Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002325/00001
 Material Information
Title: Facts About Chromium
Physical Description: Fact Sheet
Creator: Bobroff, Linda B.
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2006
Acquisition: Collected for University of Florida's Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Melanie Mercer.
Publication Status: Published
General Note: "Publication date: December 2006."
General Note: "FCS8803"
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida Institutional Repository
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the submitter.
System ID: IR00002325:00001

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FCS2266 1. This document is FCS2266, one of a series of the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extens ion Service, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesv ille FL 32611. First published: November 2006. Please visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu Originally published in 1994 by Kansas State University CES. 2. Carolyn S. Wilken, PhD, M.P.H., associate professor, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Ex tension Service, IFAS, University of Florida, Gain esville FL 32611. We would like to thank Cheryl Bailey, LMHC, Haven Hospice of North Central Florida, for her comments and suggestions. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an E qual Employment Opportunity-Affirm ative Action Employer authorize d to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, creed, co lor, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions, or affiliation. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Service office. Florida Cooperative Extension Service/Institute of F ood and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Larry R. Arrington, Dean. Learning to Live Through Loss: Understanding Men Who Grieve1 Carolyn S. Wilken2 The only cure for grief is to grieve. -Joshua Loth Leibman It is difficult to watch someone you care about grie ve and hurt. It is even more difficult and confusing when that person grieves in a way yo u don't understand. Sometimes men's grief differs from women's. It's not less effective or less appr opriate. It is simply di fferent. While women tend to react to the loss of a loved one as abandonment, men perceive it as losi ng part of themselves, as if severing an arm or leg. Understanding the differences will help you empathize and reach out to the man who mourns. To learn more about the process of mourning, read the extension publication Learning To Live Through Loss: Grief and the Mourning Process (FCS2267) available from your Extension office or at http://edis.ifas. ufl.edu/FY881. I didn't let anyone see me cry, comments Curtis, whose wife died of cancer. Actually, I did my best not to cry at all. Men React Differently to Loss In our society, many men find it difficult to express their personal feelings and needs. The natural need to talk about one's grief may conflict with the tr aditional belief that a man must always be in control of his emotions. Many men find it difficult to show their grief around others. Friends and family may think He's over it when, in fact, he is still hurting. Many men try to distract themselves with their jobs. They strongly desire to maintain productivity and are often discouraged when, quite normally, they have less energy and less attention to give their work because of their grief. Often men prefer to take action instead of confronting their feelings. They may increase their physical activity or over commit themselves to employment or community service. Many men feel a sense of failure because the y cannot control the situation. They could not prevent the death. They could not protec t the loved one who died. No matter what I do, Curtis explains, no matter how much I work, or how busy I


Understanding Men Who Grieve page 2 am, I still go to bed a lone. I can't bring her back. I can't fill the hole her death left in my life. Men Who Lose A Spouse When a man loses his wife, he usually loses his best friend and confidante. The person he could talk withwho could help heal his grief just by listeningis gone. Understandably, men seem to have more health problems and are more likely to commit suicide than women during their first year of widowhood. Some Truths About Widowers # Men do feel lonely, even if they act strong. # Loneliness, grief, and the pressures of running a household create very real crisis for men. # People don't contact widowers as frequently as widows, even though the widower's need for companionship is often greater. Sometimes people don't know what to say. # Even couples who had been friends before the death may stop inviting the widower to their homes. Awkwardness becomes a social barrier. # Sexual frustration may be a concern. Yet many men feel gui lty about needing sexual release, as if they were cheating on their dead spouses. Becoming A Single Father Some men lose more than their best friend; they lose a nu rse, a household manager, a child care expert, a chef, and so on. Men who have invested themselves primarily in their occupations may experience sudden shock at becoming a single parent. These men may need specific, practical information about how to manage their new roles. A basic cookbook, help in finding child care and coaching in housecleaning techniques can help. Finding a new family routine will take time. It is important that the new single father not expect too much of children or adolescents. No child should feel that he or she must replace the lost spouse. And the children need to grieve the loss of their mother. To learn more about children's grief, see the Extension publications For Teens Facing Loss (FCS2265) (http://www.edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FY879) and Helping Children Understand Death (FCS2263) (http://www.edis.ifas.ufl.edu/FY877). It is important to be realistic about the parent's and the children's needs and abilities. Look for resources in your community to supplement or build family strengths. Men Who Lose a Child Fathers who have lost a child may feel left out of the mourning process. People tend to show concern for the mother and other children and ask how they are doing. Few ask about the father. Men also need recognition of their loss and an invitation to talk about their experiences. Different grieving styles can strain the marriage relationship. Often a father seeks refuge in his work and keeps his feelings hidden. The father may not even mention the child's name for fear of upsetting his wife. But his wife, believing he doesn't care, may feel emotionally abandoned and resentful of his seemingly cold response.


Understanding Men Who Grieve page 3 Struggling marriages sometimes end in divorce after the death of a child. Differences in grieving can interfere with already strained communication. Spouses may blame each other, blame themselves or misdirect their anger at other children. Making allowances for different ways of grieving can help the marriage survive the death of a child. So can seeking comfort and support from friends instead of looking solely to the spouse. When the father talks about the death and his experience, generally the whole family opens up. Talking as a family can be the beginning of healing, accepting the death and strengthening the family. How to Help the Man Who Grieves Give him the freedom to have feelings and express them with whom he chooses. Reassure him emotions are normal and talking about them is necessary and healthy. Give him the freedom to be silent, as well. Your presence and acceptance will help him express his grief in the ways best for him. Encourage activity as a part of confronting grief. Physical labor is one way to channel powerful emotions. Find an activity you can do together. Some men find it easier to talk while working together. Remember it may be easier for him to talk about his experience in the context of his family and their reactions. Spotlighting his feelings may seem threatening. Become aware of his practical needs and provide support. Some Ideas for the Widowed Father Provide him with resources or information that can help in household management and parenting. Offer to work with him to find child care. Invite the family to your home to cook together, relieving hi m of responsibility for one night and giving him the opportunity to learn to cook a new dish. Some Ideas for the Grieving Father Ask about him. Invite him to talk about his experiences. Offer to babysit the other children for a weekend so the couple can take time to be together. People tend to rush in to help during the first few weeks. Later they drop their support because they feel the y are interfering or because they want to get back to their usual routine. Grief lasts longer than a few weeks. Continue to find ways to offer emotional and practical support. Be a friend. Encourage others to do the same. Publications to Recommend to the Bereaved Man Living When a Loved One Has Died by Earl Grollman. Beacon Press, Boston. This is a moving book of photographs and comments from a man who has experienced grief. The Widower by Jane Burgess Kohn and Willard K. Kohn. Beacon Press, Boston. Two widowers write about many concerns,


Understanding Men Who Grieve page 4 from surviving to bui lding a new life in this realistic, yet personal book. Learning to Live Through Loss: Grief and The Mourning Process, FCS2267, by Carolyn S. Wilken. This resource is available through local Extension offices or at http://edis.ifas.edu/FY881. References DeFrain, John, Taylor, Jacque, and Ernst, Linda. Coping with Sudden Infant Death. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1982. Knapp, Ronald J. Beyond Endurance: When a Child Dies. New York: Schocken Books, 1986. Kohn, Jane Burgess and Willard K. Kohn. The Widower. Boston: Beacon Press, 1978. Nardi, Peter M. (Ed) Men's Friendships. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1992. Rando, Therese. Grieving: How to Go on Living When Someone You Love Dies. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1984. Sanders, Catherine M. Grief: The Mourning After. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1989. Stroebe, Wolfgang and Margaret S. Stroebe. Bereavement and Health Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.


FCS8803 1. This document is FCS8803, one of a series of the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extens ion Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: December 2006. Please visit the EDIS Web site at h ttp://edis.ifas.ufl.edu 2. Linda B. Bobroff, PhD, RD, LD/N, professor, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Scie nces, University of Florid a, Gainesville, FL 32611. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences is an equal opportunity/affirmative ac tion employer authorized to provide resea rch, educational information and other services onl y to individuals and institutions that f unction without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national origin. For information on obtaining other extension publications, contact your county Cooperative Extension Servic e office. Florida Cooperative Extension Se rvice/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences/University of Florida/Larry Arrington, Dean. Facts about Chromium1 Linda B. Bobroff2 Why do we need chromium? Chromium is one of the trace minerals. This means that its found in very small amounts in our bodies. Chromium wo rks with in sulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. Chromium helps us use the carbohydrate and fat from our diets. It also can affect the amount of fat and protein in our bodies. Many athletes are interested in chromium for this reason. What happens if we dont get enough chromium? The effects of a chromium deficiency in healthy people are not well known. Lack of chromium may affect glucose uptake into cells. It also may cause blood lipids to rise, which could increase risk for heart disease. How much chromium do we need? The following table lists recommended daily intakes of chromium. Many people get less chromium than this, but scientists arent sure whether or not this represents a health risk. Chromium needs may decrease with age, but more research needs to be done with older people to confirm this theory. Life Stage Amount (mcg/day) Men, ages 19-50 35 Women, ages 19-50 25 Men, ages 51+ 30 Women, ages 51+ 20 Pregnancy, ages 19-50* 30 Lactation, ages 19-50* 45 mcg = micrograms of chromium *Pregnant or lactating 14-18 year olds need 1 mcg per day LESS than those 19-50 years of age.


Facts about Chromium page 2 Reliable nutrition information may be found on the Internet at the following sites: http://fycs.ifas.ufl.edu http://solutionsforyourlife.org http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic http://www.nutrition.gov http://www.diabetes.org How can we get enough chromium? Both animal and plant foods contain chromium, but exact amounts have not been determined partly because the amount of chromium varies a lot depending on soil types and other factors. Animal foods contain only small amounts of this trace mineral. Good food sources include mushrooms, prunes, asparagus, nuts, whole grains, wine, brewers yeast, and some kinds of beer. Chromium is a component of steel. So when you cook acidic foods like tomato sauce in stainless steel pots, it adds small amounts of chromium to the food. What about supplements? Some athletes take chromium supplements to enhance performance. Th ere is only limited information about the value of chromium for this purpose. Because of its role in glucose use in the body, persons with diabetes may have an interest in chromium. Most persons with diabetes are not chromium deficient and do not need supplements. The American Diabetes Association currently does not recommend chromium supplements for persons with diabetes. One popular form of chro mium supplement is chromium picolinate. Th is form of chromium has been found to cause DNA damage in cell culture studies. Until further studies are done, it would be wise to avoid chromium picolinate. Excessive chromium intake has also been linked to kidney failure. How much is too much? Chromium is absorbed very poorly. It would take a high dose of this mineral to cause a toxic reaction. You cannot get too much chromium from food s ources. No upper limit of chromium in the diet has been set. Of course, it is always wise to avoid large doses of any nutrient in supplement form. Where can I get more information? The Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) agent at your county Extension office may have more written information and nutrition classes for you to atte nd. Also, a registered dietitian (RD) can provide reliable information.