Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Title Page
 The Natives
 The Discovery
 The Navigator
 First English Invasion
 The Buccaneers
 Population and Slavery
 New Smyrna Colony
 The Patriots
 The U.S. Acquistion of Florida
 The Cuban Insurrection
 The Work of Plant, Flagler and...
 Meeting the Emergency Measure
 Appropriations and Western Florida...
 Port of Jacksonville
 Port of Tampa
 Port of Miami
 Port of West Palm Beach
 Port of St. Petersburg
 Port of St. Augustine
 Port of Sanford
 Port of Palatka
 Port of New Smyrna
 Port of Fort Myers
 Atlantic and Gulf Ports
 Western Florida Ports
 Florida East Coast Canal
 St. Johns River to Its Source
 Golden Belt Region and Canals
 Great Lakes Region and Canal

Title: Waterways of Florida illustrated
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/NF00000064/00001
 Material Information
Title: Waterways of Florida illustrated
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Read, Henry H.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: NF00000064
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of North Florida (UNF)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0500

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Title Page
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The Natives
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The Discovery
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The Navigator
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    First English Invasion
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The Buccaneers
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Population and Slavery
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    New Smyrna Colony
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    The Patriots
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    The U.S. Acquistion of Florida
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    The Cuban Insurrection
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The Work of Plant, Flagler and Others
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Meeting the Emergency Measure
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Appropriations and Western Florida of To-day -- Greater Florida
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Port of Jacksonville
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Port of Tampa
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    Port of Miami
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Port of West Palm Beach
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
    Port of St. Petersburg
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
    Port of St. Augustine
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Port of Sanford
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Port of Palatka
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Port of New Smyrna
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Port of Fort Myers
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Atlantic and Gulf Ports
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
    Western Florida Ports
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
    Florida East Coast Canal
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
    St. Johns River to Its Source
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
    Golden Belt Region and Canals
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Great Lakes Region and Canal
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
Full Text

STOqY of

n 4





THE above cut is from an old print, purchased by the author in
a curio shop in Siah Francisco (1918), marked Charleston, S. C.
The Frigate or Gun Boat, as seen through the left window, and
other craft, indicate a date of from 1770 to 1775. The, houses and
church spires show scenes at Battery Park, Charleston.
The paper that the British officer is holding is either the Georgia
Gazette (Savannah), or the Virginia Gazette and Independent
Chronicle (Richmond). The former was founded as a weekly in
1763 and the latter was established in 1736. The State Gazette, of
South Carolina (Charleston), was founded as a semi-weekly in 1777.
(The Read Press).


U, t;

Top, Senator Park Trammell (Lakeland); Center, Senior Senator Dun-
can U. Fletcher (Jacksonville), Congressman W. J. Sears (Kissimmee);
Left, Herbert J. Drane (Lakeland); Right, Frank Clark (Gainesville).
(The Read Press.)


i"L i
~- ~



State of Florida. It isn't for any one particular locality in
preference to any other certain region. If mention is made of
climate in connection with any one City, that does not mean
that the climate is not just as good in some other City in the
Florida as a whole, throughout its length and breadth, has
probably the best winter climate of any state in the entire
Federation, at any rate, the author believes it to be so, and
he has undertaken in the pages that follow, to-tell you by word
and by illustrations, what he has found, as a result of his
surveys in and out of the counties, during the .past two years.
He has tried to depict for your information, knowledge, and
entertainment, scenes exactly as he had found them, that is, to
his best knowledge and belief.
The write-ups following the illustrations could not have
been secured had it not been that those business men were
interested in their Ports, and in the State at large. In many
of these write-ups the history of the State is told in a digest.
The idea of the book must have attracted; if not, the write-ups
could not have been secured.
The Charts of the ports have. been made by the author
from his surveys and his descriptions and they are as near
accurate as could be turned out at the time the surveys were
The Four Epochs have been written and compiled by the
Author from observation, research and digest of a large number
of publications and old documents-some of the books mentioned
herein you will notice, were published in the Seventeenth
Century. The research of recent years, however, has uncovered
much that was formerly inaccessible and from which new light
is given you upon heretofore mysteries.
This book is dedicated by the author to the Captains of
Industry of the State of Florida, and to them he extends his
appreciation for all courtesies received at their hands. The sur-
veys of the many plants and the acquaintances made during
those surveys will continue to be a pleasant memory for years to
come. To those old friends, he herewith hails them with
To the Chambers of Commerce, Rotary Clubs, Kiwanis
Clubs and kindred organizations and associations, the thanks
of the author is given for the support that those bodies rendered
and the collective talks the author gave to these assemblages
will linger as a lasting pleasure in his memory. To the editors
of the newspapers- who have been kind enough to have given
notice of the work, he extends his thanks.
To you who may read this book, please allow me to say
that I love every inch of land and every acre of water in this
whole State. Compared with other territories through which
preambles have taken me, Florida stands out in my mind more
conspicuously, and I am sure that there are many travellers
who will agree with me in this statement.-The Author.



Epochs, Chapters and Captions.
Chapter FIRST EPOCH Page

Marine Bliss --............... .....- ........ ... ..----- ..- .. 1-
Five National Representatives .--...-.................... 2
I- The Natives .......... ------.................... ..............- 9
II-The Discovery ---------................................... 13
III-The Navigator .-...--.........................-......... 17
IV-First English Invasion ............................ 21
V-The War of "Jenkin's Ear" ........................... 23
VI-The Buccaneers ...................-......-..........-....-. 31
VII-Population and Slavery -.....--.....-............. 39


I-The New Smyrna Colony ..-....-....-............. ..- 43
II--The Patriots .................................................. 53
III-The U. S. Acquisition of Florida ................ 71

I-The Cuban Insurrection-Right-of-ways .... 85
II-The Work of Plant, Flagler and Others .... 92

I-Meeting the Emergency Measure ................ 102
II-Appropriation and Western Florida
of today-Greater Florida.............--....... 108
-Waterways Maps ............:....................... 117-118


One-Port of Jacksonville ............... -...........- 119
Two-Port of Tampa ..------.................................. 133
Three-Port of Miami .. -..--..-........................ 148
Four-Port of West Palm Beach ..................... 163
Five-Port of St. Petersburg .......................... 184
Six-Port of St. Augustine ....-..........................- 194
Seven-Port of Sanford .......---....-.........-.... 198
Eight-Port of Palatka ..................................- 203
Nine-Port of New Smyrna ..........-................ 206
Ten-Port of Fort Myers ................................ 211
Eleven-Atlantic and Gulf Ports
(From Fernandina to Pensacola) ............ 216
Twelve-Florida East Coast Canal .............. 235
Thirteen-St. Johns River to its Source ...... 241
Fourteen-Golden Belt Region and Canals .... 246
Fifteen-Great Lakes Region and Canal ...... 249
Inside Back Cover-Regional Map


STNCE THE EARLY PART of the Seventeenth Century
there have been scores of noted writers who have undertaken
to describe in prose, verse and by maps, the early history of
Florida. The names of those authors and many of their
writings, have appeared in the Snanish and French languages;
some of those manuscripts have been published in Madrid and
in other Spanish cities and in Paris and different parts of
France and in London, mostly appearing in book and pamnhlet
form; but there are today voluminous pages of unpublished
data which pages are filed in the archives of the Government
Institutions and in the academies of Spain and France: There
are also Spanish manuscripts held by the Historical Societies
in Tallahassee, St. Augustine, and Savannah.
Numbers of the diaries kent by the early discoverers and
the maps drawn by them, while living in Florida, were lost
through shipwrecks at sea. the sieges encountered and the
laying waste of their habitations by shot, shell and fire.
Therefore, most of the writings on this country were done years
afterwards and from memories of those events by the descend-
ants of the early explorers, or by historians or biographers.
During recent years there has sprung up a demand for
authentic information relative to landmarks and buildings of
colonial Florida. There were a few intelligent people living
in the older cities who met that demand and some of the
relics of ancient Florida were brought out from their old
resting places into the open and taken to those who had
sentiment and interest in historical research.
Among those interested was the late Hon. Chauncy M.
Depew. A part of his extensive collection may be seen at
Marion Castle, St. Augustine. The Historical Society of St.
Augustine have on exhibition in their rooms quite a number
of interesting Florida relics and there are scattered antiques
in Pensacola, Apalachicola and Tallahassee, but these latter
cities make no pretense of collections of any size.
The interest to know more of the history of some of the old
forts and buildings, became sufficiently keen a few years ago to
have caused several wealthy persons to make trips to Spain
for the purpose of employing Spanish Historians to do research
work, on old Spanish-American documents.
The research work carried on by the Savannah Historical
Society is for anything dealing with old Spanish-America to
which they feel they are a part of; many hidden relics and
evidences of early occupants have been uncovered and the
existence of some of these relics has awakened an interest, that
for many years -was dormant, in those living in these
parts. In fact, there has been entire disregard by many of the


inhabitantsin the old colonial localities of Florida of antiques.
It seems that by the utter destruction and waste that has been
going on that the majority of the people desired to obliterate
all evidence of the original settlers, thus tasting aside all
sentiment connected with a noted chapter in the great events
of the World.
The history of Florida up to the year 1850 was fraught with
much of the same hardships as endured by the
Pioneers in Virginia, New Jersey, and New England up to 1815
except the inconveniences of the rigorous winters encountered
in those Northern Colonies, and the fact that Florida was not
all the time under one or two flags.
Foreigners who invade a country for conquest must nec-
essarily encounter in physical combat the natives or settlers
of the country. Therefore the strategical points or places along
the coast, river and shores of America were usually the places
sought by the invaders for settlement.I From such settlements
the savages were driven through superior forces and more
modern arms to other points along those waterways or into
the interior.
The interest manifest in the resources of The State of Florida
is far-reaching. Inquiries have been made and .requests for
information about the Waterways of Florida and their develop-
ment have come to us from various States and from Europe; until
it was finally decided by the publishers to comply with these re--
quests and prepare up to date data and illustrations depicting the
Waterways, along the Coast, Rivers, Canals, and Lakes, as a
whole, throughout the State.
Note-Most of the firAt Epoch in this book is chronicled
from the records dealing with that part of Florida now known
as the Peninsula, extending from St. Augustine across to the
mouth of the Suwanee River, and the mainland from the St.
Mary's River (Fernandina) to the Perdido River (Pensacola)
(Florida, originally 1514, having embraced the country from
Canada to Mexico), St. Augustine to Key West is known as
the Peninsula and Fernandina to Apalachicola and Pensacola as
the continental part of the State.

The Waterways

of Florida


A Review of The Development of The Waterways
of Florida
Since The Spanish Possession

Written in Four Epochs and Chapter to Each Water-
way-Conditions at The Discovery-Improve-
ments in 1600-1700-1800-Development
in 1900 and The Present
Henry H. Read.


New York, Savannah, Ga.,
Jacksonville, Fla.
U. S. A.

On Sale at Book Stores and International News Stands



4. .


Copyrighted 1921 by

Henry H. Read.


First Epoch



PRIOR TO THE YEAR Sixteen Hundred, A. D., there
was an Ancient Indian village, located at Caparaca, on the
Rio d' Ays, North America. Here there lived a race of people
who were large of stature, many of them being nearly seven
feet in height. It is evident that this ancient Village was the
habitation of several thousand beings and that they were the
head, and that this place was the center of a large Nation.
The archaeologists who have studied the archaeology of
these people, state that from the skeletons unearthed in the
locality of Caparaca that their origin no doubt came from the
ancestors of Timucua and Yamasee of the Fifteenth Century.
However, it is already a settled fact they were large of stature
and that their skulls show a higher class of intellect than many
of the ancient skulls unearthed in other parts of North America.
This once ancient village of Caparaca on the Rio d' Ays is
where New Smyrna, on the North Indian River, Florida, now
stands. The boundary lines of these people extended from
what is now Ormond, to what is now Cape Canaveral, a dis-
tance of sixty-five miles, and embraced the interior country
to the St. John's River, a distance of from fifteen to twenty-four
miles. ,
In Sixteen Hundred the Village of Caparaca was the divid-
ing line of the Nocoroco and the Surruque tribes, the former
lived North to Ormond and the latter South to Cape Canaveral.
In Seventeen Hundred the Village of New Surruque on the east
bank of the Rio d'Ays was about five miles north of what is
now the Haulover and Old Surruque el Viego was about five
miles further north on the western bank.' It is evident that
the present New Smyrna during the lapse of a century, was
renamed from its ancient name of Caparaca to Surruque el
During the last of the Seventeenth and the first of the
Eighteenth Centuries, the Jororo Indians (a small tribe), inhab-
ited the country between Ormond and New Smyrna and the
St. John's. It is estimated that this tribe was a mixture of
the tribes thathad proceeded them in this region.
Shoreline evidences now existing along the North Indian
River from Mosquito Lagoon and the Haulover to Port Orange,
including Turtle Mound (on the Eastern banks of the river)
and other shell mounds on the western banks between Turtle
Mound and the Old Stone House just South of Strickland Bay
(Spruce Creek) establishes a belief that the stratus of oyster


shells, camp fire ashes, with decayed vegetation which occas-
ionally appears (sandwiched in every few feet) must have
been formed through lapse of time, possibly between extinct and
inextinct habitations on these shores, and the height of those
shell mounds (Turtle Mound being fifty feet, and some others
forty feet) must have covered over a period of several cen-
Out of those oyster shell mounds there have recently been
extracted skeletons in a perfectly preserved state, but after a
few minutes exposure to the air they disintegrate even to
the skull. Scientists state that the perfect condition of the
skeletons is caused from carbonic acids in the earth, produced
from the mixture of oyster shells and the action of filtered
water has caused this condition, rather than to have made
a hardening process and fossil strata; however, such is the fact
of disintegration. Some of the skeletons so unearthed had
skulls measuring over seven and a half inches, square jaws and
large foreheads, and some of the skeletons were seven feet In
The region, especially from Port Orange to Mosquito La-
goon, and particularly, in the district along the North Indian
River, from New Smyrna to Turtle Mound, was no doubt a
great Natural Oyster bed, and those aborigines must have been
great lovers of oysters. It is evident from the stratus that
camp fire ashes indicated the fires upon which the oysters were
roasted,,and too, they may have eaten them raw.
The implements uncovered are stone arrow heads and
large stone pieces the size of a small axe. The recent excava-
tions of these shell mounds (started some ten years ago) have
been slow in progress; the lack of time on the part of the
owners (being engaged in money making pursuits) has re-
tarded the work once begun. However, the owner of some land
adjoining a public house on the river front in the heart of the
town of New Smyrna, commenced, a few years ago, to clear
a piece of his property and in doing so, within three hundred
feet north of this old hotel, he encountered an old sunken shell
mound: It was known that there was a mound on this property,
but no one had ever been sufficiently interested to suggest an
excavation of it. After a removal of about twenty-five feet of the
shell there appeared evidence of a stone foundation and upon
going down to the level of the land within about two hundred
feet from the original mound, the stone foundation proved to
be quite extensive, covering an area of some two hundred feet
square. When the openings were partly dug out, the rock
compartments proved to be the foundation of an old Fort. These
foundations are about twenty-five feet above the land beyond a
radius of three hundred feet and are at a point in direct range
down the River to the mouth, at Mosquito Inlet.
It is a wonder to the author that a Committee has riot been
formed out of the present citizens of New Smyrna, to employ
workmen to dig away the shell of the mound that partly covers
a considerable portion of the remains of this old foundation. If
the compartments were removed of shell and the front masonry
work exposed, there might be some evidence shown to prove


when this fort foundation was laid down and built.
There is no record in New Smyrna that would lead to a
building date of this fortification, any more than that there is a.
record of the building of an old mission, the massive and exten-
sive walls of which are now standing in a jungle, within about
four miles west of the old fort.
It is stated that several wealthy women, interested in the
history of New Smyrna, have gone to Spain for the purpose of
employing'Spanish historians to work out the origin of this
Fort and that old Mission.
How a people living in an old community can so utterly
disregard the land marks of an ancient city, the same as the
people of New Smyrna have been want to do, is beyond the
comprehension of the author. Evidences on every hand indicate
the dismantling of old stone buildings. It is stated by recent
residents of this region that the stone once quarried for the
old Stone House at Strickland Creek, the date of which ante-
cedes any records held by people living in New Smyrna, was
taken out a few years ago and used for the foundation of a mod-
ern building, leaving nothing but a few blocks to indicate where
once stood an ancient building of great historical value.
What lies under the undisturbed shell mounds between
New Smyrna and Turtle Mound of course is a mystery, but it
is hoped that there will be sufficient interest among the intelli.
gent people now living in those parts to excavate those mounds,
excepting Turtle Mound, which should be, on account of its
ancient and historical value, preserved in its present condition.
In fact there should be a society formed for the purpose of
that preservation. This mound figures in all the History Charts
of Spain, France and England. Ancient drawings of it are
preserved on papyrus and there is scarcely a history of early
America that does not mention this Mound. Some of the older
writers call it "Turtle Mount" others have called it "The Rock
or Mount Tucker."
Such writers as William Roberts of England, "An Account
of the First Discovery of and Natural History of Florida,"
(London 1763) ; William Stork and John Bartram (Philadelphia
1796); John Hamilton Moore "The Rock or Mount Tucker",
(London, 1796); John Lee Williams, "The Territory of Florida"
(1837) and others have so depicted this mound.
There is no question in the author's mind, since reading
and digesting many books written on Florida and since his
personal survey of the waterways of the State, and especially
the coast line of this district from Cape Canaveral to the St.
John's River, but what there will one day be unfolded, proof
that will be used to prove that there was more of a permanent
settlement of Spaniards in the vicinity of New Smyrna, prior to
Sixteen Hundred, than the records now available show, and
that this record will be forthwith coming from the efforts now
being carried on in Spain. It is also his belief that much
data once held in St. Augustine was destroyed in an effort to
injure the future of New Smyrna. This destruction may have>
taken place when there was bitter feeling and rivalry between


the two cities in the early days of the pioneers. However,
there is no personal ill feeling existing in the City towards St.
Augustine, the object being simply a point to show why the
Spanish and French navigators did not enter the waters at
Surruque, at the junction of the 29th degree and the 81st degree,
before sailing further up the coast.
MADE BETWEEN THE 29th degree and the 30th degree and
seafarers will at once understand that the approach from sea
to the shores of this mighty peninsula was made from the
south and as the ancient marine records show, the Bahama
Islands were better known to those Spaniards then living in
the West Indies. Therefore, a Northwesterly course must have
been taken by them from those Bahama Islands to the 29th
degree and 81st degree and if so taken, such a course would
have brought them to Surruque Inlet and into the waters of
the Rio d' Ays at Caparaca, (now Mosquito Inlet) and the
Hillsboro, or North Indian River. At any rate, such a course
would have taken them within sight of the shore line and the
opening, and beyond question there were Indian camp fires
burning and possibly those aborigines were on the beach front
extending from Turtle Mound to the Inlet. There was, as the
water depth soundings of that period show, no reason, when
the draft of the vessel is considered, why they should not
have made that port. And it is not so clear from the records
of those navigators but what they did make this port at 29th
degree and 81st degree, since that was the course they recorded
as having taken. Mention is made of the latitude and longi-
tude and of parallels they were on.



JOHN CABOT (Giovanni Caboto), Italian navigator,
received his first patent March 5th, 1496, from- 11th Henry VII
of England, empowering him to "seek out, subdue and occupy
at their own charges, any regions which before had been un-
known to all Christians; also to set up the Royal Banner and
posess the territories discovered by them as the King's vassals;
also to engage with exclusive privilege of resort and trade."
Cabot has the credit in some countries of having
discovered Florida, but considerable confusion arises when
one comes to analyze the writings, maps and documents extant
upon the achievements credited to that illustrious man.
Sebastian Cabot (son of John, who was with his father on his
voyage) drew a map in 1547, which was engraved by Clement
Adams, in 1549. This map is known to have hung in Queen
Elizabeth's Gallery at Whitehall. The inscription read thus,
"In the Year of our Lord, 1497, John Cabot, a Venetian, and
his son Sebastian, discovered that country, which no one
before him had ventured to approach, on the 24th of June,
1497, about five o'clock in the morning. He called the land
Terra Primum Visa, because, as I conjecture, this was the
first place that first met his eye in looking from the sea. On
the contrary, that island which lies opposite the land he called
the Island of St. John, as I suppose, because, it was discovered
on the festival of St. John the Baptist."
On Sebastian Cabot's map of 1544, the original of which
is in the Geographical Cabinet of the Imperial Library at
Paris (see fac simile in Jomard's Monaments de la Geograph-
ic), nothing is designated above the Sixtieth (60th degree) par-
allel. Prima terra vista is delineated between the 45th degree
and 50th degree with the Island of St. Juan (corresponding
With Prince Edward) within the great Gulf, at the embouchure
of which is plainly the St. Lawrence. The authenticity of the
map being accepted, "the land first seen" could be no other than
the coast of Nova Scotia or Island of Cape Breton.
The second patent to John Cabot, dated February 3, 1498,
authorized him to go to the lands discovered and founded, by
him, but he died before embarking and his son, Sebastian,
sailed in command, with 300 men, for colonizing the newly
found regions. Sebastian's Log shows "that upon falling in
with the coast, ascended as high as latitude 67y degrees,
probably passing into 'Hudson Bay. Being unable (even in
July) to land his colonist on account of the intense cold, he
retraced his course, passing at Baccalaos to refit; and, after
examining the coast as far south as 38 degrees, returned to
England and recorded Eighteen Hundred miles of the sea
coast of North America. Sebastian Cabot was made Pilot
Major of-Spain and Grand Pilot of England was created for


The maps and discourses drawn and written by this
illustrious Pilot would if. in existence, have shed much light
upon a somewhat vague navigation. With the exception of a
map said to have been recovered in Germany and another
existing in France, no trace of his works remains. His memoir
by Richard Biddle, London and Philadelphia 1831, though
faulty in arrangement, is good reading:
Richard Hakluyt, Geographer (London 1553) wrote books
and pamphlets on North America, for the Governments of Great
Britain and France, which were published from 1553 to 1610.
While in Paris he had published "The Manuscript Journal of
Laudonniere" or "Historic Notable de la Florida", edited by M.
Bassanier (Paris 1586, 8 vols.). This was translated by Hak-
luyt and published in London under the title of "A Notable
Histrie" containing four voyages made by certayne French
Captaynes into Florida' (London 1587, 4 vols,). He also
translated the work of Francois Gualle on the Martyrs of the
New World, in which appears the first copper plate made of
As Florida took in all of that country north to Virginia
it is hard to designate the exact places where land was seen
unless recorded in degrees and parallels.
THE BAHAMA ISLANDS lay claim to the original name
Columbus gave to San Salvador, now known as Waiting Island
on the Atlantic side, October 12, 1492, when one of his sailors
(Rodrigo de Triana) on lookout on the "PINTA" sighted
land. Spain appropriated the Indian population of the
Bahamas for other Spanish colonies, which rendered these
islands deserted until the English settlement of New Providence
was started in 1629.
The Keys of Key West were no doubt sighted by Columbus
in his voyages through the West Indies and possibly the shores
off Biscayne Bay, and possibly those off Palm Beach, and
accredited to Cuba. There is no record of Columbus having
sailed in these waters to the 27th degree parallel.
PONCE DE LEON was a Spanish soldier, a general and
a Governor-Governor of Porto Rico. (Ponce, the largest of
these islands, is named after him.) He was with Columbus
on his second voyage to America in 1493, and in 1508 settled
at Porto Rico, where by 1510 he had conquered the Islands
and became rich through his conquest. He was succeeded as
Governor of Porto Rico by Diego Columbus, in 1512. He
fitted out an expedition for the Bahama Islands, at Porto Rico
and on March 3, 1513, he set sail for those Islands off the
coast of Florida.
The property owners of the Bahama Islands and those
of the vicinity of St. Augustine, for some years have made use
of a mythical story known as "The Fountain of Perpetual
Youth" a mineral water legend, that Ponce de Leon was
influenced to make the voyage from Porto Rico to the Bahamas
through descriptions made by Indians, or others, (living in


Porto Rico) of a spring, the waters of which contained wonder-
ful curative powers for those who bathe and drink thereof.
This legend no doubt got credence through some source, but
there is nothing substantial on record to prove such an asser-
tion, nor is there a foundation for the condition of Governor
de Leon's ill health, to such a degree as to, influence him to
make that voyage from Porto- Rico to the Bahamas, on the
reports of men, regarding a certain spring of water. The
voyage no doubt was made in the search of conquest and
riches from the lands (see Henry Harris' "Discovery North
America," (London 1892), and Windsor's "Narrative and Critic-
al History of America,' Vol. 2 (New York 1886.)
On March 27, 1513,-land was sighted and the 26th degree
parallel was reached. Probably the Bahama Islands were
touched, and a landing might have been made in the vicinity
of New Providence, or possibly what is now Southwest Point,
or at Settlement Point (Little Bahama Bank). However, the
western course of the upper gulf stream was no doubt taken-
the same course as vessels going from Cuba to the Bahamas
navigate in today, but the 29th degree parallel and 81st degree
was the course which took the vessel above Cape Canaveral.
On April 6th land was sighted north of Cape Canaveral (the
beach due east of Turtle Mound). This sighting was the dis-
covery of Florida. On April 8th, Easter Sunday, Ponce de
Leon landed near the mouth south of the St. John's River,
naming the country (Pascua Florida), and took possession of
the domain.
For thirty days until May 7th, he explored the coast--
probably as far south as Cape Canaveral, and on May 8th,
after two unsuccessful encounters with the Indians, he set
sail and cruised south in the Gulf Stream-the same course
used by vessels to-day, passing off of Jupiter Inlet, and close in
along the shores of Palm Beach, to Hillsboro Inlet and then
rounding Key West, made up the western coast to Tampa
Bay, Apalachicola Bay and thence to Pensacola Bay. He
then returned to the Florida Keys and crossed to Cuba. Then
he sailed again to the Bahamas, where he was on July 25th,
and for thirty days thereafter he cruised among the Bahamas.
He cleared and sailed for Porto Rico, reaching there September
12th, 1513.
From Porto Rico, Ponce de Leon sailed for Spain, where
he secured permission to conquer and colonize the land of his
discovery, Florida. He returned to Porto Rico and was engaged
in defending the Island against the Garibs from Guadeloupe,
who were making war upon it.
In 1521, with 200 men and two vessels, he sailed again
for Florida and made for Charlotte Harbor, where he landed
his men and prepared to establish a settlement. Here his
colony was set upon by the Indians, and to such a degree that
it was decided, after Ponce de Leon had been wounded in the
knee, to set sail and abandon the attempt. A storm separated
his vessels, one being driven to Vera Cruz (when the men
disembarked.) Cortez was then making conquest of Mexico.


Ponce de Leon, dangerously wounded and aboard his
vessel, was driven towards the Isle of Pines, and from there it
was decided to sail to Porto Rico, but Ponce de Leon died
before arriving there.
THE WATERWAYS OF FLORIDA during the Sixteenth
Century, were only known to the Creek tribe: of Indians, who
no doubt had explored the entire Peninsula and the back
country from the St. Mary's to Apalachicola River and beyond.
The Coast rivers, creeks and lakes were used by those
aborigines to float their canoes and flat bottom boats, but
mostly the rivers, bays and lakes were navigated, like the
waters of other parts of- America. They were not a people
prone to deep sea sailing, or the building of docks and ware-
The Red Man of early Florida was kept busy hunting
and fishing for home consumption, and in this occupation the
canoe was used to transport the game and fish. Where small
peninsulas occurred and the opposite shore was desired, if
there was not a river or creek to float upon, then in that case,
the canoes were portaged across. The squaws tilled the land
for the crops, and the older men roamed the forest for roots
and herbs.
The American Indian was a part of the wilderness to which
he belonged. It was not natural for him to live in .thickly
settled villages. In fact the village was simply his haven of
rest. It is true that sonie of the tribes traded with each other.
but only in a limited way.
Upon the coming of the white man to the shores of
America, the Indian became a trader, but that trading was
carried on mostly at their own wigwams, and as a rule the
Red man was taken advantage of in those trades. For a few
worthless trinkets the Indian would give costly furs.and expens-
ive raw material, and it seems it was the object of all white
men at the start, to take advantage of him.
The savages of Florida, according to the accounts of
early white discoverers of this region, were a peaceful people;
encounters in combat did not occur at the beginning of the
white, man's encroach upon the lands inhabited by those natives.
It was not until the Indians realized that the coming of the
white man was for the purpose of settling upon costly abiding
places, and their own inability to cope with the Pale Face in
trade and constructive farming and shipping, that these savages
Took to the wdr path. It was a fight on their part to repel
invasion and protect their wigwams and their villages and
their lands-the lands they sold for trinkets were at once used
for fortresses. These savages realized their inferiority to the
white man and knew that the forts being built by them were
for the purposes of war when they were ready to kill and take
their lands without bargain or barter.




operator who made vovages into the South Atlantic ocean prior
to the year 1600 (Pnd for that matter many years after-
wards), was Jean Ribault. a Frenchman born in Diepne,
France. He had studied the construction of floating craft,
the rigpinr and navigation, from boyhood, and had been to sea
from off the French coast.
Admiral Coligny, a leader of the Huguenots, formed' an
association among those beoDle for the purpose of colonization,
and America was selected for the first colony. In casting about
for a skillful and reliable Captain to take command of that
'sailing expedition the Admiral selected Captain Jean Ribault.
as the most capable' navigator obtainable. Two vessels of the
Portugal design (Caravel type) were secured (or built for
this expedition). They were of about 150 tons burden, with
three masts, with lateen rigging on the main mast and square
rigging on the fore and mizzen mast and high poop and fore-
castle. Cannons were mounted fore and aft. These vessels
were wide of beam, the holds were about 10 feet deep and
they drew about 9 to 12 feet of water. The same as in use
during those days.
Captain Ribault arrived off Cape Fear River in September.
1562, and after leaving his colonists at what is now Beaufort.
S. C., he set sail and explored the Florida Coast as far south as
Key West, Cuba and the Bahamas, and then made the voyage
back to France. His skill in, handling a vessel is of some note
and no doubt had he not been an able seaman and navigator.
he could not have eluded the Spaniards who pursued him in his
explorations between the 29th degree and 30th degree parallels
at a later day.
The Kingdom of Spain, upon learning of the operations
of the French and their desire to establish French Huguenots
upon their discoveries and domains in the new world, organized
a religious expedition, with the determination to colonize
and spread their faith among the Indians and establish the
Catholic church as the future faith of Florida.
St. Augustine, in 1565, was the headquarters of a small
settlement of Creek Indians, who were since de Leon's visit,
upon friendly terms with the Spaniards and since de Leon had
described to King Phillip II the advantages of this locality as
a location for a permanent colony, the King decided that St.
Augustine should be the name of the new settlement.
Pedro Menendez, a courtier to the King, was, on account
of his knowledge of navigation, placed in command of the
expedition. Menendez was instructed to exterminate all Hug-
uenots and all white men not Catholics. This expedition con-
sisted of thirty-four vessels of the caravel type, well stocked
with arms, ammunitions and provisions. Two thousand and
six hundred men and women and children, twenty-six priests


and monks were included in the ship's list. The expenditures
amounted to over two million dollars.
The fleet entered the harbor of St. Augustine on the 28th
of August, 1565. The Indian town was at once deserted;
the first permanent settlement in the name of the Spanish
crown was established, and the place was so named and declared;
work was at once commenced on buildings, a city wall and a fort.
From 1562 to 1564, France had gone through Civil Wars.
However, Rene de Laudonniere, representing the Huguenots
and the French, had landed at Fort Carolina on the St. John's
River, with Huguenots during 1564, and established a colony
there. (The colony at Beaufort, S. C. having been abandoned.)
Captain Ribault, while detained in France on account of
the Civil wars, in 1563, in London was commissioned to write
on Florida, and there was published and translated from his
pen a book entitled "The Whole and True Discoveries of Terra
Florida." Admiral Coligny determined upon a permanent Hug-
uenot Colony in Florida and fitted out another expedition which
consisted of seven vessels and about six hundred Huguenots
embarked to join Laudonnier's settlement at the St. John's
River. This fleet of ships was in command of the famous
Captain Ribault, who was designated by Admiral Coligny
(after completing the voyage) to take command of the colony.
The French fleet arrived at the mouth of the St. John's
August 30, 1565, two days after the arrival of the Spanish
fleet commanded by Menendez.
The Spanish were already looking for Laudonniere for
the purpose of exterminating the Huguenots and all protest-
ants, as per their instructions from their King, and were cruising
up the coast with fifteen vessels of their fleet. They encount-
ered Captain Ribault and gave hin battle, and had it not been
for the superior navigating skill of Ribault, a sea battle would
no doubt have taken place, but Ribault was able to elude
and out sail the Spaniards, and so escaped to the Southward
and laid off Surruque Inlet.
Menendez landed a force at the St. John's River and
attacked Laudonniere and his one hundred Huguenots, com-
pletely exterminating them. On September 3rd, a hurricane
drove Captain Ribault's fleet on to the shores above Surruque
Inlet, completely wrecking his vessels. Most of his force gained
land and after the storm, proceeded to walk up the beach toward
what is now Matanzas Inlet. Here they were prevented going
much further, and it was at this point that Menendez, with a
large force, attacked them from land and defeated them. The
prisoners were all put to death, including Captain Ribault.
Spain through her right 'of discovery, conquest of the
Indians and settlement, felt that she could not be encroached
upon by other governments. It was an easy matter to hold her
West Indian possessions (excepting the Bahamas, as was later
proved), but when it came to France attempting to settle oh
de Leon's territory, she retaliated. Fortunately for Spain,
however, France was in civil war and had not that been the
case no doubt France would have made war on Spain for the


The building of St. Augustine was continually carried on.
Before six months had elapsed Menendez had Fort Juan de
Pinos completed (this fort was built where Fort Marion now
stands) and the town was prospering, but as experienced in the
history of all colonies of America, the Indian would not become
Christianized and the encroaching upon their lands by the
white man (whom they were suspicious of for conquest) was
naturally resisted. Therefore, St. Augustine, within the first
year was at war with the Creek tribe, which war lasted for
more than a hundred years.
The honor of France was at stake as the result of this
massacre, so in 1567 one Dominique de Gourgues organzied a
battalion of two hundred loyal Frenchmen for the purpose of a
voyage to Florida and a battle with Menendez.
'The expedition consisted of three vessels commanded by
Gourgues. They set sail and arrived off Matanzas Inlet (where
the massacre had taken place) in August 1567, and camped
there. During the two years intervening since the settlement
of St. Augustine, the Indians had sworn vengeance upon the
Spaniards. Therefore de Gourgues was able to treat with
them and finally arranged for a large number to be attached to
his forces. After the third day of his arrival he attacked, by
night, the fortifications about St. Augustine and was successful
in capturing the outer forts and then Fort San Mateo. AU
of the defenders of the forts, some three hundred, were put
to death.
The City of St. Augustine was too thickly populated in its
centre for an attack with the force the French and Indians con-
sisted of, so de Gourgues returned with his men to the ships
and after their thanksgiving for the revenge, set sail for France.
St. Augustine had hopes of establishing a port and carrying on
trading with Spain. The lands were cultivated to some degree
and crops were raised. Progress, however, was slow. The
Indians harassed the colony, so in 1567 Menendez sailed for
Spain for reinforcements and supplies. He arrived in St.
Augustine in the summer of 1568 to find his colony demoralized,
in hunger and without sufficient clothing. The coming of de
Gourgues with the Indians had not only wrecked his forts,
but cast gloom upon the past hopes and ambitions of the people.
Order was, however, restored and the City continued to struggle
along until 1585, when it was destroyed and its population
Probably the first Fort, Docks and Warhouses built in
Florida-were constructed on the shores of St. Augustine by the
Spanish settlers under the administration of Menendez, who
represented the Crown of Spain. The first stone house was built
in the fall of 1565, (oldest stone house in America) and was occu-
pied by the monks up to 1590. The depletion of St. Augustine
in the wars that were carried on against this port, reduced this



town several times to a barren waste, so there is but scant
history upon the early improvements for the convenience of
berthing vessels. No doubt most of the early embarkation and
the discharging and loading of cargoes was done over the ship's
side onto flat bottomed boats, in mid stream.
The records of the trading carried on by the Spanish is
scant as compared with the chronicles given to English early
commerce. However, we find that improvements in the cuts
were undertaken and that rough jetties were thrown up at
St. Augustine, Pensacola, Fernandina and the docks and ware-
houses were built for the convenience of shipping.
DON TRISTIAN DE LUNA, a Spanish navigator, entered
Pensacola Bay in 1559, and at Santa Marie (at which point
Fort Barrancas now stands), established a settlement of
Spaniards, but the settlement was of short duration. The
geographical location of Florida was unknown to Menendez and
to de Luna, and it was not until after Sir Francis Drake
burned St. Augustine in 1586, that communication had been
gained overland to Apalachicola Bay and the exact location
of the Peninsula was established.
The first trading with a vessel in Florida waters was
carried on by Diego Miruelo, a Spanish navigator of Cuba, in
1516. The ports of the West Coast as far as Pensacola were
visited by him and various European trinkets were traded
with the Indians for gold and wampum.
This expedition spread the news in Cuba, of gold and riches
on the Apalachee River. Panfilo de Narvaez, a colonizer, landed
with a force of men in what is now Tampa Bay, April 15,
1528, (fifteen years after de Leon landed there) and on May
25th, 1539, Hernando de Soto landed in Tampa Bay (near where
Narvaez landed) and he remained there until his march began to
Apalachee Bay, two months later.



FLORIDA, FROM THE YEARS Sixteen Hundred to Seven-
teen Hundred, was spare of colonization and development. The
savages having gained an upper hand over the colonists, started
out the first of the century by massacring the missionaries.
The Indian villages of Talomato and Topquini, back of St.
Augustine and the village of Timiquis near New Smyrna, were,
however, subdued and the missionaries continued to arrive at
St. Augustine. In 1605 Pedro de Yabarra was' Governor.
Between 1600 and 1638 there was a population in St. Augustine
of about 300. Missions were built in the outlying districts-
some of -them were large and imposing and housed as many as
fifty priests and monks. An old bell cast in Spain during this
period is now in St. Augustine. The largest outlying mission
built during this period was that large mission about four miles
West of what is now New Smyrna, some of the walls of
which mission are. now standing.
The missionaries were quite successful in Christianizing
the Indians and for nearly forty years they kept at this work
of spiritual endeavor upon the barbarian. A 'catechism was
prepared in the language of the Timiquis Tribe. (Probably
the old fort at New Smyrna was built when that large mission
was erected there, also probably (he old fort at Matanzas Inlet
was built at the same time, and there must have been at least
one hundred priests, monks and other white people living near
the village of Timiquis between 1600 and 1638.)
Fernandina, named after Ferdinand, was settled by the
Spanish in 1632, under the supervision of the Governor at St.
Augustine, and so continued to be governed during the remainder
of that Century. There was some development along the River
and at Amelia Island from that date up to 1700. The deep
water in the ports of Pensacola, Tampa Bay and Fernandina
attracted to a considerable degree the ambitions of .Spaniards
towards future commerce with Spain.
The progress of Apalachicola during the century was of
purely Indian development. A large trading base had been
established there which was kept going by the operations
along the river into the Northern country.
At Pensacola Don Adres d' Arriola settled with a body of
men in 1696 Fort San Carlos, and some buildings were erected.
The Apalachicola Indians came across the Peninsula in
1638 and attacked St. Augustine, but the fortifications having
been rebuilt, the- defenders were able to repulse their attack
and take a large number of them prisoners. These prisoners
and their descendants were held in bondage, and it was this
Indian labor that quarried the rock on the eastern shores of
Matanzas River at Anastasia Island, three miles below the town,
and built San Marco Castle (now known as Fort Marion) on five
acres of land. The work on this fort started in 1665 and was
finished in 1756 (ninety-one years later). Built of Coquina


Pock (hard shell rock) much of it is in perfect preservation,
stands today as one of the greatest achievements of the Six-
teenth Century,. of any country.
The sea wall along the river front of St. Augustine was
started by Governor Diego de Quiorzay Dosada, in 1690.
From a commercial point of view, other than the forts
from the mouth of the St. John's to New Smyrna and the sea
wall at St. Augustine, there was but little money expended
during the century on the Peninsula of Florida. It is estimated
that on the forts and sea wall there was expended about $500,-
000 in gold during that period.
The development of the English colonies started at James-
town, Virginia, Plymouth, Salem and Boston, and the Dutch
colonies on the Hudson were engrossing the minds of those
in the old world and this rush of Europeans to the Northern
settlements overshadowed the meager efforts of Spanish agrres-
sion on Florida to such a degree as to retard Spanish coloniza-
tion on the mainland of a country which was destined to be
held by Great Britain and her descendants.
of Florida was the outcome of the strained conditions which
existed between Spain and England. King Phillip was mar-
shaling his forces on both sea and land for the invasion of
English soil. Queen Elizabeth, through her Admirals and
Generals, was determined to thwart King Phillip's designs.
She therefore sent to sea some of her best ships commanded
by her most skillful officers. Among these fighting
sea dogs was Sir Francis Drake, in command of a fleet ot
twenty-one ships. He at once sailed into the Spanish main,
where he plundered-and burned many villages. From Spanish
waters he entered the South Atlantic, and on May 28th, 1586,
he attacked that part of the settlement of St. Augustine located
on Anastasia Island. He then opened fire on Fort San Juan de
Pinus, on. the main land, capturing it with Spanish treasures.
He then burned the town.
The rebuilding of St. Augustine was commenced in 1593
by twelve missionaries of the order of St. Francis, which has
already been referred to.
The approximate amounts of money spent by the govern-
ment and individuals of Spain and France upon fortifications,
deepening of harbors, docks and warehouses at St. Augustine,
the St. John's and at Pensacola, from 1564 to 1600, is estimated
at about $600,000.00 gold.
The commerce of Florida, with Spain and France, con-
sisting of all exports by those countries to Florida, amounted
to approximately six million dollars in gold.
During 1676 the Spanish attacked Fort Royal and
destroyed many of the plantations and captured some of their



with the English colonies of the New World in a flourishing
state of commercial activities. The power of Spanish rule and
government on the main land was fast waning, the tempera-
ment of the colonists was being tried out, the English held
the upper hand-they proved to be more sturdy and applied
themselves more diligently to the development of the land and
to the centralization of trading stations than the Spanish were
wont to do. Therefore, like all things attempted in this world,
it became a case of the survival of the fittest. Systematic
endeavors beget power and power ruled in those days with an
iron hand. The dawn and the raising of the Black Flag had
appeared upon the horizon of the Western seas. Piracy
followed in the wake of prosperous commercialism in and out
of a new world. The seas were broad and the many Islands
and Keys along the unpopulated shores offered safe refuge
and hiding places for those outlaw vessels beginning to cruise
from the Eastern Coast of South America, the Caribbean Sea
and to the North Atlantic. The Island of Tortuga was their
lair and the captains cast their lots with their half breed com-
panions. They were mostly English and French and their
prey was chiefly Spanish treasure vessels, vessels that moved
among the West Indies, the Gulf of Mexico and South America.
The Spanish colonies in the West Indies were becoming as
prosperous as the Northern British colonies. The climatic
conditions and the environments seemed to be suited to the
life, customs and habits of those people. The main land above
the archipelago was not a natural home for them and daringg
this period they were beginning to realize it.
At the beginning of this Century the first port raid carried
on by the buccaneers above the 29th degree parallel was laid
at the Fort of St Augustine. Captain John Davis. with a fleet
of seven vessels, anchored off Anastasia Island, moved across
the river and set out to sack this Spanish settlement. The
fort had only about 200 men, who fled with the women and
children to the woods, at the approach of the pirates. As the
town was poor, Captain Davis found but little booty. The Fort
was too well built to dismantle, so he set fire to the buildings
and sailed down the coast.
The town of St. Augustine was again started to be rebuilt.
It seemed that this port was destined to pass through all vicissi-
tudes and not to perish. Gasparilla Island in Charlotte Harbor,
was beginning to take on pirate life. There was a lair started at
what is now Gullivan's Bay and another one at Key West.
The French were colonizing in the Mississippi River region
and Louisiana and Mississippi were under their control. Pensa-
cola under Spanish rule, was as much detested by the French
of Louisiana as was Fernandina and St. Augustine despised by
the British-piracy seemed to have been born into these parts


for the purpose of exterminating the Spaniard. Governor de
Bienville of Louisiana on May 14, 1719, despatched a force to
Pensacola for the. purpose of taking that port and the
Spaniards. He attacked with a fleet of 'vessels and with
Indians from the interior by land; Matamoris, in command of
the Fcrt, was taken prisoner, together with the entire inhabi-
tants. The French then sailed to Cuba and were there over-
powered and taken prisoners.
Sixty days afterwards the Spanish recaptured Pensacola.
De B;enville organized another force and after attacking the
port from the rear, captured it, destroyed the fort and then
burnt it. In 1722, when peace between Spain and France was
declared, Pensacola was restored to the Spanish.
The Fernandina and St. John's settlements were extending
their operations inland and plantations were laid out. Shipping
was moving into Fernandina and into the river south of the
port. Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia were commencing to
suffer at the hands of Indian and Spanish slave snatchers.
Piracy was gaining a foothold on Amelia and Anastasia Islands
-frontier and border life showed where the dividing line was
Governor Moore of South Carolina, to revenge the attack
upon his people by the Spanish in 1676, organized a force by
land and by water to attack St. Augustine, and in 1702 he
attacked the Fort. Although he was not successful in destroying
it, he burned the town ( thus St. Augustine suffered her third
complete wipe out by fire) and retired north.
Spain came to the aid of St. Augustine through Cuba, in
the rehabilitation, but only in a meager way (Havana had
long been the port that St. Augustine drew upon for supplies).
It was evident that Spain intended to hold on to Florida and
her sovereigns must have believed it possible to have retained
their possessions and even extended them on the mainland. Had
they understood the geography of the "main land" (north) as
well as the English now knew it, it is doubtful if they would
have continued to resist the invasion of the British, but that
Knowledge on their part did not E(is.t.
With the development of Georgia the Spanish colonies on
the South were a thorn in the side of her statesmen. Repeated
invasions of the Spanish upon the Islands north of the St.
Mary's and the confiscation of their slaves angered those sturdy
Britishers to a state beyond endurance. Finally in 1727,
Colonel Palmer of South Carolina, gathered a force of about
three hundred men and some Indians and proceeded to cross the
St. John's, but he met the same obstacle that his predecessors
met-an impregnable fortification in Fort San Marco. However
he did some damage to the outlying districts.
Georgia, through the development of Savannah, was fast
becoming a colony of importance, and consisted of a class of
highly educated and refined men and women. South Carolina,
the older and larger colony, had not been successful in attacking
the Spaniards of Florida, therefore, they decided to take a hand
in the matter.


Governor Oglethorpe, a' powerful soldier and statesman,
began to make preparations for a campaign of some magnitude
against Florida. Monterno was then Governor at St. Augustine
and learning of Governor Oglethorpe's intentions, also began
to prepare for resistance upon a larger scale than heretofore
undertaken. Havana was communicated with and reinforce-
ments from there were arranged to help the resistance of the
The work on San Mazco had since 1665 been going steadily
ahead. There had been no let up in the operations as first
started towards the completion of the Fort. The Indians
had been regularly employed upon the' fortress and the
completion of it seemed not only the very life of the Spaniards,
but their pride was at stake. They knew that they were
building the greatest fortification of those days-it was their
personal vanity that was being touched-it would be completed
-in fact it was by this time more than three quarters finished.
The massive blocks of stone being transported from the quar-
ries down the river to the fortress was a sight that had become
a part of their daily life. (Note: This fort was then and is
now in the heart on the city).
So the'scows came and went and so the muscular Indians
labored and toiled in lifting and setting in place 'these shells of
nature's welding (the greatest resistance to shot and shell in
masonry of any'fort ever built up to that time). The quarries
were inexhaustible, the hands were those of hundreds, and so
they toiled' on in rythmical operations;' made so by years of
practice, until it was a part of those Indians-a second nature
as it were, for them to do the work just so, and so on, day in
and day out, month in and month out; year after year from
decade to decade, and it had been thus for over seventy-five
There is an awe, a something inspiring in a great
massive fortification set'by the sea. The strength and the
power of it begets patriotism (all' things that are strong and
massive are admired). So wonderful must this Fort have
seemed to those Britishers who were determined to destroy it
that it musthave produced a pride in them to have been able
to combat so powerful an adversary.
The location is most admirable,' situated on a point of land
jutting out into the River and Bay, overlooking the entrance
to the Harbor, the North and Matanzas Rivers and Anastasia
Island; 100 feet above the water and covering two acres of
land, gives some idea of the extent of it all. '
The Spaniards of Fernandina Were preparing additional
defense to further fortify and protect that port, realizing that
provided Governor Oglethorpe moved a force south, that they
would attack them. St. Augustine was aiding the town in this
During 1738 Governor Oglethorpe, through his powerful
influence in England, was able to obtain a volunteer regiment
of 600 men from London, and four frigates of twenty cannon
each, to sail for America and to be placed under his command


for this expedition.
The Spaniards of St. Augustine had felt that their power
ii the old world had assumed that of Conquerors and, there-
fore they were wont to practice barbarities in America, and
some of those atrocities upon the English which became noted
was cutting off the ears of Robert Jenkins, an English sea
captain. The description of this act of barbarism caused
much indignation among the British and aided Governor Ogle-
thorpe in his preparation. In fact the expedition then being
formed in London for America was termed the War of "Jen-
kin's Ear", and the war between Great Britain and Spain.
South Carolina also came to the standard of Oglethorpe,
with Colonel Palmer in charge of the Carolinians. In May,
1740, all preparations were concluded. General Oglethorpe
ordered the ships and the troops in motion. There were 2000
militia and Indians. The attackonAmelia Island was repulsed and
then they advanced across the St. Johns River and against St.
Augustine. Governor Monterno's forces with his reenforce-
ments from Cuba, consisted of about Eighteen hundred men.
Breast works had been thrown up around the City at Anas-
tasia Island and at the North River. Fort Moosa, three miles
north of the City, had been strengthened. Precautions had
been taken in case of a siege and Fort Marco was stocked
with provisions and supplies, including live cattle and other
animals. The Fort Indians were put undei arms.
On the 28th of May the British ships arrived off Anastasia
Island and on June first Oglethorpe's army reached Fort Moosa,
which they captured leaving Col. Palmer in charge with 130
men. From the British vessels off Anastasia Island five bat-
teries were taken (one the Ponza battery of four 18 pounders
and one nine pounder) and foundations were built and these
batteries laid down; also batteries were wrecked at Matanzas
Inlet eighteen miles below.
Oglethorpe's army crossed the river south of St. Augustine
and encamped on Anastasia and on June 20 the batteries
opened fire on Fort San Marco and the inhabitants of the town
took refuge in the Fort.
A small detachment from Havana arrived and some supply
runners, and finding the Matanzas Inlet fortified, they turned
back and entered Surruque Inlet 62 miles below, and this inlet
was thereafter used during this siege for Spanish supplies.
On June 25th about 300 Spaniards attacked Colonel Palmer
at Fort Moosa, killing the Colonel and fifty of his men.
There were over two thousand Spanish men, women and
children in Fort. San Marco during the siege; more than 150
shells fell upon the Fort from Oglethorpe's batteries, but they
did little damage to the fortification. Charges were made
against the town, but the combatants retired to the Fort and
attacks against that resulted in slaughter. Oglethorpe finally
decided that the Fort was impregnable and therefore laid plans
to starve the Spaniards out. A seige was then laid which
lasted about 30 days, during which time sickness broke out
among his men which rendered many of them incapable of


endurance. Being unsuccessful in his attempts to capture the
fort,' he burned the town and abandoned the siege.
Three years later Governor Monterno, with about 3000
men and a fleet of thirty-six vessels attacked Georgia and
Carolina. He was defeated, sustaining heavy losses in killed
and wounded and leaving many prisoners, retired to St. Augus-
Thus ended the "Jenkins' Ear" War and comparative peace
prevailed as far as the British were concerned for nearly
twenty years. There was, however, Indian warfare being
continually waged against the Spaniards from within Florida.
During 1715 the French built a fort at St. Joseph's Bay and
in 1718 the Spaniards erected a Fort at St. Marks. These ports
and Apalachicola were the scenes of considerable French, Span-
ish, and Indian warfare.
Maria Theresa assumed the government of Spain in 1740
and the war of the Austrian succession broke out, England tak-
ing the part of Austria.
During 1586 El Morro and La Punta castles were started
at Havana, just eightly-six years after the City was discovered
by Sebastian de Ocampo, seventy-one years since Diego de
Velasquez founded the port. The City was sacked and burned
by pirates in. 1538; another band of buccaneers plundered it
in 1555. It was Spain's chief naval station and headquarters
for all Spanish colonial possessions in the West Indies in 1556.
The Black Flag men sacked it again in 1563. Sir Francis
Drake, 1585 (just after he had captured large booty from
Spanish treasures) attempted the capture of the port, but was
unsuccessful. During 1633 a wall surrounding the City was
The British in 1762 took Morro Castle by assault and
captured the City, remaining there in control until the latter
part of 1763, thus completely shutting off supplies to the
Spanish West India possessions, including St. Augustine.
Fort San Marco had been completed since 1756; the city
had grown to considerable proportions. Spanish gaity had at
last commenced to reign; the labors on the Fort (the great
object of the inhabitants) had ceased; life and the future looked
The event of the war cast a gloom upon those bright hopes
so recently taken on and the people (so accustomed for more
than a hundred years to vicissitudes, fell back again into their
dread and fear, but the spirit and the prid as of old was not
now conquered.) In fact it seemed that te Spanish of old
St. Augustine loved their Fort, their plaza, their rivers and
Anastasia Island more because of what they had bled and
suffered. It was home to them by right of discovery and
development; by inheritance from their fathers. They cher-
ished every nook and corner of it and they would continue to
fight and if necessary, die in the protection of their homes and
what they had constructed.
But when Morro Castle fell (their base of supplies cut off)
and the onrush of the doggered and determined British which


was sure to follow, they wept with grief and a sadness fell over
them in a great pall; the dark clouds were again hovering
around them. It seemed there was no peace for the cavaliers of
old Spain.
,With the war on and Oglethorpe a retired general living
in England, he threw his influence upon the government to seize
the opportunity of completing her boundaries in America and
by so doing get rid of a troublesome neighbor. The signing of
the treaty between England and Spain which was ratified
on February 10, 1763, ceded Florida to Great Britain and gave
Cuba back to Spanish domination.
Cuba now being the only hope for the Spaniards living
north of the twenty-fourth parallel in the Western Hemisphere,
there was an exodus of Spaniards from all of that country
lying north of it and so the greatest sorrow of all was to be
inflicted upon the defenders of St. Augustine. They could not
live there and swear allegiance to England. Therefore they
prepared to leave for Cuba and Mexico. Nearly every man,
woman and child in Florida got ready to go, but with the
grief of parting with their lands, there came over these people
a feeling a resentment and before, going they demolished as
much of their buildings and personal property as was possible
for them to accomplish. However, for those living in St.
Augustine, they could not, any more than their enemies, destroy
what had taken nearly a century to build, SAN MARCO
CASTLE. When leaving, their regrets at parting from that
powerful protector, always their refuge in the hour of peril,
was the most pronounced of all.
Wherein the.Spaniards had not materially developed the
outlying districts between the St. Mary's and the Perdido, nor
down the Peninsula, they had been largely prevented from
doing so by the continued invasion of the French, the English
and the Indians. Those nationalities from Europe had been
able to handle more successfully the most of the Indians, their
gifts to them and their bounties were greater than those
of the Spaniards. In place of teaching those aborigines religion
for the soul through the priesthood, the Frenchman and the
Englishman fed them with eatables and strong drink-it was
a case of one feeding the brain and the other replenishing the
Had the Spanish been able to carry on with as free a
hand as they were able to do in the West Indies, they no doubt
would have succeeded in developing Florida's agricultural and
commercial possiVlities with -the same degree of success they
achieved in those Islands and likewise their successful opera-
tions carried on in South America.
The Spaniards during the early days of colonization,
were the most powerful commercial traders upon the high seas.
Many of their ports were most substantially built-they had the
largest tonnage in ships, but as remarked before, the sun rays
south of the twenty-fifth parallel seemed better adapted to their
customs and habits,,particularly so in the Western Hemisphere.
To the British on the East coast (South Atlantic) and to
the English and French on the West Coast (Gulf of Mexico),


the passing out of the Spanish was hailed with great delight.
The English rule seemed a blessing. Liberal land grants
through the British Parliament kept the colonists satisfied. Soil
experts were sent from England and from Philadelphia to test
the fertility of the lands, among them John Bartram, botanist,
to His Majesty George III. Men from Pennsylvania, Delaware,
Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia came South
and crossed the St. Mary's and the St. John's to view the
country that the Spaniards had dominated for so many years.
Upon the passing out of the Spanish from Fernandina, that
Port came into prominence over night and there was a rush
to domicile there. The eagerness to secure Florida lands
brought plantation owners from South Carolina and Georgia
and many of those men found some of their slaves that had
been snatched from them during the Spanish raids across the
rivers from Florida into those states.
Pensacola already removed from Santa Rosa Island to the
North shores of the Bay, was made the capital of West Florida.
Population commenced to move in-likewise there were activi-
ties started at Apalachicola and St. Mark's.
During the next eight years from 1763 to 1770, the country
South of the St. Mary's'to New Smyrna and from Fernandina
to Pensacola was a scene of great activities. Plantations were
started, negroes were transported from South Carolina and
from Georgia and there was a small settlement of Germans
located where the ancient village of Tolomato was located. Plan-
tations extended along the St. John's River for thirty miles or
more. Florida was born anew and for the first time since its
discovery the sturdy white pioneer was engaged in the task of
clearing away the lands for the extensive and commercial
cultivation of money crops.
In eight years the export trade to and from the ports of
St. Augustine, Fernandina and Pensacola amounted to more
tons and money value than did the entire export of the
Spaniards since the opening of the century.
From St. Augustine alone the exports in 1768 amounted
to 14,078 pounds sterling and increased to 48,236 pounds sterl-
ing. During the year 1770 fifty schooners and several square
rigged vessels from St. Augustine were in trade with London
and Liverpool. Fifty thousand pounds of indigo were
exported in 1772, bringing the highest price in the London
It is estimated that from 1700 to 1770 the improvements
upon the ports and waterways of Fernandina, St. Augustine,
Pensacola, Apalachicola and St. Marks amounted to (including
the forts) $10,000,000 and that the imports reached $20,000,-
000 and the total exports were about 100,000 pounds sterling
(exports mostly from 1763 to 1770.) But now that Florida
had started to come into real being, there were elements of
dissention brewing in the English colonies of the North; Adams
Jefferson and Franklin were leaning their heads together for a
psychological moment to occur.
Note-In 1641 Spain expelled the British from the Bahama


Islands. In 1680 Charles II granted the Islands to English
noblemen and in the early part of the Eighteenth Century New
Providence (Balamas) was raided by French, also Spanish
forces, and again deserted until 1718, when another British
settlement was established. In 1776 Commodore Hopkins
captured Fort Montague in the name of the American Republic,
and in 1782 the Governor of Cuba captured the Islands and in
1783 Colonel Devereaux (British) was in possession.





seventeen hundred and seventy, came the fatal moment for
England, in the Northern provinces of North America. Taxing
the colonists without representation in Parliament had become
one of the rules of Great Britain. That, the majority of the
Americans would no longer stand for. Therefore, in order to
show the displeasure of the Massachusetts Bay population, an
Act of the power of the people was carried out in the formation
of what was known as "The Boston Tea Party" (December 16th,
1773) and the boarding of a British vessel by force, at the
docks, in Boston Harbor, and the party throwing into the water
350 chests of tea, causing the closing of the Port of Boston.
While dissensions were running rife in the Northern col-
onies, Florida was developing the resources denied by the
Spanish. The people of South Carolina and Georgia had long
since been weary of dissension and strife with the Spanish
and the warfare with the Indians. There was a desire for
peace, plenty and happiness. None of the acts imposed upon
the colonies of the North affected them to any material degree.
The British Crown had been liberal in the grants of Florida
lands and the feeling among the people South of Port Royal
was loyalty to England and for what the Mother Country had
but recently done for them.
The tinges of a revolution were beginning to be felt and
with dissension there always comes a letting down of moral
standards, that is, as far as. man's commercial cares go; so
there sprung up at this time a new crop of renegades and
desperadoes, to augment the free bootleggers that had been
roaming the seas in and out of the Gulf of Mexico, the South
Atlantic and the Caribbean, since 1590.
The extent of the riches of the Spaniards gained from the de-
velopment of the lands and in trade and transported by vessels
to Europe, was not fully known to the European merchants
until that intrepid Captain Richard Hawkins (the English-
naval hero who was knighted in 1603 and made Vice Admiral
under Sir Robert Mausell in 1620) made it known in 1508 in
his early exploits with his uncle, William Hawkins, in the West
Indies, and in the naval battle in 1582 against the Invincible
Armada (1588) he showed great daring. In 1593 he com-
manded the Queen's Ship "Swallow", and later with three
vessels, started on a voyage around the world, (the account of
which was published in book form in London in 1600) and for
the purpose of preying upon Spaniards, explorations and discov-
ery. His cruises however, were confined to the East Coast
of South America. He passed through the Straights of Ma-
gellan, captured and plundered Valparaiso, was later attacked
in the Bay of San Mateo, by Don Baltram de Castro; defeated,
he was cast into prison in Lima, and transferred to Spain,
where he was released and returned to England. '


Connected with the early exploits of Captain Richard
Hawkins, was a Captain Francis Drake, a young sea rover, who
had been engaged in the coastwise trade of England, and whose
dauntless spirit held him in good stead throughout one of the
most remarkable careers undertaken by a seafarer.
During 1570 Captain Drake undertook a voyage to the
West Indies for the purpose of revenge upon the Spaniards for
destroying Captain Hawkins' squadron, and to prey upon
Spain's vessels in the Spanish Main. In 1572 he was in com-
nand of three ships and seventy fighting seamen; captured the
Spanish town of Nombre de Dios on the Isthmus of Panama.
taking large stores and treasures; pursued and overhauled a
Spanish galleon in'the harbor of Cartagena and burned the
town of Porto Bello. In an expedition he explored the Isthmus
of Panama and crossed it. He sailed for England laden with
the richest spoils, arriving in Plymouth August 9th, 1573.
Queen Elizabeth sanctioned a more extended expedition
with this hero in command and in which Sir Walter Raleigh
was interested. In December, 1577, 'a squadron comprising
Captairi Drake's own vessel, the "Pelican", 100 tons, the "Eliza-
beth", 80 tons, and three smaller ships, set sail, bound for the
Spanish main. The Captain took a course for South America,
entered the Rio de la Plata and then passed, through the
Straights of Magellan, where he encountered a gale and lost one
ship with all on board. The "Elizabeth" put back for England.
The "Pelican" was renamed the "Golden Hind", and alone
continued the voyage. The Spanish ports on the coast of -Chili
and Peru were entered and sacked and a treasure ship was
captured. He' again returned to Plymouth, with the holds of
his vessel stored with rich plunder. Queen Elizabeth visited
the Captain aboard his ship and there knighted him "Her Bold
Commander." I
Sir Francis Drake served as Mayor of Plymouth from
1581 to 1585. During this period the West Indies were becom-
ing prosperous, the lands were being cultivated by the Span-
iards with negro slaves. The fertility of, the soil produced
great crops, and the exportation of raw materials and the
importation of finished products to and from Spain and Portu-
gal were being carried on, "along extensive commercial lines.
In 1586 Sir Francis Drake was commissioned in charge of
a fleet of 21 vessels which were fitted out for an extended
plundering expedition to the New World. After a most suc-
cessful voyage in overhauling Spanish vessels on the high seas,
coast wise and in ports, throughout the West Indies, he sailed
from Cuba to the Bahamas, thence up the Coast to St. Augus-
tine, and after attacking that port and- plundering it, he pro-
ceeded to Virginia and loaded one of the first cargoes of tobacco
to be taken to England, where he shoved off for in the late fall
of 1586,
Spain, annoyed and harassed by the extensive exploits
of the English free-booters and the loss of so many ships,
destruction of ports and the confiscation of treasures, com-
menced to prepare for war on England and therefore, was


fitting out a fleet in Cadiz and filling the ships with ammuni-
tion and stores, for the purpose of the invasion of England-
some ten thousand tons of shipping all told. England learning
of Spain's intent, dispatched Sir Francis Drake, with a superior
fleet to seize and destroy this Spanish Armada.
In the Spring of 1587 this English fleet entered the port
of Cadiz, took the Spanish by surprise, captured their ships and
loaded on board their cargoes. Drake then destroyed the road-
stead and fortifications and returned to Plymouth, where he was
received with much enthusiasm on the part of the English for
his continued successful raids and particularly for the success
of his last naval engagement.
Spain not yet daunted, determined to carry out her intent
to attack the British, formed another Aramada and proceeded
to England to give battle.
Admiral Lord Howard was preparing in defense of the
invasion with Sir Frances Drake, now made a Vice Admiral.
The English fleet put to sea and overhauled the Spanish Armada,
giving them battle and completely defeating them.
In 1589 Rear Admiral Drake and Sir John Norveys sailed
from Plymouth with a squadron, for the coast of Spain and
Portugal, the purpose was to completely destroy all intentions
on the part of Spain for Spanish aggression towards England,
and after attacking the shipping and the fortifications and car-
rying destruction before them and taking large amounts of
valuable stores, they were satisfied that they had fully per-
formed that duty, but as events later proved, the Spanish did
not know complete defeat at the hands of the British.
During 1595 the Spanish in the West Indies were carrying
on extensive preparations for attack or defense. Porto Rico
played a conspicuous part in these preparations. England,
learning of them, sailed with a fleet to attack them and gave
them battle. The engagement took place off Porto Rico, but
this time the English were not successful, they were repulsed.
Sir Francis Drake died off Porto BeIlo January 28th, 1596,
and with his passing outtie British lost one of the most in-
trepid officers their navy ever possessed; but with his going
there were other great sea rovers to take his place, as history
records during those times, when they called for action on the
part of shipping, and all capable navigators were needed for the
The Spanish ideas of trade with reference to the semi-
tropics and the tropics were'better adapted towards the ulti-
mate goals of success than were those methods adopted by
other Governments, as it has been proved in the pages of
maritime literature. They were then past masters in the
S export and import business.
THOSE WHO EMIGRATE to an undeveloped country,
must necessarily expect to encounter hardships and dangers
in that country. Blazing the trail into the fastnesses of a
strange and savage land cannot expect to be carried on
without wounds to the body and disturbing mental anguish,
and when the way has been found, it takes years to establish
the institutions that will demand laws in order to protect


those institutions. So, during the making, while everything is
wild and wooly, there is always an element eagerly watching
and waiting to jump upon "easy prey" who are unprotected by
established laws.
A kidnapped Welchman, a mere boy, shanghied from Bristol
and put aboard a ship and sold as a servant, after a time
found himself in Barbados, from whence he worked his way to
Jamaica. This happened in 1640 and twenty-three years later,
1663, this man is seen in command of a ship, a privateer of his
own-CAPTAIN HENRY MORGAN. In 1666 he was Captain
in Edward Mansfield's squadron and was with him in the
capture of Santa Cataline, and when Mansfield died, Morgan
was chosen Admiral of the Buccaneers.
Lieutenant Governor Modyford, of Jamaica, became in
control of Admiral Morgan and sent him to Cuba and along
that coast he carried on a line of effective attacks in capturing
and plundering the ports. He took and sacked Puerto Principle
and then sailed to Puerto Bello, Panama, "which he captured
after a brilliant exploit". He then sailed for Jamaica with his
booty. The Cuban coast was then attacked again and a second
defeat was administered the Spanish in those waters.
In January 1669, with a fleet of eight vessels, he set out
on his famous expedition against Maracaibo, which he took
after a desperate battle, but which was followed with the
arrival of a Spanish fleet of three ships of war. He surrend-
ered but in doing so, got his ships ready to sail and then per-
sonally attacked the person of the Spanish Commander, over-
powered him and escaped. Returning to Jamaica, Modyford
had him commissioned Commander in Chief of all the ships
of war of Jamaica.
In August 1670, he again ravaged the shores of Cuba and
the mainland coast, sailing as far North as the 26th parallel.
In January 1671, he voyaged through the Caribbean Sea in
quest of Panama, where the richest stores of the Spaniards in
Spanish America were held; he fought that stronghold and
captured it and held it until February, when he shoved off for
Jamaica with his booty.
Captain Morgan's attack on Panama was made after peace
had been arranged between England and Spain and therefore
he was taken from Jamaica to England on a British Frigate
for reprimand; but he took with him sufficient gold from his
riches to secure vindication, and even more, for he was
knighted in December 1674, and, returned to Jamaica with
Lord Vahghan, who was made Governor of Jamaica, and Sir
Henry succeeded Modyford as Lieutenant Governor, and was
made Commander in Chief of his Majesty's forces in the col-
ony, later acting as Governor of Jamaica.
COLUMBUS, in the name of all that was Portugese and
Spanish, discovered the entire archipelago of the West Indies,
and the Spanish at once took possession of their newly acquired
territory -and fought and bled in their battles with the natives
of those Islands, just the same as they did in their contest
to maintain their rightful footing in Florida.


So we go on in that struggle for racial supremacy in
the Western Hemisphere.
With the retirement of Captain Morgan (whose laurels
were gained along much the same lines as was applied by
Captain Drake) there came into being several other notorious
buckaneers who preyed upon the shipping in the West Indies,
Central and South America, but there are probably none who
gained more fame and honor than Hawkins, Drake and Morgan
were able to achieve.
THE ADVENTURES of the noted navigator Captain
William Kidd, in the West Indies during 1690, were highly prais-
ed by the British, and under the reign of William III he was giv-
en command of a commissioned vessel and was noted for his
bravery. During the French Wars he was appointed by the
Earl of Belmont (Governor of the Province-of New York) to
assist in suppressing piracy, and received two commissions
from the king, one as a privateer against the French, and the
other a roving commission to pursue and capture pirates wher-
ever he might find them. He sailed from Plymouth, England,
April 1696, in a galley named "The Adventurer," carrying 30
guns and a picked crew of eighty men. After arriving in
New York he increased his crew to one hundred and fifty
five men and then put to sea. Captain Kidd's cruising led him
into the waters of Maderia, St. Jago, Madagascar, Malbar.
etc. He gave and took battle with and from Moorish, Portu-
gese and Armenians.
His exploits in Delaware Bay and along the coast of
Connecticut and Massachusetts, proclaimed him a pirate. He
was not able to shake off his reputation, and so he was con-
sequently captured and sent to England, where he was found
guilty, condemned and hanged, (on Execution Dock, in London
May 23, 1701) with several of his companions. Much of his
buried treasures were later uncovered at Gardiners Island off
Montauk Point, Long Island and at Block Island off Connecticut.
Thus passed out one skillful mariner of those days of
sea-rovers, who was unable to protect himself at the finale-
while in his wake, there sailed upon the seas a man more skillful
as a navigator, but more gentle in spirit, whom the people
would have felt sorry to know of his capture and to say the
least, would have been shocked at the news of his end by the
hand of a hangman-CAPTAIN JEAN LAFITTE, a native
born Frenchman, first commissioned by the French Government
as a privateer and then by Cartagena. After roving the sea
for a time and being successful in his adventures, Lafitte,
taking on his ship his brother, Pierre, hoisted the Skull and
Cross Bones, and with that black flag they proved a terror
to the shipping in the Gulf of Mexico.
The Islands in Barrataria Bay, near the mouth of the
S Mississippi River were the headquarters of these Lafitte
Brothers, and about them they organized a band of the most
daring sailors and boot-leggers of their time. Besides prey-
ing upon merchantmen in the waters of San Jose to Key
West, they were in the slave trade and had their lairs at Char-


lotte Harbor, Gullivan's Bay and in the rivers of Western
After a number of years of piracy in the Gulf, Jean
Lafitte opened a trading station in New Orleans and was
engaged in selling smuggled goods in that City, which he was
able, through his great personality, to do.
In later years his stronghold at Barataria Bay was
attacked by Commodore Patterson for the purpose of breaking
up the band, and resulted in a battle between Lafitte and his
men. After this encounter Pierre Lafitte escaped and took up
his headquarters at Galveston, Texas. Jean Lafitte remained
in New Orleans for a time and then returned to Barataria
Bay where the British sought his services for their navy,
which he refused to give.
With Lafitte there was a pirate, Gasparilla, who escaped
the raid of Commodore Patterson and moved his base to Char-
lotte Harbor and operated from there and in the haunts occu-
pied by Lafitte. It is said that in this vicinity of Charlotte
Harbor this pirate held captive many women, taken from ships
plundered by this band.
land and Wales, came those intrepid sailors who navigated the
ocean and revelled in a sea fight, and the last of the
NOTABLES to be mentioned in this book is CAPTAIN JOHN
PAUL JONES, of Kirkcudbrightshire, Scotland, who was ap-
prenticed when twelve years old to a merchant of Whitehaven,
a prominent exporter and importer, to and from North
Captain Jones' brother was a Virginia planter and it was
to that colony, through the export and import trade, that he
finally went, where he remained for some time. Later he be-
came first mate on a slave vessel plying between Jamaica and
Virginia ports; after a time he left the slave vessel at Jamaica
and shipped as second mate aboard a brigantine bound for
Scotland. Sickness broke out en voyage, resulting in the death
of the Captain and the first mate. He took the vessel safely to
Port, and for his abilities the owners made him Captain of the
His first voyage as master of a vessel was from Scotland
to the West Indies, and in that trade he accumulated a fortune
for himself. Upon the death of his brother, he inherited the
Virginia plantation and went there to live. While in the trade
with the West Indies, he was many times in the port of Havana
and knew the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, from Panama to
Cuba. It is probable that he visited Fernandina. The fol-
lowing pages have further dealings with his career.
WHILE GREAT EVENTS were moving rapidly forward
during that constructive period, the tide of feeling for the
Mother Country was fast shaping the standard to be borne in
the days to follow. Toryism and Whigism hAd already been
born. Judging between the two, the Spanish (owing to 'the
conflicts which had taken place) as a whole, were inclined
to take the part of the Tories, that is, as far as their sentiments


went; while the majority of the planters in Florida (South
of the St. Mary's) were Tories, and those planters were pre-
paring to make a demonstration of their feelings. The years
that followed proved that the open stand of the Tories in St.
Augustine impeded further progress of Florida to a degree
that probably was not fully overcome for over fifty years.
of conversation among the English traders from Florida to
Virginia and beyond to New York and Boston. James Ham-
ilton, a Scotch trader of St. Vincent, had given to the world
a son through his mother, a French Huguenot, ALEXANDER
HAMILTON, born on the Island of St. Vincent, and after a
brief period of schooling, was, at twelve years of age, placed
in the counting department of an Export and Import firm at
Christiansted, the Island of St. Croix, where he remained
until the age of sixteen. For liis services in notifying the
Islanders of an approaching hurricane, he was awarded by
his employers with money for an education and was sent to
New York; he was schooled at Elizabethtown, N. J., and
then entered King's College (now Columbia University). While
in college he wrote a pamphlet which brought him a chance
to deliver a public address, and through that address he gained
recognition from the people.
He was in command of a College Artillery Company, when
General Green recognized his military skill and decided to
make him his protege. The subsequent events linked with those
of John Paul Jones, had, no doubt a bearing (through their
knowledge of the West Indies and the Spaniards) upon the
future development of Florida as the following events will dis-
The progress of the South, the Virginia and South Caro-
lina cavaliers, the wealth of Virginia tobacco planters and
the continued advancement of Florida, attrActed an intelligent
and chivalrous people to these parts, who were much envied
for their affluence by some of those people in northern colonies.
Aaron Burr, while on trial for treason in Richmond, Vir-
ginia (the result of his operations in Kentucky, the Mississippi
Valley and Mexico, at the Island of Blennerhasset, in the Ohio,
near Parkersburg, W. Virginia, and at Herman Blennerhassett's
plantation near Port Gibson, Mississippi) was defended by
Henry Clay, and through the efforts of his beautiful daughter,
Theodosa (then the wife of Joseph Alston, a wealthy South
Carolina planter, and Governor of the State) he was acquitted,
after which he went to England, Sweden, Germany and France,
in quest of money to advance his Mexican scheme. Failing in
those endeavors, he returned to New York and resumed the
practice of law, a lonely disheartened man, he commenced to
call for his daughter.
Theodosia (Burr) Alston, desirous of visiting her father,
embarked from Charleston on the pilot boat "Patriot" for New
SYork. It is stated that the pilot "Patriot" ran into a storm
S off the Virginia capes and was lost, but there is no record
of the fate of the "Patriot"; and it is also stated that the


ship was captured by a pirate vessel and that Theodosia was
compelled to walk the plank to a watery grave; it is also stated
that Theodosia might have been one of the women captives of
Gasparilla in their lairs along the shores of Gulf of Mexico.
On one of the Islands in the Gulf it is stated that one Gasparilla
had as many as 20 women captured from various vessels, some
of them being of fine European families. Her fate is, however,
unknown, and other than a possible medium towards her
father's acquital, the life of this lady was but a passing in
connecting the threads of this narrative, so we turn to a
chapter dealing with the colonization on Florida.


BY HEREDITARY INSTINCTS, the Southerner and the
Englishman are friends. That same "instinct" may be applied to
the Northern revolutionist and the Frenchman. The popula-
tion of Englishmen and Americans of Southern blood in Span-
ish Florida in 1770 was small as compared with Georgia, for
that original state had during that year (according to colonial
documents, later prepared by the United States in their first
census of 1790) thirty-three thousand people., In 1766, eigh-
teen thousand inhabitants, in 1760 nine thousand people and
in 1752 five thousand inhabitants, as compared with South
SCarolina same year one hundred and seventy-five thousand
people; 105,000, 66,000 people; in 1720, 20,828; in 1714, 16,300;
in 1708, 9,500 and in 1682, 2,200 population. The total popula-
tion of the two States in 1775 is estimated at about two hun-
dred and fifty thousand people. Of that number Georgia had
fifty thousand inhabitants. This included the negro popula-
ion which was during the above year 23,000, 15,000, 8,000,
3,000, 10.000; S. C., 110.000; 70,000; 39,000; 11,000; 10,000;
5,500 and 600. Of the 250,000 inhabitants in 1775, one hun-
dred and twenty-five thousand were negroes. There were
more negroes than whites in South Carolina in 1775. And
above ninety per cent. of the population of Georgia were blacks
during that year. The estimated total population in North
Carolina in 1700 was 5,000 people and the estimate given for
Virginia by years is in 1616, 351 people; 1620, 2400; 1628,
3000. Virginia took a census in 1635 and had 5,119 (The State
did not show another complete local census until 1782). In
1640, 7642; 1648, 15,000; in 1659, 30,000; 1689, 60,000; 1700,
100,000; in 1754, 284,000; in 1772, 475,000 and in.1775 five
hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants are recorded. Two
hundred and twelve thousand of this population were negroes
. over 16 years of age (there were probably 325,000 negroes in
Sthe State). In 1610 Virginia contained all of the white popu-
lation North of Spanish Florida; two hundred and ten people
were recorded. In 1620 that State had 2,400, as stated above.
During 1620 Massachusetts recorded ninety-nine people. In
1630 there were -1,300 people in Massachusetts; four hundred
in Maine belonging to Massachusetts; 500 in New York and
S500 in New Hampshire. Of the 2200 people who came with
Governor Endicott to Salem (Massachusetts Bay Colony) 900
went to Maine and New Hampshire. Maryland in 1775 had a
population of 200,000 people, 82,000 of which were negroes.
Pennsylvania in the same year had 302,000 population, and
Delaware 30,000 people; New Jersey (same year) 130,000 of
which 10,500 were black; New York 190,000; Connecticut
105,000, of which 3,019 were negroes; Rhode Island 58,000,
S30,000 negroes. The population of Massachusetts 289,000; New
Hampshire 55,000 and Maine 48,000; Vermont 49,000.
The planters of Virginia in 1619 conceived the idea of import-


ing African negroes to do their work on theplantationsandconse-
quently arranged with Dutch traders and during that year
twenty African negroes were purchased and brought to James-
town. At that time the sale of African negroes, who had been
captured in their wild state, or purchased, was sanctioned by the
leading European Governments. The large colonization to
America offered a lucrative field for slave traders if the negro
proved satisfactory on the Virginia plantations. The twenty
taken to Virginia proved to be the kind of labor that was
needed and in view of that fact negro labor was recommended
to the colonists emigrating to these shores and each colony es-
tablished in America adopted the slave in bondage, excepting
Georgia. When. General Oglethorpe, organized that colony, reso-
lutions were passed ih Georgia prohibiting slavery, but the es-
tablished customs of all other colonies in America caused
Georgia to later legalize slavery. During 1750 negro slavery
was recognized by law in every North American colony. When
the Declaration of Independence was signed, the British pos-
sessions had all passed local enactments protecting slave pro-
perty and providing special codes and tribunals for slaves.
The recognition of "free negroes" was however thought
of and there were negroes occasionally freed by their owners.
States also freed them for special services performed for the
public good, but there is no record of the aggregate number of
slaves manumitted up to 1775. Some estimates have been
given, but there is nothing to establish the authenticity of those
estimates except where the States executed those papers of
freedom. The best authority upon the subject is J. C. Carey,
author of the book on "Slave Trade." He estimates (in con-
junction with colonial figures) that there were 333,000 slaves
in the American colonies in 1808 and that there were over
30,000 prior to 1715, but W. S. Rossiter in his book claims that
the Government records show that there were at least 400,000 ne-
gro slaves in America in 1808 and probably 50,000 negroes in
1715. The free negro possessed under the Laws, property rights;
and some manumitted negroes after acquiring land, became slave
owners themselves, by purchasing of their former masters
members of their families whom they held in place of freeing.
However, there are cases where they freed members of their
family so purchased. The complete story of negro slavery is
exceedingly interesting, as it was carried on in the North and
in the South; the feelings of jealousy in one planter owning
more slaves than his neighbor in both sections of the Country,
became more acute, specially so, as the wealth of the land piled
up in the coffers of the people. Religious people'and tradesmen,
not religious, were often at variance with each other upon the
subject of negro slavery. .
The ravages of war diverted the minds of people from
their business so, during the Revolution, while the youths of
the land were under arms (Vermont was the only one of the
original states that did not possess ocean frontage), a movement
was started by some of the old people to abolish slavery. The
State of Vermont was the first to take action along these lines


and in their Declaration of Rights (1777) declared for the
freedom of all persons at the age of maturity and in 1780
that State abolished slavery outright and in 1783 Massachusetts
and New Hampshire followed the suit of Vermont. The eman-
cipation graduating scale, prohibiting slavery was passed by
the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1780. Connecticut and Rhode
Island followed the acts of Massachusetts and New Hampshire
in 1784.
Resulting from the activities of the Quakers of Pennsyl-
vania (1688) in conjunction with the Puritans of Massachu-
setts, (which those bodies continually kept up regarding
slavery), the Pennsylvania Legislature during 1712 passed
prohibitive duties upon the importation of slaves into Penn-
sylvania. The passage of that law caused a stir among the
British merchants and even to the Crown (the slave trade was
a source of revenue to English commerce) to a degree suffi-
cient to cause complaints and objections from the British Gov-
ernment on account of legislative action in the Colonies, and
when the British Government sent her Governors to South Caro-
lina in 1756 and 1761, they were instructed to prevent the
enactment of any law imposing any duty on the importation
of negroes. However, the legislative measures prohibiting the
slave trade enacted by all New England and Middle States in
1778 were passed by Virginia and Maryland in 1798 and sim-
ilar action was taken by every other state, although the trade
was afterwards revived in South Carolina.
It was the legislation which had been going on in all of
the colonies that influenced the Continental Congress held in
Philadelphia in 1774, to abolish slavery with plans of the aboli-
tion of the traffic on the first day of 1808, when it was declared
illegal to so trade, and referred to the slavery going on in all
the colonies, except Vermont with the figures enumerating
them in census returns. For instance the census ordered taken
by Massachusetts in 1754 stated the first census of the "negro
slaves, both male and female, 16 years old and upward." This
census was finished in 1755. The estimate of a census in
1735 includes 2,600 negroes and the census of 1755 included
from 4,000 to 5,000 (the North had started to dispose of
their slaves). The result of the census of Rhode Island,
finished in 1774, showed that one person in every nine was
either a negro or an Indian. Connecticut's census of 1761,
which was 146,520 gives 3,109 negroes and 617 Indians. The
population reported in the census taken in New Jersey (1745)
gives a total of 61,383 of which 4606 were slaves, and a sub-
sequent enumeration in. 1754 includes 5500 blacks. The esti-
mates of Pennsylvania in 1719 and 1748 and 1761 included
11,000, 36,000 and 49,675 blacks recorded. The first completed
census was taken by the United States in 1790, shows a total
of 3,893,635. Of this number there were reported 3,199,355
white people and 694,280 slaves. Northwest territory 35,691,
of which 32,297 were white people and 3,417 were slaves.
The total wealth of the United States in 1790 (on the
basis of standard values of 1908) was estimated by Mr. Rossi-


ter at $1,000,000,000. The total valuation of real and personal
property in the slave holding States was $2,000,000,000. The
value of the slaves formed 43.5 per cent. or $828,336,000 and
$451,809,600 in added areas, $170,000,000 in vessels and $20,-
000,000 in factories; and during that period it was estimated
that, there were 7,195,521 engaged in agricultural pursuits
and 3,949,262 employed in the American Merchant and Mer-
cantile Marine pursuits, and 3,237 engaged in the cod fishing
industry, chiefly in Marblehead and Gloucester. There were
22,000 shipbuilders engaged in construction in Maine, chiefly
at Bath, and 5,354,698 engaged in manufacturing and mechan-
ical pursuits and 783,180 employed in professional service;
2,689,133 engaged in domestic and personal service. (Note-
This list does not include 42,370 students and cadets and 119,-
459 free colored males.)
The exports and imports of the United States for the year
ending September 30th, 1790, were $20,000,000. Exports to
the value of $6,888,978.00 were shipped to Great Britain and
Ireland and $2,077,775.50 to the British West Indies and
$3,284,656 to the French West Indies. The tonnage entered
Savannah during that year was 10,634; the exports from Sa-
vannah were mostly tar, pitch, turpentine, lumber and cotton.
The tonnage of the United States, over seas vessels in
trade during the year 1790 was 457,468 and the tonnage of
the United States coastwise vessels was 169,852-more than
one-half of the exports and imports to and from Europe; the
British and French West Indies were shipped in American
bottoms. The total over seas ship tonnage being 726,561 and the
total coast wise ship tonnage was 183,599, which was mostly
British, after subtracting the American vessels.
The power of the Indian in and about Georgia is told when
their population was given by the United States Government in
1'.90. Those figures estimate the Creek nation at twenty-two
thousand, 11,000 on the Apalachicola and its two branches,
the Chattahoochee and the Flint, and 11,000 on the upper waters
of the Alabama river and 3,000 Cherokees living in Northern
Georgia and Tennessee. That population (diminished since
1770), combined with the negroes (which was 23,000) gave an
estimated population of over 50,000, while there were but
28,000 white men in Georgia at that time.
Living under those conditions, with a tribe of Indians ruled
by a half breed, whose power over this nation of red skins had
taught them to work their lands and to possess cattle, horses
and a few negro slaves, had awakened in them the value of land
ownership. He also taught them the use and the manual of
arms and to defend their property to the last ditch.

(End of First Epoch).


E Second Epoch


THE ESTABLISHMENT of the ports of Fernandina, St.
Augustine, Pensacola, Apalachicola and St. Marks, Florida,
from the Spanish exodus in 1762 up to the time of the begin-
ning of the Revolution, 1775, (thirteen years) was largely
influenced by the Tories. These ports were border ports and
S therefore they were on the frontier. Laws were not made for
their administration, so they became a haven for the free
traders, the land grabbers and the outlaws.
The English Parliament (through the influence of South
Carolina and Georgia planters, and books written by Bartram,
Romans and others, depicted the advantages of the soil, climate,
etc. of Florida) after the land grants had been fully distributed,
voted a bounty of Five Hundred pounds a year for raising
silk, cotton and indigo in East Florida. The British press
expounded the great opportunities that this section offered the
S people of England for colonization, until the name of Florida
was a household word throughout the British Isles.
This burst of new born enthusiasm on the part of Parlia-
ment and the press, attracted wider attention than the limits of
the Islands, and among those to become interested was Dr.
Andrew Turnbull, a Scotchman, formerly a successful practic-
ing physician in London, a man who had also lived in the Medit-
erranean countries and who had married the daughter of a
Greek merchant of Smyrna. Dr. Turnbull, at the time of the
Florida flouting, was living in London, and being a wealthy man
was moving in the society of a well to do class of merchants.
Dr. Turnbull at once began to study the land and climate
of Florida and finally decided that the conditions prevail-
ing in East Florida as regards climate, would no doubt
attract a large number of the Greeks from Asia Minor. (Note
S -In which the Doctor made a mistake, for like the Spanish,
below the 25th parallel would have been better as a whole for
those people). They were a people who were then suffering
under the yoke and heavy burdens imposed upon them by
Turkey, who ruled lover them. He therefore, embarkd for
Asia Minor, to test out his plans. Finding that the whole
scheme was practical from that point of view, he returned to
S London and on April 2nd, 1767, he signed a partnership agree-
ment concerning the colonization plan with Sir William Dun-
can, and Sir Richard Temple, Commander of the Navy. Grants
of 20,000 acres were obtained in the names of each of these
gentlemen, 60,000 acres all told. Temple acted as trustee for


George Granville, then Prime Minister of England. This
60,000 acre grant was to be operated at an expense of not over
9,000 pounds, during a period of seven years and all subsequent
grants, it was agreed, would'be handled in the same way. They
were to share equally in the profits and Dr. Turnbull was to org-
anize the expedition and then take complete charge of the affairs
and move to Florida. This agreement entailed first a voyage
to Florida to look over the land and lay out the town site.
The first 20,000 acre land grant had been issued on June
18, 1766. He landed at the Port of St. Augustine in November
of the same year, in company with his family. James Grant,
Governor of Florida, had played a prominent part in the capture
of Havana and was made Governor of Florida in recognition of
that service and under his able administration, St. Augustine
had in three years become a town of three thousand inhabit-
ants. The Governor received the Turnbulls with the dignity
his office afforded.
The beauty of the climate, the flowers, the shrubbery, the
landscape and the Fort, all fascinated the Turnbulls beyond ade-
quate expression. The balmy, bracingNovemberairpermeatedthe
very vitals, the river scenery, Anastasia Island, the Beach
and the thick and wonderful jungles in the back country
towards the mighty St. John's were marvels to them. Satisfied
beyond measure were those people who had but recently come,
and who were to play such a prominent part in the history
of land development in those parts.
When the Governor's gardens of Sevill orange trees, guava,
pomegranate, fig, lime and citron, trees amid the flowing Poin-
setta, Hibiscus and the roses were seen, they indeed were sat-
isfied with Florida charms.
Governor Grant was as attracted to the Turnbulls as they
were to him and the land he possessed. Therefore, a great
friendship arose which' never died out, as subsequent years
During those days St. Augustine housed many prominent
Englishmen, from the British Isles, and from the Colonies
north to Pennsylvania, and some of them even beyond, including
Chief Justice William Drayton, and later Lieut. Governor Moul-
trie, Dennis Rolle (possessor of a settlement on the St. John's
River), C. W. Oswell (owner of a sugar plantation on the
Halifax River), John Forbes, admiralty lawyer and Judge;
Sir Charles Burdett, Bernard Romans (Civil Engineer), Wil-
liam Stark (historian), William Bartram (naturalist), etc.
Dr. Turnbull's ambitions were the largest to be under-
taken up to that time in Florida. Therefore the Turnbulls were
the center of attraction and the cause of much entertainment.
His grants of land laid along the East Coast, about fifty miles
south of St. Augustine, where he spent much time in investiga-
tion. The old town of Surruque was about in the center of
the coast line of the grants and the Wild primeval forests of
that region.were one veritable garden of Nature's own beau-
ty. The massive moss covered oak trees, the jungles, the
Rivers to the North and to the South, the Beach beyond the


rs, the Indian mounds and the big mission and fort built
the order of St. Francis, the former situated right in the
.rt of one of his grants and the latter on the water's edge
the center of the old Indian Town, made this a most attractive
It is no wonder that Governor Grant and the other gen-
men and ladies of St. Augustine were carried away with Dr.
rnbull's plans. When they viewed the grandeur of these
enes (while visiting with him in the future haunts of more
rfect days) they were enthusiastic for his success.
Dr. Turnbull returned to London in March 1767, leaving
s family under the care of Governor Grant, but before depart-
Sthe Governor extended to the Doctor an appointment as
cretary and Clerk of the Florida Council. Among various
ans the Doctor accomplished before leaving was the personal
chase of a cotton plantation on the St.'John's River, west
his grants, where he left an overseer in charge, with powers
,buy cattle and mules from Georgia and South Carolina. He
so arranged for a vessel to go to Jamaica and get 500
goes for the purpose of clearing the land.
Upon his arrival in London he reported to Lord Hillsbor-
uh and then a council between the land grantors was held.
Ivernor Grant had written Lord Hillsborough his impres-
on, of Doctor Turnbull and begged his Lordship to aid the
doctor to his fullest extent. The result was that an extraordi-
ir. effort on the part of Lord Hillsborough was put forward
d the best lands south of St. Augustine were extended to
- Company and William Gerard De Brahm, the Government
rveyor, was called upon to assist.
Lord Grenville, head of the Ministry of England, was
that time inclined to favor agricultural enterprises and
onization in East Florida, claiming that by so doing he was
ing it more difficult for smuggling to be carried on along
St. John's and St. Mary's Rivers. Therefore Turnbull, Dun-
and Grenville bought a whole tract of 101,400 acres set
the region Doctor Turnbull had visited, and which he had
eady named in honor of his wife's people. The new region
Florida was to be known as NEW SMYRNA. Dr. Turnbull
ied for a frigate to be placed at his disposal as a transport,
ing to man and provision it himself, and the -Lords of
de granted the request. He applied to Lord Shelburne,
retary of the Colonies, for 3 pounds for each colon-
he'might take to East Florida, 400 pounds for roads, bridges
ferries, and 100 pounds each for a clergyman and school-
ster, and a substantial subsidy for seven years thereafter,
of which were presented by his Lordship, with the under-
ding that if one person to every one hundred acres was
settled in three years, lands so unoccupied should revert to
Everything in readiness from the Parliament standpoint,
the Board of Trade and the Company, he set sail in the
ring of 1767 for Greece. The Turkish Government, learning of
.rnbull's plans, prepared to resist and oppose emigration of


desirable citizens from that country and put the bars up,
thus making the undertaking from those parts prohibitive.
Therefore, after an encounter with a garrison at Modon in
Morea, he changed his plans and sailed for Leghorn, Southern
Italy, where 110 Italians joined the expedition.
The agreement of the "Company" to the emigrants was
transportation and found, and fifty acres of land and five ad-
ditional acres for each child of a family after seven years,
which time would be required to pay off the indebtedness to the
Company for transportation, food and clothing, settlement and
establishment in homes on the Grant, and if not contented after
six months settlement, to be allowed to return to their native
The Company at London, learning of the difficulties the
Doctor encountered at the hands of the Turkish Government
and the Doctor's voyage to Leghorn, got word to him at that
port to proceed to Minorca, as there had been droughts there
for three consecutive years and that prospects were bright
for the emigration' of a large number of Minorcans.
The English took possession of Minorca in 1713, allowing
the people freedom of. religious faith, Catholics were prohibited
in English colonies. The Church of England as embraced by
the Greeks was permissible, (Maryland in America excepted).
However, Turnbull decided as long as England had given these
people religious freedom and as Minorca was an English pos-
session, he would take the. chances and enroll them on the ship
log. He found (owing to droughts) large numbers were ready
and willing to embark for Florida, provided they .might take
their priests along with them. This he agreed to, as the docks
at the port of Mahon (the Capitol of Minorca), swarmed with
men, women and children in a starving condition.
Having aboard about one hundred Italians, more than
three quarters men, he decided to take as goodly a number of
young women, to make up for the lack of young women he
had on board and to take from Minorca young married men
with children, thus eliminating the old people. This he did,
but his vessel accommodations would not give the number eager
to embark the necessary room so he planned for more trans-
ports. With the hopes of more grants of land, he decided to
enlarge his fleet to eight ships. After some delays he embarked
with fifteen hundred aboard the eight vessels. When the news
of the number "aboard" reached London, Lord Hillsborough was
enthusiastic upon the possibilities of a large population for East
Florida, and made the remark that it was "A noble addition to
Florida's settlement",, and immediately wrote Governor Grant
of the Doctor's success and of his departure from Port Mahon,
for Florida, and the names of the ships and the number of
colonists in each, and that it was the largest expedition of
colonists to settle on new undeveloped lands in the New World.
The names of the vessels and the number in each were
as follows: New Fortune 226; Charming Betsy 232; Henry
and Caroline 142; Elizabeth 190; Friendship 198; Hope 150;
American Sailor 145; Betsy 120. Total men, women and


children 1403.
The fleet of vessels was accompanied beyond Gibraltar to
Madeiras by the British frigate "CARYSFORD" as a convoy,
to protect them in case they were attacked by Barbary pirates.
As all privateers in those days were installed with cannon for-
ward and aft, such protection, however, was not sufficient to
combat a fleet of heavily armed pirate ships. The fleet of
eight ships was well laden with supplies and some machinery,
including cotton gins, saw mill outfits, agricultural implements,
guns, cannons and ammunition-in fact every provision had
been carefully made for the speed up of the work before em-
barkation. Various cuttings of grape vines, mulberries and
other plants were included in the cargo, having been secured
:' at all of the ports then visited.
The Italians got on well with the Minorcans and during the
voyage the clergyman married many of them to Minorcan
maids. In fact it is stated that all the maids were so married
during that eventful passage.
The months from March to June were consumed in making
the voyage-each ship proved a well regulated family. The
season was the best and the weather was good; lack of suffi-
cient wind at times prevented an average time of sailing which
otherwise would ordinarily have been met. However, most of
the ship's list were young people and there was a wife for
every man. So there was but scant ground for complaints.
Compared with the pangs of hunger endured in Italy and
Minorca, with a good ship's larder-and a fair sea, with but
little to do save to make love to one's wife, the contrast to the
former daily existence was strikingly pronounced. Singing and
merriment prevailed and there were Italian and Minorcan
dances occasionally indulged in. As a whole the Spring of the
year was in the blood of the people and hearts were gay rather
than sad as was mostly the case in the expeditions of those
.What a contrast to the serious, pious, Puritans, who spent
most of their time during their voyage in prayer. These light
Headed and light hearted simple people, of nature's own mold-
ing, were, as a whole, really happy and from all indications
Dr. Turnbull was pleased and confident that with eight hundred
women and eight hundred men, New Smyrna would, within
three years, have a population of ten thousand people and that
everybody would have plenty and that prosperity would reign
supreme in that "bountiful land of Florida."
It was the last of June when "Charming Betsy" (Doctor
Turnbull's vessel), "New Fortune," "Henry and Carolina" and
"Elizabeth" cast anchor in the harbor of St. Augustine, and
the "American Sailor," "Betsy," "Friendship," and "Hope" ar-
rived in port three days later. All accounted for and no
mishaps in voyage.
Governor Grant had made preparations to take care of
them; tents had been set; provisions and working clothes had
been purchased. There was but one feature in the whole plan
which miscarried and that was the wreck of the nigger slave


ship from Jamaica. She was driven by a storm off the Bahama
Banks and all hands on board were lost.
Some niggers and Indians were, however, secured and
with the Italians and Minorcans the journey by small boats
through the rivers to the promised land of New Smyrna was
By the 10th of August the colonists were all settled on
plantations and were working under overseers of their own
nationality and undef Northerners who had knowledge of ag-
riculture as applied to South Carolina and Georgia.
New Smyrna made a favorable impression on these immi-
grants-its wild natural beauty appealed to the minds of those
sensitive people. The rivers, the beach, the jungles, the lofty
oaks and stately palmettoes made a contrast to the whole scene
and was much more beautiful, as a whole, than the lands they
had left in the old world.
The night brqezes from off the South Atlantic made the
summer nights delightfully cool, enabling everyone to enjoy
the rest so essential after a hard day's work in the uplands
and jungles.
With all new and undeveloped lands there must necessar-
ily take place a clearing and a clean up. The underbrush must
be removed in the village and around the houses on the plan-
tations in order to eliminate pests that are sure to abound in
any place. However, these people did not have to contend with
ice and snow, boulders and rocks and an almost barren soil,
such as the Puritans were obliged to put up with. Nor were
they affected with the scurvy and other skin diseases which
were encountered in New England. They realized that with the
wonderful climate and the rich lands, there must be the neces-
sary time given, until those improvements were perfected.
Whatever may have been said by writers unfamiliar with
Florida conditions and their lack of knowledge relative to coloniz-
ing people on new lands, this colony at New Smyrna progressed as
rapidly as could be expected under the conditions and save some
dissension among the Italians, caused from contact with Nor-
thern overseers, unfamiliar with their language, customs and
habits, the work was carried forward with considerable dex-
terity and with but little confusion.
When December came the village had been laid out. Wide
streets and avenues in perfect block formation, extending north
and south, along the river, and west to the old mission, were
nearing completion. Two large warehouses and two piers con-
structed of coquina rock had been built and work on a canal
system was begun, a rock sea wall was started and bridges were
in the course of construction. A rock quarry had been located
and was being worked. Wells had been dug and walled up with
the rock-good water was a blessing. Supplies were arriving
at the docks. Cotton gins had been set up, tanks and vats for
indigo were built (Note-Some of these vats were constructed
within the walls of the old mission). These may have been
built by the Monks, or Dr. Turnbull may have constructed them.
Mulberry trees were cultivated and the silk worms were put


to work. Cotton was planted upon a large scale; likewise there
were hemp fields and sugar cane plantations and large corn
fields were planted for home consumption.
Oysters were plentiful; the fish were bountiful and with
December ducks came and were killed. Deer and wild turkey
were in great abundance. Food was plentiful and living was
.a full for the inner man.
Doctor Turnbull had moved his family to New Smyrna
and Mrs. Turnbull was delighted with the town, so generously
Named after her birthplace in Greece. The Turnbull mansion
was a most imposing residence and was in keeping with their
Station in life.
Save an insurrection which occurred, headed by an Italian
Swho broke into one of the warehouses and stole a quantity of
SWest Indian run and got a lot of other Italians to join him in
a drunken revelry, there was but little dissension. Later, how-
ever, they seized one of the vessels, loaded it with rum and
provisions, with the intention of deserting their families and
going to Cuba to live. Otherwise the colony was peaceful, up
to the Fall of 1769.
By March 1769 seven miles of water front along the
North Indian River had been cleared and platted. By July the
SLondon Company had expended 28,000 pounds and 20,000
pounds by the Government in subsidies.
In October the London Company put in 24,000 pounds
more, taking away one fifth of Dr. Turnbull's holdings. In
August 1769, when the colony was just one year old, Doctor
Turnbull sold 5,000 bushels of corn after supplying the colony
and in 1772 he sold for export a cargo of indigo that brought
3,000 pounds. The Mulberry trees were coming along in good
shape and so were the grape vines.
The grape vines of New Smyrna grew very rapidly and
Sthe records now state that the first wine (on a commercial
basis) made from grapes in North America was made at New
Smyrna, Florida.
Cochineal insects were imported for making scarlet dye and
from this industry there was later considerable money received.
Sodium carbonate (made from burnt sea weed), maze,, sugar,
cotton and rice were continually shipped from the wharves at
New Smyrna.
In 1779 a partial inventory of the public property in New
Smyrna was given,. which consisted of the following' in pounds
' sterling: Two large store houses; 500 pounds; one small store-
Shouse, 100 pounds; wind mill, 300 pounds; indigo house, 10C
pounds; 145 other houses at 35 pounds each, 5,075 pounds
four bridges, cedar, at 30 pounds each, 120 pounds; 22 double
sets of indigo vats, 1100 pounds; total 7,565 pounds, or $37,-
Doctor Turnbull was a first class physician, but like many .
professional men, he was a very poor business man, which sub-
sequent events to his undertaking was proven.
A good business man, considering the settlement of a col-
ony in those days, or any other days, would canvass the events


preceding his intended undertakings in a thorough manner,
making note of the living conditions and the CLASS of colonists
necessary to permanently sustain that locality. In those days
religion cut a large part in the success of a business, more so
probably -than since that period. The Spanish were Catholics.
Doctor Turnbull was a Protestant and he knew that the Span-
ish who had inhabited Florida were all Catholics, therefore it
was poor business on his part to have selected Roman Catholics
to live in a Protestant community. New. Smyrna was near
St. Augustine, then under English domination. He in his ambition
for notoriety and power forgot this first essential when he
took aboard his vessels those of Catholic faith. In fact he was
playing into the hands of Spain when he accepted them.
Secondly, a good business man would have started the colony
by degrees and not laid all his cards on the table and played
them in one sitting-one quarter the number of colonists would
have been the business part of the venture. Third, a good
business man would not have started to play society from a
local standpoint, nor, would he have engaged at the start
in politics with a man who was only holding a tentative office, the
same as Governor Grant was occupying. Fourth, a good busi-
ness man would not have ruffled up the hair of Governor
Grant's successors.
Florida exported during the year 1772 forty thousand
pounds of indigo to London, which was sold at high prices.
Governor Grant's successor in 1772 was John Moultrie, a hard
headed business man, who owned one of the largest plantations
in Florida, Bella Vista, seven miles from St. Augustine. There
were those who wanted Dr. Turnbull for Governor, but Grant,
with all his friendship for the Doctor, would not recommend
him to the British Parliament. He recommended Moultrie and
John Moultrie was appointed.
Governor Moultrie had known Dr. Turnbull since the
Doctor's arrival in 1768 and had observed his business tactics.
He predicted that he would fail in his undertaking and after
he became governor and the Doctor openly defied him, he made
up his mind that he would see to it that the Doctor was
eliminated and then possibly a better foundation would be laid
at NeWv Smyrna or it would be best that St. Augustine have
no rival town south of her confines during that period.
There were some prominent plantation owners in St.
Augustine'and New, Smyrna, among them were Lords Hawks,
Egmont, Sir William Duncan, Messrs. Tonyon, Oswald, Taylor,
Bisset, Potts, Strachey and Rolls, Wright, Alortz, Campbell,
Paris, Grayhurst, Barrington and Faucett.
Colonel Tonyon became Governor in March 1774 and it is
evident that Governor Moultrie, then Lieutenant Governor, was
able to prejudice the new governor against Doctor Turnbull,
.if Tonyon had not already formed his conclusions, for Gov-
ernor Tonyon's persecution of Dr. Turnbulll continued there-
after. Whether the Governor wanted the Minorcans in St.
Augustine or not, he tried to get them to desert the colony
and live in St. Augustine, and after several fishing vessels


were discovered at intervals near New Smyrna (it was found
that the Priest of New Smyrna had taken up with the
Spanish at Havana and was in communication through these
vessels with the Spanish). The break came and the New
Smyrna colony scattered, many going to Cuba to live and some*
few went to St. Augustine.
Dr. Turnbull arrived from a voyage to Europe in 1777
(where he had been for some months endeavoring to disen-
tangle himself from the political muss he had ejected himself
into in Florida) to find New Smyrna deserted and the people
scattered. In 1782 he went to Charleston to live, declaring that
r he would never go back to Florida so long as Tonyon was
Governor, and he never did. The Doctor had lost a large
personal fortune and was now obliged to take up the practice of
medicine in Charleston, which was done, maintaining a very
large practice. The property of New Smyrna, after being
in the courts for several years, was finally settled, and the
Doctor received in March 1788 1916-13-4. Doctor Turnbull
remained a British subject during his entire life. He died
in Charleston and was buried there.
Thus ended for a time the further development of New
Smyrna, but the improvement which had been made there came
in good stead at a later date.
The total approximate amounts of money expended on
New Smyrna for seven years, up to 1775 (including the old
mission and the Fort was approximately $600,000.00.)-The
exports were about $90,000.00.
The Stamp Act during those troublesome days of 1767
caused no end of smuggling in all the English Colonies, both
North and South. The St. Mary's and the St. John's and the
shore line on the Gulf of Mexico in Florida, offered excellent
opportunities for ship runners and trafficking was carried on
along a large scale. The Colonists had been taxed by England
beyond endurance; the Northerners were rebelling; the South-
erners from Carolina to Florida were remaining fast Loyalists,
not only because they were least affected, but because it was
their nature (after the favors of land grants from England)
so to be. Mostly they were a class of highly educated gentle-
men-refined in taste and chivalrous of nature-the rank and
file did not appeal to them. With Canadian views, Florida was
destined to stand alone, with the King's forces, resting upon her
people. The Rockingham Cabinet was commencing to realize
the wisdom of Pitt's declaration wherein he said that Great
Britain, under Lord North's policy, had no right to tax the
American colonies, and that when in 1772 the British Revenue
vessel "GASPIN" was burned by the Colonists in Narraganset
Bay, followed by The Tea Party of Boston, proved that asser-
Governor Tonyon before coming to Florida, had been
a protege of Lord Marchmont and a Colonel in the British.
Army. He had been a successful planter in Florida and held
large land grants from the King. In 1774 after assuming
the Governorship, he decided that there was not room for but


one large port on the East Coast, and he wanted to swell the
population of St. Augustine. So, after making overtures to
the people of New Smyrna, he issued a proclamation for distri-
bution among the Northern colonies, addressed to all loyal
Britishers and Americans, "to quit their colonies and come to
'Florida, as it was going to remain loyal to England, and that
it would be the only refuge for Tories South of Canada;" ad-
ding that it was "the most delightful place to live in, in all the
world." The result was a large exodus from the colonies, all
over the North, took passage by water or overland for Florida.
The Boston Port Bill had been declared; the first Continen-
tal Congress was in the throes of formation; Florida and
Georgia were the only colonies not represented in that First
Continental Congress.
The St. Augustine influx filled the City to overflowing;
nearly everybody came there first. The result was that Fer-
nandina, Amelia Island (opposite that port) Anastasia Island
(opposite St. Augustine) and points near the mouth of the St.
John's River were scenes of attraction. At those- places were
congregated all classes of men, rubbing. elbows with each other
-admirals, commodores, captains, privateer ship owners,
smugglers, free booters; buccaneers and pirates. 'Gambling
and drinking and wild life of debauchery was carried on among
this class of men, vices were freely indulged in-the cavalier
spirit ran rampant.
The most reputable people remained in St. Augustine,
where society held its sway and where brilliant dances and
delightful entertainments were given; a conglomerate mass
of people with decided ideas as to how the Government of
the New World should be administered and conducted, for
the good of the English speaking race. The beaches were a
scene of activities, bathing, boating and fishing parties were
a daily pastime. Fort San Marco and the water front leading
to the plaza and the walk to the battery were the avenues for
promenade, used by men and women in gaily attired costumes.
But let us turn backward for a brief year and draw up to
some'of the greater events towards shaping our point on
behalf of Florida and its possession by the.Americans.




ON THE MEMORABLE NIGHT of April 19, 1775, Paul
Revere, at the request of Joseph Warren, left his money en-
,. graving plant, went to his powder mill and then made his
S famous ride to warn the farmers of Woburn and Lexington of
the approach of the British. Adams and Hancock were in
the public squares of Lexington and Woburn and they were
thankful that the critical hour had arrived; that the Revolu-
tion had finally come to the larger clashing of arms. John
Paul Jones was in conference with the Naval Committee in
Philadelphia and immediately started the survey of ships for
the American navy, and on December 22 he was commissioned
Senior First Lieutenant on the Flagship ALFRED, and at
once got into action. After a short cruise he was transferred
Sto the frigate PROVIDENCE with the rank of Captain. He
then made a raid on New Providence and captured a squadron,
after which he went through the West Indies and in forty-
seven days he captured sixteen prizes and destroyed a.number
of small vessels. He then attacked the fisheries at Isle Madame
and demolished them. He then took command of the ALFRED
and sailed for Nova Scotia.
The news of the happenings in the Northern colonies
incensed the Loyalists and Tories of St. Augustine, and they
in consequence of it burned Hancock and Adams in effigy, but
a little later they were in dread for that act, especially during
the time that John Paul Jones was destroying the shipping
in the West Indies. An attack on St. Augustine by that naval
officer was then feared.
Alexander Hamilton was promoted by General Washing-
ton and had already started a feeling in the North against the
attitude taken by Governor Tonyon of Florida and it was
considered (afterwards) fortunate for the population of St.
Augustine that they were not attacked while those raids were
being made upon the British strongholds.
Among the' "Patriots" of South Carolina and Georgia
there was growing a bitter feeling towards Florida. In fact it
seemed that the eyes of the whole world occasionally rested on
this little port in America, which had seen fit to defy the powers
of all Christendom, excepting the mandates of Great Britain.
The Birth of a New Nation and the cradle of liberty had
arrived and so the rocking went on. The battles of Lexington
and Bunker Hill had taken place-Joseph Warren had died a
hero. The Colonists of New York, New Jersey and Pennsyl-
vania were swarming and teaming with excitement. The
British were commencing to realize the follies of Lord North
and the effect of the Stamp Act and the taxing of the colonies,
which they now directly attributed to the cause of the Revolu-
tion; their own blood had turned against them; the iron arm
of the Americans was the grafting of that member of England.
It wqs not a French Revolution-the combatants were too


newly created from their Engli ;h ancestry and they were
fighting in a new world and not between the buildings of an-
tiquity. Freedom was in the very air of that broad expanse
of the vast areas, extending along the entire North and South
Atlantic, from Massachusetts to Georgia.
Georgia was the only one of the original thirteen Colonies
to receive aid from the British Government. Settled with the
prohibition of slavery in its Constitution; petitioned for slavery
in 1738 and slavery introduced in 1749. After the introduction
of a colony of Jews in 1733, Lutheran refugees, in 1734 and
Scotch Highlanders in 1738, this colony founded by General
Oglethorpe as an asylum for poor debtors of England and for
the Protestant refugees of Europe, did not commence to flourish
until 1742. The first General Assembly was held in 1753. In
March 1775 the St. John's Parish sent a delegate to the Second
Continental Congress which example was followed by other
parishes in that Colony. In 1778 the British captured Savan-
nah and in May 1779 Augusta and Sunburg were taken over
by England. The Americans and French attempted to retake
Savannah in October, 1779, but were not successful, so it
was held by its declared enemy, the British, until 1782.
Fort Sullivan, or Fort Moultrie, (Charleston) under com-
mand of Col. William Moultrie, was defended by the Second reg-
iment South Carolina Line (Continental Army) against a
British fleet under Sir Peter Parker, June 28, 1776, who pre-
vented its capture in that unfinished Fort. Charleston since
1775 was the third sea port of importance in America; and
was the first Southern City to join the revolutionary movement;
she successfully repulsed that attack by the British fleet in
1779. On March 12, 1780, with a garrison of 7,000 men under
the command of General Lincoln it was attacked by Sir Henry
Clinton with a force of 16,000, was captured after a siege of
six weeks and was one of the greatest disasters of the Revo-
lutionary War. The British held the City until December 14,
1782, when the Americans took possession. (Note-The City
was incorporated in 1783 and until 1790 was the capital of
the State. The first bale of cotton exported from America to
Europe (1784) was shipped from Charleston.)
PENSACOLA under the administration of Governor
George Johnstone, from 1764 to 1766, was then a capital and
some progress was made. The first British election was held
in 1773, under Governor Chester, who succeeded Governor
Johnstone. The people wanted a one year term of office and the
Governor had fixed a three year term and refused to grant
a one year term, so West Florida never had an Assembly.
In 1781 the Spanish, under Don Bernado Galvez, Govern-
or of Louisiana, attacked the English at Pensacola and forced
the surrender of* the port. Nearly all the British escaped,
however, and a general English evacuation of West Florida
followed. Vessels were taken to Brooklyn, New York, and the
West Florida English joined the British troops there against
General Washington.
The British had abandoned Fort Tonyon at the mouth of


St. Mary's River, (this place and Amelia Island, where so
many privateers had been fitted out), and retired to St. Augus-
tine. An organization known as the Florida Rangers had been
organized. During the year 1778 over 7000 Loyalists from
the Southern Colonies immigrated to Florida. A haven of
refuge for King's troops, Tories, Schopolites, Minorcans and
Indians, all banded together under the Florida Rangers.
The plantations along, the St. John's were actively engaged
in producing crops and the forests were being worked. During
1779 over forty thousand barrels of naval stores, valued at
one pound a barrel, (over $200,000) to which the Government
added a bounty of ten shillings per barrel, were shipped to
A bitter feeling had sprung up between the people of
Georgia and Florida and during the summer of 1778 two armed
bodies from St. Augustine marched in' to Georgia and attacked
the people in the Sunbury and Ogeechee River Country, laying
waste to much of that territroy. They were, however, forced
back across the St. John's river by the patriots.
This attack by Florida on Georgia was followed during
the same year by a force of 2000 men, marshalled by General
Robert Howe (of Georgia) ; they attempted to reduce St. Aug-
ustine. The English fleet sent to capture Savannah was then
under the shelter of Amelia Island, in communication with St.
The Georgia Legislature had attained by treason the refu-
gees, and their property was declared forfeited to the State
and ordered to be sold. Households were divided and Geor-
gia's position was a most difficult one. The Tories in the South
were most bitter towards her. The English of St. Augustine
had more control .of the Indians than did the Georgians at that
time and those Creek Indians were the most powerful tribe
of aborigines on the American Continent. Georgia was
S 'between the devil and the deep sea."
After Charleston and Savannah had fallen to the British
control, ships brought their loads of prisoners to St. Augustine
and at that port were confined many prominent American pa-
triots who were born and reared in the South. The war had
played a hellish part, as it has always done since the beginning
of the Human race. Families were separated and divided, but
severe cruelties to American prisoners were not inflicted by
English, particularly at the port of St. Augustine. Fort San
Marco was used then to some extent as a military prison.
The tradesmen of St. Augustine during those days reaped
a harvest from the population of the City and the shipping
was exceedingly lucrative for those who were dealing in sup-
When Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown, Vir-
ginia, the South had played her full part in the struggle for
independence. Virginia had given to the cause her most dis-
tinguished sons and many a brave Liberty Boy, reared under
Southern skies, had gone to a patriot's grave. The troops
returned to'their homes, the planters went into the fields and


the artisans were back at their trades. Many of the King's
troops, the Loyalists and the Tories remained in St. Augustine
-some settled in Fernandina and others went to England.
There were Tories who did not return to their homes until
years afterwards.
ENGLAND AND SPAIN, disturbed at the Birth of a New
Nation in the form of a Republic, which they felt might have
a direct effect upon the Kingdoms of the Old World and their
Colonies, looked upon the Congress of the United States with
misgivings. Therefore, their Majesties, -the King of England
and the King of Spain thought that a change on their part
would produce a good effect upon their Colonies, so they made
a trade that at once produced a shock upon the people of the
New World, as well as elsewhere. England traded Florida
for Jamaica and the Bahamas The treaty was signed Septem-
ber 3rd, 1783.
The hopes and ambitions of the Spanish for Florida
had not died, they were only sleeping during the American
Revolution and were now ready to try their hand again at
conquering the Florida Indian.
There was great consternation among the Tories in St. Au-
gustine. Those who had left the thirteen original States and
had taken refuge there, felt that the time Was too lean to
return, fearful that their acts could not be so soon forgotten.
Then there were the original English and the Loyalists who had
extensive land grants and large plantations, being worked with
negro slaves. At the most critical hour it seemed to them that
England had deserted them and left them bankrupt, to shift
for themselves. England demanded of Spain, however, that
eighteen months be given the subjects in Florida in which to
dispose of their private effects. The result was that the only
people who remained were the Catholics and the Minorcans.
West Florida had then but few English. The change did not
affect them so much. Transports of Great Britain took those
refugees who desired to go to the Bahamas and Jamaica and
transported them thither, free of charge. There were some
who braved the storm of ridicule and returned to their former
homes now in the United States.
The Spanish again entered St. Augustine and the few
who remained saw the British flag on the Old Fort pulled
down and the Flag of Spain raised to take its place there,
where it originally had defied all invaders and over a fortifica-
tion which had withstood the assaults of the British and the
Indians. It was their Fort after all and they were back again
to do honor to its glory of other days. They loved it and so
did the Minorcans who had been born and bred under its pro-
DURING THE EARLY PART of the Revolution the Creek
Indians had leaned towards the English (in spite of agreements
they had made with Spain and for which Spain paid them).
Later their chief took up with the Revolutionists and was
made, a Colonel in the American Army, agreeing to give all of
the trade of the Creeks to the United States, with shipments


S through Savannah.
The Spanish had no, sooner taken possession of East
Florida when the Indians from the. St. Mary's to Perdido went
on the warpath.. The settling of Spanish colonies was now
more difficult than had heretofore been attained. Florida
languished, an apathy settled over it from a Spanish stand-
point, and from which the Government was never able to
entirely arouse herself.
Fernandina became again a border port for the smugglers
to operate from and at St. Mark's and Apalachicola there was
more activity along those lines than had been attempted before.
There seemed to be a concentrated plan agreed upon between a
certain class of Americans and the Indians to use the Spanish
Florida frontier as tie means of enhancing their worldly
goods. The Boules expedition with the Indians was of naught
as compared with the great future designs the United States
had set out to accomplish. The exploits of Captain John Paul
Jones were carried on under the very nose of the British in
the English Channel. The Constitution was being built and this
vessel was the pride of the Americans. Jay had gone to Madrid
to parley with the Spanish, for the power of Franklin was be-
hind him in the effort to deal with the Spanish Crown; but
as the whole matter of territory was considered the Mississippi
River was involved. France was not pleased over the Florida
situation. On September 10th, 1799 a proposition was made by
the United States, to Spain, to take part with the United States
of America and France in the acquisition of Canada, Nova-
Scotia, Bermudas and the Floridas, the free navigation of the
Mississippi River, etc. etc. To which Spain found reason to
reject, stating that there were "features of the proposition
which were at variance with her views", but she made a counter
proposal for the purpose of diplomacy and to keep a channel
open for future diplomatic debate.
During 1781 when negotiations for peace between Great
Britain and the United States were being considered, territorial
rights naturally came to the forefront which involved Canada
and Florida. The discussion, however, lasted until the treaty
of 1795, and embroiled the treaty which the Governor of West
Florida made With the Indians in 1784, whereby they were
to give their trade and commerce from the St. Mark's west-
ward to the Capital of West Florida at Pensacola.
Spain had already made overtures to the Americans to
emigrate and settle in her Country-Florida, offering one
thousand acres of land grants to every American that would
move to West Florida and $400.00, which he might raise and
deliver in New Orleans, exempt from all taxes and military
This offer was taken up by General Joseph H. McIntosh,
a Revolutionary Army Officer (a defender of Sunbury) provided
it applied to land along the St. Jqhn's, near Cow Ford. It was
accepted and General McIntosh settled himself upon his land
and became an officer under the Spanish Regime. He had a
lumber contract and was getting out large quantities of timber


and sawing it, from which he was making considerable money,
but he was a champion of the United States and was detected
in plots to overthrow the Spanish authority in Florida and upon
detection he was arrested and sent to imprisonment in Moro
Castle, Havana.
In 1785 Galpinton, for Georgia, made a treaty with the
Creek Indians for boundaries regarding certain lands, dis-
regarding the rights of either the United States or Spain.
The Georgians made incursions into Florida in 1785, which
Congress on October 13, 1785, was called upon to expressly dis-
avow and again the Congress in 1786 passed a resolution depre-
cating "the conduct of some people in that state towards the
Spaniards, 'with the warning' such measures will be taken as
may prevent the like in the future."
France declared in 1786 that in case of a rupture between
Spain and the United States that France would assist Spain,
not forgetting that the Spanish influence wih the Barbary
powers was of no small moment.
Confusion between the four Governments as regards their
matters of States produced a panicy effect upon all of the
people. A period had come, especially in the South, when men
did not know which way to turn. The world was in a chaotic
state and seemed topsy turvy.
THE "FEVER" for territorial expansion, the desire for
personal land holdings across the frontier and the inactivity
of the diplomats of England and the United States, chafed and
irritated those bold frontiermen, eager for action in a virgin
field. A chance of a staple Government being formed that
would endure the ravages of time was the sincere desire of
those men.
Men of note, through those inactivities, were showing
Spanish proclivities, not that they would take up with Spain
in preference to England or the United States, but it appeared
to some of those men that Spain would ultimately be able to
retain her possessions in Florida and in the Mississippi Valley
as a permanency and that the American aims would not suc-
ceed. Among those men (as stated) were Colonel Sevier,
George Rogers Clark, Honorable Robertson, Judge Sebastian
and General Wilkinson.
Daniel Boone. had already penetrated beyond the western
shores of the Mississippi, blazing a trail to the coastal plains of
Texas. He was, through sheer force of circumstances, obliged
to accept for a time, a commission as a Spanish Officer, in order
to gain the great object he had in view.
The necessity for immediate action regarding the pro-
posed treaty with Spain became apparent to the keen mind of
Thomas Jefferson. He, therefore, after taking the matter up
with his friend, LaFayette, and requesting him to leave France,
temporarily, and go to Spain in the interests of American
diplomacy, to the end of the treaty, and not being able to so
arrange it, finally resorted to deal with that half breed, Alex-
ander McGillivary (part Scotch and Indian) Chief of the Creek
tribe of Indians. (Quite a contrast is this happening.) There-


fore, after a considerable discussion on this matter McGillivary
was invited to attend with his council, a meeting with the
American officials in New York, so the Chief and his Council
set out for that city in June 1790.
The final negotiations of the treaty with the Indians of
1790 were concluded. Chief McGillivary and his council left
New York and returned to Georgia, but his return to that
state was not received in the way it was predicted. The
Georgia colonists were incensed at the way they had been
ignored in the treaty with the Indians. They did not like tjie
appointment of McGillivary as Brigadier General at $1200 a
year salary, or the $1,500 annual payment to the Indians for
the Oconee lands. They did not, however, know of a secret
treaty between the forces and McGillivary.
General Elijah Clark, backed up by Genet, was seeking
every opportunity .to overthrow the Spanish of Florida and the
doings of Panton and Company, chief proprietors of the
Spanish trading house in Florida. The Indian treaty (New
York) 1790 was not carried out and a bloody Indian border
war seemed imminent. The American Government, in figuring
the cost of a war with the Creeks, figured it would take 28,000
men, at a cost of $450,000, based upon Secretary Knox's report
to Congress.
The possibility 'of war between England and Spain in
1790 was followed by the probability of war between the
United States and Spain in 1791, and in 1793 when the United
States fondly hoped that France would come to her aid, France
declared war on Spain and war between England and the
United States was threatened-quite a reverse of affairs, but
chiefly growing out of the dispute of the Mississippi Valley,
with Florida as a prop.
The Sans Culottes party, formed by General Elijah Clark,
ex-Revolutionary officer from Georgia (1790) had for its stan-
dard "Hatred for the Spaniard and sympathy for the French"
and advocating French control of the Spanish-American posses-
sion, invaded Florida and established a post on the St. Mary's
River from which the party made repeated attacks upon Span-
ish ports in Florida. These violations of neutrality and the
French intrigue were underlying the safety of Spain through
her Florida officials. Clark "was finally made a General in the
French service.
In the Congress the antagonism which had been rife for
some time between Hamilton and Jefferson (Hamilton claim-
ing that Jefferson was not handling the Spanish situation prop-
erly) the Spanish negotiations were turned over to Edmund
Randolph. In 1794, Spain, weary of the English treaty, sought
open negoitations with France and a Spanish American war
seemed closer than at any time previous.
More than six years had now been spent in diplomacy and a
large force of diplomats, consisting of four Governments, two
of them Kingdoms and two Republics, were playing an ad-
journed game of chess and France seemed at this time to be
the winner in the contest. A battle was to take place, but


the ruling hand must determine where the ring was to be
staged and who was to put on the first set of gloves, who
should first enter the ring and above all, who should be the
umpire. Blood was sure to be drawn and somebody was bound
to be knocked down and counted out. More than two hun-
dred million people would witness the bout-the prize was a
Government in a New World.
From all indications a battle royal was going to take place,
but those Governments who pressed the ring side, two by
heredity instincts in natural accord, and one formally allied
with the Crown, but who had shaken off that Royal Diadem into
the bastile, and a small boy only recently weaned from the
breast of Royalty, who had run away with a determination
to leave forever the old family and set up a new house (all of
his own making) away from the dingy streets, out in the wil-
derness. The boy had whipped his father and the former
member of Royalty (France) liked him for it.
During 1786, when Spain was capturing the ships of the
United States, it looked like she was taking those vessels for the
purpose of weakening the new Republic for a conflict which
seemed to be drawing to a head in 1794. Jay had vigorously
protested to the Government at Madrid for her seizure of the
U. S. S. Cutter "DOVER", but Spain in sympathy at heart,
if not by head with England, would not on account of the
attitude France had taken with the United States, play the
trump card that would decide the controversy, that is, if she held
it, so the game was continued through the treaty of July 22,
1795, between Spain and France, whereby Spain gave France
in exchange for other points, half of the revolutionary part
of San Domingo.
England infuriated at Spain (her late friend) for that
action on her part, made war on Spain and declared she would
invade Spanish West India ports and compel Spain to join her
in war against the republic of the United States. Great Brit-
ain commenced to drive the Spanish ships off the high seas.
Spain did not want war with England, and was in another
difficulty from which she would like to extricate herself.
Pinckney went to Madrid in the Spring of 1875, determined
on the part of the United States that he would have a treaty
with Spain regarding the maratime decisions regulations
affecting the two countries, while Spain was at war with
France. Not being able to affect a satisfactory agreement, he
demanded of Spain his passports and in the fall of the same
year sailed for the United States.
Spain again set upon from all sides and fearing that the
United States would also declare a separate war upon her
domains, sought the protection of England and a compromise,
and the treaty of Friendship and Navigation was signed Oc-
tober 27, 1795. The Treaty Commission met in Philadelphia
December 31, 1799. The United States made awards of $325,-
440 on account of Spanish spoliations for the Free Port of
New Orleans. It is doubtful if this treaty could have been made
had not Jay on behalf of the United States, made the treaty


of 1783, with England, protecting our Western Country.
The Act of the Treaty of 1799 between the United States
and Spain whereby the young Republic gained the sea power
to protect its commerce and securing free navigation for the
use of the Mississippi into the Gulf of Mexico, prevented be-
yond a question of doubt an alliance of the United States with a
foreign power to such a degree as to have retarded the
progress beyond the limits of future greatness. The Americans
won the game.
For the act, Pinckney received the plaudits of the Americans
and was awarded great emoluments. On the other hand the
treaty of Basle and the United States was received by the
Court of Spain with disgust. However, Godoy, who made it
in behalf of the Crown, recieved a great triumph at the hands
of the people for preserving peace, which at that time, meant
to Spain so much, on account of her depleted treasury, brought
upon her through the actions of a young officer, who con-
ceded virtually every advantage to the Americans, because he
was responsible for the immoral conditions that prevailed at
that particular time in the Spanish Court.
Florida, under Spanish rule, still a thorn in the side of
Georgia, was as it had been, the real bone of contention and
the acts of Pinckney in behalf of the United States had not
worked out the degree of relief that those determined Georgians
were bound should be given them. In 1795 Chevalier d' Yrugo,
in behalf of Spain, complained to the State Department of the
United States that Georgia inhabitants were fostering the over-
tures of General Elijah Clark, through the aid of British offi-
cials, and that their encroachments and violations of interna-
tional law carried on along'the border of Florida, even to a
view of attacking Florida across the international boundary,
S and that slaves of Flordia planters were being forcibly taken
S across into Georgia and upon demand not given up. Colonel
William Blunt of Tennessee was accused of attempting to incite
a scheme for invading the Spanish colonies in the South, with
the aid and sanction of England and that there was a British
intrigue with the United States to that end. Spain, therefore,
commenced to strengthen her fortifications.
On one occasion Florida lost five slaves and upon the
declaration of the Governor of Florida that thereafter Florida
would keep all slaves coming across the border from Georgia,
William Jones and John Knoll organized a raid to capture some
of Georgia's lost slaves, much to the humiliation of Spain, who
stated that the raids from Georgia were perpetrated by the
people of that State and that it was even hinted that the
American Commandant of that region knew of the raids.
During 1796 the United States, over the rupture of Louis-
iana, was preparing for war with France, although it was
stated that an exposed letter of Colonel Blount's disclosed
certain facts as regards territories in the South. The objects
in the records, however, are not clear regarding some of the
officials of the United States, France and England and their
plans against the Spanish Colonies along the upper South At-


lantic and the Gulf of Mexico. It is an established fact, how-
ever, that as Governments, the United States, France or
England were not implicated.
D'Yrugo, through the Spanish, complained again to Con-
gress in 1799-1800 that a William Bowles had committed
hostilities against the Florida's by inciting the Indians (within
the border of the United States) and that certain prominent citi-
zens of Georgia were responsible, and that it was time that
the United States expelled Bowles from their territories. There
was no action taken. In 1803 D'Yrugo was accused by officials
of the United States for the responsibility for the Spanish
closing the ports of the Mississippi, which caused a loss
to the states along that river of more than $2,000,000 between
1801 and 1802, but he denied that he was the cause and that
the Madrid Government had no part in it.
France in her war against the United States had fitted out
in Spanish ports, privateers against American commerce and
the many ship yards of America that had during 1800 turned
out a large number of vessels were suffering losses. Many
of those ships and cargoes were condemned in Spanish ports
and there sold. So Spain was requested to put a stop to those
irregularities and adjudging of prizes in violation of inter-
national shipping and were given to understand that they
would be held liable for payment in adjustment of all such
Game to the last ditch, Spain had been chivalrous through
her cavaliers and her pride. Her love of country had never
been questioned. She had fought three centuries, had taken
her chances in the tremendous outlay of gold necessary to
,promote colonization, expansion' of territory and the establish-
ment of colonies in a wonderful world she had largely dis-
covered. She was ever ready to take the lead, through her
brave and patriotic sons and daughters in those discoveries;
always bleeding from those wounds inflicted upon pioneer ad-
venturers, she was now pierced with the bayonet where here-
tofore the arrow and the tomahawk and the dagger had been
thrust against her noble breast. Her life's blood was stream-
ing through wicked, large wounds; her gold diminished to
almost a state of bankruptcy. Set upon by the lion, the panther
and the eagle, a prey for her old ally, and all those troubles to
have come to her chiefly because she could not handle the
Florida Indian and maintain her footing above the 24th par-
allel in competition with those energies and with that diplomacy
exhibited by the British, the French and the Americans.
The United States in 1802, through Pinckney, asked her
for the convention of statesmen familiar with international
law and shipping, to settle ship commerce and other claims
the United States held against her and for alleged incursions
and the breaches of property attachments depreciated specie
contracts; the free use of the rivers running through Florida
under the same agreements as secured for the navigation of
the Mississippi was also asked for, etc. etc.
A convention was arranged which was concluded on Au-


gust 11, 1802, providing for a conclave of five commissioners
to adjust the claims and damages asked by the United States.
The claims were presented and satisfied by the President of
the United States January 9, 1804, but Spain refused to ex-
changed those ratifications until December, 1818-but Article
10 of the treaty of 1802 prevented them from becoming effec-
It was learned in 1818 that the Floridas were mentioned
as comprehended in the cession to France, who had sought in
1796 to secure Louisiana by offering to join Spain in the
conquest of Portugal, thus retaliating upon the United States
S for her desire of the Mississippi and western country in detri-
ment to the interests of the French of Louisiana.
It was at this critical period that the United States
prepared to make overtures to Spain for the purchase of ter-
riory and that if Louisiana could be purchased it would be an
easy matter to also secure Florida, especially since Spain was
in a bankrupt condition. Through rumors that she was about
to disown her treaty with France, wherein it dealt with Louis-
iana, the matter was taken up between the United States
and France. It was learned by Livingston, through Tallyrand,
that Florida was not included in the proposed cession of Spain
to France. The matter as it then stood was to sell them Pan-
ama for 48,000,000 livres, or to exchange it for Florida. Flor-
ida to the Spanish was more valuable than Panama-but they
would not exchange it-they held it more dearly.
Jefferson, determined on a settlement, called a Commission
extraordinary, consisting of Monroe, Livingston and Pinckney, to
Meet in Paris before this Commission met; however, Louisiana
was ceded to the French, but the extent of the cession East-
of the Perdido River was then not known. It was decided to
offer the French Government $9,250,000 for Louisiana, includ-
ing New Orleans, and the Floridas. However $15,000,000 was
paid. Pinckney was assured from Cevallos (French) that
France would at least relinquish her rights in Florida to her
friend, the United States, but France had not fulfilled her
part with Great Britain and Russia to give Tuscany in exchange
for Louisiana. But France sold Louisiana to the United States
and Spain might protest. However, the United States, desir-
ous of a clear title to Florida, instructed Pinckney to secure
a price from Spain for the purchase of Florida. After Spain
had delivered over Louisiana to the French, France had only
kept the territory twenty days before turning it over to the'
United States known as the "Louisiana Purchase." In April,
1804, the Spanish of Louisiana (New Orleans) finally got
ready to leave for Pensacola; there were three hundred Span-
ish troops and every mother's son of them boasted that they
would soon be living again in New Orleans.
The idea that West Florida extended to the Mississippi
River with 31 degrees latitude for its Northern Boundary, as
settled by the Spanish-American treaty of 1795, still prevailed
Sin the minds of the Jefferson, Monroe and Pinckney group; had
it then been understood, that Spain considered the Western


boundary the Perdido River, as they did with the cession with
France, there is no doubt that those men would at that time have
endeavored for the purchase of the, Floridas. When Spain ceded
Louisiana to France it was transferred with the wording "ac-
cording to treaties existing between Spain and other States."
Confusion in the 31st degree parallel and the extent caused
the misunderstanding.
It is evident that at no time during the war between the
United States and France was there a bitter feeling on the
part of France towards America. It looked like a war of
convenience on the part of France and that she wanted to help
the United States. At the same time she wanted the money
from the sale of the lands and also Spanish friendship, which
she cherished.
Napoleon, while negotiating with Spain (as it was after-
wards learned), through General Bournonville, whom he de-
spatched to Madrid for the expressed purpose of securing the
Floridas, left the United States to carry on the negotia-
tions; he even offered the exchange of Panama, stating that the
good harbors and the situation of Florida made it necessary
territory for the Governments controlling the country west and
north of it. But Spain still bent on her first love for Florida,
would not give it up. The extent of Louisiana and the con-
tention that the River Perdido caused, could be summed up
only in two transactions; first the treaty of 1783 between
Spain and Great Britain; and, second, the treaty of 1795 be-
tween Spain and the United States.
D'Yrugo in writing during that time upon the topic of
Florida said "France could not hope that, what we had never
received from her should be returned to her under a treaty
of retrocession; and the American Government ought not
to forget the epoch at which the King of Spain made the
acquisition of his province at the expense of his treasurer, of
the blood of his subjects, and for the benefit of the American
people." Other expressions of Spain during this controversy
were: "His Imperial Majesty has moreover authorized me to
declare to you that at the beginning of the year General
Bournonville was charged to open a new negotiation with Spain
for the acquisition of the Floridas. This project which had
not been followed by any treaty is an evident proof that France
had not acquired by the treaty retroceding Louisiana the coun-
try east of the Mississippi *." "He (Napoleon) saw with
pain the United States commerce; their differences with Spain
in an unusual manner and their conduct towards the Floridas
by acts of violence, which not being founded in right, could have
no other effect but to injure its lawful owners. Such an ag-
gression gave the more surprise to His Majesty because the
United States seemed in this measure to avail themselves of their
treaty with France as an authority for their proceeding, and
because he could scarcely reconcile with the just opinion which
he entertains of the wisdom and fidelity of the Federal Gov-
ernment a course of proceedings which nothing can authorize
towards a power which has long occupied and still occupies one


of the first ranks in Europe."
When Spain ceded the Floridas to England in 1763 and
when England receded the Floridas to Spain in 1783, and
when France ceded all east of the Mississippi to England in
1763, Spain maintained after 1783 the divisions of East and
West Florida. There is no question (even in the faith of Jef-
ferson and Madison when they show that the Frenchmen had
built Mobile and Biloxi and had fought on the Perdido and that
West Florida belonged to the French) but that by the treaty.
of San de Fonso and in all justice, but what Spain received East
and West Florida from England, not France.
.The contract of the Crowns, where it was agreed in
August 15, 1761, "whoever attack one Crown attacked the
other," Spain had joined France in her war against England,
but, losing Havana and Cuba, Spain was convinced that it was
best for both England and Spain to terminate that War.
Monroe in 1804, sailed for Madrid to negotiate with the
Spanish for the sale of Floridas, or its possession through
methods other than purchase. There was a plan on foot to
attack D'Yrugo and stir up strife among the Spanish regarding
his conduct in connection with the duplicity of Spain. Another
plan was the demand of Spain for indemnities resulting from
the capture of American shipping by the French, sold to Spain
in Spanish ports, and other indemnities; failing in these de-
mands and the arrangement for a commission to settle them,
then to threaten the suspension of all shipping into Spanish
ports; if that failed, then to threaten to take Texas.
Spain was ready to make redress for the loss of shipping
caused on her part alone, but would not stand the expenditure
where France was the cause of the losses, so a convention was
framed for debate upon loss of American shipping. The most
prominent Admiralty Lawyers of the United States were em-
ployed upon the case to meet Spain's defense.
Don Pedro Cevallos, Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs,
held the claim until Spanish claims against the United States
could be considered, but he stated that in the article referring
to the damage inflicted by French cruisers upon the American
shipping must be eliminated and the Act setting up the Custom
District in West Florida for collection must be repealed before
action would be taken by Spain.
For this refusal on the part of Spain, Cevallos was informed
by Pinckney that the American Squadron in the Mediterranean
would be instructed to notify all shipping to be prepared to
leave Spanish ports at a moment's notice. For this act on the
part of Pinckney, Spain demanded that the American Govern-
ment recall Pinckney. This request was granted and Monroe was
accepted in his place. Monroe (not yet having left Paris en
route to Madrid) before departing for Madrid took up the
purchase of Florida with France for the purpose of ascertaining
her position upon the whole matter and her exact attitude
as regards Spain. He found that France was evasive. He was
told, however, that "Spain must cede territory; the United
States must pay money." He also found: that France was


hostile, at that tine, to the mission of Monroe and that France
felt kindly towards Spain, hostile towards England and luke-
warm for American ownership of Florida. While Monroe was in
Madrid and Armstrong in Paris, word was received by them of
outrages England was inflicting upon American shipping. Ships
were being overhauled; seamen were impressed into their service
and ports blockaded. Monroe went to London but his efforts were
of no avail. Upon the day of his arrival England had ordered
added restrictions placed on neutral trade. Eighteen American
merchantmen had been already condemned and thirty more were
momentarily expected. Quick action on the part of the United
States was now necessary.
The United States council decided to have Armstrong place
the Florida claim before Napoleon and ask him to lay the mat-
ter before Spain with three propositions: First, to sell the
Floridas for $5,000,000, the United States to cede to Spain
Louisianna from the Rio Grande to Guadaloupe, Spain to pay to
the United States all spoilations committed under her flag. A
final agreement was consumated along these lines whereby Napol-
eon'was to act as arbitrator, offering $7,500,000 and and $3,000,-
000 for spoilation claims mostly committed in Louisiana and'Miss-
issippi, for the United States. The Cabinet at Washington accept-
ed Napoleon's propositions, excepting the $7,500,000, which they
cut to $5,000,000. When this matter was brought before Congress
it was opposed and rejected. A treaty was then advocated without
the stipulation of the payment of money and the' movements
of Spanish coming from Havana into Spanish territory at Pen-
sacola and Mobile were silently watched by the United States
authorities. So were the movements of D'Yrugo watched. There
was another plan put on foot to have D'Yrugo recalled to Spain.
Intrigues were commencing to gather on the horizon. American
politics were in danger and foes of the government were secretly
at work which were not destined to be uncovered until the
Spanish in Florida and Texas were removed from the natural
boundaries of the United States.
Evidences are-obtainable that deep in 'the hearts of those
mighty statesmen (extending throughout all United States ter-
ritory) was a true patriotism for continual advancement of the
American Republic) but the strife with Spain so long carried on
and the apparent inability of the officials of the American Gov-
ernment to settle those dififeulties to the end of acquiring
Florida, stimulated the faith that Anericans could rule along the
lower South Atlantic and in the Gulf of Mexico from the St.
Mary's to the Rio Grande River and beyond as far as goes,
so there leaped into the breasts of Burr ahd Houston the am-
bition of a new Government on the South, administered by
Americans under a separate constitution that would work amic-
ably with the United States.
Another war was already inevitable between England and
the United States. Some of the British sympathizers were
not altogether satisfied as to whether they would rather have
the English dominating where Spain'then controlled or have
a separate Government outside the jurisdiction of England; yet


possessing her friendship. .
Had Aaron Burr been possessed of the deep honor and fear-
less action of Andrew Jackson, he might have, with his knowl-
edge of politics, been,able to accomplish his purpose of a separ--
ate government, or had he been possesed of the wisdom of
Houston,(who listened to Jackson's counsel) he no.doubt would
have made progress, at that time. But Burr worked under-
handed, regardless of any injury he might inflict upon his
friends or acquaintances., It is stated that Burr was, able to
influence D'Yrugo to abandon the Spanish, especially when
Burr negotiated for the purchase of a large. Spanish grant.
On the other hand George Rogers Clark was standing in
the middle ground and General James Wilkinson, whom Burr
became connected with in the Blennerhasset conferences, had
decided on devoting his influence and life in the endeavor that
Kentucky should be turned over to Spain. However, if Burr ever
did approach Andrew Jackson or Houston in a plot,, he accom-
plished nothing but the wrath of Jackson.
A letter of Andrew Jackson to Governor Claiborne, of
Louisiana, warned him to beware of General Wilkinson and
to keep a watchful eye on the General; that by so doing he might
prevent an attack from within his own City. This act on
the, part of Jackson no doubtwas the cause of Burr's exposure,
which resulted in his trial for treason.
Had these men possesed the same ambition as displayed
by Jackson, which was to attack Spain on the Gulf of Mexico,
and had they declared themselves as openly as did Jackson to
that end when they wrote to Governor Claiborne, finishing that
letter by saying, "I love my country and government *. I
would delight to see Mexico reduced, but I will die in the last
ditch before I will yield a foot or see the Union disunited."
Jefferson in 1808 favored taking "our own limits of Louis-
iana and the residue of the Floridas as reprisals for spoilations."
The existing conditions between France and England, however,
prompted him to still keep the,place and hold the favor of the
United States balancing between England and France.
During 1806 France desired to secure a settlement of the
Spanish-American disputes and arrange a sale of the Floridas.
Spain then was in most desperate financial straits.
The Spring of 1808 found Napoleon's armies in. Madrid.
The Kingdom of Spain was in arms; Charles and Ferdinand had
given up their rights to Napoleon. The whole country was in
a chaotic state. Joseph Bonaparte was declared King. DeOnis
succeeded D'Yrugo as Minister at Washington. But the United
States refused to recognize DeOnis at that time.
The commandant of American shipping had captured
Spanish vessels within the jurisdiction of East Florida., Ne-
groes and Indians were attacking Florida and preventing the
landing of provisions for the Province. The Embargo Act
forbidding exportation by land and sea had shut off supplies
from Florida, which was causing untold hardships on the part
of the Spanish. Service men of the armyand the navy of the -
United States were violating the neutrality--it seemed that


there never would be peace for Florida.
The expected war with England had arrived; the acts of
the British in seizing American vessels, the embargoes placed
on the ports, the imprisonment of American sailors-; the insults
to the American flag, were England's making, caused from
the jealousies chiefly growing out of the progress the young
Republic had made as a Maritime nation and the ambitions she
held for the Mississippi Valley, Florida and Mexico expansion.
Jealous of friendship that was growing year by year between
France and the United- States, she attempted to carry on a
naval conflict and test the strength of the American Merchant
The United States was now virtually at war with Spain
as far as Florida and Texas were concerned, so with the event
of 1812 every intelligent American realized that the vessels and
the forts, the coast defenses and the army were called upon to
do their utmost to repel British invasion along the North
Atlantitic and repel the^ attempts at landing in the South
Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; while it was also necessary
to thoroughly protect with land forces the frontier of the South
and the Southwest, some'undertaking for the Americans w..;
this new task incumbent upon them.
The flower of the land responded to the call for the defense
of the colors. Able bodied vigorous young manhood, capable of
the most strenuous campaign, hardy and brave, were those
sons of the Revolutionary begetting, born at the close of a
war which was filled with patriotism, to the overflowing; they
took up the standard, paternal by their fathers and mothers and
bore it aloft, determined that those colors should again be
victorious. The love of liberty and the freedom of action en-
joyed then by those people was a daily blessing. The very air
was charged with patriotism and the love, of danger and adven-
ture ran rife through the length and breadth of the land.
lachicola and St. Marks were destined to play a prominent part
in the events that were about to take place. The former had
been for some years a border'port on the South Atlantic, which
was in easy access to those ambitious young -Georgians and
Carolinians-those who craved adventure found the life there
filled to the overflowing with daily excitement. There was not
only the youth of the land that was mustered there for trading
opportunities resulting from smuggling and border running, but
there were also to be found men of riper years-ex-naval and
army officers and many of those officers had held high ranks in
the British, French, Spanish and American Governments-noted
pirates, free-booters, buccaneers, captains of privateers, Florida
Rangers and what not.
During the revolution and up to 1778, Fort.Tonyon, at the
mouth of the St. Mary's had been the scene of a vast amount
of shipping. Many privateers were fitted out at the Fort and
Amelia Island was crowded with British sailors, soldiers and
sea rovers, under the name of Florida Rangers.
Many of those revolutionary scenes were about to be re-


peated, augmented, however, with a larger and more desperate
force of men than had heretofore inhabited the shores along
the east coast. During 1811 Bernabue wrote "The Spanish
troubles in the hemisphere were largely due to the fact that the
United States did not restrict factious citizens."
General Mathews and Colonel MeKee were sent instruc-
tions during 1811 relative to conditions that prevailed east of
the Perdido River. It was feared by the United States that
owing to the unsettled condition of Spanish affairs that some
foreign power might attempt to seize East Florida and they
were instructed "that East Florida was to be held subject to
diplomatic negotiations then pending. These Commissioners
were directed to proceed with general observations which the
delicacy and importance of-the undertaking required. Should
Governor Folch or the local authority seem inclined to surrender
in an amicable manner, such surrender was to be accepted if
stipulation should be demanded for the future re-delivery of the
country, such a demand should be complied with which would
make an amicable surrender. Should there be room to en-
tertain a suspicion that designs of any existing foreign power
were placed on the Country and about to occupy it, then, in that
case you are to act with promptness and vigor, the powers with
which you are invested with by the President to preoccupy by
force the territory to the entire exclusion of any Government
that may be advancing to take possession of it." (Note -
Juan B. Bernabue, to Secretary of State, Vol. II., Spanish Min-
isters to Secretary of State.)
General Mathews proceeded to the frontier and when he
reached St. Mary's on the American side of the river he found
a condition of affairs which as he construed his instructions,
demanded that immediate possession be taken on the plea of self
preservation. "The river, he found, was alive with British ship-
ping, engaged in smuggling goods into the United States in
manifest violation of the non-impoltation law. Amelia Island
which was situated at the mouth ofthe St. Mary's River just
off the coast of Florida, was a notorious resort of smugglers.
Fernandina, the Spanish Town on the Island, was merely an
enter port for their illicit trade. Spanish authority existed
there more in fiction than in fact. No law of any kind was in
force." (Note-Vol. XVI. Domestic Letters p. 1. Robert Smith
to General George Mathews and Col. John McKee, Jan. 26,
After General Mathews had decided "quiet possession" was
impossible and the proofs of illegal traffic were far too profit-
able to tamely surrender and believing that the Country was to
be taken anyway, he advised that force be resorted to, as the
actions were of sufficient proof. The people of East Florida, he
argued, should be encouraged to revolt and declare the province
independent and then apply for annexation to the United States.
Two hundred rifles, fifty horses and swords would be necessary,
and he would guarantee that they reached the people without
compromising the United States.
Senator William H. Crawford, of Georgia, was informed


more fully by, General Mathews and the Senator communicated
with President.Madison. There were delays and Gen. Mathews
mistaking silence for consent began to organize the revolution
and the formation of a,new, local authority friendly to the
United States. For. this kind of army the country along the
St. Mary's was, ripe. 'There were filibusters, desperate charac-
ters, criminals, jumpers, buccaneers and outlaws ready for any
kind of a scrap.
The slave and cattle stealing raids into the Indian country
of Florida had long since been going on under the guise of the
"Moccazin Boys," all rendering the Spanish Government power-
less to protect the interests of the Georgia planters and .then
there were mqny of the subjects of Spain living in Florida who
were dissatisfied.
Morro Castle, at Havana, had given up General John
McIntosh, whom they had imprisoned for several years and who
upon arriving at the St John's river (his former home)
swore vengeance upon the Spanish and after collecting his band
of Florida Rangers, burned a small Spanish Post at Cow Ford.
He knew the inner conditions of Florida had been unsuccessful
in getting along with the Indians; had carried on before his
arrest and imprisonment an extensive plantation and saw mill.
He had a profit sharing contract to get out lumber and naval
stores; he would join General Mathews because of his, punish-
ment at the hands of Spain. So with the Postmaster, at St.
Mary's and the United States Deputy Marshal, whom he desired
in the undertaking, he agreed to put in everything he had for
the "Sacred Cause" provided that the United States would
make good any losses he might sustain. A meeting of patriots
was assembled near St. Mary's River during the early spring
of 1812; they organized themselves as a Republican organiza-
tion for the administration of Florida. General John H. McIn-
tosh was chosen Governor of the Republic of Florida and Col.
Ashley was made military chief on March 10. Everything was
ready for a decisive move.


THE PORT OF .FERNANDINA since 1770 had been pros-
perous. The deep water sheltered harbor, on the St. Mary's, at the
mouth of the Amelia River, in Cumberland Sound, and for two
miles up the Amelia to the docks (south) gave the vessels moving
in and out of those waters, ample roadstead room. The water was
sufficiently deep in Cumberland Sound, along the Florida Shore, to
berth and to lay at anchor more than one hundred and fifty of
the type of vessels in use during those days.
Amelia Island extending from Cumberland to Nassau Sound,
a distance of about eight miles, of from one and a half to three
miles in width, with the inside passage for light draft boats to
navigate between Cumberland and Nassau Sounds offered the
best of sheltered and obscure movements for those trading vessels
that were in the early days running the frontier. The St. John's
River only eighteen miles South, afforded another refuge, but the
water then at the Bar of the St. John's and at St. Augustine was
not as deep as it was at the mouth of the St. Mary's.
For forty years, from 1870 up to this date, 1811, it was not
an unusual sight to see as many as one hundred and fifty ships
along the Florida shores, in Cumberland Sound, St. Mary's and
Amelia Rivers. Trading was brisk; there were many warehouses
on the Amelia River and the shops along the main thoroughfares
leading from that River east to the Beach were doing at intervals,
a most thriving business since the embargo was on. The trading
was spasmodic, it would come and go with the movements of the
vessels and the entrance and exit of mariners, the soldiers and
There are some writers who have made "much ado" about
the scenes enacted on Amelia Island during the period before
and since the Revolution and even up to the day that Governor
Coppinger delivered Florida to the United States, July 10, 1821,
but when one comes to analyze the writings of those authors
and study the character and the life work of those men and
women; such a digest will convince a man familiar with the sea
that they were lacking in the knowledge of and the acquaintance
with maritime affairs of the age in which they wrote.
In order to be able to fully judge the doings of a port, the
export and import business, the operations of a vessel and the
life of a seafaring man, one must have lived that life. If.so en-
joyed and that person has been a student of American naval
history, why then he will understand and will be able to apply
the knowledge of his day applied to the sea in other days. There-
fore, it seems that the most of the historiahis who have written
on Florida's early history have not been familiar with the sea and
the environments upon which they have written.
There are events that are copied from one historian to
another, each taking it for granted that the event must be correct
because several historians have made the same statement of facts
and then there is nearly always an axe to grind; each writer has


an object in bringing to the fore front certain features of those
events (whether great or small) in order to establish a certain
point he wishes to emphasize and to gain a goal he is striving for.
Such an ambition is not objectionable just so long as that
event can be thoroughly established from authentic records on
file in the Government, State and City institutions.
The matter of judging the record of events, the knowledge
of the person (if a marine subject regarding the happening if
on shore, the interior or aboard ships, must be taken into consid-
eration) and if pertaining to that kind of history, must neces-
sarily be judged by the reader.
Florida from its very beginning, has been misunderstood by
most writers. The very fact that there has been more copying
from writings rather than from personal observation and ex-
tended residence in the State, is told in the snap judgment ap-
parently given in much we read upon-the description of cli-
mate and health giving qualities of the hills, the valleys and
the sea shore throughout the entire length and breadth of the
But we will continue with the colonial period and talk
about climate and health later.
The location of the Peninsula of Florida and the main land
on the Atlantic and on the Gulf of Mexico, being not more than
seventy-five miles from the sea at any given point and having
a shore line of fourteen hundred miles, makes it in every respect
a maritime state. It was so considered by all powers during the
colonial days and is also so considered today. In view of that
fact and lest we forget, let us try to fully understand the sen-
timents that were held by those men of Georgia who were at
heart good citizens of America and who were doing what they
thought was right (comparing the doings of those days as car-
ried on by the maritime powers) in order to acquire that shore
line from the St. Mary's River to the Perdido.
For this very purpose we have already written about the
history of those Buccaneers who preyed upon the shipping of the
West Indies and elsewhere, of what their accomplishments con-
sisted. How they were received by the rulers of their Govern-
ment; how that in the making of the maritime power of any
one nation the matter of force and might had to take the place
of right or the wrong-personal scruples as regards one's. con-
science was by the force of circumstances forgotten. Life be-
came an existence of the survival of the fittest; it was dog kill
dog, or remain dormant and be swallowed up in the onrush of the
barbarians. Self defense against a greedy mass of humans all
striving to get the best plums hanging on the trees. A game
of chance, of go get it and grab it. Such were the conditions
when the earth's surface of the Western Hemisphere contained
but a handful of white inhabitants.
Those who were able to have settled in greater numbers in
a certain given territory and to have developed that territory
to a larger degree of success than another nationality, why then
should not those who have demonstrated their superior ability to
fight to gain possession of their neighbors who were less adapt-


ed for the undertaking and who did not make the showing and
who also were in the minority.
Whatever detrimental may have been said by the writers of
other nations, or as far as that goes, by the writers of this coun-
try, regarding the actions of Southern English planters towards
Spanish Florida cuts but little figure when we come to compare
the whole business with the marine power towards which all
Those doings were centered. And we believe that when events are
Understood in this light and from such a view point that those
not prejudiced will agree that every man in the South acted in
good faith and also that through his everlasting activities to the
end of staple government that he and they alone were responsible
for' giving- to this Country one most valuable fourteen hundred
miles of water front property possessed by the United States.
Before the Revolution the American people revolted against
the taxes that were imposed upon them by Great Britain. Pitt,
the greatest of English statesmen, said that the American col-
onies should not be taxed. The Boston massacre and the Boston
Tea Party followed, but those demonstrations did not happen un-
til long after the smuggling of goods was carried on. Ever since
the beginning, excessive taxation leads to a plan that may be able
to avoid altogether or lessen such taxation. Laws that do not
meet the approval of a majority of the people (no matter how
they may be enacted) will not be lived up to and in that case it
becomes a mighty hard task to inforce such laws. Officers en-
gaged by the Government for the purpose of inforcing laws that
are not popular are, as a rule, not successful in the administra-
tion of their sworn duties.
SThe smuggling of goods across the frontier before the Rev-
olution was not possible only at Fernandina and along the Gulf of
Mexico. England controlled the entire North Atlantic so those
colonies of the north had but little chance to traffic in the smug-
gled goods obtained from the pirates or from Spanish posses-
sions, but those colonies bordering on the South Atlantic and
the Gulf did have that opportunity and had the northern colonies
the same chance they no doubt would have purchased and dealt in
those commodities.
The Rhode Island slave and rum runners, inaugurated after
the Revolution, carried on most of their traffic in the South.
However, Providence was a large rum market and most of the
merchants of that port made their fortunes dealing in rum and
slaves, carrying on their operations up to 1850. It is not neces-
sary to go into all the details of traffic in smuggled goods that
were received in New Orleans and Fernandina before the
Revolution. The trade at Fernandina, however, was probably
the larger of the two ports, amounting to a vast sum of money.
It is impossible to state the extent of the transactions. The
trade, however, between Cuba and Fernandina as far as the
consumption of the Spanish subjects were concerned, was not as
as large as that trade in commodities consumed in St. Augustine.
There was considerable traffic going on between St. Augus-
tine and Fernandina during the Revolution, particularly so
while the English occupied the latter port in conjunction with St.


Augustine, but the great volume of that kind of commerce did not
go to Fernandina until the Spanish reoccupied the country after
the British moved,out.
The administration of Fernandina under Don Jose Lopez
was probably the most lucrative of any of the Spaniards who held
that important post. It was the duty of those Spaniards domi-
ciled at Fernandina to administer the laws of Spain under the
supervision of the Governor at St. Augustine and the Governor
at St. Augustine (dependent upon his supplies from Havana) was
somewhat under the administration of the Governor of Cuba-
the same being the case with the Governor at Pensacola-he,
too, had to look to Havana for his supplies.
General Lopez' administration of Fernandina was fought
with great difficulties, it is not proven that he trafficed with the
border runners; he had a small garrison and was located in the
old part of the town about four miles from the entrance to Cum-
berland Sound, below his settlement was a shore-line to the beach,
on the north end of Amelia Island and that beach front extended
to Nassau Sound, a distance of about eight miles. From the
beach to Ameila River the distance was about two miles and
there was an inland waterway connecting the two sounds and
then there was the Florida shore extending west along the St.
Mary's River, a most admirable place for the congregation of
smugglers and buccaneers.
It is estimated that there were several hundred privateers
fitted out in those waters under the nose of the fort occupied
by Lopez, and it is evident that had he been inclined to oppose
these operations he would have been powerless to do so with
the larger number opposing him. Trade from Cuba was car-
ried on-trade from buccaneers and from pirates ships was
dealt in; the Cuban trade at least must have been accounted
for in some way, but it is impossible to estimate it, as much as we
have tried to do so.
On the Island (Beach side) there were several settlements
which extended the entire distance of eight miles, and about one
half west towards the River. There were besides the Spanish
population, men and women of English, American and French
ancestry-some negroes and a few Indians. At times life was
gay. Naval ex-officers of the nationalities, as indicated, were
often rubbing elbows with the captains of privateers, buccan-
eers, slave runners, pirates, ex-military officers of the line, ad-
venturers and soldiers of fortune, seamen and types of the lower
class. A conglomerate mass of adventurous spirits -ever ready
for a fight, a game of chance, a carousal-a happy-go-lucky lot
of people, out to do any kind of a job where danger lurked and
the devil take the hindmost man.
Let us say that those people were no different than many
that congregated in New Orleans, Havana and other ports of
the world. Those who followed the sea were accustomed to a
rough life, but many who had rough exteriors had finer feelings
buried beneath the tan and tar stain of the ship's deck. There
were well educated men among those cosmopolites. The whole
world was taking a chance, many of these men had had their


fling; some had failed through one cause or another ; some were
Sno longer acceptable to Governments they wished to serve and
Some were anxious to set up Governments of their own.
When the news reached Fernandina that General McIntosh
was marching overland to that place these people hailed his com-
ing with delight and were eager to join in any adventure with
him if their ships could be brought into play.
On the 10th of March, 1812, General McIntosh crossed the
St. Mary's River on Florida soil, about five miles north of Fernan-
dina and selected a camping ground on a bluff overlooking the
river, stacked their arms and to a tree suspended a flag they had
designed consisting of a soldier in the attitude of charging with
bayonet fixed. The field of the flag was white and the inscription
on it was "Salus populi-suprema lex."
It was on the fifteenth of March that Colonel Ashley sent
a messenger to General Lopez with an ultimatum to surrender
the Fort, stating that they had taken the country from the St.
Mary's to the St. John's River and now demanded his post.
The day previous to the arrival of General McIntosh on
the St. Mary's there appeared in the roadstead of Cumberland
Sound (Florida side) a fleet of nine gunboats flying the Stars
and Stripes. This squadron was under the command of Com-
mander Hugh Campbell, who immediately went ashore and in-
formed General Lopez that he came for the purpose of breaking
up the smuggling that was going on in the port of Fernandlina
in violation of the non-importation law.
General Lopez, much excited, despatched one of his aides
to St. Augustine to inform the Governor of the arrival of an Am-
erican fleet in the harbor to inforce the non-importation act and
to ask him. for instructions; but the Lopez messenger was seized
by McIntosh's men, therefore the message was not delivered. Not
hearing from his messenger and now having a force demanding
his surrender, he sent word to Commander Campbell, asking him
if he had orders to assist Colonel Ashley in the undertaking.
The Commander referred him to General Matthews. Lopez
Then dispatched a messenger to Major Lavee, in command of the
American troops at Point Peter, asking him if he was implicated
in the movement of the insurgents. Major Lavee replied he
was not. However, General Mathews was at Point Peter at the
time the Messenger arrived.
General Lopez refused to surrender and demanded a con-
ference to treat with the United States. This General McIntosh
agreed to, provided patriots were included in the conference, so
a meeting of Spanish, Americans and Patriots was held the next
day at the camp of the Patriots on Belle River. There was
nothing satisfactory to Lopez accomplished at the meeting and
when his messenger arrived at the Fort the Patriots in large
numbers were coming down the river in boats. Viewing their
movements and the sight of the fleet of gun boats drawn up in
line with guni trained to enforce the non-importation law, Gener-
al Lopez surrendered the fort. There were with the Governor
General in the fort at the time of the surrender, ten soldiers who
marched out and stacked their arms.


The Patriots took charge of the Prisoners and General Mc-
Intosh received the sword of General Lopez, pending articles of
capitulation, and he then hauled down the Spanish flag and ran
up the Patriot's banner and took Florida in the name of the
Two days later, March 17th, 1812, the Articles of Capitula-
tion were entered into which stipulated the Patriots should sur-
render to the United States and should be exempt from the oper-
ation of the Non-importation Act. The following day, the
patriot flag was lowered and the American flag took its place and
a detachment of U. S. Marines were doing duty at the Fort.
What happened at Fernandina was for the good of Spain
as well as for the benefit of the Americans. The United States
could not collect the indemnities accruing from the shipping
seized and destroyed by Spain, during the French War, which run
into a colossal amount, nor could the United States collect its
damages and the vast sum due her resulting from the embargo
placed on ships and commerce in the Mississippi River, one-half
of which amounted to more than any figures placed by France
on the value of Florida.
On the 19th of March, leaving some of the patriots at Camp
Belle, the main body started their march across the St. John's
River to St. Augustine. They captured and tobk Fort Moosa, but
were driven off by a Spanish gun boat; they took up their quar-
ters about two miles from the Fort, where they started a seige on
St. Augustine, but were forced to retire to the St. John's, and
there encamped.
General Mathews was relieved from further duties in the
transaction and Governor Mitchell, of Georgia, was appointed in
his place and instructed to withdraw the American fleet from
Cumberland Sound if, on reaching the St. Mary's, he saw no
prospect of foreign occupation and to restore Amelia Island and
take care of the troops General Mathews had engaged to embark
in the revolution and see that they were not molested or harmed.
Accepting the responsibility Governor Mitchell proceeded to
the St. Mary's, there to-find affairs in a serious condition. The
Patriots firmly declined to retire and adjourning to' their head-
quarters near St. Augustine, they issued a call for'additional re-
cruits and pledged their honor not to lay down their arms until
absolute independence had been won. Without money they prom-
ised to pay all volunteers in land or such property as might be
captured from the enemies.
The Governor of Florida declined to make any agreement
with Governor Mitchell for the immunity of those self seeking
patriots. Alarmed by the attack upon the revolutionists, indig-
nant at the refusal of Governor Estrador of St. Augustine, to
accept the proffered'agreement, and desirous of ousting Spain
from the Province, Governor Mitchell determined upon bold
measures and sent to Savannah for aid.
The Republic Blues and the Savannah Volunteer Guard
mobolized and at once set out on march to the St. Mary's. Upon
their arrival there, an express messenger also arrived, spreading
the news of America's declaration of war upon England.


S England had secretly employed the Creek and other Indians
to massacre the white population and they were -already taking
to the war path. A fleet of seventeen British ships lay off the east
coast at anchor, with a large quantity of floating timber, cut for
the use of the British navy. The ships and the timber were at
once pursued and captured by Campbell's fleet.
The State of Georgia issued a call for more troops. One
*hundred young men from Savannah quickly responded. The
State Legislature passed an Act providing for a state force to war
against the Indians and reduce St. Augustine. They further
resolved that the occupation of East Florida was essential for
the safety of the people of the State of Georgia.
Governor Mitchell, having, performed his duties, was re-
leased by President Madison with a letter of thanks for the way
he had handled this most delicate and important transaction; and
for his ability and judgment in so doing. Governor Mitchell was
succeeded for the Government by General Thomas Pinckney,
whose duty it was to take possession of the Province of Florida
through peaceable surrender and otherwise, provided he thought
some foreign power was about to seize it.
The minds of the people of Georgia, Carolina and the Miss-
issippi Valley were engrossed upon the doings of the English, the
Indians and the Spaniards. West Florida had been settled upon
as belonging to the United States: That portion South of the
S31st degree and between the Mississippi and Pearl Rivers as be-
Slonging to Louisiana and that portion between the Pearl and Per-
dido as annexed to the Mississippi territory as for East Florida
from the Perdido (east) the United States would allow no power
Sto take it. Spain owed the United States more than the province
Swas worth (in dollars and cents) for spoilations and for the su-
pression of deposits at New Orleans, not to mention the sums
involved in their destruction of United States vessels.
S The war with England was on; Spain could not if she
wished, maintain order in Florida against the encroach of the
British who were already landing on Florida soil. The State
of Tennessee was preparing a militia of two thousand men for
the defense of the Gulf Coast Couhtry. The English fleet of
SWeathersford which had been hovering off the East Coast imme-
diately after declaration of war, set sail for Pensacola (prepara-
tions had all really been made with the Spaniards of that Port
and Indians had been employed.)
The harbor of Pensacola, the deepest (close in) and largest
body of water in the Gulf of Mexico (having a strip of.land
known as Santa Rosa Island with an inland waterway protect-
ing its entrance on the east and the Perdido River on the west,
with twelve miles long and three miles wide of water, which was
more than 25 feet deep, with many avenues for operations leading
to the North and the East, with Forts St. Michael and Barrancas
near its entrance to the Gulf) offered what the English thought
Should answer their purpose towards carrying out their plans of
instructing and drilling recruits for their vessels and the opera-
tions on land.
The Governor of Cuba had instructed the Governor General


of Pensacola not to allow the British fleet to enter the Bay, but
he was powerless to resist the invasion of the English-in fact,
the port of Pensacola was disorganized. There were, since the
United States had declared the Perdido River the eastern'border
of Mississippi, a class of seafaring men there of much the same
type as were found at Fernandina, if anything worse, because
there were many half breed Indians who had been slave runners
into Georgia (it is stated that a band of these Indians had stolen
as many as a thousand slaves from the planters of Georgia, bring-
ing them into the Pensacola country). The port knew its environ-
ments were used for smuggling and there were numbers of
Pirates that operated from those environments, preying upon the
shipping in the Gulf of Mexico.
This British fleet of fighting ships that entered the Port of
Pensacola consisted of Captain Percy, commanding the sloops,
Hermes, Sophia, Childers and Carron. The Hermes had
twenty-two guns, Sophia, twenty guns, 'and the Childers and
Carron eighteen guns, each, and Major Edward Nicholls, in
charge of the marines, consisting of four officers, eleven non-
commissioned officers; ninety-seven marines. They used two
howitzers, had a thousand stand of arms and three thousand suits
of clothing for recruits.
Captain Percy brought his vessels up under the guns of the
Forts and Major Nicholls landed his marines and seized Forts
St. Michael and Barrancas, without a shot being fired. He then
hoisted the British Flag beside that of Spain; constructed bar-
racks for his marines and domiciled himself in the Governor's
house, which he used as his quarters and from there he com-
menced to issue proclamations, chiefly to the people of Louisiana
and Kentucky, despatching these proclamations by carriers.
Some of those proclamations beseeched the people to give up
the standard of the United States before it was too late; that
their institutions would not endure; asked them to return to the
flag of their fathers-the flag which would protect them for all
time. In some of his proclamations he called the Americans
"Brawlers for Liberty", etc. etc. He was at the same time ar-
ranging for the. Indians to massacre men, women and children.
Captain Woodbine (one of Nicholl's officers) at once pre-
pared to receive the Indians (who had been previously hired to
join them) some seven hundred warriors, in full war paint and
feathers arrived. The Captain attempted to drill these aborig-
ines after he made an effort to put uniforms on them and having
given them British rifles; marching on the Common of Pensacola
was the order of the day.
Captain Percy, unable to enlist the sailors thereabouts, de-
cided to dispatch the gunboat Sophia to Barratarian Island. and
there endeavor to secure the services of Jean Lafitte and his
privateers, but Jean Lafitte would not join the British against the
Americans, no matter what Captain Percy might offer.
The Indians of Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Kentucky and
Alabama were now supplied with money, rum and rifles. The
British had settled on a definite plan of action and having been
able for years to handle the Indians better than the Spaniards,


Preparation for carrying out these designs was begun.
The Creeks, the Chickamaws, the Choctaws, had listened to
the eloquence of Tecumseh. The Creeks, were ready for action-
they were swarming all the way from St. Mark's to Pensacola,
and inland, through the Apalachicola and Chattahoochee Rivers
into Alabama.
The white people commenced to build stockades to resist
what was apparent, an Indian uprising of greater magnitude
than heretofore undertaken. Among those stockades so built
by the Americans was Fort Mimms located ten miles above
the junction of the Alabama and the Tombigbee rivers. At this
stockade, on the thirteenth of August, over five hundred terri-
fled men, women and children took refuge to escape a herd of
wild, drunken, blood thirsty Creeks, bent on a massacre of Amer-
icans, but the stockade could not resist the onslaught of the red
demons of hell's fire incarnate, so they swarmed into the stockade
and amid one of the most revolting scenes of barbaric savagery
known in history those red skins, some in uniform, some with
war paint and feathers, carrying rifles, tomahawks and knives,
crazed for scalps and hideous butchery of the human body of the
whites, massacred the entire five hundred (save but two young
girls whom they took into custody)-men, women, children and
babies all went down alike, either by shot, tomahawk or the
knife, and then scalping and cutting of them up commenced-to
make the scene more horrible, they set fire to the stockade,
burning alive those who were not yet dead.
The news of the massacre of Fort Mimms spread like wild
fire throughout the South and cries for Andrew Jackson to
revenge the wrongs inflicted by the Indians and the Spaniards
were rife everywhere.
General Jackson of Tennessee, in command of part of three
regiments of regulars and volunteers, started for Mobile, full
of vengeance for the acts of the Indians, prejudiced against the
Spaniards, loyal and patriotic with a love of Country and a
Strong devotion to duty, undertook a campaign of warfare that
won for him, as it proved later, the presidency of the United
States and everlasting fame as one the greatest fighting Generals
of his time.
Captain Percy had determined on attacking Mobile. Fort
Bowyr, protecting Mobile Bay, was in command of Major Wil-
.liam Lawrence, which had only eight out of twenty guns that
were serviceable.. Captain Percy formed his fleet in battle line
with his ship Hermes in the lead, and proceeded to attack the
Fort. At about four o'clock in the afternoon the fleet entered the
channel leading into the Bay and dropped anchor off the fort.
(Percy believed that the fort was so poorly equipped that the
Americans would not fire.) A battle, however, was presently on
Sand within a half hour the Hermes had her cable cut by a shot
from the Fort. The vessel drifted broadside down stream ex-
posed to the fire of the fort, and presently ran aground. The
British deserted the ship and set fire to her. The Marines and
Indians advancing on shore, took a hasty retreat and the other
Ships hove to and, sailed back to Pensacola.


General Jackson, taking matters into his own-hands, deter-
mined to.make a forced march to Pensacola, destroy that port in
Sa night attack and retire back to Mobile. He, therefore, set out
with his entire command, arriving there in the evening. He
decided to rest his army and attack the Port in the morning of
November 6th, 1814. With his troops drawn up in line he pre-
pared to charge the Port. A messenger was despatched to the
Governor to surrender, which he refused to do, and opened fire
from two batteries. The charge of Jackson's troops through the
streets of Pensacola set terror into the hearts of the Spaniards
as well as some of the British marines. The Governor surren-
dered the Port to Jackson. The British marines fired upon the
the American troops while Jackson was receiving surrender of
the Spanish commander. They were immediately repulsed, how-
ever, and driven to their ships, where with their Indians, they
set sail, leaving the port. Jackson then returned -to Mobile and
prepared for his campaign at New Orleans.
General Jackson, by his act with United States troops, had
openly attacked Spain, but he knew what he was doing; he was
thoroughly conversant with the entire situation. At any rate,
he was willing to take the chances, whatever they might be.
There had at last a chance come to him to fight the Spaniards
and the whole matter was a tame affair to his clear visioned mind.
The British fleet, under Captain Percy and Major Nicholls, sailed
from Pensacola to Apalachicola Bay, where the doings of the
future connected with St. Mark's and a return to the locality
of the St. John's River will conclude the events up to the year
1821, when the United States formally takes over Florida in
accordance with a treaty which had been so much suoght during
the last forty years. We will however, .state, that much of
the blood shed by the white people at the hands of the Indians
probably would have been prevented had the English, through the
War of 1812, kept their hands off of Florida.
The British upon arriving at Apalachicola, carried on the
Indian campaign for a while from that port, but they had not
given up their base in Pensacola. Their operations in this
vicinity gained the desired results; they not only got the Indians
in a thoroughly bloodthirsty state, but they succeeded in working
the negroes into a war on the whites.
About one thousand runaway negroes were inhabiting the
Country along the Apalachicola River, who were now making
raids on the plantations in Georgia. There were some of these
negroes, however, who turned on the British, and established a
Fort known as Fort Negro. However, the negro doings were
infinitesimal as compared with the Indian outrages. Resulting
in the Foulton Skirmish, the British squadron was finally driven
out of Apalachicola Bay by Captain McKeever in command of
an American fleet, the English taking refuge in Pensacola.
The call on General Jackson to clean up the Indian and
negro uprisings in the Aplachicola Bay region resulted in the
General leaving Tennessee with an army of one thousand caval-
ry regulars and two thousand foot volunteers. He assembled
his men at Fort Scott and then moved on to St. Mark's, but before


leaving Fort Scott, General Jackson dispatched a letter to Cap-
tain McKeever, then at St. Mark's under orders of the General.
The order in part is as follows:
"It is reported to me that Francis or Hills-Hago and Reter
McQueen,prophets who excited the red skins in their late war
against the United States are now exciting the Seminoles to
similar acts of hostility, are at or near the neighborhood of St.
Mark's. United with them it is stated that Woodbine, Arbuth-
not and other foreigners have assembled a motley crew of bri-
gands-slaves enticed away from their masters, citizens of the
United States, or stolen during the late conflict with Great Brit-
ain. It is all important that these men should be captured and
made examples of, and it is my belief that on the approach of
my army they will attempt to escape to some of the sea islands
*. You will, therefore, cruise along the coast, eastwardly,
and as I advance, capture and make prisoners all, or every person,
or description of persons, white, red or black, with all their goods,
chattels and effects, together with all crafts, vessels or means of
transportation by water *. Any of the subjects of catholic
majesty sailing to St. Mark's, may be permitted freely to enter
the said river. But none to pass out unless after an examination
it may be made to appear that they have not been attached to
or in any wise aided and abetted our common enemy. I shall
march this day in eight days will reach St. Mark's, where I shall
expect to communicate with you in the Bay."
After General Jackson's splendid action during his last cam-
paign in the Gulf of Mexico, a straight forward letter such as
Captain McKeever received from this intrepid General is thor-
oughly characteristic of him.
i During General Jackson's march to the sea, among other
wild demonstrations of the lawlessness of the savages, he came
Supon Indians attempting to steal cattle and ordered the Indians
killed, but some escaped towards St. Mark's. (Up to the time
that General Jackson reached St. Mark's, England had not dis-
avowed the acts of Colonel Nicholls and the Indian chiefs the
Colonel had shipped to England.) The General arrived at Foul-
ton on April 6th, 1818 and after viewing a tatum pole loaded
With the scalps of Americans (some of which were a year old),
he ordered the Indian village burned, and then dispatched an
officer to wait on Don Francisco Casa Y. Luengo, then in com-
mand of the Fort at St. Mark's, stating that he would pass
through his town with his army. This Spanish Commandant re-
fused permission until he -could get authority from Pensacola.
This was April 7th. The General immediately took the Fort,
lowered the Spanish flag and hoisted the Stars and Stripes. He
quartered his troops within the fortress and proceeded to have all
people in the town brought before him. The General was anxious
to find Alexander Arbuthnot, a Scotchman, who was an Indian
trader (in furs) and secretary to the Creek Chief. Captain
McKeever then sent two prisoners he had captured, Francis and
Himallmico, who were imprisoned and a guard put over them.
He then proceeded to the Seminole Village "Billy Bowlegs"
(chief protector of negroes, half breeds and trafficer.) In form-


ing his army for a charge on this village, he found that the place
had been deserted and most of it burnt. He, however, located and
took prisoners the white men he was looking for, consisting of
Arburthnot and Robert Ambrister, thus making four prisoners
in all.
A court was called among the officers of the General's com-
mand. Arbuthnot had three charges against him. First,inciting
the Creeks to war against the United States; Second, acting as
a spy and supplying them with ammunition; Third, inciting the
Indians to murder two Americans, William Hambly and Edmund
Doyle. Ambrister was charged with aiding the enemy and mak-
ing war on the United States, in Florida, on Woodbine's bus-
iness, etc. etc. They were all found guilty and ordered executed.
From the yard arm of a ship and in front of a firing squad, the
four prisoners were put to death. The execution of Arbuthnot,
in particular, caused considerable comment in England and the
United States also; in fact there was quite a controversy over
the whole matter, but those who knew General Jackson best had
faith in him and in the way-he did things for the good of Amer-
After the unfortunate, but probably necessary action on
the part of the commanding officer, word was transmitted to
General Jackson that there were some five hundred hostile In-
dians receiving friendly asylum in the Port of Pensacola. Jack-
son then decided to proceed to that port. He, there-
fore, despatched Captain McKeever by water and took up his
march overland with his-army.
Before reaching there the General was met by one of
the Governor's Aids who warned him not to proceed further. At
that very time the General was thinking of Stokes and his family,
who were murdered in consequence of Pensacola. When Pen-
sacola was reached the Indians had fled. There was no opposi-
tion so the Port was again captured by Jackson.
Other than breaking up a lot of ring leaders and possibly
putting off another serious immediate Indian outbreak, the cam-
paign of Jackson's march to the sea was without an event.
Since there had been so much to occupy their attention
along the Gulf of Mexico, from St. Mark's to Mobile, the doings
from the St. Mary's to the San Sebastian were held in abeyance,
in order to conclude the Second Epoch of this book, terminating
from where it started.
During 1812 and up to 1821, Fernandina continued as a port
of the Privateers. There were complaints that the ships Revenge
and Saratoga, the former under the command of Captain Butler,
were preying upon Spanish shipping. The East Florida Patriots
were actively engaged in arranging matters along the St. John's
and St. Mary's rivers.
The exploits of General Mirnada who sailed from
New York to Cartagena in 1806 produced a stimulant
for those filibustering expeditions which were being fitted out
for Texas and Mexico and other places. The privateers, The
Fairy, the Romp, the Chasseur, The Comment-these vessels
often changed their names. Colonel Morales had-succeeded Gen-


Serial Lopez in Fernandina and was viewing about the same daily
scenes that his predecessor witnessed, only there was a few
more privateers in port and during Morale's command some had
Appeared from South America for refitting out.
One day in June, 1817, there appeared off the Fort at Fer-
nandina a fleet of vessels with guns trained upon the fort and the
noted George McGregor, fresh from prosperous raids upon Span-
ish South American and Mexican towns and shipping, and who
claimed to be a brother-in-law of General Simon Boliver of
South America and having recruited in Baltimore an expedition
to wrest the Floridas from Spain; the Captain had arrived on the
scene of his adventure, He immediately demanded of Morales the
surrender of Fernandina in the name of the Supreme Government
of Mexico, of which he claimed to be Commander in Chief; adding
New Granada and Venezuela to his possessions. He had pre-
'pared badges, seals, ribbons and all the paraphanalia to start up a
Government in Florida along "modern" lines. Morales surren-
dered the Fort and moved to St. Augustine and McGregor raised
the Mexican flag and took possession of the St. John's and estab-
lished a blockade of the territory. The patriots of Florida did
not rally around the standard of McGregor as he thought they
would. He, therefore, started in to hold entertainments for the
inhabitants of Fernandina, using some of his own styled money.
When September arrived after four months of his rule in
Fernandina, he set sail for New Providence (the Bahamas) in
Quest of more recruits, leaving A. Hubbard, late Sheriff of New
York, to look after his "interests."
Within a month after McGregor sailed another Filibuster en-
tered the port of Fernandina. This man had been in San Domin-
go, Caitagenia, Mexico and other countries in quest of adventure
S and where a liberty standard would be appreciated. He heard
that there was a good opportunity to sacrifice a few of their lives
under the banner of Mexico, in Freedom's name for Florida
On October 4th Amelia Island passed into the hands of
General Aury and was declared a part of Mexico. With a few
weeks of this rule the United States Navy in conformity to a
Congressional Act ordering troops and ships to suppress 'the
liberation movement, entered Fernandina and demanded Aury
to surrender the Port, in which he forthwith complied. Thus
for a second time Fernandina was under the American flag, now
garrisoned by the United States in trust for the King of Spain.
The Indian uprising which took place soon after this event
was the cause of abandoning this port and it was finally left a
deserted village for several years.
General Jackson was again called upon in the defense of
Florida, but this time in a diplomatic way. Henry Clay was bit-
terly opposing the treaty of 1821 on the grounds of De Onis,
Spanish Minister, who had injected the Texas dispute into the
proposed treaty. However the treaty was signed July 10, 1821
and on that day the Spanish Flag was hauled down at San Marco
Castle, by Lieut. Robert Butler of the United States Army, the
territory having been delivered by Governor Coppinger, and the
Stars and Stripes hoisted for the first time on this fort during


over forty-five years of continual fighting between Spain and the
United States Governments.
The United States Congress did not have time to legislate
for Florida's Government before taking over the territory. A bill
for the Revenue laws was however enacted, regulating all reve-
nues, and other stipulations.
An American Governor General was required under the con-
ditions, to administer the affairs of the United States. General
Jackson was- appointed as the first Governor and it may be
said that he immediately got into a controversy with Gallara,
the Spanish Commissioner, over transfers of some Spanish pa-
pers, and in disobedience to his orders the General had Gallara
and some of his associates put in a calaboose. Jackson fought
hard for Florida and he was going to see that it was turned over
to the United States in accordance with her laws and usages.
So the United States acquired Florida, which has proven to
be one of the most strategical points in her entire coast line and
gave the territory the first real chance in her history to develop
under law and order. But the subsequent events proved that the
time for the growth of tlis wonderful land could not take place
for nearly fifty years to come. Florida was the first discovered
and the first settled north of the 24th degree, yet nearly every
state in the Union had grown to large proportions before she
had a chance to prove herself capable of maintaining a million

(End of Second Epoch)


Third Epoch


ninety-eight (seventy-seven years since Florida became a terri-
tory under United States laws and fifty-three years since her
Statehood), the Spanish domination that impeded the progress
of the State for over two centuries, was again rife in this part
of the World, but the effects of that Spanish rule were not at
this time destined to retard the progress of Florida, but rather
to the contrary benefit the development of the State. Cuba
was the scene and a great event was to be enacted.
A poor and depressed people, striving under the yoke of
.Spanish oppression had suffered under heavy taxation and un-
just laws, to a point of starvation. Famine was running ram-
pant over the Island. Thousands of men, women and children
were emaciated and well nigh starving to death for the want of
nourishing foods. A rebellion .had broken out, caused through
those sufferings, and General Wylerp had been despatched
to Cuba with a large army of Spanish troops for the purpose of
putting down that rebellion. The treatment of Wylei and his
soldiers towards those poor afflicted people and the'outrages
carried on by them, shocked the sensibilities of the people
throughout the civilized world. The United States was looked
upon to interfere with the administration of Wyler and, there-
fore, dispatched Captain Sigsbee, with the battleship "Maine,"
to Havana Harbor to investigate and report upon the conditions
prevalent in Cuba, and make recommendations to the United
States Government.
The cigar workers of Key West and Tampa were supplying
the newspapers of this Country with photographs showing actual
scenes that were being enacted and as they existed in Cuba.
When the United States Government did not act, fillibustering
expeditions were fitted out in New York, Baltimore and in
Florida. Among some of the vessels so engaged was the "Three
Friends ."This ship (though a large number of Government ves-
sels patrolled the coast of Florida) made several voyages, where-
in some of them were of an exciting nature, the "Three Friends"
was not captured. The sentiment of the American people was
for Cuban independence.
The blowing up of the battleship "Maine" while at anchor
in Havana Harbor, and the loss of 266 sailors and marines, turned
the eyes of the world on Cuban waters'and upon Florida, as the


nearest approach to that Island.
On April 11, 1898, Congress, at the-request of President Mc-
Kinley, declared war on Spain and asked for one hundred and
twenty-five thousand volunteers to augment our regular army
and to attack the Spanish Throne; it being necessary to first
drive the Spanish out of Cuba. Florida came to the fore as
a distributing point and for the encampment of troops awaiting
debarkation. Fernandina, Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West
were then scenes of great activities. Fernandina and Jack-
sonville had many regiments bivouaced; Key West was the
headquarters for the South Atlantic Squadron, and from Tampa
there sailed many transports and troop ships-over thirty of
such ships transported from Tampa to Cuba more than 12,000
troops. There were also activities at Pensacola.
Florida supplied her quota of one regiment and would have
gladly volunteered five times that number had there been a call
for movie.
The Spanish-American War had a wonderful stimulating ef-
feet upon the further development of Florida. It brought the
State more conspicuously than ever into the "lime light" of the
world, and those thousands and thousands of volunteers en-
camped here and passing through the State, brought the parents
and relations of the boys who were enlisted, and much of Florida
that had not been seen by those people of the United States
was viewed and looked upon most favorably.
After the battle of Santiago (Cuba) under Commodore
Sampson, July 3rd, 1898 and the Campaign in Porto Rico, under
General Miles, and Commodore Dewey's historic battle of Manilla
Bay, May 1st, 1898 (and* the signing of the treaty in Paris, De-
cember 10, 1898, as arranged by President Roosevelt, in which
Porto Rico and the Phillipines were ceded to the United States
and Cuba turned over to Estrada Palma, May 25, 1902, left under
SAmerican protectorship) there continued to be considerable in-
tercourse between Florida and Cuba, which has proven beneficial
to both.
These scenes of warfare in Cuba in connection with Spain
(1898) brings back to memory the struggles of Florida for her
existence. The wars and disastrous effects of them and other
causes, held Florida gripped by the arms of iron from which she
was unable to extricate herself-at least sufficiently to enjoy
peace and happiness in home life, so essential for steady and
healthy development.
The second term of William D. Bloxham, as Governor of
Florida, occurred in 1897, and during this, his second adminis-
tration (inaugurated during a financial panic) the State paid
off its bonded indebtedness to within. $260,600. All of the bonds
of 1871 were absorbed by the educational fund and an issue
of $200,000 borrowed in 1877 Was paid.
Modern Florida, the real progressive Florida, virtually took
its date of existence in 1877, when Hamilton Disson and his
associates of Philadelphia, (for the issuance of 4,000,000 acres
of "swamp and overflow land") paid off the debt of the State
to the United States Court. Wars had left the State bereft of


railroads, only their skeletons remained. In fact since 1821 the
Indian Wars, prevented but little headway to be made prior to
1860, and the years from 1865 to 1877 were consumed in rehabi-
litating what little progress that had been achieved since 1865.
Only twelve years of peace and that fraught with dire poverty.
There were perhaps a few years of semi-peace between 1821
and 1836, during the administrations of General Jackson and
William P. Duval-the first two territorial Governors. Think of
it-twenty-seven years of semi-peace in a territory that had
a first actual settlement of several thousand people in 1565, over
three hundred years before, and two hundred and fifty-six years
of that existence in warfare.
How few people ,even among those living here at present,
realize that Modern Florida is less than sixty-five years old
and too how few are there in the United States .who can under-
stand why the territory today is in such a primitive state.
In 1824 Tallahassee was surveyed and a Log Cabin erected
for the Capitol building. Colonel Murat, nephew of Napoleon,
had taken up his home there. General Lafayette had been deedei
a large tract of land (a township in this locality) by the Gov-
ernment, for his services in the American Revolution. The first
road built by the Government extended through Tallahassee,
from Pensacola to St. Augustine. In 1836 General R. K. Call
built the first railroad in the territory, which operated between
Tallahassee and St. Mark's. Among the first towns to be laid
out were Palatka (1821), Quincy, Monticello, Marianna, Key
West and Apalachicola. Jacksonville was laid out in 1816-first
known as Wacca Palatka and Cow Ford.
In 1825 a Scotchman by the name of Neil McLendon, came
to Florida from Wilmingtpn, N. C., and after two years pioneer-
ing the Euchree Valley (now Santa Rosa County) wrote the
following letter to a kinsman in North Carolina: "Come, I have
found a land teeming with production, abounding in game and
good grazing *. The woods are full of all sorts of grasses and
berries *. There is not better stock country to be found.
Water, pure and plenty, and nothing to create sickness." This
man was later with Major Dade, who was massacred by the
Indians at Fort King, near Tampa, December 1836.
During the Seminole War and while-General Richard K. Call
was Governor, a boat was fitted out at St. Mark's for an expedi-
tion in the big Wahoo Swamp, to rescue a large force of American
volunteers fighting in a block house, and (in seige) for some
time, Tallahassee must have had then a fair population. Ninety-
five men, under the command of Colonel Leigh Read went to
the rescue.
General Call before becoming Governor of Florida, had been
with General Jackson in those campaigns against the Indians,
was aid to Jackson in the battle of New Orleans; was a lawyer
and practiced in Tallahassee; was sent to Cuba by the Govern-
ment to secure important papers; was instrumental in securing
Government aid for road building and was the first advocate for
a deep draft canal, connectnig the waters of the Gulf of Mexico
with the South Atlantic. He served as a delegate to Congress in


1834. Judge Robert Raymond Reid succeeded him as Governor,
but when General Harrison was elected, General Call was again
made Governor, and it was through his efforts that St. Marks
became an important shipping port.
Generals Scott and Taylor both played a part in the Indian
fighting of Florida. General Taylor had two years of warfare
on the Peninsula, up to the time he was released by General
Worth in 1841, and did most effective work towards conquering
the Indians.
The development of St. Joseph, one of the most important
waterway towns in Florida in 1638, may be attributed to the
efforts of Governor Branch, who succeeded Governor Call, but
there was no man in Florida during those early days who had
the vision of shipping, vessel construction and railroad building,
comparable with Governor Call, and there were but few men in
America (during his active life) who had more ability and force
of character-Jackson and Call were life-long friends, which
proves to the average mind the sterling character of General
The necessity of transportation (overland) to connect with
the ports and the construction of canals was early thought of by
the legislators of the State. Expansion so much needed, could
only take place through such development and when those mat-
ters were fully weighed an Internal Improvement Fund was de-
cided upon. The "Swamp and Overflow lands" offered an oppor-
tunity towards raising money for the purpose of railroad and
canal building, so $3,597,000 of 7 per cent. bonds were issued.
Congress in 1844, passed an Act (effective upon the administra-'
tion of the State) for the purpose of internal improvement,
awarding 500,000 acres of land for that purpose. The State
Legislature on January 6, 1855, approved that Constitutional
Act. Everything would have turned out most satisfactorily, but
the destruction to that property constructed prior to 1860 was
devastated between that date and 1865. Therefore, the railroads
could not pay the interest due, so they were seized and when sold
did not bring a price sufficient to pay the debt. The taxable
property of the State was about $31,000.000.00.
The State laws prohibited the issuance of bonds to pay those
taxes. If lands were granted for the building of railroads, the
judgment then standing in the United States courts against those
lands prevented the issuance of a good title, therefore, until the
coming of Hamilton Disson and associates, of Philadelphia (call-
ed by some the Saviour of Florida) who paid off the debt, released
the fund fromthecontrol of the United States Courts, thus afford-
ing the State officials the authority to issue land grants in con-
formity with the laws formally enacted for the internal improve-
ment fund. This action overcame the stagnation the state had fal-
len into and started the wheels of industry, much to the delight
and satisfaction of the people throughout the commonwealth.
The bright light of prosperity commenced to shine; capital
and investors immediately sought the State of Florida and within
ten years from the date of the Disson sale there were more miles
of grading and rails laid in the State, according to State popula-


tion, and a larger percentage of increase than in any state in the
Federation. Florida in one stroke of the pen, fairly leaped into
1the existence so long due her from her rich lands and equitable
All faith in the overflowing springs of pure water, the vol-
ume of which bubbling out of the ground, are bountiful enough
to supply the Inland waterways with sufficient volume for the
navigation of boats to the sea, and the consumption of the home,
the farm and the factory, is something that many states (Texas
for instance) would be proud to possess-for good fresh pure
spring water is essential in fact, necessary, towards permanent
development of any territory. Without water, no matter how
rich the lands may be, droughts are bound to occur and when
They come in rapid succession, the parched lands are deserted and
all labors are lost. Such conditions as droughts are impossible
[ in Florida. The large Springs of the State, (the Silver Springs
at Ocala; the Blue Springs at Juliette and the Wekiwa, Okeecho-
bee), have'a flow of over one million gallons a minute. The Sil-
ver Springs have the largest flow of any springs in the world-
368,913 gallons per minute. The waters in all these springs are
Crystal white and as pure as the driven snow.
The development in the wealth of Florida from 1821 to 1860,
including the administrations of Jackson, Duval, Eaton, Call,
Reid and Branch, Territorial Governors, and Moseley, Brown,
Broome and Perry, State Governors, consisting of government
and county highways, state capitol, forts, railroads, docks, build-
ings, factories, mines (developed), warehouses, residences, cabins,
plantations, live stock and implements, is'estimated as fol-
lows; Government roads $1,000,000; county roads $2,000,000;
state capital, $200,000.00; forts $4,200,000; railroads $7,360,000
docks $700,000; buildings $6,000,000; factories $2,000,000; mines
.$500,000 warehouses $250,000; residences $5,000,000; cabins,
plantations, live stock, implements $20,000,000. Total, Two Bil-
lion, nine hundred and forty-one million ($2,941,000,000.00.)
During Governor Stearns administration (1876) the tax-
able property of the State was assessed at $31,000,000. If we
-figure that the taxable property then so assessed was worth $100,-
'000,000 (which of course would not include the Forts) some
.idea may be obtained as to the shrinkage in the property as the
result of the War (1860-65) and other causes. However, the
totals cut but a little figure, especially since we are starting out
with Modern Florida since 1877. At the same time the figures
go to show where Florida could be today had not those disasters
taken place.
During 1855 there was legislation enacted for the construc-
-tion of railroads, which included a line from Jacksonville to
Pensacola, with connections for St. Mark's, a line on from Amelia
Island to Tampa Bay, with extensions for Cedar Keys, a canal
rom Lake Harney to the Indian River; from Pensacola to St.
Andrews Bay. The Act provided and gave the railroad lines
power to issue coupon bonds to the amount of $10,000 per mile on
'each section of ten miles of completed railroad constructed, and
-additional bonds for railroad bridges, bonds payable at 7 per


cent. per annum, and to run for thirty-five years. The trustees of
the Improvement Fund were authorized to endorse and guaran-
tee the interest on the bonds, which they did, and Congress in
1856, granted the State of Florida every alternate section of land
designated by odd numbers for six sections in width, on each
side of each road or branches so built. Said grant to aplly to the
road from Jacksonville to Pensacola, and from Fernandina to
Tampa, for the purpose of aiding in the construction of the roads.
The Cedar Keys Division had up to 1859 sold over five thousand
acres of land so deeded them, at $2.25 per acre, in addition to
receiving the endorsement of the Internal Improvement Fund
Trustees on their bonds. The bonds issued by the railroads up to
1860 were as follows: Pensacola and Georgia Company (divis-
ion Lake City to Quincy) $1,220,000; Tallahassee Railroad Com-
pany (division Tallahassee to St. Mark's) $206,000; Florida
Railroad Company (division Fernandina to Cedar Keys) $1,616,-
000; Florida Atlantic and Gulf Central Railroad (division Jack,
son to Lake City) $555,000. Total bond issues gauranteed by
Internal Improvement Fund $3,597,000. Total interest guaran-
teed by the fund $251,790. As there was no provision made in
the powers of the Internal Improvement Act towards the build-
ing of road beds and laying ties, the cities and counties were
called upon to issue bonds for the purpose of purchasing stock
in the roads. The City of Jacksonville and counties of Columbia,
Madison, Jefferson and Leon, through which the roads run, is-
sued bonds up to $500,000 each, for that purpose.
Through the ravages of war the railroad shops, the rolling
stock, the bridges and most of the rails were destroyed. Over
two-thirds of the bonds were sold in 1867-8 and 9, for twenty-five
and thirty cents on the dollar, raising $2,872,700, leaving $722,-
175.00 outstanding against the property. The interest amounted '
to $54,000 a year and nothing in the Internal Revenue Fund to
pay that interest. So in 1879 the property of the Internial Reve-
nue Fund went under the hammer, was up at auction; $960,000
was asked, and Hamilton Disson of Phjladelphia, and associates,
came along and bought 4,000,000 acres of swamp land. 3,500,-
000 acres were selected in blocks of 10,000 acres each; the balance
in blocks of 640 acres each, and saved the day and which in-
fluenced immediate interesting railroad building- The Pensacola
and Atlantic Railroad, from Pensacola to the Apalachicola River,
received alternate sections, lying for six miles on each side of
the track (according to the Act of Congress of 1850) also a
grant of 20,000 acres (of swamp and overflow land) for each mile
of road completed. This road was 161 miles in length, which
called for 3,220,000 acres. 2,202,223 acres were located up to
1904, disputes having arisen against the claims. Offers of from
5,000 to 15,000 acres to other lines (six miles each side of rails)
were made and the Florida Southern was built, from Palatka to
Brooksville, 150 miles; then extended to Charlotte Harbor. The
Jacksonville, Tampa and Key-West was extended from Jackson-
ville to Sanford, connecting with the South Florida line to Kis-
simmee, Orlando and Tampa. A line from Ocala to Tampa, and
from Wildwood to Orlando and lines from St. John's to: Eustis


(Great Lakes region), thus opening up Palatka, St. Augustine,
the Halifax River, with Jacksonville. During 1880 to 1898, the
railroad mileage increased from 518 to 2489 miles. The popula-
tion during that period jumped to over 200 per cent.



THE RESPONSIBILITY for much of the railroad develep-
ment and the West Coast of Florida from 1865 up to his death,
1899, may be duly attributed to the management and for sight-
edness of that Captain of Industry, Morton F. Plant. Without
Plant in Florida during those years it is very doubtful if Florida
could have made those most wonderful and rapid strides she
struck out with and maintained, and it is befitting that a digest
be given to him on these pages to show the appreciation of the
people and the regard in which he was held by the people of
'Florida for his great construction work, which has proven to be
a foundation and a backbone upon which rests the frame work
supporting the great institutions of the State,including the Hen-
ry Flagler developments, for it was that man who. through that
big, broad vision of his, permeated into the dark corners of the
The recent publicity relative to the will of Morton F. Plant,
made conspicuous in the New London, Connecticut Courts, shows
how the executors have guarded his estate without charging fees,
and how the lawyers handling the estate have allowed a shrinkage
from $33,000,000 to $17,000,000, and also how those executors
protested against a fee and allowance of $1,100,000, throws some
light upon the enormous wealth accumulated by that great Steam-
ship and railroad magnate during his life in Florida.
When the New York, New Haven and Hartford line was
first operating between New York and New Haven, in 1837,
Morton F. Plant was a cabin boy. He had been educated in
Russell's Military School, in New Haven. After leaving the
steamers as a cabin boy, he entered Beacher and Company's
Steamship Express business in New York. He visited Florida
in the interests of that Company, first in 1854. He moved South
in 1861, and reorganized the Southern Express Co., becoming its
president. He became interested in Florida Citrus fruits in 1865.
Purchased Atlantic and Gulf Railroad in 1879 (which had failed
in 1877)' organized it as Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad,
extending it from Waycross, Georgia, to Jacksonville, thereby giv-
ing Florida its "first impetus" of prosperity. He purchased Savan-
nah and Charleston Railroad, which started in to do big business.
He organized the Plant Investment Company in 1882, taking the
presidency of this Company, and inviting Henry M. Flagler to
become one of his associates and directors, which Mr. Flagler
accepted. Among his other associates were M. K. Jessup, H. P.
Hoadley, G. H. Tidley and W. T. Walters. His operations were
carried on until the Florida Southern and the South Florida Rail-
roads were extended and complete lines were carried all over
Florida. In 1902, he took into the Plant Steamship Company, the
Florida East Coast S. S. Co., Mr. Flagler owning one half the
stock. He was also a director of the Peninsula and Occidental


Steamship Company (operating from Port Tampa to Key West
and Havana, and later from Miami to Nassau). The Plant sys-
tem took over the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad in 1884. The
Seaboard Air Line (emanating from Norfolk, Virginia) was not
connected with his group of railroads.
Mr. Plant died in New York in 1899, at a time when he
had his greatest plans formulated for Florida (West Coast) de-
velopment, wherein he had built the Tampa Bay Hotel (covering
two city blocks) built up the town of Plant City, and erected sev-
eral other hotels. His development plans, outside of the railroad
business, had just started at the time of his death. He was also
interested in the progress of New London, Connecticut, where
within its environs, he built an enormous hotel. He also gave
$1,250,000 to the Connecticut Colleg6 for Women at New London.
Inspired with the work of Morton F. Plant, Henry Morison
Flagler, formerly a clerk in a store in his home town Cadaigna,
N.Y. latter a salt manufacturer in Saginaw Michigan, and then
the junior member of the firm of Rockfeller, Andrews and Flag-
ler, Oil producers, Cleveland, Ohio, later selling out to the stan-
dard Oil Company, of which corporation he resigned the vice pre-
sidency in 1908, decided that Florida offered more opportunities
than any other section of the United States and that he would
make the East Coast so attractive as to induce hundreds of thou-
sands of people to come here from the North and elsewhere. His
plans were so gigantic the big financiers of the country could
not grasp them. However,Mr.Flagler understood them and knew
just what he wanted to do before he attempted to cary out his
great ideas. So in 1885-6 he purchased the Jacksonville and St.
Augustine Railroad. In 1886 he purchased the Jacksonville, St.
Augustine and Halifax Railroad, and in 1888 the St. Augustine
and Palatka, also St. John's Halifax, East Palatka to Daytona.
In 1888 he built the bridge across the St. John's River at Palatka
In 1889-90 he built the railroad bridge across the St. John's River
at Jacksonville. Up to 1892 he merely bought old property. In
1992 he began the construction of the railroad to Daytona, then
south along the East Coast. In 1888 he started to build the Ponce
de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine, after having sent his architect
all over the world for ideas applicable to St. Augustine. In 1889
he built the Ormond and the Royal Poncianna (2000 rooms),
the Breakers at Palm Beach and-the amusement pier 3000 feet
long out into the ocean (the Royal Poncianna was then and is
today the largest frame hotel in the world). In 1901 he built
the Continental at Atlantic Beach (near the mouth of the St.
John's River about 30 miles from Jacksonville. This Hotel was
destroyed by fire in 1919. In 1896 he built the Royal Palms at
Miami; in 1899 he built the Colonial, Nassau (Bahama Island)
and several other hotels were constructed at a total cost of about
$12,000,000. He expended about $18,000,000 in old railroads.
The development in the town cost him about $10,000,000 (usually
establishing waterworks, sewerage system, newspaper, banks,
etc., etc.-everything that would be necessary to quickly build
up the place.) In 1894 the Florida East Coast Railway was ex-
tended to Palm Beach and in 1896 extended to Miami. In 1905 he


began construction on the Key West extension with two. ferries
to transport freight cars from Key West to Havana; completed
January 22nd, 1912,. at a cost (from Miami to Key West of
$12,000,000-making the line and branches 745 miles, including
trackage rights of 6 miles), costing about $50,000,000.
His investment in Steamship lines was about $1,500,000;
lands 25,000 acres under cultivation of fruit and vegetables, out
of 3,500,000 available for such cultivation. In 1908 (Everybody's
Magazine, Feburary 1910) over 1,000,000 passengers were carr-
ied over his line and this railroad in 1907 earned (gross) $819,-
.00. In1909 1,500,000 crates of tomatoes were shipped over his
railroad. The construction of the Key West Divison covering ov-
er fifty miles of keys proved a wise investment. It was estima-
ted in 1910 that the Flagler property in Florida had increased in
value (since beginning) over $50,000,000. In 1900 Mr. Flagler
built a very extensive and most beautiful mansion within a stone's
throw of the Royal Poincianna Hotel, East Shore of Lake Worth
facing West Palm Beach for his home. At that time he was criti-
cized by some financiers for building the largest hotel in the
World, in a spot which but few people in America knew of, and.
many people stated that it never would open long enough to be
be half filled, but such remarks had but little effect upon Mr.
Flagler. He was a man who always took his chances upon his
own judgment. He believed that the East Coast of Florida was
the "Garden Spot" of North America and no one could shake
that belief in him. From his first visits to Florida with Mr. Plant
he became .enchanted with the climate of the State. He remained
in Florida two years to see if that "Enchantment" would wear
off, and when it did not do so, he decided upon carrying out the
great vision he had stored in his mind, which was to do exactly
what he did do-select attractive building sites for hotels, beauti-
fy the grounds, lay out amusement parks and then install the best
plumbing and water supply, then erect buildings and so arrange
the architecture to please the eye, at the same time giving all
the comforts, even luxuries, obtainable in any hotel in the world;
bearing in mind, however, that spacious foyers and dining rooms
attractively furnished and decorated, was the key note to the
success of such hotels, because the climate would keep the people
out of doors most of the time. Mr. Flagler was a hotel builder first
andy a railroad owner second. He put up the attraction and then
found the means of transportation to it afterwards.
The investment of millions on Mr. Flagler's part was not
all for glory. He was first prompted to do what he did for the
comfort, health and benefits people would derive from visiting
and living in Florida, and the employment of the thousands he
did employ was a source of pleasure to him, and being perfectly
human he loved the publicity and the kingdom of it all, but he also
after a reasonable time, wanted results, the proper interest on his
investments, and being a first class business man his outlay of
capital'came back to him in the receipts and then nearly doubled
the amount of his original investment before he died.
He and his associates deserved all they received; they took


the chances and won. But like all things, when the all-year
round settler is established and in large numbers, those men are
Going to figure on competition and in doing so claim open channels
Sfor that competition, even while believing that there probably
would be no such development as exists today in these parts, had
the work been undertaken by others than Mr. Flagler and his
' Mr. Flagler donated liberally for religious and educational
purposes. He was charitable to those who were unfortunate.
SHe lived a very useful life in Florida and it is befitting and proper
that those larger places should erect bronze or marble statutes
* of him in commemoration of their gratitude for what he ac-
complished and the benefits received from those accomplish-
Sments. He blazed the trail through the wilderness-lavished
money where others feared to invest-no obstacle was too large
for his indomitable will to surmount: He succeeded-the builder
of an Empire for the domicile of Posterity.
It is the writer's opinion that in the next Century the name
Sof Henry M. Flagler will be more of a household word along the
East Coast than it is today-time immortal endures those years
of man's greatest works. Great deeds are not forgotten, espec-
ially by those who live within the circle of those influences.
He lived to be eighty-three years of age and spent most of
his time in Florida (from 1885 up to 1913). The twenty-eight
years of Florida climate was his greatest boast. Mr. Flagler was
not a well man when he came to Florida. He died May 20th,
1913, at his Palm Beach home.
There are other developers in the State of Florida who have
installed transportation facilities, besides Plant and Flagler,
Among some of the most conspicuous may be mentioned General
John C. Williams, who went to Tampa and there being attracted
to the locality on the West Shore of Tampa Bay, he went to
what is now St. Petersburg and laid out that town, presenting
one-half of the town site to Mr. Plant, if he would build a
railroad there. The Orange Belt Railroad was built in 1888 and
Mr. Plant also built a railroad dock. From the result of this
work the towns of Clearwater and Dunedin, where the Belleview
was built at Belleair, came in. The development of the towns,
particularly on the Peninsula, commenced to take on wonderful
activity five years after the Spanish-American War. That war
had helped more to advertise the work that Plant, Flagler and
Williams had achieved than any other advertising could have pos-
BENEFITED FLORIDA-an expression much used by the sol-
diers and their friends visiting them, was, "We had no idea Flor-
ida looked like this," and "Florida is really going ahead." "Isn't
this wonderful," etc. etc. Such were the comments upon the
work of Messrs. Plant and Flagler at that time.
The people of the United States attracted by that most won-
derful publicity campaign inaugurated by Messrs. Plant and
Flagler, in which the leading newspapers and magazines were
liberally used, not only in this Country, in Canada and, England
'did they carry on that noted campaign (so well known and re-


membered by men who were then engaged in the publishing
business) but they spread out into France, the West Indies and
South America. Florida and its advantages were then advertis-
ed, and who was responsible for that Publicity? When we come
to analyze the pages of the modern history of Florida, there is
only one conclusion (as regards the responsibility for its real de-
velopment) we can reach and that "conclusion" is THE WORK
The progress of the towns which have been established in
the State from 1877 up to 1898 (twenty-one years) was probably
not abreast with some other sections of the Country. However,
the growth was healthy and pronounced. The coming of Plant
and Flagler had put real ginger into the people living here. Ev-
erybody had faith in the ultimate result of this work, a "faith"
that was unshakeable. The people who had lived here knew
what a wonderful territory this was-knew that in many re-
spects it surpassed other sections of this Country. They also
realized that a vast amount of improvements must take place
to overcome the adverse criticism the State had received at the A
hands of those intensive developers of California and elsewhere
and that those unjust statements made by some writers and pub-
lished in books, propaganda encouraged mostly by those proper-
ty owners in the west, so when we come to look about and review
those accomplishments and reflect upon the growth of the cities,
we must look at the growth of Jacksonville, Tampa, Orlando and
Gainesville. The City of Jacksonville is one of the marvel cities
of the past century and for many reasons. Some of these "reasons"
stand out in letters of red. The site upon which the City stands
was obtained from Governor Queseda, of St. Augustine in 1791,
through Robert Pritchard, and some log cabins were built that
year. Lewis Hogan erected the first house in the town in 1816.
The town was then known as Wacco Paiatka. The city was laid
out in 1822 and named after the illustrious General Jackson
(Father of American Florida) and Duval County was then
founded with an area of 822 square miles. The town had a
population in 1880 of 7,650 people. In 1890, 17,201, and in 1900
there were 28,429 people in this coming city. Jacksonville was
completely destroyed by fire (in 1901), which is taken up in the
following Epoch (Four).
Railroad and shipping were the fundamentals upon which
Jacksonville built up her industry. A strategical point on the
St. John's made the City a Gateway for transportation overland,
by river and sea, the connections with the North and the West
(being just above the Peninsula) and the connections of the trans-
portation lines to the Peninsula (overland and by river boats)
gave it a natural advantage, especially of the East Coast, and
since the Interstate Railroad lines did not choose to make through
connections on the Gulf side of the Peninsula with Apalachicola
Bay, the direct line of travel was via Jacksonville. Since it
is so settled there is not much chance now for a main trunk line
railroad to traverse the West Coast of the Peninsula without di-
rect connection with Jacksonville. The establishment and the
time intervening enables a railroad center (which Jacksonville


has attained) to so advertise itself, thus establishing a'habit of
thought directed upon that one transportation center. So Jack-
sonville holds that unique position in Florida, which she will no
doubt maintain for all time.
When the extent of the shipping and industries of Jackson-
ville is computed, covering the years from 1844 up to 1865, a
period of tfwenty-one years, and the number of establishments
erected in the City, the progress then attained is indeed remark-
able. There were 100 people in the town in 1830, and in 1840,
the population was 2,060.
The first big fire in the City occurred in 1851. The early dis-
covery of large phosphate mines in South West Florida, (the
largest deposits in the world,) attracted the shipment of this
product in the United States and to foreign countries, so there
was chance for a large city on the South West Coast and, there-
fore, Tampa came into existence.
The territory of Tampa had been laid out for a military post
in 1835, by Colonel G. M. Brooks, who was in charge, the post
being used as a base of supplies during the second Seminole War.
The Orange industry which began on a commercial basis in 1879,
attracted people to South West Florida and with the, phosphate
mining possibilities that country during that year commenced
to grow and it might be stated that 1879 was the beginning of
industry in Tampa. The City was chartered in 1886. However,
there was quite a settlement eight years before that chartering
occurred and Mr. Plant had all of his plans drawn for Tampa in
1882 and it also may be added that those plans were later carried
out to a letter. The railroads were operated and the phosphate
shipping was carried on commercially. Cigar factories were es-
tablished and Tampa, on account of phosphate, became kn6wn
in every port of the world. The population in 1900 was 5,532;
which was then two-thirds less than Jacksonville' population.
With that wonderful orange industry taking place, Orlando had
become the center of attraction in the culture and the shipment of
citrus fruits. The beautiful location of Orlando and the care tak-
en in laying out the City, had attracted people. The beautiful
lakes and the water shed of the central ridge within the environ-
ments of that City, together with a class of progressive people
who from the beginning had great faith in its future, gave it
the impetus required. In 1900 there were 2,481 people domi-
ciled there as permanent inhabitants. With Orlando going along
with rapid strides, there was Gainesville, which had attracted,
at first on account of the Phosphate mining and secondly be-
cause of her grist mills, founderies, ginneries, wagon works,
lumbering and cattle raising.
This town grew rapidly and -in 1900 had 3633 people, and
Palatka, on the mighty St. John's, other than the five old cities of
Florida one of the oldest, had a population in 1900 of 3301.
However, it fell to the main lines of the Plant and Flagler systems
to grow after the Spanish American war. Others may be men-
tioned in connection with Jacksonville, Tampa, Orlando and
Gainesville, for instance, Pensacola grew rapidly and so did De-
Land, Daytona, Fort Myers, Bradentown, St. Petersburg, Miami,


Sanford, Key West, Leesburg, Kissimmee, in fact the growth of
more than a hundred cities was the most phenomenal in the
development of the State, but the continuation of Great Florida
to Greater Florida is taken up in our next Epoch and SHAPING
THE INDUSTRIES will now occupy our minds.
The railroads and- the steamship lines, the former operat-
ing in the State under the Interstate Commerce Act arid the State
laws (the Florida East Coast Railroad is not an Interstate Road
-the entire operations of this corporation are carried on within
the State of Florida, except that part of shipping which extends
to Havana) and the latter operating in and out of the ports of
the State, are the basis for the establishment of the industries of
the Commonwealth, together with the motor truck transporta-
ion lines and the automobile transportation companies. The
trolley lines in the State are chiefly confined to Jacksonville,
Tampa, Pensacola, and a few other cities where there are short
mileage hauls carried on. There are but few interurban lines in the
State. Jacksonville and Tampa having the largest of such
transportation facilities outside of cities. The railroad mileage
within the State consists of about 5980 miles. The Florida East
Coast Railroad being wholly within the State has about 700 miles.
The Atlantic Coast Line has about a total mileage of 4454 miles,
1527 of which is in Florida. The Seaboard Air Line has 3459, 978
of which is in Florida. Tle Louisville and Nashville Railroad has
5071, 245 miles of which is in this State. Georgia, Southern and
Florida Railroad, 403 152 of which is in the State. Apalachicola
and Northern (wholly within Florida) 102 miles. The balance of
the mileage smaller roads with trackage of less than 100 miles to
each road. Net revenue per mile $1,090. With the sidings and
all trackage the mileage in Florida is: Atlantic Coast Line, $2,-
016.42; Seaboard Air Line, $1,249.54; Florida East Coast,
$872.22. The total operating revenue in 1915 was estimated at
$21,691,289 and the net revenue per mile $1,090. The Southern
Express Company, according to a statement of JuneSO, 1915, had
receipts from Florida business of $757,704.57 and net earnings
of $9,483.03. The Steamship companies gross receipts during
that year were given as $354,886.48 and the net revenue $43,-
189.38. Upon these figures one can glean somewhat the revenue
of the industries of the State and how the business of those in-
dustries was being shaped. During that year there were 5,175
manufacturing establishments, which gave employment to 64,325
persons and the wages of those workers amounted to $29,653,731.
There were 400,736,457 cigars manufactured that year, valued at
$18,811,491; 8,884,218 gallons of turpentine, valued at $3,354,-
114 and 569,101 barrels of rosin valued at $3,430,199. Total
naval stores in dollars $6,784,813. The lumber and timber pro-
ducts of 1910 were valued at $20,863,000 and twelve fertilizer
factories had an output in 1910 of $3,878,000; The industries
were being shaped and Greater Florida shows the wonderful
gains over 1910 and 1915 figures. During those years the citrus
fruit industry amounted (annually) to about $25,000,000, which
entailed the output of some. 7,000 groves. The phosphate rock
mines turned out during those years an average of about two mil-

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