Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles

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Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles
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Thibeault, M. D. (2015). Music education for all through participatory ensembles. Music Educators Journal, 102(2), 54–61.
Thibeault, Matthew D.
Sage Publications
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This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino’s four-field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the specialist-oriented presentational field found in most music programs in U.S. schools. Three examples, a samba academy and two ukulele groups, show how the participatory field has been implemented in public schools in the United States. These examples highlight the participatory field’s ability to allow simultaneous participation across the age and ability spectrum, with all participants’ contributions equally valued. The values and practices of the participatory field also make clear the tension in music education between specialization (that causes fewer students to participate) and the broad participation that flows naturally from participatory music.
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1 The post print version of this article is shared through the Institutional Repository at the University of Florida ( ) APA Citation: Thibeault, M. D. (2015). Music education for all through participatory ensembles. Music Educators Journal 102(2), 54 61. Many thanks to MEJ for permission to share this online. More on my work, including links to other publications, is available on my website:


2 Author bio: Matthew D. Thibeault teaches music in Toyama, Japan, and is an adjunct assistant professor in the online master's program for the University of Florida, Gainesville. The au thor gratefully acknowledges Koji Matsunobu, Channing A. Paluck, and Thomas Turino for their assistance with this article. [LEAD IN] Participatory music education has the potential to transform what happens in your school ensembles. Music Education for All through Participatory Ensembles b y Matthew D. Thibeault Abstract : This article explores how the participatory field can complement and enhance even successful music education programs. The participatory field, part of Thomas Turino s four field framework, conceptualizes the musical values and practices of societies where musical participation is nearly universal. The participatory field contrasts with the specialist oriented presentational field found in most music programs in U S schools. Three examples, a samba academy and two ukulele groups, show how the participatory field has been implemented in public schools in the United States. These examples highlight the participatory field s ability to allow simultaneous participation across the age and ability spectrum, with all participants contributions equally valued. The values and practices of the participatory field also make clear the tension in music education between specialization (that causes fewer students to participate) and the broad participation that flows naturally from participatory music. Keywords: ensemble, ethnomusicology participatory music, samba, ukulele Music educators can enhance student and community involvement in their programs by including participatory music. My inter est in this began a t a concert a few years ago when I encouraged two friends to come out and support a university Latin jazz ensemble, my favorite underappreciated group It was a vibrant big band pe rformance that featured student instrumentalists and a charismatic faculty leader who occasionally soloed. The band p lay ed original tunes and arrangements and the audience consisted of the usual twenty odd people clumped together in a hall meant for 500. The evening took a surreal turn at intermission as we walked into the large main lobby and were greeted by the sight and sound of hundreds joyously dancing An event was under way in another part of the performing arts center where one brought a partner, g o t some lessons, and then dance d all night, ir onically to a DJ playing Latin j azz (see Figure 1). The Latin j azz ensemble s players had come to the lobby to sel l their CD, and we all quietly watched before leaving the crowd behind to head back into the dim hall for the second half of the Latin jazz ensemble s concert.


3 FIGURE 1 On the left, a photo just before the concert shows a nearly empty hall; on the right hundreds dance to a Latin jazz DJ at the same time. In Music Educators Journal s most downloaded article Music Education at the Tipping Point, author John Kratus asks But what kind of arts education does the public support? 1 I considered this as the Latin jazz ensemble resumed their concert. Clearly many of the people who came out to the performing arts center that night supported danc ing to a recording instead of listening to the live band that played just a few feet away. Why was this the case? Was there a conception that might allow for meaningful distinctions to be understood between the two events I had witness ed ? Could the audience in the concert hall have been given a similar experience to the audience dancing with the DJ? Could such an event unite these two types of audiences provid ing musical opportunities for all community members? What kinds of musical materials, repertoire, or pedagogy might be needed to achieve this? Finally, might such an approach connect with broader goals for school ensembles? I closed my eyes and dreamed of ensembles in harmony of live music and live b odies together The Need for Musical Participation What the Latin music dancers wanted was participation. They wanted not onl y to witness but to be part of the musical event. Music educators today also often desire participation, specifically an increased participation in school based music learning opportunities from all members of the student population. Parti cipation is an important aspect of music education research through approaches such as vernacular music, improvisation, community music, popular music, technology and creativity, democratic music education, and the call for music education as a civil right. 2 Participation is even an emerging concern for music education at the college level, with a recent report from the College Music Society declaring that in a global society, students must experience, through study and direct participation, music of diverse cultures, generations, and social contexts. 3 The report calls for a radical transformation of college music education more resonant with participatory music stating that improvisation and composition provide a stronger basis for educating musicians today than the prevailing model of training performers in the interpretation of older works. 4 In many societies musical participation is nearly universal There are many c ohorts wher e participation is so broad that the ter m musician is redundant. This type of musical environment is termed the participatory field by ethnomusicologist Thomas Turino in Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation 5 The book synthesizes a lifetime o f ethnomusicological fieldwork among the Shona of Zimbabwe, the Aymara of Peru, and old time music in the U nited States Because


4 Turino s work is based on societies that have successfully involved all for as long as we are aware, one could surmise that the incorporation of characteristics of the participatory field could bolster the diverse efforts to increase participation in music education today. Moreover, Turino s theoretical conception could guide attempts to make music education more participatory in ways that do not require the wholesale transplantation of a culture but instead inquire about the musical structures, values, and social relations found in a particular setting. While much that resembles participatory music does occur in general music classes, I limit myself here to discussion of ensembles as they are typically organized around presentational concerts instead of participatory experiences. The Participatory Field The term participation has many everyday meanings, and all students and aud ience members clearly participate in music whenever it sounds However participatory music education is built on a specific use of the term participation Turino notes : I am using the idea of participation in the restricted sense of actively contributing to the sound and motion of a musical event through dancing, singing, clapping, and playing musical instruments when each of these activities is considered integral to the performance. 6 The participatory field encompasses music that is primarily social, used for bonding with others, and which aims to involve all through an approach to music that is accessible to all. The presentational field by contrast, exists when specialist musicians present music to audiences through concerts. In other words, presentational music presented for others is contrasted with participatory music made with everyone Turino uses the term field to include music but also the cultural and social ideas, values, and practices and the participatory and presentational fields have fundamentally different orientations toward music in terms of ideas, goals, musical structures, values, and practices. How can one know whether a given ensemble or performance is participatory in Turino s sense of the term? Turino suggests that such a determination should be made case by case, and Table 1 presents an overview of the differences between the participatory and presentational fields. The Latin jazz ensemble concert I had attended, for instance, falls clearly in the presentational column, a iming to maximize interest for the audience, varied forms, the group on stage, virtuoso soloists, and the pieces as largely set in length save for solos. But if that same group had played an outdoor festival or a dance, they could be participatory by adapting what they do For example, they could play simpler tunes with lyrics others could sing, invite others to dance and perhaps even bring along some dancers to start the party, bring percussion instruments for others to play, repeat sections to allow dancers more time to move, and avoid the kind of complex arrangements that might be ideally suited for a presentational concert but that make for an unpredictability unsuited to participation.


5 TABLE 1 Contrasts between the Presentational and Participatory Fields Presentational Field Participatory Field Goal is maximum interest for audience Goal is maximum participation of all present Forms vary in complexity and length Forms are short, open, and repeated Music as an object created by one group (artists) for another group (audience) Music as social activity among face to face participants with an emphasis on the doing Clear artist audience distinction marked by barriers such as a stage, lights, and amplification Little or no distinction, only participants and potential participants Focus on the sound and the musicians Inward focus among participants Organized beginnings and endings Feathered beginnings and endings Individual virtuosity emphasized Individual virtuosity downplayed Repe tition balanced with contrast Highly repetitious Many contrasts by design Few dramatic contrasts Variability of meter and tempo possible Constancy of groove/meter Clarity of textures emphasized Dense overlapping textures Piece as a set composition Piece as a collection of resources to be refashioned each performance Note Table adapted from Thomas Turino, Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation ( Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press 2008), particularly p 51 and p. 90. A primary poi nt is that many aspects taken together contribute to a participatory determination: T he role of the audience matters, but so do the musical structures, the values embedded in various practices, and more. While teachers offer wonderfully engaging ensembles in which students have rich experiences, most of the teachers I have taught believe that their school ensembles tend heavily toward the presentational as the overarching conception Perhaps the most compelling reason to consider the participatory approach is this: The participatory field supports simultaneous participation of everyone across the age and ability spectrum with all participants contributions equally valued. Unlike a band or orchestra, which by high school require a commitment of years in order to play on the stage, participatory societies have evolved musical structures, values, and practices that encourage anyone to join in at any time. As intimated previously t his openness to all is rooted in different conceptions of how to organize music, the values of performance, and educational aims. Furthermore, I must stress that these conceptions facilitate the full participation of everyone experts as well as beginners so that all are able to engage in meaningful and fulfilling manners as individuals while making music together as a group.


6 Three Examples of Participatory Music Education What might it look like when an ensemble includes every student in the school or when the comm unity at large is free to participate ? Here are three concrete examples of successful par ticipatory music ensembles in public schools. Readers will recognize many participatory aspects from Table 1 and also that the typical instrumental/choral split found in music education was missing as students both played and sang in all of the groups described in the following Just outside Chicago, music educator Polly Yukevich brought a participatory dimension to her general music classes. 7 A middle school string teacher, she started a sing along group who se members strummed ukuleles to accompany themselves. Yukevich secured a grant that helped purchase 330 ukulele kits, enough for her entire sixth grade to make their own instruments. Each student, working in collaboration with the school s art specialist, painted his or her ukulele to depict an emotion or feeling from their favorite song. With their ukuleles made, the students had weekly sing along meetings, learning folk songs as well as popular songs suggested by students. Their work culminated in a Community Day of Music. The project attracted the attention of international virtuoso Jake Shimabukuro, who collaborated with the school via Skype and invited the students to visit with him backstage at a show in Chicago the following summer. 8 In Harlem, New York, music educator Dana Montiero was hired to reestablish a declining traditional band program at the Fredrick Douglass Academy. 9 After four years of effort with little success, Montiero returned from a trip to Brazil inspired to create an after school samba group The group s pedagogy included peer mentoring and student ownership of the collaborative music they ma d e. The program proved so popular that it supplanted the traditional band program and at this point, it includes all student s in g rades 10 through 12 The program has been recognized through invited performances around the United States and it won the 2012 Brazilian International Press Award for Best Institution for the Promotion of Brazilia n Culture in the United States. The Homebrew Ukulele Union a sing along group I formed at a public university consistently included all community members as participants (see Figure 2). Our performances, profiled in regional and national publications, frequently had newcomers far outnumbering regular players, spanning from senior citizens to members of a third grade ukulele club from a local public school. 10 Other s joined in as we found ways to reach out to them along participatory lines and as we shed our presentational habits. We br ought extra ukuleles and projected lyrics and chord forms on a screen. Moving away from organized arrangements, we favored folk and popular songs in easily sung range s that often would become familiar by the second chorus. We learned the value of a group of core players including a percussionist and acoustic bass player, who would work to ensure that the entire group stay ed together no matter how many newcomers joined us


7 FIGURE 2 The Robeson Elementary third grade ukulele club with teacher Sarah Filkins participates with the Homebrew Ukulele Union in a public sing along. Photograph by Kelly White. These programs exemplify how the par ticipatory field can thrive in public school setting s In suburban Chicago, the ukulele ensemble was embraced by students, teaching colleagues (e.g., the art specialist), and an internationally known artist. At Fredrick Douglass Academy, the approach of the samba provided an extraordinary infusion of energy where a traditional band program was withering. Finally, the Homebrew Ukulele Union involv ed the entire age and ability spectrum of their audience at all their events. These groups m ade participation likely, enjoyable and rewarding while attracting adulation. This suggests a real interest in participatory music education and also that the participatory field represents not a lowering of musical standards but a broadening of musical values Making Music Participatory Ensembles need not become wholly devoted to participatory music. Most bands, orchestras, and choirs already play participatory repertory (e.g., folk and pop songs) without providing the participatory experiences from which these songs emanated essentially offering presentational versio ns of participatory songs. H ow might educators infuse this music with par ticipatory experiences ? Every beginning instrumental method book is filled with tunes that come from participatory traditi ons such as Down by the Riverside or Go Tell Aunt Rhody These are fine tunes for beginners, and their historic significance rightly makes them foundational in learning to play. However, music educators too often approach these tunes with a focus on basic technical skills, treating them like ÂŽ tude s This inadvertently send s the message that these tunes are only beginner s music a stepping stone toward the real or grown up music playe d in festivals and competition.


8 The problem is not that these tunes are simple but that the pedagogical approach to this music is simplistic. Participatory music can be played note for note, but it comes alive when people become playful with it. Vocal h armonies can be added, the tune embellished, improvisations celebrated singing or dancing invit ed, and extended repetitions relished T he accompaniments can also morph as participants respond to each other with pleasure a nd curiosity. Turino notes, in participatory music a piece is more like a set of resources, like the rules and stock moves of a game, refashioned anew during e ach performance. 11 The tune s simplicity allows for a flexibility that fits the needs of the moment, going beyond the rigid interpretation of reading a method book. As a n elementary general music teacher, I taught songs like these thousands of times and believe my classes did interesting things with them, but I only came to truly love these songs after having deeply satisfying experiences via participatory settings like old time music jams. Teachers are often uncomfortable with improvisation, but the participatory field s accommodation of beginners makes for a hospitable place to develop that skill. The invitation of participatory improvisation contrasts with the specialized improvisation most common for music education that found in j azz which can seem intimidat ing with its complex chord changes and popular virtuoso level performers. Participatory music, in contrast, is a place for playful musicianship to grow. My experience has been that participatory experiences encourage teachers to take risks they otherwise would not take often enjoying music in a playful way for the first time in many years. Making music participatory does not require that we play only folk music but that we instead examine the kinds of musically and socially rich experiences that can emerge from basic tunes experiences that can involve everyone and give all, including educators a chance to begin to experience the pleasures of participatory music. Once such pleasures and success exist, it is possible to imagine participatory experiences being undertaken with a wide variety of music, making such experiences come alive in new ways and with new music. Specialization and Participation Despite the possibilities of participatory music, there remains a resistance rooted in the deep tension between broad participation and the kind of specialization often prized in music education. Music professor and conductor Mark Fonder recently wrote, Some academicians seem to prefer participatory experiences over presentational experiences. How bleak that world must be! He further laments, These academicians would have us abandon the 20 percent the most motivated and interested students to accommodate the other 80 percent. 12 Fonder s preoccupation with specialization was echoed by National Association for Music Education (NAfME) President Glenn E. Nierman ( serving NAfME 2014 2016) during a recent presentation where he called for courses that serve specialists whom he referred to as the talented few, as well as nonspecialists whom he referred to as the not so talented many. 13 Specialization produces stunning achievements and I argue that we should not abandon successful programs. But specialization by its very design also produces non specialists. A recent study by Karen Salvador supports this notion She found that a majority of elementary certification students in a college music class reported a decline in the belief they were musical during their school years due to experiences with music in school, cultural ideas about talent, and competing specialist identities such as sports or academics. 14 These future teachers had unintentionally been taught that music was for musicians and that they were nonmusicians. The pursuit of excellence through specialization raises concerns about whether we as a profession stray too far from our core educational mission. It is not hard to see how a student might start to believe him self or hersel f unmusical when offered a seat in a course designed for th e not so talented many or feel unworthy when an educator regard s him or her as incapable of high


9 motivat ion for music Ideas like these set the stage for music education to create nonmusician s Understood in this way, our profession s preoccupation with specialization begs reconsideration of John Blacking s question Must the majority be made unmusical so that a few may be made more musical ? 15 Participatory music, built on different values, suggests a viab le alternative music education designed for all When all students across the age and ability spectrum participate together, there is no reason to divide students or classes as talented/untalented, motivated/unmotivated, or musical/unmusical. Instea d, the participatory field allows all to join at any time, whether to develop substantial skills or casua lly participate. Additionally, because participatory societies and cohorts often embed music broadly in social life, participatory music can help our profession to answer philosopher John Dewey s call for the arts to come forth from the museums to which they have retired in order to become a living part of the walk and conversation of the average [person]. 16 Dewey suggested that such art may become the outward and visible sign of the inward grace which is the democratic spirit. 17 Participatory music, where all are included, allows music to come forth in just the way Dewey hoped, an alternative to the specialization that produces stunning achievements in the broader social realm. Consider the music of singer songwriter Woody Guthrie music that brought political engagement into the daily lives of so many through enduring songs that are easily sung. Consider the legacy of folk singer, songwriter, and Appalachian dulcimer player Jean Ritchie, who made all people feel that the music of rural Appalachia belonged to them, or folk singer/activist Pete Seeger, whose banjo proclaimed This Machine Surrounds Hate and Forc es It to Surrender. 18 Their music participatory and accessible was a living part o f American life and a singing of the democratic spirit in the historic struggle for civil rights. Today, p articipatory music supports movements such as LGBTQA, Occupy, and #blacklivesmatter, all around the world from Taksim square in Turkey to Ferguson, Missouri. 19 In every case, participatory music is used not to entertain but to rouse to action, to bind together in common cause to come forward from stages to which it often retires. Educators can enrich their offerings along participatory lines, and i t is a wor ld without such music that sounds bleak Embracing Participatory Music Education In the years since I attended the Latin jazz ensemble concert, I have come to understand a primary reason that ensemble was under appreciated: The group itself failed to appreciate the audience s broader need to participate. I enjoyed their concerts for seven years, and I never did see them invite others to dance. However, I did find answers to the questions I had wondered about that night. The participatory and presentational fields provide a meaningful way to distinguish between musical events with fundamentally distinct purpo ses. Both musicians and the audience can be united, and the participatory field affords simultaneous participation across the age and ability spectrum with all participants contributions equally valued. The field is supported through specific approaches to repertoire and pedagogy, and the idea of the participatory field might help to connect ensembles with broader goals for music education. It would be delightful to have more participatory ensembles based in schools, more places where everyone can join in together. Choruses can lead sing alongs, and wind bands can play dance music. Most musical practices are related to participatory traditions, and educators could help to return participatory experiences to practices that have retreated to the stage. Educators can also connect with the participatory music of immigrants who came to America from all over the world, from Sacred Harp singing to New England contra dance, from Appalachian string bands to Uruguayan candombe and Cajun zydeco. Other educators might wish to begin with more generic


10 approaches like the sing along or the drum circle. These are all avenues by which music educators can return to music for everyone. What should occur next? Two things come to mind. First, teachers can and should do more to better understand participatory values, ideas, practices, and pedagogy that should accompany the tunes and songs that are already present in the curriculum. T hrough these, t eachers can find ways to experiment with participatory music in their curri culum (see sidebar to get started). Understanding participatory values opens up the music classroom to a different way of making music, one that is oriented toward different purposes and encompasses a generous conception of music. [SIDEBAR ] Teachers and Students: Get Started with Participatory Music 1. Develop participatory habits by joining a participatory group in your community or by learning a participatory style or instrument such as clawhammer banjo, samba drumming, or folk guitar. 2. Add participatory experiences back into the repertoire you already teach. Help students sing, dance, and play together. 3. Add a sing along to your ensemble s concert, projecting lyrics or adding them to your concert program. 4. Read Tanya Lee s freely downloadable dissertation on Chicago s Old Town School of Folk Music, Music as a Birthright a great source to learn about the participatory field in an educational setting. 5. Spend time on the Alan Lomax Archive s YouTube channel, where much of the music is participatory. 6. Dance! Work with a participatory tradition that includes dance and support your students learning to play for dancing and to dance together. If you need help, take a field trip to a contra dance or invite a caller to visit your school. Considerati ons for Participatory Beginners 1. Have a focus. It is likely easier to be successful with a single participatory tradition rather than a smattering of participatory societies. 2. Cultivate a core of musicians who will keep everyone together. Y ou might want to begin with a smaller group and then add more once you have a functioning core. 3. Take time to develop an understanding of the participatory field. Teachers will likely be most successful if they understand and can articulate to others participatory values, ideals, and their educational validity. 4. Watch out for the temptation to drift back into presentational habits such as being overly concerned with precise harmonies or particular arrangements. 5. Realize that your students may already have a wealth of traditions in their families and communities at present or in the past that can be accessed. Second, the profession must understand that broader participation will not come through convincing more students to become musical specialists. Instead, music programs will likely attract broader participation to the extent that participatory programs are offered alongside the thriving specialist programs that currently exist. Consequently, the participatory as a field will provide a framework for critical conversations regarding the tensions between specialization and music s broader place within education and society. Those who have experienced the pleasures of participatory music know that their joys are enough to justify their incl usion in schools. Groups like the Frederick Douglass Academy samba


11 band provide proof that we can attract international acclaim while including every student, profoundly answering our profession s call for more participation. The existence of more music education where achievement and participation are high but where no student is made to feel unmusical would be a beautiful thing indeed. Notes 1. John Kratus Music Education at the Tipping Point Music Educators Journal 94 no. 2 (2007 ): 42 48, 44. 2. For exemplars of these approaches, see Robert H. Woody and Andreas C. Lehmann, Student Musicians Ear Playing Ability as a Function of Vernacular Music Experiences, Journal of Research in Music Education 58, no. 2 ( 2010): 101 15; Maud Hickey, Can Improv isation Be Taught ?: A Call for Free Improvisation in Our Schools, International Journal of Music Education 27, no. 4 (2009): 285 99 ; Lee Higgins and Roger Mantie, Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience, Music Educators Journal 100, no 2 (2 013): 38 44 ; Lee Higgins, Community Music in Theory and in Practice (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2012); Lucy Green, Hear, Listen, Play!: How to Free Your Student s Aural, Improvisation and Performance Skills (New York, NY: Oxford University Pres s, 2014); Pamela Burnard, Musical Creativities in Practice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012); Paul Woodford, Democracy and Music Education: Liberalism, Ethics, and the Politics of Practice (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2005); Randall E. Allsup, Mutual Learning and Democratic Action in Instrumental Music Education, Journal of Research in Music Education 51, no. 1 (2003): 24 37 ; Scott C. Shuler, Music Education for Life: Core Music Education: Students Civil Right, Music Educators Journal 98, no. 4 (2012): 7 11. 3. David Myers, Ed Sarath, Juan Chattah, Lee Higgins, Victoria Linsay Levine, David Rudge, and Timothy Rice Transforming Music Study from Its Foundations: A Manifesto for Progressive Change in the Undergraduate Preparation of Music Majors ," i n Report of the Task Force on the Undergraduate Music Major last modified November 2014, accessed September 24, 2015, ?option=com_content&view=article&id=1859 4. Ibid. 5. Thomas Turino, Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2008). 6. Turino, Music as Social Life 28; for a contrasting approach to the term participa tory along tec hnological and media lines, see Evan S. Tobias, Toward Convergence: Adapting Music Education to Contemporary Society and Participatory Culture, Music Educators Journal 99, no. 4 (2013): 29 36. 7. This account is drawn from: David Knowles, Teach Your Children Well: Jake Shimabukuro Spreads the Ukulele Gospel through His New Four Strings Foundation ," Ukulele Magazine ( Winter 2014 ). 8. For more in depth explorations of ukule le groups as participatory, see Nathan B. Kruse, Without U, It s Just Kulele : Expressions of Leisure and Ohana in an Intergenerational Ukulele Club, International Journal of Community Music 6, no. 2 ( 2013): 153 67 9. See My account is indebted t o Lee Higgins, My Voice Is Important Too: Non Formal Music Experiences and Young People, in The Child as Musician 2nd ed., ed. Gary E. McPherson (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, in press). 10. M. D. Thibeault and Julianne Evoy Building Your Own Musical Community: How YouTube, Miley Cyrus, and the Ukulele Can Create a New Kind of Ensemble ," General Music Today 24, no. 3 ( 2011 ): 44 52 To see media coverage of the HUU, see: 11. Turino, Music as Social Life 54. 12. Mark Fonder, Another Perspective: No Default or Reset Necessary Large Ensembles Enrich Many ," Music Educators Journal 101 no. 2 ( 2014 ): 89.


12 13. Glenn E. Nierman, T ED Style Talk: Sneak Peek at the New Core Music Standards (presented at the Committe e on Institutional Cooperation Music Education Conference, University of Nebraska Lincoln, 2013). 14. Karen Salvador, Identity and Transformation: (Re)claiming an Inner Musician, in Music Education: Navigating the Future ed. Clint Randles (New York, NY : Routledge, 2014), 215 34. 15. John Blacking, How Musical Is Man? (Seattle; WA : University of Washington Press, 1973), 4. 16. John Dewey, Art as Our Heritage, in The Collected Works of John Dewey, the Later Works, 1925 1953 Vol. 14, ed. J. A. Boydston (Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press, 2008), 257. 17. Ibid. 18. David King Dunaway and Molly Beer Singing O ut : An Oral History of America s Folk Music Revivals ( New York / Oxford UK : Oxford University Press 2012) 19. I focus on the democratic, but chapter 7 of Turino s book discusses how participatory music can be used for good purposes or ill.