 2-South Florida Coastal Strand 3-Sand Pine Scrub 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland hardwood Hammock 15-0ak Hammock 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 7-North Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Sellers Shenks Shubuta Slickens and variants Smyrna Sparr Stilson Stockade Stough Submerged Marsh Sumterville Sunsweet 34 Ecological Community17-Cypress Swamp 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 2I-Swamp Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds II-Upland Hardwood Hammock 15-0ak Hammock 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Surrency Susanna Susquehanna Swamp Talquin Tantile Tarrytown Tavares Tequesta Terra Ceia Terra Ceia, tidal 35 Ecological Community 17-Cypress Swamp 21-Swamp Hardwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 21-Swamp Hardwoods 7-North Florida Flatwoods 6-South Florida Flatwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammock 15-0ak Hammock 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 15-0ak Hammocks 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds IS-Salt Marsh 19-Mangrove Swamps

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Soil Series Tifton Tisonia Tocoi Tomoka Tooles Torry Troup Turnbull Tuscawilla Typic fluvaquents Valkaria Valkaria, depressional Map_ping Symbol 36 Ecological Community 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 18-Salt Marsh 6-South Florida Flatwoods 21-Swamp Hardwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 4-Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills 18-Salt Marsh 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 21-Swamp Hardwoods 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds

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Soil Series Vaucluse, hyperthermic variant Vero Vero, depressional Wabasso Wabasso, depressional Wabasso, thermic variant Wacahoota Wagram Wahee Wakulla Wauberg Wauchula Mapping Symbol 37 Ecological Community II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 6-South Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammock 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 7-North Florida Flatwoods II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 20-Bottomland Hardwoods 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods 26-Slough

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Soil Series Wauchula, depressional Waveland Waveland, depressional Weekiwachee Welaka Wesconnett Weston, dark subsoil variant Wicks burg Williston Winder Winder, depressional Wulfert Mapping Symbol 38 Ecological Community 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 6-South Florida Flatwoods 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 18-Salt Marsh 3-Sand Pine Scrub 21-Swamp Hardwoods 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks 13-Cabbage Palm Hammocks 26-Slough 25-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds 19-Mangrove Swamp

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Soil Series Mapping Symbol Yemassee Younges Yulee Zephyr Zolfo Zuber 39 Ecological Community 5-Mixed Hardwood and Pine 12-Wetland Hardwood Hammocks 21-Swamp Hardwoods 17-Cypress Swamps 2S-Freshwater Marsh and Ponds II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks IS-Oak Hammock II-Upland Hardwood Hammocks

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APPENDIX B ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY PLANT TABLES

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These tables are a listing of plants by ecological community occurrence. The tables are divided into Grasses, Grasslikes, Vines, Herbaceous, Shrubs, and Trees. The tables were prepared by drawing from plant range and site descriptions in a number of botantical references and from field knowledge of the Florida SCS plant scientists. The tables are intended only as a guide-obviously all plants occurring in Florida are not listed, and even those that are might occur in communities in addition to those shown. The tables can be expanded as additional knowledge is gained. The tables show regional occurrence within the state (see Climatic Zones map). This becomes important when a community occurs in all three climatic zones, but a particular species is found in only certain areas. An example of this would be Tracy b1uestem, Andropogon tracyi, which is found in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak community only in the Florida panhandle; the table indicates that this species would not be found in the Central or South zones. The term "characterizing" as used in these tables indicates that this particular species so commonly occurs in a community that you would expect to see it there at most locations supporting that community. i

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, ECDlD9ical Co Tabl. Fi 1.: Gra blue _aid.ncen. AndrQPoqon cabanis AndroPoQon capjlljp -Florida qlQ ... ha:i ... Andropoqon Blu teN -fin.J B I __ N Andp"'opoqon vir.inicus vap"'. qJaucopai. Blu -purpl. Th ..... awn Thr awn biq Ari.-tida 41",,"n. Th,. awn cork.c,..w pa'tuJa Threaawn Th,...as:-tn Ar i sot i da ,...h i zo,.lophora -Florida Ar H C S S H C S H C S N C S N C S N C N N C S N C S H C N C S C S N C S N C C S N C S N C S N C S N C S I I I I I I I I I I 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 234 5 6 7 a G I 234 5 6 7 a G I 2 3 4 5 6 ----------------------------------------------------1+1+1 1 1+1_$+1-1-1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1+1+1 1+1_1 ----------------------------------------------------1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+1 1+1 1 1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Ill! 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1+1+ 1 I\;!:II 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ------------7Y-------------------------------------,+I+,+I+I.'+I.!II+I+,+,+I+,+, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 ----------------------------------------------------1 1 1 1 1 1+1+lo 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 ____________ l..Z._. _____________________________________ 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+1 1 1 1 1+1+1 1+1+1 L 1 1+1+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 .+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I-In"tp"'oduced

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,. Tabl. Fi le: Gra (2) Thraeowo -Pin.land Arundln6rl. A,.. .... ndo donAx Giant ..... ( I ) Axonopus affini. CONNon ( J ) Axonopy. co.pr u. Coftfton ( I ) Axonopys Biq Mar.h (J ) Bracnarta purpur c.n. P&r&qrass C.nchrua Sl.nd.,.. ndbur C.nc:hru. SPp. Sandhur Juxu,. Spike ",nioJa Lonql.af" uniola Co.lorachi. ruqa ,Join"t'tAil Cteniulil Toot-hac:h ra C ... nodon dac"t'4lon B.'-lDudaq,..,a ( ] ) Crowf'oo"t qr Danthonia s.ric.& Do .... dan"thonia acicu)ane Par.icum needl.l.af' dicho-toNum Pan i cur.,-f'ork.d naila]1ulII crictif'oliuM i A,.. C S C S C S C S C S S C S N C S N C S N C N C S C S N C S N C 5 N C N C S N C 5 N C S N C S I I I t I I I t I 122 2 2 222 I 2 3 4 5 eel' t 2 3 4 5 C 7 I , I 2 3 4 5 6 I I 1+1+1+1---1+1+1+1 1 1 I I I 1 I I 1+'" I 1+1 ------------I I I I 1+1 I I : J 1+1+; I I 1+1+1 I 1+1+1 ; ; 1+: ; I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I 1+1 ----------------------------------------------------I + I + I I I I +ffi+ I + I + 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I + 1+: --------------------------------------1+1+1 I I 1+ + +1+1+1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1+1+1 ------------------------------------------------I 1 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 ----------------------------------------------------I I I I I 1+1;'. I I I I I I I I 1 I i I I I I I I I I ____________ l:L _____________________________________ 1+1 I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I Iii I I I II I 1-1-. I I : I I I 1 I I I I II I I I I I I I I I, I I I I I_I I I I I 1+1+1+I+ffl I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I_I I I I I 1+1_1+1+"" I I I I I I I I I I I .... .... --...;. ----------------------------------------------------1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I",rl I I I I I : : : I : : I : : : I : +: I : : +:+: : : : : +: +: : +: +: I-In-tr'"oducad

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,. Ecoloqical Co Tabl. File: Gra Panicu .. li"t-tl. Crabqr4&5 Dlq1"tarla Yilla.a Barn"ard qr El.uain. indica Goo qra .. v. vjrqin1cua Virqinta wildr'le (1) BalsaM.cal. -Pan A rlcan cojdea (2) Bal.a ... cal. Eraqroa"tia Loyaq,.a Lov.qra -co Eraqras-tt. sp.c-tabilt. Loveqra purple Loveqra Sanibel alap.curold Silyar plu qra Er i 0& nU ... ... LiIi michauxii Cupgr ass 1'::'.Jc3 Chloris-s"tifl.af A,. N S N C S N C N C S N C S N C S N C N C S N C S N C S C S N C S N C 5 S C S N C 5 N C S C S N C S N C S S-Sou1:h SSSSSS1111ZZZZZZZ 1 2 3 4 5 6 A II S 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 12 3 4 5 6 1+1+1 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I ----------------------------------------------------1+ 1+1 I I I I I I' I I I I I I I I I_I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1+1 I 1+/+1 1 1+1+1 I 1+ 1+1 I 1 I I I / I / I I I + I I 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 I I ----------------------------------------------------1 I I I 1+1 I I 1 I 1+1+1 1 I 1 1 1+1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 1+41+1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 I I I I 1 / I 1 1 1 I 1 I I I 1+1 1+I+f.;'I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1+1+1 I I I 1 + 1 I + I 1+/ I 1 +I 1+ 1 +tiI. 1 1 I I I I 1 I 1 I + I I 1+1 I I / I I 1 / 1+1 1 1 I I I I I 1+1 1 I / 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I I 1 1+1+1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1+ I 1 I I I "+1 I I 1 I 1 /-1+1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 1 1-1+ I I I I I I : I : I : : : : I I 1+1+1 :+: 1+1 : :+1+1 : I I : I I I I ,.,., I r 1+1+ + :+1 : : I : I"': :+: : ----------------------1+1+: 1+1 I I :.1+1 I : ,.,+ +: 1 I : : I I : : : I : -------------------------------------------------I-In"troducad \

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,. EcolQ9iCai Tabl. Fi Ie: G,... biquu. (1) Baardad 9r a.bi9uua (Z) Sk.la'tonqra carolin.n.i. Southern La.iact. dtvarica-ta 51'11a11 cana L ,..la haxandr. Cut'll"" L r.ta vtrqinica It't'teralt. (1) 5ho ..... q .... a Monan'thochlo. (Z) ........ Muhl.nb.,...qta capllla,...,. HaJ .... awn Muhl.nb ...... t. v.,... Gulf' "uhlanb.,...i. Cy"tov.,.. Cu"t"tn,..o.'tq,.. Panic",. ,..d'to. Pan j cu .. aqroa'to t d . alonQa"tu. Panicu,.-purpl. Panic", .... aru. Pa.,, "cu. bl't't"ar Panicu .. ancap3 PaniC:UM nat,.", HaidenC4na PaniCUM lonqifolju. lonql Pan i t.le. x i QUill Pan i 0:' ... 1\1 re;::cr.=; T orpe:dOqra5. ( 1 ) Ar H C H C S C S H C S H C S H C S H C 5 H C S C S C S N C C S H C S H C S H C S H C S N C 5 N C 5 C S H C S i::: \ +-Occurs N-North C-Can-tral S-Sou'th t t t t t t t t t t 2 2 2 2 222 t 234 5 7 a 9 e t 234 5 7 a 9 e I 2 3 4 5 6 I I HI+I+I 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I --------------------------------------------------I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I 1+1+1 I I I I I 1 I I I I 1+1 1+1 I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I_I +1 I I I I I I I_I I ------------N-------------------------------------I I I I 1+1+ + I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I --------------------------------------------------I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1_1+1.1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1_1+1 I I I I I I I ------------E',-------------------------------------I I I I I I + +1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -----------------------------------------------I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I 1+1 1+1+1 1 1 I I I_I 1+1 I ------------B--------------------------------------I I I 1+1+1 +1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I ---------------------------------------------------I I I I I I I I I I-I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I --------------------------------------------------I I I I 1 1+ 1+11 I I + I I I I I I + I + I I I I H+ I + I + I + I I ____________ JJ _________________________ ____________ I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I I+HI+I+I+I I 1-1-1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I J : i : 1 1+1 : I : I I : I : : :+H: 1+:"': : I 1+1+1+1 I : 1 I f 1( :+1+:+: : I 1 I : : 1 : : : : 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I : : : :+:+: : : : : : : :+:+: l-ln-troducad

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,. Eeolo.tcal Tabl. F t 1e: Gr ".nle ... e a .. p. Pa" cu. low Planteu. -ten.rue Panicu. verruco.",e Panic",. P.nic",. vir "'",. Swi"tchqr conJu.a"tu. Paspal..., .. -.ou,.. ".spal", .. flortda"",. Paspal", .. wa't.,. PaspaluM 4e,...t""1:",. paludiva.ue Pa.palu .. Paspahol. qt.a""'e",. Pa.palu .. qian't P pal",e Paspal",e -qulfdun. Pa.p.lue Paspalu .. 'thin Plaspal",e -t.e.",. ClJ Pa.palu.-,.inq.laaf Pa.palue .P ... Pa .... lu. law P palue u,..villal V" ...... Cilr" ( Il Paspal ... :D .... aqina'tu .. Pa.palull - kor. .. N-3p i 'Zrqra (I ) C.:J::' . reed (1) Rd-toC'p ( ] ) f2) Na"t .'llgras.:;; (1) a,.. N C N C S N C S N C S C S N C C S H C S H C S S H C S N C S H C is N C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S S-Sau:th I I I I I I I I I I 222 Z 2 2 2 I 2 :J 4 .,. I 2 3 4 S II 7 I 2 3 4 5 G .-.-.-,.,-,---,-,+ -,-,-,-.+.+.+,+.+.+,+.+. ,+,-. ---------------------------------------------_._----, , , ,+,-1+, I I , I , , +.+1 1 1+, I .+ I , , I , ii, I , I 1+' ----------------------------------------------------, , , I +1+1 I I .+,. 1+'+" I I I '+'+'+1+' I+J.:tII+'+'+' .+. I i , I 1+' 1 1 I I I .+'+' . I I '+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I J : : I : : : : : I 1+1 I : 1+1+1 : : 1+1 I : :+1 : 1 1 1+1+' I 1 : I : 1 I I : : I I : : I : I +:+: I I I : : I I I I I I I : I : : I : : I : : 1 I n'traduced

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, Ecalo.lcal Co unl-t.., Tabl, Fil.: G,..a Sacciolepi A rican cup.cal. ar,-ti.u. Blu -t -q..,lf" S.-t.,.. a .. alilna br'c-tl.qra Sa'tar,a .PP. ]qr Sor.k nu-tan. Ind'.n .. ,.. ..cundu. LoPSld.d 'ndl.nqr .and Cordq,.. ba. Sp.r-tina .pa,..-t'n Co,..dqr .ulf" Spanopho)l. W.dc;JRq,. Span'opho) S. ob"tu.a"t. Prari. w.d ,.. Sporobolus cur-ti li CUI"'-ti s drops.ad F ,lc:'""ida drop d Sporobolus juncua drops d (J) J e d drop d A,.. C C S C S C S C S C S C S H C S C S H C S H C S H C S C C S C S C S H C S H C S H C S t t t t t t t t t 2 2 2 2 2 2 t 2 3 4 7 S g I 234 5 7 a 9 g t 2 3 4 5 S I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I 1 I I I I I I 1+ I I ----------------------:----------,--------------------I_I I I I I I I I I I t I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I+I+I+I+I+I+IAI+I 1+1+1 1+1+1+1 I 1+1 I I I 1+1 1+1+1 ____________ J1 ________________________________ _____ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I 1+1+1 I I 1+1 I --------------------------------------------------1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 ---------------------. ----------------------------I I 1_1_1+1+ +1 I 1+1+1+1 I_I I I I I I I I I I I I -----------I I I + I + I + ,_ _I + I I I I + I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 -------------... ---I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I_I I I I I 1+1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1_1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1-1+1 I I 1 1+1 I I 1_1_1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ,_ r_1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1_1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1+1+1 I ; I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I+I+I+AI I I 1 I I I 1 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I ____________ JJ _____ __________________________ ______ I I I I_I+I+A; I 1 1+1+1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 ____________ JJ _____________________________________ 1 I I 1+I+oGI.l+1 I 1 1+1 I I I 1 I I I I I I : I I I 1 .... ------.... -----1 I 1+1_1 1+.t.i\1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 -----_______ lJ ______________________________________ 1 + 1 + 1 I I + I + ; 1 1 +: 1 ; ; 1 I 1 1 I ; ; 1 1 1 I 1 I +[+1 I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1+ I +1 I I I 1 1 ; I I

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,. Ecol09ical Co F J.: Gr .. or."ol". vtr9''' .G''. S dr S-t.fto ...... hr .... cunda ... ". ,.. (J) 51:i ... 6venac.. Black d n dl ra Trid.n. flav\.i. P .... "..pl.1-QP PcrEnni41 nd.,.. q ...... q,.. rloridan""$ Uniold panicu)a-ta miJiaGea Gi&n'"t c\,I"tq,.. +-Occurs ..... Ii c .. C H C H c: H c: C S 5 C S c: S S-Sou'th H ... ... , I 1,1 1 I I I t I Z Z Z Z Z :I I Z :I 4 I I 7 12 3 4 5 I 1+1+", 'I , I J I I ,a, I 1 I J I J 1 .. -.. ------------------------_.----------------------_ ... _--1+,+1 I I , I I I I i 1 , III I I 1.' i .. -----------... --. I I 1+ 1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 .I I I I I I J I I. I 1 I I II ... -.-----------I 1 I I 1+1 1 I I 11+1+1 I 1+11. 1 I 1+1 I I I I II ---------.... ... '---.;-... I 1 1+1+1 II I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I I II (II I ---... ... I I J I 1+1 I 1+1 I 1+1+1+1+1 1+1:" I 1+1 I I I 1+: I --."'!"-----------------.------------: '---.... -I I 11 I II I 1+: II I I I I I I 1 I I II I : : 1 ... --... ......... ------1-1-1 I I I I I I I I I II I I J '11tll III I : ---.-----------... .... ---"'!"-----_. I I I I I I II l 1 1 : 1 ,11 1 -+IHi! i..j.llll+: : ... ... ... ..... 7

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,. ..... ...-.. E_ ....... T .... ,..I.t "" I.Ir ."I .. .... U .... ,. ..... ... "e,.p .... lbo." .. 1 t. I.,. H ...... C.,..x . C.,.,e d CI.d,,,. J ie .... S ........ .... u. ..... ". A" ............ C .... eul.,,"". T.l Jow .... 't' ...... C ......... ...... r.'t''''. F '1 4 C ....... .... ,,,,,4\018 fI",. .. la .. ..... 4 C ....... .., ....... Fla1 4 Dt .. h ... ... a.l.r .... S't'a .. -.. ".h eh ..... ". ....... "' Wh -.0 ... ".t--. Dul'chl..,. a""''''''''.ca,* Sh h..d- '." E och ........ 5.lka .. ".'" ,. br ........... ,. ... d f"'".h ""'''.'' ...... vi t. Sh.,.. ........ \M ..... IJ ....... ,." .... clr.old U_b ... J I ....... ,,,, .... ,, U.kol"'.ll ........ .Ju"e'''. .t,,, ..,. .sof"t ... u.h .. N C S N C C S C S N C S C S N C I C C S N C S C S C N C S C S C S C S N C S C !I t IIIII ttl 12222222 t 2:J C7 12:J.SC7 12:J.SC I I I ,., I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -------------------------------------------------I I I I ,., I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I ,.,+,. I ... --------------I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I I I I :+1 I I 1+,., : : ; : I J J : : r : I : : : I 1 I : I : I ; ;_:+:+1

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, Eeet lcal C v ..... Teatle ,.. le2 el.k Jwftcv. aJ.ck ft .)""cu . I'tv.h L"..,d a .... Ro 't.e ( 0" ,.. .... .. tcu).'t. Ho .. ".d b.ak,.",at\ "",";ftchoa1tor. 1'a.:.C").,,le Co.eoft ...... ,..v .... ""'",,,ctw. or. '1.,1'0) ,. Th ..... d .... k ... ".h ""' .... "ch_.or ,..a"., I 1It"''\oIftcho o,.. .,. k,.ueh "h"ftcho ora t,.ae". S'tra-IP.d Ie: t "."a ,. t caft". Se t:'_V. ca) t f'ora-... CU. Giant Se. ,...v. c"' ..... "",a Woo I.,.... 'n,) ,."' ..... S";,,..,, ..... v.t ... Sa a 1' ...... '" ro".'" Sci,.." ,,_ I"J,.".h Sel,. .. u. ye. ith ... So,,,.,, '",I .. uah Scol .... '. eila". Scl.,..ia c ..... lan .. LI't'tI. ,. 'O,. d ... ,..t'cul .... '. A".",,,,.. ....aa ..... d "" .. N C S N C S C N C S N C S N C S N C 5 N C N C S N N C S N C S C S N C S C S N C S N C C N C ttilltllll!r!!!zz 1 r :I 5 II 7 S I Z :I S Ii 7 as. I z :I 4 !I Ii I I 1 r I I I 1 I I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 lal I I I I I, I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I i+I+I+1 ---------------------. -------.. ---------------------1 I I I I 1+0. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -----------I I I : I 1+ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I II I I I : I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+ .1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1+ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1+1+1+1 1 1+1 I 1 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1+1 I I I 1 1+1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 : ... 9

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Ea.I ..... 1 C ... "" .." Taftl. ".1.. Gro 1 Hr Sc:I.ro PI..,1:-,.v.h Sed.,., (2) SJo".h ..... Selc ... t6 .,. ...... lo:-"' ..... ta (Z) SJo.., .......... r .. X.,. ... t ...... Ycllo.-.".d .,. . t I .. I I I II I I II I I I I I "',.... 1 I 3 S 7 11.3 I. 7 e. I Z :I I C C S I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 1 +1 I 1+1 C S I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 1+1 I 1+1 I I ; I 1+1 I 1 I 1 .1+1+. : I 1 .,'-.: : I : J : I ::.: PI t S I 1 I I 1 1+1+1+1+1+11 1 1 1 1+1+' I I 1+1 1+ 1 :+:.-1 ...---------.. ----.. -------.--.. -.. ..... .. -.. ---.... ---... J .. J n'trood .... c ad .. 10

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,. Ecala.tcal Tabl. Fil.: Tr Aca.sa Tap \rindl11o Ac.,.. n ...... ndo Box .ld.,.. Ac.,.. rubr .... ,. H.pl. -R.d Ac.,., H&Fll. Silve,.. Ace,.. 'loradan ..... a"' '" .a.l. P.l,. A cul ........ vi. R.d kiyc;Ie ...... AInu Hazel ald.,.. A I.nchi.,.. .,.,bo,.. ,..vic.b.,..,.. .... Annan ab,..a Pond appl. Aralia evl1#s-WaJkin9 A.a.ina otraJoba Pawpaw -Co .... on Avicenn' r.lnafts Hanqrov. Blacle B.-tul. ni.,... Ri ..... ,.. bi,..ch lu li6 cel otrin. Saf'f"ron p]u. BU8aJ1A lan",qlno G"'''IIi bu ... l:l. I", ... lia l .... E H ,le 1 i a Touflh !urse,-.:l stMaruba Gurnbo-Lirabo B .... ,-sonjma lucida Locustba,..,.. .... i =: l no:; +-Occu,... N-Hor'th C-C.n'tral A,. S N C N C S N N C S N C N C N 5 N C S N C S N C C S N C N C N C S N C S S-S.,u",," t t t t t t t ttl Z Z Z Z Z 2 Z t Z 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 t Z 3 4 5 I 7 8 J 2 3 4 5 I I I II I I I I I I I J 1+' I I 1+1 I I / I I / I I I / / /+1 I / I / 1+/ / 1 I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+,., I I I I-I I ,+1.,+1+, 1 i 1 I I I I I I / I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1 I I 1 I I 1 I I I I /+1 11, 1 I 1+1 I I 1 1 I I I II I I I 1 I I I I I I / I I I I I I I I 1+1 I / / I I I I I I I I I II 1 I 1+1 I I I I 1+1 .I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I /+1 I / I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 / I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I / I + I 1 + I 1+1'+ 1 I + I 1+ t I I I I I ______ M ___________________________________________ I I / I I I 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.1+1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I '.,+1 I I I I I I 1+1 II II I 1+1 I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 / / I I I / I I 1 I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+ I I I I 1 I 1 1+1 1+1 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 II I I I 1 I I I 1 : I I 1 1 ,. 1+1.' 1 I I I : I : I I : 1 I ---!""--------------------------.--------------------I I 1 I I I 1 I 1+1 1 1 I 1+1 1 1 I I 1 I : I I : I 1

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,. Ecolo, .. c.ICo .... .. T.bl. FiI.: T,. C.,.lc .... ... ,..P .... C ..... ,"w ....... 1." ". C'I) A_,a,..' c."ho,." ..... C.,..in .... ca ... ol ,,, ..... ( 2) leech II ... C.,.. ....... ",.'tlc. Wa't'.,. f 1 Dr' ctana-... S.rub C.,. .... 1.10,.. Hackor'W nu"t C.r..... 'to ,,'to Nickor,.. C lnltoll. Chln"u ... ln Flo,.ld. C "tan Cha",..uaPln C ,..u' Au.'t,.altan C J) I YI (I) Su ...... D.,.,.." I v' (Zl H .. akb.,..,. ... oca ... .. u.h cawed .... '. R.dbud Carey. ,.obintl T,... cac'tu. Ch A"-tJan'tic whl"te ceda,. vlrqintcu. Fringe"t,. Florida fiddl.wood 1( .... n .... (I) C:I "trY$" !lul""an"t 1 Yin Sou,.. oran..C ] ) ..... C C S C S C S C H C H C C S H C S He s H C S H C H C S S S S S-Sou*h C ..... n' ............ ,. t , I I . t I a a 2 Z 2 2 1.3. S 7 t a 3. S 87. 2 34 S 8 I I I 1 I II I I I I 1 I 1+1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I ------------------------------------------.... I I I I 1+1 1 1 I I 1-1+11 I I I I I I-I I I I I I I -----------------------------.----------------------I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1_1+1 I I I Ii,., I I I I I ----------------------------------------------------I I I I I II I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I_I+'I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I i tl i I I I I I I I I 1+1 I_I I I I I '-I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I II II I I II I I I I II I I I I II I I I I I I II 1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I .1+11+1 I I I+\+i I I I I I 11+1 1 I I I I I I 1+1 I. I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 I 1 I : I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 f+I+1 1 1 I : I I 1 I I I : I 1 I I 1 I I : 1 + I : I + I + 1 + 1 + 1+ I I I I I I I I 1 I I I

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,. Ecaloqlcal Ca Table Fi Je,: Tr el) B""'ckw"' ... 't-'tr (2) Black Coccoloba dlv.r.'ol'& Caccoloba S.a q ... a:P. .... S, Iv.,.. pal. Coco. nucif'.,..a Coconutpal. C J ) Colubrina .rbor c.n. colubrtna Co)ubrina cubens's Cuba co)"brlria Colubrina .lllp'tica So 1 d i .rwoad_ ConQcarpus Cardia b tena G.I.a,.. 'tr Cornu. al'tern,rol.a Do .. _od Pa.oda Cornu. dru ondli Doqwood Rou.hJ Co,.nu. Do.wood -F J-ow.r' n. Cornua #"o 'n. Doqwood Cra-taeqys sPPo Waw-tho,.." Cup&.ni4 Florida: o!iyif'cr Sa"t"tnl-&f" E'..J::>t'ic Willow Ar N C S C S 5 S S S S N C S S N C C S N C S S S N C S S S-South t t t t t t t t t t zz z 2 2 2 2 t Z 3 4 5 5 7 as. t Z 3 4 S 5 7 S tZ3 4 5 S I II 1 1 I i I I I I t I I I I I I I 1:tl+I+1 I II I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I I I I I HI I I I I I I I I I 1+,., I I I I I I I II I i. I .... ---------.-----;.;;.. -I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I ----------------------------------------------------... ;--I I I I II I I It I I 1 I + I + I 'II 1 I I I II I I I. I I 1.1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I i I I I J I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+'.'. J I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1+1 I I I II I I I I I I I --------.... -----.... -------------r----------------........ ---_ -, I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I II 1+1 I I II J I . I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I 1 1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1.1 I I I 1.1+1 I ' I I I I ,.1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I HI+I I I I I I .... I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I, I I I I I I I I I ( I ;1 J II I 1+1 : I 1+(+: J I 1-( : : ; I I I I : I I 1+1+'''+1+1 I I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I II ,.,+' I I I I I -------_ ... _--...,..---"-----------.... ----------------------I I I I I II I 1+1 I I I 1+11 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I-tn"traduc.d ......

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E,,010.I,,61 CO "ftlt" T6 .. 1. F, Tr "'" 1: 16t.,.I1'10,.. G"'.na-plw. E ...... "th ..... ". herb.c Cora 1 b.an So",'th 1:.rn f", n .... xj,Jl .... '. 5"toppc'" Wh-S't"a E"" nla 'oe.ld. S'tOFlP.'" loxl f" Eu ,,' .. rho.b ... Stopp,.,. .... R.d [xo"'th . p&nlCula"ta l.nkwood 9randtf'ol.a A ... ric;an b c:h Flcys auraa St,..n .. I.,. no I"IC". c 11:,. I 1'01 I., ( S) 5ho,.1:I t tlo I"IG". ,,11:,.11'0116 Wtld.ba,,;'oft "t,.. "rai_I""" "':Ici .... Whl1:., h f'r-axtnu.' G .... alln' .... . .... C.,..o l in. .h F ..... t "..;:.. Gr n h ,.,...x I"u. IDrof"unda h Gentp. chI 'f.olla S.y.n. __ appl. 4l .. ua11"c::& .... a.-t.,.. lacu8-t Ga,..donia la.lan"'thu. Labloll" ba" G\Ja i aeurtl aanc;i:u .. Liqrtu,mvt-ta. Rouqhbark i,..a d i:a::col or B)o))" Lonqlea.'f Gue:-t-tll.r-d s scab!""'a Rouoghlc4f" v.l.-t d C ..... , II I, ., 2 Z I I I AiO.. ,a =-4 II 7 IS. I I=-. II 7. S I 3. 5 6 I II' I , I II I I 1+1 II I I I I I II I I 1 I --------.--..... N C I 1+1+11+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I 11 I N C I I I II. I 1 II I I I I I 1+1+1 I I II (I I I I II ... N I J I I 1'"1 I I I I II I 1.,11 1 :1' II_II I I I I I C ...;-------------------.... ----....... N s I '1+1 II I I I I I II II t I 1,.j .'11 r 11' 1 II I N C 5 I I I I I I II I I I I Ii I I (I II 1+ III I.' II N c s I I 11+1 I I 11.1,1+1 II 11+1 11' 1-1:1+11 I II I I 1 I I' I r I 1 I 1 I I It I I. I II I I I r I II I I HI, I : 1 I II :+1 : I I 1+11 I I : I 1 II I II'.: ------------------------.:..--------..... ------------------I I J I I I I I 1+1. I I I I ,tll I I I I I I II II. I -------:,--... ------------... Ji-Cnar.E:c"t:r i z i no:; +-Occ\Jrs N-No,..'th C-C.n-t,.... S-Sou"th l

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, Ecolaqtcal _Ca Tabl. File: Tr H ti. vi,...i",.". Wi "tc;hhazeJ S.4 h1biac;u. Hippo n. Mancln.lla Hanchin l (1) (2) Inkwood I i_x bi.ua Carolina holl .. Ilex ca i"e Dahocn holl" JI.x declc:Na Po u .. haw J lex k,.uq1&,.a Tawn"be,..,.." llex H'4r-tl. dahoon J lex .0paO& A ,..'Ga" hal)" IlliciuM Anl Florida JUllla". ni.,.. Black walnu"t .Junip.,..", 1 iai.Gola R.d ceda,.. So-yoth.r" Kruqjod.ndron ie,..,...ua Leaciwood Laquncula,..Ia rac o Luca2r.a (1) (2) -tre.. A,.. C S 5 5 5 H C 5 H C S H C S 5 H N C S H H H C S C 5 C S S S S N C S S-Sou-th I t I I I I I I I I 222 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 S 7 Set 2345 S 7 S I 234 5 6 I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+' I I , I 1 I 1+' I I I 'I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 I I 1+1 I II I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1*1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 11+1 I I 1+1+1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I I I 1 1+1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 I I I 1+1 1+1 I 1+1+1+1 1+1+' I 1+1'1+1 1 ) I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I 1 I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I -----------_ ... _---------------------------------..,;-_ .. -I 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 1+1 I I I II I / 1+1+1"+/+/ I I 1.1+1 I I I I I 11+1+1 I I I I I I I / I j 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I l+1 I I I I .. --..:.-------------I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I / I I I I I I 1 I I I 1+1+1+1+1 1 I I I 1+"1 I 1 I I I / 1+1+1 I 1 1 I I / I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1+1., I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I 1+1.1 I I I I I 1 ... --------------------I I : : I J I I t I It: 1+1 1 I : I I I Itt : : It' J I ; , I. t : 1+' I l I I I : : I 1 I J t I I 1 I II I I 1+1 I ( I 1+1 I I, I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I 1+1 J I I :+:*: I : I 1+1 I :_:+1 I t I I : ,.... 15

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, Eeolo.'e.l Co Fi 1.: T,. L,,.lod.naron reI low po..,I.,.. (1) I_h (2) Wi ld 'ta ... ,..and A.h aqnCtJ 'a Magnol'. Sw 9"011. Halu indica 1'14",'00 (I) H I.u. 11 -tic; -Fal ".lal.uea Ca jepu't-'t,... (J) ,...1 Ii. az.da,.ach Chtn4b.,.,. .. (I) Florida pof.an'tr Horus rub,.. R.d .ulb.,.,..--. Spic. 'tr "'"rica inodor. Odor I Nec'tAncra coriac LanCE04.:lod N"sz.:a .... 1 ) j z. i .. ;j +-Oc;c;ur. C-C.n-t,.al ""' .. N C s s PI PI C S H C S PI C s S C S '" C S S '" C S S '" C S PI PI PI PI C S S-Sou'th 1 1 lit 1 lit 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 t I 3 4 I 7 I t 234 I 2 345 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1+11 1 I 1 I I ;-;;;-;-;-;-;-;-;;;-;-;-;-;;;-;-;-; 1 ;-;-;-;-;-;-;-;-; 1 1+1 I I 1 I I 1+1 I I 1 I_I 1 I iii 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 I I I ----------------------------------.,.-.,..,--T-.. --;--------1+1 I I I_I 1 I I I 1_1_1 I 1 I 1 1 I It I il 1 I 1 I I '+1 I I I I 1+1_1 1+1 I 1+1 r I I I ;-;-j-;-;:i-i-;-i-i-i;;;i;i;;-;-rrrni:ii-i-i-;-;-; I I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1+1 I j j j I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I i 1+1 1+1 I I I I I I I I J I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1_1 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1+1+1 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I I 1 l.r ill I ; I 1 1+:+1 1 I 1 : : 1 I 1 1 1+1 1 I I I 1+1 I I 1 I '1.1 I 1+1.1+1+1 1 : 1 1-IFI'trodueed Pa.. 16

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, Ecolo.tcal f..bl. Fi J.: Tr O a ricanu. (1) D.vi JWOQd O ric.nus (Z) Wild-oJ i ..... Hapnarnb.an .r.:.Jor ..;. Sourwood ".,. a barbania P.r bar-bon'. yar. hu.ilu. Si Ikba" pub."s (1) pub.n. (2) F ....... ,.."'tr Pinus clau Sand pine "inu. echlna
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Ecolo.ic.l COMMU"''t' ... Tabl. F. l.: Tr Ii,. Plan.,.. a_uA't"cA ( ZI Pla.n.r't,.. occid.n'taJ,. A ... rica" Populus d.J'told Ca't'tonwood -E 't.rn Prunu ,.ica". C S ArUlrican ,.,.u"u. a"CI".'t 1 f'o I aa N C Chi.cka..6W pI". P,..unu. caroli"i.". (I I N C 5 La"",...Ic;h.,..,. ... Carol ina Pru"u. carol i"ia"A (Z) N C 5 Ch.,..,..,,-laur.l Pr",,," ,.o"'t,,,a C Black ch.rr" .PrY"". u.b.lla--t& N C S FJa"'twood. p)y .. P udopna.nix .a,. ,,"'ta1 S 8ue4n ,.. pal 1'1 P.ad1u. q",aJ&ya S Gua .... a (I) P-t.l "'r''(0)1a",. N C Co .... on hOP"'tr Quercu. alba N Whi-t. oak Qu.,...ca ... ch ..... ni J N C S Chap .. an oak Que,...cus falca""tCi N C R .. d oa" -Sou1:h.,.n f'a1 e&""tCi ..... a,... paqodJ"ol I. N CnQrr .... oak QV
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Co Tabl. Fa 1.: -OU.re". I" .... ". Ov.",c". oak Quare" ,arlland.ca 81 ac:k jack oak Quercu. Michaux" Swa.p ck oak Quercus ..... ,... 1:.I.,D M .... ,...'tJ oak Qua,.c". ft'."'. Wa1:.,.. 04k Quare"". ph.llas Wi llow oak Quarcus .hu rdjj ShuMa,.d oak' au.rcus Pos-t 'oa" Que,..cus ".Ju"tJnA Slack Qak Quarc". vlr.iftl,6n6 Liv. oak: Qu.rcus yj",,.'nl "' ......... "a'ta Sand-IIY. oak Ra._n punc'ta"t:a (1) ft_apatn.. ,.10,..' da Ro,.en p\lnc'ta .. ta (Z l. "'"ioja,'''. Rha.nus Carolina buck'tharn "hi20phQ,.. .... ".1 a Nanlilrove Red RO"ds'ton.& .16t'a Saba) minor n ... .af"f pal "t"ta St!b.J,] p'::'l. I;'ni1:"to ( 1 ) Snbai pahle'tto ( -;) Palm CabbagQ Sal i:.; ceral ini.a_na Coastal p)ainwil]ow A,. M .. .. C .. C S .. C S N N C N C H N C S N C S S S N C C S C S N C S N C S N C S N C S 1 1 1 I It I I I I I 2 2 I 2 3.' 7 t 2345.7_ 12 345 !.!.!.!.!.!.!.!_!_!.!_!.!.!_!_!_!_!_!_!t!.!.!.!-!-!-. I I HI+' I I I I I I I I I ,-, I I I I I II I ----.. -----.. ... -----------------------.----.. I I I I 1+ I I I I I. I + I + II II I Ii I + it I I II I ---------------ll---.. -----.,.-----------------------1+1+1.1+1 I I I I I I I I II II II I , I I I I ----------.. _--------------------------------------I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I II 1.1 I I I ,hll I I I I .-.. ... -... -------,-I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1'11 I I I I I I I I I t I I I + I I I I I II I I I I i f I. tl II I I I ---------------..... ... __ .... _-----.... ------_._.... -....... -._-------... I r I 1/+1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1 j', I II I I I II ---_._.;..--------_._-,,;.------------------.--.'""'---_ ...., .... ---------'-I 1+11111 I I III I I I I I 1+ ".,1 1 .11 I I I I : I III I I I I I + I I I I I I I +r + II II I ... -----.... -.;.. ... ---------"":"'--T-------:--,-------.... -,.----------1.'., I 1+1.+1+1.1+1+1+1.'.1+1+1+1 I 1 1+1+' I II 1 I .... --------.""':--.--.. -----------.--------....,--.----1.,.1 I 1+1.+1+1.,+I+1+I.UI+I+I+' 1 I I /01,1+1 I II J I --, ... -... --------... ---...;.---.:..v------------,-------... -------.-I 1 : I 1" I t I I:' 11+; I I : 1_' : : :+f+' :.-I+J : I-ln't"rcduced .. a 19

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,. --. EGDID4'aal Co Tabl. Fil.: T,.. S.lix .. I ..... al.c" will ... Sa.indus anar'. 5 albldu. S tra. St ro .... b Iaua:. Parad' Sol.null .,.''',,'thu. (I) Null.ln SolanuM (2) Po'ta'to.-....... SwS.-t.nS h,J.o,," .w rax9diuM ... r Taxod'u. d'.tic "' .... va,... "uotan. raxu. "'orida"a flo,.tda Thr. "ax .orr I II. K.'1 Thrlnax radaa
PAGE 215

, Ecolo.lcai Co Tabl. Fi : T,. Ul .... ,.. ... r. SII ..... al. y.burftwe ruf' id",h . Xlf.')cni' Tao ... o9d -Li 2an1'r,i:'v..,l utll c!,;a ... a.-h:rcvl is '..Li .. ci ... -a.h ""'I. M Me: e: C S S H C S C S t 1 t t t t t t ttl I 2 2 2 2 t t, ,. I i 3 5 7 t 2 3 4 5 I I 1 I I I I I I II I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 'I ----------------------------------------------------, I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I 1+1+1 I 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 1+1 I I 1 I 1+1 1 I 1 II I I 1+' I I I I 11+1+1 t 1 11 1:1+1+1+1+1 I I 1 I I Iii 1 I:: 1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I II r 1 1+1 I , I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 : : II I I II I I II I 1+1 1+1 I Ii I I I I 1 1 II 1 ------------"""-------... .. .... ------------.;... I-In ... ,.oduced .... 21

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, Ecolo.IG.l Tabl., File: awreu. Fern -L 'thiU" d.n 'ol.u. F.rn Inlaftd l Annual baldwh,a 1anoJeuau. Fern F,..&q,.an"t .a.denha.,.. Adian-tull SPP. F.,.n Ma'd.nha'r A n. a rlcana Joi'n"tvet"ch A n. indlc. (I) Ae:lich"'fTlo ... n. A ". Indaca (2) Join-tvet"ch Aqallni PP. Gerardia Al.-tr SPP. LoIi Id onlan Al-tarnan"th.ra fl.Y Cha"ff"-f" 1 ow.,.. Al-ternan-thera .arl"tl Cn&ff-flowe,. Al-tarnan"tha,.a phllaxa,.old Alljqa1:o,.w d ARbrosia .,.-t ialtfolta Raqw d Co on Arabrosia hispida R.qw d -Cr pin. Ambrosia 1:r',ida Raql,-u d qian1: AMcrpr.a ZP:;=I. (1) Lc-ad plant Ar I S H C S S S C S H H H C S H C S H S C S H C S H C S C S H C S H C H C H C S S-South . Co Hu .... ,. t t t s t ItS S t 2 222 t W 34,5' 7 S 1 23 4 5' 7 S. t 3 4 5 6 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I / 1+t+I.1 I / I / / I I / / I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1+1 1 1+1+1 I 1 1+1 I 1'1'1 1+1+1 I I I I I I II I I I I 'II I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I / + I I I /1 1+ I I + I + I I I / I II /1/ / I -----------------. ----------------------.------------I I I I I 1+1 1+/ I I I I I I I I / f I I / I / I 1+1 I I I I / I 1+1 / I / I / I I I I I I I I I 1 /1 I I. I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I / I I I I I I II I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 I / I I I I I I 1 -1+1/,"1 )+1 1+1+1 ... --------.---------I I I I I 1+1+1 I I 1/ I I I I 1 1 I I II, 1,'1 1+1 I I / I I + I / I / I I +1 I I I I / / /1 I f I I I I I I I + I I I 1 I I I I I I I I + I I / I I 1 / I 'II' I II / 1+1 I / I. I I I I I I / / I I I /1 I / I I I I I i II I I I I I I I I I / I I I I I I+J, 1 1 I j 1+/+, 1 .. ... --... .... --. --1+1+1 I /_1+/+1+1 1+1-/+1+1+1+/+11 I t t / I+i ________ .;. ________________ ________ ....... ____ ;i. ____ _____ .:.._ I 1+1 I. I I I I 1 1 I I / I .I I 1 1 I 1 "/1 / I I II I I I 11+1+/+1+' 1+1+1+1+1+1 J II 1+1 .1, 1 1 II, j -----------------------------------... I I I 1+1+/+1 I .. 1+1 1 11'11 1 1 I+i l'.i,'/ , I .. .-_J -J n'tr.ad,,:,ced ..... 22

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Ecolo.ia&1 Co 1 1. Fil.: Ar ana alb.'lore Y.llow Dr4C1on Gr n Ar Ascla.la. Milkweed Sandhill ASGlapta. Mllkwe .. d Red Ascl.pias .IIP. Milkweed AsclaPias Hllkw 'd Bu't't.,.,f'J,,-"w d A ..... n.u. _1 .... "n.\lrOli Spl nwar't Ebon" _u.tlu. Spl Bird'. n 't Asplentu. 't"'ldho.an nwor't Slander Spl nwor't Az'te,.. As1:er concolor .A's'te,.. Az"te:1"" ';;I.J:'llOSUSi A:!J:'ter Bush As"te:r A,. Hea Mea H H C C S C S C S C S C S C S C H C S S S C S N C S S N C S N *-Chal"" .ic"tel""i::!:inq +-Occurs N-Nor'th C-C.n'tra.l S-Sou'th ttl t t 1 I I Z 2 2 2 222 I 2 :I 4 S 1 I 2 :I 4 S 1 I 234 5 1 1 1 I+h' , I 1+' I I I I II I I I I I I I I I '+1+1 1 1 I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I i 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I 1+1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I I 1+1 I I .0 hl+1 I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1 I I 1+1 I 1 0 I I I I I I I I I I I II I 1 I I I I I I I I '+,.,+' I I I I 1+1 I I I I I l I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I II I 1+'+1+1 1+1 I I I I I Hitl. i 1+11 I 1+1 I --------------_._------------------------------------1 I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I.iii 1+[+1+1+1+1+1 1 ___ _______ ..: ______________ .... _..;. __ ... __ Ji .IIii .. "' ..... ..... _______ ill I I I I 1 I 1+1 1+1+1+1+1+11 I i I i I I I I I I I I 1 I 01 0 I 1 1 1 + I + I J.I 1 0 1.1 I I I 01 + r 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 j 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 1+1 I 1 1'1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I 1 0 ;'1 1 I.J I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 + I 1 1 II II I. I I 1 I I I I 1 I" I I 1 I I I I I I I I tIl I I 1+1 II I I I I I 1+1 1+1 1 I I I I J 1+ 1 I I J I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I II I I I : I I I I ... I I I I : I + I'+i I : I I I + : ... I I f J : I : 1+'1 ; I ,. : I I : f r I : I : : I 1+1 : : I I 1 : : :

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Ecolo.Jc.i Ca Tabl. File: H*,.,baceou. A.'ter &ah. Jn. F.,..n Lad'-1 A-trlPlex are"aria Orec:k bOUGh AzoJI. carolinian. Fe,..n "'.-t.r cop. caro)in na H'-1 oP Wet-a" 0nnle,..1 (t) I.cop ... 0-:,,,1.,... ( 2) a.cop. a.ldul". Bald"J". hi"'. ..... Indl90 11.1 .... 141 id P ............ c.rp. Indl9o, WIld p .... l.1 PP. Indl90 wnd 'tla ,.. ..... t SaJ-tw9,..-t a ania cuculla ... a BeQlonla Bidens coran4't4 Tick d Sou .... h.r" BldGn. Ticl(s a.qq.,.. Eldens p i 10sa (t) Shepard' (2) l"Iuda.""ta re 11 o f..lnead Ar H C S H C S H C S H C S N C S H C S N C S H C S H C S 'N N H C S H C S N C S N C S H C S H C S N C S H C S , l , , , Z Z Z 2 Z 2 Z i 3 4 I C 7 S I 2 4 5 7 I 9 t 2 3 4 5 S I 1 I I I HI+I+I 1 I I I I 1 I 1+1 , I I I 1+1+1+1-'.1-1+1+1+1+1.1+1+1+1+'+1+1 I 1+1+1 1+1 1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1+1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I II I 1+1+1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1.1 I I 11+1+1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 II I I I 1+1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I+i I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1 I 1+1+1 I I I I 1-I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I 1 1 I I I I 1 1+1.1 1 I 1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I. I I I II I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I 1 1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 + I I II I I 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I 1+1+1 I 1+11 1 1+1 1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1 1 I 1+1 1 I 1 1 1+ 1+1+1+1+1+1 +1+1+1 1+I+f+I+I+I+, 1 1+1 1 1 1+1 : : I I I 1+1+1 : I : : 1 I I It: : t I J : :+: : I-In'traduced

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Ecolo c Co """i ... T.II Fila: f.,.." S,,,khoJ. I J acho"", ....... ,..'" J F.,.." Sw ., IJ ...... p"',.P .... ,.. Orchid P'fte-pink la.rh.v d.'t ...... Sp ld.,..li..,. ,..ho,.. c.n. S.a ox.". Bush lorr.ehl. fru
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,. !C:;Q.lo . c .aI Ca ... un1't'l Tabl. f'. Ja: Harbacaous C a ocaid.ntaJI. Se"". -Co"e. Lll .. -tno,," C.1: ..... r . n1:hu. rOs ..... P.riwinkle a.r Ca"tQPss. b.-t:erontana C61:a ... 's nu1:an. Ca-topsiS Nodds". C.,,-t.lla, a.latl.". (1 la-tIGa (2) Spadal ., C.n1:,..a 1 u. - C.n-tro vlrQtn-tanu. -butt ... 'l .. C.r.'top ... d a"'."' Coon'to!lil C.rau ...... G.I P,..ickl", apple C .... p nn 'loradana Alicsa C .... dan1:a1:a Sunbonne-t Ckap1:alia Sunbonna"t Ch.araqlo pul 1:. Cirsium .PP. I Cladonlu SPP. (1) Moss Reind ,. . (2) OrChid Ro bud baldwinni H-...;ecin"tn Pine A,. C S C 11 5 5 N C S He s s H C 5 H C 5 S C S 5 H C a s c S N C S N C S N C S N C S , t t t t t t t t 2 2 2 2 222 t i 3 S 5 7 8 t 2 3 5 5 7 9 t 2 3 4 5 G I I I r 1+1 I t I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I. 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I , I I I I I I I I II I I 1 I I 1+1+1 JI I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1'1 I I I I I I ...;..--------------... -... ----------------I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I .I I 1+1 I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I .. 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 .---------;...--------------------------_._--------------I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1 I I 1+1, 1 I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I II I I I 1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I 1 I 1 1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I ...---------... I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I II I 1 1 I I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I II I '1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1+1+1 I ,ll I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I+I+III I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I '" I I 1 1 1 I+I+,I, I I I I I I I I I 1 I I.'! 1 I I I I , I I I I I I I I : : I I' I I J I I I I I 1+1 1+1 I 1+ I ------_ ... 1""-----------------------------------_ .... -----, I I I 1 1+1 1 I , I I I I 1 I , , I 1+1 ..... 26.

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'col ... 1 C ... 1. '1'.: Wer.aceov. Cll'tor'A .ari.nA P B\,I"t't.rf'l .... -terr' p .. a -Blu. CnldoacoJu 'tl.uloau. (S) Cn'doacolua ."'I.".-0.U8 (Z) aot,l" Coloea.,e culen'. Co lin 19a. Cll.b'ft. Co ) ina .PP. Da"f'1 Qwe'" "ta-tflaw.,.. canaden a Fl ban. hor w d Cor.ops 1.avenwor'thtl T1ck. d Cor.opais ... .,jar Tick d Cor.opa'. pub cens Tick d Co,..eopsis SPP. Ticks d Cosmos bip_inn8'tus Spaniah n dl. e,.. j nUlol a''Rc,..j o a -nutl (1) L i 1 '4 -SwaflP Crc'talaria Cr pin. I-Char"'&:c'ter z j n<; +-Occur., N-Nor-th C-C.n't'ral /I,. N C S S N C S C I S S N C S N C N C N C C S N N C S N C S N C S N C S H C S 1 I I I I I I I II Z Z Z 2 Z 2 I 2 3 4 S 71, I 234 S 7 I 1 2 J 4 5 6 I I 1+1_1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I 1 1 I 1 I I 1 I I ----------------------------------------------------I 1 1+1+1+1+'+1+1 1 1+' I I I i i t' I I 1 I 1 I I --------------------------------.,.---. I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I Iti i i .i II I I I r I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I 1+1 I I I I IIJI I I I 1+1+( _________________________________ __ I I I I I I I 1+1 ... I I\. 1 ,1'1 ,+1 -I I I I I I ---_ .. _-:-. --------------------. ------.----------------I I II i 1+1 1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I i .11 I I I 1+1+1 j-i-i-i-i;ri .. ______ __ ....... __ ":,,,,;, __ I I I 1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 I 11+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 1+1 1+1+1 I II I I h l I I I 1 I I I I 1 1+1 I .. 1 1+1 I I 1+1 I ------------------'... ... I I I I : L+ I I I I I I t...;! I : I I I I 1+: I I I I : : I. 1+1 I -t I I t 1-+ I I I : ,+ I I J I I I : I : t : : : I-I n'tr" adu.c::.d ,. it.

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, Ecala.1caJ Co Tabl. Fil.: H.rbaceous PP. Cro"t.alaria. Cro-ten .;'P. Cro"ton Cro"tonops"a l'n ,.is Rushf"oil canad.nsis Hon.wor"t c.anad.nai. Hon.wo,..-t C"tani'tis sloan.' S 1nol. pu.pktn p.duncula'tu. B.ach s'ta,. SPP. Fl., d C"r't'opod1u. punc'.'tu. (I) Orchid Ci ,. C",..-topodiu. (2) Orchid Co .. horn Dal ..... 111. Prair'. clave,. Da'tur -tel Pr:lckl"bur Decoden Willow Wa-te,.. bipinna,a F.,..n Cyp).' incanUN DCSMOd.i UI:, d d Pin.land "tor'tuosum Florida A ..... : He S H C S H C S H C S H H S S S H C S S S H C I H C S H C S C S H C S N C S H C N C -Cn-3,..':;c"t.!""'iz:ir.';I +-Occur. N-Hor't'h C-Can't,... S-So .... 't ... I I Itt Itt t I 222 2 2 2 2 I 2 3 4 5 7 I 2 3 4 5 G 7 t 234 5 G Itltlt'_ltl I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I ------------------------------------"----------------1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 1+1 I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+'+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I ----------------------------------------------------I I I I i I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I .. I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I Itl+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1+1+1 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I i I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ------------"-----------------------_ ....... --------------I I I I I I I I I I I + I + I + I + I + I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+\ I I I I I I I I I I I I I : I I I I I 1., 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I : : I I : '.1+1 I : I 1+': I I I : I I It' I I I : : I I : t 1+1 : I I I :+1 I I I I : I I I I I I I I : : P .... 28

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, E:cala.lc .J Ca u .. I-t'll T.bl. Fll.: W.rbaceou. D'ch ...... ". col.,...". ..... ,.. POQ,.. Jo Dlodi. v.,. ..... ....... Dro, ..... . Sundew ludoYle'.ft1 Shield'.,.." ob1oft."o)'. TWinf'low.,... Eichhorn'. cr jla-t ... h"ac I n1:h El ... ha .. -to.us .p,s -"oo'" Epidendru. Dwe,..' E:nc'\ICll. baa1:hl .... Orchid Dollar E:nc ... cl S& ..... n . Orohld E.ldendru. &Gun Orc'o.id ..... I .... nd,."'. Ep1de"dru. cochl.a"",. O .. chld CI h.11 Epldendru. conolll u. O .. chld C .... f)'II Eptd."drue -U.bell.d .p,d.ndr .... Epidendrua noc'turnU$ Orchid N'.h't EpidenoruM Orchid Florida E,..iqcrcn ZPP. E,..ioc:lo...'on :aP;:.. (1) Pipewor't C '2> Hatpin "" .. N C N C S N C S N C I N C S N C S N C S S S S 5 S N C S S 5 CS N C S N C S N C S S-Sau1:h .. , I I I I 2 22 2 2 Z 2 234 I 7 I 2345' 7 I 234 5 1 I II I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 .11 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I + I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 1 1 1+1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I -------.. I I 1 I I 1+1+1 1+1 I I I 1.1 I I I I i I I I I 1+1 I . ----------------------------------------------------I I I I '.I II I III I 1 1+1+1+11 (' II 1 I I I I I J I I I I I I 1 I I J 1+1 I II I i I I I I I I I .... --... I I I I : 1 1 I I Hili 1+1+1 1 I J I 1 J 1 I I I I J ... ..;.-----------I I I 1 1 I I I I J 1+1+1 '+1 I I I I 1 1 I I II I 1 I I 1+1+1 I 1 1 I 1+1 1 I I I I I 1 1+1 I I 1 1 : 1 I I 1 I I 1+1+1 I 1 I I II 1 I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1+1+1 --...

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Ecola9'-cal Co Uft'''t ... Ta .. l. Fil.: .... rb.c::.o:"'. E"',o.aftw. Buckwh.a't Sc.rub Erlo.on",_ 'to n'ta.",_ Buc:lcwh.a't . 1011101 .Er'l'throd tll;u.rce."tlcaJa O';c:hld -L o .. E,.. ... :throld E,.."'theronl",,. u.b .. Jtca'tu. Violc-t Di.p l.d do.'too'th ulo .. .hi a. O,..chid 1011101 coco E:ulophl. .c,.t.-ta"'ta Trtc'rchos Eupa-torlu.-alb",. EUPla'toriu. Whl-t. Eu .... 'toriu-. .; ... II ,jol lu. Fen".l Do .. ... Yank.. w d .. lkantode. . S "ha,.. $".""'001: "'11:. ... 'tor.u.-villa.ue 't E ..... .. I. ... ho,... P.in: .... d I f:upho,,"I. "'.-t ....... h .. ll. J'lciins_e't"t,a 1011101 ...... Spu,., ex.let.ot. CO Eus'to Eu."t"o.a .. (2) Pr4JrieQan"ti F j -avQria Fro._l i chi a f'loridana ( I ) C01:tonweed Froe):ichia f'lol'"'id&nA (2) Co"t"tcr. Snak. Ar C H C H C S H C s H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C C S C C S C S S $ S Ii C S H C S C."u" "" .... r-t t t , , t a 2 2 2 I I 23 C 7. t 2 3 4 S I I I 1+. II It. I I I I I 11 J ----------------------------------------------------I I 1+1+1 I 1 1+1+1" 1 1 I I I II I 1 I 1+1 I r I ... -----------I I I L Hi I 1 1 I 1+1 1 1+1 I !+II I 1+1 1 I 1+1 I ---.------------------------------------...;. _-----_ ... -_ ... II I I 1+1 I I-I Ij I I I II I I I 1+1 1111 II _________ ________________________ J _____ ...;. ___ _____ I i I I I II II I 1 .1+11+1. 1.1 I II I I II I i I -...,----.-------------------.... I I I + I + I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I III ------------_ .... _------.. _-------..;,_ ._-------------------I I I + I +1 + 1.1 I I i I + I I I I I II r I i I I I I I I I I I 11+1_1_1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 i 1 1 .+1 I i .... '"!'.;.. 1+1+1+1+1+1-'-'+1 1 1+1+1+1+1+1 1 I 1 1+1 I I I I I -----------------------------------------------------. -. I I I I I I + I + I +1 + I + I I I I I I I I + I I t II I I I I ...... ..... I I I I 1+11 I I I I I I I II Iii 1+,1' I .ill I ... --':'"'------.. I .I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I III. I I .... I 1+ II 1+, I I J I ,+ I I I I II I t I I I I , I ..... -. -.. I 1+ I J 1+ r I I I ,+ I I I I II I I I I I I I I. I I '+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 1+1 1+1+'+1 I I I I I I I I I I I -...;-------------------------_._---------_ ... ------------1 1 I I I , I' I I i III" '.1+1 '.' I : 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I ,..: I 1+1+1 l .11 II I ..... ---------... -..... 1 1+1 I i I I I I 1 I. 1 1 I I I I 1+1 I I I 1 L 1 ------. -----..;-... -------------------------:.:.. ....... -----:...-----1 1 1+1+1+1 1 : I I : ... I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I. Ii --------------------------.------------.... -----,-------, i 1 + 1 +1 + 1 f 1 I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 ... ---------------... --------_ ... _---.-----------.--------,. . JO

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, Ecolo.iC.1 Tabl. File: Me,..baceous Ge'llard'. Gaill.rdia 'Iawer Galac'tia app. (2) n.""i1'. aho_lac. a.ds-t,..aw G4ura Uir (1) Cudw d Gnaphaltu. (2) Tabo&cco Rabbl't Gnapha)luM .... Cudw d Gua.&ni& Monos-tachl& Atr plan"t Guz.anta (2) Bro Jtad Fuoh'. Orchid Frinq_d Harp.roeallts Harper'. b.au't'J Harri ll. Orchid .... d.osa .r&v.o]-.". Heleni\.ol'l aCarUN Sneaz.w d -Bi"t'tcr MGI)eni .... '.l spp. M.!:: 1 j an"l:he.rAurr; SPP. H ;=l ian"i..h ... s d.-e"bi lis Are. N C N C S N C S N C H C 5 H C H C 5 H C S H C 5 5 5 H C S H S N C H C S H C S H C S C S N C S .-Char-.::.="t:2ri:zinq -t-Occurs N-Hor't'n C-Can't'ral S-Sou'th 1 1 1 1 1 1 a z z z z z z 2345 57 S I Z 3 4 5 7 a Z 3 4 5 1-1+1+1+1+1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 I I I 1 1 I -------------------------------------------------_ . _I I 1t1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 I 1 I 1 1 I I I I I + I + I 1 I I. I 1 + 1 + I II I I + I I I I 1 + I I I I 1 I + I + I + I + I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I t J i II I II I 1 I I I I II 1+1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I I j Ie 1 I 1 II 1+1 1 I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1 I III I j I 1: I 1 I I .. i ...... I I I II I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I' I 1 . 1 I r I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 11.+I,!.d ill I I II _______________ -' _____ .;, ___ .;. ____ __ ........ __ I I I II I 1+1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I II I I I 1 I I . I 1 I I 1 1+1+1+1+1+ 1 1 Jill 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I+i I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 I \+1 1+1+1+1+1+1. I I I I 1 1 I I I 1+. 1 I I I II I I I I 1 ...... 31

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Ecolo cal Co Tabl. Fil.: evr vICue -S ,d. PP. H.1 H ....... te. nobal,. La".,.) H.",,-,.o-th.ca cruis.ana GoJd.na.t.r Crui s Florid. 4,. ln.f01 (1) Gold.n Gra leaf ,. Ift.folaa (2) 511I(qr scab,..ll. Goldenas-t.,.. subax.lla,.I. Ca.phor ..... d sPP. (t) Hibiscus Hjb (2) "allow fta.e H .... d,... I la vc,..otlc' J J .a",. lI,.d,.llla .... lc bonar'eft.'. Dal.arwort Larqal f (1) ... o,.."'t H .... Pp. (2) P .enn"wor-t L11" SPider. H .... pericu .. S"t. ,",onn. 'wor't zpp. alb"t"a H in"t .Nuslc., IndiCio Wai,.." Ar C S C S '" '" H C S N C S H C S '" C S '" C S H C S '" C S C S C S N C S H C S H C S '" C S H C S H C S S-Seuich I I , I , I I I 2 2 2 2 2 2 I I 3 4 S 7 S I Z 3 4 S 8 7 S I Z 3 4 5 ,+,+, I , , , , I I I ,.i I , , , ,+ ... I I I , ,., , 1+1+' , '+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I , I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I HI+I 1+1 I I I I I , I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I , I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I ,.1.,+,+1+,+, 1+1+1+1 1+' II I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I '+1+1+1 I I , I I I lit' I I I I I ----------... I I 1+1 , I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I 1 I I I I I ----------------------------------------------------I I I I I 1+1+1 1+1 I 1+1 I I I ,'', i i "+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+' 1+1 I 1+1 I I I 1+1 I I ... I I 1+\ I I I , I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1 I I + I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+' I I I I 1+ I + 1+ 1 + I 1+1+1 , I I I I I I I 1 1 I 1 '+1 d I I 1 ,1+1+1+1+1 ---------------------------------..:..---------------""+1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I J+I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 _-----------------------"";'"----------------------------I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I 1+1 1+1 1+\ 1 1+1+1+1 Ifl+I+I+I+'+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+1 1+1+1+1 I I 1+' 1+1 1+:.1 I I 1 I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I : I I I : r 1+:+:+:+:+: Lj. t : 1+1+1 : (+1 I : : :+:+: I I I I I I 1+1 I :+: I 1+1+ I I I I I I I I I I I I P .... 12

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! Ca Table Herbaceous p.l. Ind-ioeao Jndlqaf.,.. sp,.. IndiCio lonop.'.'. Iri PP. Iris Fla. Jrl. v.,.-na I"r1. Dwarf lj Mornlnq P'neland ... 1 vJr.lnlca Hallow Lachnocaulon (1) Baq bu't'ton Lachnoc.ulon ."P. (2) Pip.wor't -H lr-.... L.ch pp. Pinw d ,..,.. Gho" .a't p)an"t L'i!rAna. 3"PP. Dvcf,(w d L.pjdiurn (;a .... fGa.1:he,. Ar N N C S 5 N C 5 N C 5 N 5 S C N C S N C S H C S H C S N C S 5 N C S N C S N C N C S N C S I I I I lit I II 2 22 2 2 2 2 I 234 5 S 7'8 9 e t 234 5 S 7 8 9 e t 234 5 S 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Iii 1 1 1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1 1+1 1 1+1+1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+ 1 + 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1 1 1 1+1+1 f 1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1 1 I I 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I. 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1+1+1 1 1 I 1 1 1+1+1+1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1+1 1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 + I 1 + 1 + 1 1+1+1+1. +1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I I 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 I I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1+ 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 II I I 1 I 1 I : I I 1+:+:".:+: : I :+:+: I 1+1 : J I 1+: : : I : : : : I 1+1+1 1+1+1 J I I "I, : I I : I J 1 I : I : I I : I : : 1+1+"1 1+1+1 1 I I I I I I I : : : I : I : I I I : I-In'troduced

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[colo.tcel Fil.: Ltllu. Caroll"lanu. LII .. Penhendle Li I lu. (1) L,l"" CII't b"'. Lillu. c .. CZ) Li 1",,-Pine Lilliontu .... l1li. Lavend.,.. S.a L'nd.rni. ana tl,d Fa) _piM .. e,.net Li .. pja app. (I) Lippta L i pp ,a app. 2 ) Cardinal f'low.,. Ludwlqia SPfII. P,..t.,..o Wa-t.,.. Lupin",. Lupine LUPinu .... ,..ftni. Lupin. Luplnu. villasus Lupine -L.d .... Lup'nu. w t'e"",s Lupin Club.o3s Hanqi"q L .... c:opod 10.,,. .pp. ClubMas. l'iacbricea alba Whi'te Hidden ,: "..1:':': i i EUT.:;hf i owe,.. A,. " C I C S C S C S C S N C S N C 5 ,. C S ,. C ,. C ,. N S ,. C 5 ,. C N 5 Ii C S 5 I t t , t I 222.22 2 2 2 3 5 I 7 I 2 3 5 7 2 3 5 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 .t. I I 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I It I + I I I I I I I I Ilt. 1 II I + I I I 1+1 .. .. -----.. 1+1+1 I I I 1' 1 I I I I I j '+I+iLVI I Ii j ,-,, ' . ... ""---..... ... ----I I I I I I I I II I II I I ill,Lllrl'tl+I+1 ----------------------------------"" .. ...... -f: ...... ......... 1t1+1 I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+'. I L I 11 1 .11+11+1+1 --...:-----------------------------.... ... r :;.,; .... I I I I I II I I I II I I I 1 -1+li ________________________ ______ ____ .. ,i,I,; .... ... .,. ___ __ 1 I I + I +l -I II I I I I I I I I It" II I I : I I I I ----------;...------... .... ;".. .... .... -1+1 i I I I I II II I III II If I Ii. I I I I I --------------------:--"':'-------:--------------------------I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I j I I 1+1 I I I I I .... "':"------... -.... ------I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 11' 1 I 1 III I II I I I I I I 1+1 I II I I I i I I I I I II I I 1+11 I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I .. I I I I I 1 'I : I 1 I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1+1+1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I : : : : t : : I : : : : : : : : : : I : I : : +: : -----------------------.s'!q,f"----------------------------I 1+1 I'll I I I I I I : 1+ I I I I I +1 I I I I I I :

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Ecaloqtc .. l T.bJ., Fila: H.rbac.ous ".J.n't .... ,.. .. n:iv Bunchf' 1 ow .... Bunchf"lo .... r woodi' Hell.bore flaridan& S-tic:;klaaf' H'craqra Farn ,,.1na "tlcan:la scand.n. H pw d H1.0 S.n.i1:i ..... plan"t Ni"tcheJla repe". Par"tridq. b.r,.." Manard. t ) B bal .. Honarda punc'ta'ta (Z) HO,.. Nono"trops:ia Banana PP. Hi Ifoi I Naja. Naiad Na J&s r.l$r i n& M&l"'"inllil! SAlad NaJ";i; raino,.. NCi.iad Slander Me: 1 umbo' 1 \.ltea American eel "tt&] r.:.rn Ba.-ton Ar N C S S' N N C S N C S S N C S N C S N C S N C 5 N C 5 N C 5 N C S N C 5 N C S N C S N C 5 N C C S 1 I I 111 I I I t 2 2 222 2 t 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 9 I 234 5 6 7 89. I 234 5 6 I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I 1 1+1 I I 1+1 1 I I I 1 1+1 I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I 1 I :+1+: I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 I 1 1 I 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 Iii 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 I 1 I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I 1+1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 'I 1 1 I I 1 1+1 1 I I 1+1 1 1+1+1+1 1 1+1 1 I 1 1 I I 1+1+1+1 1 1 1+1+1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I I II 1 I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I_I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I_I I I I I I I I 1 I II I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I II I I I I I I' I 1 I I I J.I I:t I. I I .1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1+1 I I I 1 I 1 1+1 I 1 1 I I I I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1+1 1+1 1 1 I 1'1+1 1 I I I I I J I I : : : r I : : I r+1 : f I I I 1 1+1 I I ; ttl : :. I I It: I I : I I r r : I : : I :+1 : I J I I I" l +: + I I I I l+! III I + I I I 1+ I I. I I + I I I I I 1'1 I f I I I : I ; + I +: J : + I 1+: I 1 I : : :1 ...... 35

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: --, EGola.1ea' Co Fil.: Holtn ... ... Florida Hul:tha,. lu u. 1.q.n. I've xicana -Y.llow N"-1Mll=lh odo,.. aqua.ica Flo4t"jn.-h ,... O.no'th.,.. blann'. Pri_ro Eventn. Ok.fti .. h...,P04 a. Faur o-clQQk BurrowSn. Oneidau. Orchid Onctdiu. lurldu. Orchid Onctdtu. v.,.. Orchid Daneln. Oron't'u GQld_n club O unda cinn a F.rn Cinn.lton Os,.und. ,.. .... 11. F.,-Y' RO...,61 .,.. n "11 Ox ..... PQ li.s SPP. o Water-oroPwor-t Pach ..... ..... Moun'tain .pur ..... Ar- Ne N C S S N C S N C S N C S N C S 5 5 5 5 N C N C S N C 5 N N C 5 N N C N C N t I I I I t I I I I Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 345 I 7 I e I Z 3 4 5 6 7 I e I 234 5 6 , , , 1+1 I I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1+1 1 I 1+1 I 1 1+1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I+i 1 i I I 1 1 1+1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1+1 1 1 I I 1 1 1+1 I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 I I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 Iii I I 1+1 I _________________________________ 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1+1 1+1+\ iii I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1+1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I i I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I.j.f I i 1+1 I I 1+1 1 I I 1 J 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1_1+1 I Iii I '1+1_,+1 I 1 1 1 I l I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1-1+1+1 I 1_' I 1+1-1+1 1+11 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I t I I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I I 1+1 1+1 1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I : I I I I I I : I I 1+: +1 I I I I I : I I I I I I I : I : : : r I I : : :.: :. j I : I 1+1 : I I : I I :+: : 1 + 1 I, I 'I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I : \ I \

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fcol"o.sc.1 Co ","t-t'l leble FII.: ,..It.nd ..... P.I'.ndr6 .. "'c. .... ,. ':''''''''0'' P .... ro.'. 'lo,..idan. .... PCP.,...O,.la Ev.,....J.d raparo.,. PCP.,..OMj4 Florida "P.'lvarja all c c.,.. I lc; w d Philox.,..u. -Y.r e"'I.,..S. Harsh sallPhi,... au,..eua F.rn Galden Phlox apllt. Phlox Phoradend,..on rUbru. .... ... P ...... llan-thu. Ph" 1i PP. Ground . ,..tG.n. Polk .... d PI ... i\llllua-ta .fIIP. Pirl"qua-ta "'.Tia PI '"ten .... lf'ol sa" Fern Pl\Jchea f'ce-t!da P I 1" ) r 1 cac.!i.:nQ Mar.h (2) A .... N c: N c: S S S S H C 5 S N C S H (; S 5 S N C S N C S C S H C S H S H C S H C 5 H C 5 :W-Char" .ci"zr i i +':'Occurs N-Nor-tfort C-C.n-tra J S-Sou-th t t t t t t t t t t Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 t 2 3 4 5 7 as. t 234 S 7 S 2 3 4 5 I I I I I I I I I I I I r I I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 1 +I + 1 I I I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 I 1+1+1 1 1+1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 1+1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I I I_I 1 I 1 1+1 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I 1 I I 1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 I Iii I I I I 1 I 1 1 1+1+1 I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1+1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I 1 I I I 1+1+1+1 I 1 I I 1 I I I I I I ---------------------------------_ .. _--"'!"'------------"--I I 1+1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I 1 I I 1+1+1 1 1+1 I I I '.1+1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 .. 1 I I I 1 I I II I I I I -------------------------------------;"':""----:-------..... --I I I I 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 I I 1 Iii I 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1 I 1+1 I Iii I II I I I --------------. .---...;.---------------------.. -..... ..-.. ---1 I i II +I I I II 1 + I + I 1+' 1 I I t '.1 I I I J+ I I 1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I 1 I I I I I. ill 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1+' i I ,il I 1+1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1'1 I_I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I II 11+1+1+1 I I I I 1 1 1+1 I I I I I 1+1+1-+' I 1 1 I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 1 I I 1 I I 1+1 I I 1 I 1 1 I I I : I : : : I I : : : : : I : : : + I : : : t I : : l

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Eca)o4ical Table File: Werbaceou. old Ro Polani.,a Catchfl,. Pol'l9ala .... llii Po h"qa 1 0& -T i "'I SPP. Ni ll(wor't .Join"tw d qracilia .Jo.in"tw d .Joan"tw d Lar '-'ir.w d Uood ... -.oc't"ober PP. (t) S .. ar't", d Pol .... onu pp.(2) Kno"t_ w d FernfI')u Pol..,podluM Fern R Po) .... 1;ac;h .... lu-tcqla Orc .... id corda'ta Plck.eralw d o)er-acea Purslane .. a l.!.-=.:i r-! 1 -:)Sa Fortulaoa o ver$ifoJlus Variable-l.a' Ar H C H C S C S S H C S H C 5 H C S H C C S H C 5 H C 5 H C S S H C 5 S H C S N C S 5 H C 5 N C 5 S-South t t l t tit I 2 2 2 Z Z II I I' '+I+i+lt" I I 1 1 t 1 1 1 1+11+,1' 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I 1 I I I , I I I I 1 I I I I -------------------------.-------------;...-... I I 1+' I 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I 1 I I' 1 I II I I , 1 , 1+' I 1 I I' I 1 , I I 'I , 1 1+1+1+1+1 I 1 1+1 '+1 I '1+' I 1 1+1.' ----------------------------------------------------I I 1+'+1 I I 1 1 1 I I I' 1 I I ,'1 I 1 I I I I I I I+IH II' I II Ii, II I I I I I '" ----------------------------:-:------------------------, I 1+1 I 1 1 1 II , I I I' I I I' , , 1+1 I I I I , I I I , I t' 'II I, I J -------------------------------------------.-... 1+1+1+'+1 I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 Ii ... ------------:"---------------------------.... I I I , I I I I I I '+1 1+,+, '+'+'+1 I I I I I I II I I I I 1+1 11+'+1 1+1+1+1 1 I I I , , [I I 1+1 "IIi I 'I I I II 1 I II I 1 I "I +, + 1+'.1.1 I , I I I I I I I ----------------------------------------------------I I I .I I 'I 1 I I 1+1+' I 'I I I , I , I I I 1 II I + ., I I I + I I I _I_ I + I I 1 I 1+1, +1 I I I 1+' , I I I I I I I I II I 1+: I Itt 1 I I I I 1 / t I i I : : I : t : : : 1+1+1+1+1 t I I I I I I I I I I I I I I : t I J : : I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I t I I I I I 1 I : : J-ln'troducad

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, Ecolo.icaJ Ca Tabl. File: Herbaceou. Pondw d Saqo Pro.arpinecA A4uiJinuM Farn Bracken Fern Brake (1) Blac;k roo"t (2) Rabbit(3) Cudwaad cepjllacau. Biahopw d Mock r&qidu. Pnn'-jlro"a.J R ophiocephala Orc .... id Snake Rh.xia Ju-te. H.adow-b Yellow Rh.xia .aria.na Whit. Rh.xi4 .pp. J,(no'tw d (1) Doll.row.ad Rh'lnch". i. ren j, 'fo,... t. Snout b.an app. (1) Snou't baan SPP. (2) Dollar-we:ed Rivin.:::. h'..!{.11 I i. i !l hi r"t-!l Black-c ... ed Susan *-Ch.J,r.) e'i:crl:!!: i nq +-OCCUI""S H-No,.. ... h C-C.n't,..al A .... N c: S N C 5 H C S S N C H C 5 N C S N C S H C 5 S N C S N C.5 N C 15 N C S N C 5 N C S N C S N C s N C S N C s S-Sou'ti. t t t t t t t t t t Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 t 2 4 I 7 I 2 3 4 5 C 7 I 2 3 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1 I I 1 1 I I 1+'. I I I I I-I +I + I-HI + I + I + 1 I I I + I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I 1 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 111+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I 1 I 11111 II 1 I I 1 I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I 1 Iii I I I 1 1 I ----------------------------------------------------1 I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1 I I I I I I I i I I I 1 I I 1 I 1 1+1+1+1 1 I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1 i I I I I 1+1 I ...... ........... ..:.---.;.. I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 I i II I 1+1 1+1+1 ----.... I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 1 I 1 1+1 1+1 1+1+1 I I I 1 + I + I I I 1 + I I + I I 1 + I I I II I I I I I 1 I I I : I I + I + I I I I + I I:.' .1 I + I I I I I f 1 1 J I : : I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I ) 1+1+1 I 1+1+1 1+1+1+1.1 1+ I I I + I I I I I I I F I I + I I .1 1 I I II I 1 I 1 r --------------' ------------------------------------II 1 1:t I+1 I 1 I I 1+1 I I I : I I I I I I I I I : : --------:-------------------------------------. -------,. 19

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ECO]04Sc.l Co Tabl. File: Ru .. II."I ..... .... S't .John'.-Su.an ftudb.c:kta .... Con.'f1 ow.r Ruell .-11'. Ruellia Ru.ex ......... a'tulu. Sorrell Ru.ex .PP. Dock Rupp, ri'ti Saba-tia.PPe Harsh pSnk Sach.l. bah en I Sachsla Bah S i ..... rsa s ... p. (1) Arrowhead Sa i'taria-spp. (Z) Duck-po'ta'to Sal Scar-wisa ....... Gl.s.wor't 5.,lsola kall Ru illn 'thS.'tI. Salvia .PP. Sa S6lvina. auricul ...... Salyinia PiMPernel Santeu]. canadensi. Snake-rao't Nt&lica San:iiieyiari& Sarracunia p)&n't White Arr 0:""; h <3: ad Li::tird':ii 'tail A .... .. C H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S 5 H C S H C S H C S N C 5 N C S N C 5 N C 5 N C S 5 N N C 5 N C 5 5-Sou"th 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Z Z 2 Z 2 Z Z 1 234 5 7 as. 1 2 3 4 S 7 as. 1 2 3 4 S G 1 1 I II! 1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1 1+1 I 1+1+1 1+1 1+1+1 I I 1 I 1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I 1 1 1+1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1 / 1 I I I I I II I I I I I I 1+1 I. I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1-1+1-1 I I I II I I I 1+1 I I I I 1 I I I I 1"1 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1+1 I I I I 1 1+1-1 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 1+1 i I I I 1 1+1-1 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 '1+1+1 I 1 1 I I 1 I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I II I I I I I 1 I I 1+1+1+1+1 I I 1+1+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I, I I 1 I I I 1+1 1 I 1+1 1 1 1+1 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I 1 1+1 1 I 1 I I 1+1 I I 1 I 1+1 I I I I I I 1 1+1 I I I 1 I 1 1 1+ I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I I I I J I I I I I 1 : : : I : : : I I I : : :+: I : : I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 I I r I 1 1 1 1+1 I 1 I I I 1+ II(I I I I : J I : : 1 I : I 1+: J : :+: I I 1+1:111 I I 1+1+1 J-Int-roduced

PAGE 235

Ecolo.lcal Co Tabl. F i 1 H.,'-b.ceaua Schra .. k 'a _I cro"h .. lla Sen. j 't lye brae,.Sci ..... U' Bul,..ush I .......
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fcolo_lcal Co Table File: aQ.t Ixia lar'tr '. Spj",..an'th . Orchid - b.ak.d Spirod.Je Pet-)"",,,,, Duc:;kw d'-G,.n't ....... Qu ",'. d.lt.h-t Stipul _Cltde ..... -. Utre p)an't Penel) fla",er S't ... Jo.a,,'th c;alc:;tco-l. PanG'l 'lowe,.. S't .... Jo ft-th.. h ... 't. Pe",c;il 'lowa,.. Sua.d. lin r 5 (t) PjpCWOf"''t S ... (2) Shoe bu"t"tons T611,,\.I. Tel in". T.c;-ta,..a Gor"aftdr,'f.I,. Fern -B.ver halb.rd lacotar'. Fe,.n -Ualberd Tec-taria loba'ta F .... n Halberd Tcphros.i& app. Goa'tsrue The:ll.1 dcalb. ;;."ta I"'; ':"! 1 i 3. Powdered Fire fluOCJ .. -:;:;.-t'..::ri-:;; thel''!p-teraid Fe:rn Marsh ..... C S C S C 5 H e S H C S S S e 5 e s e s 5 S $ S H C $ C 5 H C S .-Char;: i +-Oc:curs N-Nor-th C-C.n't,..al S-Sou'th "$11' fl1t t. z 22 Z 1 2 3 7 . I 3. 11 't t 2 3,", 5 5 111. '111+1'11 . 11 I f I II II I 1 1 I r I ....... -.;;. I I 1111 I 1 .I+i II+IHI+I I IIi.1 I , I ___ .. _"':", .... ... :-._ __ ... ... __ ... ... __ I I tIl f .1 1 '11 . 1 II I I+i, II 1". 1 '.'1+1 1 '.;..--.... -.. ... .. ... .. ..... .. I. I Lt I+t" II. II 1 I I II.LI: I .tr+I+I+I+1 -". .... -... .. ..... --.. ........ '----'!"'-...,;-..... .. ------'!'"-------=... .. .. I L I+HII r II 1111' 1 JlllfIIILI':I 1 Iltll It'. t 1:"1 r 1111111", 1 II __ ... _.'!O"_;"" __ ';"_",_. __ ...... ..... ... ....... __ .... -.: ..... .. I 1 ] I 1 I I I 1'1 1 1 I HI I II i I j 'l' I 'fl' -,;-------.... ... -...; ... ... --............ ... 1+1+1 II I I I I I .11 I 1.1. IIU+I filli.t 1 ------... ---.... ---.----. -.. .... ,..-.... -.. ...... ... J I I I 11+I+tll.' It'll I I ,JII'f. }+HI .. --,..; .. -----.... .... ... -..... -.-;.,;;..;,. .. ----. --""' .. .---' i I tlll+l+'1 I'll I II I itY, III 11+1+1 I J II I II I 1 ... 1 I J 1 ... 1+1 'I II II I I I t II ... -...:--...;---.. ----.... -.,;-.. ..:-.;..;..----. .;,.-----...;-I I I I I I t I I I II. 11+11 I II I J )1 111..' I I 111. 1 I I J I J 1+1 ... 1 I I I I' I I I II I I -.. -.... .. "'", ,-..;....... .... .... .---... .... --.;..-... I .III.II! I 1 .1.' 1+1+1 111.11111 I I I' . --------.. -----... -----------, ........ . -........ ----------I 11+1+"+1+'+1-1-1+"1+1 I I,tli 1 I I-I f II I I ------------------------... _--"":"._---.. .-------.... ------I 1 I II , I I I I I I I 1 .1. I r J I I H' I I .I I 1 I I I I I I' I I I I' .11, I) 1+' I --------':""'----.... -... ----------.-----..... ... ------.-----.... -, , I I II I I I I I I 1+1 I 1+1+1+1+1 ,+I I ----.. --..... -,.:.----;.,...;... .... --.-,,:-' ---l-ln'troduc.d

PAGE 237

, Ecolo.'cal Co Tabl. Fil.: Tiliaft la .al aft. Ai,. plan't Tilland (I) Aj,. pl&n't lilland.'. ,. (2) Wild pine Slender l v.d T,IJand.'. Air p)on't _f (S) Ai,. plan"!' l'lJand.,a (Z) Wild pin. lilland.ia Air plan, Twi.-t.d Yilland.ia pruino .Ir pJan"t' T'lland.' (I) Air plan"t Tillaftd.la .. (Z) Wild pin. T,lland.'. u.n.aid Sp.n.1 .... MO Tilland.'. (1) Air" p)anot u"tr1cula ... a (Z) Wi ld pin. Trad can't'. app. Spid.r"'wor"'t Traqia :iiaxicola cis"'to.-d F i ),.'1 Tr"' i o=nOt.! -3.nJ!:S:: pv.'c t&-tUnI Fern Fi l .. TriJ i s 0 D.er" "'tonque ..... I N C: I N C S S S S S S N C S N C S N C S N C S S S N C S S S S S N C S S-SQuth I I I I,' I t t t z z a z z z Z I Z 3 S S I Z 3 4 S I 23. S I I I I 1 I I I 1+' I I 1+1+1+1 1+' I I I 1 "11 I I I ----------------------_._----------------------------I I I I i l I I I 11+1+1. 1+1.1 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I II I I 1+1+1 1+1+1 1+1 I I I .+i t I I II I I II I I I I 1+1 II 1+1+1+1 1+1 1 I I I t I II I . __________________________________ __ M _____________ 1 I I I I 1 I I J 1 1+1+1 1+1+1 I+I j j 1+1 I r I I I .. I I 1 I I 1 I III 1 I I 1+1+1 I.j.j i I 1+1 1 1 I I I ... 1 I I I .. I I I 1+ I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 I I II 1 1 / 1 / I I / / 1 / /+11 // I / ----------------------------------------------------I / / 1 / I 1 : I 1 I 1 I 1+ 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I I I / 1_1_1_' I '+1 I I 1 I / I 1 1 I 1 I I 1J ""'troduced ..... 4)

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Eco)O.lcal Co Tabl. File: H.rbacaau. T,.""I,II. "oh.'t.ch ... Orchid Youn .... 1. T...,pha app. C"'t't"11 C ..... r we.d Ut,..icul.rl P. Bladderwar-t Yallisn.,..,a aMaricana E.l-qr .... Yanilla .. Vanilla pha n-tha Orchid \/"nlll" V.rb cuM Hu),leln 14001 ... V.rbena s .... Ve,..b.n .. Verb ina nll C,..ownb rd nj. V.rb ina vl,.. niG. C,..ownla. .. rd V.rnoniA .PP'. Ironw d Vlela aeu"tl'folia V.teh Sand Vic,a ."P. \/101" h".1:"1:" Halb.rd-l.av.d Viola GPP. Viol.-t Vi-ttaria. 11n .. a"ta FGr'n Grass '-leo-;::li ). Ar S H C S H C S N C 5 H C S 5 5 N C S H C 5 H H C S H C 5 H C S H C S H H C S S H C S c S N C 5 i::::: i n
PAGE 239

Ca tabl. Fi Je:' .... ,..b.c.ou. Wolff II. flo".".n. 109-"4'" ,...01 Wood .... rd . vt,.. n.c. Chal.n Xan'thi'U ....... Cacklebu ... pala L i A"taI'l18sc& L i l'l A-taraaseo Lil.." -'A-t:amasco II,. N C S N C I N C S N C I Ii Ii C S N C S N C 5 N C 5 N C S +-Occu,... N-Nor'th t I I tit t I I I Z 2 Z 2 2 Z 2 I 2 3 4 5 7 I 2 3 4 5 7 I 2 3 4 5 & I I I I I II i I I I I I 'I I I 1 .. 1 II 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I I 1+1+1 1 I I 1+. 1 1+1+1+1 I I I I .. . I 1 I I I 1+1+1+1 1+1 1 1 I 1 1 I I I 1+1+1+1 1 1 I 1 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I II I II II I I I 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I-I 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I HI I I I I I II II i I I I I : I I I I 1+1+1 : : :+1 : : :+: I t I I r : I : : : : 1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I 1 ,+1 I 1 1+1 I I 1 I II I 1 I I :

PAGE 240

.-Eco]oqlcal Tabl. Fi Ie: Vin AM .. el aps t. ar"or Peppe,.yln. An'9ad.nt4 app. Apia ..... riG.n. Gra .... ndnu-t B.rch ,. ac.nd.n. C I) n. B.rch t. ac.ndan. (2) Alaba.a aupp].-JaGk 81'9"0"14 capr.o]a-ta Cros.",tn. Bona.la qrandlf]ar.a ttor-nin'l-'Ilor'l ta H.dq. bindw d Ca_pals radic.na T"'u .. cr p.,.. Cane...,al i a .art"'tl Jla"b.an icroca,..pu. Balloon Yine C sa .PP. Ca ta Ca Loye vine Yir.tntaru. Bu"t"tar-fl"i P Cta.ua atc'Iotd Clematis-cr-jsP& (1, ) Blua-ja."ine Clema"ti$ crisp& (2) Marsh clallaotis leather-'flaw .... sPP. Dodd",,.. Ar II C,S S II II C II C N C C. S II C II C S C S S S C S II C S S N C II C If C S N C S +-Occurs N-North C-C.ntraJ S-Soutk lit 1 t ttl 2 2 2 2 2 2 12 3 4 58 7 as e l 23,45 & 7 8 234 5 G 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1 J 1.1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1+1 I I I I , I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1'1 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I II I I I 11./+1 I I I .. II 1+1' I II I I I I I I II I I I 1 11+ I + I I I I I I I I + I I 1 I I .1 I I I I I 1+1 I II I ,.1 1 I I 1 I 1 I UI I I I I 1 I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I ------... .... -----------.--.... -------'!"'----------------I I I 1+1 I I II I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I II I I 1 I I I I 1+1+1+11 I 1+1+1 I 1+' 1+1 1 ,.,+1 I I I I I '+,., I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1+1 I 1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I II I I I I ------------------------------------------.... --------I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I I .;...-----------------------------------------------_ ... __ .1 1+1+1 1 HI 1+1 I I i I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1+1+1+1.1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1 1+1 1+1 1 I 1 I I I II II I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I 1+1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I --------------------------------------------------I I 1+1 1 I I I I II I' I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I-I 1+1 I I I 1+1. I I 1 II I I 1+1+1+11 I II I I : 1+1+1+1 I 11 1 -:-1+1 I I 1+: : P .... 46

PAGE 241

,. EcaJo.'cal C Yi Ie: Vtne. C .. _lo .. Ikw d "'i"e D.cu ,.ia ... ,. ... ,.. Cl,.b'n. h"d,..." D adlu. '"c::anu. Cr- P'''. b r-w d Diaaco,. "illaa. Air po't.'to C I) Devil". pa't.1:o Echi't u.b.lla-t. (2) R",bb.,. vi". D.",11. ahoeJ.ce th Ik-p.& G&lac'ts& .olla. Hllk .... Gal.c't'. pt"e-toru. Hllk-p Ga1ac'tia r ular tit 11e.... Gal&c'tla Hllk.... G.I lua Y.llow Ja "''he alba J po_oe. p.s-cllpra ( t ) ; Be4=h' .gr"jn.-qJOf""'I J pol'ftoeu (2) Ra_ i lro&d yin. ,.or,..1n9-.10,.", W-Chal"".-;.'-c1'er i 1: i nq +-Occurs N-Nor'th C-Can"traJ Ar C C C S C I S S C S H H C S S H C S HC S H C C S C S H C 1'1 ',C S I 1 "1 I I I I I Z 2 I 2 2 I I 34 7 t 1 :I S & 7 , 1 2 ':I S & !-! .. I II' I I 1-1-1-1 + I + I I I I II I I I III ttl ,I I I ,.-r;;;-;-;-j-;-;;;-;-;-;-;-;-;-';-j-;-;-;-;-;-;-, ;-,+ -------------------------.... ------------------1 I I II 1+1 I I I 1+1 I 1111 I 1 1 I I -II +j-j;';'-j-j-j-j-j-;-j-j-j-rrrrrrj-j:Oj-j ... ....... I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I i I I t II I I I I j I .; ;-;-j;j;j-;-j-j-j-j-j-j-j-Il t-rnrrri-j-j '\ j-j-j-j-j-i;j-j-j-i-j-;-i .. ;j I __ ___________________ :...._ ....... __ .. __ -'-____ :" __ I I 1+1+1+1+1+1.1 I 1+1+.1 .11:+1.1: J J itl+1 1 1 I I I ;-j-;;;;;-j-;-;-;:;-';-j-;-j-r; "rT:I' j7t : i ,'!'Tj-;-j"'; , .-----... ---------------------. ------------------------."1-1 IT. I I I 1 1 I I I I i I I I i I : I I II II .... ... I ,,_I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I Ii II 11, 1 I II I ----------:...-----.-----,---;.--"':------.... ----.... I I I I I I I I I I 1 I + I I I I I I + I II +11 I I I I "-1+1 I I I I I I I t L j I I 'II I I I II I I I I I I 1.+1 I;" II I I I I I I 1+1 1 I I II III I I I I ... ... ...;. ...

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Eco.o.scal Co Fl 1.: Vi" .... 101." "00"1'10 .... ,. Pin.land .J"cillu on"t .Jac .. u I 'ta.n .. 'o I LQ,,'cer. JaPAn Helathri .... ndul. I'all. Cr pinq H.,..,.. ia d' c1:. H.,..,.. "ikan'. acanda". h w d H o t,.. '110.a Sen.l-tiva Yine pfa.ordlc:. B ... l apple wild Pa,..-thenocS .... "t"",u.'olla V,,..lnSa cr per ,. duU. (j) H ...,pop Pa S'lor dull. (2) Pa ioll 'lowe,. Pa flora Passion 'flowe,.. j'lo,..a x'lo,... Pa lon f"low.,. Pass i flo,...&. .ub.ra .... Pa&sion flaw.,. d Ptsonia 4Cyle6-ta Devi 1'$ cl.aw Rhobda2cni& c6r&1licola Rubbe!'"'vln. Rh ':I"'!1c:v: z i a Rh--.nchc214 t t t t t t t t t t Z II 2 I 2 2 i 2 3 4 S I 7 I 3 4 S 7 2 3 4 5 S I .. I I , I I I I I ,+I I I I It I r I I I II I -------------------------"---------------------------IS I I I I I I It I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I IS I I I I 1+1 1'1 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I -----------... ----------------.---------------.... -------" I I I I 1+1 I I I I I .I I 1 1 I II il III I I I I C S I I I I I I I I II I + I t I I I II I I, I I + I I I I I I C 1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I i I I i I .. I I I I N C S ______________________________________ .a. ____ _______ N C I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I i I I I II I I I C IS ,;,;,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,-,;,;,-rrrrrrrr,-,-, C S ." C S .. ....... f'.;,.----1+(+11+'.1+1+1+1 11+1 i+. 1+1 I j l I Ij( 1 II I ... --.... .; .... C S s I I 'II I I I I I I I I J 1+1 I II I) 1.1 Lt'!. I ---------------------------.. .. : .. .. .-. I I I I I I I I I I I 111' I f I 1'f'F'lli' Fril --. .,..-------.... I I .. I I. I I I I I I I I 1+1 II, I II I It t I !!I s S I I I I I I I I I I I I I i+1 I II I 1 1 "I"if 1.1 I -----------------.... -----.;.-----------. .... .;. ... ... 5 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+.1 I I I 1+1 I q i i 1 1 I C S I III' I I I I I I + I I,' I I + I I -I' I Ii 1 1 II l i II .. Ii C 5 I I I Itl 1+1+1 I I 1'1 I I I I I I :1 I 111, 1 J I ..... ... -+-Occu,.. H-Nar-th 1-.1

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, Ecolaqic.l Co T.bl. Fi I., : Yin RulDu ... (J) .laGlcb.,..,.. ... R",lIu". (2) Dawb.,..,.. ... Rub". sPP. (3) Ra.pb.,..,.. .... S.rco.-t ..... a clau.u,,'( S) Hi lkw d "ina clau.uM (2) Phillb ... 'tia Schrank! ic,..oph"lla S ...... i'tiv.-b,.'.,.. S., lax au""cuJa-ta (S ) -1oI,ld ba .. boo S.tlax (2) Gr nb,..,.,.. S., lax bona-nox Saw q.r nb,..i .... S .. ilax 41auc. C" .. q,.. nb;..'.,. S.,J.x ha"an.naia Cuba.n .,. nb,..,.,.. S,.' lax Jau,..if'o) ,. Lau .... 1 qr nb,..'.,.. S., .ax puta,la Sar par, e vina S,.ilax Co .... o." .r S.il .. II I Lance) f 5mi lax wal't.,.,i Coral "b,..'.,.. h.Jvala Wi Id b ...... ili:Otl'';;' l'1or-ninC!-CJJo;'i hu .. is't .... a-ta .tlorn i nq-q) or ... +-Occur. Ar He S H C N C S C S N C S N C S N C S N C N C S S N C S N C S N C S H tI C S N C N N C N C S-Sou'th I I I I 1 I 1 I I 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 2 3 4 5 8 7 a g I 2 3 4 5 S 7 a $ I 4 S S 1 1 1 1+1+1 ,+1_1+1 I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I I I 1+1+1+1 J J I I I I I I 1+1 1 1 I J 1+1 I 1 1 I 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1+ 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1+1 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I 1 I 'I I I 1 I I I I I 1+1 1+1 I I I II 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I +1-+ I + I + I 1 I + I 1 1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1_1 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I 1+1+1_1 1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1,1 1 I' I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1+1 I ,I 1 I I I 1-1+1 I I I I I 1+1+1-1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1_1+1 I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I II I I I I I I 1 I I 1+1+1+1 I I 1+1 I I I 1., I 1-1+1+& I I t I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 1 1+1+1+1 1+1 1 I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 I 1_1+1 I 1 1 I I I I 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1+1 1 1 I I 1+1 I 1 1 1 I I 1 IH I II I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I 1 1 I I I I. 1+1 I I 1+ 1 + 1 1 I I I I + I + I + 1+ I + I I I 1 I 1 + I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I : 1+1+1+ I I I I : I I I I I I I I 1 I : i tIl I I I I I I I I + I + 1 + I I + I I I I I I I 1 f I 1 1 I I I + I + I I 1+1 +'1, I I I I I I J '" I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1

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, Ecola.ical Co Table Ft 1.:. V'n 5"",,1 s pa1:ene tior-nin9-.10,.. ... S't"fl ..... "tllo ... Morn'"4-.1o ..... Toxicod.ndron redic_ft. Poi.on ,,, .. )u't.a Rubber"' \/1.=1 0 -:..:; ... 1'if'o l .i.J Sand vlI'tcn V i<:JT1a CCHPea \litis Wild grape Ar N C N C C N C S S C 5 Ii C C S N C S I I r : I i t i 21 i 1 2 2 I 1 3 7 I t 1 3. S 7 It 13 4 5 I I 1.' 1 I 1 I , I I I I , I I I II I , I , I 1 ,.,+, Hi I , 1 1 1 1 I j I I 1 , 1+' , 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .I 1 I j 1 ,+, 1 1.'.1+11 1 1 1 I I I , I 1 1 I 1 .. I I '+1 I I I I I I I I I I I -------. ---------------------. ---------: I I 1 I 1 I 1 I I I 1 HI I I I j". .. j I l 'lt: : : I I I I I + 1+ I I : I I I I 1 II II I j 1 I 1 : +. : -----------------------------------------------.... ... --I 1+: I t I I I : I I l I I I I ; j I I 1 I I I I I ---------------------------------.... -... ----:... ... 1+1+1+1+llIl+I+1+1 I ,lIllIl+I+I+1 I ... I I.lIl+I+I' 1.1 I : ... ,.:. .... J-Jn"'troduced ..... 50

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[colo.loal C Tabl. FII.: Shrub. Acae t>.,.. ......... S Acac ewe.'" A cwlu evla H S""c;k ...... ...d Aqa....,e ...... H C S C.r"t"",. .... .. ).n"t Alnus ,.,.ula'tA H Ald.,. A 1 ",a,..adoll ... or-phoid S A.o,..pha f'l"'u'tic:o H Indtqo-buah" A .. ",.,. 1 .... '.,.. ( t ) $ Torch ... ood A ..... ,..'. .1 Sf'.,.. (Z) 5 S a .. A,.alla apino._ H C A,.JI.I Da-vi walkln .. 'tick c:al-1onlad S Ha,..lb.r,.."" Arant. IIrbY't'f'ol.a. N C Chole.b ,.,.,. -,..d A.c:"r\J. H C Sot. And,. .... '. C,..o A.G .... ,..u. s-tans tI C Sot. Paot.,..I. wor't A.illina .. a,.,,' f' I "ora H C S Pawpaw A.'.tna "'.""cula'ta H C Pawpaw A.imina. 1:.t,..a.-er& S Pawpaw "our-pe-tal Baccnaris dicica N C SPP. (1 ) H C $ Eeccnarls .... ::tr i .... 2;PP. ( 2 ) H C S Sal "t:-o...Isn E :r::eh,::::-i"OS Z:=p. Cp N C S ti'.jr''''t) -;:. sma .-Cha,..;:c1:erizinq +-Occu,... H-Hor't.... C-C ... otral-" Itt I Itt. I t I I I 1 1 1 1 t Z 3 5 a 7 1 2 3 5 S 7 12 3 $ , I I I I I I \+1 I I \ I \ 1 \ \ I I I I \ \ I I I I I I I \ \ I \ I 1+1+1 I \ I I I I 1+1 \ I I I 1'1 1+1+1 I I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I \ I I I \ I II I I I \ 1 I I I I I I I I I \ I I I 'tl 1+1 I I I --------------..... I I I I I I I \ \ I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I It I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I+i I I I I I II ----------------------------------"':'-""'-. ---------------'. ., -' ------------....... I ,I+I.I+lt1+1+1 Iltltll I ,tl I t J J 1",1 I I I ____________ .... ... I I \ 1+1 I" I 1+ I I I I + I I j I I i I 11 III i I 1 .... '------------.. ----_._--..;--------... ----------.;,; .... ---....... I I \tl 1 1 I 11'111 I I I i I I I I I I 'I I I I .... -----..... 1+1+1 II I I I I I I I I I I I I II I ,II I I I I I Itl+1 I 1;-Itl+itUI 1+ltl+1 It I : 1 Itltl I itl'tltl:tll ... Itltl I , I Itl+I+I+I' 1+1 ,+1+1 It I I -'+1+1 I Itl+l+t+: I :+1+:. 1 1 t+l+r+I+(, I 1+1+%+1 ,+: : 1 1 PO' 51

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EGolo.lc.1 Co T.bl. FII.: Shrub. a ... ,.t ..... $al.wo,." I.' ...... ,.ace-a TariJa"".,. ,.bo,. cen_ Sea ox ...,. lo,.,.lch c.ft. s 0" ...,. lou,.,...,..,. 8111 ... S-tron9,back lu l'a c.I Ph,. -S.f'f',.on lu l'. lanu.lno lu ... l S. Gu. lu ... 1S. '"clad lu ISa 8u l,. (t) Touch-buck-thorn lu l,a Toucan bu ,e lucid_ Locu.-tber-r..., C lpl". bo".Nc: ( ) Nick.,..b.an Yellow C lp.n. bonduc (2) Nsck.,.,b.an CaJllca,..p ,..'CAn& ... b.,.,.", A rlcan pallen. Lidf'J"ow.,.. Pale CapP4rls Cap.,. . J .... le. Eird PE?par Plu"' N31:&1 A,. HC. H C II C S H C I S S H C II C II C S S S II C S S S 5 S S S t t t , t t ttl 222 222 2 2 3 S 7 23. S 7 Z 3 4 5 I I I I I II, I / I I I I II I I 1+1+/ I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1+1+1+1 I / I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I / I 1+1 I I I I / I I /1 I I / I / 1+1+1 I I I I / I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I / I I I I l+i+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 ... .1/'+1 I I I II I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I 1+1 1+1 I I j I I I I I I I I I 1+1+/+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I i .-iii I / I I I ______________________________ _____ _____ ___ I I / I I I I I 1+1 I I I 1+1 I Iii I il I I I I I ... ------,--.--... -',-------I I I 1+1+1'" 1+1 I 1.1+1.1+1.1 I t II t .I I I I I I _________________________________ ... .06...;. _______ ... ___ ____ I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I ... III I I I I I .. I I I I I II I I I I 1+'+/+' I I I I II 1 I I I / I ------------------------.----------------------------. / /+1 I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I :+1+: I : I : J I I I I 1 I : -------------------.. -------;------_ ...... _---------------I I I I I I I I I I I I,. +1 +: I J 1 1 I I I I : II : I I + I 1 : 1 : I : : : : I : I 1 1 I I' -= : : I I : 1 : :

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, Ecolo.tcal File: Shrub. c C a. Ie ...... n.'. p.a la. _a". C 't." Chtnkap,,, C no"'ttu.l. ,.. I canu. N.w "'.,.. ..; Cel", _.ua"a Hackb.,..r .... 1.,,8 ..... paillda Ceph.'en"'thua C.,..a"'tloJa criGold C.eeus er i ophorus f',.. ,..n .. Prlck l .... apple Cer.us .ruella. aborl.lnu. Prh.kl ... apple C.reu "vel.' t .... ". Prlclll" appl. p.n* e.G'h ... ... ,.b.\II ... ,.. Carau. Cac-t" .n.k. .C.r.us robi .... l. der,.ln.l. Cac:"tu. Tr C.r.u. roOl,," Cac:tus IC..... w ", 'tr Cha.a ...... c PJ:t. SP .... ,..q:caalba Sno .... ... 'Snc,.l=,:zrr .... A,. N C S S N N S S N C S N C S S S S S S S S N CS S S S 1 t ttl t t t t 2 2 22 t 2 2 t 2 3 4 5 5 7 a t 2 3 4 5 $ 7 a I 2 3 4 5 G 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+"1 I 1+1 I f 1+1 I / I 1 I / I 1 I I I II I I I I I / 1+1 / I I I / / I I I I 1 1 I I I 1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I il I jill i I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1+/ / I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1 1 I 1 I I / I I I II 1+ I I i I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I / I I II I / I II ------------------------------_._----.!' -.;..-----------I I , I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I /_,., 1+1+/ I I 1+1 I I / I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I / I /1 I 1+1 / 1 I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 / I I 1 I I I I /+1 I I I 1+1 I I / 1 I I ----........ ... ... I I I I II I I I I I 1+1 1+ 1 / I / I I I I I / I / I I I I I I I / I I I I I 1+/ / I 1 I I I I I I / I I -----,..--.... -------------.----.------... I I I i I I I I I /1 I I 1.1.1-" I / I 1 I I I I I I / / I ,ll I I / I I I I / I 1+1 I I I 1 / II I I I / / 1+1+1 I I I I 11+1. I I 1 r I II I I III .. I I II I 1+ I I I I 1 I I I I I + I_I i I I I +I. II I 1 1 I I II I 1 II .1+11 I I I II I I I I II .I I I ---------------------------------------------------... .. .. '+11. I I I I I I 1+1 1+1 I I I I II I I

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, Ecolo.IGa, l -Ca unl't'\l T ..... Fi I.: Shrub. Chlococca p'ft (2) Coff '/.lId ChSona"1:hus us Fr I n9_ "tr ... iGaco Coc:oply. Chr ..... o.. pau'c; ,,, 1 ascu 1 0 Chr'l50IQ C I; othar.x,,) u .. t,..u't. Flddlawood, -Florida CJ."thra alnl"o) ,. (I) r.w eZI Whl"t. ald.r aln."91'. Cl.'t'hr. Wool" Cl.""to"i Monoph"lla (S ) Buekwhaa:t-1:r eZl -Black CoccoJob. S.aCJr.p. Co 1 uD. r i na .robar cans Co)ubrina Co., Calubrlna aala't'lca Colubrlna Conradln_ can eans Conradln. Conradin l.br. ,..o Conradina qrandi'lora Conradine Co"':nYIi drummond! DOQwood marshal I I ?.:tr!ll : i icif'ol., . ,.tI Ch,-j ::::-t nas-bRrr" Cro"to; .:i:r i a ..... S C S N S N N H H N S S S N C N C s Ii H C S N C S S-Sou"'th t ttl ttl I 222 2 2 Z Z 1 23 4557 , t 2345' & 7 "9. t Z 3 45' S I It I T I II I I I I I 1+1 I I II I I I I II I I ----------..... ... --' I I. Itlti' l I I I I I I I I I I I , I I I I la, I I I I '+1 I I I I I 1+' I I 1'1 I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I J I I I I I I I --------------------7------------------.:..-----------.;...--1 .1+1 I I I I I 'J+I II I 1+1 I I I I J I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I > 1 I I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1 : 1 I 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I I J I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I 1+' I I I ... I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I Itlall 1 1 I -------------------.---------!...---------.------..:.-------'..;;. I Ii, I I I I I I J I I I' t I 1 I I I 1+ lal I III ... I 1+1 II I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 1 II I I , -----------------------------------------------------ii I 1I11 I I I Ii 1 1+1 JI I I I I I I i l I -----------------------------------------------------I 1+1 III' 'I I II I 1+1 II I II II I I I I I .... ------------... ------.--... ... -.... ..:..-... ...; 1+1 1+1+1 I 1+1 I I i II I 1-1I I I I 'I I II, 1 i . .,.: I I 1+1 II II I I : 1 1 1 II I I I I l 1 -I' I I. I .. ----..;.----------------------------.:..--..;.-'-----.---I 1+1+ltl 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I 1 1 II 'II l+i+"I" I I I I II 1 1 I I ....... ..;.----'--.--, -----..... ---------------... ..... -----III I I I Li 1 1 I+ii I I i I I 1+1+1 II I "I' ... --..:.----.... 1 / 1 I I t I I I : 1+1 : I. I 1+: I : I I I J I I : 1 : : : I j r+: :+: : : 1 I J+: : : I : : : : r : : :+: ,. .... 54

PAGE 249

, Ecolo ca. Tabl. Fj Ie: Sh,.ub. Cro'ton .1" ,. C,..o'ton Cro'ton Sllv.rl oliv.for SaUnh.f ,...c I) Tf."'ti ,.ac jflor. (2) Sw p c",.'lla Dalb.",q Coln vi:ne De.,.inqo'th nu. ru lli Squirrel-b.-na"A Vellow Die.rand,... -fru't een Bal .. scrub Dodona vi.eoa. "" ...... nf..h-l ., E .... nod cr p.,.. h.rb.e Cor.lb u .,I. f'oe-tld. S 'topp.r h Eu ,.ha ... S'topp.r -R.d uon".u. r J canu. S""t .... awb.,..,...... bu.h Exa'th Jnkwood 4wunina"'ta Priyoi!!'t Swaep F'ore.-t:.i cU'''& Pr1ve"t Florida F ... ax i n caro 1 j Tli ana C.arol i na ash Garberi U ... C%) Gbarr"i -Dw .. rf A,. C S N S C S C S S N C S S S S N 5 N N C N C S +-Occurs t ttl Itt tit Z Z t z. a Z I Z 3 4 S 7 I' I 234 S 7 I' 1 2345" I 1+1 I t I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I II I I I I I ----.;. ... ... ... -----. ..-1+1-1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I 1+1 I I I 1 I 1+1 I 1 I 1+1 I I I I I I I II I I , I 1 1 , I I. I I 1+1 I j 1+.1 r 11+1'1+1 I .I I ... -----I I I I I I I I I, I I 1+1 I I I Ih. / 1+1'1+1 I I I I 1 I I I 1+11 1 1 I I I I I I f Jllili i I I I I I HI+II I I II I It. I I t I III I 1 1 1 I I ;...---.;..--------... I 1+1 I I i I 11+1 1 1 1+1+1 II Ii i. j i J II I I -----:..----------------------'------' 1 .I.1 .... --.,.'-:.. ... ---'---'--1 1+1 I 1 I I 1 I I 1 I I 1 I 1 I ,II I I 1 I .... ... : .;..:.;...;;..';...-----1+'+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I HI HI+I+I I II. i I 1 1 1 I j I .. .... ',I 1+11, 1 1 i I I I I I II.' I I iti ', I ,ILI"il I. I J I 1+11_ I 1 1 HI. I I I 111. 1 ;+11',,' ,1.1, 1 .. .. .... --------' I I II I I II 1 1 I I i I I "+Itl I I I I I 1+1'1' II I Hi I I Hi III 11'1,1. I I I I -_. __ ... _--------_._--------.-----_ .... _-_. .,...-----_._------.---I I I 1 I I I I I , I 1 1 I I i .... il 1 I I -----------------------------------------------------. . . . H' +, + 1 I I I I I I I I .. J I I _I:' I I II I I I I I-In'traduced

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Ca T I. 1'"11.: Shrub. G .... I" al. f,..ado D .... I ,.r" G.nIP. r Go barbed_n 5 lel.nd ( I ) Ga III Id G",aplra discolor Lan.I ... bloll" d Ever.lad .cabr. 'ti.l".-t .c. Rou.h lua'de C,. ... wood H l'. "" ..... "1\1 ... III "tch-h.:o;.' H II. p."t.ne (I) Sca,..l .... b"ah 104 1 ta ...
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, EcoJo.1cal CQ Fi I.: Shrub. II." .1 ...... G co..an lie. "ru ". Holl" Taw""berr" Ilex D& .... lon "",..1: 1. apace va,. ,..nlaa a "'01 J .... Du". I_I yo_iotori. ... 011 .... "'''upon JJJ'ichHi "florid."",. (S) Anl Florida' llllci"'. f'1oridanu. (2) -S"t:inkbuah u"f"f,.uotico Jnd1qo-p)an't .'t vtr.lnlca (S) Sw 't.pire yir.inica (2) VI ... Jy. 'ru't c.n. ( 1 1 "a,...h.ld.,.. Iya ",..u't: c.n. (2) Su.pw d .1.1 Jy. i.b,..ica-t.a 11 .... h. I d ... teal .hl,...u'ta tealN1. la't,t"olia Kruqiodendron far-rau. Ironwood iI.ek sp P o L4ntan& I-oo:;l-!"Icbbl. a;pp'l. "re. II C S S II C II C II II II II C II C II C s II C S II C S II II S II C S II II II C , , , til 1 2 222 2 2 2 234567 a 234567 a, 12345 6 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 l+t I I I I II I II 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I .. I I I I I I I I I 1_1+1 I I I I I 1+1 I I I 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1. 1+1+1 1+1+11 I 1+1+1 I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I I I I 1+ I I .II I + I II I + I .. II I I .... -------------------------------I 1 I I I I 1+1 I I 1 .1+1 I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I+i. I I I I I 1 1 I 1 +1+1 I I 1 I II I 1 I I I I 1 1 '+. 1 1 I I I I I I I 1-1-1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I -_.:._------------------";""-------' ----------------..;-----I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I r I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I + I 1 I I I. 1 1 I I I I I 1+1+1 1 I I I I 1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I II I I I-I I I I I : I I I l I : I : : : : tit I :+: t t :+: I If: I I + I '+ 1.lil I + I + i + I I I I I I : + I I I I I I I I I I I I I':" J n-tro'ducad P 57

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Co Tabl. F 1 I.: Shrub. L ..... 1.1a ." ..... Willow ",.'.ro Lud ... I a Wi 1 low. Pr.-i .':0 Ludwi.'. peruvian." Wi 1 tow PrJ.ro." L .... c:iu .. caro" ,y ___ anu. (I) Ct:-,.. 'tll be,.r" L.,.cly. carolift- "ue (2) Wo:lf'b ,..,.. ... S'taqq.,.bush L"oni. 1 .19u.'t;"1na "a I.-b.,.,.. .... Lttlo"ja luaida l1aQnal'a h Ash.. N.nl}k.,... ,.. Sa .. ad.llia H.-to .. 'u -tox ., ..... "'. Poi.onwoo,d Horlnda Mulb.,.,.. .... -l"d "",-c; jan'th f"r .... ,.. ..... "".,.IC4 ca,..f.,.. uax.""r"t J. Sou-t .... r ft 1'1 .... ,.-Sca c.,..lf.,... "".ro. WaxM.,.r-tJ. Dwarf cor-iac Lane.woad Opuni' i':: (t), Of'lul"Itih ::;;:>';l. (2) Prickl"d pear Picram;li! B i t"t.:::!r-kiush f'i:=onia Ar N c: S H C S N C S H C S H C S C 5 H C H C S N S S S S H C s H C S N C S H C 5 S S Co Hu.b.r .SttttStttt22.22222 S 23. I 7 t 23. S C 7. : t 23. 5 C I I I I I l I I i 1+1 I t 1+1 II HI I I 1+ I I ---------------... --.. .. --I I I I I I -I I I I I 1+1 I I 1 1+1 I I 1+1 1 1 1+1 1 I I I II I I I I I I 1+ I I I I I + .11 I I + I I II + II -----------------------------------...... +1+1 I I I I I I I II .11 I I I 14-1 1 1 I I I I I ----..:..------------,-------... -----;,..-.. ... 1+1+1 I J I I I II 1 1 I I I I I "if. 1 I I 1 I 1 1 .. .. --------I 1 I 1+1 1+1+'+1 I 1+1+1 I I I 1+1 l 1 < 1+1 II I I I I 1+1 I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1 .+1 I I I 1+1 I I I I ________________ .... ________________ .... .... __ I I + I I I I I 1+11 I I 1+' I 1 .+1 , I I I,ll 1 -... ... I I I II II 1+1 I I I 1+1 I I fli II I. 1, I -------..:.---------------------------.. .. I I I 1 1 I ,HI+) I I 1 1 I 11.IIIi'lf.l ,III I ----------. ----.--------..:.----.---..: ....... ----'-----., .. ---;;;. ...... I II I I I I , J I I 1+1 I I .. 1 I II, I I I ... --"':.-"'; '+1+1+1+1 I : I , I I I I II 11 I I I I I : I + I + .1+ I + I I I I I I I I ,I. I I I I. I I II 1 .'_ I I , : I I II I I I 1+' I I ... II , 11' 1 .... ----.... --I 1 I I : I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I 'I I I I I t \ I : : 51

PAGE 253

Co Fi 1.: Shrub. Ca"t'. claw P i-tto\.c.l Jobi\l. Ca""t'. claw (1) Join'tw d i.br,a"t. (2) Wi ld buckw ...... -t .acrap .... JOin"tw d Wood ... wi,...w d a flow.,.. Prunu. qanicula-ta "Plu .. Sc,.. .... b W Pr\lnus u.b.lla'ta (1) Ply. Fla"twood. Pru"". u.ba a-t& (Z) Ply .. -Ho. Paidj",. 4\,1aJay& neryo WIld ri du. (1) P.nn .... ro ..... l rt.idu. (2) Wi-ld Quercus pUili la Oak Randia acule&"ta (t) Bo;;:-priar Randia (2) Whit-!$; indtc;o b.rr .... in-=: Pl\-,t1I D o,..1 inca .-Ck :::'r<3.<::"""ter i Z i N-Hor'th C-Cen"tr.l "'" .. S S C C N C C H C S 5 H C H C 5 5 C C N C 5 S 5 N C 5 S S-Sou1:h Cauvftt -t Huabttr .'. 1 I i I t 1 t I t I Z I I Z Z 2 t t 234 I 87. I 8 I 2345.7 a I 8.2 3 4S. h' I I I I I j I J I I '.1 I II ,t It J Ie. I 1+11 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I ... ... I I I-I I I I I I .. I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I .1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ----------------..,._:....--------------------------'--------I I I 1+1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I , I I I I .... I I I_I I I I .I I II I I I II I I I II I II II I I I I 1+1 I I I II I I I I I I I J I I I I I I I I 1 I 1+1 I I II I I I I I III II I I I II I II I I II I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1+ 1 I I .I I I I I I I II I ..... .. ---I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I II 1 1 I i I I I I I 1+1+1 I I 1 1 I I I I I I I : I I I I (1 II I I I I 1' 1 I I II I I I I I I I I I I I 1+111 I I .. .... I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I HI_I I I j f I I I II',', 1 1 ---_ .... _---------_._-------_ ..;..;.._.:..._------."""-------... I I I I I 1+11 I I I I I I 11 I I I I II I 1 :11 I ------.;.. .... ... I I I I HI I I I I I 1 I. I I I I I II I II I . ... -------------------------------------... ----.----------. .. ... I I 1+ 1_1+ I + I + I + I I : I,. I I I II I I I I I I I I I I 1+ I I i I I I 1+1 I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I 1 1 11 I I I +1 I I I I I + I I II I + I I I I I I" I I I it I I ----------------. ------:----.,---.,----.,--------t-----I + I + I I I I I I I I I I I + : +1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 1 -I : I I I I '1 1 I I I I I 1+' I I I I I I I 11 : : ,. . ,59

PAGE 254

,. EcoJo.sca. Co Tabl. File: Shrub. Rh car lft,a C.rallnA Pal. Naadl. Rhodod.ndron (I) Azal ... O,.a,.. Rhodod.ftdroft (2) Aza a florada Fl Chap.an'. rhododendron Rhododendron .e",,..u-Jetu. Azalea -H ock.w Rhododend,..on vi.coau. Azal -Swa ... Rhu 1_.,.. Su.ac S.oo-th Rhu. (t) SUflac ShinSn. Rhu. (2) SUMac -FJ I Rib "hln.llu. Gao "t ie-a nus co ",,, 1. C -tarb.an Saba Pal "'t-to -Sa ... ",b 5 .... 1 .1nar el) P.I IIwArf 5 .... 1 .Inar (2) PaJ "''t _c, 11",.-."1" Sa.q.re1:i. .. inu-tt,o]:I_ Buci("'thorn c&n&dsnsja Sa1:vl"'e:jl1 ask.i' i _$a-to..raJa. ri':;!ida . ScaYola ..... tI H " H H N N C S C S H C S C S C S C S N C 5 C S C S 5 S-Sau'th t ttl I I I I I I I I 2 I 2 2 3 I 7 12 3 4 I I 7 a I 1 2 3 4 S & Itt I 1+1 I 1 1 1+ t I I I I I I I 1 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1+1 I I 1 I I I 1t1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I 1+1 I I I I II I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I I I I 1 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I II I 1+1-I I I I I I I I I I t I I Itl I I I I I I II I 1 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I+ltl I I I I ------------------------------------.------... ----,...------I I I I 1+1 1 I I I I I 1 I I I I j ii-I I I I I 1 I r;r;;;;;;;r;;;r;;-;-;;;;;;;;;;;-rrriirrr-r;-;-; -----------... I I I I 1 1 I 111 1+.1+1+1+1+1 1 11,.1+1+1 1 1 I 1 1 ...... ------------I 1 1 I I 1 I 1 I 1.1+1+1+1+1+1: I I I 1+1+1 I i I I .---------------... ... --------... --------------I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1+1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 I 1 I I 1+1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 I 1+1+1 1+1+1 1 I 1 1+ 1 I 1 I f 1 1 1 II 1 1 I I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1+1 1.1 I 1 Fi 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 ... f -r_: r I I 'I I I I 1 1 I I I : 1 I I r I I I I : : J In-troduced 60

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Ecolo.laal Tabl. FII.: Shrub. Sah' ..... "'.r.bl .... hlf'.II_ Sahoo.f'I. (1) Wni-tewood (2) G,.. ...,-twi S.b "t j ana 'r ...... co.':' ,Gulf' ba.otten& S.,..noe repe"s Sawpal_ 't'ta S bania dr ...... ond. Ra't'tl.box S ban'. exaJ ... -ta S .,anl. S ban S 'c.r (I) Bladder.od S aania y (Z) Ba ... od ... n't Hackl.aa po4 J at ft Bl"."por-terw d "',. 1'1'01,. 11add.,.,nu't S ... "war'tia 1.coC.endron Ca llia Silk .. S'tr-UllJlf' ar' 't - S'tor4x Su,..{anil ,.j"'ti,.a B"a",,:,c.cia,.. "tinc"torl& T ... -t"'az""\!'<;11a -Flo,..ida Thezpeff1a l'1ahoa S_a:std. +-Occurs N-Nor-th Ar C S S 5 H C ... C S ... C S ... C S ... C S H C S N C S S C ... ... S C S ... 5 S S-Soy'th 1 lIt tIl 1 I Z Z Z Z Z Z Z t 2 3 4557 ISO 1 Z 3 4 S 5 7 ISO t 2 '345 S I I + I I I I I I I + I I I I I + I I I I I +1 I I + I I + I + I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I II I 1 1+1 I I 1 I 1 I I 1 1 I I 1 II I I I I I 1 1 I II I 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I II I I I 1+1 I I I I I 1.1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I 1 1 1+1 I I I It I I I I 1 I 1+1+1 I 1 I 1 I I I I I I r I I I I I I I 1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I I I 1+1 I I I 1+1 1 ------------... ... ------.. -I II I I II 1 I I I I I I J I I I 1 1 1 1 r 1 1+1+1 . . ------------------------------------------------_ ... _-I I 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 i I 1+1+1 I I + I I I t II I I I I II +1 I 11t"+ I f I I I II I I 1+1 I I 1 I I 1+1 Ii' I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 I I I 1 I I I I I i 1 1+1 I. I I 1 1 I I I I I '+1 I I I 1 1 I 1 1 I II I I I 1 I I I i I I I II I I I I I 1+1 I I I 1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II I II I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I-I I 1 I I I I II I I J I 1 I I I .I I .I I I 1 1 I I r 1 1 1+1 1 1 I I 1+1 I I I i II I I I t III I I I I II 1 I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 +1' I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I t I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 1-1 n-troducad

PAGE 256

,. Eeola.tc .. l C . ","''t''t T ..... FII.: Shr"b. Th.ve't ,."",.a .. a L",ek","u't Taur"ft.f'o'"''t,a S 1.",."d.,. Toxicod.nd,.on ,..dlca ... Potson oak Toxicodendron yerfttx Poison su .. ac VacGift1u. 6rbor.u. (1) Spa,..kl.b.,.,. ... Vaeclntue arbor.",e (Z. f"arkleberr" Vacc:lniull .PP. Blueb.rr" ViburnuM A,.rrowwood v l bur. nulli nudu. Pe.su.h.' w Viburnu. Blackhaw Vtbu,.null ,.uf't'du.l". RUtli"t ... blackhaw )(1 nl&' a ..... lca.,.. Tall"o ...... oocf Yucca .101"01,a Span i.h kh,,,one-t Yucca f,l n-to B.arqr& -Ada "eddIe Yuc:c Ior'o Yucca Hound).l" 2alllia iloridana -Florida 2&,.14 pUl'Ji la Coon"'tia Eas't Coas"'t 2al'lia -:rpp. CoC..:ati(l W-Char.:.c"":,;;;r' i::.: i +-Occut". N-Not"tk C-C.n-tr. J -r s S II C II .. II II C .. C .. .. C II S II C S .. C S C .. C S II C II C S S S S-Sou'th II 11.1111.11112122 ., 3 4 .5.7 I I I 13.5 I 1 II 1+1 I 1+1 I I .1 II III I I II 'II I I ---.... --------------------------.-----------...... .;.-... I 1+1 I I II I I I I I I I I I III I I I I I I I I .-____ r ..-_________ __ I I I 1+1+, II II 1+11 I 1+111 i I II I I I f I I III It I HI I I I III I I I I 1 1 11+1. I III . -. . ----------------------------------------_._----------I I /+I+la'+I+1 I lal II I," I 1.1+1 1 II I ... ..... .----.--, ..:.----- I I 1+.+11+ .. I I 1+1 IT 1+11 i iH,tl+t I I I .. ;-i-;-;-;-i-;-;--I-;-r;.,-;;...' -t. ] .. :l,.f T I .. i '.'i.i '. ---... ------.--------.... _____ :....;.:.;... .. 4 ... :;lio ..... ... - 1 i I I I 1 11+1+1 I '.III"r11 t,ll' .a.a'+I+I+' I j 1 1+1 I I 1+1 I LI:' fl' il '-JI I --. .... ... ............ ... I I 11+11 I .. ,tll I ---:--------------.. ... .. I I 1+' 1 I I I I III I Itl I I 1 '11, 1 ,'1. ('.11 I ... 1+1+1 1+.-1+1+' 1+1 I II I I I 1 1 1 ' 1 ./"'11.' 1 I I _______________ .... :-.:..--,;i... _..: I HI I I I I I I I I li+I+1 I I 111'11 i_iJ :tl --------:"';:----... II I I I I I I I II 1 I 1,./ I I 11" r I 1 1 I I ----------... ... J-In-troduced ,'j

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Eco-loqtcal Co ... un-tot"" Tabl. Fi Ie: Shrubs faq4ra (2) Y.IJow .... al"'''t 2an"thox'41ufYI hlI""5-U"t"'" Hercul J-club ",. .. S .. H .-Ci-,'l,..,t.e"t(!r i:z i nq +-Occu,... N-Nol""1:h C-C.,,'tral S-Sou'th" <'o unl't;,' Hu...... '111 It I t f .. : 2 .' 2 2 222 2 t 23,415 8 '7 it I 2:'14 sa '7 5,_ 113 4 .$' II t I I I I 11.11 t I t+ t I I J *-'" I 1 II I II' ... .... 1+ I i '1 I I t I I I 1+ I + I I I t -t I 1' 1 Iii ftl I ______ ra.. 6)

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APPENDIX C ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY ANIMAL TABLES

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These tables are a listing of wildlife species by ecological community occurrence. The tables are divided into Amphibians, Birds, Mammals and Reptiles. The tables were prepared by drawing primarily from range and habitat descriptions in the references listed at the end of the tables. These tables are intended only as a guide--obviously not all animals occurring in Florida (seasonally or resident) are listed, and even those that are listed might occur in communities in addition to those shown. The tables can be expanded as additional knowledge is gained. The tables show regional occurrence within the state (see Climatic Zones map). This becomes important when a community occurs in all three climatic zones, but a particular species is found in only certain areas. An example of this would be the pine vole, Pitymys parvulus, which occurs in the Longleaf PineTurkey Oak community, but only in the Florida panhandle. The table indicates that this species would not be found in the Central or South zones. The term "characterizing" as used in these tables indicates that this particular species is one of the characteristic animals of a community. Due to the secretive nature of most wildlife species, you mayor may not see them there. i

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BIRDS 1. Anhinga 26. Pelicans 2. Blackbirds and Orioles 27. Quail 3. Bluebirds 28. Rails 4. Buntings 29. Shorebirds 5. Cardinal 30. Shirkes 6. Chickadees and Titmice 31-Sparrows 7. Cranes and Limpkins 32. Swallows 8. Comorants 33. Starlings 9. Coots and Gallinules 34. Swifts 10. Crows 35. Tanagers 11. Cuckoo 36. Thrashers 12. Doves 37. Thrushes 13. Ducks 38. Towhees 14. Flycatchers 39. Turkeys 15. Gnatcatcher 40. Vireos 16. Goatsuckers 41. Vultures 17. Grebes 42. Warblers 18. Gulls and Terns 43. Waxwings 19. Hawks, Eagles, and Kites 44. Woodpeckers 20. Herons, Egrets, Ibis, Bitterns 45. Wrens 21. Jays 22. Kingfisher 23. Mockingbird 24. Nuthatches and Creepers 25. Owls ii

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, -1 .... 1_1 1 C_ .... 'II". .. ,. ..,..,.11"". ""0. C,.tak.-t It" ....... S.I ..... d .... -,.Ia-t"ood. .. S.J ..... ... bl.d Al!lb,,. 'tc,.. -tel Sala nd.-'-"01" A.b".to Sal _nde ... TI .. A .... hJu..' ena .A .... h1u lwa-i-oecf lufo ......... c lc:utI! _. Toad O.k .. -te"r To.dD s.i ..... ci .. -Ihl.k", Eu" ,."c ....... S.l "d." . JD".I ... ;.d. .' 5.1 ..... d.". -Th" : 11 ... d W'ii.la a ....... ""011 -c -In.,.. Fro. c,..ual'(." .... . ... ...... II. .'''';0 .. -.: H,,)a oc" F r'09, ':" U :;t-tH, ....... M..,la .".,...Icalo_r. :', ,F,.,o'li Gr ..; ........ 4ua: dr_i d : i gft.-tu, s .-", ..... ,.., : P is . '" S a S 1 '. $ . ';';' Chbp.. 'ulr ,. ... .. HCa c ......... '" .......... .. ...... . I f t I , ." i z a I I II a 4 . '1' Z3 4 If. 'I' II :I 4 II I 1 0 t I i+,.,., ... i+.+IH I I l.i.1 I '+1+1+1+1+'+1+1 N ... --.. ---------,,""-----.,;..p.------------I t II Il+tll. 1 I,ll I I I I I II II I I 1+1 . ... ------N e I I.,L 1 I I I I I IHI I II. I I I i ____ ;.;..-i---__ .... __ ... __ :..:, ____ ________________ .... ___ ..; ________ N c II 1+1111 1 1+1+1 1 I I I Ii 1+111 I I I.. I N C N C Ii ... ... ... I I j 1 .. 11 111I 1 I II II I F 11 I I i 1+ l+ I N C S I 1 1+ r+1 1!l1!l1+I j 1 III ill 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 11 ... ... --.---------:...----..;-..;...;-. ... H C S I I Itltl+l+i+; lil+l. l I I+i: I I ... 1 1 11.1 II I ... ----.. :..---.... ... .;;,.---:..:...-.:..-.... -----,. r C S N I 11'1 II I I 111I II I 1+1 I 1+1+1 I 11 I I -----... .---_. ... --_ ... _---------------------------... ... _----. I. ,JI I II 1 1 11: 1+1 .'-1. 1+111+1+1+1 II I I H I r l 1 1 1 I I 1 : 1 1+1 I II 1+11 1 .+1+1+111 I H ... .., _________ .L_--.--.. C S 1 I 1 1 1+1+1+"1+ 1 1+1+1+1+1 1+\+1 I I ,al 1+1+1+1+1 ... N C I I I '11+1+1+1+1 I i+I+1 I I 1+11 1+1.1+1 I I II .. .... N c s. ... 1 loti lal.I+1 HII II I I I II 1 I i 1 II II ..... ------: ... N CS 1 .. '1 t ,.III+LI+I I 1 1 I lal.1 .. 1'.1+1 1+1. +1+1+1 .. H C ')1. I II
PAGE 264

, -"010.1".1 eci ..... Fil., A_phlbian_ vd.arl r .... '.....-0,...... c:hor .... ud.Gr r' Fro. 'Upland c:hor .... P S I,.en -Dwa,..f i .Oft,"tanu. Sala.and.,. .ud udcl't',.. "ton ... ub.,.. Sala nd.,.. .... d Rana a,..a1 a-t., a_us F,.04 florida qopher Ran. cAt bi.na 8..,11#,,.0. Ran ... ,-..,1'0 F,-oq----Pi. lItana PIP1 .,. Fro" Ltitopa,.d Scapnlopu. halb-,.ookl' Toad' Co O" Sir.n ,. S,,.en lae.,.-ti.,. Siran Gr 't .-Charac-t.,..izin9 N-Nor-th ..... Me I " e I e " e I ,. e s N e s e s e s e N e S S-So ... t t t t" t t t t f t 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ,23 1 7 S t 234 S' 7 ., t 2345' I I I '_IW't' .tl I t,' 'tl I It' 1+' It't' ----: I I , I I I I , I I Itltl I I I I I .. ----------------.... ---..;-------I I I I I I ,II I I I I I I I I 1+ I I I 1+ I I 1 + 1 I I I .. I I I I I I II I I I I II I I I. 1+ltl I I 1 ---.. ... ----------------------------.. 111'1'111,111111111'+' I '+I+ltl,IIII, It'+I+I+1 1+1+1+1 I .I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II 11+1 I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I ----_ ... _-_:..._-------------------_ .... _--------------------I I I I I I I I 1 I I , II I '+1 1 1 I , 1+1+1 I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 '+'+1 I 1+1+1+1 I ,.,+1+'+'+1+1 .-------.... :.... -------.... --------------------------....:-------III 1+1+1+1+1+1 1 HI I 1 ,1-1;1, 1 I I t I I I II ----.--..;._--------------------------'!"------------_ ..... _-----II I 1 1 1 I+! I r I I I 1 I II , , .... I : 1 I I I : ,II I I I I. I I , I I +1 I I I + I I 1 1+ 1 + I ---... ...... .... ----- 2

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Eaal l C File: II,.d. .... cul.r S.ndplpe .. - BI.ckbl,.d -Re.d-wln d Aax apon Duck Wood Ana. caralane",a'. T.a. G.r ,,-wan d Afta. di.co,.. T.al . d A" '\AI.."."l. D .. ck Florid. Anhln nhln (S ) Anhln Anhln anhln (2) "'a"t.';' "turk .... ... G.". ..Ja", Scrub Ara.". ...ar."n. La ... k1", ArCift I I Gch". G I vIIr t .. u in ... trd .h.,..od, W .... on Gr.a't bJ.u. Arenar.. I RUdd" 'turns"tone '#Jnl. L ,. aClaUlil A...,"th..., .. col-Iar'. Duck Rln.-nacked BONb'fc111.ced,.oru. C.d.,.. waxw1n l.n"t1qJnoau. Bi't"t.rn A rica" Bubo vj,..q1nianua Owl Gr.a"t horned -.,,-teo "; . i c.n.t. Hawk -C ....... ......... .A, I Sit t I I I til 2 2 2 I 2 1 ,',' t 1 I 1 S I 3 .. S 1 S I 1 3 .. S II II C. '_'a,," I , I , , I ,., I , , II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C S II C 5 II C S S-So .. -th' , , , , , , , , ,.,., ,., ,.'a,_,a, '.'.'_'.'.'_,a,a'.'.,al+'.'+I+'.' , ,+, , I 1 .' .. ----------, , , , , , I ,ii I i+,i, ,., , , , , I , , I , i , , ,+, 1 ----------------------------------------------------, , "I'" I 'I I I I l i : 1 ',+, _______________________________ .... .. A ...
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Eo ... o ..... l;.Coe ..... t"'" r.ltl. I'U.: .s ..... av. .. .. H ........................ .. .... "'o ... c! y, .......... 14.,.. ..... -41-.... C ........ hil ......,;,., t ... 1 ,it ..... ct< ... -.. "*' II ... c n I'J\ o 5nl .... -C_ .. ..... olt .. ,;.'. C .... ok.,. .. ,. U d"o" e ...... r. oh." .... . C ........... .. ... t_I'. . . .. C ..... "'.1 e_ "o .. f". ....... . < ....
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Ecola.ical Co FII.: Birds 0".11 .ob .. Colu.bl l 1 jft rlft. Do",a Ground Co,.. "P. .1',...1'". \'ul't",... BI.ck Crow Cory". o f,.. ...... Crow F'.h er'.'a'ta .Ja.., Blue Dendroica carona'a Warbl.r -Y.llow-,.. .... Dendrolca d onte. Warbl.,.. Yel_ Iow 'thraa-tad Oandra'ca discolor, P,..at,..i. 'ca pal . ,.",. -Pal. nendrolca "'''-us Warbl.,. Pine Woodpecke,.. -P'l Kl-"t. Swallow--tai l.d vir c.n. Acadian E"doci.". a1bu. Ibls-WhI't. EupkSqus car_ o I lna-. BlackbIrd Falco p ..... eCirlnua falcon P.,...q,..in. > Falco :5P&r .... eri .... s Lt"t:'tle. kas-tr.l florid!; c4G:l""'yle& .Heron blue F .... lica americana" CoC'-t .-Cha. .... +-Occur. N-No,..1:h C-C .,,-t,..a l ..... C " C S C S N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S C S N C N C S N N C S N C S N C S N C II S-Sciu'th I 1 I I 1 lit I. I a. II I I Z 3 4'.7 a,. I Z 3 4$.".' .,1:1 4 51 1+1+1.1.'.1.1.1.1+1+.+1+1.1+'+, t HI 1+1+1+1 .+, ---------------------------------_ ......... ------_ ... _------I+'+I+I+I+I+.+I+I+ ----------------------------------------------------1+1+1+'+I+I+i+ +I+'+'+'+'+I+I+'+I+I+I+I+'+'+I+I+'+' .... -.. ..... ---------------------------------_ ........ ... _--..... _._----_ .... '-1+1+1+1*1*1 +1+1 I *. 1+1.' I j L 1+1+, I I I I j"-j"-j:,-j"-j"-,:,-j"-j"-j"-j"-j"-j;j-j"-i]i7iiirj-rj-j:"j"-j" -----------------------------... --... ... + '+1 + .+ '.1 + ,.,_, + '+.+ 1 1 ___________ ..:.. ____________________ __ +..oI .. _Jr;_ .... .... __ ..... .... -_ I I 1.1*'+1 1+' I I I j II, I I ________ _______________________ ______ __ .. I I 1 +1+1+. '+'+1+. I .+1 I' I I 1+1+1+. , 'J I , , ,+, , I '+1 1+.+. , I I 1+1+1 1+1+1 , I I I , '+'+'1 I 1+'+1 '+1+'+.+1+'.'.' +'.,+'+'+.+'+'+.+1+.+1+'+'+.*1-' I ., I I I I I iI 1 I '+1+1+1+1 ,.,+' 1+1+1+1 ... .;: .-..---.-.------.-..;.---..,.----;,.-----,.;. I I Ii] I .. I I I I , I I I t I I I I I 1_'.'

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,. --Ecolo.ical Tabl. fil.: Bird. G llnul. florida lllftule 'trlch Y.llow 'throa't Gru. can.d.".i. C .... n. S.ndhlll Ha H.li JeuGocephalus bald Tnrush H.,...I't Ic:'taria vi,...n. Yellow-bre *.d Ch.* Ie .... ,."'. .... uri-u. 0,.. 'c;ii I. -' Orchard Jr.doprocn. ,btco]ar Swa. low ir Lanlu., ludovlc; nu. Shr_ik. Lo rk .,d La,...",. .,. n-ta-tu. Gull "'.rrlno Lar,,' d. I ewar".ns.. 'Gull Rlno-billed :thule E",r,.-t S"o ... Kln.fl.her. -B.I*.d N.I.n.ro ..... c:.rol .... lnu. WQQdpack.,... -Red b.lli.d Wcodp.cker Rad h d.d Turke .... Me)ospiza georqiana Sparrow -Swa.p H.losPlza lodi. Sparr-ow Sonq l1erq.JS +-Occur. C-C .,"tral Are. N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S H C S H N C S N C S N C S N C S N C S H C S C S C S C S H C S H C H C S S-Sou*h f ttl f t ttl 122 2 2 2 2 2 1 23 4 5 C 7 1 2 3 4 5 S 7 t 2 3 4 5 S I I I I I I I 1 I 1 II 1.1 I '+1+1 1 I 1+1 I 111111111 I I 1 I I 1+1 I , 1 , 1 I I 1 1 1+' I '+""111'+1 , I 1 I '+1 1+1 ,+, I I I I 1+1 I 1 I I I I 1+'111'111' '+1+11 I I I Ii, I I I 1 1+1+1 1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I I 1+1 I 1 1 1 I I I ,,,,,,'11111111+1 '+'''''''''1 I I I I 1"1"1 I I I ----------------------------------------------------I I '+1+1 I I 1 1+' 1 1+1 I I 1+' I I I I I I I I I I 1+' +1 ,+ I + I I I I I I I I I I I I I 111111111 + I 1 I 1 I I I I I I I I 1+1111' I I , I 1111'111' I I' , I I I I I 1+1111' I I I I I , I I I I I I , , II I ,+ I + I + I +1 I + I I I + I + I +, I I I II I , I I I I I I I I 1+1+1l1li+1+1 I 111111111+1 1+1+1+'11111111111111111111 1111'111'11111111 11111 I+J I 11111+1 I I I I 1+1 j 11111+1+1+1 I I : I I I I II I I I I II I I I I I I 1 I I 1+1+;1111+ I I I I I 1+ 1+1+1 I I j+ .. I I I I I I I I I 1+1 :+1+1 I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I-In-t,.oduced ..... 6

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EGolo.S .... Co unS-t" Tabl. FII.: II ..... "i." .... I".la't-'to. "oc:k-ift"bi,.d ......... ft C I) Ibi. Wood ""IC't.,.1 a .... ,... cane 2 ) Wood .'tor" C,.. -t.d yaol.c H"C'tiCO,.. .. x _ft .... C'tlCOr:o H.ron Black-crowned "t.h* i. Owl Scr ch ".ndlo,,' hal "t". Par,,). a rlGa"a Warbl.,. .Pa,..ula Par". bic:olor ".r". carolln .,.J. Chickad P ,.. dO 't'Gua Sparrow En.liah ...... ,.S". elroS. PaJn'tad bun't'n. ... l.c.nu P.l ican Wh:l-te P.lacanu. P.ISean -B,.own Phalacroco,.ax 4urJ"t'ua Phi Jonala .inor"' Woodcock PScoidcs corsalis R.d cockad.d PicoJdGS Woodpecker Pipilo +-Occu,... N-Nor'th .... N C S C S C II C S C II C S C S C II C S C C C S C S C II H C Ii H C II H C S H C S C S H C S , t , t t Z Z Z Z Z 2 2 Z 3 S 7 Z 3. II S 7 2 3 4 5 S ,.,.,+,-,.,.,.,+,+,+ ,.1+,+,., , .+, , 1 I I I I I I I : : I I I I 1+' +, +J + I ,+, : : +: : I I 1 1 1 I I I , I , '+I+,+i+l ,+, , 1+1 '+1+1.'.1.1+'+' I '_I_I '+1_1 1+1 I. 1+1+1 1+1 I I I --------------------------------... .... --... .. ---------I I 1 I I I II I I+i I i ,+. I I I ------... --------------------------_ ........... '-----------I I I I' I I I I II '+111:1 ,+i 1+1 I HI+I I ,-,-, .. .. ,-TirrTlUri-;-,-,-, _______________ __________________ ... .i ... I I I 1+' I_I I I 1.1.1 I I_I 16' t o""1 I I 1 I 1+1+ I + I I I I I I I I + I I I I I 1 1 +1 1 I I I ________________________________ .... __ ___ _________ 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I f 0 1+ i + II I. I I 1 + I I -------...;-----------------.... -------.... ------.-----------I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I 1 1 I f +11 I 1 I i I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I , I 1+1 1+1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1-1+1+1 1 I 1.1.' I I I 1+1 I 1+1_1+1+1 1 I 1 I I 1+1+1+1+1 1 I I I I 1 I I I I 1 I. I 1 I I I I 1+1+1+1+1.1+1+1+1+1+1 ...... '+1+1.1+1+1 I '.1.1+1 I I : '.'+1 1 I '.1 1+1 I I I : I-Jn-trodUced"

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Ecolo.I'c:al Co unl't'llll T -.bl. Fi I.: Sir-d. "sran.a_Mlttra Su ,.. 't.n .... ,.. podSc.p. PI.d-blll q,..b. ca.,..u) ra.lneu. Spa,..,..o... V ,..r p,.o." ubsa 5 ... al10... P .urlll ,.-tin Pro'tono'tarla WarbJe,.. Out.calu. G,.ackl. CO.llon RaJJus .1 n. R.1l 1(1". lon.lro.'t,.. R.t I CI ...... ,. Ro.-trh ua .oc ] Is E".,. ad. k.'t. E S.Ju,.ua auraaa_.llu. O"en-bS,.d Sla. 1 i_ Bluebl,.d caroltftena'. Nu'tha'tch Wht-ta-b,. s't.d SI't't ... ".llla Hu'tha'tan Brownh d.d -cunicul.,.i. Owl Bu,.rowln. (t) Yellow- III.d sapsuck., Spiz.lla pas r.n. Sparro w Chlp.in. Spizif:l}a pusilla spa,..,..ow Ft.ld Plov,. Black-beill.d +-Occura C-C.n'tral A" C:S C S H C S H c: H c: S H C S H C S H C S H C S S N c: S H c: S N C S c: S H c: S C S H C S H C S H C S H C S S-Sou'th t 1 1 t 1 till 2 2 2 2 22 2 1 Z 3 4 8 7 I t 23. S S 7 a S 2 3 $ S IIIIWIW .. I+l+lllwl+I,"IIIIII+I+II.I'11 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I 1 1 I I I 1+1 I I I 1 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1 I I+I+IWI I I I I I I 1+1 I 1+1 I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1. I 1 1 I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1' 1+1 1+1 I I 1+1 I 1 I l+i+I+1 I I I I I I I I II I 1+1 I I I IWI I I 1+1 I 1 I II 1+1+1 I 1 I Iw1w,wl I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 1 .+1 1 '1+1 ,I Iwlwl 1 I I I I II I I I I I 1 1 I I I I IWI; II II I I I I -----------.;".--------_.'--------........... _-_ _--'-----_.-.-I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I j I I I I l+i+1 I l+i+I+IWlwl+IWI I I Iwl+1 I +IWII+.' I HI+I 1+1 i I I I I I I 1 '+'1' 1 II I 1+1+1 1+'+' I I I 1+1 i I I 1 I I ---------.;...;.------------.. ... ----..;. 1 1 'WI I I IW' I 1 1 1+1 I I 1 1 1 I II 1+I .w'.I+lwl I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I ..... It" ------_._--------------..;--. ._------------_ ... _--_ ...... ... .... -I I 1+IWIW.I+I., I I I 4 I I 1 I II T I I I I 1 ----... .... -----------.... --------... --------..;. 1 1 I II 1 +, 1+ I 1+11' I I I I I I I 'I I I. I It I 1 I I 1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1'+1 1+1'+1+1+1 I 1+1+1 I I 1 I I ----------------------------------------------------I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1 1 I r I 1+( I I I I 1 + I + 1 1 +I 1+ 1 I j I : I I I I I I I II I 1+ I I I I --------... .1-1-1 I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I' I I' I 1 1 ----------------------------.... -------------"":'-. ---------I-I,,'traduced ,. . 8

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Ecolo.lc.1 Co T.bl. fl:" Bird. .. Swallow -Rou.h w'n d S-T,.I. ",ar,. Owl I.,.,...d S'tu,.. ... J 1_ "a tI dowl.,.k 5turnua ""a ,.,. S't.,..lin. Th.l .., axl ..,. T.,.." '-Ko..,.' ludoy.c Wren -Caral"'na Toxoa"ta ruf\,. T.h,. h.,.. ,Irown T ... tn 01t .... ,.. Sandpi ... ,.. .. don Wren Hov T"rd" Robin Kln9bl,.d E .Ib. Owl B.rn V.,...II"O,... a.laota Warbl.,. O,..an -crowned V,,.ao al'tIJo."". V ,lr.o .lack-w"I .... r.d _Vi,..eo .,.., "'. Vireo VI,..eo ollY.Gaous Vireo R.d-.".d "',-J50n14 ci-'trina W.)o,..bler !-loaded Zenaida ri1&cl""oura Do",. Hournin"l albiccillis Sparrow Wh "-ta--throa-tad ..... N c: S es C S N C S N C S N C S t s c S N C S N C S N C 5 N e S N e 5 H e S S H e S H e S H H C S H e S , 1 1 , , Z Z Z Z Z 2 1 2 3 4 S I 7 a e Z 3 5 6 7 a e I 234 5 I I I 1+1+1 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I 1+1+1'+' '.1., I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I 1+1 ,+,+1+1+'+,+,+1+,.,.,+,+,+,+,.' I 1.'.'+1+1 I , I I I 1+ 1-1.1 I I I I I I I 1.1 I I_I I I I 1+1+1_1 . I 1+1+' I 1+1 -1+' i I 1+'+1 I 1-' 1+1+1+1+1.1+1+1 I 1+1.1 I I 1+1 I II i'I" I I I I I I '1+1 1+' I I I I I I 1+1 1.1 I 1+1+1 I 1+1 I I i I I I I II I I I 1+' I I 1,.1 1+1_1 I 1+1 1+1 I .1.1+1 I' I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I 1+ I.! I I I I + I I ,.,+ I I II I I : I I I I .I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I .. I ,.,.,+' I I I I I 1+1 I '.1 I 1+1 I I I 1+1+1 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I 1+1 1+1 I 1+1+1 ,., I 1 1 1-ln'troduGed ,. 9

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!. Co Tabl. Fl Ie: "a I. a.a",.,.. D no", A,.. dlillo Di, d ",hs. vtrqli"'.a"a OPpo u. Felts cancolor Florida Geo"". Goph.r yol.". -. Sau1::h.r1\ "I"S"II L'-I!nx r"Yf'". lobc:; .. -t "a,:tha"'t1 phl't'. Skunk S-trl .. "us
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Ecolo.'cal Co Tabl. Fj Ie: ..... 1. S"uj,..r.1 -G,.. ... Sca."ry. "' "" -Fox St.-adan ht adua Ra1: Cotto';' Sore. Shrew Sp, 10 le" ,.,,,'to,.ju. Skunk: .:.. apo't't'ed 4qu41:leu. R&bbl"t Swa .... floridanus E "tern pa)Ystris Rabbj"t Ha,...h Fox Gr"."'; Ursus a,..ric4n .... Bear BJack ,.,. .. N C N C S N C S N C N C S Ii N C S N C S N C S Ii C S , t J tIt I I Z Z Z 2 2 t Z 3 4 S 7 S t 2 3 4 S 7 t 2 3 4 5 6 '+'+'+1+1-1+1+'+1+' 1-1_'+1_'_' 1+1 "1-1-' I , , I I '_'+1+'+' t I I I I I -II I 'I I I I I I ---------------------.---.----------------------------I I I 1+1+1-1-1-1+1+'+1+1+' 'I I , i 1+1 '+1 I 1+1 , I , , I I I I 1+' I 1+' ,+,+, I , 1 1+'+'+1_'+1+1+1+'+ 1 +1 +1+'+'+1+1 I I 1+1 r I I 1+ I "" ----------------------------------------------------I I I , I I I I I I I I I I I il 1+1+1 I I 1+1 : 1+1+1+1+1+1_1_1+1 1+1+1+1+1 I I I I I I I : : I : I I f 1.1. : :+:+1 1+1+1 I 1+1 1+1 1+11 1 :+:-.:-.: I + I + 1 + 1 + I_I + 1 + I + I +: + I + I + 1 + 1 + I + 1 + iii, i.j. i I 1 + I 1 : +: I 1 I 1+1+1+1+1 1 1 : 1+1 I I I 1+1 I "J+I+I+I I 1 : I 1J n"trod. u .ced P .... 11

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!coJoQ1Gal Co ... Tal::ll. Fi 1.: R.p'ti I A.kls'tradon cop_erh d Aqkts'tradon plscSvoru. Noeaa. S n Ca"t"-ton.ou1:h Alli.a-tol'" Mi 'ppi.ns'. Alli!la'tor -A rican Anal1. caro]ln.n Anal. G,.. n coccin Snake SC ,ar I.-t Ch.lonia rpen"tin& Tur-tl. Snappinq Cn ldophorus xlin.a'tu. Rac.,..unn.,.. ,5 i x-I tned Colub.r cons'trIC"'tor Race .... Black CQlub ..... ellu. Coachwhlp Ea.-tern ada.an-teus Ra-t-tl nak. Dia.ondback Cro-ta-lu. norridu. Ra't'tl nak. Canebrake ra-tlcularia Tur-tl. Chicken cor.ac Tu,.,-tl. A"'tlan"'tic l.a-therback Diadophis punc-ta-tu. Snake Sou-thern rinq-neckad Elapne <;Jutta-ta Snake Corn Elaphe: obsole-ta Yellow ra"'t Ar H H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S S H C S H H C S H C S H C S H C S H C S N C S *-ChaI"'Qc-t.,.,izinq +-Occurs N-Nol"'-th C-C.n'tral S-Sou'th t t t t t t t t t t 2 2 2 2 222 ( 2 3 S 7 S t 2 3 4 S 7 8e t I 3 4 5 S I i I I i+1 I I I I i 1+1 I I I I I 11+1+1 I I II I I t I. I 1+1+1+1+1+1 1+1+1+\ 1+1+1+1 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I. I I I I I I I I I II I I I I 1+1+1+11+1 I I 1+1 I 1+1+1.1+1+I+J+I+I+I+I-I+I+I+I+I+i+l 1+1+1+1+1+1 I t r ---.------"-.-... .... ---------1+1+1 I I I I I III I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I f I I 1+1+1_1_1+1 I 1+1+1+1 I I I I .1 1+1+1 I I I I 1 1+1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 .1 I I 1+1 I I 1+1 1 I 1+1 I I I I I 1+1 I III 1+1 I I 1+1 I I 11+1 I 1 I I I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I 1+1+1+1 I II J I I 1_1+1 I I 1 1+1 I I 1+11 I I I I 1 I I I I I 1 I I .1 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I I I I.' I I 1+1+1 + 1+1+ 1+1+1+ I +1+\+1+1+1 I 1 I 1+1 I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I 1 1 1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1+1+1 I II I 1 I I I I II t I II I I I I 1+1 I III I 11+1+1 1+1+1 II I I I I I I I I I I I I .. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1+1 1+1 1+1+1 I I I I I 1+1+1+1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 1_1_1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I 1+..1+1 I .i II I, I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1+1_1+1+1+1+1 I 1 I 1+1 I I I I II : I : .J 'I :_: + I -to: : 1+: + I + I r + I I + I I-I + I I 1_ I I I I I-In-troducad 1' .... 12

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Ecolo c.1 Co FII.: Eu c r lu. Sklnk Eu c r Ilyld". -S" ink" BJue-'ta,l.d eoJe Eu c Sklnk "ve-llned Eu c S .k. nk Broad-headed FaraftCI Snake Kud Go_heru. u. Gopher Hald Snake .... ld ""aJer'a. Snake Heot.,..odon .Iau. Sn.... haena Kln rnan b.uri. tlud -baur. T .... r-t l ..:. Mud 1<_,,.warwbru. Tur't_l. Mud. LaeprQPel'ti. dol_i."'. Snak. Sc::a,..Je't'. k1n. L prQPel-t j. liIiIe:r, l u. ( 1 ) 5n.k.4-Ea.tern kin. L prop.lti.-qe'tulu. ( 2) S,.C: II F _lorid. ktn, Lepj elochg} 'is-kem"pi L"qOs':).r.la i :nk -; Gro .... "d tia-laclttm". terrapin' T8!""r4pin ... Dta'.ondback ..... S S C S " C S C S " C S C S C S S C S C S C S C S C S C S I I I t , t I Z Z I I I t a 7 I a 7 t .3 1 1+' 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1+1 I 1+1+1 I I 1 1 1 1 1+1 1 1 1 I 1 I I I I 1.,+, I I I I I I I I I I I Iii i I I I 1 1+1+1+1+1+1 I I I 1 1+1 1+' 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I 7-7-7-7-7;7-7-7-j'"7-j;7;j-j-j-j-j-rrliiH-j-7-j-7-7 i I I i+I+I+I+1 II 1+1+1 I 1+1 I 1+1+1+1 I 1 I I I 1,1 1+1 1+1 1+1 1+1+1+1+1 1+1 1+1 1 1+\ 1+1 I I 1 ,+1 --------------------------------------""":-----.--------1 +1+1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 1 I : 1 J 1 --. ---.--.:..---------------.:...-.:...-----. -------------------. I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I I 1+ 1+1 1 1 1 I : I : I-In'troduced / .. Il

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[colo ..... 1 C ... .. .. T."I. ... 1., R ... 5 ...... -C_ol H.o SI<' ,I< 5." .. ........ c S".k" -......... ... ... 0 .. 1. ... 10 .. 1<1' S"ak" - ... G .. Snake NerO"I. ... Snake .rowft Snake Rau9h .r ft O_hi uru. ca..r u. LI ,." 1.1 ...... 1 o.ht.aurva v LI20,." .1 .......... I. _1._I_v. $" .... -1"1_1 ..... I". Sa.I_". LI .... d -II ... I.-o,.vawaodl LI ...... Sa ........ i_ I .. :lna .. ,..t. .. S ... k" -.I.ak .... . ....... 51: :.10.0_. 6 ....... ua ... u. S".k" -Sho .. U .... ... I .... k ... 1 S"ak. -,.Iorida .,.a,," Tan'ttlla (1) S.nak. __ Florida crowned 1 .11. Gorona1:. (2) Snake crowned T e,..,..aj::u:n. e4ro J na Tu,.-tl. Box ..... Nell C II " C 8 C $ C II C II ell C 8 N C C $ C 8 C S C S C S C 5 S C 5 t t t ttl t ttl 2 2 2 2 222 t Z 3 4 II 5 7 II I Z 34 II 6 7 a II . I Z 3 4 5 6 ,.,.,.'.'+1.,+,+' '+1+1+1+1 .+1 I 1 J 1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1 I 1 1+1+' 1 I I , I , I I , 1 I I I 1 1 I I I I I I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1+1 I I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 II 1 I 1 1 I I I I I I I , 1+1+1 1 I I I I I I J I I J I I 1 I I I I J I , 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 1+1+1 1 1+1 1 I I I I 1+1+1+1+1.'+1+1+1+1+101+1+1+1+1 1 1 1+1+1+1 1 I I I 101.'., HI+I+I 1 I I , I I I I I .. I I I I I I I II I I 1+1+1+1+1 1+1 I I I I I I I I t I I I 1 I I I 1 1+1.'+1 I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I 1.1 I I I I I 1+1 I I 1+1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1+1+1 I I I I I I I 1 I I 1 I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I II I 1+1 I I 1+1 I 1 1+1+1 I I I I I 1.lol.lolal 1 I I I I I 1 1 I J I I I I 1+1 I I 1.1+1 1 1 I I II 1 I I 1+11 I I 1 I I I 1 I I 1 I I J I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 II 1+1 j I 1+1+1+1+1+1+1 I 1 1+1+1 I+II+HI+I+I+I+I 1+1 .I+iJ II I II I I I J 1+1+1+1 1+' I I 1+1+1 1+' 1+1 I '+'+1+1+1 1+1+1 ----------------------------------------------------I I I I I I + I I + I + I I / I I + I I I I II I I I I I I I II 1+.l+1+1.lal+I+I+I+I+I+I+I+1 II I 1+1 I 1+1 I II P...

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Eeoloqjcal Co ",ra: Rap'ttla. &:.l;'..Ir"'i'h ... Flor""d. r""bbon c ... u ...... "" ...... t , t t , Z Z Z Z Z Z Z ".... Z I 7 I 2 3 4 5 II 7 Z 3 4 5 G C S I I I 1 ,+I+I.I.t+1 1+1+1+1+1 I 1+1+"'''1 1+1 1 hl+I+1 C S I I I 1+1+1+'+1+1+1+:+1+:+1+: 1+'+1 I 1+1+1+1+:+1+1+: .-Char-;Ic"t.cr I z i nq t-Occ;"",... N-Nor"'-th C-C.,,-t..... S-Io"''th P.... IS

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REFERENCES Burt, W. H. and Grossenheider, 1961. A Field Guide to the Mammals_ Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Carr, Archie and C. J. Goin, 1955. Guide to the Reptiles, Amphibians, and Freshwater Fishes of Florida. University of Florida Press, Gainesville. Conant, Roger. 1958. Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians fo Eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Davison, Verne E. 1959. Needs and Management. Upland Non-Game Birds in the Southeast: Their USDA, Soil Conservation Service, Ft. Worth, Texas. Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals. Robbins, Chandler S., B. Bruun, and H. S. Zim. 1966. A Guide to Field Identification -Birds of North America. Golden Press, New York. Sprunt, Alexander, Jr. 1954. Florida Bird Life. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York. 16

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SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

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MARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY Date Due Due Returned Due Returned SEP 241993 SEP 241993 N\W 19 19f1 IJAN 051. NAt 2tft4 ."'. JAIIU. I nr:t' f c: Gil FEB t 7 199 '" til ,.AY I) 8 f995 lUft: 0 6 199!, DEC 0 8 MAR 20 1996 .. --IOVH_ NOV 1 R jDQ q 1J IIi JAN2L tdfi 1 _2'99'1 MAR 181997. JAN281993 JAN281998 29 19G1 JMB 061998 JAN281998 za19W MAR-011998 06 191! MAY1S