383Chapter 15 CONTESTING COLONIAL LI B RARY PRA C TI C ES OF ACC ESSI B ILITY AND REPRESENTATION Margarita Vargas-Betancourt, Jessica L. English, Melissa Jerome, and Angelibel SotoIntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to discuss how Library and Information Science (LIS) specialists at the University of Florida (UF) navigate the challenges of the colonialist and hegemonic nature of archives and the aspiration of special collections to be sites of contestation. We will describe the development of UFâ€™s Latin American and Caribbean Collection within the framework of US colonialism and hegemony in the twentieth century. As a response, UF and the partners of the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC) developed a consortium based on shared governance and open access content. However, dLOCâ€™s metadata is predominantly in English, which again restricts access to non-English-speaking patrons. We will analyze three cases to illustrate the initial steps taken in the creation of bilingual points of access to Latin American collections. attempt to bridge UFâ€™s gap of Puerto Rican material while, at the same time expanding access to Spanish language newspapers at the Library of
384Congressâ€™ portal, Chronicling America, and dLOC.1 Given the histori-cal, political, economic, and demographic connections between Florida and Cuba, UF has established a collaborative international agreement Library of Cuba). This collaboration has brought to the forefront the need to create bilingual metadata for dLOC content. However, the resources needed to do so go beyond those available at UF. The Cuban American Dream was the pilot project for the creation of bilingual English-Spanish metadata at UF. The analysis of the implementation of such a prototype illustrates the challenges that LIS specialists faced and the strategies they developed to overcome them.ImperialismThe Latin American and Caribbean Collection at the George A. Smathers Libraries at UF is one of the most renowned collections of Latin Ameri-cana and Caribbeana in the United States.2 Like other repositories, one of the most serious dilemmas that UF faces is to challenge the colo-nialist and hegemonic nature of its special collections. To do so, LIS content to people in Latin America and the Caribbean, and second to develop collections and materials that represent the Latinx communities that live in the US.Uncoincidentally, the history and content of the Latin American and Caribbean archival collections at UF parallels US history. Most of the Caribbean archival collections at UF correspond to the nineteenth and twentieth century and document the economic and political interests of US corporations in the Caribbean.3 In fact, most of these collections 2. In fact, it is one of three US libraries that have a separate space. The others are the the Latin American Library at Tulane University. -
385 represent the voices and perspective of individuals and US corporations who traveled to the Caribbean to invest. For instance, the Braga Broth-ers Collection, the largest and most renowned archival collection at UF, documents the development of a major US sugar corporation, which was located in Cuba from 1860 to 1961.4 A similar collection, the Taco Bay Commercial Company Records, includes a letter in which the US Department of State promises that it will assist the US company in its land in Cuba.5 The Frank R. Crumbie Papers document the life of a US customs inspector in Haiti during the US occupation of the island (1915-1934).6 The voices represented in these collections are, not sur prisingly, those of white US men. Historically, the origin of archives is connected to colonialist empires. Imperial metropolises controlled their colonies through extensive record-for instance, of racial difference or origin. Colonial states used such colonists over masses of Indigenous, African, and Asian people. The 7 The US used this white nationalism to usher in a policy of US domination in the Americas. In 1823, President James Monroe stated that the US would attack European countries that attempted to colonize any country in 5. George A. Smathers Libraries, â€œLetter to Senator Henry Cabot Lodge from Acting 7. Caroline Elkins, â€œLooking beyond Mau Mau: Archiving Violence in the Era American Historical Review 120:3 (June 2015): 853, last accessed
386the American continent.8 However, the Monroe Doctrine transformed into economic, political, and military hegemony of the US over Latin America and the Caribbean. The Spanish American War (1898) is one example of US interference in the region. The US used racial differentia-tion to justify its war against Spain and its expansion over Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines, whose inhabitants were considered inferior to the Anglo-Saxon people.9In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, US intellectuals followed US policy and sought to position the US as a hegemonic intellectual power in the Americas and the world. The result was that US scholars and collectors removed a great part of Latin Americaâ€™s and the Carib beanâ€™s cultural heritage from the countries of origin. This activity went against the 1815 Convention of Vienna, whose main principle was that each nation held rights over their cultural heritage. Although the doc-trine became popular in the mid-nineteenth century, collectors in the US continued to acquire archival and cultural items from Latin America and to deposit them in US private and public institutions.10 They showed special interest in the acquisition of materials that documented the colo-nial history of the Caribbean and Latin America. The development of Latin American collections followed this direction not only to increase institutional prestige, but also because the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed the expansion of US interests and hegemony over the continent. US scholars not only sought to understand the regionâ€™s history, but also to compare and contrast European colonialism with US informal imperialism. Interest in Latin American and Caribbean 8. Dictionary of World History (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2015), s.v. 9. David W. Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2003), 347; Ussama Makdisi, â€œDiminished Sovereignty and the American Historical Review 10. Bruce Montgomery, â€œReconciling the Inalienability Doctrine with the Con American Archivist
387 content increased after WWI, when the closing of European markets to Latin America gave way to the expansion of US markets in the region.11At UF, there are important examples of colonial Caribbean and Latin American collections, including the Jrmie Papers, a collection of seventeenth to nineteenth-century notarial records from the jurisdic-tion of Jrmie in Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti). UF purchased the collection from Austrian archaeologist Kurt Fisher in 1959.12 The cultural heritage collection. It includes documents from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that chronicle the development, management, and activities of several sugar plantations in Mexico; UF purchased it in 2007.13 As a consequence of such acquisition policies, Latin American and Caribbean scholars must travel to the US in order to study their cul-tural heritage and history; needless to say, access is extremely restricted. The Latin American and Caribbean Collection and the Digital Library of the Caribbean In the 1930s, UF president John J. Tigert established the School for Inter-American Affairs. He believed that UF had a special role in the Americas because of Floridaâ€™s proximity to the Caribbean.14 Conse-quently, George A. Smathers Libraries began to acquire Latin American and Caribbean content. After WWII, US librarians recognized that, in 11. Ricardo D. Salvatore, â€œLibrary Accumulation and the Emergence of Latin Comparative American Studies: An International Journal 3, no. 4 (2005):
388order for the US to become the worldâ€™s leader, it had to collect national resources from all regions. Since a single library could not succeed in such a Herculean task, in 1948 librarians developed a collaborative effort known as the Farmington Plan, outlining which libraries would specialize in which region.15 Based on the strength of its Caribbean holdings, the Farmington Plan assigned UF as the repository for the Caribbean in 1951. Two years later, the Farmington Plan recognized that US librarians should emphasize the acquisition of Latin American material in general.16In 1961, acknowledging the limits of the School for Inter-American Affairs, the Graduate School at UF proposed the creation of the Center for Latin American Studies with the purpose of serving Latin American students and preparing US students for careers related to Latin America. The establishment of the Center coincided with the Cuban Revolution, and the subsequent efforts of the US to curtail the expansion of Com-munist ideas to other Latin American and Caribbean nations.17 Due to continued to acquire manuscripts, rare books, and artifacts from Latin America and the Caribbean. Such interest, however, did not factor into the restitution of cultural property. During the 1950s and 1960s, a UF librarian traveled by boat through-located in local repositories. The result was the creation of one of the most complete collections of Caribbean newspapers and, equally important, the establishment of strong partnerships with Caribbean institutions.18 Such relationships laid the groundwork for dLOC and, 15. Ralph D. Wagner, A History of the Farmington Plan (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2002), 86. 16. Wagner, 209-10. 17. The Graduate School, University of Florida, Proposal for an Inter-American 18. Laurie Taylor, â€œLibrarian on a Boat or Digital Scholarship, Caribbean Studies, and the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC): Alternative Sabbatical Proposal for -
389 19 Under the leadership of Florida International University (FIU), the University of the Virgin Islands, and UF, the founding institutionsâ€”along with a growing number of partnersâ€”have contributed digital content from their holdings to the open access repository. dLOC is now â€œthe larg-est open access collection of Caribbean materials with over 2 million pages of content, 39 institutional partners, and over 1 million views 20 The administrators of the consortium are FIU and UF; the former provides administrative support, while the latter provides technical infrastructure.21dLOC is a digital repository for resources from and about the Carib-bean and circum-Caribbean (mainland regions that share Caribbean culture) from archives, museums, libraries, academic institutions, and private collections. It is a platform that provides a scholarly cyberinfra-structure for Caribbean studies. As a research foundation, dLOC includes technical, social, governmental, and procedural support, including open source tools, executive and scholarly advisory boards, a permission-based rights model to support intellectual property, as well as cultural and moral rights, and a core support team. As a scholarly resource, dLOC also provides context by placing Caribbean materials within academic discourse through curation.22To provide equitable access to materials, dLOC uses an open access platform. This helps in resolving the potential lack of trust from Latin LODE); Universidad de Oriente, Venezuela; University of the Virgin Islands; Florida International University; University of Central Florida; University of Florida. Digital 20. Taylor, â€œâ€˜Librarian on a Boatâ€™ or Digital Scholarship, Caribbean Studies, and the 22. Laurie Taylor, Margarita Vargas-Betancourt, and Brooke Wooldridge, â€œThe Scholarly and Research Communication. Simon Fraser University 4, no. 3 (2013), last accessed
390American and Caribbean partners, which is the result of a historic, Caribbean cultural material to the US. Such an unequal relationship has prevented institutions in such regions from feeling that they are partners of US institutions. To overcome this perspective, dLOC is based on shared governance. Latin American and Caribbean partners participate in dLOCâ€™s governance through the executive board and scholarly advisory board. In addition, they retain copyright for the material they contribute. Finally, the funding model is geared towards equity. Members from the US and other higher-income countries contribute funding, while part -ners from Latin America and the Caribbean contribute content. The participation of members and partners in dLOCâ€™s governance is equal. The Florida and Puerto Rico Digital Newspaper Project The history and structure of the Latin American and Caribbean Col-lection and of dLOC have given way to a growing number of digital -ect.23marginalize Puerto Rican content due to its ambiguous position as a Latin American nation and a US territory. For instance, Title VI fund -ing from UFâ€™s Center for Latin American Studies cannot be used to acquire Puerto Rican content or to travel to the island, resulting in a void within the collection.To counteract such omissions, UF partnered with the University digitize historic newspapers from Florida and Puerto Rico published between 1690 and 1963.24 The content is freely available online on sev -
391 eral platforms, including Chronicling America, a website created and managed by the Library of Congress where all newspapers digitized 25 The Florida and Puerto Rico Digital that is published in English (Florida material) and Spanish (Puerto Rico issue and reel level metadata for all selected newspaper titles must be submitted in English. Per the technical guidelines for this program, issue level metadata includes elements such as title, Library of Congress missing), and page present indicator (denotes if page is missing). Reel level metadata includes elements such as titles found on the reel, start as resolution and density readings. In addition to the required metadata, participants must submit essays for each selected newspaper title. These lication and are accessible on Chronicling America.26 Scholars of Puerto Rican history originally wrote the essays for requirements, LIS specialists translated the essays into English. The essays provide information about the papers, offering insights about their content so users can easily navigate the materials, given that this newspaper collection offers varying perspectives. For example, the Spanish government published one of the Puerto Rican papers, while Luis Muoz Rivera, one of the founders of the Partido Autonomista
392(Autonomist Party), whose main tenet was the islandâ€™s independence, published another one. This information is not readily available in the limited metadata of the bibliographic records. Without the essays, these facts remain hidden from those who are unaware of the historical con-text. Although the English translations provide context, they are not of much use to Spanish speakers, not only because the essay is only available in English, but also because there is a loss of context in transla-of interest. In response to this, the project coordinator worked with other LIS specialists to develop a study that would examine the way biases in how inclusion of cataloging descriptors (such as essays and subject headings) in the native language of the materials could more accurately to the libraries, as well as LIS specialists at UF, to identify how current cataloging and metadata standards affect research practices. The scholars metadata affected how their newspaper research was conducted. LIS specialists were interviewed in a group setting and were asked to address how enhancing metadata records with bilingual metadata would affect Although most of the scholars interviewed for this study did not use metadata when researching, they all recognized that metadata is noted the importance of newspapers as primary sources for research and the value of the historical context provided in the essays. LIS spe -cialists at UF also agreed that metadata is important, especially to those for whom English is a second language and who are therefore at a disadvantage when using large digital collections comprised of non-English languages that are only described in English. The library group suggested that the language of the metadata should, at the very least, match the language of the original source in order to make the content more accessible for Spanish speakers. In addition to including bilingual
393 metadata, interviewees suggested that the Spanish essays be submitted for inclusion in Chronicling America.The Spanish-speaking community in the US continues to steadily Florida, where the population of Puerto Ricans increased dramatically after Hurricane Maria devastated the island in September 2017. Libraries, especially those serving non-native English speakers, must recognize that current Anglo-American cataloging and metadata standards are limited, biased, and impede access to information. The foundation of libraries rests on principles of access, service, and diversity; to ensure that these values drive their work, LIS specialists must assess user needs and imple-ment standards that will challenge the problem of English-language dominance in cataloging and ensure ease of access to information for all users. To address these issues, a goal of the Florida and Puerto Rico Digital Rican newspapers by providing metadata in both English and Spanish. Because Chronicling America does not allow for non-English language essays, the bilingual metadata specialist added the Spanish language essays written by Puerto Rican scholars to a Machine-Readable Cataloging This allows users to access both essay versions at once in Chronicling America, given that it displays the English essay and the bibliographic record on the same page. The project team is also working with other headings to augment metadata for these newspaper records. Celebrating Cuba! Collaborative Digital Collections of Cuban Patrimony Cuban scholars based in the United States, Cuba, and other parts of the world are eager for complete access to the islandâ€™s rich historical record. As with many other Latin American countries, Cubaâ€™s history embodies
394an interplay of colonialism, Catholicism, slavery, race and ethnic rela-tions, monoculture, immigration and emigration, economic dependency, and authoritarian governments. In Cubaâ€™s case, proximity to the United States has both particularly shaped these dynamics and broadened the community of interested students and scholars. Persistent population movements between the two countries and an unpredictable political rela-tionship are among the elements of added depth and complexity. Cubaâ€™s multi-layered past. The thawing of relations in 2015 followed by a tight-ening in 2017 illustrates the volatility of the US-Cuba political situation.27In this context, librarians in Cuba and the US have long been organiz-ing efforts to digitize and provide access to source materials for research in Cuban studies. The ever-changing political relationship between Cuba since the 1960s and has remained fairly steady in the 2010s.28 Political and technical challenges in coordinating such work are complicated, but not insurmountable. Managing digitization and access to source materials for Cuban studies provides opportunities to reduce costs and redundancy, and to aggregate valuable collections that would otherwise be unavailable in both countries. While technical challenges exist in to unique source material in both countries. LIS specialists in the US have focused work on monographs, serials, legal materials, and maps; they envision further expanding the projectâ€™s scope to include special collections, which is of interest to researchers in Cuba and the US. The experience gained through previous digital projects, such as those in dLOC, can be used to facilitate this complicated endeavor. UFâ€™s initiative to coordinate the digitization of Cuban material in 28. Jessica L. English, â€œPreservation is Political: International Collaboration for Studies Association, Barcelona, Spain, 23-26 May, 2018).
395 formalized their existing partnership with an nineteenth-century monographs published in Cuba. Representatives from institutions with strong Cuban holdings came together for an informational and planning meeting at the George A. Smathers Libraries in September 2017, where they formalized UFâ€™s leadership. This meet -ing set the foundations for the Collaborative Cuban Digital Collections Committee coordinates activities for preservation and global access to Cuban digital collections. It has advisory and operational responsibilities, such as advising on the scope of and the strategy for developing collaborative Cuban digital collections and contributing institutional content to collaborative collections.29 publications to determine the authoritative known universe of publi-cations to digitize. UF is leading the development of such a checklist, identifying holding locations for imprints and systematically assigning and metadata among institutions and platforms. The nine volumes of the Bibliografa cubana (Cuban Bibliography) by Carlos M. Trelles serve as the foundation of the Cuban authoritative bibliography.30 However, the large amount of content to digitize makes the task daunting.LIS specialists used the Catlogo Colectivo de Impresos Latinoamericanos ( CCILA), a bibliographic database that the University of California Riverside (UCR) developed from the bibliographies by Trelles and Jos versity of Florida, University of Miami, Florida International University, and the University of California Los Angeles. George A. Smathers Libraries, â€œCollaborative 30. Carlos M.Trelles, Bibliografa cubana de los siglos XVII y XVIII (Havana: Impr. del Bibliografa cubana del siglo XIX (Matanzas: Kraus Reprint, 1965); Jos Toribio Medina, La imprenta en La Habana, 1707-1810 (Amsterdam: Israel, 1964).
396Toribio Medina, as foundational data.31 UCR provided UF with a MARC CCILA database, and LIS specialists tried to parse the CCILA database were so rich that UF decided that generating a list of actual library holdings and eventually comparing it the CCILA biblio -graphic database would be a better strategy for identifying materials for digitization. In order to produce replicable and universal data standards, LIS specialists shifted the focus for developing library holdings database to Online Computer Library Center (OCLC). â€œOCLC is a global library cooperative that provides shared technology services, original research and community programs for its membership and the library commudigital libraries, virtual reference, and resource sharing services.32 The coordinator of the project generated datasets of unique holdings from OCLC and supplied them to IT to populate the database. Currently, UF is only adding unique holdings from partner institutions as possibly eligible items for digitization, but is expanding the list to include rarer (four or fewer libraries holdings) materials and has instituted a tracking second, because of its consistent cataloging data. pose is twofold: to increase knowledge of works available in Cuba and 31. The scope of CCILA Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California Riverside, Catlogo Colectivo de Impresos Latinoamericanos bibliography, last
397 database of Cuban holdings. In turn, this strategy will reduce duplication -the name of the library system at UF, one of the unintended results was the perception of the project as a colonialist approach, for UF seemed to appropriate Cubaâ€™s holdings. Thus, UF and OCLC discussed a way to indicate Cubaâ€™s ownership; today the records show â€œUniversity of institution ( Figure 1). Although UF still appears in the records, such is not an OCLC member ( Figure 2). Yet, to challenge colonialism, it is important to acknowledge that such a solution needs improvement to indicate Cubaâ€™s sole ownership. In addition to problems of accessibility, sustainability is one of the greatest challenges that LIS specialists in Florida and Cuba face. Given the lack of current technology and unreliable access to internet on the island, a standalone project like this cannot alleviate true problems for preservation and access in Cuba. In the works is a long-term sus -tainable plan based, not only in the improvement of technology and infrastructure, but also in a formal and effective exchange of resources and communication, with sustainable planning and funding.Challenges of Bilingual Metadata and the Cuba initiative suggest that one of the greatest challenges in providing access to digital collections for Latin American and Caribbean people is using their native language in bilingual metadata. Although dLOCâ€™s interface is multilingual, prior to 2017 the metadata has only been in English. With the continual expansion of Latin American partnerships like the Spanish language subject headings to records.
398 Figure 1. Sample OCLC record of a holding belonging to the Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba Jos Mart displaying the holding location as â€œUniversity of Florida BNCJM.â€ OCLC WorldCat, last accessed December 17, 2018, http:// www.worldcat.org/title/israelia/oclc/1011457615&referer=brief_results.Prior to this, catalogers at the George A. Smathers Libraries had never included Spanish language subject headings. The Cuban American implemented bilingual metadata.33 The timeline used the immigration of Cubans to Florida in the twentieth century as a case study to discuss matters related to immigration in general, such as the pressure brought to local and state governments, the reactions of Floridian communities to Cuban immigrants, the ways in which Cuban immigrants adapted to their new reality, and the contribution of Cuban immigration to the state of Florida. The purpose of the project was to democratize the
399 Figure 2. Directory information for the OCLC symbol â€œBNCJM,â€ showing the institution as UF, rather than the Biblioteca Nacional de Cuba Jos Mart. OCLC, â€œDirectory of OCLC members,â€ OCLC.org, last accessed December 17, 2018, https://www.oclc.org/en/contacts/libraries.html.document Cuban immigration to Florida; and second, by providing bilingual metadata to ensure access for a Spanish-speaking audience. --list.34 Fortunately, the creators of lcsh-es.org, â€œa prototype for a new convenient database in which users insert a Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH), and the database provides results from various Spanish
40035 Six were aggregated to lcsh-es.org: Biblioteca headings (QLSP), and San Francisco Public Library.36 Since lcsh-es.org provides greater accessibility and ease of use, it was preferred over searching multiple Spanish language authorities on the Library of Con-gress source code list. A centralized database of Spanish language authorities was the most realistic approach to assigning Spanish language headings, mainly because of the limited labor force assigned to create bilingual metadata. For this reason, only one collection was selected to receive bilingual metadata. Thus, the George A. Smathers Libraries tasked the bilingual metadata specialist with creating English and Spanish metadata only for Cuban Collections in University of Florida Digital Collections (UFDC).37 UFDC Cuban Collections contain manuscripts, maps, books, serials, ephem-era, photographs, theses and dissertations, born digital records, and government documents.38 UFDC contains over 300 collections, with dLOC having the most extensive Spanish language content. UFDC and dLOC allow George A. Smathers Libraries to better serve global patrons whose locations do not allow for accessibility to UFâ€™s preeminent physi-cal collections. In continuing with this pursuit of gapping the divide, bilingual metadata was the next logical step to ensure accessibility for a multilingual patron population. However, the sources utilized in lcsh-es.org assume that Spanish is monolithic. For example, most authorities used in lcsh-es.org come 37. George A. Smathers Libraries, UFDC University of Florida Digital Collections,
401 the process fails to represent national and regional variations in Spanish terminology.39 Furthermore, Latin American institutions created only three out of the twenty-one listed in the Library of Congress source code encabezamientos de materia para bibliotecas (LEMB), a Colombian based authority list. ARMARC (Lista ARMARC de encabezamientos de materia para bibliotecas mayores), which is only available through Rojas Eberhard, a Colombian publisher, has supplanted LEMB.40 The Ana G. Mendez).41 In assigning Spanish language subject headings to Cuban collections, the bilingual metadata specialist observed that very few OCLC records contained Spanish language subject headings, and de Mxico, which the Library of Congress does not recognize, is not as Second, some are not free (such as ARMARC), and some are unavailMxico at the time of writing this article). However, while lcsh-es.org 42 completed over a decade ago and few, if any, updates have occurred. There have been many changes in cataloging since then, like the addition 39. Michael Kreyche, â€œSubject Headings in Spanish: The lcsh-es.org Bilingual Data51, no. 4 (2013): 392, last accessed December 40. Kreyche, 392.
402the most impactful for subject authority control has been the wide use of FAST (Faceted Application of Subject Terminology), â€œa faceted-43 FAST is widely used when creating metadata, because it is more of subject heading strings. It is more compatible because the narrow results selection (on the left pane of Online Public Access Catalogâ€™s and digital library platforms, such as UFDC and dLOC) allows users to construct their own search result set without the limitation of catalog because there is â€œan absence of clear linkage between headings and their 44 For instance, when searching for a LCSH string in lcsh-es.org, a user must search each term within the subject string. While creating bilingual metadata for Cuban Collections, it was observed that QLSP provided the most complete subject strings.45 For example, the bilingual metadata specialist would start off using Bilindex (the only authority derived from Latin America), but when one of the terms within the subject string did not have a Bilindex equivalent, QLSP often had to be used because only one Figure 3 ).46 Cataloging 29, no. 1-2 (2000): 209-23, last accessed December 17, 2018,
403 Figure 3. Example of multiple Library of Congress subject headings without a Bilindex equivalent in lcsh-es.org: â€œEarly works to 1800,â€ â€œSpanish Main,â€ â€œDiscoveries in geography,â€ th century,â€ and â€œBuccaneers.â€ Subject keywords for The History of the Bucaniers of America, 1771. A.O. (Alexandre Olivier) Exquemelin, OCLC# 123428503. George A. Smathers Libraries catalog, The History of the Bucaniers of America: Exhibiting a particular account and description of Porto Bello, Chagre, Panama, Cuba, Havanna, and most of the Spanish possessions on the coasts of the West Indies, and also all along the coasts of the South Sea: with the manner in which they have been invaded, at tempted, or taken by these adventurers the whole written in several languages by persons present at the transactions, last accessed December 20, 2018, http://uf.catalog.fcla.edu/permalink.jsp?20UF036503552.
404contains virtually the same subject headings as LCSH, there have been to Spanish language authority control, but LCSH strings are too time consuming to ignore this option. While adding Spanish headings to maps in the Cuban Collections, it became laborious and unrealistic for the sole person creating bilingual metadata to input the Spanish equivalents of LCSH strings when every topical term would have to be repeated for every geographical subdivision used. So, if there were four topical terms, each term would have to be repeated based on the number of geographical subdivisions and any other subdivision of relevance (such as form and chronological subdivisions) (Figure 4). After searching subjects for FAST headings was the way to go.Figure 4. Subject keywords for the map West Indien und Mittel America. Carl Christian Franz Radefeld, West Indien und Mittel America, 1863-1867, George A. Smathers Libraries, â€œWest Indien und Mittel America,â€ Digital Library of the Caribbean, last accessed December 17, 2018, While the linked data movement has encouraged commitment among libraries to share data, this has not quite been the case for Latin American institutions, whose datasets are unavailable or inaccessible without a fee. The George A. Smathers Libraries do not currently have the Spanish-speaking labor force to provide bilingual metadata for the full scope
405 of its Spanish language collections. Diversity in librarianship has been 47 Therefore, some of the ways that libraries can combat this challenge is through collaboration and centralization. As mentioned previously, a centralized database like lcsh.es-org is the most realistic option, given librariesâ€™ limited labor force and funds, and collaboration between institutions is essential to bring -ing about centralization. For this reason, George A. Smathers Libraries have begun collaborating with the Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI) from the University of California, Los Angeles.48 HAPI has created a locally controlled vocabulary list that includes subject head-ings more suitable for Latin American terminology. Since HAPI also understands the disparity between Latin American subject authority this collaboration might bring about the enhancement of lcsh-es.org LCSH, or by creating a new database modeled more after FAST. To date, public libraries, especially the Queens Borough Public Library and San Francisco Public Library, have led the way for Spanish language authority baton of providing equal accessibility for their multilingual patrons.49ConclusionIn addition to the development of Latin American collections, a sig-50 47. Laurence S. Creider, â€œWhat Are Academic Libraries Doing with Spanish LanJournal of Academic Librarianship 29, no. 2 (March 2003): 90. Latin American Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), last accessed 49. Creider, â€œWhat Are Academic Libraries Doing with Spanish Languages Subject 50. Salvatore, â€œLibrary Accumulation and the Emergence of Latin American Stud -
406Mass production relies on a large number of workers who specialize in a standardized system. The principles adopted by the American Library Association at its foundation in 1876 suggest that libraries were always intended to follow the business model. The axioms were â€œdemocratic rapidly. In order to achieve this, librarians developed a system of uniform 51In relation to Latin American collections, a result of this paradigm was that access in the form of subject headings and library catalogs tize access to Caribbean content, which can only be achieved through bilingual or multilingual metadata. The cases analyzed here highlight the challenges that LIS specialists have faced in doing so. The Florida and research. One of the main takeaways of this analysis is the need to raise complexity of designing a sustainable program of international col-laboration between Cuba and the US. Finally, the study of the creation of bilingual metadata for The Cuban American Dream timeline has revealed a major obstacle: the heterogeneity of Spanish subject headSpanish is spoken. In order to overcome these challenges, UF must implement a pro gram of bilingual Spanish-English metadata that includes the hiring of retrospective cataloging and description. 51. Salvatore, 420-22.
407 and second, centralization and collaboration with other institutions, such as HAPI, in order to develop Spanish language datasets. Above all, the creation of bilingual ports of access requires a mindset that departs from the conception of libraries as factories, whose goal is mass produc-tion, and acknowledges that the creation of bilingual metadata is more artisanal than industrial, for it requires intensive and specialized labor. Bibliography Blight, David W. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2003. Center for Bibliographic Studies and Research, University of California Catlogo Colectivo de Impresos Lati noamericanos bibliography Creider, Laurence S. â€œWhat Are Academic Libraries Doing with Spanish Journal of Academic Librarianship 29, no. 2 (March 2003): 88-94. Digital Library of the Caribbean . Elkins, Caroline. â€œLooking beyond Mau Mau: Archiving Violence in the American Historical Review 120, no. 3 (June English, Jessica L. â€œPreservation is Political: International Collaboration for
408Latin American Studies Association. Barcelona, Spain, 23-26 May, 2018. Finding Aids. Finding Aids. Aids. . . Collections of Cuban Patrimony. Accessed December 12, 2018. George A. Smathers Libraries. â€œCollaborative Digital Collections of Cuban George A. Smathers Libraries. The Cuban American Dream: A Timeline, Latin American and Caribbean Collection Home . Accessed . Accessed . Accessed December
409 ribbean . . Accessed Finding Aids. George A. Smathers Libraries. â€œLetter to Senator Henry Cabot Lodge from Caribbean . George A. Smathers Libraries. UFDC University of Florida Digital CollecLibrary of the Caribbean . The Graduate School, University of Florida. Proposal for an Inter-American Cul. Gainesville, FL: 1961. Accessed December the Latin American Institute. University of California, Los Angeles about. Kreyche, Michael. â€œSubject Headings in Spanish: The lcsh-es.org Bilingual 51, no. 4 (2013): 389.
410Library of Congress. â€œGuidelines & Resources. Technical Guidelines & . Accessed Linked Data Service . Vocabularies, Rules, and Schemes. Accessed December 3, 2018. Makdisi, Ussama. â€œDiminished Sovereignty and the Impossibility of â€˜Civil American Historical Review 120, Dictionary of World History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2015. Montgomery, Bruce. â€œReconciling the Inalienability Doctrine with the American Archivist Medina, Jos Toribio. La imprenta en La Habana, 1707-1810. Amsterdam: Israel, 1964. Archives & Manuscripts . . Accessed December 3, . Accessed December org. OCLC. â€œSample OCLC record of a holding belonging to the Biblioteca
411 29, no. 1-2 (2000): Salvatore, Ricardo D. â€œLibrary Accumulation and the Emergence Comparative American Studies. An International Journal Taylor, Laurie. â€œâ€˜Librarian on a Boatâ€™ or Digital Scholarship, Caribbean Studies, and the Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC): Alternative Taylor, Laurie, Margarita Vargas-Betancourt, and Brooke Wooldridge. â€œThe Digital Library of the Caribbean (dLOC): Creating a Shared Scholarly and Research Communication. Simon Toribio Medina, Jos. La imprenta en La Habana, 1707-1810 . Amsterdam: Israel, 1964. Trelles, Carlos M. Bibliografa cubana de los siglos XVII y XVIII . Havana: Impr. del Ejrcito, 1965. Bibliografa cubana del siglo XIX . Matanzas: Kraus Reprint, 1965. University of Florida Libraries Catalog. The History of the Bucaniers of America: Exhibiting a particular account and description of Porto Bello, Chagre, Pana ma, Cuba, Havanna, and most of the Spanish possessions on the coasts of the West Indies, and also all along the coasts of the South Sea: With the manner in which they have been invaded, attempted, or taken by these adventurers the whole written in several languages by persons present at the transactions. Ac-
412 jsp?20UF036503552. Wagner, Ralph D. A History of the Farmington Plan. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2002.