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ENH995 Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida1 Gary W. Knox2 1. This document is ENH995, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date April 2007. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Extension Specialist and Professor of Environmental Horticulture, University of Florida/IFAS, North Florida Research and Education Center, 155 Research Road, Quincy, FL 32351. October 2004. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Larry Arrington, Dean Home owners, landscapers and growers are actively seeking new or improved landscape plants. In response, plant explorers, breeders, horticulturists and growers are rushing to discover, select, breed or introduce new plants or new cultivars. Some new introductions are patented whereas many others often are given a trademarked name. Other plants are worthy of wider use but have been overlooked or underutilized. The following list of new or underutilized plants was developed from discussions with prominent plantspeople, reviews of popular literature and attendance at various professional society meetings, trade shows and plant seminars (see Sources of Information at the end of the document). The definition of a new plant is very subjective and is based on one's experiences and perspectives. Nonetheless, most of the plants on this list may be considered new by many home owners and green industry professionals. Many of these new plants have not yet been formally evaluated in Florida but are presumed adaptable based on their origin or adaptability of related species. Scientific, cultivar, patented and trademarked names are listed to the best of my knowledge; however, this information can change, so readers should verify names before further use. In some cases, a plant will have a trademarked name that is different from its cultivar name; both names are included in the list. Plants native to Florida are indicated in parentheses after the scientific and common names. Non-native plants found in Florida's natural areas are indicated with footnotes also stating their status as established by the IFAS Assessment of Non-native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas (IFAS 2004). Non-native plants without footnotes have not been reported in Florida's natural areas. Abbreviations in the list include: cv. = cultivar PP = Plant Patent PPAF = Plant Patent Applied For var. = variety.
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 2 New, Improved and Underutilized Trees Acer palmatum (Japanese maple) Recommended cultivars: Bloodgood upright red Butterflies variegated green leaves Kagiri Nishiki variegated green leaves better than Butterflies Koto no ito fine textured green, shrubby Moonfire upright red more tolerant of heat Seiryu green upright cutleaf Others: Aconitifolium, Ever Red, Shishigashira Acer rubrum (Red maple; native) and hybrids Recommended cultivars: Acer xfreemanii Autumn Fantasy trademarked name of cv. DTR 102; reliable fall color even in southern areas Acer xfreemanii cv. DTR 102 trademarked as Autumn Fantasy; reliable fall color even in southern areas Autumn Flame PP2377 smaller leaves and earlier red fall color than for others Fairview Flame October Glory trademark name for cv. PNI 0268; having good fall color, this cultivar is widely grown, but it performs better in north Florida PNI 0268 trademarked as October Glory; having good fall color, this cultivar is widely grown, but it performs better in north Florida Somerset male selection with long-lasting fall color and resistance to potato leafhopper; from U.S. National Arboretum New cultivars: Brandywine male (seedless) selection with some resistance to potato leafhopper Florida Flame good red fall color; selected from Florida populations and adapted throughout the state Snow Fire new growth is pink; leaves are mottled white fading somewhat with age Summer Red leaves emerge burgundy and turn purplish green Acer saccharum var. floridana (Florida maple; native) underused small tree with good fall color Acer saccharum var. leucoderme (Chalk maple; native) underused small tree with better fall color Albizia julibrissin3 This species is considered invasive in north and central Florida and is not recommended by UF/IFAS. cv. Summer Chocolate (Summer Chocolate mimosa) dramatic, deep burgundy foliage almost redeems this weedy plant Araucaria bidwillii (Bunya-Bunya; False monkey puzzle tree) unusual evergreen conifer from Australia; adapted to central Florida and protected sites in north Florida Betula nigra (River birch; native) cultivars: BNMTF trademarked as Dura Heat; more heat tolerant, smaller leaves, dense canopy Cully PP4409 trademarked as Heritage; bark exfoliates, displaying off-white new bark; leaves are larger and darker green Dura Heat trademarked name of cv. BNMTF; more heat tolerant, smaller leaves, dense canopy Fox Valley trademarked name of cv. Little King; dwarf to 12 feet Heritage trademarked name for cv. Cully PP4409; bark exfoliates displaying off-white new bark; leaves are larger and darker green
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 3 Little King trademarked as Fox Valley; dwarf to 12 feet Shiloh Splash variegated Summer Cascade PPAF weeping Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam; native) underused deciduous small tree Cercis canadensis (Redbud; native) Appalachian Red red flowers Covey PP10328 trademarked as Lavender Twist; twisted branching Flame double flowers Forest Pansy PP2556 new growth has purple foliage Lavender Twist trademarked name for cv. Covey PP10328; twisted branching Silver Cloud variegated new growth fades somewhat by summer var. alba white flowers var. texensis Traveller weeping var. texensis Oklahoma glossy foliage Withers Pink Charm pink flowers Chionanthus retusus (Chinese fringetree) Asian counterpart to our native Fringetree (see below); this tree flowers after foliage emerges but the floral display is still impressive since flower petals are broader than on the native Fringetree; China Snow is a new cultivar Chionanthus virginicus (Fringetree, Grancy greybeard; native) underused small flowering tree Cornus florida (Dogwood; native) Cultivars: Gold Braid PPAF varigated foliage with yellow margins Weaver's White discovered in Gainesville, Florida; flower bracts are wider than on others Resistant to powdery mildew: Jean's Appalachian Snow Karen's Appalachian Blush Kay's Appalachian Mist Cryptomeria japonica (Cryptomeria) Recommended cultivars: Benjamin Franklin tree-size cultivar with a good conical shape and little or no interior dieback Black Dragon dark green, compact, pyramidal form growing 5 10 feet tall Gyokuryu compact with a mounded growth habit Yoshino tree-size cultivar with conical shape and no interior dieback Cupressus arizonica var. glabra (Arizona cypress) cultivars with blue foliage: Blue Ice compact and conical Blue Pyramid broadly upright Carolina Sapphire loosely pyramidal Silver Smoke broad pyramidal form with feathery appearance Fraxinus pensylvanica (Green ash) cv. Oconee (trademarked as Georgia Gem) first green ash cultivar from a Southern source, so it should be better adapted to Florida Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo) ancient, pest resistant tree with good yellow fall color; better suited to north Florida Cultivars: Autumn Gold fruitless (male) form with vivid yellow fall color
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 4 Princeton Sentry columnar Halesia diptera var. magniflora (Two-wing silverbell; native) underused spring-flowering, medium tree with white bell-shaped flowers that are larger than the straight species Ilex cassine (Dahoon holly; native) cultivars selected from Florida populations: Perdido pyramidal up to 20 feet Tensaw up to 15 feet; round leaves Ilex vomitoria (Yaupon holly; native) and cultivars Hightower upright Kathy Ann heavy fruiting Pendula weeping but open Shadows Female broadly pyramidal with dense foliage Virginia Dare orange fruit WigginsYellow yellow fruit Will Fleming columnar Ilex attenuata (East Palatka holly; native) cv. Bienville Gold yellow fruit Ilex cv. STBB (trademarked as Aspire) upright-conical tree to 20 feet with showy red fruit Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola (Southern redcedar; native) cv. Brodie upright-columnar form Lagerstroemia indica,4 L. fauriei, and L.indicaxfauriei (Crape myrtle); cultivars listed below are L. indicaxfauriei except where noted Recommended tree-size cultivars: Apalachee lavender flowers, dark green leaves and orange bark on a statuesque tree Fantasy L. fauriei; white flowers in early summer and striking red bark on a medium tree Osage dark pink flowers and orange bark on a rounded tree with glossy leaves Sioux medium pink flowers on an upright, small tree Yuma lavender flowers; the new bark on older plants is almost white Recommended patio tree-size cultivars: Acoma white flowers on a distinctive horizontally-branched shrub; achieves a graceful tree form with age Caddo bubblegum pink flowers on a rounded shrub Hopi medium pink flowers Pecos dark pink flowers and rich, dark brown bark; early flowering Tonto fuchsia red flowers on a rounded shrub or small tree New true red flowers: Arapaho first disease resistant hybrid tree-form crape myrtle with red flowers Cheyenne first disease resistant hybrid with red flowers growing as a large shrub or small tree Dynamite L. indica; trademarked name of cv. Whit II PP10296; first cultivar with true red flowers; large shrub with upright habit Red Rocket L. indica; trademarked name of cv. Whit IV PP11342; dark red flowers on an upright shrub or small tree Siren Red L. indica; trademarked name of cv. Whit VII PP149755; red flowers on a semi-dwarf shrub Tightwad Red L. indica; trademarked name of cv. Whit V PP11312; red flowers on dwarf plant Whit II PP10296 L. indica; trademarked as Dynamite
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 5 Whit IV PP11342 L. indica; trademarked as Red Rocket Whit V PP11312 L. indica; trademarked as Tightwad Red Whit VII PP14975 L. indica; trademarked as Siren Red New with dark or purple foliage: Burgundy Cotton L. indica; trademarked name of cv. Whit VI PP14438; white flowers against wine-colored new growth turning green Pink Velour L. indica; trademarked name of cv. Whit III PP10319; hot pink flowers on large shrub with burgundy new growth Whit III PP10319 L. indica; trademarked as Pink Velour Whit VI PP14438 L. indica; trademarked as Burgundy Cotton White Chocolate L. indica; white flowers against burgundy new leaves turning chocolate brown Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweetgum; native) cultivars: Rotundiloba fruitless with round-lobed leaves and a rounded plant form Starlet variegated Magnolia spp. (Magnolia) cultivars of deciduous flowering trees: Recommended large flowered deciduous hybrids: Dark Shadow dark pink flowers in spring and then sporadically through the summer Jon Jon late flowering, avoiding frost damage; large white flowers with rosy blush at the base Paul Cook very large pink flowers Pink Goblet soft pink, goblet shaped flowers Recommended yellow flowered deciduous hybrids: Butterflies PP7456 deep yellow flowers Gold Crown light to medium yellow flowers Golden Sun large medium yellow flowers Hot Flash large yellow flowers with a pink blush on a vigorous tree Maxine Merrill yellow flowers are small but numerous Sunsation light yellow flowers with a pink blush Magnolia delavayi (Magnolia) evergreen Southern magnolia-like shrub or small tree from China, some of which have pink or red flowers Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia; native) Recommended cultivars: D.D. Blanchard leaves are dark green with rich orange-brown indumentum on the undersides; flowering begins at an older age than for other cultivars Little Gem compact, small-leaved and free-flowering New cultivars: Alta trademarked name of cv. TMGH PP11612;upright; brownback leaves; weak root system CLTF1 PP11029 trademarked as Miss Chloe; large flowers and copper-brown indumentum on undersides of leaves Greenback trademarked name for cv. MGTIG PP9243; upright form; undersides of leaves are smooth, light green with no indumentum Jubilee double flowers
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 6 Kay Parris compact form said to be better than Little Gem and easier to propagate MGTIG PP9243 trademarked as Greenback; upright form; undersides of leaves are smooth, light green with no indumentum Miss Chloe trademarked name of cv. CLTF1 PP11029; large flowers and copper-brown indumentum on undersides of leaves Southern Charm PP13049 trademarked as Teddy Bear; reddish-brown indumentum on undersides of small to medium leaves on a compact tree Teddy Bear trademarked name for Southern Charm PP13049; reddish-brown indumentum on undersides of small to medium leaves on a compact tree TMGH PP11612 trademarked as Alta; upright; brownback leaves; weak root system Magnolia insignis (Magnolia) evergreen Southern magnolia-like tree from China, some of which have pink or red flowers Magnolia macrophylla var. ashei (Ashe magnolia; native) underused native, small tree with large leaves and large white flowers with a purple blotch at the base Magnolia maudiae (Magnolia) large, white, fragrant flowers and blue-green leaves on an upright, evergreen small tree Magnolia virginiana var. australis (Sweetbay magnolia; native) cultivars: Aiken County glossy leaves; selected in South Carolina Dodds Dwarf true dwarf with small leaves and flowers Mardi Gras gold variegated leaves Mattie Mae Smith PP12204 broad bands of yellow edge the leaf margins; may be the same as cv. Mardi Gras Santa Rosa large leaves and flowers on this upright, open tree Willowleaf Bay narrow leaves Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood) ancient deciduous conifer similar to bald-cypress; cv. Ogon has new growth that is bright yellow Neolitsea sericea (Japanese silver tree) broadly conical small evergreen tree; new leaves are bronze and silky; mature leaves are glossy with silvery undersides Nyssa sylvatica (Tupelo or Black gum; native) medium tree with brilliant red to purple fall color; cv. NXSXF (trademarked as Forum) was selected for its pyrimidal habit and glossy leaves Ostrya virginiana (Eastern hophornbeam; native) underused small deciduous tree Oxydendrum arboreum (Sourwood; native) small tree with interesting flowers and fruits and good red fall color; requires proper siting for success Persea palustris (Swamp bay; native) underused small evergreen tree Podocarpus elongatus cv. Monmal (trademarked as Icee Blue) similar to Podocarpus macrophyllus but with blue-green foliage Prunus campanulata (Taiwan cherry) upright tree to 25 feet with showy clusters of one-inch, rosy pink, bell-shaped flowers in late winter or early spring Prunus (Flowering cherry) cultivars: Okame the best flowering cherry for north and central Florida; pink flowers in late winter or early spring Dream Catcher medium pink flowers occurring two weeks after Okame; disease resistant leaves; upright, vase-shaped tree Quercus nuttallii (Nuttall oak) deciduous oak similar to native Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii) but with a denser root system and easier to produce and transplant; cv. Highpoint is brand new
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 7 Quercus virginiana (Live oak; native) cultivars: Cathedral Oak trademarked name of cv. SDLN PP12015; upright with a central leader, spreading with age CLTF2 PP11097 trademarked as Millenium and formerly trademarked as Millenaire; rounded form with a central leader Highrise trademarked name of cv. QVTIA PP11219; upright pyramidal with a central leader Millenaire former trademark name of cv. CLTF2 PP11097; rounded form with a central leader Millenium trademarked name of cv. CLTF2 PP11097; rounded form with a central leader QVTIA PP11219 trademarked as Highrise; upright pyramidal with a central leader SDLN PP12015 trademarked as Cathedral Oak; upright with a central leader, spreading with age Sassafras albidum (Sassafras; native) small tree with good red fall color Styrax japonicus (Japanese snowbell) cv. Emerald Pagoda most vigorous form of Styrax japonicus with larger leaves and flowers; leaves are dark green and leathery; one-inch flowers are white and bell-like Taxodium ascendens (Pond-cypress; native) cv. Prairie Sentinel columnar with horizontal branching Taxodium distichum (Bald-cypress; native) and cultivars: Autumn Gold trademarked name for PDSI 993 PP13431; selected for strong central leader and heavy branching Cascade Falls weeping Cave Hill rounded dwarf Mickelson trademarked as Shawnee Brave; narrowly pyramidal PDSI 993 PP13431 trademarked as Autumn Gold; selected for strong central leader and heavy branching Pendens horizontal braches with nodding tips and branchlets Secrest broad-spreading dwarf Shawnee Brave trademarked name of cv. Mickelson; narrowly pyramidal Taxodium mucronatum (Montezuma bald-cypress) broader spread and more open, irregular habit, holding foliage much later Taxodium Nanjing Beauty (Nanjing Beauty bald-cypress) selected Chinese hybrid of T. mucronatum and T. distichum Ulmus alata (Winged elm; native) underused small deciduous tree with corky wings on twigs adding winter interest; cv. Lace Parasol is weeping Ulmus parvifolia5 This species has not yet been evaluated by the IFAS Assessment. (Lacebark elm) and cultivars: Allee trademarked name of cv. Emer II PP7552; vase shaped Bosque trademarked name of cv. UPMTF PP11295; upright oval form with a central leader Burgundy dark green leaves turning burgundy in fall Emer II PP7552 trademarked as Allee; vase shaped Ohio moderate vase shape; small, glossy leaves; resistant to common elm insect and disease problems Pathfinder vase shaped; resistant to common elm insect and disease problems UPMTF PP11295 trademarked as Bosque; upright oval form with a central leader
Checklist of New, Improved and Underutilized Trees for North and Central Florida 8 Sources of Information and References: Creech, D. Stephen F. Austin University (Nacogdoches, TX). Dirr, M. and J. Ruter. University of Georgia (Athens and Tifton, GA). IFAS Assessment, 2004. IFAS assessment of non-native plants in Floridas natural areas. Cited from the World Wide Web http://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu/ IFASassessment.HTMLn. IFAS Assessment Conclusions, 2004. Conclusions from the IFAS Assessment of Non-native plants in Floridas natural areas, July 2004. Cited from the World Wide Web http://agronomy.ifas.ufl.edu/docs/ Revisedconclusions105spp.pdfn. Lessiegne, T., R. Lyons, T. Ranney. J.C. Raulston Arboretum and North Carolina State University (Raleigh and Fletcher, NC). USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) n[Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/ tax_search.pl. (03 November 2004) USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 http://plants.usda.gov. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Pooler, M., R. Dix and D. Fare. U.S. National Arboretum. (Washington, D.C., and McMinnville, TN). Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators Society (especially those from the Southern Region of North America). Proceedings of the Southern Nursery Association Annual Research Conference http://www.sna.org. Sibley, J.L., D.J. Eakes, C.H. Gilliam, G.J. Keever and W.A. Dozier, Jr. 1995. Growth and fall color of red maple selections in the southeaster United States. J. Environ. Hort. 13(1): 51 52. Southern Plant Conference (1995, 1999, 2001 and 2003; sponsored by the Southern Nursery Association and held biennially in various cities). Thetford, M., R. Schoellhorn, and M. Scheiber. University of Florida/IFAS. (Milton, Gainesville and Apopka, FL). Tilt, K. and H. Jackson. Auburn University (Auburn and Anniston, AL). Trade magazines (American Nurseryman, Nursery Management and Production, Ornamental Outlook, others). Additional Notes: 3. This species is considered invasive in north and central Florida and is not recommended by UF/IFAS. 4. This species has not yet been evaluated by the IFAS Assessment.