Short-tailed hawk surveys

Material Information

Short-tailed hawk surveys annual performance report
Millsap, Brian A
Robson, Mark ( Mark Stuart ), 1953-
Runde, Douglas E
Florida -- Nongame Wildlife Program
Place of Publication:
Tallahassee Fla
Nongame Wildlife Section, Division of Wildlife, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
5, [3] p. : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Buteo -- Geographical distribution -- Florida ( lcsh )
Hawks -- Geographical distribution -- Florida ( lcsh )
Bird populations -- Florida ( lcsh )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Bibliography: p. 5.
General Note:
Cover title.
General Note:
"Annual progress report, Nongame Wildlife Section, Project: Survey and monitoring ... Period covered: 1 July 1988-30 June 1989"--P. 1.
General Note:
"June 1989."
General Note:
"... short-tailed hawl (Buteo brachyurus) ..."--Abstract, p. 1.
Statement of Responsibility:
Brian A. Millsap, Mark Robson, Douglas E. Runde.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
AAA0256 ( LTQF )
AJB2942 ( NOTIS )
026675140 ( AlephBibNum )
26147784 ( OCLC )

Full Text

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Nongame Wildlife Section

Project: Survey and Monitoring

Study: Short-tailed Hawk Surveys

Period Covered: 1 July 1988 30 June 1989

Principal Investigators: Brian A. Millsap, Regional Nongame Wildlife Biologist,
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
3900 Drane Field Road, Lakeland, FL 33811

Mark Robson, Regional Nongame Wildlife Biologist,
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
551 North Military Trail, West Palm Beach, FL 33415

Douglas E. Runde, Nongame Wildlife Survey and
Monitoring Coordinator, Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission, Route 7, Box 3055, Quincy, FL 32351

Prepared By: Brian A. Millsap, Mark Robson, Douglas E. Runde

Abstract: The short-tailed hawk (Bureo brachyurus) is a poorly known hawk that reaches the northern limits of its range in
peninsular Florida. Available information suggests that fewer than several hundred short-tailed hawks occur in Florida.
Only 25 Florida nesting sites have been described. This report summarizes results of a systematic helicopter survey initiated
by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission (Commission) in 1988 in an attempt to monitor trends in the num-
ber of short-tailed hawks wintering in southern peninsular Florida. We also present the results of a literature review to identify
potential short-tailed hawk nesting localities, and the results of casual monitoring of short-tailed hawk breeding sites in south-
central Florida since 1986. Ten short-tailed hawks were encountered on helicopter surveys of 1,062 km of transect (0.01 hawks
per km of transect) in Collier, Dade, and Monroe counties between 5 and 16 December 1988. Nearly all short-tailed hawks
observed were in a transitional vegetation sone between tidal swamp (mangrove [Avicena grminans and Rhizophora mangle]
forest) and adjacent freshwater or saltwater marsh. This transitional habitat type appeared to be preferred by short-tailed
hawks. The paucity of short-tailed hawk observations suggests that this may not be an appropriate technique for monitoring
populations of this species, or that surveys were flown too late in winter. Our review of the literature revealed 25 localities
in 17 Florida counties where short-tailed hawks have been observed during the breeding season since 1951. Additionally, we
located breeding and potentially breeding short-tailed hawks at 1 new locality in Glades County, 1 new locality in Hendry
County, 2 new localities in Highlands County, and 6 new localities in Polk County. Our observations and others' indicate that
important populations of short-tailed hawks do or may occur in (1) coastal sections of Citrus, Levy, and Dixie counties; (2)
the Green Swamp in Polk, Lake, and Sumter counties; (3) along and to the east of the Lake Wales Ridge, Mount Dora Ridge,
and Orlando Ridge in Orange, Osceola, Seminole, Polk, and Highlands counties; (4) along forested drainages on the Okee-
chobee Plain (e.g. Arbuckle Creek, Taylor Creek, Fisheating Creek, Tick Island Slough, Kissimmee River); and (5) in the Big
Cypress National Preserve, Corkscrew Swamp, and Fakahatchee Strand National Preserve. Additional surveys should be
conducted in these areas to better determine population size. Based on the limited work that has been conducted, short-
tailed hawks appear to have a high degree of fidelity to breeding sites; some sites have been occupied for at least 16 years.
This indicates that preservation of nesting areas may be particularly important if populations of this species are to be
maintained at present levels. Currently, the densest known nesting population of this species in Florida occurs along Fisheating
Creek in Glades County. This nesting area is threatened because the upland foraging habitat is being converted to cropland.

INTRODUCTION tribute from southern Mexico south to the
austral subtropics (Brown and Amadon
The short-tailed hawk is widely dis- 1968). Florida's population is disjunct from

the main body of the species' range. Rand
(1960) determined that the Florida popula-
tion differed in several mensural and plum-
age characteristics from populations in
mainland Mexico, but he continued to refer
Florida birds to the Mexican race B. b.

The status, distribution, and habitat
associations of the short-tailed hawk in
peninsular Florida are poorly known.
Ogden (1974) reviewed available records
and searched for short-tailed hawk nests
from 1966 1972 in South Florida. He de-
scribed 16 nesting localities. This and other
available information (Moore ct al. 1953,
Ogden 1988) suggest that no more than
several hundred short-tailed hawks occur in
Florida. The number may be much smaller.

Low population size, potential habitat
specificity, and low reproductive potential
characteristic of falconiforms justifies
concern for the status of this taxon in
Florida. Partly for these reasons, the short-
tailed hawk ranked 19th on the Florida
Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission's
(Commission) list of priority Florida taxa
for attention, and was the highest priority
taxon for distributional surveys (Millsap et
al. 1990).

The Commission was interested in ob-
taining additional information on the
status of the short-tailed hawk in Florida.
In 1986, the Commission began tracking
reports of short-tailed hawk sightings in
south central Florida. In 1987, Commission
biologists began to casually investigate past
and recent reports of short-tailed hawk
nesting activities in the same area. Because
short-tailed hawks are difficult to observe
and occur at low densities in relatively
inaccessible areas, use of breeding season
surveys may not be an efficient method of
gathering information on population trends.

Ogden (1974) presented information that
suggested that there was a seasonal intra-
Florida migration of short-tailed hawks,
with birds from breeding areas north of
about 270 N latitude concentrating around
the southern tip of the peninsula during
winter. In 1987, we investigated the feas-
ibility of counting short-tailed hawks from
aircraft, and in 1988 we conducted a trial

systematic helicopter survey of portions of
the southern tip of the Florida peninsula to
determine if it would be possible to
monitor populations through counts on the
wintering grounds.

This report summarizes results of the
1987 and 1988 helicopter surveys, results of
a literature review to determine potential
nesting localities, and results of casual
monitoring of short-tailed hawk breeding
sites in south-central Florida since 1986.


Systematic helicopter surveys were con-
ducted in south peninsular Florida between
0900 hr and 1400 hr on 5, 6, 15, and 16
December 1988. Surveys were conducted on
a "southern" and "western" study area by
flying predetermined east-west transects at
altitudes of from 30 m to 230 m. Transects
were located 4.6 km apart. The southern
study area included portions of Monroe and
Dade counties from the confluence of
Harney River at the Gulf of Mexico south
to Cape Sable, and east to the eastern
boundary of Everglades National Park
(roughly 250 09' to 25 28 N latitude, and
80 34 to 81 10 W longitude). The western
study area was in Collier and Monroe coun-
ties, and included portions of Everglades
National Park, the Cape Romano Ten
Thousand Islands Aquatic Preserve, Faka-
hatchee Strand National Preserve, and Big
Cypress National Preserve from the south-
ern tip of Marco Island south to Plover Key,
and east to the Loop Road (roughly 250 31
to 250 54 N latitude, and 800 53 to 810 30
W longitude). In the southern study area,
489 km of transect were flown on 5 and 6
December, and 273 km were reflown on 16
December. In the western study area, 300
km of transect were flown on 15 December.

Potential short-tailed hawk nesting
sites were investigated by visiting likely
habitat about 0830 hr and watching until
1000 hr for soaring short-tailed hawks.
Some areas where short-tailed hawks were
found were also surveyed by aircraft to
locate nests and to determine the feasibil-
ity of detecting the birds from the air.

We recorded all other incidental sight-

ings of short-tailed hawks to provide ad-
ditional information on distribution and
habitat associations. Age of short-tailed
hawks was determined whenever possible
by details of the plumage, as described in
Ogden (1983).


Systematic Winter Surveys

Preliminary aerial surveys in Everglades
National Park on 13 January 1988 resulted
in 3 short-tailed hawk sightings and con-
firmed that the species could be detected
from a helicopter. Based on this, we pro-
ceeded with systematic aerial surveys in
December 1988. Ten short-tailed hawks
were observed on the systematic winter
surveys, 8 (0.016 per transect km) on the 5
and 6 December survey of the southern
study area, 1 (0.003 per km of transect) on
the 15 December survey of the western
study area, and 1 (0.004 per km of transect)
on the partial resurvey of the southern
study area on 16 December (Appendix A).
On the western study area and on the 16
December partial resurvey of the southern
study area we also counted other raptors.
For comparative purposes, relative abun-
dances of other falconiforms on the west-
ern study area were: 0.013/km for ospreys
(Pandion haliaetus); 0.027/km for red-
shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus); and
0.003/km for red-tailed hawks (B.
jamaicensis). Relative abundances of other
falconiforms on the resurvey of the south-
ern study area were: 0.048/km for ospreys;
0.014/km for bald eagles (Haliaeetus
leucocephalus); 0.011/km for northern har-
riers (Circus cyaneus); 0.014/km for red-
shouldered hawks; and 0.003/km for Ameri-
can kestrels (Falco sparverius). These values
are not adjusted for detectability differen-
ces between species or areas, and likely do
not accurately reflect actual differences in
relative abundance.

Short-tailed hawk abundance differed
substantially between surveys on the
southern study area. The difference may
have been due to the time of surveys.
Surveys on 5 and 6 December started at
0900 hr, and most short-tailed hawk sight-
ings were obtained before 1030 hr (al-

though hawks were observed as late in the
day as 1400 hr). The resurvey on 16 De-
cember started somewhat later, and areas
where short-tailed hawks occurred on the
5 and 6 December surveys were not cover-
ed until after 1100 hr. Weather conditions
were similar on all survey days (clear to
high overcast, temperatures 200 to 22 C,
wind 8 to 16 km/hr).

All short-tailed hawks observed on sys-
tematic surveys were over transitional
zones between tidal swamps and tidal
marshes, tidal swamps and coastal prairies,
or between tidal swamps and sawgrass
(Cladium jamaicense) sloughs. These areas
were distinctly savannah-like in ap-
pearance, and most soaring short-tailed
hawks were over areas with substantial
mangrove cover. These transitional zones
comprised a relatively small part of the
area surveyed, and short-tailed hawks
appeared to preferentially occur in these

Breeding Season Observations

Literature Review. -- We reviewed Audu-
bon Field Notes and American Birds from
1951 to 1985, and Ogden (1974), to obtain
information on breeding-season occurrence
records of short-tailed hawks in Florida.
We found records of short-tailed hawks
from 25 distinct localities in 18 Florida
counties (Appendix B). Many of these areas
warrant further investigation as they may
support important breeding populations.
Other areas that should be further inves-
tigated include coastal sections of Citrus,
Dixie, and Levy counties; forested drain-
ages along the Mount Dora and Orlando
ridges, particularly in Tosohatchee State
Preserve and Wekiwa Springs State Park in
Orange and Seminole counties; and Big
Cypress National Preserve and Fakahatchee
Strand National Preserve in Collier County.

Field Observations in South-Central
Florida. -- We observed or received reports
of breeding or potentially breeding short-
tailed hawks at 1 new locality in Glades
County, 1 new locality in Hendry County,
2 new localities in Highlands County, and
6 new localities in Polk County (Appendix
C). Nesting was confirmed at 3 Glades
County sites, and at 2 Polk County sites;

nesting was suspected at 2 other Highlands
County sites and 2 additional Polk County
sites. Nesting may have occurred at the
other localities, but observations were too
few for confirmation.

All but 1 of the Glades County nests
were in areas previously identified by
Ogden (1974) as short-tailed hawks breed-
ing areas; at least 1 of these pairs occupied
the same cypress dome that short-tailed
hawks had nested in at the time of Ogden's
work 16 to 22 years ago (L. Williams, Gain-
esville, Fla., pers. commun.). In all cases (in
Glades and other counties) where we re-
visited known breeding sites in 2 or more
years, breeding sites were occupied by
short-tailed hawks in each year. Thus,
short-tailed hawks in Florida likely have a
high degree of fidelity to nesting areas.
The population of nesting short-tailed
hawks along Fisheating Creek in Glades
County is probably larger than what we re-
port here. Access restrictions prevented us
from determining if all of the territories
identified by Ogden (1974) were still occu-
pied, and there is a considerable amount of
suitable habitat that has never been ade-
quately searched. Much of the uplands
along Fisheating Creek were being con-
verted from dry prairie to intensive crop-
land during the course of this study. This
conversion will probably have a negative
effect on this short-tailed hawk population
by decreasing foraging habitat.

The other breeding season observations
we report represent new recent breeding lo-
cality records for the species. Most of these
records were from Polk and Highlands
counties, mainly on and cast of the Lake
Wales Ridge. Our observations at the 4
sites where nesting was confirmed or
strongly suspected indicated that oak
(Quercus spp.) scrub, sand pine (Pinus
clausa) scrub, and palmetto (Sabal repens)
prairie ecological communities were fre-
quently used for foraging, and extensive
cypress (Taxodium distichum) strand forests
(2 sites) or loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus)
- slash pine (P. elliotti) heads (2 sites) were
used for nesting. We suspect that the east
slope of the Lake Wales Ridge and forested
drainages along the northern Okeechobee
Plain support an important breeding popu-
lation of short-tailed hawks. Short-tailed

hawks were also observed in the Green
Swamp region of northern Polk County (B.
Cooper, Lake Region Audubon Soc., pers.
common.), and it is possible that this area
also supports a breeding population.

We investigated the potential of detect-
ing short-tailed hawks at nest sites from
aircraft at 2 known nests in Polk County.
We detected hawks on 3 of 4 flights (2 of 2
helicopter flights, and I of 2 fixed-wing
flights), but only after passing within 300
m of the nest. All successful flights were
conducted in the morning before 0900 hr.
These results indicate that aircraft, par-
ticularly helicopters, can be used to detect
breeding short-tailed hawks at nest sites.
Surveys using aircraft will probably be
most successful if the survey is conducted
in the early morning before the hawks
begin soaring.

Recommendations and Suggested Survey

The paucity of short-tailed hawk detec-
tions on systematic aerial surveys raises
doubts about the value of this technique in
monitoring population levels of this species.
However, we plan to conduct these surveys
at least once more during early November
1989. Short-tailed hawks appeared to be
much more numerous in Everglades Nation-
al Park during early November than in
mid-December in 1988 (1 of us [BAM]
counted I1 short-tailed hawks from the
ground in the Park on 15 November 1988).
The results of the 1989 survey will be used
to decide whether future systematic aerial
surveys are warranted.

To determine the present distribution
of nesting short-tailed hawks, additional
surveys should be conducted in coastal
sections of Citrus, Levy, and Dixie coun-
ties; in Orange and Seminole counties; and
in Collier County. Areas of suitable habi-
tat in these areas should be identified from
a review of aerial photographs. Helicopter
overflights of likely nesting areas should be
scheduled for early mornings during early
to mid-June. Flights should be conducted
at low altitudes (< 100 m). Exact locations
of nests should be determined and recorded
with sufficient precision to permit the sites

to be revisited.


We would like to thank B. Cooper, C.
Geanangle, T. Palmer, and R. Titus for
sharing their sightings of short-tailed
hawks in Polk County with us. J. Truitt
and L. Ham piloted helicopters during sur-
veys. Funding for this study came from
Florida's Nongame Wildlife Trust Fund.


Brown, L. and D. Amadon. 1968. Eagles,
hawks and falcons of the world. County
Life Books, London. 945pp.

Millsap, B. A., J. A. Gore, D. E. Runde, and
S. I. Cerulean. 1990. Setting priorities
for the conservation of fish and wildlife
species in Florida. Wildl. Monogr. No.
111. 57pp.

Moore, J. C., L. A. Stimson, and W. B.
Robertson. 1953. Observations of the
short-tailed hawk in Florida. Auk

Ogden, J. C. 1974. The short-tailed hawk
in Florida. I. Migration, habitat, hunt-
ing techniques, and food habits. Auk

S1983. Field identification of
difficult birds: I. Short-tailed hawk.
Fla. Field Nat. 1:30-33.

1988. Short-tailed hawk. Pages
34 47 in R. S. Palmer, ed. Handbook
of North American Birds. Volume 5.
Diurnal Raptors (Part 2). Yale Univ.
Press, New Haven, Conn.

Rand, A. L. 1960. Races of the short-tailed
hawk, Buteo brachyurus. Auk 77:448-459.

Appendix A. Winter short-tailed hawk sightings by Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission personnel, 1986 1989. Sightings proceeded by an wre
obtained as part of systematic helicopter surveys in December 1988. Dates are reported as moath/day/year.

No. Plant Latitude and
County Date seen comumuitiesa Activity longitude Location

Collier 12/12/87 1 9.2.0 7.5.1 4.0 2603 8116 Copeland Prairie, 1.6 km S of Deeplake Strand, Big
Cypress Preserve

Dade 12/11/87 2 13.3.0 9.4.0 4.0 2514 8047 Nine-mile Pond, Everglades National Park
12/11/87 1 7.5.2 4.0 2526 8048 Pay-hay-okee overlook, Everglades National Park
12/11/87 1 13.3.0 4.0 2509 8057 Marina, Flamingo, Everglades National Park
11/15/88 4 9.4.0 5.3.0 17.0 2522 8036 Anhinga Trail, Everglades National Park
*12/04/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2512 8044 2.5 km N Seven Palms Lake, Everglades National Park
*12/05/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2509 8043 Between Monroe Lake and Seven Palms Lake, Everglades
National Park
*12/06/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2513 8046 3.2 km N Cuthbert Lake, Everglades National Park

Monroe 01/13/87 1 13.3.0 13.2.0 4.0 2508 8059 3.2 km W Flamingo, Everglades National Park
01/13/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 4.0 2513 8052 1.6 km E Whitewater Bay, Everglades National Park
01/13/88 2 13.3.0 9.4.0 4.0 2518 8054 1.6 km NE Whitewater Bay, Everglades National Park
11/15/88 7 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2508 8054 Flamingo Rd., 200 m SW of Dade/Monroe County line,
Everglades National Park
*12/05/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2512 8101 Between Little Fox Lake and Joes River, Everglades
National Park
*12/05/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2510 8058 Cape Sable, between Bear Lake and Joes River,
Everglades National Park
*12/05/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2508 8100 East Cape, Cape Sable, Everglades National Park
*12/05/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2509 8103 East Cape, Cape Sable, Everglades National Park
*12/05/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2509 8059 1.6 km W. Bear Lake, Everglades National Park
*12/15/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2543 8113 .75 km E Last Huston Bay, W part of Everglades
National Park
*12/16/88 1 13.3.0 9.4.0 17.0 2510 8106 Cape Sable, NW end of Lake Ingraham, Everglades
National Park

plant community codes
(mangrove) swamp.

bActivity codes are: 4.0 = feeding; 17.0 = flying.

are: 7.5.2 = cypress dome swamp; 9.2.0 = freshwater slough; 9.4.0 = sawgrass swale; 13.2.0 = tidal marsh; and 13.3.0 = tidal

Appendix B. Breeding eaon records of short-tailed hawks reported in Audubon Field Note (AFN) and American Birds (AB)
(1961 1986). Dates are reported a month/day/year..
tNo.t tlli












Dixie 7/10/83

Glades 6/19/70


Hendry 6/21/77

Highlands ?/?/51

Hillsborough 7/12/85

Indian River 6/23/73

Jefferson 7/26/79






Palm Beach







5/?/79- 7/7/79























St. Johns River


Alligator Alley
Corkscrew Swamp
Near Ochopee

Royal Palm Ranger Station
Everglades National Park
Royal Palm Ranger Station
Everglades National Park

Mouth of Suwannee River

Brighton Indian Reservation
Fisheating Creek
Fisheating Creek

Big Cypress Indian Reservation

Highlands Hammock State Park
Near De Soto City
Lake Istakpoga
Parker Island


Blue Cypress Lake

St. Marks National Wildlife


10 miles east of Cedar Key

Key Largo
Windley Key

Taylor Creek

Econlockahatchee River
2 locations on Tosohatchee State

Lake Harbor

Wekiwa Springs State Park

"Counties north of Tampa"


AFN 24(5) 673-677

AB 30(5) 945-948

AB 30(6) 945-948
AB 31(6) 1128-1130
AB 34(6) 887-889

AFN 16(5) 468-473

AFN 20(3) 412-416

AB 37(6) 980-982

AFN 24(5) 673-677
AFN 26(5) 848-852
Ogden 1974
AB 30(4) 828-832
AB 33(6) 855-858
AB 38(6) 1011-1013

AB 31(6) 1128-1130

AFN 5(3) 200-201
AFN 23(5) 651-655
Ogden 1974
Ogden 1974

AB 39(5) 902-905

AB 27(5) 859-863

AB 33(6) 855-858

AB 27(5) 859-863

AFN 19(5) 534-537

AFN 7(5) 304-309
AFN 9(5) 373-375
AB 30(4) 828-832

Ogden 1974

Ogden 1974
AB 33(6) 855-858

AB 30(5) 945-948

AB 35(6) 932-934

AFN 18(5) 503-505

--1 --

or reported to Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission persomel, 1986 1989. Dates

Appendix C. Breeding season short-tailed hawk sightings by

are reported as monthduday&yer.

9o. Plant Latitude and
County Date Seen Communitiesa Activityb Longitudcation

Glades 06/20/86 3 7.5.1 5.5.2 1.0 (FY) 2656 8116 Rock Lake, E Wilderness Campground, Lykes Brothers
Fisheating Creek Ranch
05/15/87 3 7.5.1 6.2.0 1.0 (ON) 2656 8120 2.0 km E Palmdale at horse pens E of main campground,
Lykes Brothers Fisheating Creek Ranch

05/15/87 3 7.5.1 7.4.0 1.0 (FY) 2654 8120 Yorks Branch, 4.0 km SW State Route 29 intersection
with State Route 72, Lykes Brothers Fisheating
Creek Ranch
06/10/87 3 7.5.1 6.2.0 1.0 (FY) 2652 8116 Rock Lake, E Wilderness Campground, Lykes Brothers
Fisheating Creek Ranch

Hendry 03/04/89 1 5.2.1 3.2.0 12.0 2645 8109 State Route 80 immediately S of Hendry Isles Airport

Highlands 07/01/88 1 7.5.1 3.2.0 17.0 2728 8118 U.S. 98 at Yellow Bluff Creek crossing
03/04/89 1 11.5.0 7.4.0 1.0 (T) 2734 8110 W bank Kissimmee River at Ft. Kissimmee, Avon Park
04/08/89 1 7.2.0 17.0 (SH) 2718 8119 S side Lake Istakpoga on Eagles Nest Rd
Polk 06/01/86 1 7.5.1 5.6.0 2.0 (0) 2818 8155 Rock Ridge Check Station, Green Swamp Wildlife
Management Area

06/30/86 1 7.5.1 5.6.1 1.0 (FY) 2739 8122 Arbuckle Creek, .8 km SE State Route 64 bridge
08/23/86 1 5.6.0 9.0.0 12.0 2747 8136 1.6 km S State Route 27A and U.S. 27 intersection,
W of Crooked Lake

05/28/87 2 7.3.0 3.2.0 1.0 (P) 2738 8125 Bonnet Creek Swamp, 3.2 km N State Route 64 and Old
Bombing Range Rd intersection

06/23/88 2 5.5.1 7.6.1 1.0 (FY) 2739 8125 Bonnet Creek Swamp (NN part), 3.6 km N State Route
64 and Bombing Range Rd intersection

03/24/89 1 11.3.0 6.2.0 17.0 2740 8108 Kicco Wildlife Management Area, near confluence of
Tick Island Slough and Kissimmee River

03/25/89 1 7.5.1 5.5.0 4.0 2749 8128 Tiger Creek Preserve

plant community codes are: 3.2.0 = improved pasture; 5.5.0 = scrub; 5.5.1 = xeric hardwood hammock; 5.5.2 = oak scrub; 5.6.0 = pine flatwoods; 5.6.1
= scrubby flatwoods; 6.2.0 = palmetto prairie; 7.2.0 = bottomland hardwood swamp; 7.3.0 = floodplain swamp; 7.4.0 = hydric hardwood hammock; 7.5.1 =
cypress strand swamp; 7.5.2 = cypress dome swamp; 7.6.1 = bay swamp; 9.0.0 freshwater marsh; 9.2.0 freshwater slough; 9.4.0 = sawgrass swale; 11.3.0
= blackwater river; 11.5.0 = channelized stream; 13.2.0 = tidal marsh; and 13.3.0 tidal (mangrove) swamp.

bActivity codes are: 1.0 = breeding (FY = fledged young, 0 = observed, ON = occupied nest, P = pair, SH suitable habitat, T = territorial adult);
2.0 = loafing; 4.0 = feeding; 12.0 = hunting; 17.0 = flying.