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HS1081 2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 1 Chad M. Hutchinson &tDoug Gergela2 1. This document is HS1081, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date January, 2007. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Chad M. Hutchinson Associate Professor, Doug Gergela, Sr. Biological Scientist, Horticultural Sciences Department, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611. The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication does not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean General Potato Production Information Potato clones were obtained from university, government, and industry breeding programs. Clones progress through the evaluation program following the track described in the Potato Variety Evaluation Flowchart (Figure 1, page 7). Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in the Tri-County Agricultural Area (TCAA) around Hastings, Florida are grown in 60-foot-wide beds consisting of sixteen rows. Rows are raised with a between-row spacing of 40 inches (center to center). The research plots were irrigated with seepage irrigation. A clay layer underlies the topsoil at a depth of three to five feet in the TCAA. In this system, the perched water table depth is managed by water flow into irrigation canals spaced between beds. Potato beds were irrigated continuously over the season except after a rain event. Variety trials, unless noted, were conducted at the Plant Science Research and Education Units Hastings Farm in Hastings, FL. The PSREU is part of the University of Florida/IFAS network of research farms located around the state to conduct research on important horticultural crops. The soil at the field site is classified as Ellzey fine sand (sandy, siliceous, hyperthermic Arenic Ochraqualf; sand 90-95%, < 2.5% clay, < 5% silt). Potatoes were planted following a sorghum/sudan grass summer cover crop (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench x S. arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf var. SX17, Dekalb). Cover crop was incorporated into the potato beds in September, 2005. Potato beds were fumigated with 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone II, 6 gal/A) in mid-December 2005. Potato seed pieces were dusted with fungicide (Maxim MZ) prior to planting. Quadris (8 oz/A) was applied in furrow at planting. Aldicarb (Temik, 20 lb/A) was also applied in furrow at planting. Metribuzin (Sencor DF, 16 oz/A) and Metolachlor (Dual II Magnum, 1 pt/A) were broadcast at hilling. Fungicides and insecticides were applied on a schedule based on IPM practices. Fresh market variety plots were vine-killed by chemical desiccation with diquat (Reglone 1 pt/A, 2 applications).
2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 2 Fertilizer (100-43-86 granular) was incorporated into the beds prior to planting. Two split side-dress fertilizer applications (65-0-56, granular) were made in all trials during the season. Side-dress application dates, depending on the planting date of the respective trial, were March 8, 16, and 27, 2006. Potato seed pieces were hand cut (approx. 2.5 oz) and hand planted on an 8-inch within-row spacing unless otherwise noted. Plant growth characteristics were rated during the season following the descriptions listed in Table 1 (page 8). Plant type was rated at full flower approximately 60 days after planting. No growth enhancers or chemicals to enhance skin color were used in any trial unless otherwise noted. Plots were harvested with a single-row, commercial potato harvester. Potatoes were graded using commercial grading equipment. Culls were removed and remaining potatoes were separated into six size classes and weighed. Specific gravity was measured on a random 20-tuber sample from each plot using the weight-in-air/weight-in-water method. A random sample was rated for external appearance characteristics. External tuber quality characteristics were rated following the descriptions in Table 2 (page 9). A second 20-tuber sample was collected and each tuber cut into fourths and rated for hollow heart (HH), brown rot (BR), corky ringspot (CRS), internal heat necrosis (IHN), and brown center (BC). BC was rated as light, moderate, or heavy if the cut pieces displayed the respective defects. Sub-samples of potatoes from the USPB/SFA and Chipping trial were shipped to Utz Quality Foods. Chips were prepared and rated following the procedures outlined in the Snack Food Association Chipping Potato Handbook (1995). Chip Agtron scores are presented in their respective chapters. An Agtron value of 45 is usually the standard for acceptable potato chip color. Agtron values less than 45 are considered unacceptable. A sub-sample of potatoes was also chipped by Wise Foods. Visual rating scores are not presented due to space limitations. Seasonal Weather and Growing Conditions Weather conditions were unseasonably dry during the 2006 potato season (Appendix 1; Tables 34 and 35). January and February saw mostly normal rainfall. March, April and May were noticeably drier than normal in the TCAA. Early June was also dry, allowing later harvest of tubers. Only four mornings had temperature readings at or below freezing. Seepage irrigation ran almost constantly from mid-late February until two weeks prior to harvest. Overall, yields and quality at the research farm were about average. Production There were no production technique changes for 2006. Acknowledgements Many talented and dedicated people assisted in these experiments. Invaluable technical support was provided by Doug Gergela and Pam Solano. The variety evaluation team is indebted to Dr. Christine Worthington, Dr. Fernando Munoz, Scott Taylor, Bart Herrington, Larry Miller, Billy Wingate, Hugh Burnham, Dan Huff and Zhiwei Allen Chen for their hard work. Without the commitment and effort from these individuals, the variety evaluation program would not be possible. University of Florida Potato Variety Team University Faculty Dr. Chad Hutchinson, Program Leader University of Florida/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department PO Box 728 9500 Cowpen Branch Road Hastings, FL 32145 904-692-1792 Fax: 904-692-3306
2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 3 email@example.com University Support Staff Mr. Doug Gergela, Sr. Biological Scientist University of Florida/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. Box 728 9500 Cowpen Branch Road Hastings, FL 32145 904-692-1792 Fax: 904-692-3306 firstname.lastname@example.org County Faculty Mr. David Dinkins St. Johns County Extension Director 3125 Agriculture Center Drive St. Augustine, FL 32092-0572 Mr. Edsel Redden Putnam County Extension Director 111 Yelvington Road Ste 1 East Palatka, FL 32131 Mr. Gene McAvoy Hendry County Cooperative Extension P.O. Box 68 Labelle, FL 33975-0068 Dr. Kent Cushman SWFREC-Immokalee 2686 SR 29N Immokalee, FL 34142 University Support Staff Technician Ms. Pam Solano, Statistician University of Florida /IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department P.O. Box 728 9500 Cowpen Branch Road Hastings, FL 32145 904-692-1792 Official Potato Variety Information Website http://www.potato.ifas.ufl.edu USDA, University, and Industry Cooperators USDA Dr. Kathleen Haynes USDA Vegetable Laboratory 10300 Baltimore Avenue Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 Dr. Richard Novy USDA/ARS 1693 S 2700 W Aberdeen, ID, 83210 Universityt Dr. Walter DeYong Dept. of Plant Breeding 252 Emerson Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 Dr. Zenaida Ganga
2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 4 University of Maine Aroostook Farm 59 Houlton Road Presque Isle, Maine 04679 Dr. David Douches Dept. of Crop & Soil Sciences Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-1325 Dr. Susie Thompson Department of Plant Sciences North Dakota State University Fargo, ND 58105-5051 Industry HZPC Americas Corporation Mr. Don Northcott P.O. Box 905 Cornwall, PEI COA 1HO CAN 902-892-2004 Wise Foods, Incorporated Mr. Steve Molnar 228 Raseley Street Berwick, PA 18603 Maine Farmers Exchange Mr. Todd Bradley Mr. Bob Sirois P.O. Box 869 Presque Isle, ME 04769 800-333-1564 Utz Quality Foods Mr. Jack Corriere Mr. Mitch Keeney 900 High Street Hanover, PA 17331
2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 5 FIGURE 1. POTATO VARIETY PROGRAM EVALUATION FLOWCHART.
2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 6 Table 1. Plant Growth Characteristics Rating Early Vigor (plant height) Vine Type Vine Maturity at Harvest/Vine Kill 1 no emergence decumbent poor dead 2 leaves in rosette decumbent fair +3 plants < 2 in decumbent good yellow and dying 4 plants 2 to 4 in spreading poor +5 plants 4 to 6 in spreading fair moderately senesced 6 plants 6 to 8 in spreading good +7 plants 8 to 10 in upright poor starting to senesce 8 plants 10 to 12 in upright fair +9 plants > 12 in upright good green and vigorous Adapted from Sisson and Porter, 2002.
2006 Potato Variety Report: Introduction 7 Table 2. Internal and External Potato Tuber Characteristics Rating Internal Flesh Color Skin Color Skin Texture Tuber Shape Eye Depth Overall Appearance 1 White Purple Partial Russet Round Very Deep Very Poor 2 Cream Red Heavy Russet Mostly Round +-+3 Light Yellow Pink Mod. Russet Round to Oblong Deep Poor 4 Medium Yellow Dark Brown Light Russet Mostly Oblong ++5 Dark Yellow Brown Netted Oblong Intermediate Fair 6 Pink Tan Slightly Netted Oblong to Long ++7 Red Buff Mod. Smooth Mostly Long Shallow Good 8 Blue White Smooth Long ++9 Purple Cream Very Smooth Cylindrical Very Shallow Excellent Adapted from Sisson and Porter, 2002.