Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002764/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cattle Grubs
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Kaufman, Phillip E.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Original publication date May 1995. Revised April 2009. Reviewed June 2012."
General Note: "ENY-270"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002764:00001

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ENY-270 Cattle Grubs1P. E. Kaufman, P. G. Koehler and J. F. Butler2 1. This document is ENY-270, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date May 1995. Revised April 2009. Reviewed June 2012. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu 2. P E. Kaufman, assistant professor, P. G. Koehler, professor and J. F. Butle, retired professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specic information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturers label. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim DeanCattle grubs (Figure 1) are the immature stages of warble ies or heel ies (Figure 2). Two species of cattle grubs occur in the United States -the common cattle grub, Hypo derma lineatum and the northern cattle grub, Hypoderma bovis e common cattle grub is found in Florida; however the northern cattle grub is usually found in cattle shipped to Florida from other states. Recent observations have indicated that the northern cattle grub may be becoming established in Florida. Life Cyclee common cattle grub lays its eggs on the hair of cattle, on the lower areas of the body. e common cattle grub may lay as many as 5-15 eggs on a single hair of the animal. e northern cattle grub also lays eggs on the legs and belly region, however, only single eggs are deposited on individual hairs. Although there is no pain at the time of oviposition, the cattle become terried when the northern cattle grub adult y is ying about. e cattle react to the Figure 1. Northern cattle grub. Credits: J. F. Butler, University of Florida Figure 2. Cattle grub adult (heel y).


2sound produced by the bee-like y. Usually the adult y is found from February through May when they cause the cattle to run across pastures (gadding). e eggs will hatch within a week and the maggots burrow through the skin. e young maggots migrate through the connective tissue of the animal for much of the summer. In late summer, the rst stage maggots move to the mucous membrane of the esophagus (common cattle grub) or to the spinal column (northern cattle grub). In Florida, the migrating rst stage larvae reach the backs by early fall (October). Once there, they cut or digest a hole in the skin for air. e rst stage (Figure 3) larvae then molt into the second stage with the host producing a warble within 3-4 days. ey grow rapidly, feeding on pus, necrotic cells, and secretions from the wall of the warble or cyst and molt to the third stage. One to two months are spent in the warble to complete larval growth. When the grub is mature, it squeezes through the breathing hole and drops to the ground to pupate. In 2-3 days the pupal stage forms. e insect remains as a pupa for 20-60 days, depending on the temperature and emerges as the non-feeding adult y in the spring of the year. Only 1 generation of cattle grub is produced per year. Cattle Grub Damagee larval and adult stages are responsible for economic damage to cattle. Loss of weight resulting from the wild eorts of the animals trying to escape adult ies may be considerable. Milk production may also be reduced as much as 20-30% from gadding, as well. Further damage may result from the cattle running into fences and other objects. e larvae produce three types of damage. e rst type is from ill-timed killing of the immature larvae migrating in the body of the host and and subsequent adverse reactions (see control). e carcass depreciates because the esh is greenish-yellow, jelly-like and unt for consumption where the grubs were located. is second type of damage occurs only if an animal is slaughtered when grubs are still in the animals back. e hide is also less valuable due to the holes that the larvae cut in the skin. ControlCattle grubs on beef and non-lactating dairy cattle may be controlled with the use of systemic insecticides. Be aware that systemic treatments usually have withdrawl periods before slaughter is allowed. Only one material is available for lactating dairy animals. e timing of insecticide applications is critical. e young larvae must be killed before they reach the esophagus (common cattle grub) or spinal column (northern cattle grub). erefore, the treatment period includes that time aer which egg hatch has ceased until the larvae have moved, up to but not into, the back or throat region. Cut-o dates have been established for grub treatment in the United States to prevent host-parasite toxic reactions. In Florida, the cut-o date for cattle grub control is set at August 31. Any time in the month of August is the proper time to apply insecticides for cattle grub control. Sprays, dips, feed additives, and pour-ons (or spot-ons) are all labeled and recommended for cattle grub control, although pour-ons or spot-ons give the best results. Proper timing of insecticide applications will also provide control of horn ies, ticks and lice. Do not treat animals that are under stress or are sick.Toxic ReactionsCattle treated with insecticides may respond with toxic reactions aer application. ese reactions result from: 1) dead or dying grubs in the esophagus or spinal column, 2) pesticide toxicity due to over dosage, or 3) grubs accidently Figure 3. Life stages and migration of the cattle grub. A) eggs attached to hairs in rows, B) larvae, C) warble, D) pupa, E) adult.


3 broken in the backs of animals may produce anaphlactic reaction in sensitized animals. Common cattle grub larvae dying in the esophagus will cause diculty in breathing, excessive foamy salivation, vomiting, bloat, and suocation. Death is quite common when this reaction is observed. Northern cattle grub larvae dying in the spinal canal will cause paralysis or weakening of the back legs. Animals generally recover from this reaction. To avoid the occurrence of a host-parasite toxic reaction, apply cattle grub insecticides before the August 31 cut-o date. Pesticide toxicity in cattle may be observed when too much insecticide has been applied to the animal. Symptoms of pesticide toxicity include: excessive stringy salivation, diarrhea, weakness of the hind legs, and abdominal cramps. To avoid pesticide toxicity, follow label directions precisely and apply the proper amount of correctly formulated material to each animal.Selected ReferencesCatts, E. P and G. R. Mullen. 2002. Myiasis (Muscoidea, Oestroidea), In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, (G. R. Mullen and L. A. Durden, Eds.), pp. 318-348. Elsevier Science, San Diego, CA. Drummond, R. O. 1984. Control of larvae of the common cattle grub (Diptera: Oestridae) with animal systemic insecticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 402-406. Holste J. E., D. D. Colwell, R. Kumar, J. E. Lloyd, N. P. M. Pinkall, M. A. Sierra, J. W. Waggoner, W. K. Langhol, R. A. Barrick, J. S. Eagleson. 1998. Ecacy of eprinomectin against Hypoderma spp. in cattle. Am. J. Ver. Res. 59(1): 56-58. Pruett, J. H. and S. E. Kunz. 1996. Development of resistance to Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae) within a cattle herd. J. Med. Entomol. 33(1): 49-52. Scholl, P. J. 1993. Biology and control of cattle grubs. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 39: 53-70. Scholl, P. J., R. Hironaka and J. Weintraub. 1988. Impact of cattle grub (Hypoderma spp.) (Diptera: Oestridae) infestations on performance of beef cattle. J. Econ. Entomol. 81(1): 246-250.