Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002428/00001
 Material Information
Title: Monitoring coyote populations in Florida: Annual Update of the statewide scent station surveys 1997-2000.
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Main, Martin B.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2001
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication: July 2001."
General Note: "WEC-149"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002428:00001

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WEC 149 Monitoring coyote populations in Florida: Annual Update of the statewide scent station surveys 1997-2000.1 Martin B. Maint2 1. This document is WEC-149, one of a series of the Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication: July 2001. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu 2. Martin B. Main, Ph.D., Assistant Professor and Extension Wildlife Specialist with Southwest Florida REC, Immokalee, FL 34142. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap, or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Christine Taylor Waddill, Dean. General Comments In recent decades, the coyote (Canis latrans) has moved throughout Florida. It will likely continue to increase in numbers. Brady and Campbell (1983) did an early coyote study using mail surveys. Wooding and Hardisky did a similar one in 1990. Other early surveys looked for tracks, and other signs of coyotes (Maehr et al. 1996). Recent survey methods have included carcass collection, telephone interviews and scent station surveys (Main et al. 1999, 2000). This report compiles information from the scent station surveys. The annual scent station survey began in 1997 and has grown larger each year, with a focus on central and south Florida (Figure 1). Over 700 track stations at more than 40 cooperating locations will be monitored during 2001. Scent station surveys attract coyotes and other predators by the use of scented bait. The survey stations are smooth, prepared areas on the ground three feet in diameter. The tracks of animals that walk through the station are recorded. Stations with unidentifiable tracks due to rain or other reasons are recorded as inoperable. The surveys are conducted annually and are used to monitor range expansion and population trends of coyotes and of other predators. Other predators also are monitored because increased numbers of coyotes may influence numbers of native predators by competing for food or through direct predation. Three meso-predators (medium sized predators) that may directly compete with coyotes that are being monitored include raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Figure 1. Results from the scent station surveys are still in the early stages of analysis. They suggest a slowly increasing coyote population in Florida (Figure 2). However, the numbers of coyotes recorded were low. Therefore, this data should be viewed as initial data and additional surveys will be needed to confirm these trends. During 1999 and 2000 we began a survey of scent stations during both the first day and


Monitoring coyote populations in Florida: Annual Update of the statewide scent station.... 2 the fifth day after setting out scent baits. The Day 5 survey had higher visitation rates. Although the number of inoperable stations increased slightly during Day 5, the number of operable stations was still greater than 90%. (1999: Day 1 = 98%, Day 5 = 93%; 2000: Day 1 = 97%, Day 5 = 92%). Figure 2. The data from these suggests an increasing trend for coyotes. No such trends were observed for raccoon, fox, or bobcat (Figure 3). As with the coyote trend data, it is still too early to make strong conclusions. There may be some sign that raccoon populations may have declined during 1999, although the causes for any declines cannot be determined. Fox and bobcat data don't indicate any changes in population trends. Figure 3. Visitation rates (visits/station) by coyote, raccoon, fox, and bobcat at scent stations during 1997-2000. Survey visitation rates are at Day 1 of survey except during 1999-5 and 2000-5, which represent sampling events at Day 5. The number of scent stations monitored and visitation rates by coyotes during 1997-2000 is provided in (Table 1). Survey locations are listed by county, location, cooperators, and year. Additional Information Brady, J. R., and H. W. Campbell. 1983. Distribution of coyotes in Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 11:40-41. Coates, S.F, M.B. Main, J.J. Mullahey, J.M. Schaefer, G.W. Tanner, M.E. Sunquist, and M.D. Fanning. May 1998. The Coyote (Canis latrans) : Floridas Newest Predator. WEC-124. Florida Cooperative Extension Service / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences / University of Florida Fanning, M, S.F. Coates, J.J. Mullahey, J.J., M.B. Main. 1999. The coyote: Perspective of the Florida cattlemen. The Florida Cattleman and Livestock Journal 64:43-47. Maehr, D. S., R. T. McBride, and J. M. Mullahey. 1996. Status of coyotes in south Florida Florida Field Naturalist 24:101-107. Main, M.B. 1998. Interpreting the physical evidence of predation on domestic livestock. SWFREC Center Report No. SWFREC-Imm-1998-01. Main, M. B., Coates, S. F., and G. Allen. 2000. Coyote distribution in Florida extends southward. Florida Field Naturalist 28:201-203. Main, M. B., Walsh, P. B., Portier, K. M. and Coates, S. F. 1999. Monitoring the Expanding Range of Coyotes in Florida: Results of the 1997-98 Statewide Scent Station Surveys. Florida Field Naturalist 27:150-162. Mullahey, J. J., S.F. Coates, M.B. Main. 1996. Coyote: Its Increasing Presence in Florida. The Florida Cattleman and Livestock Journal 60 (9). Wooding, J. B. 1994. Coyote food habits and the spatial relationship of coyotes and foxes in Mississippi and Alabama. M.S. thesis, Miss. State Univ., 43 pp. Wooding, J. B., and T. S. Hardisky. 1990. Coyote distribution in Florida. Florida Field Naturalist 18(1):12-14. Acknowledgements We thank the many cooperators listed in Table 1 who are contributing to this effort.


Monitoring coyote populations in Florida: Annual Update of the statewide scent station.... 3 Table 1. Scent station survey cooperators during 1997-2000. AREA COUNTY STATION YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR Tyndall Air Force Base Bay 22 1997 1998 1999 2000 Babcock/Webb Charlotte 35 1997 1998 1999 2000 Citrus Wildlife Management Area Citrus 20 2000 Bear Island Collier 10 1998 1999 Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve Collier 10 1999 2000 Fire Prairie Trail Collier 10 1999 Florida Panther NWR Collier 10 1999 2000 Picayune Strand State Preserve Collier 30 1997 1998 1999 Rookery Bay NER Collier 12 2000 CREW Lands Collier/Lee 12 1997 1998 1999 2000 GDC RV Griffin Desoto 14 1997 1999 2000 Tosohatchee East Orange 14 1997 1998 1999 2000 Chassahowitzka Hernando 14 1997 1998 1999 2000 Chinsegut Hernando 6 1997 1998 2000 Croom WMA Hernando 15 1997 1998 1999 2000 Avon Park Air Force Base Highlands 52 1997 1998 1999 2000 Highlands Hammock State Park Highlands 9 1997 1999 2000 MaCarthur (Buck Island) Highlands 15 1997 1998 2000 Archbold Biological Station (Venus) Highlands 10 1997 1998 1999 2000 Hilochee WMA Lake 10 1998 Seminole Forest Lake 14 1997 1998 2000 Florida Gulf Coast University Lee 5 1999 2000 Rutland Ranch Manatee 9 2000 Myakka River State Park Manatee/ Sarasota 30 1997 1999 2000 Ocala Wildlife Management Area Marion, Lake 10 2000 J Dickson State Park Martin 13 2000 Rock Springs Run Orange, Lake 16 1997 2000 3 Lakes WMA Osceola 30 1997 1998 1999 2000 Triple N R WMA Osceola 17 1997 1998 1999 2000 Green Swamp WMA Pasco 23 1997 1998 2000 Arbuckle WMA Polk 20 1998 1999 2000 Walk in the Water Polk 10 1998 1999 2000 Kicco WMA Polk/Osceola 10 1998 1999 Caravella WMA Putman 12 1997 1998 1999 2000 Ordway Preserve Putman 10 2000 Eglin Air Force Base Santa Rosa 44 1998 1999 2000 Myakka Rs Forest Sarasota 10 1997 1999 2000 Little Big Econ Seminole 10 1997 1998 1999 2000 Guana River St Johns 10 2000 Half Moon WMA Sumter 10 1997 1998 1999 2000 Lake George WMA Volusia 16 1997 2000 Tiger Bay WMA Volusia 10 1997 1999 2000