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Transforming Youth Years in Senegal: Developing a Youth Venture Program with Ashoka Sahel Rugiyatu Kane A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree at the Universi ty of Florida, In Gainesville, FL USA November 2016 Supervisory Committee: Dr. R. Serra, Dr. G. Galloway, Dr. M. Kumara n Dr. J. Kraft
1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents 1 Acknowledgments 2 Acronyms, Figures, and Tables 3 Executive Sum mary 4 Executive Summary (French) 5 Introduction 6 Ashoka Sahel 6 Background and Contextual Information 7 Project Scope 16 Methodology 17 Findings 19 Challenges and Limitations 28 Cross scale and cross discipline considerations 29 Concl usion and Recommendations 31 References 35 Annexes 3 7 Annex1: Curriculum Outline 38 Annex 2: Interview Guide 4 0 Annex 3: Interview Findings from High Schools 4 2 Annex 4: Interview Findings from Universities 43 Annex 5 : Focus Group Guide 4 4 Annex 6 : Focus Group Findings from High Schools 46 Annex 7: Focus Group Findings from Universities 47 Annex 8 : Stakeholder Workshop Guide (French) 4 8
2 A C KNOWLEDGEMENTS Youth all over the world have a role to play in their own development as well as the presence; it signifies being an active agent of change (UNICEF, 2007). The spirit in the message of this quote is what has inspired my field practicum experi ence and this repor t. As a young development pract it i oner, my passion lies in empowering other young people to develop their full potential. This quote captures the significance of engaging young people in dev elopment, not just by gi ving them a voice in decision making space s but also by allowing them to transform their own communities and themselves. In many ways, my work with Ashoka Sahel on developing a Youth Social Entrepreneurship program is meant to help yo ung people in Senegal and across the Sahel do just that. For the opportunity to contribute to this change, I am grateful. T oo often, when I talk about youth in development, I forget to include myself. However, I think that havin g a young Senegalese, myself, working on a project aimed at empowering other young Senegalese and Africans has been in of its elf an opportunity to have a voice and be an agent of change in my community. It all comes full circle: in aiming to develop other young people, I have developed myself. For the opportunity to learn, and grow, as a young Senegalese and development practitioner, I am grateful. T o my host organization, Ashoka Sahel, for welcoming me, and supporting me in my desire to revive the develo pment of Youth Venture in Senegal I am grateful. To the students and representatives who participated in the study, I am grateful. To the past researchers who have informed my study, I am grateful. To my committee chair and advisor, Dr. Renata Serra, for always pushing me to give the best of myself in my work, and for literally walking me to my first day at Ashoka, I am grateful. To the MDP program director, Dr. Glenn Galloway, for serving on my committee and his invaluable input and encouragement, I am gr ateful. To Dr. Muthusami Kumaran, for serving as the representative of my minor in Nonprofit Organizational Leadership, and Dr. John Kraft, for serving as the representative of my minor in Entrepreneurship, I am grateful. To the MDP program, including prog ram coordinator Dr. Andrew Noss, for the logistical and financial support, I am grateful. To the University of Florida, the Center for African Studies, and the Sahel Research Group, for supporting my growth as a scholar and Pan Africanist, I am grateful. T o the MDP Cohort 5 and the MDP Cohort 6, for journeying with me through this process, I am grateful. To my parents, Stephanie and Makane Kane, for their undying love and support, I am grateful. To my sisters, Caamo, Masake, and Fatimata Kane for always be lieving in me, I am grateful. To my friends, in particular Rokh aya Fall, Ousmane Soumahoro, Therese Kennelly Okraku, and Whitney Turientine, for their comfort in times of frustration, I am grateful. To my aunt Martha, for her undying enthusiasm I am grate ful. In the name of God, the most gracious, the most merciful, all praises to Allah.
3 ACRONYMS, FIGURES, AND TABLES Acronyms IAM Institut Africain De Management ISM Institut Suprieur De Management SABS Senegalese American Bilingual School YSE Youth Social Entrepreneurship JEA Jeunes Entrepreneurs Africains AIESEC Association Internationale des tudiants en Sciences conomiques et Commerciales Figures Figure 1 Map of Senegal Figure 2 Contextual / Conceptual Youth Social Entrepreneurship Framework Figure 3 Updated Contextual / Conceptual Youth Social Entrepreneurship Framewor k Figure 4 Locatin g My MDP Field Practicum Within the Youth Venture Project Life Cycle Figure 5 Word Map o f Focus Group Discussions Figure 6 Social Problems of Concern t o Students Figure 7 Comparison o f Awareness o f Ashoka a nd Social Entrepreneurship Fig ure 8 Stakeholder Analysis Figure 9 Cross Scale Implication Framework Tables Table 1 Youth Venture Curriculum Outline Table 2 Demographic Data o f Focus Group Participants Table 3 Comparison of Main Takeaways f rom Interviews Table 4 Comparison o f Approache s and Needs o f Social Curriculums Table 5 Comparison of Needs a nd Concerns
4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The purpose of my 2016 field practicum project was to contribute to the development of the Youth Venture program at Ashoka Sahel. The Youth Venture program is an experiential learning process aimed at empowering youth to take leadership within their communities through social entrepreneurship or social initiatives. The focus of the field practicum project occurred at the needs assessment and design phases of the project cycle for the Youth Venture program. I was responsible for conducting a study to identify needs among youth and partner institutions, and develop strategies for the adaptation of the Youth Venture program design to fit the context of Senegal. During the field practicum, interviews, focus group discussions, and a stakeholder workshop with key stakeholders were organized in Dakar. Primary results from the study highli ght first, that there is a need to engage school aged youth (12 18 years old) in social entrepreneurship as a means to develop youth's potential at an early stage and most important social and or environmental challenges Another s ignificant finding is that while Ashoka partner high schools and universities already engage on their own their students in socially related or social entrepreneurship activities, there is also need for a more structured program that provides the approp riate skills and resources which youth should possess in order to launch successful social ventures. Based on the study findings and knowledge o f best practices, and taking in to account existing challenges and limitations, recommendations in six key are as are formulated in order to assist Ashoka Sahel in the successful implementation of a pilot phase for Youth Venture in Senegal. These are: Contextualization Recommendations: A ll Youth Venture materials should be translated and available in French Dete rmine the role of each implementing partner. Each institution should contextualize the program design to fit its needs. Implementation Recommendations: A full pilot session should be carried out prior to establishing the program. Multiple stakeholders shou ld be involved in the scaling process. Determine how Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) will be done. Facilitation Recommendations: The facilitator should receive training on carrying out the Youth Venture program. The facilitators and/or mentors should have a background in basic business concepts. The facilitator should be familiar with the local context and have experience working with youth. Curriculum Recommendations : Determine whether the licensed Youth Venture Curriculum will be acquired or whether a ne w curriculum should be develop ed. In the delivery of the curriculum, participatory training methods and simulations are highly recommended. Integrate research methods and analysis in to the modules and learning objectives The content, methodology, and language of the curriculum must be reviewed to reflect the needs of participants. Financ ing Recommendations : Determine all the costs associated with running the program, and how they will be covered. Identify potential funding partners and develop co financing opportunities. Student Motivation Recommendations : Participants should receive a certificate of completio n. Institutions or partner organizations should determine whether to use grades or community service hour requirements as part of the program. Ensure that all successful social venture ideas receive seed funding. Develop a post program tracking system for funded youth social ventures. Students should be oriented to where they can obtain post program support and services.
5 EXECUTIVE SUMMA R Y (FRENCH ) Le but de ce stage pratique tait de contribuer l'laborati on du programme Youth Venture avec Ashoka Sahel. les jeunes prendre des initiatives en vue d'amliorer leurs propres communauts travers des entreprises soci ales ou initiatives sociales. Le foc alis sur la phase d'valuation des besoins et ensuite sur celle de la conception du cycle de projet pour le programme Youth Venture. L'auteur de ce rapport a d pour ce faire mener une tude ident ifi cation d es besoins chez les jeunes et les institutions partenaires, et laborer des stratgies pour l'adaptation de la conception du programme Youth Venture au contexte du Sngal. Pendant le stage pratique des interviews, des groupes de discussion, et un atelier des parties prenantes avec les principaux intervenants ont t organises Dakar. Les principaux rsultats de l'tude soulignent qu'il est ncessaire d'engager les jeunes d'ge scolaire (12 18 ans) dans l'entrepreneuriat social afin de dvelop per leur potentiel de rsoudre certains des plus grands dfis sociaux et ou environnementaux du Sngal. On exposent dj leurs tudiants des activits Il est cependant ncess aire les comptences appropries, accompagnes de ressources dont les jeunes ont besoin pour lancer avec succs leur s initiatives ou entreprises sociales. Sur la base des rsultats de l'tude, d es connaissances sur les meilleures pratiques, et prenant compte les dfis et l es limites, plusieurs recommandations sur six domaines cls ont t formules pour aider Ashoka re au Sngal. Recommandations en lien avec le contexte : Tous les matriaux Youth Venture doivent tre disponibles en franais. Dtermine r le rle de chaque partenaire Chaque institution doit contextualiser le programme pour r pondre ses besoins. Recommandations en lien avec la mise en : Une session pilote complte doit tre effectue avant la Dterminer comment le suivi et valuation se feront Recommandations sur le curriculum : Dterminez si la licence du programme Youth Venture sera obtenue ou si un nouveau curriculum sera labor. Dans l'excution du programme d'tudes, des mthodes de format ion participative sont fortement recommand e s. Intgrer l es mthodes de recherche et d 'analyse dans les modules et objectifs d'apprentissage. Rvision du c ontenu, mthodologie et langage du programme pour tenir compte de s besoins des participants. Recommandations en rapport avec le financement : Dterminer tous les cots associs l' excution du programme, et comment ils seront cou verts. Identifier les parte naires financiers potentiels ou les possibilits de financement Recommandations pour la motivation des lves : Offrir aux participants un certificat Les institut ions partenaires devraient dcider d'utiliser un systme de notation, ou des exigences d'heures de service communautaire dan s le cadre du programme. Prvoir un financement de dmarrage pour les ides Mettre en place un systme de su ivi apr s le programme pour les entreprises sociales financ e s. Orienter les jeunes vers des structures de soutien pour les entrepreneurs sociaux.
6 INTRODUCTION Established in Francophone West Africa since 1992, Ashoka is an international organization that promotes social entrepreneurship. In Senegal, Ashoka Sahel is making significant strides in providing y outh with a chance to be leaders in their communities through the Ashoka signature Fellowship program and other initiatives Since 2010, Ashoka Sahel has attempted to bring Youth Venture Ashoka s Youth Social Entrepreneurship Program t o Senegal, but a few roadblocks have caused the organization to bring this project to a halt. With the aim of reviving this project, Ashoka Sahel invited me, as a junior consultant from the to conduct research and contribute to the design and adaptation of the Youth Venture program in Senegal. The objectives were to identify the needs of youth, underst and social entrepreneurship initiatives already occurring among partner high schools and universities in Dakar, and formulate strategies for the design and adaptation of the Ashoka Youth Venture program. Preliminary desk research was conducted, and field r esearch was completed during the ten week in country field practicum from May to July 2016. This report includes an overview of the setting and of the main issues, a description of the methods used to address them, key findings and finally, a number of recommendations to help Ashoka Sahel adapt and implement successfully the Youth Venture program in Senegal. ASHOKA SAHEL Known for its Global Fellowship Program, Ashoka is an international orga nization, with the largest network of social entrepreneurs. Ashoka supports over 3,000 fellows with system changing (Haynes, 2015). vision is one of a world in which many people can enjoy the freedom self permission, and support to make a difference is based on this vision that Ashoka wants to transform through the Youth Venture Program how children grow up and bring about a social revol ution where everyone contributes to change for all (Haynes, 2015). Organizational structure The regional Ashoka office for the Sahel is located in D akar, Senegal. A small but strong team manages program implementation, finances, and the network of Fran cophone West African Ashoka fellows. Interns also assist in the finances and Venture programs. The Programs The Venture program recently inducted its 100th Ashoka fellow from the Francophone West African Region, out of 400 fellows in all of Africa. In addit ion Ashoka Sahel manages several
7 other programs especially geared towards empathy. Ashoka is committed to a world in which each individual has the opportunity to learn empathy as defined later on, and each institution, from schools to communities and who le countries, can integrate empathy as principle and basic practice. The most crucial step to achieve this is to ensure that every child masters empathy. ation of African change makers. T ransforming Youth Years program represent s a chance to take leadership and contribute to existing movements in Africa. The Sahel office is very involved in targeting key Changemaker Schools, and currently drives a network of 8 schools in 4 countries. With Ashoka U, partnerships have been formed with ISM Business School to lead workshops and social business labs. The Youth Venture program will allow Ashoka to better reach youth in Africa and engage them in empathy, leadership, and social entrepreneurship. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION From Social Entrepreneurship to Youth Social Entrepreneurship Y oung people between the ages of 10 and and are increasingly being invol ved in decision making and development initiatives (UNICEF, 2007). In Africa, about 60 70% of the population is under the age of 30, which indicates the importance of learning how to tap into the enormous potentialities that youth can offer (IYF, 2011). Since they represent such a large portion of human capital, African youth have the ability to drive positive social change and economic growth when provided with adequate opportunities and resources. Social entrepreneurship presents itself as an opportunity to dev elop the human capital of African few decades, these ideas have recently caught on in the international development scene as an alternative solution to tackle po verty and other social issues. Social enterprises can take multiple forms such as innovative not for profit ventures, social purpose business ventures, for profit community development banks, and hybrid organizations mixing not for profit elements with f or profit strategies (Dee s 2001). Attempting to define social entrepreneurship often brings attention to the core of the social enterprise: the social entrepreneur. Emerging literature on social entrepreneurship places a central focus on the capability of an individual to combine a passion for a social cause with an innovative or business approach (Dees, 2001) In understanding social entrepreneurship it is important to consider that it is a process, which occurs within a socio ecological context often placing the individual at the core, and then expanding onto the ecosystem or enabling environment for social enterprise creation as well as the boundaries in place. These boundaries represent several challenges including limited resources and the need to continuously adapt and change according to present contexts. From this
8 understanding, so cial entrepreneurship can thus innovative use and combination of resources to pursue opportunities to catalyze social cha nge (Mair & Marti, 2004). In developing countries, youth or marginalized people engage in entrepreneurship as a means of survival (Kruse, 2015). These efforts such as selling water sachets on the street for example typically operate within the informal sector When it comes to social entrepreneurship h owever, there is a fundamental difference between young people engaging in social entrepreneurship, so ntrepreneurship, and what can be def Social Entrepreneurship. Young social entrepreneurship can generally be understood as the creation of various non profit, for profit, and hybrid enterprises or ventures, which respond to social problems such as unemployment or lack of clea n drinking water (McDowall & Micinski 2010) Any young person can decide to create a social enterprise or venture depending on their context, but the concept of Youth Social Entrepreneurship refers more narrowly to the development of programs specifically targeted for young people. Youth Social Entrepreneurship as explained by Kruse (2015) differs from informal economic sector entrepreneurship in that it weaves together formal elements of positive youth development, community developmen t, and social entre preneurship. The goal is not merely to survive, but to bring positive transformation to people and to their communities (Kruse, 2015). Though Entrepreneurship in a historical or poli tical economy context, and whether or not it stems from theories on social entrepreneurship, this concept is further explored in this section. In essence, Youth Social Entrepreneurship integrates practices of positive youth development with community enga gement and social entrepreneurship in order to enable mutual transformation of economies, neighborhoods, and individuals (Kruse, 2015). Youth Social Entrepreneurship (YSE) is a holistic, change making approach that can contribute to sustainable development initiatives. Youth Social E ntrepreneurship puts power into the hands of youth themselves because young people create their vision of the world. As expressed during the United Nations Special Session on Children in 2002, children themselves are the expert s at being 8, 12, or 17 years old societies and no one knows their needs better than they do themselves (UNICEF, 2007). Though Africa where yout h make up more than half of the population in their respective countries, it is essential for youth to be active participants today. Youth all over the world have a role to play in their own development as well as the development of their communities whi ch goes beyond now (UNICEF, 2007).
9 Definin g Youth Social Entrepreneurship The youth social entrepreneurship movement believes that young people have the potential to create social ventures to change their own communities. Although many young people are already involved in change making activities what differentiates youth social entrepreneurship from other youth programs is that youth should be at the heart of the process. Yo ung people should be actively involved in initiating their own activities rather than just being told what to do (UNICEF, 2007). However, such initiatives require the allocation of resources and support, from mentoring to financial assistance. Youth Social Entrepreneur ship programs typically consist of three categories (Kruse, 2015): Positive youth development: development, and a means to building human capital and potential. Social entrepreneurship: the approach taken by youth to create social ventures with an emphasis on social good as one of the most important value propositions. Community development: the process in which youth engage with community members in collective action so to generate solutions to c ommon problems. Because young social entrepreneurs need support in similar or even more intense ways than experienced social entrepreneurs, several organizations have launched programs to aid youth through skills training, funding, networks, and campaigni ng. Often these programs target youth under 30 year olds and provide frameworks for future employment or self employment through venture creation (UNICEF, 2007). Geographic and Socio Economic Context of Dakar, Senegal The capital city of Senegal, Dakar is a peninsula located on the westernmost tip of Africa, making it a strategic point for trans Atlantic trade. Like most of climate is typically warm and dry for most of the year, with one main rainy se ason from June to September Dakar is the political and economic hub of Senegal and a major port along the West African coasts a nd hosts numerous national and regional banks, government offices, international organizations, NGOs and research centers. Th e city of Dakar is rapidly growing in every direction. 3 million people, about 25% of the total population while occupying only 0.3% of the territory (EENI, 2015). Simultaneously, the city is continually under construction, from new roads and Figure 1 : Map of Senegal
10 infrastructure, to new and unfinished houses. The unfinished houses, often inhabited, present an interesting phenomenon which contributes to the vertical expansion of the city as Dakar sits on limited space bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on three sides. Dakar benefits from most of the infrastructure development in Senegal such as roads, electricity, water, ICT, airport, port, and railway as we ll as hospitals, schools, markets (Torres et al, 2011). For this reason, Dakar attracts many seasonal and permanent rural migrants, often seeking better economic opportunities for Unfortunately, unemployment rates in Senegal are high, estimated at 10.2%, and for youth 15 35 years of age, it is even higher at 12.7% (ANSD, 2015). In Dakar in particular, unemployment rates are 13.8% (ANSD, 2015). In many cases, people turn to the in formal sector and many become street vendors or domestic workers; the informal sector actually represents about 80% of employ ment and 90% of new jobs in low income countries in Africa presenting itself dually as a major sector for development and a challen ge (Mbaye, 2014). As in any emerging city in Sub Saharan Africa, Dakar faces many social and environmental challenges, from homelessness and street children to waste management and pollution. Social Entrepreneurship and Youth Social Entrepreneurship in C ontext Entrepreneurship is often promoted as one of the potential solutions to unemployment and a means to reduce poverty in low income countries In Dakar, the entrepreneurial drive aimed at job creation or income generation consists mostly of survival t asks and businesses: from selling toys on the side of the road to running a small bread kiosk. Operati ng within the informal economy and in the context of developing countries, in West Africa most specifically, economists struggle to apply theories of soci al entrepreneurship to local phenomena occurring in Senegal on a daily basis. In her paper, Valuing entrepre ne urship in the informal economy in Senegal economist Sara L. Minard asks: When does a street vendor in Dakar move from the category of survival i ncome generation to the category of social entrepreneur or social innovator within the informal, or popular, economy? (Minard, 2009 p. 187 ) Some argue that in the contexts of developing countries like Senegal, entrepreneurship or the act of creating an enterp rise in of itself is a form of social entrepreneurship because it responds to basic social needs or problems (Ndour & Gueye, 2015). An exploration of the field of social entrepreneurship reveals that given the completely different contexts wit hin which social entrepreneurship occurs in the Western world and in African countries like Senegal, there is a need to define it independently or to develop a different set of characteristics or criteria for determining social entrepreneurship in Senegal Simply importing a Western concept and definition of social entrepreneurship could lead to a failure of its adaptation to the Senegalese realities (Ndour & Gueye, 2015). Considering the dynamism of both entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship, ther e exist several types of enterprises and social entrepreneurs in Senegal from modern tech enterprises to some of which are not even aware of their belonging to
11 this niche and innovative field (Ndour & Gueye, 2015). P articularly in Dakar, there is an increase in enterpr ise development because of the city it s ability to fulfill the needs of startups in agribusiness for example by providing better functioning markets or opportunities to help rapidly expanding tech companies (Jackson, 2013). As explained previously, many opportunities identified in the market coincide with existing societal problems leading to venture creation as a means to help provide solutions to th ose problems. One such example, Ecoles Au Senegal started by the young entrepreneur Cherif Ndiaye, is a digital education platform that makes Senegalese high school curriculum courses accessible online to students who canno t attend classes due to strikes or illness. In Senegal, the social impact from this social enterprise is to potentially revolutionize the education system because strikes are results on national exams. Another example is that of Jiguene Tech hub, created by a group of young Senegalese women, Marieme Jamme, Coudy Binta Deh, and Awa Caba as a means to teach women and girls how to code and influence their participation in STEM fields. This enterpris e for women and by women, is contributing to the increase in representation of women, and particularly African women, in the fields of science and technology. people whose ventures help so lve a dual problem of youth unemployment and other social issues including access to lacking formal and informal education programs. Both examples stated above have not only created self employment for the young social entrepreneurs, but have increased em ployability of other youth through their provision of education content and training in competiti ve skills. Centers such as S ynapse and Jokkolabs, started by 2008 and 2012 Ashoka fellows Cir Kane and Karim SY respectively have emerged to assist social e ntrepreneurs by prov id ing co working space and various workshops, events and specialized youth programs such as Innov4Africa for example, which is funded by the International Youth Foundation. Another example is the JETS program led by the West African Rese arch Center (WARC) which identifies and trains young social entrepreneurs across the country. In the tech industry, CTIC Dakar, a public private partnership tech incubator supports innovative tech ideas and enterprises through various contest and workshop s. However, such opportunities are typically only available to young adults (18 35) or those who are no longer in school. There is therefore a need to engage school aged youth in social entrepreneurship as a means to develop youth's potential at an early s tage to help address some of In Dakar there exist a few programs for school aged youth that touch upon one or two of the categories within Youth Social Entrepreneurship. One such example is that of the YAWCamp, organized by two Senegalese students Aissatou Gaye and Claire Ba studying at Middlebury College, which provides leadership training to bright Senegalese high school students during three weeks over the summer. YAWCamp falls under the category of positive youth development, but fails to include community development and social entrepreneurship. Another example Ado Club organized by Imagination Afrika, started by 2015 Ashoka fellow Karima Grant, and taking place
12 for three months during the summ er for youth 15 17 years old, includes entrepreneurship and leadership activities but lacks community development. To the best of my knowledge, there is no existing yearlong program available for school aged youth to engage simultaneously in all three cat egories of Youth Social Entrepreneurship in Senegal. therefore represents a unique program, which aim s to address this need among young people 12 22 years old in Senegal and across the Sahel. Contextual/Conceptual Framework of Youth Social Entrepreneurship Figure 2 : Contextual/Conceptual Youth Social Entrepreneurship Framework (Adapted from Vogel, 2013; Kruse, 2015; YBI, 2012) Figure 2 proposes a contextual/conceptual framework adapting the logic chain for understanding the impact of youth social entrepreneurship by context (YBI, 2012) The left hand portion illustrates the social entrepreneurship ecosystem diagram or contextual framework, which is a dynamic socio ecological system This contextual framework places the y oung or aspiring social entrepreneur along with his/her human capital and potential at the core or first layer. It then expands to include the ecosystem layer which takes into account entrepreneur specific factors or assets such as education, support, netw ork, culture, visibility, and financing abilities; and finally the institutional level which accounts for non entrepreneur specific factors such as: geographic location; government and regulatio ns; social, political, economic situations; and infrastructure (Vogel, 2013). Understanding that social entrepreneurship does not occur in a bubble, but rather in a multilayered context reveals that there are multiple factors, which present themselves as opportunities or constraints likely to drive the success or f ailure of the entrepreneurial process when creating social impact. The right hand part of the diagram reveals the Youth Social E ntrepreneurship (YSE) framework, which combines the three primary categories: positive youth development, community developmen t, and social entrepreneurship (Kruse, 2015). This represents the intervention followed
13 by investment in youth (positive youth development) as a means to build asset base through trainings, activities, or access to resources such as credit; this asset buil ding creates an opportunity to then start a social venture (social entrepreneurship) and finally lead to positive social impact within a community (communi ty development). The impact of Youth Social E ntrepreneurship, given the three categorical components, and the context within which the young social entrepreneurs are operating in, can either tend towards a more community based transformation or a more economic based transformation. Transformations are considered more community based when they tend to foc us on the betterment of a local geographic area through ventures that tend to be activity based and no t profit driven. Transformations are considered economic based when they promote employment and money making, such as vocational skills or enterprise ski lls (Kruse, 2015). Either way, the y can both generate larger social impacts of social venture creation. Figure 3 : Revised Contextual/Conceptual Youth Social Entrepreneurship Framework Upon my return from the field practicum experience, I revis ed my conceptual/contextual framework having gained a clearer understanding of how the first version, a more general framework, c ould be further contextualized. The intervention phase has now been broken down into three major steps. These steps are the decision to first invest in youth, second to build assets through Youth Social Entrepreneurship programs, and finally social venture creation by youth, which will eventually lead to socia l impact Specific to the field practicum, it is Ashoka Sahel and its implementing partners (in this case local Universities and High Schools in Dakar) which are mak ing the decision to invest in youth, whereas the implementation of the Ashoka Youth Venture program is the process through which youth will build assets (which occur at the ecosystem layer of the context diagram). Currently the targeted y outh are students from partner u niversities and high s chools, and completion of the Youth Venture
14 program will res ult in the lau nching of social venture s that will lead to commun ity or economic transformation. Ashoka Youth Venture Program Founded by Bill Drayton and established in partnership with Ashoka, Youth Venture (YV) is a global initiative that encourages and enables young people (12 22) to pursue social entrepreneurship by launching their own community benefiting clubs, organizations or businesses, also known as ventures. initiative recognizes the importance of youth as change makers and has the intention of helping young people develop essential skills to all social entrepreneurs such as empathy, teamwork, and leadership. w up being powerful, causing change, and practicing these three interlocked underlying skills, they will reach adulthood with a self definition that does not include changemaking and a social skill set that largely precludes it. Just as one must develop st rong emotional foundations in the first three years of life or suffer for a lifetime, young people must master and practice these social skills and the high art of being p. 85 ) The Ashoka Y outh Venture Program incorporates the three categories of Youth Social Entrepreneurship through its four pillars: Empathy: the ability to understand feelings and perspectives of others and to use that Leadership: the a bility to take initiative and implement innovative ideas. Teamwork: the ability to work with others to create solutions. Entrepreneurship or Change making: the ability to resolve and overcome personal and community challenge. Ashoka believes that ld that is increasingly interconnected and global, you need the skill of empathy to understand, share, and learn with people from diverse backgrounds. University seats and jobs are limited, and we need people to be entrepreneurial. Instead of looking for a job, they need to be creating jobs for other people. In a multicultural and global environment, we need people who know how to work with all kinds of teams small, large, mobile, and online. Innovative companies and employers are looking for employees and students who are taking initiatives and p. 3 ). The Youth Venture Experience The Ashoka Youth Venture Program is designed to be a hands on, experiential process that guides young peopl e through the journey of being a changemaker and in turn launching and leading their own socially benefitting Ventures (Haynes 2015). Ashoka defines c hangemakers as having both a
15 skill set and a mindset that are critical to their ability to adapt, take ini tiative and thrive in an environment that is increasingly defined by change. This process is taught through the Ashoka Youth Venture Experience curriculum consist ing of thirteen modules that are taught in four stages, each ending with a culminating eve nt (see also Table 1): Dream it: to welcome the participants to Youth Venture Experience by challenging them and setting a strong foundation for the journey ahead. The participants begin to understand that the purpose of this jo urney is not only to launch a Venture, but also to become a Changemaker Do it: for youth to refine their ideas by analyzing the feasibility of core aspects of their idea. Youth deepen their understanding of the critical component s of a Venture such as funding, time, and volunteer commitment. Grow it: to use the feedback, enc ouragement, and support from a community panel, by working with their mentors to implement their projects, emphasizing a collaborativ e framework to help them identify their ecosystem & begin to work together. Celebrate it: to focus on refining skills and tools in marketing and resource manag ement. Additionally, teams are supported in identifying and executing th e first action steps of their Venture and receive one on one coaching based on the plans and goals each team has identified. Table 1 : Youth Venture Curriculum Outline
16 The Ashoka Youth Venture program f ocuses more on the positive y outh development and community transformation aspect of youth social entrepreneurship rather than on its economic community benefiting social venture creation, which can take the form of a st udent club, community organization, association or even a social business. Youth Venture values community development through the engagement of leaders and social entrepreneurs within the community to act as mentors to the youth participants throughout the Youth Venture experience. Mentorship is an important aspect of nourishing confidence among youth, building relationships, and providing guidance throughout the changemaking journey. Overall, the Ashoka Youth Venture Program gives young people the experien ce they need to gain the confidence and support to be successful in not only leading their own projects, but also in developing the skills they need to be powerful change makers now and throughout life (Haynes, 2015). PROJECT SCOPE The Ashoka Youth Venture program is essentially an asset building intervention for youth in Senegal in order to create social ventures with lasting social impact or change. The focus of my field practicum occurred at the needs assessment and design levels of the project cycle for the Youth Venture program, as I was responsible for understanding the current needs and then finding ways to adapt the Youth Venture program design to fit the context of youth (12 22) in Sene gal (Figure 4) Figure 4 : Locating my MDP Field Practicum within the Youth Venture Project Life Cycle Objectives The overall objective of th e field practicum project was to contribute to the development of a Youth Social entrepreneurship program in Senega l. Three intermediary objectives were set over the course of the project: 1. Identify the needs for Youth Social Entrepreneurship among students 2. Understand Youth Social Entrepreneurship initiatives already occurring among partner high schools and universitie s in Dakar 3. Formulate strategies for the implementation of a pilot phase articulated around the contextualization, implementation, facilitation, curriculum content, financing, and student motivating factors of the Youth Venture program
17 METHODOLOGY The methodology for the Needs Assessment study consisted of two key components: data collected from interviews and focus groups. Additionally, a stakeholder workshop was organized to brainstorm ideas on the design of the program based on the findings from the Needs Assessment. Prior to the field work, desk research was conducted to understand the context of Dakar and the topic of youth social entrepreneurship. Desk Research Due to the limited time in the field, desk research was conducted prior to primary data collection. The main des k research focused on understanding the context of the location, Dakar, as well as the landscape of youth and social entrepreneurship in Senegal. Additional desk research was conducted while on site to gain further contextually relevant information and kno wledge about best practices. Upon return from the field practicum, the literature review was enhanced with relevant information. D ata from secondary sources are from journal articles, organizational reports, official publications, and information available on the websites of actors more or less concerned with social entrepreneurship in general and youth social entrepreneurship more specifically. Semi structured Interviews Primary data was collected through semi structured interviews and focus groups. A fi rst series or four interviews was conducted with representatives of each of the partner high schools and universities in Dakar. At the university level, Ashoka is a direct partner of Institut Sup rieur de Management (ISM) and the Institut Africain de Manag ement (IAM). The Senegalese American Bilingual School (SABS) is an Ashoka partner though the Ashoka Changemaker School initiativ e. The Lyce Priv (LPEBD) was recruited as a partner because it is the high school branch of ISM. Ge neral interview guides for the institution representatives were developed for the high schools and universities (Annex 2 ). The purpose of the interviews was to understand how schools and universities are engaging youth in social activities and how a youth social entrepreneurship program might run at the specific institution. The following representatives were interviewed: M r. Moustapha Gaye, P rofessor, ISM Mme. Sabine Cheve, E ducational M anager, I AM/ SenseCampus Mr. Amath Ba, I nstructor and A ssistant P rin cipal, SABS Mr. Biaye, P rincipal, LPEBD
18 Focus Groups Secondly, a series of four focus group discussions was organized with students from each of the two partner universities and two high schools in Dakar. The focus groups lasted about an hour each and allowed youth to express their views and discuss among themselves. S tudent participants were selected by their school s taff? and consent forms were distributed and completed for minors. General focus group guides for the youth were developed for the stude nts of the partner high schools and universities (Annex 3 ). The purpose of the focus groups was to understand how youth appreciate social entrepreneurship, as well as what skills or resources they would need to become social entrepreneurs. Table 2 presen ts the demographics represented in the four focus groups: School Name Age range Boys/Men Girls/Women Grades LPEBD 11 18 4 3 7 th 12 th grade SABS 15 18 3 1 11 th grade ISM 18 25 4 2 2nd year IAM 18 25 9 6 1 st year Table 2 : Demo graphic data of focus group participants Stakeholder workshop A stakeholder workshop was organized to provide an appropriate forum for various stakeholders to come together and brainstorm ideas on the adaptation and design of the Ashoka Youth Venture Prog ram to the context of Senegal. An agenda and activities were developed to engage these stakeholders in the evaluation of the Youth Venture curriculum outline as well as logistical points for the program implementation (Annex 4 ). The Stakeholder Workshop participants were recruited based on their participation in the study (interviews and focus groups) and involvement in the fields of education, youth, and social entrepreneurship. The following groups were represented in the workshop: Two representativ es of SABS One representative of L PEBD Two student s from L PEBD One representative from ISM Three students from ISM One representative from IAM/SenseCampus Nine students from IAM One representative from SeddoInvest One representative from AIESEC One r epresentative from JEA International Four representatives from Ashoka Sahel
17 FINDINGS Qualitative data was collected through the interviews and focus group discussions. These findings were analyzed to inform the design of the Youth Venture program, and make recommendations for its adaptation to the context of Senegal. A stakeholder analysis was also conducted retrospectively in addition to local stakeholder engagement. This information is crucial to determine the next steps for the Youth Venture in Senegal prior to the launch of the program. Interview Analysis & Discussion of Results The interview analysis included recording, transcribing, and summarizing the takeaways from the semi structured interviews. The interviews were grouped into two groups: high schools and universities. The information gathered from each interview was then categorized depending on whether it related to : social initiatives at the institutions, socially incli ned curriculums, and facilitation. A summary of findings from interviews with representatives from the partner high schools and universities can be found in the Annex 3 and Annex 4 respectively Table 3 highlights the main takeaways from the interviews h eld with representatives from each partner institution LPEBD SABS ISM IAM SOCIAL INITIATIVES Administration led Administration led Student led Student & Administration led SOCIAL CURRICULUMS Personal Development & Leadership course Social Entrepreneur ship course Students can choose to launch social ventures Students are encouraged to launch social ventures FACILITATION Teachers need training in YSE Teachers need training in YSE Expertise of professors and community members Expertise of professors and community members Table 3 : Comparison of main takeaways from interviews Semi structured i nterviews with representatives of the four partner institutions revealed that high schools and universities in Dakar are already engaging the ir students in social initiatives. Social initiatives at these institutions consisted of any extracurricular activities such as clubs, events, fundraisers, clean ups or awareness campaigns. Since both LPEBD and SABS are private schools, it was no surprise that they included social initiatives. In general, public schools in Dakar tend to initiatives. In the case of LEPBD and SABS, both high schools are located in the same neighborhood in Dakar, Point E, and have collaborated on events such as the annual Walkathon organized by SABS which aims to raise awareness about different social or environmental issues in Senegal, as well as extramural sports competitions. Howeve r, at both schools, these social
18 initiatives tend to be administration led or following a top down approach, rather than allowing students to determine what social initiatives to focus on. At LPEBD the reason for this was that academics come first, and th erefore teachers and staff too many other activities; SABS however was more open to the idea of a mixed curriculum Both SABS and LPEBD offer courses which fall under the categories of Youth Social Entrepreneu rship. SABS offers a social entrepreneurship course taught to students in 11 th grade. curriculum. LPEBD offers a personal development & leadership course which a lso touches upon topics relevant to the Youth Venture program. Building on these two existing courses at the high school level could provide an opportunity to integrate the Youth Venture curriculum into required courses for students rather than having the Youth Venture program as an extra curricular activity. Representatives believed their current course offerings could be improved by allocating more time to them, as well as using more practical approaches instead of being theoretically based. As shown in t able 3 high school teachers have a variety of concepts and methods they use in their courses which can be utilized as part of Youth Venture; however, there is a lack of management skills being taught at the high school level. Table 4 makes a comparison of current approaches and future needs in regards to socially inclined curriculums at both partner high schools and universities HIGH SCHOOLS UNIVERSITIES CURRENT CONCEPTS AND METHODS USED : innovation systemic thinking theory of change storytelling rol e playing group activities presentations projections sketches class projects CURRENT CONCEPTS AND METHODS USED : introduction to entrepreneurship design thinking icebreakers student collaborations group work workshops debates conferences Management (marke ting, NEEDS IN A SOCIAL CURRICULUM : f ocus on practical applications rather than theories guide on how to conduct research identify soc ial problems within communities understand the problems formulate solutions NEEDS IN A SOCIAL CURRICULUM : focus on practical application of management theories guide on how to conduct research identify opportunities understand social problems formulate an entrepreneurial solution prototype products or services Table 4 : Compariso n of approaches and needs of social curriculums
19 At the university level, both IAM and ISM, as management institutions offer a variety of management skills courses to their students. University students also have more autonomy in their choice to engage in s ocial initiatives, with examples ranging from fundraising efforts for the sickly to creating a student garden. As shown in table 2 social initiatives and social curriculum efforts are supported both by students and the administration. This is becaus e IAM established SenseCampus in December 2015. SenseCampus is a branch of the French organization MakeSense, started by 2013 Ashoka Fellow Christian Vanizette which aims to promote social entrepreneurship at the university. SenseCampus offers opportuniti es for students at IAM to engage in various social initiatives such as film viewings, debates, and events, but most importantly it provides support to students who want to develop social businesses. Support such as mentoring, coaching and networking oppor tunities are important to both institutions, with limited funds available for food or transportation related to student meetings. Insight on students and curriculums by the university representatives revealed that there is a need at both institutions to move away from a solely theoretical approach, to a practical application of management theories. One way students are called to work more hands on is through the assignment of projects. Applicable to both high schools and universities, needs within develop ing social curriculums called for guidance on leading research, understanding how to identify social problems or market opportunities, as well as designing solutions and social businesses as a response to these problems. Given that both ISM and IAM are man agement institutions, solutions to social problems are often framed as potential market opportunities. The IAM representative noted that the greatest challenge at this level is the need to prototype potential products and services before putting them on th e market. Often times students will have ideas, but lack the patience to develop and test products and services before wanting to launch their ventures. At the undergraduate level, v enture or business creation in a graduation r equirement for both institu tions Often in teams of three or four, students go through the process of creating a business plan and launching a venture that they must sustain until their final year. At this moment, there is no post graduate tracking system for the student ventures, t hough it is believed that only a few continue after students graduate. A critique from representatives at both institution s is that most students opt for profit driven venture creation rather than social ventures Not much distinction was made between men and women students, but at IAM the representative stated that the women students who did choose to create social ventures often choose to address issues related to children and the environment T hough the two high schools have less student led social ini tiatives than the universities, it was expressed that a student led initiative would be considered successful if it was thought of by the students and was able to demonstrate a positive impact An example of a student led initiative at SABS was the social entrepreneurship club, consisting of 17 students, which started an organic vegetable business through a collaboration with ENDA, a reputable non governmental
20 organization. At LPEBD a notable example is that of Junior Achievement winner alumni Awa Mbengue, who developed an environmental project on the moringa plant, and was awarded a scholarship to attend ISM as a result. At the university level, IAM representative expressed that a student led social enterprise is considered successful if it responds to a r eal social or environmental problem. Child Hope and Social Credit are two social ventures started by two teams of ISM second year students. Child Hope aims to provide assistance to orphans, and Social Credit aims to provide microloans to vegetable and fish vendors at local markets. These are just two examples of youth led social enterprises at ISM which were presented at their student entrepreneurship fair. A t the high school level where there are few to no youth led social ventures, the representatives expressed that support in terms of continuous mentoring/advising as well as financial support through fundraising or subsidies for example would be required to ensure the sustainability of youth social ventures. At the university level, the sustainability of social ventures by students at both institutions however would necessitate an incubator. The incubator would provide support to student businesses, social ventures especially, in their start up phase and allow them to strengthen and grow through a share d working space and services, capital, and networking connections. For ISM this is mostly important for graduate students in the MBA programs because the als o allow students to prototype their products as they continue to develop them before opening up to market. For IAM, this is one of the major initiatives SenseCampus would like to launch in the 2016 2017 school year. Facilitation is an important aspect of th e Youth Venture program because it determines who will be responsible for delivering the material and information throughout the four stages: Dream it! Do it! Grow it! And Celebrate it! The interviews with representatives from the high schools revealed tha t there is a lack of formal training of their current instructors on Youth Social Entrepreneurship. At SABS, the instructor uses his own personal knowledge and research to lead the social entrepreneurship course but there is not set curriculum to follow. A t LPEBD, establishing a Youth Venture program would also require training instructors as facilitators for the program. University professors at ISM and IAM have a wealth of knowledge and expertise that can be taken advantage of and built up on in order to f urther contextualize the program to the realities of young people in Senegal. Focus Group Analysis & Discussion of Results The focus group analysis included recording, transcribing, and summarizing the takeaways from the discussions. The focus groups w ere divid ed into two sets : high schools and universities. The information gathered from each focus group was then categorized depending on whether it related to social problems of concern to students, their perspectives on social entrepreneurship, and the skills & resources needed to start a social venture. A summary of findings from focus group
21 discussions with high school and university students is reported in Annex 6 and Annex 7 respectively. Figure 5: Word map of focus group discussions The word map in Figure 5 is a visual representation of words most frequently appearing from the combined focus group discussion analysis. The larger sized and darker colored reveal the most significant words, whereas the smaller and lighter ones, though less frequent, still help us better understand the combined language of all four focus group discussion. In discussing Youth Social Entrepreneurship among students it is evident that those four words would be most significant. However, other words such as problems, ch ildren, and education are a reflection of some of the social issues of most concern to the students. Their overall interest in social entrepreneurship (perspectives, as well as identified needs) is represented by words such as lack, resources, government, self confidence, believe, and academic. This frequency representation serves as a visual support to the focus group analysis which is further explored in this section. T he focus group discussions were held with groups of students from each of the partner high schools and universities at their own locations. Discussions lasted about an hour, and allowed for fruitful engagement of the students on the topic Essentially, the purpose of the focus group discussion was to gain insight from potential main beneficiaries, on what social issues are of most concern to them, on how they understand and appreciate social entrepreneurship, as well as on what skills or resources they would need to in order to become young social en trepreneurs or youth ventures. High school participants varied in ages from 11 to 18 years, with a total of four girl participants and seven boys. Data analysis is not gender disaggregated, since no significant differences were noted between responses fr om girls and boys except for one aspect mentioned below Preliminary questions revealed that some of the students had been involved in community service such as cleaning streets, providing food to st reet beggars during Ramadan, assisting orphanages, and peer teaching in English and math. Their career interests were mostly scientific based in the fields of astronomy, medicine, law, business management and engineering. When asked whether they
22 wanted to have social impact careers, most revealed that though t hey were not sure how to blend their career interests with desires to have a social impact, they wanted to create organizations or social ventures in the future that would allow them to solve some of the problems within their communities. This desire is a demonstration of the social entrepreneurial spirit that exists among youth. The university st udent participants included eleven men and nine women within the age range of 18 25 years old. Most of the students from IAM and two from ISM were on government sc holarships, which allowed for more diversity in the representation of various social economic statuses in the study. Students at both universities had engaged in community service or volunteering in similar ways to high school students such as involvement in clean ups, serving meals to street beggars during Ramadan, and assisting blood banks. As students in management marketing. However, the university students had clearer ideas on how they wanted to lead social impact careers through entrepreneur ship, investing in and developing projects, as well as social responsibility towards their own parents and all children. F igure 6 shows a list of social problems that high school students (in blue) and university students (in orange) are most concerned about. Knowing these issues is extremely imp ortant for the use of generative learning styles. Incorporating these issues into examples or lesson plans of socially inclined curriculums would thus be desirable When comparing high school se of university students, we not e that high school students are particularly interested in issues related to children and poverty. University students on the other hand are more interested in issues related to social inequalities and lack of social resp onsibility and failure from government or international aid agencies T he observance of slight gender differences was in relation to the types of social issues young men and women were interested in. At IAM in particular, women participants spoke intently of child marriages and the problems of illiteracy of children; whereas men placed a great importance on issues of unemployment and socio economic disparities between the capital city of Dakar and other parts of Senegal (centralization). SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF CONCERN TO HIGH SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Poverty Violation of Street Laws Pollution Lack of education of children Street beggars/ Homeless ness Sick children Divorces/ Absence of parents Social inequali ties Gap between rich and poor Lack of social responsib i lity Interna tional aid Centraliza tion Child marriages Solid wastes Food security Figure 6 : Social prob lems of concern to students
23 Throughout the discussion s students had the opportunity to share their perspectives on social entrepreneurship. Figure 7 reports th e result from a short poll, asking two key questions at the beginning of each discussion HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Figure 7: Comparison of Awareness of Ashoka and Social Entrepreneurship As the pioneering organization on social entrepreneurship, I was curious to know how many students we re aware of Ashoka has become the new buzzword of the decade (Bernholz, 2011). Among high school students, less than 20% of the st udents had heard of the organization, mostly those having taken the social entrepreneurship course at SABS and a few from LPEBD. At the universities, the numbers were even less, with fewer than 5% having heard of the organization. This gap represents an op portunity for Ashoka to better target young people through its Transforming Youth Years programs including Ashoka U, Changemaker Schools, and Youth Venture. Knowledge on the term social entrepreneurship however was significantly higher than awareness o f Ashoka as an organization with percentages of roughly 36% and 67% at high schools and universities respectively. Assumptions from an academic perspective that can be made about this data are that most high school students do not receive any courses on e ntrepreneurship or social entrepreneurship because it is not in the national education system Most student participants from IAM were first year students who had just begun their first week therefore lacking exposure to
24 the term social entrepreneurship as well. Furthermore the focus group discussion from university students revealed that there is a general lack of understanding of what social entrepreneurship really is among students on campus. Both at ISM and IAM, participants stated that most of their student peers do not have an understanding of social entrepreneurship, and think that working on social problems will make it impossible to generate profits or economic growth. Students commonly referred to the expression (the so cial sector does not work) because in Senegal nonprofit organizations and associations are not valued as income generating s ectors of the economy Even among all the student participants, when asked to provide examples of social enterprises, many listed in ternational non governmental organizations such as Oxfam, Red Cross, SOS Villages, and UNICEF as well as more locally popular social enterprises such Dolima and La Laiterie du Berger, Jokko Sante, SamaSchool, and Recube. Though many people around the worl d are unclear about what truly defines a business or an organization as a social enterprise, this presents itself as an opportunity to clarify misconceptions about the term through Discu ssing opportunities for young people to launch their own social ventures allowed the student participants to list some of the skills or resources they might need in order to feel better equipped to the task. Table 5 makes a comparison of the main needs as well as concerns of youth at the high schools and universities on launching their own ventures HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS UNIVERSITY STUDENTS Priority: finding a problem they are passionate about and an appropriate solution Priority: understanding the conte xt and the social issue they are trying to solve Skills and resources needed: collecting information engaging people creating a plan securing financial assistance securing state or government assistance Skills and resources needed: conducting resear ch access to financing government support good governance office space and supplies visibility of social ventures effective communication young volunteers Concerns: managing differences between generations self confidence incentives Concerns: lack o f time personal means Sustained motivation self confidence Table 5 : Comparison of needs and concerns As a priority, high school students listed that they need to identify a problem they are truly passionate about and find a so lution in order to launch their own social ventures. High school students in particular felt as though they have the abilyt to solve certain social problem, and saw
25 social entrepreneurship as a means to contribut e to the development of Senegal. Some of the ir main concerns however included being able to manage differences between generations because they expressed feeling as though adults do not always take them seriously. University students listed understanding the context and the social issue they are trying to solve as a crucial step in the process of launching a social venture. This led way to the list of identified skills and resources above, which is very similar to that of high school students. Surprisingly, both youth groups listed requiring gove rnment assistance, which further denotes the importance of engaging the state/government as a key stakholder in the scaling up efforts of Youth Venture. Both youth from high schools and universities emphasised the point on needing self confidence and motiv ation or incentives in order to continue on with the task. Students have many competing engagements, especially with their focus on academics, limited time and means; so a Youth Venture program should motivate the students to persevere despite any challeng es they might face. Such is the true journey of a social entrepreneur, young or old. Stakeholder Analysis & Engagement Figure 8 : Stakeholder Analysis A stakeholder analysis was developed retrospectively to the engagement of stakeholders on the ground ( Figure 8) Identified above are the primary stakeholders, which are the high school and university youth. As the target group or beneficiary of the program, they might not have high influence on the outcomes of the Youth Venture program but they highly i mpact the success of the program. It is therefore important to meet their needs, keep them informed and satisfied.
26 The key stakeholders in this graph are the partner institutions: SABS, LPEBD, IAM and ISM which are directly impacted by the outcome of the program. These partners need to be enga ged or managed closely, because they have high power and high interest in the success of the Youth Venture program. The State/Government is also listed as an important stakeholder for Youth Venture. Through agencies such as t he Ministry of Youth and Employment, and the Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, Ashoka Sahel will need to consult different branches and levels of the government in order to scale Youth Venture at the city, national, and regional levels. Other organizations involved in youth, entrepreneurship, and education such as YAW Camp, Imagination Afrika, SeddoInvest, AIESEC, and JEA I nternational may also be considered as important stakeholders. Though they might have low power or interest in Youth Venture, they are particularly useful as a means to gather information on trend s or best practices since they are also involved in the field. It might also be cautious for Ashoka Sahel to monitor them because they could represent external opportunities or threats. During the field practicum all but the state/government were mobilized and engaged a s stakeholders through two workshops The first s takeholder workshop was organized to provide an appropriate forum for various stakeholders to come together and brainstorm ideas on the adaptation and design of the Ashoka Youth Venture Program to the cont ext of Senegal. These stakeholders included university and high school students, uni versity and high school representatives, as well as representative s from youth, entrepreneurship and education organizations such as SeddoInvest, AISEC, JEA International. Preliminary findings from the Needs Assessment were presented during this workshop and validated by the workshop participants. This presented the opportunity to raise concerns about the study, and allow further discussion about the Youth Ve nture Program. An agenda and activities were developed to engage these stakeholders in the evaluation of the Youth Venture curriculum outline as well as logistical points for the program implementation For the activities, participants were divided into four groups according to the type of approach that was suggested approach the activities as either a high school with an integrated Youth Venture Program; a high school with an a utonomous Youth Venture Program; a university with an integrated Youth Venture Program; or a university with an autonomous Youth Venture Program. These four approaches represented all the different ways Youth Venture can be implemented throughout high scho ols and universities in Senegal. An autonomous program would function as a standalone program which could be run either as a course, or an extracurricular activity; whereas an integrated program would instead blend into an already existing course such as t he personal development & leadership course offered at LPEBD, or as part of the social entrepreneurship club at SABS.
27 After completing the activities, each group presented their result s. Data from the activities was not collected or analyzed for the purp ose of the Needs Assessment. Instead, the presentations helped inform the recommendations I developed to the context of Senegal. The second stakeholder gathering involved only the key stakeholders: Ash oka Sahel, SABS, LPEBD, ISM, and IAM representatives. This session was orga nized for the presentation of the in country report, and to provide an opportunity for the Ashoka Sahel Team and its partner institutions to further discuss on ways to move forward with the development of a pilot session for Youth Venture. Connecting the Program and Curriculum to the Local Context Given the multitude of problems present in developing countries, and the large population of youth who have a desire to contribute to the social and environmental wellbeing of their communities, youth social entrepreneurship has much potential for growth in Senegal. From the analysis above, Ashoka Youth Venture presents itself as an interesting program that responds to the needs of both high schools and universities in Dakar Subsequently, as for any program or curriculum, contextualization is essential for the relevance of the content to the target population. Though I was not able to have access to the full curriculum, i n order to re ceive some feedback from the youth and key stakeholders, I developed a curriculum outline in French from the Youth Venture Toolkit I had access to. The outline details out the four st ages of Youth Venture: Dream it! Do it! Grow it and Celebrate it! along with a description for each of the corresponding modules an d capstone events. It was distributed during focus group discussions and allowed the student participants to comment and raise questions. At the high school level, some students from SABS and LPEBD expressed that they were already familiar with certain concepts from the first two stages, and that the formulation of solution and sharing with others were most important. At the university level, courses covered an array of management skills, however th ere was particular interest in the pitching, community panel, formulating a solution, sharing with others and raising awareness aspects of the program. The Ashoka Youth Venture program has a foundation based on four principles: empathy, leadership, teamw ork, and changemaking or entrepreneurship. These areas aim at instilling a sense of much needed self confidence among Senegalese youth and encouraging them to believe in the possibility th at social entrepreneurship can be a viable career option. With the u se of mentors as key agents in the Youth Venture experience, local social entrepreneurs and leaders may act as role models and guide youth participants through their changemaking journeys from identifying a problem and creating an awareness campaign to pit ching their start up social ventures in order to
28 gain funding. The idea is that at each step along their changemaking journey, youth participants will discover how their skills may be utilized to cater to a need in the community. This is how Ashoka envisio ns that Everyone is A Changemaker (EACH). CHALLENGES AND LIMITATIONS The following challenges and limitations arose during the field practicum project based on the project fieldwork, analysis of the fieldwor k findings, conversations with the client, feedback from stakeholders, and desk research: Access to the Youth Venture Curriculum Getting access to the Youth Venture program and curriculum has been one of the greatest challenges for Ashoka Sahel and has ca used much delay in the implementation of Youth Venture in Senegal. This is because the Ashoka Youth Venture is a licensed program which must be purchased by each implementing partner (such as the universities and high schools) at the price of $10,000. The high cost of this program is a deterring factor for local schools and universities with limited budgets and resources. Ashoka Sahel is therefore seeking alternative ways of financing the access to the curriculum, or creating a curriculum of its own. Pilot Session The initial pilot session which was planned to be carried out with the two first modules of the Youth Venture Curriculum was cancelled due to the lack of access to the Youth Venture Curriculum appropriate materials for activities, and limited tim e during the field practicum. This was discussed and agreed upon with Ashoka Sahel local staff. We found that this limitation did not take away from the data collected thro ugh interviews and focus groups used for the Needs Assessment. Private Schools vs. Public Schools Several questions were raised about the schools involved in the study because they are all private. In Senegal, private schools consist mostly of students representing middle and upper classes, and tend to have more or better resources. This brought up a lot debate during the stakeholder workshop session. It is therefore important to note that the study was conducted with Ashoka partner institutions only, which at this moment are all private schools. However, both ISM and IAM welcome governme nt scholarship recipients who participated in the study therefore adding to the diversity of socio economic status representation among youth participants. Lack of State/Government Involvement During the stakeholder workshop session, there were members o f education institutions, students, youth groups, social enterprises and nonprofits, but no government representatives. As the However, once the Youth Ventu re program moves beyond the pilot phase the Senegalese Ministry of Youth and Employment, and the Ministry of National Education and Higher Education, are key
29 stakeholders which must be involved in the scaling up of the program in public schools or inclusio n into the national e ducation system. CROSS SCALE AND CROSS DISCIPLINE CONSIDERATIONS Figure 9 : Cross scale implication framework F igure 9 provides a visual representation of the cross scale implication of my field practicum. My field practicum occurred mostly at the micro level, involving only Ashoka Sahel, the four partner institutions and their students, as well as few other organizations engaged as stakeholders. The Needs Assessment that was conducted thus only involved a samp le, which is not representative of Dakar or Senegal, but rather serves as a stepping stool for scaling up the Youth Venture Program. Scaling up the Youth Venture program beyond the level of the two universities and high schools recruited for the study woul d require the engagement of the state/government in order to access public institutions. This presents a new dynamic for the delivery of the Youth Venture Program when opened up to the city level because public institutions operate differently from privat e institutions, which have more freedom to innovate and add activities to their education strategies. Ashoka Sahel has many partners and has influence within its network, therefore getting buy in from the Ministry of Education on establishing the Youth Venture Program at public instructions across the city of Dakar and the entire country is feasible. Most challenges can be expected at the implementation phase of the program because of the potential reluctance of educators or administrators to accept cha nge. Effective training sessions of facilitators across the country will where Everyone is a Changemaker (EACH)
30 consider the different contexts of urban and rural areas in Senegal. Contextualizing the Youth Venture Program to each school and university operating within public or private structures and in rural or urban areas is crucial for overall success and impac t. This is the main point of consideration at the regional level of the Sahel, or even the greater regions of West Africa and Africa. At the macro level of impact, my field practicum contributes to the multiple organizational efforts towards achieving As Globally, t he Youth Venture Program in particular relates to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 4 and 8. These two goals represent the cross sector and cross disciplinary implications as well. The Sustainable Development achieving this goal through the following targets (UN, 2016) : 4.1 By 2030, ensure that all g irls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes 4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and voc ational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship 4.7 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and su stainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity 4.c By 2030, substantially increase t he supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States sive and sustainable economic Program contributes to achieving this goal through the following targets (UN, 2016) : 8.3 Promote development oriented policies that suppo rt productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro small and medium sized enterprises, including through access to financial services 8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
31 8.6 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or trai ning The diagram in figure 9 also suggests a relation between local and global impact. My field practicum and programs such as Youth Venture occur at a local level, but the impact goes beyond the local, because globally it contributes towards achieving t as well as the UN Sustainable Development Goals. These goals and objectives typically set at the macro level also determine the local agenda which then contributes to local and global impact. It therefore forms a feedb ack loop with varying considerations at each level: sample (or micro), city, national, regional and global (or macro). Given that through the Youth Venture Program, youth have the ability to create social ventures to address social or environmental proble ms within their communities, the overall social impact of the Youth Venture program can therefore contribute to multiple Sustainable Development Goals. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Primary results from the literat ure and data collected from study highlight that there is a particular need to engage school aged youth (12 18 years old) in social entrepreneurship as a means to and or environmental challenges Youth demonstrate entrepreneurial potential though their desire to have a social impact no matter their career choices. Even as young people, they feel as though they can solve social problems and contribute to the developm ent of Senegal. Another significant finding is that Ashoka partner high schools and universities on their own already engage their students in socially related or social entrepreneurship activities. While this is very welcomed, it appears that there is a need for a structured program, which provides the appropriate skills accompanied by resources, which youth should possess to launch successful social ventures. The Youth Venture program responds to the needs of students and partner high schools and univ ersities for Youth Social Entrepreneurship. The program fosters collaboration among high schools and universities, while enhancing the quality of social initiatives, socially included curriculums, and their facilitation. For youth, the program seeks to dev elop their potential and self confidence by guiding them through the process of not only starting ventures of their own, but also becoming changemakers. Through the analysis of the c ollected field data, secondary data from best practices, and cognizance of the challenges and limitations as stated above, several recommendations have been developed These are formulated specially to ensure a systematic follow up relating to the next steps for Ashoka in regards to Youth Venture:
32 Contextualization Recommenda tions 1. All Youth Venture materials should be available in French. As French is the primary language of instruction in Senegal, it is essential for all curriculum, facilitator manuals, and program documents and materials to be in French. This is one of the m ost important ways to contextualize the Youth Venture program to the needs of Senegal. 2. Determine the role of each implementing partner. It is essential for Ashoka Sahel to explain the role of each implementing partner and how Ashoka Sahel will assist in t he process of the Youth Venture experience. According to Ashoka East Africa, the Youth Venture team is made up of: the Ashoka country team, Youth Venture Cha mpions, Partner Organizations ( e.g. schools, universities), Youth Venturers, and Funding Partners. 3. Each institution should contextualize the program design to fit its needs. Should Youth Venture be integrated into an existing course or should it be a standalone program? This should be up to the implementation partner or the institution to decide based on their context, resources and time availability. Logistics around the program ( i.e. duration of program, frequency of meetings and mentoring sessions, number of participants and facilitators per class etc .) should be determined prior to launching the pro gram at each institution. Implementation Recommendations 1. A full pilot session should be carried out prior to establishing the program. Before formally establishing Youth Venture as an Ashoka Sahel program, it is highly recommended to carry out a pilot se ssion of the entire Youth Venture program at both the university and high school levels. Feedback from institutions, facilitators, mentors and students will allow to make changes and adapt the program to better respond to the need of its beneficiaries. 2. Mu ltiple stakeholders should be involved in the scaling process. In order to expand the reach of the Youth Venture program to influence more youth across Senegal to be changemakers, multiple stakeholders, including government agencies and ministries, and pub lic school officials should be involved in developing a replicable Youth Venture model. 3. Determine how Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) will be done. This should be determined at two levels: the general Youth Venture Program managed by Ashoka, and at the leve l of the Youth Venture program carried out at each institution or partner organization. Facilitation Recommendations 1. The facilitator should receive training on carrying out the Youth Venture program. There are few teachers and professors trained in socia l entrepreneurship education therefore training on the program and curriculum is essential for facilitators to be familiar
33 changemaking. 2. The facilitators and/or mentors shoul d have a background in basic business concepts. Though there may be a Youth Venture curriculum manual that can be utilized easily by any mentor or facilitator, firsthand experience, a background in business, or university level knowledge of the subject, wi ll allow to address misconceptions, explain concepts in a clear way, and support participants further in the development of their social ventures. 3. The facilitator should be familiar with the local context and have experience working with youth. This will ensure that the facilitator can stimulate participant engagement and relate to the participants in the course. Curriculum Recommendations 1. Determine whether the licensed Youth Venture Curriculum will be obtained or whether a new curriculum will be inven ted. A cost benefit analysis may be carried out to determine which option is best for Ashoka Sahel. Developing a new curriculum will necessitate the involvement of local experts and the appropriate resources and budget to see the project through. 2. In the d elivery of the curriculum, participatory training methods and simulations are highly recommended. This is so that youth participants can experience social entrepreneurship in a fun, interesting and practical way. 3. Integrate research methods and analysis in to the modules and learning objectives This fulfills the need highlighted by b oth representatives and students for conducting research as a key part of a socially inclined curriculum. 4. Use generative themes for the contextualization of learning process Th is refers to the use of social issues that are of most concern to youth in the provision of examples, discussion of topics, and guidance on social venture creation. 5. The content, methodology, and language of the curriculum should be reviewed to reflect the needs of participants. At the end of each stage, facilitators should meet to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each module, and how to improve the next stage. This will help improve the implementation of the program and adapt it to the needs of the parti cipants. New and innovative approaches may also be integrated in the curriculum. Financing Recommendations 1. Determine all the costs associated with running the program, and how they will be covered. This should be determined at two levels: the general You th Venture Program managed by Ashoka, and at the level of the Youth Venture program carried out at each institution or partner organization. 2. Identify potential funding partners. Once all costs are determined, Ashoka Sahel may submit a grant proposal to po tential funding partners such as foundations and corporations. New curriculum development may be included as part of a proposal.
34 3. Develop co financing opportunities Cost sharing or co financing opportunities may consist of financial or in kind contributio ns made by implementing partners in order to reduce all costs associated with running the Youth Venture Program. Student Motivation Recommendations 1. Participants should receive a certificate of completion. Ashoka Sahel should create a certificate that can be given to participants who successfully complete the course as a form of recognition for the time and concepts learned. 2. Institutions or partner organizations should determine whether to use grades or community service hour requirements as part of th e program. This is an evaluation criterion that must be set in place so that students can stay committed to the program. 3. Institutions or partner organizations should designate working space and provide certain supplies and resources for participants. A c o working space for all participants reduces burdens on students such as access to computers or internet, and fosters a spirit of teamwork. 4. Ensure that all successful social venture ideas receive seed funding. A contest can be organized at the end of th e Youth Venture experience that will allow funding partners, or microcredit institutions, to provide a cash prize to the most promising social ventures. 5. Develop a post program tracking system for Alumni participants and funded youth social ventures. This will increase the level of accountability participants have to follow through on their social ventures. 6. Students should be oriented to where they can obtain post program support and services. This is extremely important for all start ups and new social en trepreneurs. A network of Youth Venture Alumni may also be created to further the spirit of teamwork.
35 REFERENCES ANSD. (2011). au Sngal (ENES) (Rep.). Retrieved http://www.ansd.sn/ressources/publications/Resume_Resultats_ENES 2015.pdf Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved from https://ssir.org/articles/entry/philanthropys_buzzwords_of_the_decade Dees, J. (2001). The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship Retrieved from https://centers.fuqua.duke.edu/case/wp content/uploads/sites/7/2015/03/Article_Dees_MeaningofSocialEntrepreneurship_2001.pdf Drayton, B. (2006). Goal Retrieved from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/itgg.2006.1.1.80 EENI. (2015). Doing Business in Senegal. Retrieved from http://en.reingex.com/Senegal Business Economy.asp Haynes, A. (201 5). Youth Venture Toolkit Ashoka East Africa. Retrieved from https://www.behance.n et/gallery/23792169/Ashoka Youth Venture Toolkit IYF. (2011). Youth Assessment: The Road Ahead (Rep.). Retrieved from http://www.iyfnet.org/sites/default/files/YouthMap_Senegal_Executive_Summary.pdf Jackson, T. (2013). CTIC Retrieved from https://zoomafrique.com/fr/afrique news/928 zoomafrique senegal%E2%80%99s location and infrastructure an opportunity for startups %E2%80%93 ctic Kruse, P. (2015). YOUTH SOCIAL ENTREPR ENEURSHIP ADVANCING THE FIELD (Rep.). Retrieved from http://www.sundancefamilyfoundation.org/wp content/uploads/2015/02/SFF White PaperFinal3.1.pdf ETUDE EXPLORATOIRE DU CHAMP. Revue Africaine De Gestions Retrie ved from http://www.rag.sn/IMG/pdf/NDOURM_GUEYEB _entrep_social__tire_a_part.pdf Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2004). SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH: A SOURCE OF EXPLINAT ION, PREDICTION, AND DELIGHT. IESE Business School University of Navarra Retrieved from http://www.iese.edu/research/pdfs/di 0546 e.pdf Mbaye, A. (2014). The Informal Sector, Growth, Empl oyment, and Sustainable Development Discussion Note. Retrieved from http://www.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/secteur_informel_emplois_et_transformation_structurelle _english_.pdf
36 McDowall, H., & Micinski, N. (n.d.). YOUNG SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS LEARN BY DOING. Research Fi nding Series UnLtd Retrieved 2010, from http://www.nickmicinski.com/wp content/uploads/2012/02/unltd_research_series3.pdf Minard, C. (2009). Valuing entre preneurship in the informal economy in Senegal. Social Enterprise Journal, 5 (3). Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/17508610911004304 Torres et a l. (2011). (Rep.). Retrieved from http://www.ppiaf.org/sites/ppiaf.org/files/publication/AICD Senegal country report.pdf UN. (2016). SDGs .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform. Retrieved from https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs UNICEF. (2007). Adolescents and Civil Engagement: Social Entrepreneurship and Young People (Publication). Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/Learning_Series_3_Social_Entrepreneurship_24dec200 7.pdf Vogel P. (2013). The Employment Outlook for Youth: Building Entrepreneurial Ecosystems as a Way Forward Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2357856 YBI. (2012). Youth entrepreneurship A contexts framework (Publication). Retrieved from http://www.youthbusiness.org/wp content/uploads/2012/08/ContextsConsultation.pdf
38 Annex 1: Ashoka Youth Venture Toolk it Content Outline STAGE 1 Dream It The overall goal of this stage is to welcome the youth to Youth Venture Experience by challenging them and setting a strong foundation for the journey ahead. The participants begin to understand that the purpose of thi s journey is not only to launch a Venture, but also to become a changemaker. MODULE I I am a Changemaker Young people reflect on the skills and attributes needed to be a changemaker and hear inspirational stories from fellow agents of change MODULE II I dentifying Challenges in the Community Young people find an issue they are passionate about by identifying needs in the community and then studying the issue itself. MODULE III Formulating Solutions Taking their idea one step further, each changemaker mat ch a passion they have with the issue they have already created awareness about. MODULE IV Tell Everyone and Anyone Young people brainstorm ideas for a 1 day awareness raising campaign in their school or community and then select an idea to implement over the next few weeks. MODULE V Game Plan for Awareness Rising Each young person thinks through what their 1 day Awareness Raising Campaign will look like and how they are going to make it a reality. MILESTONE 1 EACH Inspire Event At this milestone, the y outh come together as a cohort for an official launch into the YV journey. The goal for this phase is to help them understand the challenges in the community and also engage with adults in sharing the solutions they want to implement and get to meet other changemakers. STAGE 2 Do It The goal of this stage is for youth to refine their ideas by analyzing the feasibility of core aspects of their idea. Youth will deepen their understanding of the critical components of a Venture such as funding, time, and volu nteer commitment. MODULE VI Resource Mobilization for Venture Moving into a team building activity, the cohort designs and implements a resource Venture and creates awareness i n the community about what it means to be a changemaker. MODULE VII The First Steps of Resource Mobilization The cohort thinks through what the first three steps to implementing their resource mobilization strategy is and who is responsible for what. MOD ULE VIII Building out Resource Mobilization Campaign Idea As a team, the cohort fully fleshes out what their resource mobilization event will be, when it will be, and what resources are needed. MODULE IX First Step of Enacting Solutions Taking their solut ion, young people will think through the first three steps they can
39 enact today to give their project wings. MODULE X Identifying Opportunities and Overcome Challenges Each young person will have the opportunity to gain insight and feedback from their pee rs as they continue building out their Action Plan. MODULE XI Speed Pitches Storytelling is a critical step for all changemakers. Young people work to hone their elevator pitch and to tell their stories of change. MILESTONE 2 Story Telling Workshop The story telling workshop helps the changemakers develop necessary skills and confidence they need to go out and educate both their peers and community on the issue. Each changemaker gets an opportunity to tell their story of their journey so far and their in spiration for the solution they are working on. STAGE 3 Grow It The goal of this stage is to use the feedback, encouragement, and support from the panel, by working with their mentors to implement their projects, emphasizing a collaborative framework to h elp them identify their ecosystem & begin to work together. MODULE XII Community Panel Teams will practice and refine their panel presentations in front of their peers and mock panelists, giving them the confidence and practice they need to excel at their Community Panel. MILESTONE 3 Community Panel The community panel allows the young people the opportunity to share their ideas and solutions with engaged and committed community members. Since each young person will have already begun implementing their ideas, it will be a valuable opportunity for youth to ask questions and receive feedback on their ideas from the panelists. This milestone is a critical step for participants to make their idea public and successfully present their ideas, findings, success es, and challenges. STAGE 4 Celebrate It The overall objective is to focus on refining skills and tools in marketing and resource management. Additionally, teams will be supported in identifying and executing the first action steps of their Venture and receive one on one coaching based on the plans and goals each team has identified. MODULE XIII Marketing and Resource Management Youth Venture teams are provided with customizable templates to create materials such as fliers, brochures and business cards. These are then utilized at a Venture Fair as part of Change camp activities. The Change camp, and the Fair specifically, helps the Youth Venturers practice networking and telling the story about their venture with various audiences. MILESTONE 4 Change C amp The essence of the youth venture experience is t efficacy so that they can continue creating positive change in their communities. Here we celebrate the changemakers and their achievements and failures so far. It is also an opportunity for them to network with other leading social entrepreneurs, including Ashoka Fellows and other influencers.
40 Annex 2: Script for Interview Questions with School/University representative Introduction Good morning/Good afternoon. I am Rugi, and I am a student at the University of Florida in the United States. This is my assistant _______ and he/she will be helping me today. We are working on behalf of Ashoka Sahel to identify what skills youth would need to start their own social ventu res in Senegal. The information we collect will be included in a Youth Social Entrepreneurship (YSE) program we are helping design and adapt for them. We were hoping to no more than an hour of your time today. Before we begin our discussion about your exp erience working in the ___________ school/university, we would first like to ask your permission to speak with you, ask you questions, and record your answers. May we record this conversation? At any point, if you would like to stop the interview you may. Your participation in this study does not involve any physical or emotional risk beyond that of everyday life. There is no compensation for participation in this study. However, you may benefit from participation by being able to learn more about social e ntrepreneurship and being able to provide honest feedback about the Youth Venture program. Such feedback could help improve and possibly launch the program at Ashoka partner institutions and beyond. Participation in this study is voluntary. You may withdra w from this study at any time -you will not be penalized in any way or lose any sort of benefits for deciding to stop participation. If you have any questions about this study feel free to contact my supervisor Renata Serra email@example.com ; or questions about your rights as a research subject, please contact IRB ( firstname.lastname@example.org ). The information we collect from you will be used in a report; however, if you prefer that we do not use you r name or specific role, we completely understand. Please let us know and your name and role will remain confidential. The information you provide us will be anonymous. Before we begin, do you have any questions for us? Basic Information: 1. Please descr ibe your role in ______ school/university. a. How long have you worked for __________? i. What did you do prior to working for _______? b. Does your role involve working with overall school/university management, curriculum development, and/or building partnersh ips for social impact activities or facilitating the activities? (Based on the answer to Question 1.b we will proceed with some, most, or all of the following questions.) Questions Social Issues and Ventures 1. What social issues do you think youth/stud ents are most concerned with? 2. Does _______ (school/university) tailor any course curriculums to address these social issues? 3. Does _______ (school/university) offer any extra curricular activities or programs for youth to engage in solving these issues? 4. D oes _____ (school/university) offer opportunities and support for the youth to launch social ventures? a. What opportunities are offered? b. What type of skills and knowledge is provided?
41 c. What types of resources are provided? d. Do you have any information on how many youth participants have launched their own social ventures? e. What percentage of the youth social ventures that you have supported has been successful? 5. What do you think makes a youth social venture successful? a. Do you think their success is driven by the social issue they are addressing? b. Do you think their success is driven by passion for the cause? c. Do you think their success is driven by skills and knowledge? d. Do you think their success is driven by access to resources? 6. What do you think makes a yo uth social venture unsuccessful? a. Do you think it is driven by the social issue they are addressing? b. Do you think it is driven by lack of passion for the cause? c. Do you think it is driven by lack of skills and knowledge? d. Do you think it is driven by lack of access to resources? 7. Does _____ (school/university) offer continued support to students after they have launched their social ventures? a. What key support do you give? b. What type of support do you think is essential to helping youth create a sustainable social venture? Questions Social Curriculum, Activities or Program Development 1. Which course curriculums, extra curricular activities or programs does _____ (school/university) use to engage with social issues of concern to youth/students? a. What are th e most critical components of your curriculums, extra curricular activities or programs in addressing social issues? b. Are there any concepts or skills you think would be helpful to teach prior to beginning to discuss solutions or social venture ideas? c. Are there any specific teaching strategies that you utilize that you think contributes to student engagement (i.e. group activities)? 2. How many youths typically participate in one cycle (duration period) of these courses or extra curricular activities or progra ms? a. Typically, how many students are in one class or group at a time? b. What would be the ideal range of students to have in the classroom at one time? c. How long does one cycle last? d. Do you think that is an appropriate amount of time? Would you make it lo nger or shorter if you could? 3. What is the grade/year level of the youth you work with? a. What key changes would you make to your curriculums, extra curricular activities or programs if the youth you worked with was in a lower class/earlier year? 4. If you co uld make any improvements or changes to your curriculums, extra curricular activities or programs what would it be? Questions Social Curriculum, Activities or Program Facilitation 1. Please describe the training that facilitators receive prior to beginnin g the social curriculum courses, extra curricular activities or programs? 2. Are all facilitators instructors at _____ (school/university)?
42 a. [If Yes] What are the key challenges related to using local community members as facilitators? What are some pros to having local community members as facilitators? Does training differ between the types of facilitators you have? b. [If No] Why not? Annex 3 : Summary of Findings from Interviews with Representatives at SABS & LPEBD The schools provide a multitude of clubs and social activities that students can engage in, however there are limited student led initiatives (mostly top down approach) A student led initiative can be considered successful if it is thought of by the students and demonstrates a positive impact The sustainability of an initiative would necessitate continuous mentoring/advising and financing (e.g through fundraising or subsidies) Social initiatives Each school has a socially inclined course already taught to certain classes: social entrepreneurship course at SABS, and personal development & leadership course at LPEBD, however there is a need to adapt the course curriculums to relevant social problems courses or programs The focus of the curriculums should be more on practical applications rather than theories Current concepts and methods used with students include: innovation, systemic thinking, theory of change, storytelling, role playing, group activities, presentations, projections, sketches, class projects Students must learn how to conduct research, identify social problems within their communities, understand the problems, and formulate solutions There currently is a lack of courses on management skills (e.g finance, marketing etc.) Social Curriculum There is a need for formal training of teachers in social entrepreneurship The school administrations have partnered with organizations and other schools for social initiatives, and are open to partnering with Ashoka The school administration is open to using community members to facilitate the program, however the main concerns would be availability and compensation Facilitation
43 Annex 4 : Summary of Findings f rom Interviews with Representatives at ISM & IAM The universities have a plethora of extracurricular activities (clubs, events, film projections, debates) some of which are student led and socially inclined A student led social enterprise is considered successful if it responds to a real social or environmental problem Aside from course support, students may receive mentoring, coaching, networking opportunities, transport and food for meetings An incubator is essential for the sustainability and success of student led initiatives Social initiatives As management universities, there is already a variety of management courses (e.g finance, marketing, communications, human resources etc. ) and entrepreneurship courses offered Students have the opportunity to start businesses and social enterprises as part of their education requirements, however there is a lack of post graduation evaluation of the success of the student led ventures The focus of curriculums should offer more practical application of management theories, and be project oriented Current concepts and methods used with students include: introduction to entrepreneurship, design thinking, icebreakers, student collaborations, group work There is a need for students to learn how to conduct research, identify opportunities, understand social problems, formulate an entrepreneurial solutions to these problems, and prototype their products or services before launching Social Curriculum Professors have various expertise in management and social entrepreneurship The universities are open to building partnerships for programs, and are already partners with Ashoka Community members are already welcomed for lectures or events and give students opportunity to learn about real world experiences, however main concerns in regards to time and budget Facilitation
44 Annex 5 : Script for Focus Group Discussions with Youth/Students: Introduction first name, what we are st udying/or what grade we are in, and our favorite food. Thank you for joining us today. I am Rugi, and I am a student at the University of Florida in the United States. This is my assistant _______ and he/she will be helping me today. We are working on beh alf of Ashoka Sahel to identify what skills youth would need to start their own social ventures in Senegal. The information we collect will be included in a Youth Social Entrepreneurship (YSE) program we are helping design and adapt for them. We will try not to take more than 2 hours of your time. I will be leading our session today, and my assistant, _____, will be observing our session and taking notes. We would also like to ask for your permission to record this discussion and take photos. This is simpl y to make sure that we can properly record everything in the discussion and make sure we have all the information right. We will be the only people using this recording; it will not be shared with anyone else. Your participation in this study does not inv olve any physical or emotional risk beyond that of everyday life. There is no compensation for participation in this study. However, you may benefit from participation by being able to learn more about social entrepreneurship and being able to provide hone st feedback about the Youth Venture program. Such feedback could help improve and possibly launch the program at Ashoka partner institutions and beyond. Participation in this study is voluntary. You may withdraw from this study at any time -you will not be penalized in any way or lose any sort of benefits for deciding to stop participation. If you have any questions about this study feel free to contact my supervisor Renata Serra email@example.com ; or questions about you r rights as a research subject, please contact IRB ( firstname.lastname@example.org ) wish to answer. There is no right or wrong answer, and we are here to learn from you. Also, please remember that our discussion stays within this group. We ask that everyone follow a few ground rules: Active participation from everyone Open and honest answers Allow each person to speak without interrup tion Speak with a loud voice so everyone can hear Please put your cell phones on silent for the next hour Is there anything else you would add to this list? Thank you once again for agreeing to p articipate in this discussion. Before we begin, do you have any questions? Are you ready to begin? (5 MIN) Leading Questions: By show of hands: 1. Has anyone heard of Ashoka before today? Raise your hand. 2. Has anyone heard of Social Entrepreneurship before today? Raise your hand. 3. Has anyone heard of Social Ventures before today? Raise your hand. (If needed, briefly explain terms above.)
45 (10 MIN) Questions About Themselves: 1. How many p eople have done community service or volunteered? a. Can you briefly tell us about your experience? 2. What are your future career aspirations? 3. Do you think your future career choice will help your country or community? a. Can you briefly tell us why/how? (20 M IN) Questions About Social Entrepreneurs hip : ventures: 1. What types of social issues are there in your community? 2. Are there any social ventures which addres s these issues? 3. What do you think are the most successful social ventures in your community? (See if they mention any social entrepreneurs) 4. Do you know anyone who has started their own social ventures in your community? a. ? b. unsuccessful? 5. Do any of you want to start your own social ventures? a. Why? b. What social venture would you like to start? c. Who or what would support you in starting your o wn social venture? d. Who or what would make it difficult for you to start your social venture? (20 MIN) Questions About YSE Program: Thank you so much for your answers. We would now like to move to our last topic. We would like to discuss a bit more the skills that youth need to start their social ventures: 1. (Hand out copies of the table of contents) We are working on designing and adapting a youth social entrepreneurship program which includes topics such as formulation solutions to social problems, rai sing awareness, and mobilizing resources for social ventures. a. Take a look at the table of contents. Are there topics on this list that you think you already know well? b. Are there topics that you have never seen or studied before? c. Are there skills that a re not on this list that we should include? d. Finally, are there any words or phrases in the table of contents that are unclear to you? How could we make this clearer? (5 MIN) Wrap Up: Thank you once again for sharing your time with us. 2. Is there anythin g else you would like to share with us? Any final thoughts or comments on a previous question?
46 Annex 6 : Summary of Findings from focus group discussions with students at SABS & LPEBD Poverty; people begging in the streets; homelessness Lack of education of children; care of sick children; orphans Pollution; violation of street laws Divorces; absence of parents Social Problems of Concern Young people feel like they can solve certain social problems A successful student led venture must reach its goal, know how to proceed with populations and help them, and allow for good leadership, collaboration, cooperation and mutual respect Social entrepreneurship is considered as means to contribute to the development of Senegal Most students plan on having a social impact or creating social enterprise despite their various academic and career interests Perspectives on Social Entrepreneurship Young people need to first find a problem they are passionate about and an appropriate solution Needed skills and resources identified include: knowledge on how to collect information, engage people, create a plan, securing financial assistance and state or government assistance, and how to manage differences between generations Young people believe that having self confidence is essential There is also a need for incentives (e.g. community service hours, scholarships, prizes etc.) Skills & Resources needed to start Social Ventures
47 Annex 7 : Summary of Findings from focus group discussi ons with students at ISM & IAM Social inequalities; widening gap between rich and poor; beggars International aid; lack of social responsibility and engagement Centralization (inequality between Dakar and rest of the country) Education of street children; school retention; early and arranged child marriages Solid wastes; food security Social Problems of Concern Social entrepreneurs want to help people and seek few economic benefits economically benefiting businesses or activities There is still a lack of understanding on what social entrepreneurship truly is among the general population of students at the universities Most students would like to have a positive social impact in the future through social initiatives or the creation of social enterprises of their own Some students have already created social enterprises or nonprofits to tackle social problems, but this is a minority compared to the for profit driven business ventures most university create as an educational requirement Perspectives on Social Entrepreneurship Young people must first understand the context and the social issue they are trying to solve Needed skills and resources identified include: how to conduct research, access to financing, government support, good governance, office space, materials, Their social ventures need visibility and effective communication, as well as young volunteers in order to gain momentum Students are concerned by their lack of time and personal means, as they are still focused on their academic studies Sustained motivation and self confidence is therefore essential Skills & Resources needed to start Social Ventures
48 Annex 8 : Stakeholder Workshop Guide (French) Invitation A Participer Au Ashoka Youth Venture Stakeholder Workshop Madame, Monsieur, une session oka Youth Venture au contexte du Sngal Le programme Ashoka Youth Venture est un processus exprientiel pratique qui guide les jeunes gs de 12 22 ans sur le parcours d'tre un changemaker et lancer leurs propres entreprises ou initiatives sociales. ir un forum appropri pour multiples acteurs ou groupes d'changer des expriences, perspectives, et des ides lies aux r le Mardi 28 Juin, 2016 de 15h 16h30. Sont inclus avec cette invitation un agenda provisoire et les directions. Pour toutes questions ou si vous avez besoin d'informations supplmentaires, veuillez contacter Rugiyatu Kane par tlphone au +221 78 172 6957 ou par email email@example.com Dakar, le 22 Juin 2016 Tchanlandjou Kpare, Youth Years Director Rugiyatu Kane, Stagiaire Consultante
49 Ashoka Youth Venture Stakeholder Workshop Mardi 28 Juin, 2016 15:00 16:30 Bureau Ashoka Sahel, Salle de Formation ARED Object: Fournir un forum appropri pour l'engagement de multiples acteurs ou groupes d ans Agenda: 15:00 15:10 15:10 15:20 Prsentation du programme Ashoka Youth Venture 15:20 15:30 Prsentation des rsultats prliminaires de l'tude 15:30 16:00 Activit de groupe: valuer les conditions de droulement du Programme Ashoka Youth Venture au Sngal 16:00 16:20 Partage du travail de groupe et Discussion 16:20 16:30
50 Contact Pour nous contacter ou nous rendre visite. Ashoka Sahel Villa n 3074 Amiti I s/c ARED Tel : (221) 33 825 43 43 Fax : (221) 33 825 33 43 BP 15090 Dakar Fann Gros plan:
51 Ashoka Youth Venture Stakeholder Workshop Activit de groupe Objectif : valuer les conditions de droulement du Programme Ashoka Youth Venture au Sngal Prparation : Les participants seront divis s en quatre groupes selon les sujets suivants : 1. Lyc e avec programme Youth Venture intgr 2. Lyce avec programme Youth Venture autonome 3. Universit avec programme Youth Venture intgr 4. Universit avec programme Youth Venture autonome Activit 1 : Commentaires sur le schma du programme Ashoka Youth Venture Chaque group recevra un s chma du contenu du programme Ashoka Youth Venture. Selon le sujet port par chaque groupe, les membres devront discuter sur les questions ci 1. Quel s changements/amliorations apporter au schma? 2. Quels sont les modules les plus importants enseigner? Activit 2 : Brainstorming sur les logistiques du programme Youth Venture Chaque groupe devra aborder des questions portant sur la logistique du pr ogramme Ashoka Youth Venture. Selon le sujet port par chaque groupe, les membres devront discuter sur les points cit s ci dessous tout programme au contexte du Sngal: 1. Dure du programme total 2. Frquence et dure des rencontres pour les modules 3. Frquence des rencontres des jeunes avec les mentors 4. Nombre de jeunes participants par classe 5. Nombre de facilitateurs par classe 6. Critres (comptences/expriences) pour les facilitateurs 7. Les couts prvisibles pour drouler le programme 8. Comment gnrer du soutien financier pour les initiatives des jeunes 9. Comment faire le suivi & valuation du programme 10. Autres