Title Page
 Table of Contents
 A. D. 1565
 A. D. 1583-1596-1598
 A. D. 1598
 A. D. 1600
 A. D. 1605-1608
 A. D. 1622-1640
 A. D. 1655-1657
 A. D. 1662-1670
 A. D. 1671-1673
 A. D. 1675
 A. D. 1680-1685
 A. D. 1689-1698
 A. D. 1708-1723
 A. D. 1736-1739
 A. D. 1741-1743
 A. D. 1770-1771
 A. D. 1771
 A. D. 1773
 A. D. 1773-1786

Title: Unwritten History of Old St. Augustine
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00000015/00001
 Material Information
Title: Unwritten History of Old St. Augustine
Series Title: Unwritten History of Old St. Augustine
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Brooks, A. M.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00000015
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: ltqf - AAA0112
ltuf - AAN7868
alephbibnum - 000121939

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    A. D. 1565
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    A. D. 1583-1596-1598
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    A. D. 1598
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    A. D. 1600
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    A. D. 1605-1608
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    A. D. 1622-1640
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    A. D. 1655-1657
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    A. D. 1662-1670
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    A. D. 1671-1673
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    A. D. 1675
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    A. D. 1680-1685
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    A. D. 1689-1698
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    A. D. 1708-1723
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    A. D. 1736-1739
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
    A. D. 1741-1743
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
    A. D. 1770-1771
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
    A. D. 1771
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    A. D. 1773
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
    A. D. 1773-1786
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
Full Text

Founding of St. Augustine By Pedro Menendes, September 8, 1565.


@9lb t. Augustine
Copied from the Spanish Archives
in Seville, Spain, by Miss
A. M. Brooks and
Mrs. Annie Averette

I~i&D emi~


We take pleasure in presenting to our readers in-
formation connected with St. Augustine never before
published. It is composed largely of reports and let-
ters to the King of Spain, much of it written by Pedro
Menendez himself, and contains decrees and letters
from the King to the Governor, Generals and Officers
having charge of the Florida Provinces. It has been
buried for over three centuries, in Seville, Spain. It
is reliable, having been written in old Spanish and
guarded with care. It contains facts for which many
have sought in vain. The style in which it is written
is clear and comprehensive, without being diffuse or
overdrawn. It is the true history of our country.


CHAPTER I-A. D. 1565 ......................... 1
Royal Decree from King Philip II in reference to further dis-
covery and settlement of Florida-Officers and number of
men.appointed to go in the Armada-Reports from the Ar-
mada after leaving-Report from Pedro Menendez to his
Majesty-The English and French have already settled here-
Necessity of Spaniards taking entire control-Letter from the
King to Pedro Menendez-Tells of English and French ves-
sels reported to have sailed for these Provinces-King sends
Fleet with sailors, soldiers and supplies that the person of
Pedro Menendez may be guarded properly as Governor and
Captain General of the Province of Florida.
CHAPTER II-A. D. 1565........................ 13
Pedro Menendez gives an account to his Majesty of the Fort
Matanzas Massacre-Menendez and army escape from being
made prisoners by the French on account of a tornado-Be-
cause of the swollen river the Council agree to make a land
attack-Spaniards surprise and take Fort Matanzas without
loss of a single man-Killing over two hundred Frenchmen
and capturing Laudonnier-Find Indians enchanted with the
Lutherans-Shipwrecked Frenchmen found on coast-With
hands tied behind them are stabbed in the back by Spaniards.
CHAPTER III-A. D. 1598....................... 27
Report of Fernando Mirando, agent to the King, complains
of Governor-Espionage over vessels-Gives account of work
of negroes-Houses and churches built, land cleared-Soldiers
assist in repairing Fort-Report of Bartolome De Arguellas-
Capture of rebellious Indians-Sending some to Havana to be
hanged, some to be imprisoned-Casiques render obedience
to the Governor who assures them of his good intentions-
Pedro Pertrene reports to the King of being newly appointed
to be Captain of a Garrison in Florida-Insufficiency of sal-
ary to meet expenses-Because of long service to his Majesty
implores aid and satisfaction Dona Maria Menendez,
Casique, writes the King asking aid in meeting the expenses
of instructing the Indians in christianity and good govern-

viii Contents

CHAPTER IV-A. D. 1598....................... 34
Extract from official report made by Gonzales Menendez
Canso, Governor and Captain-General-Six priests of the San
Franciscan order murdered by Indians-Lieutenant Eciga
sent to see if any of the priests are still living-Hears of
one-Is refused permission to see him-After much persua-
sion and many threats Friar Fray Francisco is delivered-
Manner of the death of the others is investigated-Fray
Francisco makes a statement in regard to the death of the
other priests, is forbidden by the Canons of the Church to
reveal all-Notary Public Juan Ximanes swears to the investi-
gation of several Indians through an interpreter-Execution
of Indian Lucas as participating in the murder of Fray Blas.
CHAPTER V-A. D. 1600........................ 49
Letter from one of eleven monks sent out by his Majesty to
spread the gospel-Report eighty churches in different Mis-
sions-Indians lazy and improvident -Avarice of Governor
causes dissatisfaction-People desire his immediate removal-
Fray Lopez, a Missionary, has converted many Indians in
twelve years of service, among them Don Juan, a Casique,
who stands highly among his people-His influence quells
many uprisings-Juan Nunez Rios complains of Governor in
a letter to the King-Begs for an open Port that the people
may go back and forth and trade-An officer asks to be
allowed to serve his Majesty elsewhere-Fray Bias DeMontes
implores that he may be allowed to come to Spain for retire-
ment-Gives account of a fire which burned the church among
other houses-Slow progress among the Indians -Advices
that a Bishop be sent-Report of Gonzales Menendez Canso
to his Majesty-A shipmaster bearing dispatches shipwrecked
in storm-Governor aids him from the Royal Treasury-
Auditor from his Majesty arrives-Reports the Garrison
abounding in fruits and grain-Grieves over the death of the
Christian Indian Don Juan-Return of Fray Lopez from New
Spain in good health-Reports the money brought to establish
a hospital More money needed for Garrison expenses-
Francisco Redondo Villegas, Officer of Customs, is not treated
with the respect due his Royal Office by the Governor-Re-
ports affairs in a muddled condition-Soldiers well drilled-
Much land under cultivation-Wages small-Rations in-
CHAPTER VI-A. D. 1605-1608.................. 67
Minutes of a Bull or Bill of Supplication to be presented to
the Holy See asking for concession of graces and powers for
Catholic residents in Florida- Minorcan families brought
priest and monk with them-Wish new privileges and graces

Contents ix

granted-In regard to a Cedula from his Majesty, which in-
structs as to duties on wine-Priests and Monks of Tasco
use Municipal monies for their own interests- Advises a
change in the office of Treasurer of the Royal Chest-Ves-
sels carry important papers for his Majesty lost-Favors
shown to Don Francisco gratifies the people--Letter from
Pedro Ibarra to his Majesty says there is not sufficient support
for the Garrison-Solicits aid for a poor widow-Soldiers
find amber in a fish, for which Menendez exacts a duty-
French and English pirates cause much anxiety-A few capt-
ured, some imprisoned and ten hanged-Visiting Indian chiefs
so impressed with the religious services and processions that
they ask for friars to instruct their people-Asks for assist-
ance in building a fort at the mouth of Miguel Moro-En-
deavors to find the source of river San Mateo and Lake
Miami-A garrison of warlike people-Proposition to estab-
lish a Manager of the Inquisition to subjugate and control
them-Does not wish to let certain priest and captain-Report
of Jaun Menendez Marquez-Deplores the decision to reduce
the garrison-Advises a return to the policy of Pedro Men-
endez, his cousin-Desires permission to come to Spain to
more fully lay the condition before his Majesty.
CHAPTtR VII-A. D. 1622-1640.................. 82
Report of Antonio Benavides to his Majesty-The Spanish
King instructs the establishment of friendly relations with the
English of the Carolinas-Don Francisco Menendez with
other officers sent out-Mission fails owing to the English
not having yet received instructions from London-Requested
the removal of an English fort built on Spanish territory-
Refusal-The matter fully laid before his Majesty-Report
of Luis De Rojas-A Frigate sent out to assist a fleet in
bringing supplies, run down by an enemy, boat stripped and
burned, soldiers and crew escape to shore and finally reach
the garrison-They collect Indians and soldiers and return-
The enemy take to their launches and escape-Forty-seven
persons only saved from a Spanish Fleet which had been
captured by a Dutch Fleet-Recommends that his Majesty
build a fort at the bar of the place called Jega-Report of
Luis Ussitinez to his Majesty-The Mandate of the King
carried out for prayer to Almighty God for the success of
the King's arms taken up against France-At a meeting of
the Board of the City Council of Havana appears a clergy-
man of the Holy Office of the Inquisition with an Auto from
the Senor Commissionado, Don Francisco de las Casas, con-
taining instructions as to certain ceremonies in connection
with the Inquisition.


CHAPTER VIII-A. D. 1655-1657................. 96
An anonymous letter to his Majesty-Death of Governor
Benito Ruid Salazer--Two others appointed to serve pro
ten. die suddenly of a contagious disease--Certain related
officials gather in the night and elect Don Pedro Ruitinez
Governor--A distressing condition follows-The people's
money squandered- Officials intimidated and abused--Ma-
terial sent for repairing Fort used to barter with the Indians
for amber and the money used by the Governor and Treasurer
-Consults his own pleasure as to obedience to church laws
and vows-A report from Diego Robelledo, 1657, as to the
necessity of guarding the Ports of the Province owing to pirates
and as a prevention from the enemy entering and entrenching
themselves in some of the distant but rich Provinces-The
Friars object to the fortifications as the Spaniards would re-
tard the convention of the Indians-The Governor thinks the
real reason is, that because of the present condition the Friars
are the masters of the Indians-A Friar reports to his Ma-
jesty that owing to the Governor insisting upon some Indian
chiefs carrying heavy burdens of corn, when there were vas-
sals for such labor-The chiefs cause an uprising-They
march into the Garrison and hang the Governor-The Island
of Jamaica heavily fortified by the English who intend taking
Cuba, so it is rumored.
CHAPTER IX-A. D. 1662-1670.................. 107
Alonzo Aranqui y Cartez reports the auditing of accounts and
condition of the Royal Treasury-Finding of large nuggets
in a hill, supposed to be a silver mine-Goes to investigate-
Report of Jaun Cebadillo to his Majesty of having sent out
the King's orders concerning who shall keep the keys of the
Royal chest- Administration of the negroes -Harshness
shown the Royal employees-Francisco Guerra Vega reports
a Captain of the Garrison for indecency and offense to his
superiors, for which same he was reprimanded and impris-
oned as a warning-Afterward given his liberty-The King
to the Captain-General of Provinces of Florida-Instructions
as to the continuance of the passage to Marcana Guale-
Founding of the town of Santiago-As to the performance of
certain duties by soldiers, for which money shall be paid-
Soldiers shall be permitted to raise their crops, and not em-
ployed in personal work for the Governor-The Governor
shall look after the wants and needs of his people-By order
of the King, 1670.
CHAPTER X-A. D. 1671-1673.................... 112
Pedro Menendez received the title of Governor by right of
conquest, and Captain-General and Commander of the Fleet

Contents xi
by conference of his Majesty for faithful, valorous service-
Don Martin Menendez receives the title of perpetual Gov-
ernor by right of inheritance-Important papers burned at
Simancas-Manuel De Mendoza reports to his Majesty as to
the designs of the English enemy-Discovery of the South
Sea-Condition of this Garrison and other Provinces-Im-
plores aid in completing fortifications-Report to his Majesty
by Francisco De La Guerre y Vega concerning an English-
man taken prisoner in the Province of Guale-One of a crew
sent out from a settlement of English at St. Elena-This man
who was second in authority was confined in prison on
soldiers' rations-An effort made to break up the English
settlement, which was unsuccessful.
CHAPTER XI-A. D. 1675 ....................... 121
Letters to the King from the Governor Pablo Ita Salazer-
Oath of office administered in the tower of the old Fort which
is rapidly going into ruins-The Garrison needing supplies
and ammunition-No warehouses, and owing to the distance
and frequency of storms delaying supplies, the people are
forced to hunt in the woods for roots to appease their hunger
-The Fort in danger from pirates-Ammunition and guards
exposed to the fatalities of the weather-Pleads for more
money to complete the Castle-Its great importance-A pen-
tagonal shape recommended-The Viceroy of Spain fails to
send the ten thousand dollars-One hundred men needed to
guard the Castle-Great danger from pirates-Two hundred
leagues from Havana and five hundred from New Spain.
CHAPTER XII-A. D. 1675.................... 130
An effort made to dislodge the English from Santa Elena-
Governor ordered to complete the Castle and defense of the
Garrison-Yucatan families-Master weavers asked for to
settle in Florida-Appalache considered the best Province for
settlement-Supplies sent from New Spain-Barracks to be
made in the Fort for the soldiers-Money sent to finish the
new Castle, also supplies for the soldiers-The neighbors to
assist in building the new Castle-Repairs on the bulwarks
of Guale-Increase of troops for St. Augustine-A fortress
ordered built at Appalache.
CHAPTER XIII-A. D. 1680-1685 ............... 136
Letter from Pablo Ita Salazer to his Majesty-Indians of the
Province of Guale declare themselves friendly to the English,
and make war upon the Spaniards of the Island of St. Cath-
erine-They surprise the six sentinels, killing all but one who
escaped and gave warning-The people gather in the convent
of a Friar and defend themselves from day light until four

xii Contents
o'clock, when aid reaches them from the Garrison of St. Au-
gustine, whereupon the enemy retires-The natives of the
Island greatly alarmed-Disquieting news of the intentions
of the enemy upon this Garrison-Implores aid from the King
quickly, that the English may be ejected from the land-Don
Jaun Marquez Cabera, Governor and Captain-General of
Florida-Gives account to his Majesty of hostilities in the
Provinces-Two Fleets, French and English, going and com-
ing from Havana-Seize Fort Matanzas and, after plundering,
burn it to the ground-Is now being rebuilt-Great depreda-
tions committed up and down the coast by the enemy-Push-
ing the work on the Castle-Grieved over its slow progress,
owing to lack of workmen-Begs to be allowed to retire be-
cause of age and long service-To Charles II, our principal
Casique, the King-From the people of the territory of
Habalache-The King to the Governor and Captain-General
of Florida-Concerning ten negroes from St. George, who
asked for the water of baptism-A Sergeant-Major from St.
George comes to claim them-Because they have become
Christians the Spanish King decides to buy them-After
receiving a receipt they are to be set at liberty, each one given
a document to that effect-The King reprimands Don Diego
Quiraga for not attending to these matters-Orders a full
account to be sent as soon as it is accomplished.
CHAPTER XIV-A. D. 1689-1698................. 147
Letter of the Governor and Captain-General of Florida, Don-
Diego Quiroba y Losada, to his Majesty-Giving an account
of a custom obtaining in the Garrison which endangers the
safety of the people-When the Host is taken out in the night
to administer communion to the dying the bells are rung until
its return which is often hours, thus preventing the hearing
the firing of the sentries across the river who are instructed
to fire as often as there are numbers of vessels sighted-This
danger fully laid before the Priest, who refused to discontinue
the ringing of the bells, notwithstanding the city has been
in arms awaiting the enemy for some days-In a Cedula by
his Majesty of July 18th, 1674, he asks for a statement con-
cerning the order and place of the Holy Tribunal of the
Inquisition-These questions answered by Severino Maus-
aneda March 17th, 1690-An account of a military review in
St. Augustine by Governor Don Diego Guiroga y Losada-
Also recounts the great advantage to the City by building a
sea wall to extend from the Fort the entire length of the City
thus securing it against the sea which at present comes up
to the houses during a storm-The soldiers and citizens sub-
scribe ten thousand dollars, and the King is petitioned for aid
that the citizens seeing his Majesty's interest will be encour-
aged to proceed-The King rebukes Governor Don Diego

Contents xiii

Guiroga y Losada of the city of St. Augustine for unjustly
taxing the Indians-Misappropriating funds sent by agree-
ment for canvas and provisions for them-Not attending to
their wants and comfort and treating them alone as vassals-
Extracts from the investigations of the Council as to alleged
excesses committed by the Governor Don Francisco Moral
Sanchez-His illtreatment of a Captain of Grenadiers-Acting
according to his own will and not to military law-The Gov-
ernor's removal desired-A report according to the King's
command concerning affairs under Governor Don Francisco
Morales Sanchez-Investigation shows that the facts set forth
in the different papers and petitions sent to his Majesty to
have been only too true-Impossible to put upon paper the
strange, divers and extraordinary excesses committed by this
Governor-The abuses sufficient to chill the soul and congeal
the blood.
CHAPTER XV-A. D. 1708-1723.................. 163
Francisco Carcoles y Martinez in a letter to his Majesty re-
ports all possible measures taken to prevent the destroying of
this Province-Indians from the villages bordering on the
Carolinas, aided by the English, each day carry off certain
families, Christians and natives, more than ten thousand
having been carried off to date-Probably sold into slavery-
A Treaty urged with the English of the Carolinas, else there
will be a continuance of hostilities and the spread of the
Gospel impeded-In a second letter the Governor gives an
account of certain Friars in a dispute with the Priest of the
Parish concerning the rights to marry soldiers, Spaniards,
Indians and half-breeds-The matter laid before the Gov-
ernor, who in turn refers it to his Majesty-Recommends the
abolishing of all Heathen customs-By a Royal dispatch,
A. D. 1721, the Governor of Florida is commanded to go in
person to the Governor of the Carolinas and arrange with
him a Treaty of Peace between the English and Spanish of
those Provinces adjoining-Which same was carried out as
far as possible-Trinkets and clothing sent to the Casiques
and chiefs of Appalachicola as commanded-Indians restless
making preparations for war-English spreading dissatisfac-
tion-A Council of war decides to send a vessel to Havana to
the Governor asking for men, arms and provisions.
CHAPTER XVI-A. D. 1736-1739 ................ 174
Governor Senor Montiano in a letter to his Majesty says: It
is reported that Don Diego Oglethorpe has said openly "that
should he receive orders from his Government to fix the
boundary lines between the Spanish possessions and the Caro-
linas, he would so delay its execution that there should never
be a sign of these limits"-Montiano thinks "it will be impos-

xiv Contents

sible to ever discuss matters of importance with such a man
and it will be best that he be removed"-An Indian, Juan
Ygnacio de las Reyes, gives himself up to the English, under
pretext of having killed an Indian, to gain information con-
cerning the strength and intentions of the English toward the
Spanish-After misleading the English as to the strength
and numbers in the Spanish fortifications, he makes his escape
and returns to this Province-Statement of what has been
ordered for the aid of Florida Provinces-The dislodging of
the enemy from certain settlements on its territory up to 1674
-Dispatch of 1675 commands that if the negro slaves sent to
Havana have not already been sold, they shall be sent to
Florida to be put to work upon the construction of the Castle
to relieve the Indians.
CHAPTER XVII-A. D. 1741-1743 ............... 185
A letter from the Governor Francisco Carcales y Martinez-
Conduct of the Christians worse than the Heathen-Soldiers
guarded while cutting timber to repair the Fort-The Castle
in a tumble-down condition-The Garrison to be maintained
for the propagation of the Holy Gospel and to shelter the
workers of the Apostolic faith-A paper of representation to
his Majesty concerning certain properties willed to the Royal
Treasury by Don Francisco Menendez, and designated by
the King for use as hospitals-The Royal Officers of the
Province think these properties should be sold at auction, and
the proceeds applied to the back pay of soldiers who are
suffering and in need.
CHAPTER XVIII-A. D. 1770-1771 ............. 191
A letter of resolution to his Majesty concerning a letter of
appeal made to the Governor and Bishop of Havana asking
for patent and Holy oil to administer baptism and extreme
unction to the Catholic families taken from the Island of
Minorca by the English-These families bringing with them
Don Pedro Campos, Doctor of Sacred Theology, as a Parish
Priest, and Don Bartolome Casanovas of the St. Augustine
order as Vicar-These same claiming to have received their
appointment from the Supreme Pontificate, not knowing to
which Bishop the jurisdiction of Florida belonged-In order
that a thorough investigation may be made the whole matter
was referred to his Majesty-Letter of the Archbishop of
Valencia concerning this matter-Letter of the Bishop of
Cuba to his Majesty, expressing gratification over the zeal of
his Majesty in this matter-Advices that the privileges be
conferred-Letter of the Bishop of Minorca giving informa-
tion concerning same.


CHAPTER XIX-A. D. 1771 ..................... 204
The opinion of the Judge-Having examined the different
letters from the Bishop and made a thorough investigation
into the matter concerning the granting of certain privileges
to these Priests of the Minorcan families of the English
colony of Florida, decides that these privileges should be
granted as per reasons set forth in his written opinion,
Madrid, 1771-Bishop of Cuba for the Council to Dr. Don
Pedro Campos and the Rev. Father Bartolome Casanova,
extending to these same Priests the title of Parish Priest
and Vicar-Also sending a box containing three flasks of
sacred oil-Hopes soon to be able to send a more extended
prorogation of other powers King solicited these powers
from the Court of Rome-Asks for a detailed report of the
number of families and condition of the congregation.
CHAPTER XX-A. D. 1773 ...................... 214
Proceedings of the Council at the Court of Rome concerning
the appeal made by the Parish Priest and Vicar of the
Catholic families established in the English colony of Flor-
ida-The different Bishops' letters-Also those of the Priest
and Vicar asking for patent and further privileges and con-
taining a report of the condition of the said Minorcan families
who are dissatisfied with the lack of spiritual comforts-A
brick church, and are very devout-Of their desire to throw
off the yoke of Great Britain and their love for Spain-Reply
of the Judge-Testimony sent by the Bishop of Cuba.
CHAPTER XXI-A. D. 1773-1786 .............. 226
Letter' from the King to the Bishop of Cuba concerning the
petition soliciting an extension of time and of the privileges
for the Priest and Vicar of the Minorcan families in Florida,
and enclosing an open mandate of His Holiness, enlarging
and extending the time for twenty years-A copy of a letter
and statement sent in by Lieutenant Don Nicolas Grenier in
regard to the importance of the Provinces of the St. Marys
and St. Johns rivers-The need of vessels to impress and
control the inhabitants-Provinces rich in timber, turpentine,
tar and pitch-Considers it detrimental to Spanish interests
for Americans to introduce any commerce in the Provinces-
Letter from the same Don Nicolas Grenier to the Governor
urging the necessity of further protecting Spanish interests
along the St. Marys and St. Johns rivers-Tranquility of the
country jeopardized by outlaws-Some have been arrested
and paid the penalty with their lives-Matter referred to the

The Unwritten History

of Old St. Augustine

A. D. 1565.
Royal Decree of King Philip II in regard to the
further discovery and settlement of Florida-Of-
ficers appointed-Number of men to go in the
Armada-Captains and men to be paid in advance,
to increase diligence in service-Reports from the
Armada after leaving- Pedro Menendez reports
that the English and French have already settled
here Necessity of the Spaniards taking entire
control of the country-Letter from the King to
Pedro Menendez in regard to English and French
To our officers who reside in the City of Sevilla in charge
of the India contracts:
I have named the captains, as you will see, from the
description shown by General Eraso, that they may
enlist the 1400 men who are to go to Florida in the
Armada which we have ordered equipped, instructing
them immediately upon their arrival what they are
to do, and notify me of their safe arrival. You must
be immediately notified when the men are gathered to-
gether, and as it is expedient with each captain, you
2 [1]

2 The Unwritten History of
are to send a responsible person that he may pay each
man one month's salary in advance from the treasury
on the day he enlists. It will cost, we suppose, up-
wards of 11,000 ducats, that they may go provided
according to instructions received. You are to give
each captain a copy of the order sent, that he may be
sure of his men-who, receiving this aid, neither he
nor they be deceived. I also command that according
to these orders you instruct the paymasters so that
they may well understand that each soldier is to have
the money in his own hands so that there be a good
understanding between us. This is paid to them as it
will be a long and arduous campaign, and so that they
may work with more zest and the town be established
quickly. See that the captains go at this work with
diligence and haste, and you must immediately see
and attend to where you are to lodge these people and
from there embark them. Send with them a person
of trust to guide and lodge them and to see that they
are well provided with food and all necessaries for
their money. Keep them well together without dis-
order or vexation to the people of the land. Inform
me of how you have provided for them and you will
have served me. From BOSQUE DE SEGOVIA.
August 15th, 1565.

The Armada which went to found the town in Flor-
ida at the place called Santa Elena in the port of Juan
Ponce on the eleventh of June, and sailed with good

Old St. Augustine 3
and mild wind. On the seventh day out we were on
the river Espiritu Santo, twenty leagues south of
said river, in 27th degree, from there we sailed six
days to the southeast and south until we found our-
selves in the chain. South from there we sailed north
in search of the coast of Florida, and at the end of
the eighth day, which was the eve of the visitation of
Saint Elizabeth, we discovered the coast of Florida
eight leagues to the west where the Armada cast
anchor and took on water and wood. Now we be-
gan to have rough weather. From there the fleet
sailed on the eighth of July in search of the Port
Achusa, sending ahead along the coast a frigate, the
pilot not knowing exactly where Port Achusa was.
The Armada passed ahead and anchored in the Bay
of Phillipina, which was discovered by Julio de Laba-
zares, from whence the Governor sent to seek Port
Achusa, having heard that it was the best and safest
port on all that coast. Navigating along the same
coast where the Armada had come, they found Port
Achusa which is twenty leagues from Bay Phillipina
and thirty, more or less, from the Bay of Miruelo, so
that it is between two bays-latitude 30 1-3 degrees.
On the return of the frigate with the news, we im-
mediately determined to set sail with the Armada. It
seemed best to have the horses go by land, so we put
them off in said Bay of Phillipina, thus some of our
captains made the trip overland with one hundred and
forty horses, out of the two hundred and forty we
started with, the others having died at sea. On the bar
of Phillipina we had some trouble with the Armada
in crossing, on account of its shallowness for the larger
vessels, also the strong and swift current-besides the

4 The Unwritten History of
weather had changed, and it was rougher. The Ar-
mada left Bay Phillipina for Achusa on the 10th of
August, the day of St. Lawrence, and it entered Port
Achusa on the day of Our Lady of August, for which
reason we gave it the name of St. Mary of Phillipina.
It is the best port discovered in the Indias. The shal-
lowest part at the entrance is eleven cubits, and after
you enter there are seven or eight fathoms. It is spa-
cious, having a front of three leagues, the Spaniards
are already there. The entrance of the bar is half a
league in width, on the eastern coast is a cliff at the
mouth of the bay, and large vessels can anchor in four
or five fathoms within a stone's throw from land. It
is so safe that the winds and storms cannot hurt one.
We found a few Indian ranches, they seemed to be
fishermen. Judging from appearances it seems to be
a fertile and good soil. There are many walnuts and
many fruit trees-good hunting and fishing and good
in many ways. We also found some plantings of corn.
On the 25th of said month of August, the Governor
sent Don Tristan de Avellano in a galleon, of those
we brought, for this, from New Spain, with the news
of all that had happened so far. He entered the Port
of San Juan de Ulloa on the 9th of September. He
will supply himself quickly with provisions, which at
present we have sent to ask for, and we expect the
boats to return soon. They will again go to this New
Spain, and wait there to see the lay of the land, and
where we are to found this town, and understand all
the particulars and qualities to inform you.
When the boats return I will give the details to your
Majesty in the order that the Governor, Friars and
other Officers write me, and I shall be careful to aid

Old St. Augustine 5
them in the name of your Majesty with everything
that they need, so they many not vex the natives, but
give themselves up to friendly intercourse with them,
until the time for planting grain. In future it will not
be so expensive, the ground being so fertile we can
gather large harvests, thus serving and exalting your
Majesty and the Catholic faith of Our Lord.

To His Catholic Royal Majesty Pedro Menendez
That what he sends your Majesty is what he de-
clares to know of the coast and lands of Florida, and
of the corsairs whom it is said have gone to populate
it and seize the vessels coming from the Indias-and
the damage they may do, and the remedy to be used
in cases where they should have settled. Give them no
quarter, and appropriate the coast and lands so that
they can be the more easily turned out-that your
Majesty can send to spread the Gospel, prevent the
damages that can be done the vessels coming from the
Indias is as follows: That while in Sevilla last May,
he knew and understood positively from persons com-
ing from the Canary Islands that they had been on
the Island of Teneriffe and Port Garachico with a
Portuguese named Mimoso, who is a pilot on the run
of the Indias, and has a wife and home in France, that
he has become a pirate, seizing the vessels of your
Majesty. He carried four men of war, and it was
said he was going to settle the coast of Florida; that
two other large vessels were awaiting him, as soon as
he took on water and provisions in that port, and he
saw them there in a small vessel without disembark-

6 The Unwritten History of
ing for five or six hours, where some of the people
who wish to be under them came to speak to them. He
then returned to his vessel and set sail to return to the
Indias. Also, that he heard in Sevilla and in this
court of your Majesty that the English had gone out
with a fleet to the coast of Florida to settle and to
await the vessels from the Indias-and about a month
ago he learned that five large English galleons with
heavy artillery had passed about the end of December
along the coast of Gaul and the tempest had driven
them into the harbor of Ferrol, where they were an-
chored for a day and a half without landing, but the
fishermen had gone on board to speak to them, and he
says: If the above be true, and the English, French
or any other nation should feel disposed to go and set-
tle any part of Florida, it would be very damaging to
these kingdoms, because on said coast of Florida and
in said strait of the Bahamas, they could settle and
fortify themselves in such a way, that they could have
galleons and vessels of war to capture the fleets and
other private vessels that came from the Indias, and
pass through there, as they would run great risk of
being captured.
Also, that if last summer the French and English
went to Florida as we are certain they did, and should
have settled and built a fort in any port, and summered
there, giving notice to their home government as to
how they are situated, and should they be supplied
this summer before we can raid upon them, and turn
them out, it would be very difficult to do so on account
of the friendship formed by them with the natives who
would help them in such a way as to cause serious
difficulty, and even should we finally succeed the

Old St. Augustine 7
natives would remain our enemies, and this would be
extremely disadvantageous. Should they be supplied
this summer the merchantmen which we expect from
the Indias would also run great risk of being captured.
Also, that it would be very annoying to have the above
mentioned or others settle in Florida. Considering
the proximity of the Islands of Santo Domingo, Puer-
to Rico and Cuba, where there are such vast numbers
of negroes and mulattoes of bad disposition, there be-
ing in each of these islands more than thirty negroes
to each Christian. And it is a land in which this gen-
eration multiplies with great rapidity. In the power
of the French and English, all these slaves would be
freed, and to enjoy their freedom would help them
even against their own masters and lords and there
would be an uprising in the land, and with the help
of the negroes it would be easy to capture us. As an
example of this, take Jaques de Soria, France, which
in the year fifty-three, with one boat of a hundred
tons and eighty men, by simply freeing the negroes,
took and plundered the Islands of Margarite and Saint
Martha, and burned Carthagena, plundered Santiago
de Cuba and Havana, although at the time there were
two hundred Spaniards there. They took the Fort
with all it contained, and twelve pieces of bronze ar-
tillery and carried them all off. I consider these negroes
a great obstacle to having the French or English set-
tle in Florida or to have them so near, even though
they should not be in favor with these two nations,
there is danger of an uprising as there are so many
cunning and sagacious ones who desire this liberty
that I feel sure the design of those who should settle
in Florida is to domineer over those islands, and stop

The Unwritten History of

the navigation with the Indias, which they can easily
do by settling in said Florida. Also he says: That on
account of these dangers and many others, it seems to
him it would be to the service of God Our Lord, and
your Majesty for the general good of your Kingdoms
the Indies it would be well for your Majesty to try
and domineer over these lands and coasts, which on
account of their position, if other nations should go on
settling and making friends with the Indians, it would
be difficult to conquer them, especially if settled by
French and English Lutherans, as they and the In-
dians having about the same laws, they would be
friendly, and being near could rule and each year
send out a thousand vessels to easily treat and con-
tract with these lands which are said to be fertile and
prolific for sugar plantations, which they so much
need and are supplied from these Kingdoms. There
might also be many cattle good for their tallow and
wool and other necessities. What seems to him that
your Majesty should do in the service of God and
your Majesty's and for the salvation of so many souls,
and the aggrandizement of your kingdoms and your
royal estates. is as follows:
As there are neither French nor English nor any
other nation to disturb them, that your Majesty
should send five hundred persons, sailors, laborers,
etc., and that among them should be one hundred mas-
ter carpenters, blacksmiths, plasterers and builders of
mud walls, all with their implements and appurte-
nances for every thing, with their arms of defense,
such as arquebuses, cross-bows, etc. That among this
number of five hundred people should be four Friars,
four teachers and twelve Christian children, so that

Old St. Augustine 9
the principal Indians would send their children to
school to learn to read and learn the doctrine of
Christianity. There should be three surgeons who
would go about in small boats, canoes or row boats
with supplies for one year-go straight to Santa Elena
and from there find all the paths, rivers and ports most
suited and best, by land and water. See the condition
of the land for planting and settle two or three towns
in the best vicinity, build their fort, to be able to de-
fend themselves against the Indians. that each of these
forts should have artillery and ammunition. All this
supply with the cost of the voyage will amount to
eighty thousand ducats or more. There will be left
vessels enough to carry a number of cattle. These
must be sent from Spain, because in the Indias we
could not find suitable vessels nor head workmen of
the necessary qualifications and it could not give the
desired results, besides the delay would cause much
damage. It would be difficult to find the proper kind
of people, and even if found the cost would be very
much greater, as head workmen gain very large wages
in those parts, as do also laborers and sailors. From
Havana it would be still more impossible to bring
them, as there are none to be obtained, and if they
have to settle they must go a long way 'round, as
they cannot enter the mouth of the Bahama Channel,
it being as easy and quick to come from Spain as from
Havana. It would be more important that your
Majesty do this at your own cost and as briefly and
with as secret a diligence as possible, and if your
Majesty is not well served in this, find some one in
whom your Majesty can place more confidence, con-
fer with them and let them take charge of affairs-

10 The Unwritten History of
although it would be far better for your Majesty to
do this at your own cost, and with all brevity and
secrecy which is the most important thing. Also, he
says: That should there be French in this land or on
the sea awaiting the merchant vessels from the Indias,
it would be necessary to increase this squadron to four
more galleons and one thousand men, principally ma-
rines-the cost of which for six months would be
five hundred thousand ducats more or less.

To Gen. Pedro Menendez de Aviles, Knight of the Order of
Santiago, and our Governor of the Province of Florida:
Know-Having understood that from the King-
doms of France and England many war vessels have
been sent out with a great number of sailors and sol-
diers, with intent of going to that Province, and that
now again they are arming and equipping vessels for
the same purpose at Havre de Grace and other Ports of
said Kingdoms of France and England. And that
you may do everything to defend yourselves and cap-
ture the Forts they have built and thrust them from the
land, that you may hold it in peace. You might over-
look the damage they have done to navigation. We
have arranged for and ordered 1,500 infantrymen to
join you and those you have with you and we send
them with the fleet and also all the necessaries-and
we have provided as Captain-General of the fleet Cap-
tain Sancho de Archimiaga, an expert and experienced
man of the sea, ordering him to go to said Province,
and in joining you, it gives you protection by sea as

Old St. Augustine 11
well as by land. Your flag alone must float, as our
Captain-General, and all undertakings must be done
under your flag. And for all enterprises to be under-
taken by land we have appointed a Field Marshal and
five Captains to be under him, and that both they and
the infantry are to be directly under you as our Cap-
tain-General and Governor, because this is our will,
and we have expressly ordered it. That your person
must be carefully guarded. With your experience
both by land and sea we are perfectly satisfied, still,
that you may the better succeed, and that there may
be conformity and good will, as it is important, af-
fairs that between you and said Captain Archimiaga
and Field Marshal and the other Captains accompany-
ing him as they are men of much experience in war.
It is our will, and so we order you, that in all things
occurring on sea as well as on land concerning the
war, you will call these Captains and consult with
them, more especially Captain Archemiaga and the
Field Marshal-that in this way alone must you de-
cide upon questions of war-because thus it suits us
and our service. That I trust in them to look into
matters and provide all that is deemed advisable in
such undertakings-and they will follow and obey
you as our Captain-General. Let it be in such a way
that there be good will and intelligence between you-
no dissensions or quarrels, which would be a great
drawback, but that you will proceed with mildness and
consideration, as I feel assured you will, proceeding
to free those lands, and give no quarters to the enemy
to take root in them-and if it were possible, and
there should be no notable inconvenience, you divide
the fleet. Captain Juan Zurita and his company of

12 The Unwritten History of
Artillery go with the Infantry, as you will see. Of
their success you will see to it, and give an account.
Madrid, September 8th, 1565.

Old St. Augustine

A. D. 1565.
Menendez reports that his army escapes from being
made prisoners by the French on account of a tor-
nado-The Council agree to make a land attack,
the river being too much swollen for their trans-
ports-The Spaniards surprise and take Fort Ma-
tanzas without the loss of a single man, killing over
two hundred Frenchmen and capturing Laudon-
nier-The Indians enchanted with the Lutherans-
Shipwrecked Frenchmen found on the coast-With
their hands tied behind them they are stabbed in
the back by the Spaniards.
I wrote to your Majesty from aboard the galleon
San Salvador on September 11th, this being the day
she left Port. The duplicate of the letter goes in
this, and later on will send the other. While I was
on the Bar in a sloop with two small boats with
artillery and ammunition there came upon us four
French galleons which had run us down with two or
three small vessels to prevent us from landing here.
Taking the artillery and provisions, although the
weather was not propitious for crossing the Bar, I
preferred to take the chances rather than surrender
myself and one hundred and fifty persons, who were
with me, into their power. Our Lord miraculously
saved us. The tide was low, there being only one and
a half scant fathoms of water on the bar, and their

14 The Unwritten History of
vessel required one and a half long fathoms. They
saw we had escaped them, as they spoke asking me to
surrender, to have no fear. They then turned to
search for the galleon, thinking we could not escape
them. Two days out a heavy-storm and tornado over-
took them. It seemed to me they could not return to
their Fort, running too great a risk of being lost,and to
return to capture us they would have to bring a larger
force and of the best they had. Thinking that their Fort
would remain weak and it was the right time to cap-
ture it I called a council of the captains, who agreed
with me, and decided to attack the fort by land. I
therefore took five hundred men, the three hundred
arquebusiers. the rest pikemen, and with these few,
taking our knapsacks and putting in each six pounds
of biscuit and a measure of one and a half gallons of
wine, with our arms and ammunition; each Captain
and soldier-I was among the first setting the ex-
ample, carrying this food and arms on my back. Not
knowing the way, we hoped to get there in two days,
it being distant about eight leagues or so, as we were
told by two Indians who went with us as guides.
Leaving this Fort of St. Augustine in the order above
described and with determination on the eighteenth
of September, we found the rivers so swollen from
the copious rains that it was impossible to ford them
and we were obliged to take a circuitous route which
had never been used before through swamp and un-
known roads to avoid the rivers.
After walking until nine or ten o'clock at night, on
the morning of the twentieth, which is the feast of
San Mateo, we arrived in sight of the Fort. Having
offered prayers to the Blessed Lord and His Holy

Old St. Augustine 15
Mother, supplicating them to give us victory over these
Lutherans, it was agreed that with twenty ladders,
which we carried, to assail the Fort. His Divine
Majesty had mercy upon us and guided us in such a
way that without losing one man and with only one in-
jured (who is now well), we took the Fort with all it
contained, killing about two hundred and thirty men,
the other ten we took as prisoners to the forest.
Among them were many noblemen, one who was
Governor and Judge, called Monsieur Laudonnier, a
relative of the French Admiral, and who had been
his steward. This Laudonnier escaped to the woods
and was pursued by one of the soldiers who wounded
him, and we know not what has become of him, as
he and the others escaped by swimming out to two
small boats of the three vessels that were opposite
the Fort, with about fifty or sixty persons. I sent
them a canonade and call of the trumpet to surrender
themselves, vessels and arms. They refused, so with
the artillery found in the Fort we sunk one vessel, the
others taking up the men went down the river where
they had two other vessels anchored laden with pro-
visions, being of the seven sent from France, and
which had not yet been unloaded. It did not seem to
me right to leave the Fort and pursue them until I
had repaired three boats we found in the Fort. The
Indians notified them of our actions. As they were
so few they took the two best and strongest vessels
and sank the other. In three days they had fled,
Being informed of this by the Indians, I did not pur-
sue them. Later from the Fort they wrote me that
about twenty Frenchmen had appeared in the forest
with no clothing but a shirt, and many of them were

16 The Unwritten History of
wounded. It was believed that Monsieur Laudonnier
was among them. I have sent word that they make
every effort to capture them and bring them to jus-
tice. In the Fort were found, among women, creatures
and children under fifteen years of age, about fifty
persons. It causes me deep sorrow to see them among
my people on account of their horrid religious sect,
and I fear our Lord would punish me should I use
cruelty with them. Eight or ten of the boys were
born here.
These French have many friends among the In-
dians, who show much feeling at their loss, especially
for two or three teachers of their hateful doctrine
which they taught to the Indian chiefs, who followed
them as the Apostles did our Lord. It is a thing of
admiration to see how these Lutherans enchanted the
poor savage people. I shall use every means to gain
the good will of these Indians who were such friends
to the French, and there is no reason why I should
break with them, and if I can live with them at peace
it will be well; they are such traitors, thieves and
drunkards, that it is almost impossible to do so. These
chiefs and the Indians, their enemies, all show friend-
ship towards me, which I return and shall continue,
unless their depredations increase that I may have
to do otherwise.
On the 28th of September the Indians notified me
that many Frenchmen were about six leagues from
here on the coast, that they had lost their vessels and
escaped by swimming and in boats. Taking fifty
soldiers I was with them next morning at daylight,
and, leaving my men in ambush, I took one with me
to the banks of the river, because they were on one

Old St. Augustine 17

side and I on the other bank. 1 spoke to them, told
them I was Spanish; they said they were French.
They asked me to come over to them either alone or
with my partner, the river being narrow. I re-
plied that we did not know how to swim, but that they
could safely come to us. They agreed to do so, and
sent a man of some intellect, master of a boat, who
carefully related to me how they had left their Fort
with four galleons and eight small vessels, that each
carried twenty-four oars with four hundred picked
soldiers and two hundred marines and John Ribaut
as General and Monsieur LeGrange, who was Gen-
eral of the Infantry, and other good captains, soldiers
and gentlemen, with the intention of finding me on
the sea, and if I attempted to land, to land their peo-
ple on the small boats and capture me. That if they
had wanted to land they could easily have done so,
but they had not dared and wanted to return to their
Fort. That they were overtaken by a hurricane and
tempest and were wrecked about twenty or twenty-
five leagues from here. That of the four hundred
only forty had survived; that the others had perished
or were killed by the Indians. That fifty were car-
ried prisoners by the Indians; that John Ribaut with
his captain were anchored five leagues from there in
the swamp without trees, and he had in the vessel
with him two hundred persons, more or less, and they
believed them to have perished with all the artillery
and ammunition, which was a great deal and good.
Part of it was with John Ribaut and what they had,
was certainly lost. They were saved, and he asked
for himself and companions safe passage to their Fort,
since they were not at war with the Spaniards. I

18 The Unwritten History of

then told him how we had taken their Fort and hung
all those we found in it, because they had built it
without your Majesty's permission and because they
were scattering the odious Lutheran doctrine in these
Provinces, and that I had war to fire and blood, as
Governor and Captain-General of these Provinces,
against all those who came to sow this hateful doct-
rine; representing to him that I came by order of
your Majesty to place the Gospel in these parts and
to enlighten the natives in all that the Holy Church
of Rome says and does so as to save their souls. That
I would not give them passage; rather would I fol-
low them by sea and land until I had taken their
lives. He begged to be allowed to go with this em-
bassy and that he would return at night swimming,
if I would grant him his life. I did so to show him
that I was in earnest and because he could enlighten
me on many subjects. Immediately after his return
to his companions there came a gentleman, a lieuten-
ant of Monsieur Laudonnier, a man well versed and
cunning to tempt me. After much talk he offered to
give up their arms if I would grant their lives. I told
him he could surrender the arms and give themselves
up to my mercy, that I might do with them that which
our Lord ordered. More than this he could not get
from me, and that God did not expect more of me.
Thus he returned and they came to deliver up their
arms. I had their hands tied behind them and had
them stabbed to death, leaving only sixteen, twelve
being great big men, mariners whom they had stolen,
the other four master carpenters and caulkers-peo-
ple for whom we have much need, and it seemed to
me to punish them in this manner would be serving

Old St. Augustine 19

God, our Lord, and your Majesty. Hereafter they
will leave us free to plant the Gospel, enlighten the
natives, and bring them to obedience and submission
of your Majesty. The lands being extensive it will
be well to make them work fifty years-besides. a
good beginning makes a good end, so I have hopes
in our Lord that in all He will grant me prosperity
and success, so that I and my descendants may give
to your Majesty those Kingdoms full and return the
people Christians. My particular interest as I have
written your Majesty is this: \e are gaining great
favor with the Indians and will be feared by them,
although we make them many gifts.
Considering what John Ribaut had done, I find
that within ten leagues of where he was anchored,
three of the vessels of his company were lost; whether
they were lost or not, they would have landed the
people, unloaded what supplies they could, employed
themselves in getting out the brass artillery and the
upright posts and tackle, if not lost, of the three ves-
sels, rig themselves as best they could, and if the
vessel he was on was not lost he will make every effort
to come by sea. Should he do so I await him, and
with the help of God, he will be lost. He might also
go inland with one of the Casiques, his friend, who
lives thirty leagues from here. and is very powerful.
Should this be the case I will seek him there, because
it is not convenient that he and his companions should
remain alive. Should he come by sea to the Fort I
have the entrance to the Bar mined with two savage
canon and guns, so that should they succeed in mak-
ing an entrance, we can sink them. A brigantine is
kept in readiness to capture the people and I shall

20 The Unwritten History of
do all in my power to prevent his escape. The things
found in the Fort were only four pieces of brass of
about five tons, the canon and guns which had come
from France were dismounted and carried to the gal-
leons when they went in search of me. There were
found besides twenty-five bronze musket and as much
as twenty tons of powder and ammunition for these
pieces, about one hundred and sixty barrels of flour,
twenty casks of wine. The balance of the supplies
had not been unloaded, as they were hesitating
whether they should fortify this Port, fearing I should
land here, which I could easily have done. Since their
arrival they had spent most of their time in debauch-
eries over the joy felt at the news they had received
that northeast of Santa Elena was a range of moun
tains coming from the Zacatecas where there were
great mines of silver. The Indians from those parts
had brought them many pieces of silver to the amount
of five and six thousand ducats. We found to the
amount of three thousand ducats, more or less, in
clothes and all kinds of valuables; some hogs, male
and female; also sheep and asses; all this was ran-
sacked by the soldiers; nothing escaped them. Be-
sides the two vessels found in the Port we found two
near the Bar and two others they had stolen from the
Indians, loaded with hides. Of these they had drowned
the crews and the cargo had been given to an English
vessel to carry it and sell it in England or France, and
there remained with them two Englishmen. The
French had no mariners by whom to send these ves-
sels. These two Englishmen were hung when the.
Fort was captured by us. The Englishmen by whom
they sent the cargo arrived in port at the Fort we

Old St. Augustine 21

have taken from them, the early part of August of
this year, in a galleon of a thousand tons called the
Queen of England, with three heavy tiers of artillery;
all who saw her wondered and had never seen a vessel
so heavily armed that drew so little water; the other
three vessels were smaller. It was agreed between the
English and French that as the French awaited help
from France that Monsieur Ludovic, who was Gov-
ernor here, should wait for them until the end of
September; failing to return, he, Ludovic, was to go
to France in search of them, and that by the month of
April they would return with a large fleet, to await
and capture the fleet of New Spain, which was forced
to pass their Fort; that if aid came, for which they
had written to France, they would advise the English
who would come to this coast by the month of April.
It was for this purpose that I found in the Fort a large
vessel and seven small ones, and another five, one or
two of which had been stolen, and the four they
wished to send to France to have them equipped with
men and provisions to join the English and them-
selves by April; that by that time John Ribaut would
have returned and with the eight hundred men who
remained he wished to go by January to Los Martyres,
about twenty-five leagues from Havana, and there
build a fort. They had reconnoitered and found it a
very desirable port. This was agreed between them,
and that before leaving France John Ribaut was to
obtain the order that they should fortify Los Martyres,
a strait by which no vessel could enter or depart with-
out being sighted by them. To keep there always in
readiness six vessels, it being the best sea in the world
for them. That from there they would take Havana,

22 The Unwritten History of

free all the negroes; that they would then send to
make the same offer to the Spanish of Porto Rico
and all other colonies. All this information I gained
from the skilful Frenchman to whom I granted life.
They had with them six Portuguese pilots whom they
hung when no longer needed; two others had been
killed by the Indians, and two were with Ribaut. The
river San Mateo, running by the Fort we captured,
goes seventy leagues inland and turns to the south-
east emptying into the bay of Juan Ponce, and from
there to New Spain and the port of San Juan de Luca,
where there is only upwards of fifty leagues. In the
bay of Juan Ponce they thought next year to build a
fort on account of its proximity to New Spain, distant
a hundred and fifty leagues and about the same dis-
tance from Honduras and as many more from Yuca-
tan, and where with their six vessels they could navi-
gate with ease. On this river are three large Indian
towns. The Indians are great friends of the French
who have been there three times in search of corn.
These French landed there in great need of supplies,
having only enough to carry them eight days. Corn
they found scarce and took it almost by force. The
Indians themselves are great thieves-a poor but
brave people. All the Indians are not more friendly
to them than to us, and I will not consent to take a
grain of corn from them, but prefer to give them of
what I may have. I consider this country so vast
and fertile and the danger from enemies and corsaires
so great and that they can appropriate to themselves
the land lying north of here near New Foundland, of
which they are already lords, and can be sustained by
them with ease. Everything should be done to aid me

Old St. Augustine 23

instead of cutting me off, and your Majesty must be
undeceived and know that I am much better able than
your Majesty to enlarge and aggrandize these your
Kingdoms. This Port is 29Y degrees, and the San
Mateo which we captured is 31 degrees. The French
and their pilots were mistaken. I have had it taken
by the sun on land. From here to the Cape of Cana-
veral there are fifty leagues, three rivers, two ports
between here and Havana, one hundred miles, more
or less, which are navigable in boats among the keys
of Canavarel and Los Martyres, and from there to
Havana. I agree to take the good field pieces which
we have captured from the French, and one hundred
men go along the borders of the coast, the boats by
sea, anchoring at night near land among the keys of
Canaveral where the sea is as smooth as a river, with
the boats they will be able to discover among the
keys the best port and surroundings to build a
fort. So that with the one in Havana and
this one we can at all times guard against
the enemy and their entering to fortify them-
selves. Nor should we expect fleets or boats of the
Indians. With the people of Havana, Santo Domingo
and Pedro de la Roda, whom I shall have to come
to my assistance, I will have until the last of March
to build it, then with these vessels go over to Havana
and seek these people. Having discovered the Port,
and on the arrival of Pedro de la Roda in Havana
he will find his vessels which I do not propose to take
out of that Port, also his men, so that he may return
to Spain as strong as when he left there. That I
shall place one hundred and fifty Spaniards in pos-
session to guard against the Indians who are great

24 The Unwritten History of
warriors and whose good will we must gain. Then,
by the 1st of April, I shall return to these two Forts,
and in six or eight days I shall again take to the sea.
By the month of March, leaving these two Forts well
equipped and guarded each with three hundred men,
I shall go in vessels that draw little water which I
will soon have here, most of them the ones taken from
the French. I will man as many as I can with five
hundred soldiers and one hundred mariners, found a
town at Santa Elena, which is fifty leagues from here,
and has within three leagues of it three Ports and
rivers, the largest of six fathoms of water, the other
four fathoms; admirable Ports and the one we call
Santa Elena is the third, the one the French occupied
is very small; the three are navigable, one within the
other, so that he who is lord of one is lord of the
three. It is the best place to build a fort leaving three
hundred men to finish it, pass on up the bay to Santa
Maria, which is 36 degrees, one hundred and thirty
leagues beyond Santa Elena; then on to the land of
the Indians which is in Mexico, fortify another fort
and leave another two hundred soldiers. This will be
the key to all the fortifications of this country, be-
cause from those to the new land it does not have to
be founded. Inland, about eighty leagues, are to be
found a range of mountains, at their base an arm of
sea which leads to the New Land. This arm of the
sea enters the New Land which is navigable seventy
leagues where there is another sea turning northeast
and we suspect it leads to the South Sea. The In-
dians send many cattle from New Spain which were
found on these plains by Francisco Basques Coronado.
They carried the hides to the New Land in canoes to

Old St. Augustine 25

sell to the French in exchange for barter. From here,
in the past two years, they have carried in their fishing
boats more than six thousand hides. The French can
go from here in their vessels to the foot of the moun-
tain range four hundred leagues from the mines of
San Martin and New Galicia and can mine them to
their heart's content. It would be well to fix our
frontier lines here, gain the water-way of the Bahamas
and work the mines of New Spain. This key and
strength is necessary that your Majesty should become
Lord of all of it, because by it you will be master of
the world. I have written to Pedro del Castillo to
send me three hundred soldiers and supplies for eight
hundred persons. It would be useless not to have the
three hundred soldiers to serve your Majesty and to
provide the necessaries. Thus on, from the first of
February, your Majesty can send a hundred mariners
and the equipment and let them bring everything
necessary to found a town in the Bay of Juan Ponce,
as this river is part of San Mateo, which we captured
from the enemy. Eighteen leagues inland from this
bay, and from one bay to the other, we can easily
trade with the multitude of Indians that are there and
make them soon learn the Gospel of our Lord Jesus
Christ. In this Bay of Juan Ponce is the Province
of Appalache, an indomitable people with whom the
Spaniards have never been able to treat. Thus will
all difficulties be overcome so far as New Galicia
which is about three hundred leagues, and so many
more to Vera Cruz, and the same distance to Yuca-
tan. From there this town will be provided with
corn, as there is much of it. As we found the place
and build a good City, there will be no need of found-

26 The Unwritten History of
ing others in Florida. We will then proceed to the
New Land, easily work the many mines of silver
which are found there, and are the mines of the
Zacatecas. In a few years the silver worked from
them will support this country and be a treasure to
your Majesty and a suburb of Spain which can be
reached in forty days from these Kingdoms. With
the scarcity of supplies in the Forts we are suffering
much hunger as the grain was burned and so, unless
we receive aid soon, we shall suffer terribly. I trust
your Majesty is satisfied that we serve you faithfully
and with love and in all truth. Without extending
myself further, but promising to keep you advised of
all that may happen, may God protect your Majesty,
increasing your royal Catholic personage with greater
kingdoms and possessions as Christianity has need of
and your servants desire it should be.
From these Provinces of Florida from the banks
of San Pelayo and Fort of St. Augustine, October

Old St. Augustine

A. D. 1583-1596-1598.
Report of Fernando Mirando, agent to the King-
Complains of Governor-Espionage over vessels-
Gives account of the work of the negroes-Haste
makes it necessary to employ soldiers in repairing
the Fort for which they were paid-Partial failure
of crops increases the cost of living-Report of
Bartolome De Arguellas giving account of rebel-
lious Indians-Some of those captured were sent
to Havana to be executed, others to be imprisoned
-Casiques render obedience to the Governor who
assures them of his good intentions-Report of
Pedro Pertrene to the King-Is newly called to
take charge of a company of Infantry in the Gar-
rison of Florida-Salary not sufficient to meet ex-
penses of living, recalls his long service to the King,
and asks for increase of pay-Letter from Dona
Maria Menendez, Casique, to the King-Asks for
assistance in meeting the necessary expenses for
instruction of the Indians in Christianity and good
A. D. 1583.
Fernando Miranda and Rodrego Junco, assistant Agent, who
was of these Kingdoms, to His Majesty:
After the Governor had given a decree of the same
suspension, we asked him that until your Majesty
should otherwise provide, we be allowed to continue
in office and watch over your Majesty's interest. An-
other thing which occurs to us to inform your

28 The Unwritten History of
Majesty: Yesterday there sailed from this Port for
Havana a vessel belonging to some one in Havana, and
the Governor made every effort to see if we had sent
any papers by her-he searched the vessel and not
wishing to give testimony, we understood he did not
wish any letters sent, and so we dared not write more.
We felt that this would be sufficient for your Majesty
to place the remedy and investigate the cause, and
punish the culprit.
In the two years that your Majesty's negroes have
been here, they have made a platform for the artillery
of this Fort of an indestructible wood-as the one
they had previous to this rotted away in two years.
They have made a blacksmith shop, and whatever re-
pairs were needed on the Fort. Ten of the best of them
were sent to Santa Elena to saw boards to cover that
Fort which needed it. On beginning the work it was
found that the whole Fort was in such a damaged con-
dition it was necessary to tear it all down and rebuild
as quickly as possible. On account of the haste re-
quired the soldiers were obliged to help for which
work they were paid. It was completed in four months,
during which time the negroes had to be fed on bread,
meat and wine. Besides they have helped to build a
church here, sawed lumber for the building of many
dwellings, and have cleared the woods to some extent
for planting. The first crop not being good, caused
extra expense of food and ammunition which was
given them-but for the past six months they have
been fed on the harvest made, with no other expense
but the oil and salt. They have corn enough to last
until the next harvest, and all the expense incurred to
the end of June of the present year is six thousand

Old St. Augustine 29

five hundred reals, from the Treasury of your Majesty
-because, although there have been some other ex-
penses, we have availed ourselves of advantages we
had after having had recourse to what has been of-
fered to your Majesty's service. About six months
ago eleven of these negroes were hired to soldiers of
this Fort, without the knowledge of the Treasurer,
rendering an account of this to the Governor. It is
about a year and a half since we notified the Governor
that he should not keep these accounts, but as pro-
vided by your Majesty they should be sent to this
Court. He has never sent them. Your Majesty will
act as best suits him in this affair of our suspension;
we again implore your Majesty to give us a hearing,
and some satisfaction, since we are left in this sterile
country without the means of sustenance. May God
preserve your Majesty for many years with great
aggrandizement. FERNANDO MIRANDA.
St. Augustine, August 20th, 1583.

Your Majesty:
As the Governor, Don Domingo Martinez Avendano,
has been sending your Majesty an account of the pro-
ceedings of our journey, I have not done so until now,
that we have landed in these Provinces of Florida, and
seen the condition of things, the people of the Garri-
son and the natives. It was a blessing of God that it
was all quiet and peaceful, and the Governor with
much gentleness and discretion entered, and proceeded
well, to support the service of your Majesty. It was
a very fortunate thing, as many of the culprits had
made threats, which if carried into effect, would have

30 The Unwritten History of
resulted disastrously-but they had not the heart to
carry them out, although a number of the worst crimi-
nals were out of the country. Of those who remained,
ten were captured, and with their accusations were
sent by Captain Francisco Salazar to Havana, in the
custody of a trusted lieutenant and twelve soldiers, as
guards, so that they may be executed there and ac-
complish your Majesty's will. With this imprison-
ment and a public reprimand made by the Governor to
the other Indians, all of which remain quiet. Being
overcome with fear, I understand they will return
promptly to their employment, and your Majesty will
be well served. The Casiques of this country came to
render obedience to the Governor, who caressed them
and instructed them of the manner and order in which
they were to attend to your Majesty's work-he told
them he wished to visit them in their homes, and the
good intentions and desires he brings of attending to
your service and the proofs he has already given of
them. We entertain great hopes that all will soon be
settled. From Havana they dispatched to the Treasurer
Juan Menendez Marquez to be present at the paying off
of the employees of this Garrison. While the Governor
intended to have me assume control of this collection,
he seemed to change his mind, and I came here with
him, where I remain attending to the duties under my
charge until he thinks that I may go out and make
use of the license your Majesty granted me if nothing
more occurs. May Our Lord guard the person of
your Royal Catholic Majesty, as we have need of you.
St. Augustine, Florida, July 6th, 1596.

Old St. Augustine 31

Your Majesty: A. D. 1598.
I do not wish to make a long report in this letter,
as I understand a detailed account of all that occurs
in these provinces will be made by your Majesty's
Governor, Gonzalo Menendez Canso, who in every
thing appertaining to your Majesty's service and wel-
fare is proceeding with caution-reforming, arranging
everything in the most approved manner, discovering
as he goes, all the secrets of the service, and govern-
ing himself in accordance. He has strong and brave
resolutions, as I know, having communicated them to
me, and given me an account of his good intentions.
Having served your Royal Highness for twenty-
six years in this part of your Royal Fleet, in charge of
your Captains-General the Adelantado Pedro Menen-
dez Aviles, Diego Flores Valdez, Cristobal Eraso,
and Alvarez Flores de Quinones, as Officer in
the companies in which I served as Lieutenant of the
Governor of the Castle, under Diego Fernandez de
Guinones, in Havana. Being in that City, retired in
my home, I was called by the above mentioned Gover-
nor to give and honor me with one of your Majesty's
companies of infantry who served in this Garrison of
Florida. In his absence to Guale to the chastising of
the Indians, who so horribly killed six priests
of the San Franciscan Order, he left me in his place.
Of the spoils which are usually divided, he has shared
with me moderately, but even with these, and the two
hundred ducats I have as salary, and the advantages
given me, I cannot sustain myself, nor assist at the
obligations of such Captains, on account of every
thing in the land being so dear-provisions are the

32 The Unwritten History of
same-and the servant we had, was taken from us by
your Governor. I implore your Majesty to attend to
the above mentioned facts, and as my desire is to end
my life in your Royal Service-and that I may live and
keep up my obligations I may be given some help to-
ward my expenses, and that I may be allowed a ser-
vant, as is customary with all Captains serving in this
Garrison, and trusting that your Majesty will grant
me these things as are granted to all who serve you
with good will. God preserve your Royal Person as I
desire and Christianity needs you.
St. Augustine, Florida, February 20th, 1598.

Your Majesty:
My poverty and the frequency with which the In-
dians, both Christians and infidels, gather at my home
to be instructed in matters concerning their conver-
sion, and other important things concerning the good
Government need with the Governor of these Prov-
inces, places me under the necessity of asking your
Majesty to assist me in the expenses I am obliged to
incur with the Indians, as is certified to by the report
accompanying this letter which implores your
Majesty to assist and see to this need, since from it
will result the coming of the Indians with more hearti-
ness to become Christians and in this way guard the
faith. Your Royal Highness being merciful. That
I may do in all the above mentioned what is just and
right, I also implore your Majesty to send me a letter
of friendship that the Indians may see the good feel-

Old St. Augustine 33
ing which exists between your Majesty and ourselves.
God grant you may have all graces.
Florida, February 20th, 1598.

The Unwritten History of

A. D. 1598.
Extract from an official report made by Gonzalo Men-
endez Canjo, Governor and Captain General of the
Provinces of Florida, concerning the murder of
six priests of the San Franciscan Order by the In-
dians-Lieutenant Eciga sent to see if any of the
priests are still living-Ascertains that there is one,
but is refused permission to see him-After much
persuasion and many threats Friar Fray Francisco
is delivered-Makes statement as to death of the
others, but is forbidden by the canons of the
Church to reveal all--Juan Ximanes, a Notary
Public and secretary, swears to the investigation of
several Indians through an interpreter--Indian
Lucas is found to have been present and partici-
pated in the killing of Fray Blas for which he is
condemned to be executed.
This is a good and faithful copy taken from one of
the official reports made by Gonzalo Menendez Canes,
Governor and Captain-General of these Provinces of
Florida to His Majesty, concerning the death of the
Religious of the Order of San Francisco, who perished
at the hands of the Indians who revolted. Its tenor is:
In the city of St. Augustine, Province of Florida,
July 1st, 1598, Gonzalo Menendez Canes, Governor
and Captain-General for the King our Lord, says:
That in the month of October past of 1597, he was

Old St. Augustine 35
notified of an uprising of the Indians of the Peninsula
of Guale. They had refused to obey your Majesty,
and killed the Religious of the Order of San Francisco
sent out to convert and teach them, and that he had
made every and the greatest efforts, having gone
in person with a number of infantry, ammunition and
water craft to said peninsula, to investigate and punish
the cases, and ascertain the cause the Indians had for
committing such an atrocious crime. Although he made
all the ravages he could, acting upon advices received,
he could not punish them more for the time being, not
could he capture a live Indian, except one, an inter-
preter, from whom they could get no information
further than that the Religious had been killed, as will
be seen by his declaration. Seeing the importance of
ascertaining the root and cause of the killing of these
Religious, and if any were still living-and why they
had lost obedience to your Majesty, he has made the
boldest efforts possible, going by way of the Luna.
Finding the Casiques in conference, we agreed to send
them presents and keepsakes, to induce them to let us
know and understand if any of the Religious or Friars
were still living that we might ransom them, sending
to offer them even interest for them, and also sending
a launch with some of the infantry to the Fort Santa
Elena, distant fifty leagues from this Garrison, to en-
list the Casique of that country, on account of the
friendship he has shown the Spaniards, and because he
has Indian warriors, and being so near he could do
much damage to the Peninsula of Guale. Lieutenant
Exiga, who went in the launch, found him and treated
with him to make war and do all the damage possible to
said peninsula and ascertain if any of them were liv-

36 The Unwritten History of
ing-bestowing upon him many gifts from your
Majesty's treasury that he might go. It was agreed
that Lieutenant Exiga should return to the Casique in
sixty days, and ascertain what military exploits he had
had, and what success. Being a matter of so much im-
portance to your Majesty, Lieutenant Exiga left this
port on the 23rd of May, with two launches, with infan-
try and ammunition to accomplish the agreement made
with the Casique. On the 24th, one day after leaving
this fort, having gone as far as the Bar of Asae,
twenty leagues from here, he was caught in a storm
and hurricane, forcing him to put into harbor in dis-
tress. The storm did so much damage to the food
and ammunition they carried, that he was obliged to
strike with the launch for the shore of San Mateo.
Notwithstanding all the above mentioned, he con-.
tinued his voyage to the port Santa Elena. there taking
another launch in better condition for making the
journey, leaving his in bad condition grounded on the
beach. Having arrived at Santa Elena and seen and
spoken to the Casique who delivered to him four gen-
tlemen, he said he had taken from four Indians of the
Peninsula of Gaule where he went to make war. Tha,
three other Indians had captured the Casique of Ca-
rague, who had accompanied him, with the intent of
making war. In the same way he certifies that they had
alive in the Peninsula of Gaule, near Solofina, one of
the six friars, named Toray Francisco de Avila. Hav-
ing learned this he came coasting along the shore and
ports of Guale, to see if any Indians should come out
to speak to them. None appeared, until he came to
Tolomato where he saw one, who by much coaxing
and presenting of gifts and reasoning, succeeded in

Old St. !,gcsiin. 37
getting him to tell what he knew. Finally they learned
from him that the said Friar was still living. They
paid the Indian to take a letter to him, and they would
await the reply-he did so, and in the meantime they
amused themselves coasting along the shores of Tolo-
mato, until the Indian returned with some of the
Casiques, whom they begged would show them the
Friar, that they might certify to his being alive, and
treat with them for his ransom. At first, although
they had heaped the Indians with gifts, they would
neither accept of the gifts nor promise to deliver the
Friar, unless in return for certain boys, sons of some
of the Casiques, who had been brought to Governor
Domingo Martinez Avendano, as hostages. As better
security Lieutenant Exiga promised to bring their boys
within thirty days as ransom for the Friar, also a quan-
tity of hatchets and spades they asked for. Lieutenant
Exiga returned to Port Tolomato in fifteen days, and
began treaty with Casiques for the ransom of the
Friar, and although he heaped gifts upon them with a
free hand, it made no impression. They are such
liars and traitors, and all their treaties are founded on
treachery and cunning. Seeing that they did not in-
tend to keep their word and deliver the priest, he found
it necessary to change his tactics and show anger,
swearing that unless they did deliver the prisoner they
would send for three hundred soldiers and would run
them through with the sword, cut down all their crops
and follow them to Tama. After these threats they
promised to deliver the Priest at once, which they did.
After receiving him, and having him in their power,
Lieutenant Exiga made reprisal of the hostages he car-
ried, and of seven other Indians he had detained on the

38 The Unwritten History of
launch until he saw what success he was going to have.
Four of these Indians are sons and brothers of Ca-
siques. The Governor holds them and has brought them
to this city where they are at present, and where he pro-
tests he will investigate and take their declarations as
to the manner of death the other friars suffered-
where, in what form, and for what cause? Finding
any of them to have taken part in this crime, to pun-
ish them and do justice to the service of your Majesty,
and that this punishment may serve as an example to
them, as they have at other times committed these
treacheries, killing captains and officers and other per-
sons. This I provide and sign from his hand, Gonzalo
Menendez Vanso, by order of His Lordship the Gov-
ernor and Captain-General. JUAN XIMENES.
Later the said Governor and Captain-General or-
dered me, the secretary, that I should go to the Mon-
astary of San Francisco, of this city, and in his name
ask the custodian priest of said house, Fray Francisco
Marron, to give permission to Fray Francisco de
Avila, who had been sent to teach and convert the In-
dians, that under the oath which is administered to
the Religious of his Order, he declared how his com-
panions were killed, what he has seen and heard,
and the causes that have moved them to commit such
a crime as the killing of the priests. To deny obedi-
ence, and tell only what he knows and understands of
the matter. They continued the examination, so that
all the above may be certified as the truth. This I pro-
vide and sign in his name-and from the declaration
of the father custodian might result many worthy
considerations in questioning the Indians.

Old St. Augustine 39
Later-The present notary public went to the Mon-
astery of San Francisco, of this city, read and showed
the decree above disposed of by his Lordship the Gov-
ernor and Captain-General Gonzalo Menendez Canso,
.to Fray Francisco Marron, custodian of the prov-
inces, who said: that mindful that Fray Francisco de
Avila was one of the friars sent out to teach and
convert in the Peninsula of Guale, and as the Lord,
Our God, had seen proper to deliver him from being
killed by the Indians, as his companions had been,
and as a person who knew the habits and manners of
the Indians, and knew their language, he deemed it
wise to give him freedom to say and declare all he
considered would be to the service of God of the kill-
ing of his companions-except in cases and things
criminal where his rights of priesthood prohibited,
such as death by the cutting of members-and this I
say and sign in his name-Fray Francisco Marron-
in my presence.
St. Augustine, Fla.. July 20th. 1598.
Gonzalo Menendez Canso, Governor and Captain-
General for his Majesty in these Provinces, ordered
to be called Fray Francisco de Avila that in virtue of
the permission granted him by the Custodian Fray
Francisco Marron, to say and declare all he knows
concerning the killing of his companions by the In-
dians, and of his imprisonment and captivity-whether
his person was badly treated, and all that had oc-
curred worthy of relating-so as to punish such crime
as it deserves to be.

40 The Unwritten History of
Fray Francisco de Avila said: Although it was true
Fray Marron had granted him permission to speak, he
could not make use of it, in cases so grave and criminal
as the present-it was prohibited him by the sacred
canons of priesthood, to attest in such crimes, because
it would force him to say that which might condemn
some, and so, he did not wish to speak or declare in
this case, not to fall into any error. Besides being
mindful that the Governor had brought seven Indians
from the peninsula at the time of his ransom, to this
city, he could know and understand from them all
that they might claim. This he said, and I sign it in
In my presence- JUAN XIMENES,
Notary Public.

Later-The Governor and Captain-General Gon-
zalo Menendez Canso, in order to investigate, had ap-
peared before him Gaspar de Salas, an interpreter of
the Indians of Guale who, having been sworn in the
proper form, gave promise to tell the truth and noth-
ing but the truth-and that he would declare all that
he was ordered to say to the Indians who claim to
give information; that he will say and declare all that
said Indians say in reply, under the oath that he has
Later the Governor ordered to appear before him
one of the seven Indians who were brought from the
peninsula, to whom the following questions were put:
From where do you come and what is your name? He
came from Tupique and that his name was Lucas. Are
you a Christian? Yes. The name of your parents, are
they, or have they been Casiques? His father's name

Old St. Augustine 4t
was Felipe, and he was Casique of Tupique. Where
was he from? He was a native of the town of Tupi-
que. Had there been any priest there? There had
been one named Fray Bias Rodriguez. Tell and de-
clare what had become of Fray Bias? That about
ten or eleven moons past, eight Casiques held a con-
ference, they were Asao, Tolafo, Atmehe. Fulo, Tu-
pique and Alnate. When night came they killed the
Priest. A helping hand was given them by a chief
called Pisiache. that he might kill him with a hatchet,
with which he gave him a blow on the head, from
which wound he died almost immediately. Afterward
they buried him in the church. Say and declare what
cause they had for killing this priest? That Micas
and Casiques said they killed him because he was art-
ful and took away their enchantment or witchcraft,
and would not allow them to have more than one wife.
Did you hear them say anything else? No. Did
he know Fray Miguel de Annon, and Fray Antonio
Lego, among the teachers of Guale, and Fray Pedro
de Corpa, among the teachers of Tolomato, and Fray
Francisco de Avila, among the teachers of Ospo?
I have known them all, and they have been killed.
Fray Miguel had his hands tied behind him, but he
did not know if they had killed him-Fray Antonio
was tied, but he does not know how he was killed-he
had heard it said that they killed him with wooden
weapons, and that Fray Pedro Corpa two Casiques
had killed in the night while sleeping; that Fray Fran-
cisco de Avila they had not killed, but had him captive
near Tolofino until he should be ransomed by the

42 The Unwritten History of
Was Fray Francisco well or ill-treated in the
Some times they beat him with sticks and abused
him. They sometimes fed him, but not always, and
when they did it was on the leaves and tendrils of
Had he seen or heard it said why they killed these
Priests and ill-treated Fray Francisco de Avila?
He knew no more than what he had already stated,
that the Micos and Casiques said they were artful and
did not wish them to have more than one wife, and
that they reproved them.
Do you know where the ornaments belonging to the
Church are, such as the chalices and other things used
by the priests?
They were all divided up in such a way, that nothing
is left of them.
,Was he present at the death of Fray Blas and the
other priests when they were killed?
He arrived in time to see Fray Bias die-the others
he had not seen, but had heard it said that they had
been killed as he stated above.
Had he seen or heard any of his companions who
were brought with him, say they were present at the
killing of the priests?
One from Tolomato, named Francisco, he heard him
say he had seen Fray Pedro Corpa after he was killed
-the rest he does not know.
All this the said Gaspar Salas said and declared as
interpreted under the oath which he has taken. He
does not sign because he does not know how to write.
In the presence of JUAN XIMENES,
Notary Public.

Old St. Augustine 43
For further investigation of the above, the Governor
and Captain-General had appeared before him the other
Indian, said to be named Francisco and native of Tol-
omato, and by the said interpreter under oath had him
declare the following:
Are you a Christian, and who are your parents?
I am a Christian, my name is Francisco, my moth-
er is nearly related to the Casique and my father is
What priest was teacher at Tolomato?
Fray Pedro Corpa, and I knew him there for some
What became of Fray Pedro Corpa?
He was killed while sleeping, with wooden weapons,
and he was killed by one of the chief Casiques of the
Did you see him killed, or were you present at his
I was far away. but I heard it said that this Micos
of Tolomato and Don Juan, his heir, had sent to have
him killed. I went there, but he was already dead.
Did the little dress which you wear belong to some
religious of that peninsula?
Yes, but I do not know to which one, I ransomed it
from one of the Casiques.
What was the cause of the killing of the priests?
The cause was, that they reproved Don Juan, heir
of Tolomato. By his cunning he had the other Casi-
ques meet with him, and there was an uprising in the
land, and these killings were done.
Did you know Fray Miguel Annon, and Fray An-
tonio Lego in the conversion and teachings of Guale,
and Father Berahula, and Fray Francisco de Avila?

44 The Unwritten History of
I knew them all-they had been killed by the In-
dians, except Fray Francisco de Avila, who was ran-
somed by the Governor.
Tell and declare what manner of death they have
given these religious?
Fray Miguel and Fray Antonio Lego were killed
with wooden weapons-he had so heard it said-the
others he did not know.
While in prison was Fray Francisco de Avila well
treated ?
I have heard it said that he was badly treated by the
Indians of Tolofino-they whipped him-the boys
teased him. He ate badly, because the Indians had
little food, and some times he was forced to eat vines
and tendrils.
Do you know where the ornaments of the Church
are, and the other belongings of the priests?
All the ornaments and clothes of the priests were
divided among them all, and the Indians had carried
them to their country inland.
Do you know if any of the Indians with you here,
were present at the killing of the priests?
I have heard it said that the Indian Lucas, son of
Don Felipe, was present when they killed Fray Blas-
that about the others he does not know.' All of which
the said Gaspar Salas Atiqui says and declares accord-
ing to his oath given, and because the Indian Francisco
said so, and did not sign because he did not know
In the presence of JUAN XIMENES,
Notary Public.

Old St. Augustine 45
Later the Governor had appear before him the In-
dian Bartolome, of the Peninsula of Guale, who with
other Indians was sent to the peninsula with a mes-
sage from him to the Micos and Casiques, to the better
ascertain, if any of the priests were still living. Al-
though he had been sent, he did not return with the
message, until after the treaty for the ransom of Fray
Francisco de Avila. He stated that they would not
let him come-that he wanted to come and stay with
the Governor; that he did not wish to remain among
the Indians, and through the interpreter, Atiqui, he
declared the following:
Where are you from, and what is your name, and
are you a Christian?
My name is Bartolome; I am a Christian and a
native of Tolomato. I was sent about eight months
ago, by this Governor, with a message to the Micos
and Casiques of the peninsula; they would not let me
come back, making threats that they would kill me.
During the time you were in the peninsula tell what
you know and heard said of the killing of the priests;
what kind of death they were given?
I heard that Fray Pedro Corpa was killed at night
in his cell, with wooden weapons, and that Fray
Miguel, Fray Antonio and Fray Bias were also killed
with wooden weapons. That Fray Francisco de
Avila, who had just been brought as ransom, was the
first one taken prisoner. They stuck him with their
arrows, but God did not let him die of the wounds.
They would have killed him as they did the others
but for the intervention of the Casique of Tulapo, who
took him from the Indians, saying at the time that he
was his father, and as such he would protect him.

46 The Unwritten History of
What was the motive and cause of the killing?
I heard it was because they reproved them; that
the priests were crafty, and did not care for them, and
did not wish them to have more than one wife.
Where are the ornaments and appurtenances of the
They were divided among them, those from the in-
terior carrying many, and many were also broken, and
the children tore and destroyed them.
Did you hear it said whether Lucas, the son of the
Casique Don Felipe, or any of the other Indians
brought in with you were present at the killing of the
priests ?
I heard that Lucas was there at the killing. I know
nothing more.
How was Fray Francisco de Avila treated while a
prisoner ?
I have heard it said that in Tufina and Chacalaga
the boys would chase him through the streets per-
fectly naked and whip him with horsewhips, and that
he was starving to death, because the Indians had little
to eat themselves and gave him none. All this Gaspar
Salas says and declares to have been said by the In-
dian Bartolome under the oath which he has taken,
and it is the truth; he cannot sign, not knowing how
In the presence of JUAN XIMENES,
Notary Public.
For further investigation of the above, the Gover-
nor and Captain-General had appear before him an-
other of the seven Indians who through the same in-
terpreter said and declared the following: (This dec-
laration is not given.)

Old St. Augustine 47
In view of said declarations of these proceedings,
the crime falls upon Lucas the Indian, son of the
Casique de Tuqui, for having been present and partici-
pated in the killing of Fray Blas, who was sent to con-
vert the people of Tupiqui. I must condemn him by
this my decree, sentenced according to his declaration,
with the penalty of death. The justice which I order
shall be done him is: That when he leaves the jail
where he now is, it shall be with a rope around his
neck, his hands tied behind him, and with a loud voice
it must be proclaimed to the public his crime; that he
be taken to the gallows, already prepared for this pur-
pose, and that there he shall be hung by the neck and
strangled until dead. Because, thus is it well to pun-
ish with real justice those who dare to commit such
crimes, and as an example to the other Indian natives
of these provinces that they may not commit similar
crimes. So do I pronounce sentence and command.
And if the said Lucas is not mindful of receiving bap-
tism and should not die repenting, and in the Catholic
faith, I order that he be hung and after his death his
body be burned to powder.
Regarding the other six Indians detained for this
cause, proceedings will not continue for the present
against them-they being boys under age. We shall
so send and notify the Indian Lucas.

Alonzo Diaz de Badajoz, Sergeant-Major of this Fort
and Garrison of St. Augustine:
I order you by this sentence, which will be
shown you by Juan Ximenes, Notary Public,
against the Indian Lucas, prisoner in this city, that he

48 The Unwritten History of
shall be executed as is stated in this sentence, because
it so pleaseth his Majesty. This execution is done in
justice to his Majesty, and must be so accomplished.
St. Augustine, July 29th, 1598.
Notary Public.

Old St. Augustine

A. D. 1600.
Letter from Father Francisco Parga to the King, as
one of eleven monks sent out by his Majesty to
spread the Gospel-Eighty churches in different
Missions-Complaint of lazy Indians-Avarice of
the Governor causes dissatisfaction and suffering
among the garrison and impedes the work-Un-
necessary war with Indians People desire the
Governor's removal Fray Baltazar Lopez has
labored for twelve years converting many Indians,
among them the Casique, Don Jaun, who stands
highly among his people and has quelled many up-
risings-Letter from Juan Nunez Rios-Complains
of Governor-Who allows one Juan Garcia to rep-
resent him-People forced to buy of this Garcia
who takes all advantages-Begs for an open port
that the people may be allowed to go back and
forth and trade-Antonio Menendez Canso writes
to his Majesty complaining of injustice by the Gov-
ernor, and asks to be allowed to serve his Majesty
elsewhere-Letter to his Majesty from Fray Bias
De Montes imploring that he may be allowed to
come to Spain for retirement-Gives account of a
fire which burned the church among other houses-
Reports slow progress with the Indians and ad-
vises that a Bishop be sent to administer sacrament
of confirmation Report of Gonzalo Menendez
Canso to his Majesty-A shipmaster bearing dis-

50 The Unwritten History of
patches from New Spain shipwrecked in a dread-
ful storm-He and his crew escape in a boat-
Governor aids them from the Royal treasury-
Arrival of the Auditor for his Majesty-Garrison
abounding in fruits and grain-Death of a Chris-
tian Indian, Don Jaun-Fray Lopez returns from
New Spain in good health-Money brought to es-
tablish a hospital-More money needed for Garri-
son expenses-Report of Francisco Redondo Vil-
legas, Officer of Customs and Auditor for his
Majesty-Complains of not being treated with the
respect due to Royal officers-Finds affairs in a
muddled condition Soldiers well drilled Much
land under cultivation which will be needed as
wages are small and rations insufficient.

Your Majesty :
This is a duplicate of a letter sent your Majesty by
a vessel which left this port of St. Augustine in the
month of February of this year via Havana. I wr6te
giving an accounts I was one of the eleven monks
sent by your Majesty to spread the Gospel and teach
the natives of this country. When we arrived we
were assigned to different places or posts, each one
trying his utmost and best to do what he could for
the redemption of these souls. It being such an
arduous and difficult life, having to traverse on foot,
bad roads, with little or nothing to eat at times, that
little fruit has yet been yielded, although the harvest,
which we hope eventually to reap for the Lord, is
worth the trials and sacrifices made, as we know that

Old St. Augustine 51

He suffered death and passion to redeem the souls
and rejoiceth over the salvation of one; how much
more should we be willing to suffer for the conversion
of so many souls as there are in this country and
whom we hope to save with the help of God? And
so I say that while your Majesty has control of these
lands as the Religious have charge of this Garrison in
time of need. and they also help to support the Church
under their care and the ornaments and other things
necessary for the worship of the Divine Lord, not
having for this purpose any income from your Royal
Finance. There are more than eighty churches which
have been built in the different missions and others
under construction. We are moved to do this to
encourage the Indians who are incapable of good con-
ceptions and obedience. They have always had their
ministry so that they listen with little appreciation to
what we preach and teach, in grave detriment to the
poor newly converted Indians. notwithstanding that
our teaching and converting accrues to their own
good, as we aid and provide for them in their time of
hunger, and when crops have failed. The Indians are
so lazy and improvident that if we did not take care
of the crops after planting they would have nothing.
They do not even save the seed for another planting.
Of the Governor I wish to say as little as possible,
but the misery, impediment and calamities among In-
dians and Christians is due to his avarice, and if the
poor Spaniards who are in the Garrison of St. Augus-
tine had not the hope that your Majesty would be
informed in some way and send them relief from the
fearful calamity which this Garrison is suffering, the
affliction among the married men as well as the single

52 The Unwritten History of
would become unendurable. They dare not, under
any circumstances, send you information, as it would
cost them their lives, and so they have prayed and
implored me as Chaplain, who live from day to day
upon the charity of your Royal Treasury, and have'to
render a strict account or others would slander us,
and our account of the war and other matters must
be true. The war with the Indians where many have
been killed and many brought in as prisoners was
uncalled for and the Indians at "Cabeza de Martyres"
are much incensed. As it is a place where many
vessels are wrecked, the Spaniards have taken whole
crews and kept them until ransomedq We fear the
Indians of that place will do much damage to vessels
passing to and fro. We feel very sorry that the pres-
ent Governor has shown so much anger and resent-
ment towards the Indians and has sent your Majesty
such meagre accounts of the true condition of this
Garrison. It is swampy, little inhabited by Indians,
and the roads difficult to traverse. The Bar is a rough
one; there are said to be better ones on this coast to-
wards the north. I have not seen them, but have
heard through Fray Baltazar Lopez, Vicar of that
Island, who has been there for twelve years working
in the conversion of souls, with other Friars who came
with him, and who have left for New Spain. He alone
remains at his post, much encouraged, as he has mas-
tered the Indian language; it is of great help to him
in preaching. He has converted many who frequent
the sacraments of confession and communion. Had it
not been for him and through his persuasions, having
converted and taught the Casique Don Juan, there
would have been a terrible uprising among the In-

Old St. Augustine 53

dians, and probably not a Spaniard left. Thus, by the
industry and influence of Fray Baltazar over Don
Juan, who is highly in favor of christianity and all
civilized ideas, this trouble was averted. Don Juan
has sent relief to the people of this garrison in times
of famine. I recognize in Fray Baltazar that spiritual
zeal for the service of God and your Majesty that
this land may be converted, increase in civilization
and aggrandize your kingdom. As Fray Baltazar's
experience is of long standing, it has been decided that
he write to your Majesty and give a full account of
all the happenings. To this letter of his, which I shall
remit to your Majesty, you can give full credit, as he
speaks scientifically and from long experience.

Your Majesty:
As a final remedy and forced by necessity and worry
which we poor citizens of this garrison suffer ever
since the arrival of Gonzalo Menendez Canso, we
come to implore you, as King and Christian, not to
permit that your subjects and vassals be so ill treated
and afflicted by those who govern here, since your
Majesty in your Cedulas always orders the contrary.
There being no corporation as in other cities of like
size to whom we can appeal for protection, I take the
liberty of writing this. We have not done so before.
and gone on suffering all that is possible for us to
suffer, because we understood you had been informed
by other parties, and we hoped and waited daily to
be delivered by your sending some one else who would
proceed in a different manner, and thus we poor
citizens would receive better treatment at his hands,

54 The Unwritten History of
and enable us to proceed in better condition to ad-
vance your interests which have been decreasing and
losing ever since the said Governor came. Much of
the land that was gained from the Indians, and who
themselves had become quiet and peaceful, has been
lost. I came to this country in the year 1568, twenty
years ago, with others from your Kingdom, to aid and
succor, as was commanded by your Majesty in trans-
ferring us to these Provinces, having assisted and
served in them on all occasions which have presented
themselves at Port Elena and St. Augustine. I mar-
ried a daughter of one of the settlers who was here
and had come enthused by the promises made by the
previous Governors, but who spent his life eking out
a meagre existence for his wife and children by tak-
ing advantage of the license which at that time was
granted the citizens of going abroad to seek work
which was so much needed. This Governor has with-
drawn this license and forces us to remain in the town
proper. The town is frequently left to the govern-
ment of his cousin who calls himself Juan Garcia and
whom he brought with him to this Province with a
large stock of merchandise which he sells at exorbit-
ant prices and he, the Governor, collects all payments.
Before this Governor came we were paid off, but
since his assumption of affairs he forces us to buy
all we need of this cousin, and the Governor informs
us that if we do not obey his order in this we must
go without. On pay day he keeps all our pay saying
we have already spent it. If one of the soldiers is
sick requiring anything and sends to ask for money

Old St. Augustine 55

to get the needed medicine the Governor refuses to
give it, forcing him to buy it of Juan Garcia. All
law suits or troubles of any kind which arise are
brought before the Governor by this same Juan
Garcia, who seems to be supreme. It is understood
that the vast estate is a joint one of Juan Garcia and
Governor Menendez Canso. My house was burned,
as can be testified by any of the inhabitants, fearing
to notify Juan Garcia of the fact. I sent to him and
asked him with all due respect to come, accompanied
by the Mayor, who is the only representative of the
law, and see the condition I was in. For this act he
has levied upon me for fifty maravedies and six
months" imprisonment in the Fort. That I must ap-
pear before him, and he has worried me in many
other ways. He has taken from us the only means
of making a living for our wives and children and
refuses to grant us any rights whatsoever, except
those which in your Cedula are so plain he is obliged
to grant them. And yet he grants all rights to
Mexico. It is a great injustice not to allow us the
same privileges. We trust that being so far from
us and it takes so long to inform you, that you will
have mercy upon us and immediately send some one
to replace this Governor. One who will treat us with
more kindness and justice. We implore you to grant
the privileges of an open port, that we may be allowed
to go back and forth and trade, so as to enable us to
make a living. Others would write to you imploring
the same grace, only all fear to do so, as we run
great risk of having the Governor intercept our let-

The Unwritten History of

ters. I send this at the risk of my life. There are
many more things upon which I could enlighten you,
but fear prevents us from doing so, and we trust your
Majesty will send us relief as speedily as possible.
God preserve the Royal Person of your Catholic
Majesty for many years, as christianity has need of it.
St. Augustine, Fla., Feb. 19th, 1600.

While serving your Majesty in this Garrison of
St. Augustine, Florida, as Captain of one of the com-
panies with the title given me by General Menendez
Canso, it is the same position my father served pre-
viously for a year and a half before the work and
place was turned over to me as your Majesty's service
required. Later Lieutenant Alvarez Hernando Metas
having arrived with certain dispatches regarding my
father, who had preceded me, the Governor, without
giving any reason or consulting me in any way, has
taken the company from me and given it to Lieutenant
Metas, who is at present serving. The Governor has
only said to me that he wished to employ me in other
services of your Majesty for which reason I am de-
tained in this Province on half pay. Although I have
asked permission to serve on the Armada and assist
in any way I am ordered, as is my duty, he will not
allow me to do so, but detains me here. I implore
you to send me orders if only to be in the infantry
of this Garrison; anything until I am ordered else-
where, to serve your Majesty. This is my profession
and I have always followed it, and for which I shall

Old St. Augustine 57

always hope to receive special encomiums from your
Majesty, whom I pray our Lord will bless and protect
and preserve from all harm.
St. Augustine, Fla., 26th -, 1600.

In other letters I have written to your Majesty I
have given an account of the fire we had on the 14th
of March of last year, 1599, in this city. Among other
houses burned with the church was ours and we came
to the hospital for shelter, where we still are, and I
implore your Majesty to rebuild our house. The seven
hundred ducats required to repair and cover the house
which was burned, and which we hope you will send
us, will be placed in deposit with the treasurer of this
Province until a decision has been reached regarding
this country. On account of its ruined and barren
condition it is incapable of maintaining so many na-
tives as there are, and as was demonstrated the other
day, many seem to think they will order this Garrison
removed to another part more advantageous. Should
this be the case, your servants will advise you at once
of all that occurs.
In the report I give you of the Indians I must say,
my Lord, that we make little progress and are but
poorly esteemed by them. The fault must lie in us,
as there will no doubt be those who will so report it
to your Majesty. The good esteem which I am
ordered to have for the Governor I shall comply with
in every respect except that I shall not lose my rights;
these I shall maintain as I have always done. In

58 The Unwritten History of
sending out the Friars to convert and teach the doc-
trine, I have always observed the order given by your
Majesty with the title of Royal Patron. Since it is a
truth perfectly well known that no Friar has been sent
by me or my predecessors to convert and teach with-
out the permission and sanction of the Governor, and
should it become necessary I will so make him confess
this truth, which he well knows, as there are so few
of us he cannot ignore it, as we eat from his hands at
all times. If this country is to be increased and
civilized it would be well to send a Bishop here, as it
is quite necessary to administer the sacrament of con-
firmation; therefore, for the peace of those who live
here, it would be well for your Majesty to consider
and provide as you see fit and God would wish. There
is nothing a man can desire more than the salvation
of his soul, for this it seems to me urgent that I should
retire from this work and take shelter where I can
obtain this end, serving in quietude your Majesty.
For this I beg and humbly implore your Majesty to
send me a permit to go to Spain, as I feel assured of
the little success I can obtain by remaining in this
country. May our blessed Lord preserve your Ma-
jesty in peace and love, Yours,
St. Augustine, Fla., Feb. 25th, 1600.

Your Lordship:
On the 13th there arrived in this city Diego Ram-
irez, a citizen of Triana of Sevilla, a second class ship-
master from New Spain, sent by your Viceroy and
Royal Officers from San Juan de Ullva. On entering

Old St. Augustine 59

the Bahama channel he was overtaken by a dreadful
storm, his vessel sprung a leak and took in so much
water they were forced to make for the nearest land
which was on the coast of this Province about one
hundred and eighty leagues from this city to the
north, about thirty-four degrees, more or less, where,
on entering a port, the vessel was completely wrecked
and the Master made his escape in one of the boats
with the papers and dispatches for your Majesty and
also some private letters. Coming along the coast,
landing at night until he reached the Province of
Guale, where last year the Indians had killed two
Friars. There he found two vessels in the service of
this Garrison which had been sent to carry three or
four Casiques, two of them men of great influence in
their tribes, who had come to implore mercy for them-
selves and others for the terrible crime they had com-
mitted. I now have them quiet and pacified. These
natives carried the master to the ships of this Garri-
son where he and his men were given shelter and
brought to this City.
The natives also gave them what relief they could.
On the arrival here of the Master he told me of the
dispatches he brought for your Majesty and which he
understood were of much importance as they had
learned in New Spain that Chinese, English and
Flemish were settling there. He asked me for passage
for himself and men, for any dispatches I might have
for your Majesty and any private mail. He also
asked for the means of sustenance from your Royal
Treasury, for himself and men, as they had lost all.
Considering the importance of the dispatches and
papers, and that you might receive them with the

60 The Unwritten History of
utmost speed, I granted their request and also gave
them a change of clothes. He did not wish to go to
Havana on account of the variable winds and so, as
I had a frigate in Port just suitable for the purpose,
I fitted it out against the wishes of its owners, to
whom I paid the cost of the trip which three pilots
assured me would amount to one thousand ducats,
not counting the maintenance of the Master and his
men. I felt it my duty to aid them from your Royal
Treasury, as they were shipwrecked and there was no
one in this country who could raise a subscription to
supply their wants, all being soldiers or men who
have no employment. An account of this may be
kept by the judges and officers in Sevilla against this
Province. Pedro Redondo Villegas, Auditor of the
Artillery of Havana, whom your Majesty nominated
to come here to straighten the accounts of this Prov-
ince, arrived and has commenced his work. He tells
me that he is notifying your Majesty of all and calling
your attention to some. He says that having notified
me of the Royal balance made to Juan Sebadilla, de-
ceased, being as it is, a large sum, it will be well that
you send a bill, stating what must be done about its
collection. Captain Alonzo de las Alas has not yet
satisfied his balance because while investigating his
accounts in virtue of the royal decree of appointments
and of which he was in charge, was suspended for
four years. In accounts taken of different royal offi-
cers, they have paid up many losses against your royal
estate. I had noticed this and when the accountant
Pedro Redondo arrived I suspended these payments
until he could look into them and I shall point out to
him the result of what I found in them.

Old St. Augustine 61

On the eighth of February of this year I rendered
your Majesty an account of how I sent the collections
to your Treasurer, Juan Menendez Marquez. This
time the causes made known in the letter which arrived
at this Port on the 21st of this month with four ves-
sels and their, cargo of provisions, ammunition and
money collected from the allowance was too late, so
that hereafter your Royal order set forth in Cedule
will be obeyed.
This Garrison and territory is at present abounding
in the fruits of the earth-corn and other vegetables.
Having encouraged and aided in cultivating the land
our Lord has seen proper to give us the most fertile
year ever known in these Provinces. On the 16th of
this month Don Juan, Casique of the Province of San
Pedro, died-the one your Majesty was so kind to in
sending him two hundred ducats which were given
him. I feel his death very much as he was one of the
most faithful and influential in this Territory; he was
sagacious and practical, having faith, and agreed in
all that you ordered. He died as a good christian,
receiving the sacraments and giving a good example
at the hour of his death to all the Indians and natives.
His niece becomes his heir; according to their custom
the nieces and nephews become the heirs and not the
Fray Baltazar Lopez, of the Franciscan order, has
arrived from New Spain. He was crippled and sick,
so I gave him permission to go to New Spain where
he was cured and has regained his health which has
been a great happiness for me as he is greatly needed
in the conversion. He has brought many to a realiza-
tion of the truth of christianity,'and I trust in God he

Land Approach to Fort Marion.

Old St. Augustine 63

may keep well and continue his good work. In this
I try to aid him as much as possible and with some
of the officers and soldiers go to visit the Indians from
time to time to assure them of our good will and to
trade with them. They have just brought from New
Spain the five hundred ducats your Majesty gave in
charity to the hospital of this City, established for the
benefit of the poor soldiers of this Garrison. They
also brought five hundred more from Mexico for the
Franciscan Convent, and we have also given to said
Convent two thousand eight hundred and forty-two
reals which were in this Treasury and which were
found on the beach of San Mateo from some of the
vessels wrecked on that shore,and although your Royal
Cedula said it should be three thousand and forty-two
reals and a half, the Royal Officers have not been able
to find that much on your books, only the amount
stated above which was delivered to them for the re-
pairs of the convent. If your Majesty wishes to ob-
tain information regarding Jacon from England you
must ask for it by the name of Virginia which is the
name given it by the English; if you inquire for Jacon
you will get no satisfaction. I send with this a dupli-
cate of the letter written you on February 28th by
Pedro Alvarez Castillon via Havana, on the fleet in
command of General Sancho Pardo, and as the sea is
an uncertain thing I send a duplicate. The frigate
which carries this paper and those of the Auditor,
Pedro Redondo, belongs to Pedro Gonzales, of Ha-
vana, who also goes on her. Should you wish to send
dispatches for this Province, Havana or New Spain,
this vessel is very appropriate; it is good, small, and
sails fast, being of only fifteen tons, and Pedro Gon-

64 The Unwritten History of
zales is perfectly familiar with all this coast and is a
practical and experienced sailor and can be trusted
with anything you wish to send by him. I cannot fail
to remind you to grant me a reasonable sum for ex-
penditures of this Garrison, as the expenses are so
heavy I am obliged to implore this grace of your
May God preserve you in health for the good of
St. Augustine, Fla., June 28th, 1600.

I wrote your Majesty by General Sancho Pardo,
giving full and detailed account of how I had ar-
ranged matters and placed in office as Auditor of the
Custom House, of this City, Pedro Redondo, my son,
a person perfectly trustworthy, competent and reli-
able. I have done everything according to your
Majesty's orders. I came to the Province of Florida
on the fleet, as you graciously ordered me to investi-
gate the accounts of your Royal Officers and other em-
ployees. I arrived in Florida on the 29th of March,
presented my commissions, which were accepted by
the Governor, Gonzalo Menendez. On the 14th of
April, after making all inquiries necessary regarding
the accounts, I commenced to investigate, not meeting
from the Officers that respect which is shown by the
army and navy to your Royal employees. Their books
being in such a disordered condition, it will take more
time than I calculated to finish these investigations, but
I will accomplish them with all possible speed. As I
have informed your Majesty through others who the
persons are, having to give account and the many and

Old St. Augustine 65
arduous difficulties encountered, there being among
auditors, agents and shipmasters, about twenty per-
sons-it will take a longer time to accomplish, al-
though I came quite encouraged and desirous of finish-
ing speedily so as to return to Havana to attend the
grand artillery review and take my command. I left
town for the term of one year, but find I shall be un-
able to complete these investigations in that time, as it
is impossible to leave them in the muddled condition
they are at present. Doctor Juan Gonzales, of the
Royal Court of the Indias, has told me he could obtain
with the consent of the Governor, a prerogative. I
implore your Majesty will send this prerogative and
see and notify me as to what I am to do. As I have
been here so short a time I cannot inform you of all
that you ordered me to investigate. All I can say at
present is that there are about two hundred and fifty
soldiers in this Garrison; they are good and well drilled
and disciplined; that the Governor has planted and
under cultivation many acres of land, which will be a
great help in the sustenance of these people, who are
mostly married, and whose small wages and rations
given them does not suffice for their support. They
certainly need this grain. Besides others, seeing the
good results and what good land it is, are following
the example and are clearing and planting fields. With
the cutting down of the timber it has done away with'
the vast quantities of mosquitoes and has helped to
improve the City, as one sees on all sides houses in
course of construction. The greatest difficulty I find
is the difference existing between the Officers of the
Royal command and the people. As you have ordered
that all should obey them, they are overbearing, as

66 The Unwritten History of
occurs in many other places. If you could devise
some remedy for this, all would go well. I shall con-
tinue to keep you advised of all that occurs, especially
on the matter of investigations and as to who the
guilty parties may be. May God grant you a long life
St. Augustine, Florida, April 18th, 1600.

Old St. Augustine

A. D. 1605-1608.
Minutes of a Bull to be presented to the Holy See,
asking concession of graces and powers for Catho-
lic residents in Florida-Minorcan families brought
a Priest and Monk with them, and wish privileges
and new license granted-Instructions as to duties
on wine-Priests and Monks of Tasco use munici-
pal monies for their own interests-Advises change
in office of Treasurer of the Royal chest-Loss of
vessels carrying papers for his Majesty-People
of the Kingdom gratified at favor shown by his
Majesty to Don Francisco Letter from Pedro
Ibarra to his Majesty-Insufficient support for the
Garrison-A widow, who was the wife of two
Army Captains, in need-Two poor soldiers find
amber in a fish for which Menendez exacted a
duty-Anxiety on account of French and English
pirates-Some taken prisoners and ten hanged-
Several Casiques and chiefs visit Augustine-Are
impressed with religious services and procession-
Ask for Friars to return to their country with them
to instruct their people-Asks for men to assist in
Building a fort at the mouth of Miguel Moro-Has
made inquiry as to origin and source of River San
Mateo and Lake Miami-A Garrison of warlike
people-Proposition to establish a Manager of the
Inquisition to control them-Does not wish to let
go certain Priest and Captain Report of Jaun

68 The Unwritten History of
Menendez Marques to the King-Deplores the
decision to reduce the Garrison-Advises return to
the policy of Pedro Menendez, his cousin-De-
sires permission to go to Spain to more fully lay
the matter before his Majesty.

A. D. 1605.
Minutes of the Bull or Supplication which the Min-
ister of this Court in Rome should present to the Holy
See, asking for the concession of new graces and
powers in favor of the Catholic residents in Florida,
which precepts have been formulated by the Judge
complying with the Royal Decree of your Majesty in
consultation with the Council.
As formal instructions they should state that these
Minorcan families transmigrated to Florida under the
English dominion, but with the free use and privilege
of their Catholic Religion. They carried with them as
spiritual directors Don Pedro Campos, secular Priest,
and Padre Bartolome Casanovas, a Monk, that these,
for the legitimate discharge of their Ministerial duties,
repair to the Holy See, begging they be constituted
Pastor of that flock, dispensing them all the powers
necessary, that your Holiness benignantly accede to
their urgent petition, to grant them different privi-
leges and powers, among others the administering to
that Catholic people all the sacraments, even those not
Parochial, except confirmation and Orders, extending
this privilege for a term of three years when they shall
obtain a new license from the superior Prelates or
Bishop nearest to Florida. That is what has been
done, because I have received a new Cedula from your
Majesty ordering that the proceeds of the duties on

Old St. Augustine 69
wine should not be spent on anything but the bring-
ing of water. I cease, satisfied, that before suspend-
ing the execution of this Cedula. I shall take time to
inform your Majesty that it was necessary for me to
avail myself of this money for these purposes. I do
not at present send an account, until I can send it
finished, that it may not be a work which the Viceroy
may consider impossible to accomplish at so small a
cost. I beg of your Majesty to consider it. Otherwise
I shall obey to the letter this Cedula and I await your
reply. Not receiving a reply, I shall take for granted
that your Majesty is satisfied. Being so general and
important in this Kingdom the practise of other busi-
ness, and there being a possibility of misunderstand-
ing in this matter, I resolved to visit some of the vine-
yards of this kingdom, and so I went to Tasco, some
twenty-eight leagues from this city, taking advantage
of the Christmas holidays, not to lose any time from
my ordinary business, it has been of great advantage
as I can state just how these things are conducted. I
have stated to your Majesty in other letters, the
municipality of this City is not governed as it should
be, because the Priests or Monks think more of their
own interests, reducing all to their own profit. As this
takes place the Royal Officers cannot ordinarily attend
the meetings, it would be well that the Viceroy should
elect four persons of the best standing and principles
upon whom your Majesty should bestow Government
offices and that the Viceroy should oblige them to ac-
cept, for at least four months in the year, giving them
precedence after the Royal Officers, and thus assure
their attention to matters which are looked upon in-
differently in one of the best Cities you possess, and

70 The Unwritten History of
which is improving each day. If the Council will
consider this proposition and your Majesty pleases
to execute it.
The Decree sent by me and the Official documents
for the high notaries of Government and legislative
bodies of this Audience and particularly for the not-
aries of the Treasury, that they might transact some
important business which was taken from the books
and have been badly attended to because there is no
one to be solicitous about this matter, and it not be-
longing to the duties of the Judge, it is neglected as
are other affairs. It becomes obligatory to find some
faithful and trustworthy person of influence to take
charge of this Office and assign them a salary of
$800.00 a year. Show and make them understand
the anxiety which I feel concerning it and how it re-
tards other business. Being new in my Office I have
not cared to assign any one until I had a license from
your Majesty for doing so. I shall await your de-
cision. It seems to me the salary could be assigned
through the Legislature, and if they neglect their
duties discharge them.
In New Vera Cruz, Pedro Casco Calderon has been
serving as Treasurer of the Royal Chest by nomination
of your Majesty, he also occupied other Offices in
Spain. He is old, the many years of service at that
Post and the conduct of his wife, have disturbed his
mind; he is also running a butcher shop and other
enterprises not in accordance with the Royal Office.
The situation is such that nothing should be concealed
from you. In being served you might give him some
small Office at home, and I should remove him to some
other place, if I did not understand the necessity of

Old St. Augustine 71
his attending to his estate, which is in that neighbor-
hood, and all his other profitable enterprises.
The first registered vessel was lost on the coast of
Campeachy, and although the Papers for your Majesty
were taken out, they had been under water so long
that they were useless, scarcely legible. The second
vessel of advice was taken by the French on its re-
turn from Saona, and they stripped it of everything,
leaving vessel and crew in such a ruined condition
they could proceed no further than Santo Domingo.
Seeing that they were lost they threw the papers for
your Majesty overboard. Thus it becomes necessary
that one and the other be duplicated. Your Majesty
will please see that the person in Sevilla who has
charge of these vessels be careful of the person to
whom he entrusts these Documents as so far the
person in charge does not seem to understand their
importance, and so, it is only miraculous that we get
them at all. It has been very gratifying to all in this
Kingdom the favor shown by your Majesty to Don
Francisco. I trust he will serve you well and faith-
fully. It is prohibited that an Alderman should serve
a private individual under penalty of losing his Office.
In this city Don Luis Maldona, son of Maldona
who was Judge of this Supreme Court, has a regi-
ment. On account of his talent and the good services
he can render I have him occupied in my service, and
that he may not fall under the penalty of the law I
implore your Majesty to send him a permit that he
may attend to both, or a license that he may resign
his place in the regiment and serve your Majesty
otherwise, on a salary that you shall name. I consider
the first plan best. Don Luis Valasco has arrived and

72 The Unwritten History of
I thought best to introduce him and have some atten-
tion bestowed upon him, on account of his position.
I shall show him all respect and visit him, feeling sure
you will thus be well served. The case is free of
consequences. Having sent you a letter of dispatch
through the Supreme Court of Castile stating that
Dr. Lievana will go over to that Kingdom and render
an account of the expenses of the residence and trip
of the first Lieutenant of Assistencia of Sevilla. Dr.
Lievana acted as Mayor in the interim between the
death of Senor Trufillo and your appointing Don Fran-
cisco de Onate. He is a person who will render you
good service, he can be relied on, is among the noblest
here, and could fill any office. I have detained this
vessel that I might inform you of the departure of
the vessel for the Phillipines.
May God preserve you for many years.
Mexico, March 31st, 1605.
(There is a Rubrica.)

Sire: A. D. 1605.
I sent your Majesty one of your royal Cedulas dated
in Valladolid, April 3rd, in which I laid before
your Majesty the necessity and want these poor mar-
ried men are in. It is impossible for them to support
themselves; there are seven and eight in a family to
be fed on the father's rations. As I have before stated
to you, it would be a great charity as well as a service
to God to help them that they may not perish. This
may be remedied when the other people arrive. I can

Old St. Augustine 73
then give permission to the valetudinarians and sick
to return home, your Majesty having sent as a reward
for so many years of service the means to defray the
cost of the voyage. I can give according to the con-
dition of each one and to the married men who remain
here in service please order an extra half ration for
each child with some other slight assistance while
they serve as soldiers and their daughters are too
young to marry. I assure you that aside from being
a great charity it will be no more than justice, as they
are among the best soldiers I have ever seen on land
or sea. Among the necessities your Majesty may see
proper to relieve is the suffering of a lady of standing,
widow of two captains who served many years in this
Province and who had charge of it in the absence of
the Governors. Aid given here will be one of the
greatest of charities, as before stated. The negroes
who were here for over forty years, working in the
Havana forces, have died, and it will be well to send
about a dozen more and three or four negro women.
Your order that I should not collect from the New
Spain more than was necessary I have carried out so
far, and I wish to remind you to send a trustworthy
accountant as the one at present occupying that office
is not fitted for it. During the residence of Gonzalo
Menendez Canso, the Treasurer, Juan Menendez,
asked and exacted that duty should be paid your Ma-
jesty on some amber which Bartolaine Perez and
Gaspar Martin, soldiers, had found in a fish's craw,
and with promises which Gonzalo Menendez made
the soldiers, he palliated them and said the duty must
be paid according to one of the chapters of royal in-
struction. At that time we could not ascertain if it

74 The Unwritten History of
were true. The said soldiers had already put in a
plea to the said Gonzalo Menendez and as interested
parties could not be witnesses in these investigations.
The other person through whose hands it must pass
was Lieutenant Fabeicio Lopez, and he was not here.
He has returned now and makes the accompanying
declaration, which you can place with the declaration
of the soldiers, and you can have your duties and give
the soldiers what was taken from them, not allowing
them to make a manifestation. The Treasurer has
asked me to let him use a permit he has to go to that
kingdom on business and solicitations. I have not
allowed him to use it, because we are so much in
need of men and there are so few I can put my hand
on in case of need. God protect your Majesty.
Dec. 26th, 1605, St. Augustine, Florida.

Sire: A. D. 1607.
In a letter of the 22nd of January of the present
year, which was sent from Havana with a notice of
the death of Governor Don Pedro Acuna I have
forwarded you, I have also notified you of what I
thought of doing with the French and English pirates
I held as prisoners. One day after the departure of
the boat I sent to have them hanged, using with them
such religious treatment as is customary. Ten of them
were baptized, the others stated they had already
been baptized. It seems that all died as Christians, so
that this whole City with their fraternities turned out
to lay them out and bury them. I only wish that with

Old St. Augustine 75
these pirates we might put an end to them all on these
coasts. There are so many they keep me in great
anxiety and I implore you to send me people to de-
stroy them. I have every one on this coast enlisted
to aid in their destruction. But my experience is that
many have not only sheltered them, saved their lives
and estates, but continue to serve them and allow them
to come and go at will. They come from a distance
of a hundred leagues with all confidence and safety.
This week, which is Holy week, I have had here
several Casiques and Chiefs who are the lords of the
mouth of Miguel Mora, where, I have before told you,
we should erect a fort and from there capture the
fleet of Charles. I shall tell you the names of these
Casiques that you may know who they are and the
great achievement I have made in gaining their serv-
ices. They have returned to their country dressed
and very happy and edified with the religious services
and processions they have witnessed during this Holy
season. They ask for Friars to instruct them. I told
them I would come there to visit them. I notify you
that this is the time that with more security and less
cost a fort could be built there; they themselves would
act as peons, and if possible to do so I would myself
ask that from Havana they would send me an en-
gineer and eighty men with two launches. Look into
this, as I am quite sure they would all lend themselves
to serve in the building, as they would feel safe all
along that coast from the invasions of the enemy. The
other Provinces are very peaceful. With the war-
riors, silver miners and woodmen I have so long asked
your Majesty to send me, I trust in God that we can
touch with our hands the great wealth we surely have

76 The Unwritten History of
in the interior of this land. All this I ask of you I
am moved to do by the zeal to serve you and enlarge
your estate and not for rest or gain. From all these
parts I have had here this week over five hundred
Indians, and, God knows, to make them understand it,
will require more men than I have in our Order to
guide them.
In a letter of September 23rd your Majesty com-
mands me to make every possible inquiry to know the
origin and source of the River San Mateo and Lake
Miami. As I have always tried to make inquiries,
about six months ago I discovered on the southern
coast a river which I have had examined by three dif-
ferent pilots, and find that it has nine fathoms of
water at the entrance of a much wider river. I no-
tified your Majesty of this new river. This garrison
is composed of a warlike people and the Friars of San
Francisco are thinking of establishing a Manager of
the Inquisition to subject them and control their pas-
sions. When I came here these warriors were in
great want and I have come to an agreement together
with the Royal Officers, that we should have Juan
Nunez go to Castilla and try to make terms with some
merchant to remedy these occurrences. To Fray
Pedro Ruiz they have brought an Order from your
Majesty in which you command me to let him go to
Castilla on account of his age and failing health; that
he is of no further use. It seems to me this Friar has
not been here so many years and he is perfectly sound
and fresh and robust, never having had.so much as a
Captain Alonzo de las Alas has presented me a
Cedula from your Majesty which gives him permission

Old St. Augustine 77
to go to Castilla for a term of two years and that
during that time he is to receive no salary. He claims
that it is an oversight in not appointing some one in
his place and allowing him to draw his salary as here-
tofore and which is just, because whoever takes his
place is entitled to half of his pay, and for this it will
be necessary that your Majesty order Bartolome Ar-
ruchas to return to his Post as the permit granted him
by your Majesty has expired.
God protect your Majesty. PEDRO IBARRA.
May 16th, 1607, St. Augustine, Fla.

Your Lordship: A. D. 1608.
Through a letter of September 20th of last year,
1602, and an account rendered the Bishop of Cuba
(the past year of 1606) who came to confirm the
Spanish Christians not yet confirmed and the native
Indians of these Provinces, I told him all that I
thought would be most convenient to the service of
God our Lord and your Majesty regarding the con-
version of this Garrison to which I again refer, it hav-
ing come to my knowledge that your Royal Council
did not repeat it to you, fearing to tire or annoy you.
Now, on learning the resolution you have taken of
reforming this Garrison and reducing it to one hun-
dred and fifty infantry, I am sure you have listened to
the advice of persons who have never seen this coast,
nor do they know anything about the interior of the
country, nor the great benefits which have been ac-
complished in the conversion of the natives who are
idolaters and savages, hesitating at no crime however

78 The Unwritten History of
If Gonzalo Menendez Canso were moved with the
true zeal of God and a proper desire to serve your
Majesty it would have been no more than just that
when he first assumed control of this Government he
should have given you a full and detailed account of
the existing state of affairs and sought your advice
and not waited until he was quite sure that his Office
was to be filled by some one else.
Again, I decided to write this to implore you to con-
sider and look closely into the matters upon which I
have advised you and which I have done in all truth
and fidelity as I am obliged to for my King. Knowing
also that the King of glorious memory, your father,
had more trouble and combats than at present on ac-
count of economy and the abandoning of this Garrison,
he never listened to such things; on the contrary, in
the time of Governor General Pedro Menendez Mar-
quez, my first cousin, he increased the force to one
hundred and fifty soldiers of Infantry and by thus
assigning them to this Post their aid and succor suc-
ceeded in subjugating the Indians and in bringing and
attracting them to hear the Holy Gospel, and listen to
the words of the Friars who preached. This is a public
truth. And since that time no Governor has made any
conquests or discoveries, nor gone in person to treat
with the Indians nor draw them towards civilization
by gifts or other means. And if you would at least
grant us a Garrison of defense of three hundred In-
fantry and thirty marines besides the Friars, Governor
and Royal officials, with orders that they proceed to
feret out the secrets of the interior of the country,
where Lieutenant Mocana entered, and in which lati-
tude there can no doubt be found an excellent port,

Old St. Augustine 79
particularly at Cayagua, where any Armada could
with safety enter in an altitude of thirty-three and one-
fourth degrees, and where I have myself been in the
past year of 1588. Should it prove advantageous and
convenient in the Bay of the Mother of God, of
Macan, at a height of thirty-seven degrees at its
mouth, and which terminates at the foot of the moun-
tain range where I was also, in the same year, in
search of the English settlement. It is a more shelt-
ered harbor than this one and nearer for obtaining
aid, and an entrance could be made through the Prov-
ince of Guale in the land of Tulufino, which corre-
sponds with that called Tama, on the skirts of the
mountain range. It might be a very advantageous
move which would result in the glory of God and your
Majesty's interest; for if we could bring these people
to honor the Governor of the garrison and when they
found that he was working for their good and not the
contrary, there would naturally result a reform among
the enemies and we might aspire to carry out your
designs in a satisfactory manner. Under existing
circumstances it is impossible for this Garrison, com-
posed of so few men, to march out or in any way try
to defend themselves against the enemy, and nothing
remains but to die bravely defending the Garrison as
best they can, and when there remains no one else to
defend it, it leaves the Friars and converted Indians to
the mercy of God, for it is the only help they can look
to, the Forts and Castles of Flanders being so far away
they would be slow to respond. If there is to be no
more infantry sent I think it would be well to agree
upon making this Fort a ravelin and build a good
trench of defense along the coast to prevent the enemy

80 The Unwritten History of
from jumping over and in every possible way attend
to the preservation of all the above mentioned regard-
ing the Friars and converted natives. Put a stop to
all these ambushes and skirmishes and other nuisances
which oblige them (the natives) to leave their settle-
ments and fortify themselves upon your domains and
do great damage to vessels coming in and going out
at the mouth of the Bahama channel, making it un-
safe all along the coast of this part of the Indies,
possessed by your Majesty and which you will possess
for many years for the glory of God and the welfare
of the souls of these poor natives, and may His Divine
Majesty not permit these arbitrations and troubles
caused by a few men who are incited by their passions
and own selfish interests and with the pretext of
saving you some twenty or thirty thousand dollars
cause such great trouble that your expenses will be
more than doubled in repairing the damage. You
support and maintain the Garrisons of Havana and
Porto Rico from rents and taxes of New Spain and it
is not just nor proper to put difficulties in your way
to prevent you from preserving and sustaining in the
same way this one which should be well defended as it
is a Port from whence you can pass through those
same inland regions to Mexico, and, in my opinion,
it is very important to preserve it for this purpose.
Havana is of importance, being the key to the Indias
and a place where the Armadas and fleets can re-
plenish and repair to continue their voyages through
these Kingdoms. With all humility I beg you receive
my zeal and good wishes which is to always serve you
with fidelity and truth as has been done by my parents,
and if on this occasion I did not call your attention to

Old St. Augustine 81
these matters, which are of vast import, I should be
committing a crime, and in all this I subject myself
to better judgment and implore your Majesty with all
humility that as I can be of no other use in this Post,
but to serve as Treasurer of these Provinces, which
I am at present doing, you will consider my application
and give me permission to go to Spain and render an
account of the Royal finances intrusted to my care
since June of the past year of 1602, hereafter and for
this purpose that I be given receipts of my charge,
and that during my absence from this Port the employ-
ment be at the risk and account of the person left in
my place, and who must give bond as is customary in
vacations of similar Posts and offices and at the same
time that the Governor provide that he be given one
half of the salary and that I receive the other half as
a means of helping me to defray my expenses, and if
my mind does not deceive me my services are deserv-
ing of it for the care and anxiety I have suffered in
this Garrison by wishing to defend the cause of the
profit of the Royal finance of your Majesty and the
desire that I have of settling my accounts, not only
those I have of my own, but also those of Pedro
Redondo which will seem to have been given with
pay, which will be the case with those I render if God
will give me life for it to employ in your Royal Service.
May God grant you many and happy years for the
mercy and defense of the faith, the preservation of
peace and tranquility of many more kingdoms, and
the conversion of as many idolaters as are in these
St. Augustine, Fla., January 5th, 1608.

The Unwritten History of

A. D. 1622-1640.
Report of Antonio Benavides to his Majesty -En-
deavored to execute order of the King to establish
friendly relations with the English of the Carolinas
-Sent Don Francisco Menendez together with
other Officers-The Mission a failure owing to the
English not having instruction from London-
Find that the English have built fort on Spanish
territory-Requested its removal in order to avoid
trouble between the two nations The English
Governor refused-Matter fully laid before his
Majesty-Report of Luis De Rojas-Frigate sent
from Augustine to Havana to help fleet from New
Spain bring over supplies for Garrison- They
discover thirteen vessels, which proves to be an
enemy who give chase to the Frigate-The pilot
and soldiers landed, followed by the enemy, until
a forest is reached, where the enemy leaves them
-Returning to their launches the enemy strip the
Frigate and burn the hull-The enemy coast along
shore frightening the Indians, lodging in their huts
-A large force of Indians were gathered together
with one hundred and fifty soldiers to pursue the
enemy at which they reembark and sail away-
A Spanish Frigate arrives bearing forty-seven per-
sons, all that was left of three vessels which had
been captured by the enemy who proved to be
bearing provisions to a Dutch Fleet in Havana-

Old St. Augustine 83
Recommends his Majesty to build a fort at the Bar
at the place called lega-Report of Luis Ussitinez
to his Majesty-The Mandate of the King has been
carried out in regard to prayer to God for the suc-
cess of the King's arms taken up against France-
1636-An account of a meeting of the Board of
the City Council of Havana at which a clergyman
of the Holy Office of the Inquisition appears with
an Auto from the Senior Commissionado, Don
Francisco de las Casas, of the Holy Office of this
city, containing instructions as to certain cere-
monies in connection with the Inquisition.
Your Lordship:
By your Royal dispatch of last year you ordered me
to immediately establish friendly relations with the
English of the Carolinas, and that your Majesty had
asked that the Court of London should pass efficacious
measures to have the order repeated, which was given
in virtue of the suspension of arms between your
Majesty's crown and that of England, to the end that
these vessels be not disturbed by the English of the
Carolinas, nor the Indians of their Province, so that
they may derive the benefits of the land and live in
tranquility and love as your Majesty desires. That
for this purpose I should in my ministerial capacity
go to the Governor of Carolina instigating him to
make them observe punctually the treaty of suspen-
sion of arms. I executed this order immediately and
sent the Auditor Don Francisco Menendez accompa-
nied by other Officers of the Garrison of this Post,
with orders to adjust a firm agreement with the Gov-
ernor that on the part of the English they should

84 The Unwritten History of
cease to incite the Indians, and thus they and the lab-
orers might live without injury one from the other;
that this agreement was equally important for both
Nations. To this proposition, and others certified, in
the testimony of the letter which the referred to Don
Francisco Menendez carried and on this occasion I
remit to you. The Governor and parliament of the
Carolina replied that they had received no orders from
the King of Great Britain, but that notwithstanding
they would try to maintain friendly relations with this
Government during the suspension of arms. Immedi-
ately upon the arrival of Auditor Don Francisco Men-
endez in Carolina, he was informed that the English
had built a wooden fort at the mouth of Talaje, one of
your Provinces, where for many years were settled
the Indians, and on account of the blockade we put
upon it, they retired. Don Francisco immediately de-
manded of the Governor and Parliament the reason for
building there; that it was your Majesty's Territory,
etc., and stating that it might cause trouble between
the two Nations and once that war was started it would
be difficult to stop on account of the Indians. His re-
ply was simply that to secure his dominions from in-
vasion and harm, the King of Great Britain had or-
dered it built, and that they should found Towns in
the best and most approved manner. The Auditor re-
quested its removal from your Territory, but they re-
fused to do so, stating that his orders were not suffi-
cient, and expressed nothing whatever in regard to
this Fort. I infer that with the incoming of this new
Governor in the Carolinas, not only will the Fort be
completed, but they will settle all the Islands belonging
to your jurisdiction, and thus make the Carolinas im-

Old St. Augustine 85
pregnable and reduce this Garrison to a more lament-
able condition than it is, and the Indians watch-
ing their opportunities will come upon us and also
takes sides with the English, who will supply them
with arms and ammunition, a thing they most ardent-
ly desire. The Auditor was also informed that in the
Carolinas they were waiting the arrival of large quan-
tities of arms and ammunition from England. They
can in time of war easily invade this Castle, the only
desire and aim they have, on account of the great im-
portance it would be to the preservation of their colo-
nies in this New England and the facility it would
give them for capturing vessels coming and going
through the Bahama Channel, the nearness of this
Castle being just what they most desire. In giving
you this information I not only appease my conscience
but fulfilled my obligations to you by showing you the
great danger which threatens you and the terrible re-
sults it might cause, and I leave it to the intelligence
of your Royal Highness to act in this matter as best
pleases you.
May God save you. ANTONIO BENAVIDES.
St. Augustine, Fla., April 21st, 1622.

Sire: 1627.
After having written your Majesty giving an ac-
count of having faithfully fulfilled all the instructions
of your different Royal Cedula, I will, in this, give a
detailed account of what occurred on August 25th of
this year. I ordered Captain Diego del Pozo to em-
bark in one of the frigates of your Majesty's Service
in this Garrison, and proceed to Havana, to help bring

86 The Unwritten History of
over the supply for this Garrison, which was to come
on the fleet from New Spain. Following his journey
and coasting along these Provinces, near the Cape of
Canaveral, on Sunday, the 13th of September, in the
morning, he discovered thirteen vessels, ten large ones
and three smaller ones. Believing it to be the Fleet, he
made signals and hoisted the flag, but as no answer
was returned he saw clearly that it was the enemy. At
the same time one of their three smaller vessels came
forward and gave him chase. The Frigate being small
went so near in shore that the vessel could not reach
it, seeing which they lowered two rowboats to chase
and attack the Frigate, each boat carrying twelve- sol-
diers and ten mariners. The Frigate resisted the
attack with arquebuises. The enemy not making any
headway, called for more aid, which was sent them
by two more larger launches with a hundred men. Cap-
tain Diego del Pozo finding himself in such a tight
place, and the pilot and soldiers thinking they would
stand a better chance on land, he decided to land. The
enemy followed close, he fought them step by step
until they came to a thick forest, when the enemy de-
cided to leave them. The skirmish lasted about two
hours. On returning to their launches the enemy first
stripped the Frigate of all they wanted and burned the
hull. When Captain Pozo saw that he would have to
abandon the ship, he threw the two pieces of artillery
he carried overboard. All this occurred about forty
leagues from this Garrison. In a few days I was noti-
fied of this misfortune and I sent a launch with in-
fantry to get the men from the Frigate. All arrived
safely without the loss of a single man. I had the
testimony taken and ascertained the truth and found

Old St. Augustine 87
that the Captain and his men were here and did their
duty faithfully. Further proof and truth was ascer-
tained a few days later from the soldiers I sent by
land to reconnoitre the coast where the Frigate was
lost-they brought word that the thirteen vessels
which had been sent to chase the Frigate were coasting
along slowly taking on water and wood. They had
disembarked and taken up lodging in the Indian huts,
the Indians fleeing with fear. Some, by gifts, had
been induced to return, others came to me for protec-
tion. Following this, I received further news that
three of the thirteen vessels were lost and the crew on
land. This proved not to be true-in going over the
Bar three launches were lost and a few of the men
drowned. Feeling it was not right to have the enemy
land on your Majesty's domain, where we are at pres-
ent safe and on friendly relations with the Indians, I
immediately gave orders and gathered a large force of
Indians and, with a hundred and fifty of our men, I
set out determined to find the enemy and thrust them
out. I appointed Captain Melchar Durante to take
command here during my absence, he being an old
man of much experience. I was continuing my pur-
suit of the enemy when I received news of their hav-
ing re-embarked and sailed off, so I returned sending
one of the Sergeants with a squad of twenty men to
the Bar, and that they might recover the three launches
if they were worth it. This they did promptly, re-
turning with two of the launches in fair condition, the
third they left as it was too badly injured to be of use.
They brought the same news of the enemy's proceed-
ings. On the 20th of said month a Frigate arrived. On
sending out to recognize her, we found it to be Span-

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