4-H Horse Program, Unit 1: Horses and Horsemanship
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Title: 4-H Horse Program, Unit 1: Horses and Horsemanship
Series Title: 4-H Horse Program
Physical Description: Project Book
Creator: Glauer, Debbie
Publisher: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1989
Abstract: Breeds of light horses -- Color and color markings of horses -- judging horses no.1: what to look for -- Judging horses no.2: how to judge -- Gaits of the horse -- Western horsemanship -- Tack and equipment and its care -- Grooming and preparation for the show -- The show ring: are you and your horse ready? -- Showing light horses at halter -- Care of horse's feet -- Training your horse -- Safety rules and precautions -- Glossary.
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Publication Status: Published
General Note: "This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council."
General Note: "This document is 4HHSM10, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Program, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Reviewed, January 2009."
General Note: "This information was published December 1989, Florida Cooperative Extension Service."
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horses and horsemanship4-H HORSE PROGRAM


NAME ADDRESS CLUB4-H HORSE PROGRAMHORSES AND HORSEMANSHIPThis educational material has been prepared for 4-H use by the Cooperative Extension Services of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and State Land-Grant Universities in cooperation with the National 4-H Council and the American Quarter Horse Association. Trade or brand names used in the publications are used only for the purpose of educational information. The information given herein is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement of products or breeds of horses by the Federal Extension Service or State Cooperative Extension Services is implied, nor does it imply approval of products or breeds of horses to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. This material was originally published by the National 4-H Council, 7100 Connecticut Avenue, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815. Programs and educational materials supported by National 4-H Council; Extension Service, United States Department of Agriculture; and all Cooperative Extension Services of the State Land-Grant Universities are available to all persons regardless of race, color, sex, age, religion, national origin or handicap. All are equal opportunity employers.


4-H HORSEMANSHIP PROGRAM UNIT I HORSES AND HORSEMANSHIPTABLE OF CONTENTSSUBJECT PAGE Breeds of Light Horses...............................................................4 Color and Color Markings of Horses.................................................... 8 Judging Horses No.1 What to Look For .................................................12 Judging Horses No.2 How to Judge .....................................................17 Gaits of the Horse..................................................................21 Western Horsemanship ..............................................................24 Tack and Equipment and Its Care......................................................28 Grooming and Preparation for the Show.................................................32 The Show Ring: Are You and Your Horse Ready? .........................................37 Showing Light Horses at Halter ........................................................40 Care of Horse's Feet.................................................................42 Training Your Horse ................................................................45 Safety Rules and Precautions ..........................................................49 Glossary ..........................................................................52


BREEDS OF LIGHT HORSESA breed is a group of horses having common origin and possessing certain distinguishable characteristics that are transmittable to their offspring (see Table 1. Breeds of Li g ht Horses and Their Characteristics). An understandin g of breeds and terms to describe the breeds is important to all horsemen. Description of colors and color markin g s can be found in the g uide sheet of that title. If y ou desire pictures of the breeds, contact the Secretaries of the Breed Registry Associations at the addresses g iven in this g uide or contact USDA Office of Information for a cop y of Bulletin FB 2127 entitled "Li g ht Horses."HORSE BREED TERMSBreed character Those characteristics of a breed that distin g uish it from other breeds. Breeder Owner of the dam (female) at the time of service (breedin g ). The j ocke y Club, which records Thorou g hbreds, uses the term to refer to the owner of a mare at the time a foal is dropped. Breed standard Standard of excellence set up b y a breed association for its breed. Breed type Those characteristics commonl y accepted as ideal for a particular breed. Cold-blood A horse of draft-horse breedin g Crossbred animal A horse that has purebred or hi g hg rade parents of different breeds. Dam The female parent mother. Family A g roup of animals within a breed, all of which trace directl y to a common ancestor. Get The offsprin g of a sire. Grade animal A horse that has one purebred parent and one g rade or scrub parent. Half-bred When capitalized, this denotes a horse sired b y a Thorou g hbred and re g istered in the Half-Bred Stud Book. Hot-blooded A horse of eastern or oriental blood. Pedigree Written record of the ancestr y of an animal. It ma y or ma y not be used to refer to a re g istration certificate. Performance registry A record book in which the performance of animals is recorded and preserved. Produce The offsprin g of a dam. Purebred animal An individual horse whose parents are recorded in the same re g istr y association. A Re g istered animal is one whose parents are recorded and is itself recorded, and the re g istration certificate has been issued. Registration certificate Written record of the ancestr y of an animal, issued b y the re g istr y association. Registry association An or g anization formed for the purpose of keepin g records of the ancestr y of individuals within a breed and to promote the breed. Sire The male parent father. Stud A horse breedin g establishment or farm. The breedin g stallion is usuall y called the stud horse. Stud book A book of record published b y breed re g istr y associations for purebred horses, ponies, or j acks.NOTES


Breeds of Li g ht Horses Pa g e 5December 1989 Table 1. Breeds of Li g ht Horses and Their Characteristics *Breed AssociationsPlace of Ori g in Color Other Distin g uishin g Primary Uses Disqualifications Characteristics The American Saddlebred Horse Association, Inc. United States; in Bay, brown, chestnut, g ray orAbility to furnish an easyThree and fiveg ated Fayette County,black. Gaudy white markin g sride with g reat style andsaddle horses. Fine Kentuckyare frowned upon.animation. Lon g andharness horses, Pleasure g raceful neck and proudhorses, Stock horses. action. Appaloosa Horse Club, Inc. United States, in Variable, but usually whiteThe eye is encircled byStock horses, PleasureAnimals not havin g Appaloosa Ore g on, Washin g tonover the loin and hips, withwhite, the skin is mottledhorses, Parade horses.Characteristics, and animals and Idaho; fromdark round, or e gg -shapedand the hoofs are striped of draft horse and pony, animals ori g inatin g inspots thereon. vertically black and white. Albino or Pinto breedin g ; Fer g ana, Central Asia. cryptorchids; and animals under 14 hands at maturity (5 yrs. or older) Arabian Horse Re g istry of America Arabia Bay, g ray, and chestnut withA beautiful head, shortSaddle horses, Stock an occasional white or black.couplin g docility, g reathorses. White marks on the headendurance, and a g ay way and le g s are common. Theof g oin g skin is always dark. Cleveland Bay Horse Society of America En g land; in the Always solid bay with blackToday it is used chiefly asAny color other than bay. Cleveland district ofle g s. a g reat utility horse; for Yorkshire. ridin g drivin g and doin g all kinds of farm work. Also, used in crossbreedin g to produce heavy wei g ht hunters. American Connemara Pony Society Ireland, on the West Gray, black, bay, brown, dun,They ran g e in hei g ht fromAs jumpers, for showin g Piebalds and skewbalds not Costcream, with, occasional13 to 14-2 hands. Famousunder saddle andaccepted for re g istration. roans and chestnuts.as jumpers. Also noted foroccasionally in harness, hardiness, docility, andand for g eneral ridin g and soundness.huntin g for medium sized adult and children. American Hackney Horse Society En g land; on the Chestnut, bay, and brown areIn the showrin g customHeavy harness or carria g e eastern coast, inmost common colors,decrees that heavyhorses. For crossbreedin g Norfolk and adjoinin g althou g h roans and blacksharness horses be dockedpurposes to produce countiesare seen. White marks areand have their maneshunters and jumpers. common and are desired.pulled. Hi g h natural action.


Breeds of Li g ht Horses Pa g e 6Table 1. Breeds of Li g ht Horses and Their Characteristics *Breed AssociationsPlace of Ori g in Color Other Distin g uishin g Primary Uses Disqualifications Characteristics December 1989 American Mor g an Horse Association, Inc. United States; in the Bay, brown, black, andEasy keepin g qualities,Saddle horses, Stock New En g land Stateschestnut; extensive whiteendurance and docilityhorses. markin g s are common. The National Spotted Saddle Horse Association United States; from Spotted. The secondary colorSaddle horses, StockAnimals under 14.2 hands. animals of Hackneymust not be less than 10%,horses, Pleasure horses,Animals of draft horse or pony and Saddle Horsenot includin g white le g s or Fine harness horses,breedin g or showin g these breedin g white on the face. Parade horses characteristics. Palomino Horse Association, Inc. United States; from Golden (the color of a newly) Stock horses, ParadeAnimals of draft-horse or pony horses of Spanishminted g old coin or 3 shades horses, Pleasure horses,breedin g and the offsprin g of extraction.li g hter or darker), with a li g ht Saddle horses, Finepiebald or albino breedin g not colored mane and tail (white,harness horses.eli g ible for re g istration. silver or ivory, with not more than 15% dark or chestnut hair in either). While markin g s on the face or below the knees are acceptable. Pinto Horse Association of America, Inc. United States; from Preferably half color or colorsGlass eyes are notAny li g ht horse purpose,Under 14-1 hands; pony or horses brou g ht in by and half white, with manydiscounted. but especially for show,draft horse blood. Spanish spots well placed. The two parade, notice and Conquistadores.distinct pattern markin g s are: pleasure purposes. Overo and Tobiano. Pony of Americas Club United States; Mason Similar to Appaloosa; white 46 to 52 hi g h. Childrens mounts.Ponies not within the hei g ht City, Iowa.over the loin and hips withran g e; or not havin g the dark round or e gg -shaped appaloosa color, includin g spots. mottled skin and much exposed sclera of the eye. Pinto markin g and loudcolored roans. America Quarter Horse Association United States Chestnuts, sorrel, bays, andWell-muscled and Stock horses, Racin g ,Pinto, Appaloosa, and albino dun are most common;powerfully built. Small alertPleasure horses.colors are ineli g ible for althou g h they may beear; sometimes heavily re g istration, also white palomino, black brown, roan,muscled cheeks and jaw.markin g s on the underline. copper-colored. American Shetland Pony Club Shetland Isles All colors, either solid orSmall size, g ood Childrens mounts,Over 46 in hei g ht. broken.disposition.Harness-show purposes (the American type).


Breeds of Li g ht Horses Pa g e 7Table 1. Breeds of Li g ht Horses and Their Characteristics *Breed AssociationsPlace of Ori g in Color Other Distin g uishin g Primary Uses Disqualifications Characteristics December 1989 United States Trottin g Association (Standardbred) United States Bay, brown, chestnut, andSmaller and less le gg y andHarness racin g either black are most common, butwith more substance andtrottin g or pacin g Harness g rays, roans and duns areru gg edness than thehorses in horse shows. found.Thorou g hbred. Tennessee Walkin g Horse Breeders And Exhibitors Association Bay, brown, chestnut, and Fineness of conformation.Runnin g races. Stock black; less frequently, roan,Lon g strai g ht and wellhorses. Saddle horses. and g ray. White markin g s onmuscled le g s. Polo mounts. Hunters. the face and le g s are common. The Jockey Club (Thorou g hbred) En g land Bay, brown, chestnut, andFineness of conformation.Runnin g races. black; less frequently, roan,Lon g strai g ht and well-Stock horses. and g ray. White markin g s onmuscled le g s. Saddle horses. the face and le g s ae Polo mounts. common. Hunters. Welsh Pony Society of America Wales Any color except piebald andSmall size; intermediateChildren mounts. HarnessAny white markin g s on body skewbald.between Shetland Poniesshow ponies Roadster andunless approved by Board of and other li g ht horseracin g ponies. Hunterdirectors. breeds. Those 12-2 handsponies. and under are re g istered in Sec. A of stud book. Mares and stallions over 12-2 and not over 14-0 hands are re g istered in Sec. B of the Stud Book. *Check your local library reference for current address


COLOR AND COLOR MARKINGS OF HORSESA g ood horseman needs a workin g knowled g e of horsetail of a chestnut horse are never black. Chestnut color colors and patterns. The be g innin g horseman shouldvaries from a bri g ht y ellowish red to a rich maho g an y familiarize himself with the followin g descriptions of thered. five basic horse coat colors and the five variations to these colors. These descriptions will be helpful in buildin g the foundation for a workin g knowled g e of horse color characteristics. The first and most important g roup is the basic coat colors which are applicable to all horses. These color terms are all commonl y used. White feet ma y occur with an y basic coat color pattern. I. FIVE BASIC HORSE COAT COLORSThe five basic horse coat colors are: a) Ba y b) Black c) Brown d) Chestnut e) White A short descriptive discussion of each of the colors follows: A) Bay A ba y horse is one whose color is hardest to describe, but easiest to distin g uish. It is a mixture of red and y ellow. bein g probabl y as much the color of a loaf of well-baked bread as an y thin g A li g ht ba y shows more y ellow, a dark ba y more red. The darkest is the maho g an y ba y which is almost the color of blood, but without the red overtone. Ba y s alwa y s have black points. A red ba y should never be confused with a chestnut, as ba y s alwa y s have black manes and tails; chestnuts alwa y s have red (or occasionall y flax) manes and tails. The bod y color of a maho g an y ba y and a chestnut can be the same, but the mane and tail provide an eas y method of identification. B) Black A black horse almost invariabl y has black e y es, hoofs, and skin. The points are alwa y s black. Tan or brown hairs on the muzzle or flank indicates that the horse is not a true black but a seal brown. C) Brown A brown horse is one whose coloration is brown. Man y brown horses are mistakenl y called black, because the y are so dark. A close examination of the hair on the muzzle and around the lips will quickl y tell whether the horse is brown or black. The mane and tail are alwa y s dark. D) Chestnut (Sorrel) A chestnut is a horse whose coat is basicall y red. His mane and tail are normall y the same shade as his bod y If the mane and tail are li g hter in color than the bod y the horse is termed a flax or flaxen chestnut. The mane and E) White The true white horse is born pure white and dies the same color. Ver y little, if an y seasonal chan g e takes place in his coat color. A g e does not affect it. The American Albino Horse Club, Incorporated of Naper, Nebraska re g isters as "Albinos" white horses of clear white bod y color, with brown e y es (rarel y blue), and pink skin. The y also re g ister as "Albinos T y pe A" horses with a ver y pale ivor y bod y color and white mane and tail. Their e y es are blue and their skin is pink. Geneticists classif y a third g roup of li g ht-colored horses as 'Albinos T y pe B". Their bod y color is a ver y pale cream; mane and tail darker than bod y (cinnamon-buff); e y es blue. If durin g the life of a white horse, hairs of color other than white are found, the chances are that the horse is not white, but g re y or roan.II. FIVE MAJOR VARIATIONS TO COAT COLORSIn addition to the five basic horse colors there are five ma j or variations to these coat colors. These are: a) Dun (Buckskin) b) Gre y c) Palomino d) Pinto e) Roan A) Dun (Buckskin) The dun horse is one whose dominant hair is some shade of y ellow. A dun horse ma y var y from a pale y ellow to a dirt y canvas color with mane, tail, skin, and hoofs g radin g from white to black. Duns alwa y s have a stripe down their back. There are special colors of dun ran g in g from cream, the li g htest, throu g h palomino color to duns with black points. A co y ote dun is one with black points and a black line. A zebra dun is one with black points and a zebra stripe or stripes on le g s and withers. A red dun is a dun of reddish oran g e cast often with a red stripe down his back and a red mane and tail. In the Thorou g hbred stud book, these horses are listed as sorrels and sometimes ranchers refer to them as cla y banks. Grullo ( g rew y o). This a dun horse, with roan characteristics whose y ellow hairs are mixed with brown or black. The y alwa y s have black points. The y are a smooth g re y ish-blue like a mouse, not a blue-roan or g re y as the color is more suave and alwa y s permanent.


Color and Color Markin g s of Horses. Pa g e 9December 1989Some seem purple or smoke colored. Most are Man y are born and die about the same color. Whether a back-lined and have zebra stripes on le g s and withers.horse is li g ht roan or dark roan depends on the B) Grey Most so-called white horses are reall y g re y Man y people even call an old g re y horse an albino, especiall y if it has li g ht skin, hoofs, and one or more white e y es. Born blue or almost black, more and more white hairs come into this coat until b y the a g e of 8 or 10 this horse will appear almost white. The dapple g enerall y comes between the second and fifth y ear. Youn g g re y horses are often called roan; when he has a g reat deal of black still in his coat, he is called steel g re y When small specks of black are present, he is flea-bitten; when more white shows, it is silver g re y C) Palomino The Palomino has bod y which is a g olden color, var y in g from bri g ht copper color, to li g ht y ellow, with white mane and tail. True Palominos have no black points. The breed description lists the ideal color to be that of a newl y minted coin. D) Pinto (Calico or Paint) A pinto is a spotted horse that has more than one color in or on his coat in lar g e irre g ular patches or spots. Small non-white spots, up to the size of a silver dollar, embossed on a color other than white, do not necessaril y indicate a pinto. For example, man y chestnut horses have small black spots on their rumps. A g reat deal of white on the upper le g s or face is a prett y g ood indication of pinto blood, as is an y white spot above the knees and hocks or outside the rectan g ular area on the face outlined b y the ears, e y es and nostrils. E) Roan A roan horse is an y horse whose coat carries white hairs intermin g led with one or more base colors. proportions of white hairs in comparison to the colored. Most roans are combinations of ba y chestnut, or black with white hairs intermin g led. The y are known, in order, as red, strawberr y or blue roan. The roan coloration is g enerall y not uniform and some patches on the bod y will be darker than others.III. VARIATIONS OF COLOR PATTERNS OF HEAD AND POINTSA) Head When discussin g or describin g an individual horse amon g man y it is necessar y to be more explicit than merel y usin g a g eneral color term with a modif y in g ad j ective. Instead of j ust sa y in g a dark sorrel, it ma y be necessar y to sa y the dark sorrel with the blaze face. 1) Star Desi g nates a small, clearl y defined area of white hairs on the forehead. 2) Snip A small patch of white which runs over the muzzle, often to the lips. 3) Stripe A lon g narrow band of white workin g from the forehead down toward the muzzle. 4) Blaze A white stripe down the face to the lips. 5) Bald Face One which has white over most of the flat surface of the face, often extendin g toward the cheeks. 6) Eyes and Face Normall y horses have a rich brown e y e with a black pupil, and no white shows around the ed g e. When this coloration varies, man y ad j ectives are used to distin g uish the difference. When the e y eball is clear, some shade between white and blue, he is normall y termed China-eyed Glass-eyed, Cotton-eyed or Blue-eyed If one e y e is


Color and Color Markin g s of Horses. Pa g e 10December 1989defective, he is called a Wall-eye In some places, Wall-e y ed refers to the white in the face coverin g the e y e area. Oreyeyed is also used to denote a horse who shows, because of fri g ht, or because his pupil is overl y contracted, white around the rim. 7) A Mealy-mouthed horse is one whose color is faded out around the mouth, and is found especiall y in ba y s and browns. Occasionall y this characteristic is called mulish because so man y mules are Meal y -mouthed. B) Feet. 1) Coronet a white strip coverin g the coronet bend. 2) Pastern White extends from the coronet to and includin g the pastern. 3) Ankle White extends from the coronet to and includin g the fetlock. 4) Half Stocking White extends from the coronet to the middle of the cannon. 5) Full Stocking white extends from the coronet to and includin g the knee. C) Mane and Tail Black points alwa y s indicate a dark mane and tail, while white points or li g ht points refer to a li g ht mane and tail. 1) Flax or flaxen, when applied to mane and/or tail, indicates a straw y ellow or dirt y white. It is normall y caused b y a mixture of dark hair in with the white. 2) Silver is used to denote a mane or tail which is white with a few black hairs g ivin g it a silver cast. 3) True white manes and tails have onl y white hairs. 4) Rat-tailed is a horse havin g but little hair in its tail. 5) Broom-tailed or Bang-tailed is a horse with a heav y coarse tail.IV. ADDITIONAL DESCRIPTIVE TERMSThere are a number of modif y in g ad j ectives used to further describe horse coat colors. Those listed below will be enou g h to cover most situations. 1) Black points black mane, tail and extremities. 2) Calico is the same as patched, althou g h g enerall y applied to the livelier color combinations normall y found amon g pintos. 3) Cross desi g nates the dark line over the withers from side to side. 4) Dappled means darker spots are embossed on the coat. 5) Dark indicates a predominance of black hair or deep color, with little y ellow apparent. 6) Flea-bitten is a g ra y or roan horse havin g small black or blue specks or spots on a predominantl y white back g round. 7) Golden refers to the sheen which, when the li g ht strikes certain shades of dun, chestnut, and ba y makes them seem translucent and g olden 8) Light indicates a predominance of y ellow or white hairs. 9) Line-back means a darker ribbon which g oes alon g the back from the mane to the tail. The line ma y be almost an y color, althou g h red and black are most common. 10) Patched indicates lar g e roan spots on some base color. 11) Piebald black and white spottin g onl y 12) Pure indicates uniformit y clarit y and depth of color.


Color and Color Markin g s of Horses. Pa g e 11December 198913) Ratty indicates lack of uniformit y in color a 20) Toasted implies darker patches, dull finish, or dull, dirt y tone. 14) Ray line found alon g the back of some horses. 15) Red-speckled is a g re y or roan horse havin g and/or withers. ba y or chestnut specks or spots on a predominantl y white back g round. If the cate g ories of terms listed in this topic are learned 16) Skewbald an y color except black, with white. 17) Smoky means a blue tin g e to the color; it is an obscure tone. 18) Striped indicates black-stripes or bars on the le g s. 19) Spotted indicates spots of solid color on some base coat. dark overcast. 21) Zebra alwa y s means dark stripes on the le g s and properl y used, no one needs to worr y about his abilit y to describe or identif y a horse properl y DRAW OR PASTE A PICTURE OF YOUR HORSE HERE.


PARTS OF A HORSE.HORSE JUDGING I: WHAT TO LOOK FORJud g in g horses, like all livestock j ud g in g is an art that must be developed throu g h patient stud y and lon g practice. A horse j ud g e must: Know the parts of a horse and their location Know which parts are most important and the most desirable form of each part Visualize the ideal horse, perfect in all respects. Make keen observations of horses and compare them to his ideal Wei g h the g ood and bad points of each horse Develop a s y stem of examinin g horses so he won't overlook important pointsCONFORMATIONConformation includes t y pe, musclin g balance, and t y pe characteristics (breed t y pe). Usuall y all horses in structural smoothness. It also includes the form anda j ud g in g class will be of the same breed. The y should proportion of the various parts of the bod y be compared as to how well the y exhibit breed t y pe.TYPET y pe depends upon the function a horse is to perform. Our stud y of horse j ud g in g will focus on saddle horse type since saddle horses, or li g ht horses, comprise most of the 4-H pro j ects and j ud g in g contests. Desirable t y pe in a saddle horse requires a horse of medium size and wei g ht, g enerall y ran g in g in hei g ht from 14 to 17 hands and wei g hin g from 900 to 1300 pounds, dependin g on the breed. This horse has a lon g slopin g shoulder, a lon g croup, a fairl y short back, and a short, stron g couplin g The bottom-line is much lon g er than the top-line, allowin g a lon g stride. Both fore and rear quarters show an adequate amount of musclin g for the breed. The chest is deep and the ribs well-sprun g Le g s are clean, flat-boned, and medium to short in len g th. Horses that do not fit this g eneral description are called off-t y pe. The y ma y be too small (pon y -t y pe) or too lar g e and heav y (draft-t y pe). The several breeds of saddle horses have distin g uishin g Muscling. Both the quantit y and the qualit y of muscle are important. Muscles should bul g e and be distinctl y visible on the surface under the skin. The muscles in


Horse Jud g in g I. What To Look For. Pa g e 13December 1989ALL THESE HORSES HAVE UNDESIRED CHARACTERISTICSthe arm, forearm, V-muscle, stifle, and g askin shouldbe considered when breed classes are j ud g ed. In be smooth, lon g and well attached. Lon g taperin g g eneral, the head should be well proportioned to the forearm and g askin muscles that tie well into the kneerest of the bod y refined and clean-cut, with a chiseled and hock both inside and outside are preferred to short,appearance. A broad forehead, with g reat width "bunch y muscles. between the e y es is desired. The face should be strai g ht Balance. A balanced appearance comes from the forequarter and hindquarter appearin g to be of nearl y equal size and development. The y fit to g ether well. A heav y -fronted horse that is narrow and shallow in the rear quarter is not balanced, neither is a heav y quartered horse that is narrow, flat, and shallow in front. Smoothness. When all the parts of a horse blend to g ether well and the musclin g is lon g and taperin g then the horse has smoothness. The head and the neck should be in proportion, and the neck should blend smoothl y into the shoulder. The shoulder and forerib should fit smoothl y to g ether, and the couplin g should be short and stron g so that the top line is stron g and the hips tie in smoothl y A horse with a thin neck and a sharp break at wide, prominent shoulders is not smooth. One with a weak couplin g and j uttin g hips is not smooth nor is a horse that is extremel y "bunch y in his musclin g Shoulders. The shoulder is lon g and set at an an g le of Head. Each of the li g ht horse breeds requires sli g htl y different characteristics about the head. These should as compared to convex (Roman nose) or concave (dished). The e y es set wide-apart, should be lar g e and clear. The ears should be medium to small in size, set wide, and active. The muzzle should be small, the mouth shallow and the nostrils lar g e and sensitive. The upper and lower teeth should meet when bitin g A contrast is the parrot mouth where the lower j aw is too short. Neck The head should j oin the neck at about a 45 de g ree an g le with a distinct space between the j awbone and the neck. This is the throat latch. It should be clean-cut. Dependin g on the breed, the neck should be medium in len g th to fairl y lon g the head carried either hi g h or at a moderate level. The neck should be sli g htl y arched, lean and muscular, and blend smoothl y with the shoulder. A hi g h-arched or heav y -crested neck is undesirable. about 45 de g rees from the withers down to the point of the shoulder. Shoulders should be smooth y et well muscled. The withers should be well-defined, extend well-back be y ond the top of the shoulder, and be as hi g h as the hips. Low, flat withers do not hold a saddle well. Chest and Forelegs. The chest is deep and fairl y thick, with this depth and thickness extendin g back into the forerib and barrel. A deep heart g irth and well-sprun g foreribs g ive room for g ood respirator y and di g estive capacit y The forele g s are wide-set and blend smoothl y into the shoulder. The forearm muscle is lar g e and tapers into the knee when viewed from the back or front. The knee j oint should be clean and the pastern medium in len g th. The pastern and the hoofs are set at about a 45 de g ree an g le to the g round. Back, Loin, and Croup. The top-line should include a


Horse Jud g in g I. What To Look For. Pa g e 14December 1989 Vertical line from point of shoulder should fall in center of knee, cannon, pastern, and foot. Vertical line from the point of buttock should touch the rear ed g e of cannon and meet the g round behind the feet. Vertical line from shoulder should fall throu g h elbow and center of foot. Vertical line from point of buttock should fall in center of hock, cannon, pastern and foot.short, stron g back and loin a lon g nicel y -turned andsupport the horse durin g strenuous performance. heavil y muscled croup, and a hi g h well-set tail. The The hock should be lar g e, clean-cut, wide from front to loin (couplin g ) must be short and ver y stron g l y back, and deep. Gaskin muscles should tie-in ver y muscled because it supports the wei g ht of the saddlestron g l y and low on the hock. The knee should be wide and rider and lifts the forequarters when the horse is inwhen viewed from the front, deep, and clean-cut. motion (see Fi g ure 3 for undesirable characteristics).When viewed from the front or rear the knees and Rear Quarters. The rear quarters should be thick, deep, and well-muscled then viewed from the side or rear. This musclin g shows in thickness throu g h the thi g h, stifle and g askin. The hind le g s are muscled both inside and out with the g askin tied in low in the hock j oint. The hocks are wide, deep, and clean. Bone, Legs. The bones of the le g s should be flat, clean, and free from fleshiness and puffiness. The bone should be of adequate stren g th and substance to hocks should be bisected b y an ima g inar y vertical line down the center of the le g s. Tendons below the knees and hocks appear sharpl y separated from the cannons, g ivin g the le g a flat appearance. All four le g s are set squarel y under the bod y From the front view, the forele g s are parallel with the feet pointin g strai g ht ahead. From the side view, a line drawn perpendicular to the g round should bisect the forele g all the wa y from the shoulder to the rear of the


Horse Jud g in g I. What To Look For. Pa g e 15December 1989hoof. From the rear view, the hocks should point strai g ht back or turn in ver y sli g htl y The hind le g s should set well under the horse and the feet point strai g ht ahead. The hock should be set at the correct an g le. Too much an g le at the hock with the feet set too far under the bod y is called sickle-hocked. Too little an g le is called post-le gg ed. Feet and Pasterns. The hoof should be well shaped, room y and balanced in size with the horse. The heel should be deep, wide, and open. The hoof should appear tou g h and durable. The pasterns should be medium in len g th and set at approximatel y 45 de g rees to the g round. The hoof should have the same an g le as he pastern. If the pastern is too strai g ht, it does not cushion the shock of the foot strikin g the g round and can lead to serious dama g e as well as a rou g h ride.QUALITYQualit y is indicated b y cleanness of the bone and head, g eneral bod y smoothness, and st y lishness. The bone should be clean and hard. The j oints, free from fleshiness. The tendons in the le g s stand back from the cannon bones and g ive the le g s a flat appearance. The head looks clean-cut and chiseled. The bod y is smooth and the haircoat g loss y However, a slick fat horse mi g ht appear smooth and g loss y and still be of low qualit y .SEX AND BREED CHARACTERB y sex character, we mean masculinit y in the stallion and femininit y in the mare. The stallion should have a bolder, stron g er, head, a more massive j aw, and thicker heavier neck and shoulders than the g eldin g or mare. The stallion has heavier bone and is lar g er and more ru gg ed than the mare. Geldin g s do not show excessive masculinit y Mares should be feminine about the head and neck and more refined than stallions. Each breed has sli g htl y different characteristics about the head as well as in bod y conformation. These are the points which make us reco g nize one breed of li g ht horses from the others. In breed classes or in selectin g a horse of a particular breed, these points should be considered. USDA Farmers Bulletin 2127 and pa g e 3 of this manual g ive some of the breed characteristics of the various breeds.ACTIONAlthou g h the de g ree of action will var y somewhat with the different breeds of li g ht horses dependin g on their use (saddle, racin g stock horse, show, etc.), the usefulness of all horses depends on their abilit y to move well. In all breeds the motion should be strai g ht and true, with a lon g well-coordinated, elastic stride. Excess lateral movement of the feet reduces efficienc y and detracts from coordination. Action is affected b y the set of the feet and le g s. A horse that stands crooked usuall y moves crooked. A horse that toes in (pi g eon-toed) on the front feet will usuall y paddle or win g out. Some horses place the front feet too close to g ether, sometimes interferin g as the y move. A horse that toes out (spla y -footed) in front will usuall y dish or win g in. Fairl y close hock action, with the hindle g s movin g strai g ht forward is desirable. Lateral movement of the hocks is undesirable. The horse should move with snap and determination, as if he knows where he is g oin g and is sure to g et there. A haltin g slu gg ish movement is undesirable. Some common defects are: Cross-firing. A "scuffin g on the inside of the dia g onal forefeet and hindfeet: g enerall y confined to pacers. Dwelling. A noticeable pause in the fli g ht of the foot, as thou g h the stride were completed before the foot reaches the g round: most noticeable in trick-trained horses. Forging. Strikin g forefoot with toe of hindfoot. Interfering. Strikin g fetlock or cannon with the opposite foot; most often done b y base-narrow, toewide, or spla y -footed horses. Lameness. A defect detected when the animal favors the affected foot when standin g The load on the ailin g foot in action is eased and a characteristic bobbin g of the head occurs as the affected foot strikes the g round. Speedy Cutting. The inside of dia g onal fore and hind pastern make contact: sometimes seen in fast trottin g horses. Stringhalt. Excessive flexin g of hind le g s: most easil y detected when a horse is backed. Trappy. A short, quick, chopp y stride: a tendenc y of horses with short, strai g ht pasterns and strai g ht shoulders. Winding or Rope-walking. A twistin g of the stridin g le g around in front of supportin g le g which results in contact like that of a rope-walkin g artist: often occurs in horses with ver y wide fronts. Winging. An exa gg erated paddlin g particularl y noticeable in hi g hg oin g horses.


Horse Jud g in g I. What To Look For. Pa g e 16December 1989Paddling. Throwin g the front feet outward as the y are picked up: most common in toe-narrow or pi g eon-toed horses. Pointing. Perceptible extension of the stride with little flexion: likel y to occur in the lon g -strided Thorou g hbred and Standardbred breeds animals bred and trained for g reat speed. Pounding. Heav y contact with g round instead of desired li g ht, sprin gy movement. Rolling. Excessive lateral shoulder motion: characteristic of horses with protrudin g shoulders. Scalping. The hairline at top if hindfoot hits toe of forefoot as it breaks over.UNSOUNDNESS AND BLEMISHESA ma j or point in j ud g in g horses or examinin g one prior to purchase is the reco g nition of unsoundness and blemishes and calculatin g the importance of each. A blemish is an abnormalit y which ma y detract from the appearance of a horse, but does not affect his serviceabilit y An unsoundness is an abnormalit y that interferes with the usefulness of the horse. Certain unsoundnesses have a tendenc y to be inherited, and these are more serious than those which are acquired b y accident. Inherited unsoundnesses make a horse undesirable for breedin g showin g or performance. The common unsoundnesses and blemishes are described in the Horse Science Unit.MORE ABOUT JUDGINGRefer to pa g e 13 for information concernin g a s y stem for examinin g horses, horse terms, j ud g in g contests and g ivin g oral reasons.NOTES


Horse Jud g in g II How to Jud g eThe main points of horse j ud g in g are described in Horse Set of rear le g s (correct, sickle-hocked, post-le gg ed), Judging I What to look For. Other thin g s which the Slope of pastern 4-H horse j ud g e needs to learn are: Hei g ht at withers, Len g th of underline How to j ud g e a class Rear view (from a distance), look for Terms to use General width and proportional width over hips and How to g ive oral reasons throu g h thi g h or quarter and stifle HOW TO JUDGE A CLASS A g ood horse j ud g e follows a pattern or s y stem, when placin g a class. He considers the most important points, comparin g each horse to his ideal. He, then ranks them accordin g l y Usuall y horses are j ud g ed at the halter. In 4-H contests, there are usuall y four in a class, and these are numbered from 1 to 4, left to ri g ht. Stud y the class from a distance (10 to 20 paces), lookin g at a side view, a front view. and a rear view. You should make a tentative placin g atmuscle this time.Set of hind le g s and hocks (correct, cow-hocked, Then watch the horses in action. The y should be led bow-le gg ed) toward y ou and awa y from y ou at the walk and the trot. Observe the action of feet and le g s and overall Front view (from a distance), look for coordination.Shape and expression of head: size and settin g of When the horses are lined up a g ain, y ou can move ears amon g them for a close-up inspection. In j ud g in g contests y ou should make notes on the class as y ou j ud g e. V-muscle Side view (from a distance), look for knock-kneed, or bow-le gg ed) T y pe, st y le, balance Ali g nment of knee and cannon Proportional depth of le g and depth of bod y Slope and len g th of shoulder On close inspection, look for Len g th and settin g of head, neck, and ears Close view of above points Len g th and stren g th of back Hei g ht and cleanness of withers Shortness of couplin g Len g th and turn of croup Shortness and musclin g of couplin g Width of forearm, arm, stifle and g askin muscles Soundness of feet and le g s Set of front le g s (correct, calf, or buck-kneed) Shape and texture of hoof, depth of heel Len g th and width of inside and outside g askin Width of chest and musclin g of arm, forearm, and Set of front le g s (correct, spla y -footed, pi g eon-toed, Unsoundness: lameness, blindness. curbs, spavins, splints Defects, blemishes, Sprin g of ribs Parrot mouth (ask exhibitor to displa y the horse's teeth) Where horse is in action, (Walk horse to j ud g e. Trot horse awa y from j ud g e), look for


Horse Jud g in g II. How to Jud g e. Pa g e 18December 1989A lon g step, true and free, with enou g h j oint flexion for feet to clear g round Good head carria g e and action in front when comin g toward y ou Len g th of stride and hock action as horse travels awa y from y ou. TERMS TO USE The followin g list includes some of the terms commonl y used in comparin g horses. The desirable qualities are listed on the left in comparative form. The undesirable qualities are listed in critical terms, and each is listed across from a correspondin g comparative term. Comparative Terms CriticismsGeneral Typier (more ( breed ) type)......................Off type Smoother..................................... Rough Higher quality .......................Coarse: low qu ality More nicely balanced ....................P oorly balanced More stylish....................................P lain Heavier muscled .........................Light-mus cled Longer, cleaner muscling ...........S hort, bunchy muscling Head and Neck Shorter, broader head ..................L ong, narrow head More alert eye ............................S leepy eyed Neater muzzle ..........................Coarse mu zzle More massive jaw...........................S mall jaw Shorter ear.............................L ong, mule ear Cleaner at the throat latch ..................Coarse t hroated Smoother-necked.....................Coarse, thick neck Neck blends smoothly at shoulder ........ Rough at shoulder More breed character .........................P lain head Longer neck ...............................S hort neck More desirable set to neck.........Low headed, high headed Shoulder More prominent withers..................Low f lat withers Cleaner withers .....................Mutt ony (fat) withers More angle in the shoulder .................S teep shoulder Deeper shoulder (longer) .........Sh allow shoulder (shorter) More sloping shoulder ....................S teep shoulder Smoother shoulder ...................... Rough shoulder Chest and Forelegs Deeper-chest.............................Sh allow-chest Broader-chest ............................Na rrow-chest Wider set forelegs ...................Na rrow-set forelegs Heavier forearm..........................Light forearm Longer tapering forearm muscleShort, bunchy forearm muscle Smoother knee joint......................Coarse jointed Deeper jointed.........................Sh allow jointed Shorter cannon ............................L ong cannon More medium length pastern..Long, weak, short, stiff pastern More correct set of pastern ...... Weak pastern; steep pastern Barrel and Top Deeper in the heart...................Sh allow in the heart More spring of forerib ...............F lat-ribbed; flat-sided Shorter back...............................L ong back Shorter, stronger coupling .............L ong weak coupling Closer-coupled...........................S lack-coupled Stronger-back .............................. Weak back Smoother-hip ...................... Rough hips; box hips Longer underline ........................S hort underline Quarter and Rear Legs Heavy-quartered .....................Light -quartered Longer croup ..........................S hort croup Nicer-turned croup .............S teep croup: flat croup From the side: Wider stifle............................a rrow stifle Wider gaskin.........................Light gaskin Deeper hock.........................Sh allow hock From the rear: Thicker, fuller quarter ................Na rrow quarter Thicker through stifle ..............Light in the stifle More gaskin inside and out...............Thin gaskin Smoother hocked................Coarse, rough hocks Bone, Feet and Legs, Stance Heavier bone: stronger bone ...................Light bone Flatter, cleaner cannons ................... Round cannons Shorter cannons ..........................L ong cannons More correct pasterns ......... Weak pasterns, steep pasterns Cleaner joints ...................Fleshy joints: puffy joints Roomier, well-rounded feet. ..................Mute -footed Deeper, more open heel..........Sh allow heel: narrow heel Smoother, harder hooves .............Thin. cracked hooves Straighter legs........................... Crooked legs Front Legs Straighter on front legs ................................ Knock-kneed: bow-legged: buck-kneed: calf-kneed Straighter on feet...............Pige on-toed: splay-footed Hind Legs More correct on hind legs .............................. Cow-hocked: bow-legged: (bandy-legged) Straighter feet.........................Toes -out: toes-in More correct set at the hock ............................ Sickle-hock (too much angle): post-legged (not enough angle) Action Truer action ..............................Faulty action Moves straighter in front .............................. Paddles (wings out): moves close (rope walks) Moves straighter behind...............Wings out: wings in More correct hock action .............................. Rolls the hocks (lateral movement): jerks the hocks Freer Moving....................................... Stumbles; interferes: forges (hitting front foot with back) Snappier stride...............................Sl uggish Longer stride ..............................S hort stride More forceful stride.......................H alting stride More correct flexion (hocks, knees, ankles) ................ Stiff (hock, knee, ankle); too much flexion (lifts feet too high)


Horse Jud g in g II. How to Jud g e. Pa g e 19December 1989GIVING ORAL REASONS In a j ud g in g contest, y ou will have an opportunit y to tell exactl y wh y y ou believe some of the classes should be placed the wa y y ou placed them. Two minutes is the usual time limit for discussin g a class of four animals. Ordinaril y it shouldn't take this lon g The ke y to success in g ivin g reasons is practice. This is the onl y wa y to develop a g ood, smooth deliver y As y ou learn to place the classes, y ou learn to use the proper terms in comparin g the animals and to or g anize a set of reasons. Then, practice, practice, practice. Do it aloud, with someone listenin g If y ou must practice alone, look into a mirror. This is hard at first, but it helps develop y our abilit y to concentrate on the class. ORGANIZING YOUR REASONS Accurac y is most important in g ivin g reasons. However, unless y ou can present y our reasons pleasantl y and clearl y the value of accurac y is lar g el y lost because much of what is said doesn't g et throu g h" to the listener. The wa y y ou or g anize y our reasons lar g el y determines how eas y the reasons are "to follow". There are man y different wa y s to or g anize reasons. The s y stem used should be lo g ical and clear. When discussin g points about an y animal in the class, cover these points in the order in which the y are located on the animal. For example: ( g eneral observations first) . One was a lar g er, more powerfull y muscled, t y pier mare than 3. (Then start at a particular point on the animal and g o from point to point on y our mental picture of the animal). Number 1 was wider throu g h the chest, deeper in the barrel, and cleaner about the withers. She was shorter coupled and lon g er in the croup than 3. One was especiall y thicker throu g h the stifle and g askin muscles and stood strai g hter on her le g s. She had more breed character and femininit y about the head and moved with a truer stride than 3. B y usin g this s y stem, y ou are not likel y to for g et an y points, y our reasons are much easier to follow, and y ou g ain confidence b y knowin g exactl y what points y ou will discuss next. It doesn't matter where y ou choose to start and stop, but y ou should develop y our own pattern and make this a habit. Man y times, y ou will find no difference worth mentionin g in some of the points. In this case y ou simpl y skip over these and g o to the next point y ou wish to mention in the order in which y ou see it on the animal. It is essential that y ou form a mental ima g e or picture of each animal as y ou j ud g e a class. When y ou g ive a set of reasons on that class y ou should visualize the animals. It is impossible to g ive a g ood set of reasons b y tr y in g to memorize y our notes on a class. OTHER RULES FOR GIVING REASONS Do not claim stron g points for one animal unless it has them. Claim the points where one is superior and then g rant to the other animal its points of advanta g e. Emphasize the ma j or differences stron g l y Givin g bi g differences first on each pair helps. Be concise and definite. Don't hunt for thin g s to sa y If y ou don't remember, g o on to the next pair y ou are to discuss. Give y our reasons with confidence and without hesitation. Talk with enou g h vim and vi g or to keep the j ud g e interested, but do not talk too loudl y End reasons stron g l y Give a concise final statement as to wh y y ou place the last animal last. Be sure y ou have y our reasons well or g anized, so y ou will not hesitate when y ou present them to the j ud g e. Stand about six feet awa y from the j ud g e as y ou g ive y our reasons. Stand with y our feet spread apart, hands behind y ou, and look him strai g ht in the e y es. HOW YOUR REASONS ARE GRADED The j ud g e will determine the value of y our reasons b y Accuracy You must tell the truth. This means that y ou need to see the bi g thin g s in the class correctl y Accurac y is ver y important. You will lose points for incorrect statements. Presentation and Delivery Present y our reasons in a lo g ical, well-or g anized manner that is pleasant to hear, and clear and eas y to follow. If reasons are poorl y presented, the value of accurac y ma y be lost because the listener cannot g rasp much of what y ou sa y Speak slowl y and clearl y Use well or g anized statements. Be sure to use correct g rammar. Speak loud enou g h to be understood. Avoid talkin g too loudl y and too rapidl y Emphasize the important comparisons. Completeness Brin g out all of the ma j or differences in y our reasons. Omit small thin g s that leave room for doubt. Terms Use correct terms. Incorrect terms g reatl y detract from the value of y our reasons. REASONS ON A CLASS OF QUARTER HORSES As an example, the followin g set of reasons is g iven on a class of Quarter Horse Mares. You should stud y this set of reasons as to or g anization and terms used. It is not to be memorized or used for an y class y ou ma y j ud g e because it will not fit an y other class. I placed this class of Quarter Horse mares 4-2-3-1. In the top pair, I placed 4 over 2 because she has more balance and Quarter Horse t y pe. She has a more correct slope to


Horse Jud g in g II. How to Jud g e. Pa g e 20December 1989the shoulders, more prominent withers and a shorter, stron g er couplin g than 2. Number 4 has a lon g er, nicer-turned croup and is thicker throu g h the stifle and g askin. She also moves with a freer, truer stride than 2. I g rant that 2 has more musclin g in the forearm and stands strai g hter on her front le g s than 4, but I criticize Number 2 because she is short in the croup and li g ht in the g askin muscles. She is too low at the withers. In the middle pair, I placed 2 over 3 because she has more balance and st y le and is strai g hter on her le g s. Number 2 has a breedier, more feminine head, and her neck blends more smoothl y at the shoulder. She has a lon g er, smoother musclin g and moves with more snap and flexion than 3.1 fault 3 because she is bunch y in her musclin g and plain about the head. She is slu gg ish in her movement and for g es occasionall y In the bottom pair I placed 3 over 1 because she is heavier muscled and has more Quarter Horse t y pe. She is shorter in the cannons and has a more durable hoof. I g rant that 1 is more alert and handles her feet and le g s better than 3, but I placed her last because she is off-t y pe and ver y li g ht-muscled. Number 1 is steep-shouldered, narrow throu g h the chest and barrel and shallow bodied. She is weak in the couplin g ver y li g ht in the rear quarter, and too lon g in the cannons. For these reasons I placed this class of Quarter Horse mares 4-2-3-1. DRAW OR PASTE A PICTURE OF YOUR HORSE HERE.


GAITS OF A HORSEThe rh y thmic characteristic movement of a horse's feetup a trian g ular base of support. A well trained horse and le g s in motion are called g aits. The three naturalshould walk at least four miles an hour. g aits of the horse are the walk, trot, and g allop. The rack and slow g ait of the American Saddle horse, runnin g walk of the Tennessee Walkin g horse, and the pace of the Standardbred ma y be natural or acquired. A natural g ait is one that is performed b y natural impulse and without trainin g The acquired g aits are the result of specific trainin g and practice. The acquired g aits are the canter, rack, and the slow g aits. The slow g aits are the steppin g pace, the runnin g walk, the fox trot, and the amble.WALKThe walk is a slow, natural, flat footed, four beat g ait.trot with len g th and rapidit y of individual strides. The Each foot takes off from and strikes the g round j o g -trot is a slow, smooth, g round coverin g g ait independentl y of the other three feet. It is known as theexhibited in western classes. foundation g ait, as the horse ma y be asked to chan g e to other g aits while workin g at the walk. The sequence of hoof beats after the horse is in motion can be described accordin g to this pattern: ri g ht fore, left rear, left fore, ri g ht rear. Althou g h a natural g ait, it is one that can be improved with trainin g The horse must move strai g ht and true at the walk. The feet of the strai g ht movin g horse point and move in the exact direction the horse travels. This horse moves efficientl y as the shortest distance between two points is a strai g ht line. The walk must show vi g or and be brisk, with a stride of reasonable len g th in keepin g with the size of the horse. The American Saddle horse must pick up his feet with ener gy displa y in g a proud walk. His ankles and knees are easil y flexed, while the hocks should be carried well under his bod y producin g hi g h action and animation. Horses with a short, stubb y stride are rou g h to ride and are more prone to soreness and other faults. Horses whose hind hoof prints contact or over-reach the front hoof prints have g ood len g th of stride and absorb more road shock than those havin g shorter strides. Horses with a lon g er stride move with less effort in coverin g g reater distance. At the walk a horse has never more than three nor less than two feet bearin g wei g ht at the same time, makin g TROTThe trot is a rapid two beat dia g onal g ait. The forefoot on one side and the opposite hind foot take off and strike the g round at the same time. The horse works from one pair of dia g onals to the other pair. The wei g ht of the horse is distributed first b y one dia g onal and then the opposite dia g onal. Then all four feet are off the g round at the same time for a moment. The trot should be square balanced and sprin gy with a strai g ht forward movement of the feet. The Hackne y displa y s the collected trot with extreme flexion of knees and hocks that produces a hi g h steppin g g ait. The Standardbred exhibits the extendedCANTERThe canter is an eas y rh y thmical three beat g ait. It is not a strai g ht forward g ait as the walk, but is a sli g ht dia g onal movement, either ri g ht or left. It is executed with either a ri g ht or left lead. The independent movin g front le g is the "lead". The horse has a hind lead that corresponds to the front lead. A horse that leads with the left front and also with the left hind is coordinated. This can be observed b y lookin g over the horse's shoulder and observin g which front le g reaches farthest ahead in the stride. The canter starts with one hind foot strikin g the g round, then the other hind foot and dia g onal front foot strike the g round to g ether followed b y the remainin g front foot strikin g the g round. The hoof beats of a horse canterin g correctl y to the left are (1) ri g ht hind, (2) the dia g onal left hind and ri g ht front to g ether, and (3) left front. The correct sequence of beats in canterin g to the ri g ht are (1) left hind, (2) the dia g onal ri g ht hind and left front to g ether, and (3) ri g ht front. The two unpaired le g s that beat alone bear more wei g ht and are sub j ect to more strain than the dia g onal le g s that beat to g ether. The lead should be chan g ed at intervals because of the added strain on the le g s and feet


GAITS OF A HORSE Pa g e 22December 1989that strike separatel y A horse can execute a sharper turnover-reach the front feet from several to over 36 inches with g reater ease and start quicker if he leads with theproducin g a smooth g lidin g motion. This g ait is ver y inside (correct) le g lead. The lope is a medium fast,comfortable to both horse and rider. Front action is collected canter exhibited in western classes.desired with little hock action, as this would prevent his lon g overstep and characteristic walk. The Walkin g GALLOP OR RUNThe g allop is g enerall y considered as a fast, three beat g ait. The sequence of hoof beats is similar to that of the canter. A hind foot makes the first beat, followed b y the other hind foot and dia g onal front foot strikin g to g ether, and the remainin g front foot makes the third beat. (Stud y of film in slow motion indicates the rear dia g onal footThis g ait is a slow, short, broken, somewhat uncollected strikes the g round sli g htl y before the front dia g onalnoddin g trot. The hind foot strikes the g round an instant foot). The horse is thrust clear of the g round and a hindbefore the dia g onal front foot. It is not as comfortable to foot makes the first beat in a new series. The horseride as the runnin g walk or the steppin g pace. should chan g e both front and hind leads at the same time durin g the period of suspension after the lead front leaves the g round. The drive develops mainl y from the hind le g s, however, the front le g s are sub j ect to considerable concussion. The g allop in an extended form is known as the run.STEPPING PACEThis is a slow, lateral, four beat g ait. Each of the four feet strike the g round at separate intervals. In the take off, the lateral hind and front feet start almost to g ether, but the hind foot strikes the g round ahead of the front foot on the same side. The horse moves with his wei g ht well back on the hind quarters and with hi g h action in front. It is a modified pace without the rollin g action of the true pace. The sequence of beats is ri g ht hind, ri g ht front, left hind, and left front. This is the fourth g ait of fiveg aited show horses.RUNNING WALKThis is a natural slow g ait of the Tennessee Walkin g rack for onl y several minutes without breakin g as horse. It is a dia g onal four beat g ait. Each foot takes offpracticall y ever y muscle is used in the g ait. It is an eas y and strikes at separate intervals with the front foot g ait to ride. It is the fifth g ait requested of the American strikin g the g round before the dia g onal hind foot. TheSaddle horse. hind quarters propel the horse in motion. The hind feet horse must flick his ears, nod his head, and chomps his bit in rh y thm with his action to be g enuine. Normal travel expected of the horse is 7 to 8 miles per hour.FOX TROT AMBLEThe amble is a lateral g ait. It is different from the pace b y bein g slower and more broken in cadence. It is not a show g ait. The hind foot ma y land sli g htl y before the fore foot.RACKThe rack is a fast, flash y evenl y timed, four beat g ait. The feet start and stop at the same intervals of time of each other. The sequence of beats is similar to the sequence of the steppin g pace. It is characterized b y considerable knee action and extreme speed. The squattin g form and climbin g action of the steppin g pace are apparent. The front le g s appear to trot and hind le g s appear to be pacin g with rather stiff back action. The g ait must be performed with ease and g race and ample hei g ht too) the stride but with form and action maintained. Speed is not as necessar y for the 3g aited horse as it is for the fiveg aited horse. The horse can


GAITS OF A HORSE Pa g e 23December 1989PACE DEFINITIONSThe pace is a fast, two beat g ait. The front and hind feet on the same side start and stop at the same time. The feet rise little above the g round. All four feet are off the dirt for a moment. The base of support is alwa y s on the two lateral le g s. Pacers have the abilit y to start quickl y at considerable speed. The pace does not produce the concussion evident in the g allop or run. It produces more or less side or rollin g motion. The pace is a speed g ait rather than a road g ait.IMPORTANT FEATURES OF A STRIDE1) Balance the abilit y of a horse to control his action in order to travel collectedl y and in correct form. 2) Directness the line in which the foot is carried durin g the stride. 3) Hei g ht the amount of foot elevation in the stride, determined b y the radius of the arc described. 4) Len g th the distance from the point of breakin g over in preparation for fli g ht in a stride to the point of surface contact of the same foot. 5) Rapidit y the time used in takin g one stride. 6) Re g ularit y the precision sequence with which each stride is taken in turn. Diagonal gait is one in which the front foot and opposite hind foot take off and stop at the same time. The le g s and feet move in dia g onal pairs in performin g the g ait. (Trot) Easy gaited is the expression used when the rider's reactions to a horse's g aits are pleasant and en j o y able. Free Going is the expression used when horses g aits are executed in a smooth, collected manner, and action is not excessive or labored. Rough or Hard gaited is the expression used when the stride lacks sprin g or action, therefore causin g unnecessar y rider fati g ue. Flashy or High gaited refers to the action when a horse folds his knees, with the forearm nearl y horizontal momentaril y flexes the hock noticeabl y and lifts his bod y hi g h from the g round. Lateral gait the le g s and feet move in lateral pairs in performin g the g ait. The front and hind feet on the same side of the horse start and stop at the same time. (Pace) Labored action is the term used when a horse 5 action in motion is difficult to perform and plainl y excessive. Action the characteristic stride in which the horse lifts his front and hind feet ver y hi g h, flexin g or bendin g his knees and ankles. Stride the distance from imprint to imprint b y a horse's foot when completin g one step.


WESTERN HORSEMANSHIPTrue horsemanship is the art and science of ridin g ThereYour head is turned so y ou can watch both ends of the are horsemen and there are riders. Ever y horseman is ahorse. You are ahead of the saddle so an y move made b y rider but not ever y rider is a horseman. the horse will help y ou swin g into the saddle. If the Horsemanship is the art of ridin g that helps the horsehorse moves while y ou are mountin g stop him before move freel y with its natural g race and balance whilemovin g out. This teaches the horse to wait until y ou are carr y in g the wei g ht of the rider and saddle. The horseread y to move out and ma y prevent a runawa y The must move at the will of the rider.position shown in Fi g ure 2 should be used onl y on a The horseman's bod y is in rh y thm and balance with the g entle horse. Stand b y the stirrup fender and face action of the horse, helpin g the horse move easil y butsquarel y across the seat of the saddle. Do not g et the never interferin g b y bein g behind the action. habit of standin g b y the back cinch y ou ma y be kicked. Proper trainin g of the horse is necessar y The horsemanFrom either of these two positions y ou push with y our must know and use basic principles to ride as ari g ht le g and sprin g up and over the seat of the saddle. horseman. A horseman will chan g e his st y le of seat, asSprin g up do not pull y ourself up. Shift y our wei g ht to seen in racin g and cuttin g horse seats but the basic y our left le g to maintain balance, stead y y ourself with principles remain the same. The rider has shifted his seat y our hands, and settle easil y into the saddle. Your ri g ht to place his bod y in balance with the action of the horse.foot should slip into the off stirrup. Horsemanship should become a habit that is used ever y time y ou handle a horse.MOUNTINGProper ridin g be g ins with proper mountin g First g etseat deep in the saddle, with y our bod y balanced and y our horse under control b y ad j ustin g the reins evenl y relaxed. Sit "tall in the saddle", do not slump. Note the with enou g h tension to feel the bit and hold the horselines from the point of the shoulder to the heel and from stead y Do not g et the reins too ti g ht. Hold the reins inthe point of the knee to the toe. The le g maintains li g ht y our left hand and place this hand on the neck in front ofcontact with the horse's bod y throu g h the inside thi g h the withers. Grasp the rid g e of the neck or a lock ofand upper half of the calf. The foot is turned out sli g htl y mane. in a natural position with wei g ht on the ball of the foot Twist the near stirrup with y our ri g ht hand and placeand the heel lower than the toe. Your ankle is flexible in y our left foot in the stirrup with the ball of y our footthis position. Keep y our hand and arms relaxed and restin g securel y on the tread. Brace y our left knee supple, elbows close to y our bod y The reins should be a g ainst the horse and move y our ri g ht hand to g rasp theheld j ust above and in front of the saddle horn. saddle horn. You are now braced a g ainst the horse withIn this position y ou are balanced, comfortable, y our y our two hands and left le g formin g a trian g le of wei g ht is where it will help the horse, and y ou are free to support.control y our horse with aids. Two bod y positions for mountin g are acceptable in g oodAs y our horse moves y ou will lean in the direction of horsemanship. Fi g ure 1 shows a safe position for movement to sta y in balance. Keep y our seat deep in the mountin g stran g e or g reen horses. You stand b y thesaddle and lean forward from the hips up. Flex at y our horse's left shoulder facin g a quarter turn to the rear.waist to sta y in rh y thm with the horse's motion. If y ouTHE BASIC SEATYou are in the saddle but are y ou sittin g properl y ? Stud y Fi g ure 3. This is the basic seat position. Sit erect,


WESTERN HORSEMANSHIP Pa g e 25December 1989sta y in balance y our bod y will remain relaxed and li g ht pulls and slackin g (called g ive and take") of the supple. If y ou g et out of balance y ou will stiffen y ourreins with y our fin g ers. Repeat these si g nals until y ou bod y and lose the rh y thm of motion with y our horse. g et response. Never pull steadil y with all y our stren g th this ruins the mouth. Use trainin g and patience notTHE AIDSThe aids commonl y used are y our voice, hands, le g s, and wei g ht. You use them to tell y our horse what y ou want it to do. Your horse will learn to obe y natural aids from habits y ou follow when ridin g Stud y use of aids and make them y our g ood habits. Your horse learns from repetition so alwa y s use the same aids. Soon y ou will g et response from the sli g htest si g nal. Alwa y s speak to y our horse in a soft, quiet, but firm voice. Loud talk makes a horse nervous. Your hands are ver y important. The y should be used to g uide and help y our horse. Use them li g htl y or the y will become instruments of torture. Bod y balance is ver y important to prevent the habit of bracin g y ourself b y pullin g on the reins. Your hands control the horse's forehand throu g h the reins, bit and mouth. Keep y our hands and fin g ers relaxed and flexible for li g ht, soft si g nals throu g h the reins. Si g nal y our horse b y usin g force. True neckreinin g is the response of y our horse to the wei g ht of the neckrein a g ainst the neck, not to the pull of the neckrein. Pullin g forces the horse's head in the opposite direction y ou wish to turn. Le g s are used to si g nal speed and movements of the horse's hindquarters. Pressure is g iven b y squeezin g with the calves of y our le g s and y our heels. Use spurs onl y to touch not to j ab. Your wei g ht is used as an aid b y shiftin g y our bod y The horse will shift its bod y to attempt to balance y our wei g ht. The horse will feel the li g htest wei g ht shift so train it to respond without g ettin g the habit of "throwin g it around" with excessive wei g ht shifts.USING AIDSFORWARD MOTION"Gather" y our horse b y settlin g in the saddle and "takin g in" on the reins. Release tension on the reins and squeeze with the calf of y our le g Control y our speed b y the amount of le g pressure and rein tension. Keep y our horse movin g "up in the bridle" b y the le g pressure. Incline y our bod y forward from the hips to sta y in balance and flex at the waist to sta y in rh y thm.WALKThe rider first must g ather" the horse b y settlin g in the saddle and "takin g in" on the reins. This alerts the horse for action. Next release the rein tension and appl y j ust enou g h pressure with the le g and heel to move the horse. The rider's bod y is inclined forward j ust sli g htl y to remain balanced, and flexes at the waist with the movement. Maintain enou g h le g pressure to keep the


WESTERN HORSEMANSHIP Pa g e 26December 1989horse movin g "up in the bridle." The reins are slack butwei g ht at the stirrup. Keep y our hands low and si g nal not loosel y flappin g with repeated g ive and take" on the reins. Do not throw reins.SLOW TROT (JOG)The trot is ridden Western st y le with the rider's bod y deep in the saddle, but with wei g ht enou g h on the ankles to absorb the motion. The bod y is inclined forwardWhen a horse g allops its bod y is turned at an an g le or sli g htl y more than at a walk. dia g onal to the direction of travel and it is movin g one More le g pressure is applied to move the horse forward,fore-le g and one rear le g both on the same side of the and j ust enou g h tension is maintained on the reins tobod y ahead of the other two le g s. This is called hold the horse to the desired speed. The rider's arms are"leadin g and is ver y important for smooth turns. Use of close to the bod y and the fin g ers flex with the movementaids, to g et y our horse into the proper lead, requires of the horse's head as this movement is transmittedpractice and patience. The horse must be settled. throu g h the reins. Workin g in circles at a slow lope will help. The feet and le g s are stead y and the heel is down, withThe aids used to obtain the lead y ou want g uide the the ankles flexin g to absorb wei g ht. horse's bod y into the correct dia g onal for the lead. which si g nals the horse to move out and to swin g theGALLOP OR LOPETrain the horse to g o into the lope from the walk in the lead the rider wishes to assume. Take up on the reins to collect the horse and then release rein tension enou g h to allow the horse to assume the g ait. Le g pressure is stron g enou g h to move the horse directl y to the lope. The heel is used to aid in obtainin g the correct lead as explained under the section on leads. The rider sits deep in the saddle with the bod y inclined forward from the hips. Relaxed hands are ver y important at this g ait to allow for rh y thm with the movement of the horse's head. The le g s are kept in close contact with the saddle and horse.STOPPINGSi g nal for a stop when the horse's rear le g s are movin g forward under its bod y Allow for one or two extra strides. Give a li g ht pull on the reins, shift y our wei g ht sli g htl y forward and then to the rear. Keep y our bod y erect and y our seat deep in the saddle. Grip with y our thi g hs and force y our heel down to let y our ankle absorb y our bod y back, shove y our feet forward, and pull on theCORRECT LEADSTo obtain the left lead appl y pressure with y our ri g ht le g hindquarters into the dia g onal. At the same time neckrein ver y sli g htl y to the ri g ht and lean forward to shift y our wei g ht ver y sli g htl y to the left. The proper steps are le g pressure, wei g ht shift and neckrein, but the y are all done at almost the same instance. For the ri g ht lead appl y pressure with the left le g lean forward sli g htl y to shift wei g ht to the ri g ht, and neckrein sli g htl y to the left. Stud y how the neckrein, wei g ht shift, and le g pressure move the horse's bod y into the correct dia g onal for the lead the horse takes.TURNINGNeckrein to move the horse's forehand in the direction of the turn. Sli g ht pressure with y our le g on the side of the horse opposite the direction of turnin g will hold the hindquarters in position so the horse will pivot on the hindquarters instead of swin g in g them wide.


WESTERN HORSEMANSHIP Pa g e 27December 1989SIDE PASSAGEThis movement is important for openin g g ates. Hold y our horse in to prevent forward motion. Neckrein in the direction y ou wish to move the forequarters. Use y our outside le g to move the hindquarters.BACKINGSet erect with y our bod y wei g ht forward. Grip with y our thi g hs. Hold the reins low and pull li g htl y on the reins g ive and take". Control the direction of backin g b y pressure of either le g to g uide the hindquarters and li g ht rein tension to g uide the forequarters.DISMOUNTINGTake up on y our reins to hold the horse in control. Grasp the saddle horn with y our ri g ht hand, loosen y our left foot in the stirrup and shift y our wei g ht to y our left le g Brace with y our left knee and swin g out of the saddle keepin g y our ri g ht le g close to the horse. Don't hit the cantle and horse's rump as y ou swin g down. Keep y our ri g ht le g close to the horse as y ou come down so y ou will be facin g sli g htl y forward when y our foot touches the g round. When y our ri g ht foot is securel y on the g round, shift y our wei g ht to it, push down on y our left heel and let y our foot slip out of the stirrup. Horsemanship requires practice and patience. You must know what to do and do the same ever y time as y our horse learns b y habit. If y ou work carefull y y ou will find y our horse respondin g to y our si g nals more quickl y and easil y each time. When this be g ins to happen y ou will then be experiencin g the first pleasures of ridin g like a true horseman.


TACK AND EQUIPMENT & ITS CAREAn owner of a horse needs equipment with which to useCurr y combs should be used with sufficient pressure to or work the animal in the desired dut y Etiquette has g et the j ob done. Be careful on parts which are not been built up in the use of a horse so that a definiteheavil y muscled. The curr y comb rou g hs up the hair in pattern of tack is used accordin g to the use of the animal.order to g et the deep dirt and dandruff. Tack and equipment can run into a lot of mone y GoodRice straw brushes are stiff and if used in a rockin g sound tack can be procured b y careful selection. Thestroke will penetrate the hair and lift out the dirt. Man y simpler a horse is ri gg ed, the more comfort to the horseowners depend onl y on a rice straw brush and can and the rider. Accessories such as tie-downs, martin g alespresent a well g roomed animal. have a place but lead to the suspicion that the horse hasBod y brushes are a finishin g brush. The y are not bad habits. Therefore, if y our horse does not head toss,intended for g ettin g out deep dirt. Usuall y the y are rear, or la g on the bit, for g et them. The onl y place formade of hair. Therefore, the y are softer and tend to brin g fanc y hi g hl y trimmed dan g les, etc. is on a parade horse.the oil into the hair addin g g loss and bloom to the coat. A horse well trained with a g ood mouth can be riddenRubbin g cloths are used to further enhance the bloom with the minimum of equipment.and remove the last particles of dirt. A g ood woolen rub and soft.SELECTION AND CARE OF LEATHERMan y 4-H members purchase used equipment. Leather is perishable y et it can be taken care of in such a manner to g ive y ears of service. In bu y in g an y piece of leather g oods, stud y it for stren g th, pliabilit y and service. Certain items as stirrup straps should be sound and have sufficient stren g th to hold one's wei g ht in an y period of stress. Inspect each item carefull y particularl y around buckles, bends and attachments. Leather which is stiff or dried out cracks and is ver y brittle. Thin areas desi g nate that the leather is worn and therefore not as stron g as the maker intended. Leather tears or rips around the ton g ue of buckles. On all stitchin g be sure it has life. Dried thread at stitchin g s is ver y weak and can lead to trouble. Leather should be kept dr y and clean. Spon g in g after use to remove the dirt and sweat is ver y important. Use saddle soap or leather oil to keep leather pliable. A s y stem whereb y y ou can han g y our tack is best. A dr y area where air circulates is best. A stable is a poor place for leather because of dampness and the ammonia liberated from the manure. Never, no matter how wet leather g ets, place it near heat. Use Neats Foot oil or vaseline to g et softness into the leather. Good g l y cerine or special soft soaps are available and are cheap in comparison to the replacement of parts. Re g ular cleanin g and inspection add to the use and life of an y leather article.GROOMING SUPPLIESThe character of an individual is often j ud g ed on how well his animal looks. A dirt y sha ggy lookin g animal desi g nates that the owner is shiftless, laz y and does not pa y attention to details. Whenever y ou put y our animal to work he is on exhibition. It does not matter if y ou are j ust g oin g to the store or to a show. Appearance is the first essential. Curr y combs come in man y st y les, such as rubber, metal, square, round, and it is a matter of personal preference. cloth should be washed frequentl y to keep it sweet, clean Scrapers are essential if one washes his horse. The y help a lot if y ou have reall y sweated a horse up. Never, b y an intent of purpose, put a horse awa y when sweated. Cool out y our horse before stablin g This is one reason wh y y ou should walk y our horse home the last half mile of y our ride. Hoof picks are a ver y essential item. The hoof is a prime feature of a horse. To let manure collect in the foot leads to thrush and other difficulties. The collection of stones and g ravel in and about the fro g can soon lead to lameness. Keep a health y foot on y our horse. A hoof should contain moisture to sta y pliable.


TACK AND EQUIPMENT & ITS CARE Pa g e 29December 1989 BOSAL HACKAMORE: POPULAR FOR BREAKING HORSESA dried out hoof does not have sprin g iness to absorb thesnaffle bridle is a sin g le bit bridle commonl y used for shock which could in j ure the whole le g Hoof dressin g shuntin g j umpin g or trail ridin g The reins and cheek are available to those that have to keep a horse housed.pieces of the huntin g snaffle bridle are sewn into rin g s of Horses on pasture run in the dew or streams which aidsthe bit for safet y There is onl y one set of reins and the y materiall y in keepin g the hoof in g ood condition. are plaited to prevent them from slippin g throu g h the Mane combs can also be used in the tail to keep themfin g ers. The Pelham bridle is used for polo, huntin g untan g led and free flowin g Shears ma y be required topark, and countr y ridin g It has a sin g le bit with double trim the foretop, roach the mane, trim the ears, head andreins. The bit mi g ht be described as a combination of the le g s. The t y pe of horse y ou own dictates where y ou trim.curb and snaffle bits. The Walkin g Horse bridle is Under no circumstances clip all the hair on the inside ofsimilar to that used for the Western t y pe horse. It has the ear. Nature put this hair there as a protection. Keep itone set of reins with a Walkin g Horse curb bit. The bit that wa y but trim it attractivel y .m a y have a sli g htl y curved bar which fits between six and the rein fits on the lower end of the cheeks g ivin g BRIDLESBridles come in man y st y les. Each st y le calls for a special complement of bits. Here is where the etiquette be g ins. We do not use a drivin g bit in an y saddle horse bridle. We do not, likewise, use En g lish t y pe bits in a Western bridle or vice versa. Dependin g whether y ou ride En g lish, Hunt, or Western there is a definite pattern to follow in ri gg in g y our horse. The reins, bits and headstall compose the bridle. The different t y pes of bridles commonl y used are the Western, Snaffle, Pelham, Walkin g Horse and We y mouth or double bridle. The Western bridle has lon g cheek pieces. The y are often wide and curved in various shapes. It has one set of reins and ma y have curb straps. The double bridle is most commonl y used on three and fiveg aited horses for bridle path and show. It is composed of the snaffle and curb bits. On each end of the bit are lar g e rin g s where the reins are attached. The and nine inch cheek pieces. The cheeks are often curved levera g e. The lon g er shank or cheek piece helps raise the


TACK AND EQUIPMENT & ITS CARE Pa g e 30December 1989head and maintain the g ait. The hackamore has one set of reins and an ordinar y headstall that holds a braided rawhide or rope noseband with a knot-like arran g ement under the horse's j aw. A hackamore can be used to control and train a y oun g horse without in j urin g his mouth. A properl y ad j usted hackamore rests on the horse's nose, about 4 inches from the top of the nostrils or on the base of the cheek bones.SADDLESSaddles come also in man y st y les. The saddle indicates the st y le of ridin g y ou are doin g This is more true than the t y pe of y our animal. Some horses look better tacked one wa y than the y would in another t y pe of g ear. A saddle should have a spread in its tree to fit comfortabl y on the withers of y our horse. A poor fittin g saddle can cause sores. A poor fittin g saddle can also roll on mountin g and dismountin g For the comfort of both y ou and y our mount, pa y strict attention as to the tree. Your horse ma y require a narrow, hi g h tree or it ma y do best with a cut back. Re g ardless, seek some advice and don't use j ust an y saddle. A saddle should be li g ht and pliable in order that y ou can use y our le g aids to advanta g e. A new saddle takes time to g et broken in whereb y one can best g et his si g nals across to the mount. Pa y strict attention to the seat. This must fit y ou. To g et a proper seat, the len g th and depth must be suitable. A g ood rider cannot look g ood if the saddle does not provide comfort. Stirrup han g in g s are placed in various positions on saddles. Be sure that the stirrups han g so that y ou can g et full wei g ht in them. Stirrups set forward throw one into the cantle. Stirrups set back throw one into the pommel or fork. A rider must feel at home to en j o y his


TACK AND EQUIPMENT & ITS CARE Pa g e 31December 1989 WEYMOUTH CURB BIT PELHAM CURB BIT WALKING HORSE BIT SNAFFLE BIT DEE RACE BIT: OFTEN USED ON THOROUGHBRED HACKAMORE BIT: USED ON MOST COW PONIES ROPER CURVED CHEEK BIT: USED ON MANY ROPING HORSES SPADE MOUTH BIT: USED ON MANY STOCK HORSES LIVERPOOL BIT: A CURB BIT USED ON HEAVY HARNESS HORSES BAR BIT: USED ON TROTTING HARNESS HORSES, WHICH CARRY CHECK REINS AND ARE DRIVEN WITH STRONG HAND HALF-CHEEK SNAFFLE BIT USED ON HARNESS RACE HORSES, ROADSTERS AND FINE HARNESS HORSESride. If y ou are not secure in the saddle, y our horse knows it and is not likel y to g ive y ou his best.SADDLE TREEThe saddle tree shown here has man y advanta g es. Besides holdin g the saddle when not in use, it can be used to properl y clean y our saddle. Note, y ou set the saddle on one end to store. To clean the under side of the saddle j ust tip it over into the U at the other end. The tra y makes a convenient and neat place to store supplies. Some horsemen prefer to suspend western saddles from an overhead pole or rafter throu g h the saddle fork or around the horn.BITSBits are made in various st y les. Each was desi g ned for a definite purpose. Much in j ur y can be done to the tender bars of the horse's mouth with bits and heav y hands. The bit is j ust one of y our aids. A rider sends a messa g e from his hands down the reins to the horse's mouth. Reins and bits are not necessaril y the emer g enc y brake found on an automobile. The sli g htest movement of a fin g er or droppin g or raisin g of the wrist should carr y y our intent to y our mount. Strai g ht, j ointed and ported bits are found ever y where. Select a hit of the proper len g th of mouth piece to fit y our horse. Ad j ust the bridle so that the bit j ust raises the corner of the mouth. In this position the bit will rest on the bars of the mouth. Tr y the simplest first and if this does not do the j ob, tr y another. Short and lon g shanked curb bits are available. A lon g shanked heavil y parted or spaded bit is not essential. En g lish curb bits are fitted with a flat curb chain. Western bits utilize a flat strap for their curbs. Durin g cold weather remove the frost in the bit b y warmin g it before placin g in the horse's mouth.


ARABIAN-FULL MANE AND TAIL FIVE-GAITED SADDLE HORSEGROOMING AND PREPARATION FOR THE SHOWGood g roomin g is essential to the health and a final polish to the haircoat and to aid in dr y in g off the appearance of all horses that are stabled or that arecoat of a wet, sweatin g horse. Sometimes a clean, exercised or ridden. Groomin g cleans the hair and thedamp spon g e is used to clean around the face. pores of the skin. This results in a cleaner and healthier5. Mane and tail comb. This small metal comb is skin which is less likel y to become infested with skinsometimes used instead of the brush to keep the mane parasites such as lice and man g e mites. Good vi g orousand tail free of tan g les. The comb is also used to aid in g roomin g massa g es the bod y muscles underneath thethinnin g heav y sha ggy manes and tails b y pluckin g or skin and thus improves their condition or fitness.pullin g out some of the excess hair. However, no amount of g roomin g will make y our horse6. Clippers and/or scissors. In order to have y our horse look his best if he is thin and out of condition. Properpresented in a neat, trim appearance, it is necessar y to feedin g must accompan y re g ular g roomin g in order toclip or trim the hair in certain areas of the bod y An present y our horse lookin g his ver y best. electric animal hair clipper with sharp blades is Efficient g roomin g is possible onl y when y ou take necessar y to do a smooth clippin g j ob on man y areas personal pride in the appearance of y our animal. Thesuch as the mane and le g s. Sometimes scissors are value of g roomin g depends upon the thorou g hness andused, but with them it is usuall y more difficult to do a speed with which it is done. You should learn to worksmooth j ob. hard and rapidl y and to do a thorou g h j ob in a minimum time.NECESSARY EQUIPMENTMost g ood horsemen will use the followin g pieces of g roomed both before leavin g the stable and a g ain on equipment to g room their animals: return. 1. Brushes. Two t y pes of brushes are g enerall y used -Most horsemen develop a procedure that the y follow in (a) a stiff-bristled cleanin g brush (rice root or corn g roomin g The followin g steps are routine with man y brush), and (b) a smooth fibered bod y brush which willhorsemen. pick up the fine dust and dirt particles missed b y the cleanin g brush. 2. Curr y comb. A rubber curr y comb is preferred to the metal t y pe. A metal curr y comb is used onl y to remove thick dr y mud or heav y loose hair. For ordinar y cleanin g a rubber curr y comb is used since a metal curr y comb is too severe for the thin skin of a horse. 3. Hoof pick. Several t y pes of hoof picks or hooks are available for cleanin g out the feet. If a commercial hoof pick is not available, an old screw driver will serve the purpose. Bend it over about an inch from the blade end. 4. Groomin g cloth. Old Turkish towels or a woolen blanket can be cut into pieces of suitable size. These are used to wipe around the e y es, nostrils, ears, lips, dock and sheath. A g roomin g cloth is also used to g iveSTEPS IN ROUTINE GROOMINGHorses that are stabled should be g roomed thorou g hl y ever y da y If the y are exercised, the y should beCOOLING OUTIf the horse has j ust returned from exercise, his tack should be removed and quickl y put aside. If he is wet from sweatin g his haircoat should be rubbed briskl y with a g roomin g or dr y in g cloth to partiall y dr y the coat. Spon g e the e y es, nostrils, lips and dock. He should then be blanketed and walked until he has "cooled out." A couple swallows of water ever y few minutes aids the coolin g out. However, if y ou do not have time to walk y our horse followin g a hot work-out, do not g ive him his fill of water until he has cooled out. A "cooled out" horse is neither hot to the touch nor breathin g hard.


GROOMING AND PREPARATION FOR THE SHOW Pa g e 33December 1989 THREE-GAITED HORSE CLIPPED OR ROACHED MANE AND CUT SET AND SHAVED TAIL WESTERN OR STOCK HORSE CLIPPED MANE WITH FORETOP AND WITHER LOCK REMAINING TAIL SHORTENED AND SHAPEDheel. It is the part most often cleaned improperl y andCLEANING THE FEETInspect y our horse's underpinnin g and clean out his feet. This is usuall y the first step if the horse is j ust leavin g the stable or bein g readied for the show rin g Dail y inspection of the feet will g ive y ou an opportunit y to check on in j uries, loose shoes, small stones or other ob j ects that ma y have become embedded in the foot, and thrush. Follow a procedure when cleanin g the feet so that y our horse will know what to expect. Most horsemen work around the horse in a counter-clockwise direction startin g with the near fore foot, then the near hind, the off hind, and off fore. To pick up the fore foot, stand beside y our horse's shoulder facin g his rear. Place the hand nearest the horse on his shoulder and run y our other hand g entl y After the feet have been cleaned, the bod y is g roomed. but firml y down the back of the le g until the hand is Some horsemen will g o about this j ob differentl y than j ust above the fetlock. Grasp the fetlock area with theothers; but re g ardless of the procedure, the idea is to fin g ers and at the same time press y our other hand remove dirt and dust from the haircoat and skin and a g ainst the horse's shoulder, thus forcin g his wei g ht brin g out a sheen and g loss on y our horse's bod y Some onto the opposite forele g Pick up the foot and supporthorsemen will use the curr y comb in one hand and the the wei g ht of the horse's le g on y our knee. brush in the other usin g both tools at the same time. The hind foot is picked up in much the same fashionOthers feel the y can do a more thorou g h j ob if the y except the hind le g is usuall y g rasped j ust above the completel y curr y one side of the horse and then use the fetlock on the cannon. As y ou press a g ainst the horse'sbrush. hip with y our inside hand, lift the foot directl y towardThe usual procedure is to start on the left or near side, y ou with the other hand so that the le g is bent at the be g innin g on the neck, then the breast, shoulder, fore hock. Then move to the rear placin g y our thi g hl e g back, side, bell y croup, and hind le g Then move underneath the fetlock so as to support his le g firml y .around to the ri g ht or off side and follow the same Once the underside of the foot is exposed, it is ratherpattern. Then complete the brushin g j ob with the head, simple to clean out and inspect the foot. Work from themane and tail. heel toward the toe with y our hoof pick. Most The curr y comb is an excellent tool for removin g important is a g ood cleanin g of the bottom of the excessive mud, dirt, loose hair, and saddle marks. commissures or depressions between the fro g and theUnless the horse is extremel y dirt y a rubber curr y comb bars. The deepest part of each depression is near theis preferred over a metal curr y comb. The curr y comb is is the usual seat of thrush. If the wall of the foot is dr y brittle and cracked, it is wise to use a hoof dressin g on the feet occasionall y The frequenc y of this will depend on the condition of the feet. For most horses once a week is enou g h. Several g ood commercial hoof dressin g s are on the market. If y our horse is g oin g into the show rin g make sure the wall of the foot is clean. This ma y require washin g with water and a stiff brush to remove caked mud or manure. Hoof dressin g or li g ht oil, such as neatsfoot oil, often improves the appearance of the feet for show.GROOMING THE BODYnever used over the bon y areas on the head and below


GROOMING AND PREPARATION FOR THE SHOW Pa g e 34December 1989 THREE-GAITED SADDLE HORSE TAIL CLIPPED 6 TO 8 INCHES FROM BASE HUNTER-TAIL BRAIDED 6 TO 8 INCHES FROM BASEthe knees and hocks. A vi g orous circular motion will prove most effective when curr y in g Clean the curr y comb out frequentl y b y strikin g it on the back of the brush or the heel of y our boot. Follow the curr y comb with the stiff-bristled brush. Effective brushin g requires plent y of "elbow g rease" plus some "know-how". Short, stron g strokes with outward action awa y from the horse's bod y removes more dirt than lon g g lidin g strokes. A stron g stiffened arm backed up b y the wei g ht of y our bod y and vi g orous wrist action is necessar y to g et the hair coat clean. Brush the hair in the direction of its natural la y Follow the same order as when the curr y comb was used, except that in brushin g the le g s brush down to the hoof. Clean the brush ever y few strokes with the curr y comb. To pick up much of the fine dust out of the haircoat, follow the stiff-bristled brush with the fine, smoothfibered bod y brush. Finish the j ob b y brushin g the head, mane and tail.MANE AND TAILWhen cleanin g the mane and tail, be g in brushin g at the ends of the hair and g raduall y work up to the roots. On breeds, such as the Arabian and 5g aited Saddle Horses, that are normall y shown with a full mane and tail, be ver y careful that y ou do not pull out an y hair. Washin g the mane and tail two or three times durin g the week prior to the show will make this hair clean and soft. Be sure that all the soap is rinsed out or else y our horse mi g ht start rubbin g his mane and tail. After rinsin g and shakin g out the excess water, "pick" the mane and tail b y separatin g the locks with y our fin g ers. This will keep them from dr y in g in tan g les.REGULARITYOf course, a horse that has not been g roomed re g ularl y will not be read y for the show rin g with onl y one g roomin g A wellg roomed horse is cleaned faithfull y ever y da y for several weeks prior to the first show. He is certainl y not clean if y ou can pick up scuff and dirt when passin g the fin g er tips throu g h the hair coat or leave g ra y lines on the coat where the fin g ers have passed. Your show horse should be kept out of the sun most of the time in order to avoid a dull, sunburned appearance. If y ou are g razin g y our horse, turn him out to pasture at ni g ht or earl y in the mornin g and late in the evenin g .WASHINGWashin g y our horse or pon y all over is another method of g ettin g him clean. However, washin g is a poor substitute for re g ular g roomin g since it removes the protective oil of the hair and skin. But if y ou decide that washin g is necessar y use lukewarm water and a mild soap. Rinse thorou g hl y with cool water and keep him out of drafts while bein g rubbed dr y with a clean cloth. It is usuall y not advisable to wash y our horse except the mane, tail and feet within two weeks of a show. If y ou have a g eldin g don't for g et to clean the sheath occasionall y Some horses require it more often than others, especiall y those which urinate without protrudin g the penis. Use warm water, mild soap and remove the secretions, includin g the "bean" or ball of wax y secretion which sometimes develops in a depression in the head of the penis and which ma y interfere with urination.


GROOMING AND PREPARATION FOR THE SHOW Pa g e 35December 1989 MANE-SMALL BRAIDS TAIL-THINNED AND SHORTENEDfrom abrasions and infections and from wearin g awa y HAND RUBBINGIn addition to the re g ular g roomin g procedures of curr y in g and brushin g some horsemen will brin g out the bloom on their horse b y hand rubbin g Hand rubbin g removes loose hair, stimulates the circulation, and helps to produce a g loss y coat. It is also restful to tired muscles after a lon g ride.THE FINAL TOUCHBefore exhibitin g y our horse, the final touch consists of g oin g over the horse's bod y with the g roomin g cloth. This should be done j ust before enterin g the rin g if y ou are at a show, since the cloth will pick up an y dust which ma y have accumulated since brushin g Avoid usin g an excessivel y oil y rub ra g for this final g roomin g because oil on the surface of the haircoat will cause dust to stick to y our animal. With a clean cloth or damp spon g e wipe about the ears, e y es, nostrils, lips, sheath, and dock. A g ood showman will carr y a small ra g concealed in his pocket j ust in case it is needed in the show rin g OfThe lon g hair on the inside of the ears and under the course, it is used to "touch up" y our horse onl y whenchin and j aw is usuall y clipped. Some horsemen prefer the j ud g e is occupied elsewhere in the rin g not to remove all the hair from inside the ears since it is enterin g the inner ear. Some also prefer not to removeCLIPPING and TRIMMINGAs a rule, the pro g ram of most 4-H club members does not necessitate clippin g the horse's entire haircoat for winter. Clippin g is usuall y practiced when the horse is worked re g ularl y durin g the winter and onl y when the horse receives ver y careful attention. When not actuall y at work, clipped animals should be stabled and blanketed durin g cold weather. Treatment of the mane varies considerabl y dependin g Durin g severe weather it is not advisable to clip the on the t y pe and breed of horse bein g exhibited. On all le g s. Where animals are to receive considerable worksaddle horses, the mane is usuall y clipped where the under the saddle, it is advisable to leave a saddle patchcrown-piece or head stall of the bridle crosses behind the size of a folded blanket. This will g ive protectionthe ears. This clipped area is called the bridlepath. It is the hair on the back under the saddle. Clippin g must not be used as a substitute for proper g roomin g Clippin g reduces the labor of g roomin g but the clipped animal needs the same thorou g h and vi g orous g roomin g as an animal in full coat. Practicall y all horses bein g prepared for the show rin g require some trimmin g about the feet and le g s, the head, the mane and tail.FEET and LEGSThe hair around the fetlock j oint is trimmed to g ive the le g s a neater, cleaner appearance. Some exhibitors clip the le g s from j ust below the knees and hocks down to the hoof head. Run the clippers with the natural la y of the hair. Clippin g a couple of weeks before show time will allow the hair to g row enou g h to eliminate clipper marks and contrastin g shades of color.THE HEADthere for a purpose to help keep dirt and insects from the lon g feeler hairs or whiskers from around the muzzle because the y serve the purpose of helpin g the horse make contact with his surroundin g s, especiall y in the dark.THE MANEusuall y about 1 to 2 inches lon g but some g aited


GROOMING AND PREPARATION FOR THE SHOW Pa g e 36December 1989Saddle horses are trimmed 6 or 7 inches down the 5 inches lon g Pluckin g is done b y g raspin g a few hairs neck. This is to make the horse's neck appear lon g er at a time, slidin g the hand up close to the roots. and and neater and finer throu g h the throatlatch. pullin g the hairs out b y the roots with a quick j erk. The forelock or foretop from the bridlepath foreward isBe g in on the underside and pull the lon g est hair first. seldom clipped and is pulled down under the center ofThe hunter is usuall y shown with the mane braided into the browband. This is braided with three strands ofsmall braids tied with y arn alon g the horse's neck. The bri g htl y colored ribbon on some ponies, the five g aitedfive g aited Saddle horse, the Walkin g horse, the Saddle Horse and the Walkin g horse. About the onl y Shetland and a few other breeds are shown with two horse that is shown with a clipped foretop is the threebraids on the mane the foretop and the first section of g aited Saddle horse. hair on the mane behind the bridlepath. The entire mane is clipped on the three g aited Saddle horse. Man y exhibitors of western or stock horses Show them with a closel y clipped mane except that the foretop and a tuft of hair on the withers are left intact. Care must be exercised in clippin g the mane to perform a smooth j ob and not g et down into the bod y hair on the side of the neck. Stock horses whose manes are not clipped and hunters usuall y have them shortened and thinned for the show rin g This is accomplished b y pullin g or pluckin g the hair until the remainin g hair on the mane is about 4 or THE TAILOn stock horses the tail is pulled or thinned (not cut off) to j ust below the hock. The hair is pulled as in the mane, workin g on the lon g est hairs and mostl y on the underside of the tail. Most hunters and polo ponies also have the tail thinned and shortened. The three g aited Saddle horse has the tail closel y clipped for a distance of 6 to 8 inches from the base. Most hunters are shown with the tail braided for a distance of 8 to 12 inches from the base.NOTES


ATTENTION TO THE 4 CS: CONFIDENCE, COOPERATION, CONSIDERATION AND CAREFULNESSTHE SHOW RING ARE YOU AND THE HORSE READY?Performance showin g is considered b y most horsemenvariet y of performance classes so that almost an y horse as the ultimate g oal in the showin g of a horse. In thecan do moderatel y well in one or more of them. If case of 4-H horse activit y it is the most demandin g interest lies in one particular phase of performance, a preparation, the most trainin g and the g reatest attentionhorse suitable to be shown in those particular classes is to detail. Performance showin g is as variable as the required. Selection of a suitable horse to fit desires or t y pes of horses shown. It can be a class for ele g ant demands is of ma j or importance. It is virtuall y g aited horses or it can be a class for versatile Westernimpossible to take j ust an y horse and hope to compete trail horses; it varies from hi g h-steppin g harness horseson equal terms with horses bred, selected, and trained and ponies to the novelt y races of gy mkhana events; itfor one particular t y pe of performance. No one should can be as sedate and precise as dressa g e or as fast andexpect to show one horse in ver y man y classes. Most free as pole bendin g and barrel racin g But throu g h ithorse shows preclude entr y of one horse in more than a all runs a central theme, a unit y of purpose, this bein g ver y limited number of classes, and ver y few horses are to displa y the horse at his best, doin g what he does able to compete successfull y in more than a ver y few best. The rider then, in contrast to his dominantclasses. position in equitation classes, has a minor role. He isIt should be borne in mind that the actual len g th of time there to g ive aid and direction, to encoura g e but not asa horse is en g a g ed in a performance class is quite is all too frequent g o alon g for the ride". In contrast tolimited, for as little as 20 seconds in races to as much equitation where the rider should seem to mer g e withas 20 minutes or more in lar g e pleasure classes. Since his mount, in performance the emphasis should shift tothe exposition time is so short, it's obvious that the the horse, and the rider should seem to be no lon g er ashow rin g cannot be used to train. There is little enou g h part of the scene. In fact, the rider should seem totime to j ust demonstrate alread y learned abilit y It also almost disappear.serves to emphasize the fact that most of the work for Showin g in performance classes is and should be fun.performance classes must take place outside the show This fun should be the result of the knowledge thatarena and lon g before the show. both horse and rider are completely prepared to acceptOnce the horse has been properl y trained and the rider the challen g e of demonstratin g the true abilit y of both.is read y then actual showin g can be considered. The show arena should not, however, be looked uponShowin g be g ins lon g before entr y into the rin g Most as a show-off arena, nor should it be considered ahorses cannot be "turned-on" at the entr y g ate. The y schoolin g arena or trainin g g round. It is a place of must be warmed up to the occasion. The rider has to work, strict rules, and attention to the 4 C's:prepare himself as well. But, even farther back, is the confidence, cooperation, consideration, andsaddlin g or harnessin g of the horse and the dressin g of carefulness.the rider. Both horse and rider should be prepared lon g What is required to show a horse in a performance enou g h in advance of the call for a class so there is no class? What is required to win? Neither question can berushin g Great care should be taken to insure ever y answered simpl y There is complete dependence on alldetail is correct. A check list such as a pilot uses before past experience and knowled g e; since as was take-off is ver y helpful. The tack of the horse should previousl y indicated, this t y pe of showin g is more orbe checked to be sure it is sound and complete and it less the apex of all horse showin g conforms to the class requirement. These requirements As is stated in the recipe for rabbit stew, first y ou do var y from show to show within the same class; must catch a rabbit, so indeed to show in performancefailure to meet requirements is j ust cause for dismissal classes first there must be a horse. There are a wideor even refusal of entr y T y pical items to watch for are


THE SHOW RING ARE YOU AND THE HORSE READY? Pa g e 38December 1989such thin g s as slickers, spurs, crops, ropes and hobbles.not be made late. Some shows allow for onl y a short A check of the horse's feet and shoes could forestallwaitin g period so punctualit y is essential. man y problems. Insurin g the ti g htness of shoes is Each class has its own prescribed rules and procedures. essential before most performance classes becauseEver y rider should be completel y familiar with these re-shoein g durin g a class is impossible. Man y of theseprocedures from entr y to exit. Failure to follow a g iven classes are extremel y hard on shoes, so onl y g ood course or the directions from j ud g es and stewards will shoes that have been put on properl y should be be considered disqualifications in man y events. When allowed. Equal care should be taken to insure that g ait or direction chan g es are called for, compliance personal appointments are as prescribed and areshould be as rapid as is safe and correct. It is most complete.disrespectful to hesitate or i g nore such directions and if This is also the time to make the final decisionrepeated, often calls for dismissal from the class. concernin g actual entr y into a class. Since most horsesThe conduct in a class, whether in a g roup that is are vanned to shows, the chances of le g in j ur y are workin g to g ether or an individual workin g sin g l y alwa y s present. It is much better to scratch an entr y should be approached in a businesslike manner. Even than to enter a lame, in j ured, or sour horse. This t y pe ofthou g h these classes are usuall y "fun", as indeed the y entr y is an insult to the j ud g e, to the audience as well asshould be, the y are all serious. It is a time for maximum to fellow exhibitors and to the horse himself. Ineffort on the part of both the rider and his mount. It is g eneral, it is considered a poor practice to ride y our not a time to wave to friends or to "show-off". No horse to a show and then expect top qualit y horse should be handled in such a manner as to make performances. It should be remembered that to be inhim excited. There is a wide difference between top form, both horse and rider must be fresh, rested andanimation and excitement. in top ph y sical condition. Also, it is extremel y difficultWhile in g roup classes, bunchin g up should be to keep a horse and appointments clean and neat durin g avoided. If it becomes necessar y to g et awa y from a a lon g ride. pack or bunch, a rider ma y short cut a corner, pass and When all preliminar y preparations for a show have g et into the clear. A reasonable distance between been completed, the warm-up of the horse shouldhorses should be kept. The horse should be placed in be g in. This should be timed so as to g ive both horse such a position that the j ud g e can clearl y observe him. and rider a chance to g et stiff muscles loosened up andHowever, one rider should never purposel y attempt to to achieve a mental attitude conducive to competition.place his own mount between the j ud g e and a This len g th of time will var y with each horse and withcompetitor. This is bad show manners. the class. Man y horses need onl y to be walked for a When horses are asked to be ali g ned in the center rin g few minutes, others perform best when quite warm.immediate compliance is a g ain in order. Failure to line The horse should not be indiscriminatel y raced nor up quickl y or properl y can accomplish nothin g more should last minute trainin g be attempted. If an exercisethan irritate the j ud g e and cause a "loss of points". area has been provided this should be used. If none isThere should be room left on each side of the horse for available, some area awa y from people, cars and otherclose inspection b y the j ud g e. When horses are too distractions can usuall y be found. close the j ud g e cannot see; what he cannot see he Alle y wa y s, runwa y s, and parkin g areas or an y area cannot place. What usuall y happens as a result of the where there are man y people should be avoided durin g j ud g e's not bein g able to see a horse is a lower placin g warms-ups. Anticipation of the classes will create a than perhaps deserved. At no time should the exhibitor g reat deal of excitement, particularl y in y oun g people.relax or allow the horse to relax. Showin g be g ins at This excitement is often transmitted to the horse. Ever y entr y and ends after exit. Nothin g creates a worse effort should be used to ease this tension and controlimpression of a horse than to see one badl y out of excess excitement.position amon g a g roup bein g held posed and at Timin g warm-ups to be complete at about the time aattention. There is no wa y of anticipatin g a j ud g e's class is called takes practice and a knowled g e of the turnin g for a look backwards, so the necessit y of horse. It is g enerall y much better to have to wait a fewkeepin g set is alwa y s present. The audience is watchin g minutes to enter the arena than for the rest of the classalso. to have to wait for a late entr y All entries should be Man y performance classes do not require posin g g ait read y to enter the arena when the class or their chan g es and the kinds of situations previousl y numbers are called. There should be no attempt at entr y discussed. Classes such as Western trail, barrel racin g before a class is called and certainl y the entr y shouldpole bendin g and reinin g usuall y have a contestant workin g alone, a g ainst a clock or under the careful


THE SHOW RING ARE YOU AND THE HORSE READY? Pa g e 39December 1989scrutin y of a j ud g e. In timed events, form counts littleWin or lose, improvement can alwa y s be made. except as it ma y effect time; but even in these timed Ever y one can profit from experience and the show events, time is not all important.arena is g ood experience. Alwa y s the attempt should be Generall y speakin g the same t y pe of actions are "To make the best better". required in such classes as reinin g and trail. EmphasisThe performance classes for horses are so man y and should be on a quiet, stead y well-mannered displa y Atvaried that it is not possible to describe them in a g uide no time should the rider displa y loss of temper, with itssheet of this kind. Instead, follow the official rules of resultant abuse of the horse, nor should the riderthe show in which y ou are exhibitin g indul g e in an y actions that would tend to excite or anno y the horse. Ver y careful use of the reins to avoid an y indication of head fi g htin g is required. If spurs are worn, the y should not be used except with a li g ht touch. When winners are announced there is a tendenc y to either relax or become more excited. Both should be avoided. Win g raciousl y lose the same wa y When ridin g to pick up the rosette, care should be taken to avoid ridin g over the j ud g e or steward. If no award is received, exit should be in an orderl y manner after the award presentation. Pa y close attention to the official discussion of the placin g of the class. This will help y ou to perform better in the future. One of the worst thin g s that can be done after a class is to en g a g e in criticism of the j ud g e and his decisions. He usuall y knows much more about the entire business than an y of the exhibitors and was in a much better position to see the class, thus render a decision. It's all too eas y to find other losers to "cr y with. After all, there can be onl y one winner. Another rather unpardonable bit of conduct is all too frequentl y seen followin g the completion of a class. This is g roups of exhibitors, now free from the anticipation of the show arena, racin g around, both mounted and afoot, causin g distractions, confusion and in g eneral, bein g of no little anno y ance to the exhibitors in the arena the j ud g e and the audience. It is certainl y poor manners and thou g htlessness on the part of those thus en g a g ed.SPECIAL SHOW HINTS FOR YOUTH GROUPS1) Be read y when class is called. 2) Good sportsmanship shall prevail at all times. 3) Unnecessar y rou g hness or discourtes y will be cause to be dismissed from further competition. 4) Contestants shall, at all times, act as ladies and g entlemen. 5) Exhibitor shall keep horse under control at all times. 6) No horse is to be exercised except in assi g ned area. No ridin g shall be permitted in spectator or concession area. 7) Do not tie horses to arena fence or park them at the arena. 8) Check saddle cinch before ever y performance and loosen cinch after each class when dismounted. 9) Neat and appropriate attire shall be worn in all classes. Sneakers and low shoes are not considered safe or suitable. 10) Teach horse to lead easil y and freel y at an y g ait before tr y in g to show in rin g 11) Walk beside a horse when leadin g never in front 12) Alwa y s turn the horse to the ri g ht and walk around him when showin g This allows the j ud g e an unobstructed view. 13) Ever y show announcement is to carr y a full description of what the class will be expected to do and how it will be j ud g ed.


LEADING AT HALTER HORSE SET UP SQUARELY USE HALTER PRESSURE TO SET UP SQUARELYSHOWING LIGHT HORSES AT HALTERThe opportunit y to show a wellg roomed and properl y fitted horse in top competition is a most rewardin g experience. Such shows attract ever-expandin g crowds in all sections of the United States. Methods of showin g var y somewhat amon g the different breeds of li g ht horses. However, the followin g points should be learned b y all exhibitors, re g ardless of the breed the y are showin g 1) Be neat, clean and appropriatel y dressed for the class. 2) Do not tr y to show a horse at halter until y ou are sure y ou can control him. You will need to practice with mock shows or trials. 3) Enter the rin g and lead in the direction indicated b y the rin g steward until the j ud g e requests that the horses line up for inspection. 4) Be alert, keep one e y e on the horse and one on the j ud g e but remember the horse is the main attraction. 5) Leave at least ten feet between y our horse and the nearest other horse both in circlin g the rin g and in the line-up. 6) When showin g in line, hold the lead rope or strap in y our ri g ht hand about 12-24 inches from the halter. The other end of the lead rope or strap should be neatl y doubled in the left hand. You ma y chan g e hands if it is more convenient to put y our horse in position or in showin g to the j ud g e. Tr y to attract the horse's attention to the front so he turns his ears forward but do not hold his head too hi g h. 7) Halter classes are shown "in hand," which means that the y are exhibited at the halter, preferabl y or when wearin g a bridle. The halter should be clean, properl y ad j usted, and fitted with a fresh-lookin g leather or rope lead. If the horse is shown when wearin g a bridle, the leader should avoid j erkin g on the reins so hard that the horse's mouth will be in j ured. 8) Move his feet b y pullin g or pushin g on the halter rope as necessar y alon g with puttin g y our ri g ht hand on his left shoulder and puttin g on pressure as needed. Never use y our feet to move y our horse's feet. Proper use of whip and voice cues are acceptable in showin g certain breeds. 9) Stand facin g the horse near the left shoulder or in front of him and face him in such a wa y as to be able to see the animal and present a full view to the j ud g e. Avoid standin g on the ri g ht side of y our horse. Do not be distracted b y persons or ob j ects outside the rin g


SHOWING LIGHT HORSES AT HALTER Pa g e 41December 1989 PATTERN FOR SHOWING LIGHT HORSE INDIVIDUALLY AT HALTER10) Stand the horse as strai g ht as possible with wei g ht distributed equall y on all four feet. When standin g the horse's hooves should point strai g ht ahead. (Be careful to avoid standin g the horse in a low place). 11) The standin g position of the horse should var y accordin g to the breed. For example, Arabians and Quarter Horses are not stretched, but American Saddle horses are stood with their front le g s strai g ht under them and their hind le g s back sli g htl y Other breeds are g enerall y placed in a sli g htl y stretched position between these two examples. 12) When y ou are requested to move out of' the line alwa y s move in a strai g ht line awa y from and toward the j ud g e. Walk or trot at the left of the horse, close to his shoulder, never in front of him. Brin g y our horse to a complete stop at either end of the line before turnin g him. When turnin g at the end of the line, turn him to the ri g ht or awa y from y ou with his hind feet sta y in g nearl y in place in order to keep him in line for the j ud g e too see. 13) If y ou are asked to back y our horse push back on the lead strap and back him one bod y len g th. If y ou must push on him with the other hand, he is not well trained. 14) Handle y our horse with dispatch but do not excite him. Never be rou g h to strike y our horse in the rin g 15) Win modestl y lose without an g er and remember that g ood sportsmanship builds character faster than purple ribbons. 16) Lead horse at a brisk walk or trot as j ud g e directs, with animal's head carried at a hei g ht appropriate to the t y pe or use of horse. 17) When j ud g e is observin g other animals, let y ours stand if posed reasonabl y well. 18) Be natural. Overshowin g undue fussin g and maneuverin g are ob j ectionable. 19) Show y our animal to best advanta g e Reco g nize the conformation faults of y our animal and show it to overcome these faults. 20) Respond rapidl y to requests from the j ud g e and officials. 21) Be courteous and sportsmanlike at all times. 22) Keep showin g until the entire class has been placed and the j ud g e has g iven his reasons.LEAD HORSE AT A BRISK WALK OR TROT AS DIRECTED. AFTER RIGHT TURN ALLOW HORSE TO WALK SEVERAL PACES BEFORE THE TROT.


CARE OF HORSES FEETshod or not. Use nippers to trim off the horn; level theIMPORTANCE OF FOOT CAREThe value of a horse depends on his abilit y to perform work. To this end, four sound feet are indispensable. Oddl y enou g h, foot troubles and the necessit y for shoein g are lar g el y manmade. The wild horse seems to have been practicall y free from serious foot trouble. But with domestication these troubles be g an to appear. The horse was brou g ht from soft pasture to hard roads; from self-re g ulated exercise to enforced work; from health y pasture to filth y housin g where he was often made to stand in his own feces and urine or in mud; and from a li g ht, self limitin g maintenance ration to the heav y artificial diet necessar y for work. Even the basicall y sound horse frequentl y breaks down under the artificial environment and mis g uided "care" of man. The horse with a conformational defect is almost certain to break down under the conditions imposed b y domestication. The important points in the care of a horse's feet are to keep them clean, prevent them from dr y in g out, and trim them so the y retain proper shape and len g th. You should learn the names for the parts of a horse's foot. Each da y clean the feet of horses that are shod, stabled, or used. Use the hoof pick for cleanin g Work from the heel toward the toe. Be sure to clean out the depressions between fro g and bars. While y ou are cleanin g the feet, inspect for loose shoes and thrush. Thrush is a disease of the foot characterized b y a pun g ent odor. It causes a softenin g of tissues in the cleft of the fro g and bars. This disease produces lameness and, if not treated, can be serious. Hooves occasionall y become dr y and brittle. Dr y brittle hooves ma y split and produce lameness. The fro g loses its elasticit y and no lon g er is effective as a shock absorber. If the dr y ness is prolon g ed, the fro g Shoein g is a necessar y evil. Nailin g an iron plate to a shrinks in size and the heel contracts. Dr y hooves horse's foot does not make walkin g easier for him. The usuall y can be prevented b y keepin g the g round wet added wei g ht of a shoe does not make for a g ilit y around the waterin g tank. If the hooves of a shod horseWhile the foot and le g are en g ineered to minimize become too dr y either pack them in wet cla y once orshock and road concussion, shoein g onl y increases twice a week after the horse has been used or attachthem. Nail holes made in attachin g the shoe help to burlap sacks around them. Keep the sacks moistened.weaken the hoof wall and ma y provide entries for After the hoof has absorbed enou g h moisture, brush oninfection or separation. a hoof dressin g such as neat's-foot oil, sweet oil, or Allowin g a horse to wear the same shoes too lon g also linseed oil. Before each soakin g with burlap, removeinvites trouble. Since the hoof wall g rows out the oil.perpendicularl y to the coronar y band, the horse's base Trim the feet so that the horse stands square andof support actuall y g rows out from under him if shoes plumb. This will alleviate strain on the tendons andare left on too lon g This transfers excessive strain to help prevent deformit y improper action and flexor tendons. Shoes worn too lon g g row thin and unsoundness.become loose, bend dan g erousl y and ma y shift, causin g The health y hoof g rows to inch per month. If theshoe-nail punctures or "corns." hoof is not trimmed, the wall will break off andShoes protect the hoof a g ainst excessive wear when will not wear evenl y To prevent this, trim the hoovesunusual work is required. The y provide better traction re g ularl y about once a month, whether the horse is under unfavorable conditions of terrain, such as ice and wall with a rasp. Incorrect foot posture is caused b y hooves g rown too lon g either in toe or heel. The slope is considered normal when the toe of the hoof and the pastern have the same an g le. This an g le should be kept alwa y s in mind and chan g ed onl y as a corrective measure. If it should become necessar y to correct uneven wear of the hoof, correct g raduall y over a period of several trimmin g s. Trim the hoof near the level of the sole otherwise it will split off if the horse remains unshod. Trim the fro g carefull y Remove onl y ra gg ed ed g es that allow filth to accumulate in the crevices. Trim the sole sparin g l y if at all. Never rasp the walls of the hoof. This removes the periople, or thin varnishlike outer la y er provided b y nature as a protective coatin g that prevents evaporation. An unshapel y hoof causin g uneven wear ma y make foals become unsound of limb. Fault y limbs ma y be helped or even corrected b y re g ular and persistent trimmin g This practice tends to educate the foal, makin g it easier to shoe at maturit y If the foal is run on pasture, trimmin g the feet ma y be necessar y lon g before weanin g time. Check the feet ever y 4 to 6 weeks. Trim a small amount each time rather than an excessive amount at lon g er intervals. Before trimmin g the feet, inspect the foal while it is standin g squarel y on a hard surface. Then watch it walk and trot. Careless trimmin g ma y strain the foal's tendons.REASONS FOR SHOEINGmud. The y help correct defects of stance or g ait, often


CARE OF HORSES FEET Pa g e 43December 1989makin g it possible for an unsound horse to render satisfactor y service. Shoes ma y be used to help cure disease or defective hooves (contracted heels, thrush, divided tendons). The y also ma y be used to afford relief from the pain of in j ured parts (hoof-wall cracks, bruised soles, tendinitis). Shoe horses to be used on hard surfaces to prevent the wall from wearin g down to the sensitive tissues beneath. A correctl y shod horse is a more efficient performer. Shoes ma y be used to chan g e g aits and action, to correct fault y hoof structure or g rowth, and to protect the hoof itself from such conditions as corns, contraction, or cracks. Racin g "plates" are used on runnin g horses to aid in g rippin g the track. Shoein g alwa y s should be done b y a farrier who is thorou g hl y experienced in the art. Shoes should be made to fit the foot, not the foot to fit the shoe. Reshoe or reset at 4to 6-week intervals. If y ou leave shoes on too lon g the hoofs g row out of proportion. This ma y throw the horse off balance.COMMON FAULTS CORRECTED BY TRIMMINGSplayfoot (front toes turned out, heels turned in) can be helped or corrected b y trimmin g the outer half of the foot. Pigeon Toe (front toes turned in, heels turned out opposite of spla y foot) can be helped or corrected b y trimmin g the inner half of the foot more than the outer half. Quarter Crack (a vertical crack on the side of the hoof) usuall y can be corrected if the hoof is kept moist and the toes shortened. Cocked Ankles (standin g bent forward on the fetlocks-usuall y hind fetlocks) can be helped or corrected b y lowerin g the heels. Cocked ankles will not occur if foals are allowed to g et ample exercise and are not overfed, and the foal's heels are kept trimmed so that there is plent y of fro g pressure. Contracted Heels (close at heels) can be spread apart if the heels are lowered and the fro g allowed to carr y more of the animal's wei g ht.HOOF CARE HINTSBe g in when foal is onl y a few months old. Keep feet well rounded. Exercise foals on dr y g round to allow natural wear. If kept in stall, rasp down ever y 2 to 3 weeks. Clean soles and clefts of fro g frequentl y Do not pare out sole, j ust clean. Do not trim awa y health y fro g unless there is clearl y an excess. (See illustration B.) Keep foot strai g ht with an g le of short pastern. Front hoof-tog round an g le should be approximatel y 45 (See illustration B.) Rear hoof-tog round an g le should be approximatel y 45 (See illustration B.) Rasp sharp ed g e of hoof wall to make bearin g surface approximatel y true thickness of wall. (See illustration C.) Do not rasp outside wall. Alwa y s rasp in such a manner that the heel is included in each stroke. (See illustration D.)




TRAINING YOUR HORSEIt requires patience, careful handlin g and skill to is eased up, he is petted and g iven a taste of g rain. The develop a horse.trainer then steps to the other side and pulls in the In trainin g a horse for pleasure or work, y our ob j ect isopposite direction, repeatin g the process. to obtain a friendl y obedient animal that will respondUsuall y after 8 or 10 lessons the y oun g foal has quickl y and with animation. How do y ou g et these become an apt pupil. results?After he has been g entled to a halter, a non-skid loop is promptl y This step should not be taken until he1.START THE GENTLING PROCESS EARLYHandle the foal frequentl y build his confidence, and he will lose his fear. You ma y want to halter-break him when he is onl y a couple of weeks old. He is easier to handle at this a g e. Man y horsemen do not start the trainin g process until weanin g a g e, but trainin g should start before he is man y months old. In these earl y weeks and months he g raduall y accustoms himself to handlin g These dail y trainin g sessions should be short lessons, repeated often. Youn g foals, like y oun g children, have a limited capacit y to absorb new thin g s. The y learn b y repetition, and in step-b y step order. A half hour lesson ever y da y is ample.2.THE FIRST LESSON HALTERINGThe best classroom for the foal is a small pen awa y from other disturbances. There should be no outside distraction. He should be handled g entl y but firml y Frequent brushin g with a soft brush or hand rubbin g tells him there is nothin g to fear durin g the lessons. When he has learned to eat g rain use a little to help g ain his confidence. The ver y first halter lesson can be done b y two people crowdin g the foal into a corner where he is haltered. After halterin g he is pulled g entl y and slowl y to one side. As soon as he takes a step or two steps the pull slipped over the hind quarters to help teach him to lead handles quietl y .3.YIELDING HIS FEETAfter several lessons on halterin g and leadin g start workin g with his feet. After the colt is leadin g then start handlin g his le g s. Work with him quietl y pickin g up the front feet first. Do it man y times and, if he resists, put the foot down, pat him, quiet him down, and do it all over a g ain. First lift up one foot, then the other foot. Next train him to y ield his hind le g as if he were g oin g to have his foot trimmed and shod. Patience and time are necessar y If he starts stru gg lin g let the foot down and pet him. In a few minutes pick up the foot a g ain, repeat this process until he no lon g er ob j ects to y ieldin g his feet. Some colts learn in two or three lessons, while other colts require man y lessons.4.TEACHING VOICE COMMANDSThe lessons as a foal or weanlin g were on leadin g handlin g the feet, and g ainin g confidence. As a y earlin g he is read y for the next g rade. Man y ranchers and breeders of a lar g e number of colts do no further trainin g until he is two and one-half y ears old, but in trainin g y our own colt the y earlin g a g e is an ideal time to work him on a 25-30 ft. line in a circle (lon g ein g ) where y ou teach voice commands of walk, trot, canter and whoa. It combines muscle buildin g exercises with learnin g Start the foal slowl y in a quiet confined area.


TRAINING YOUR HORSE Pa g e 46December 1989 WORKING ON THE LONGE LINECarr y a whip that he can see and be g in b y makin g the y ou can put a hand a g ainst the surcin g le and pull the circles ver y short. Graduall y he will work to a lar g ercolt toward y ou and thus keep his movements in a short circle as y ou pla y out the line. Make him g o in both acircle which prevents much j umpin g clockwise and counter-clockwise direction. Teach him to stop at the end of the line and reverse his direction. These lessons in the be g innin g should be for no more than ten minutes, and can g raduall y be len g thened to 20-30 minutes as he advances in his trainin g .5.PREPARATION FOR SADDLINGAs the colt approaches two y ears of a g e he should be g ettin g read y for saddlin g If y ou have worked patientl y and frequentl y with him he should not fear movement about him but to help him conquer an y remainin g fear tie him up and rub him with a soft sack. Then flip the sack over and about his bod y and le g s. The same thin g can be done with a soft cotton rope b y drawin g the rope back and forth across his bod y In this series of lessons, the next step is to use the saddle blanket. Lead him for awhile until he is completel y quiet: then let him smell the blanket which is then slipped over his neck and withers. Then push back to its proper place. This is continued until the y oun g horse accepts the blanket without movin g After he becomes thorou g hl y used to the feel of the blanket, a surcin g le can be slipped on and tied moderatel y ti g ht. Then lead him around a few times. This is repeated until he no lon g er flinches. The surcin g le can then be fastened snu g l y around his chest. If, in the be g innin g he should j ump and start to fussSADDLING AND RIDING1.SADDLINGThe y oun g horse is read y to be tau g ht the feel of a saddle. First, review his previous lessons. He should be quiet and g entle and understand that no harm will befall him. Slide the blanket on and off several times until he is used to it. Then slip on the saddle, cinchin g it onl y moderatel y ti g ht with a sin g le cinch. Lead him around the corral at a walk while he g ets accustomed to the feel of the saddle on the back. Durin g this leadin g session, lead him close to y ou and turn him either wa y As the lessons pro g ress, g raduall y ti g hten the cinch and continue to lead him. It would be well to saddle and unsaddle him several times to g et him accustomed to the saddle before y ou ever tr y to ride. Some trainers, after leadin g the colt with an empt y saddle, like to tie up the bridle reins and turn the y earlin g or 2 y r. old loose to trot and canter until accustomed to the feel and squeak of the saddle and the swin g in g of the stirrups. If he should happen to buck, which is rarel y then catch the colt and lead him at a walk before y ou turn him loose a g ain with the reins tied up. At this point, some trainers teach the horse to drive so he will learn responses to the bit. Cotton rope lines (0.3 inch diameter and 20 feet lon g ) are attached to the bit and passed throu g h the saddle stirrups for drivin g lessons. In the first lesson the line on the near side is left out of the stirrup. Then if the horse turns and looks at the trainer, this near line can be used as a lead to strai g hten the horse out. After the horse is accustomed to drivin g the near line can also be passed throu g h the stirrup. This trainin g teaches responses to the bit and lets the horse become accustomed to havin g ropes touch his hind le g s. Initial schoolin g in backin g can also be g iven at this time.2.RIDINGThe next step is to mount the horse. Be sure that he has satisfactoril y passed all his other lessons. First g et y our horse under control b y ad j ustin g the reins evenl y with enou g h tension to feel the bit and hold the horse stead y Don't g et the reins too ti g ht. Hold the reins in y our left hand and place this hand on the neck in front of the withers. Grasp the rid g e of the neck or a lock of mane. Twist the near stirrup with y our ri g ht hand and place y our left foot in the stirrup with the ball of y our


TRAINING YOUR HORSE Pa g e 47December 1989foot restin g securel y on the tread. Brace y our left kneesi g nal to turn. a g ainst the horse and move y our ri g ht hand to g rasp the saddle horn. You are now braced a g ainst the horse with two hands and the left le g formin g a trian g le of support. Push with y our ri g ht le g and sprin g up and over the seat of the saddle. Swin g y our ri g ht foot over and into the stirrup quickl y li g htl y and smoothl y Because the colt is trained to lead, it is often better to have someone lead the colt with y ou on his back until he g ets used to the new experience. Some colts ma y walk the first time he is mounted without an y additional assistance. This first lesson, which is held in a corral, should be done with onl y a little g uidance from y ou. When the colt learns to relax and walk well, y ou can turn him and make him travel back and forth. Start y our horse b y squeezin g y our le g s g raduall y At first y ou ma y have to tap him with y our heel, but with patience he will learn to start on pressure. A horse will learn faster with two short 20 minute lessons than one lon g lesson a da y Remember he is j ust a y oun g ster and tires easil y As his lessons pro g ress, g raduall y start trainin g him to trot and later on to canter a little, but take it eas y .3.NECK-REININGTo teach neck-reinin g y ou probabl y will need to use two hands at first, one to pull with and one to bear on his neck. This. is called 'leadin g and bearin g rein. B y workin g with him in the corral y ou can anticipate his turns and use the reins as a si g nal. As y ou ride up to a barrier and y ou know he is g oin g to have to turn, then use y our reins to indicate to him that the rein is the4.TRAIN AT SLOW WORKA horse learns best at a slow walk, a walk or a trot, so the initial lessons should be at those g aits. Except to train him to break from a walk into a canter his other lessons should be done at the slower g aits. Usuall y his trainin g to this point is with a hackamore. However, at this sta g e a bridle ma y be placed under the hackamore until he g ets used to it. Then add reins and use the two to g ether until y ou can finall y use the bridle alone. It has been said no mouth, no horse. A properl y bitted horse responds to the bit and becomes a pleasure to control. Be careful and never bruise the bars or ton g ue of y our horse. Be sure the head stall fits. These earl y lessons with a bit are to g et him accustomed to its feel and use.5.BACKING UPHorses used for stock work should back well. Start this trainin g from the g round. Stand in front of y our horse and push back on the reins, tap him with the quirt or reins on the breast and le g s. Be patient and repeat often. Then mount, squeeze y our le g s as y ou would to start him, cause him to pick up his foot, pull back li g htl y makin g him move his foot to the rear instead of the front. These short lessons will soon train him to back up.6.SCHOOLING AT THE WALK, TROT, and GALLOPThe y oun g untrained horse has no difficult y handlin g his own wei g ht at an y g ait but he does not have sufficient coordination and muscular development to carr y a rider. This must be accomplished b y proper trainin g procedure which is a pro g ressive movement from a walk to a trot and to a g allops follows: First, walk the horse slowl y in a lar g e circle until he is full y relaxed and carr y in g y our wei g ht with ease. Second, move the horse into a slow trot for a round or two and then advance to a fast trot. Third, when the horse is movin g full y at a fast trot, use the correct aids to push him into a g allop. leadin g in the direction y ou are turnin g Hold him on the g allop at this lead around the circle two or three times. If the


TRAINING YOUR HORSE Pa g e 48December 1989horse does not take the correct lead or chan g es to theThis trainin g procedure is actuall y an athletic exercise wron g lead, stop him and start over a g ain, be g innin g b y which a horse is developed for further trainin g with the walk.Until a horse can perform these movements with ease, Fourth, stop the horse, reverse and repeat the walk, trot and g allop in the other directions. Fifth, for g et speed and strive for perfection in these movements. Remember, 20 to 30 minutes per lesson is lon g enou g h. he is not read y to be advanced in his schoolin g DRAW OR PASTE A PICTURE OF YOUR HORSE HERE.


SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONSSafet y for y ourself and others, courtes y for others andB) Learn simple means of restraint, such as crosst y in g kindness to horses are basicall y akin. The y fit into thein the open and holdin g up a front foot. same packa g e for discussion. Safet y g oes hand-in-hand with common "horse sense" and g ood C) Tie horses with ri g ht len g th of rope. Don't stake animal husbandr y practices. Horses have an instinct orthem out. awareness for reflectin g the care, caution and concern of the rider. The y are normall y g entle and quiet D) Pet a horse b y first placin g y our hand on his animals, but can become hi g hl y excited or nervous ifshoulder and neck. Don't dab at the end of his nose. fri g htened or mistreated. A calm attitude, slow eas y movements and a g entle flow of soft words will lessenE) Work about a horse from a position as near the fear and excitement in nervous horses. Disre g ardin g shoulder as possible. In this wa y y ou cannot be simple safet y rules in handlin g horses can result in touched b y either the front or hind feet of the horse. serious in j ur y or even fatalit y This is particularl y true when passin g around the Basic safet y rules are a must and should be learned andhorse's head, or in workin g about the haunches. practiced until the y become ever y da y habit and custom. For purposes of clarit y and convenience, we shall F) Alwa y s walk around y our horse. Never walk under discuss horse and rider safet y and courtes y under fivethe tie rope nor step over it. appropriate classifications. These are:G) Tie y our horse far enou g h awa y from stran g e 1) Safet y in catchin g handlin g & leadin g horses.horses so the y cannot fi g ht. 2) Safet y in bridlin g saddlin g & mountin g horses. 3) Safet y controllin g and ridin g horses. H) Alwa y s untie the lead shank before takin g the 4) Showin g the horse with safet y and courtes y halter off y our horse. This ma y prevent him from 5) General safet y rules. pullin g back and becomin g a "halter-puller".I. SAFETY IN CATCHING, HANDLING & LEADING HORSES1.CATCHING YOUR HORSE SAFELYA) Approach a horse from his left and from the front. Never walk or stand behind a horse unannounced. The horse is alwa y s on the defensive. If he becomes aware of somethin g behind him his immediate instinct prompted b y fear is either to kick or run. If tied or confined in a stall, the animal cannot run, so he usuall y kicks. Even in sin g le stalls it is possible to approach from an oblique an g le at the rear. B) When a rider is kicked, it is usuall y throu g h his own carelessness. If it is necessar y to approach a horse from the rear, speak to him to warn of y our presence. As soon as the animal is aware of y ou, stroke him g entl y on the croup, then move calml y to the head, keepin g alwa y s close into the horse's bod y The closer y ou stand to a horse, the less likel y y ou will be kicked; y ou ma y be shoved awa y but not hurt.2.SAFE HANDLING OF YOUR HORSEA) Alwa y s let the horse know what y ou intend to do. For instance, when pickin g up the feet, do not reach for and seize the foot hurriedl y as this will startle the horse and is liable to cause him to kick. Learn the proper wa y to lift the feet.3.LEADING YOUR HORSE SAFELYA) Walk beside the horse when leadin g not ahead or behind him. Alwa y s turn the horse to the ri g ht and walk around him. B) Use a lon g lead strap and both hands when leadin g If the horse rears up, release hand nearest the halter so y ou can sta y on the g round. C) When leadin g a horse, g rasp the reins 12 to 24 in. from the bit on the left side. D) Your horse is stron g er than y ou, so don't tr y to out-pull him. He will usuall y respond to a quick snap on the lead rope. E) Never wrap lead strap, halter shank, or reins around y our hand, wrist, or bod y Alwa y s keep a secure hold on lead strap. F) If the horse han g s back on the end of the rope, lead him a few steps forward before touchin g him with y our hand. G) Keep leads and lon g lines off the g round. H) When leadin g into a box stall, turn the horse so that he faces the door before releasin g the lead strap.


SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS Pa g e 50December 1989II. SAFETY IN BRIDLING, SADDLINGIII. SAFELY CONTROLLING AND & MOUNTING HORSESRIDING HORSES1.BRIDLING SAFETY 1.CONTROL YOUR HORSE SAFELYA) Keep y our head in the clear when bridlin g the A) Keep y our horse under control and maintain a horse. He ma y throw his head or strike to avoid the secure seat at all times. Horses are easil y fri g htened b y bridle. Avoid bridlin g a nervous animal in close unusual ob j ects and noises. Anticipate these and stead y quarters. After bucklin g the throat latch alwa y s place y our horse. the loose end of the strap throu g h the keeper on the buckle.B) When y our horse is fri g htened and attempts to run,2.SADDLING SAFETYA) In usin g a double ri gg ed saddle remember, saddle front cinch first, rear cinch last; but when unsaddlin g a horse, be sure to unbuckle the rear cinch first. Failin g to do so can "spook" y our horse and cause a bad accident. B) When saddlin g be careful to keep cinch rin g from strikin g the off knee. C) Ad j ust the saddle carefull y and the cinch ti g ht y ou can free y our feet from the stirrups if y our horse enou g h so it will not turn when y ou mount. Lead theshould happen to fall. horse a few steps before mountin g D) In addition to safel y puttin g equipment on y our hill. horse it must be kept in g ood repair. Keep bridle reins, stirrup leathers, and cinch straps in the best possibleC) When ridin g in g roups, keep a horse-len g th condition, as y our safet y depends on these straps. between animals, and be alert for overhead tree Replace an y strap when it be g ins to show si g ns of branches. wear. mud, ice, or snow, where there is dan g er of the mount3.MOUNTING SAFETYA) Stand with y our feet well back in the clear and reach forward when saddlin g the mount. B) Swin g the saddle into position easil y -not suddenl y Droppin g the saddle down quickl y or hard ma y scare the horse. C) Soon after startin g the ride, dismount and a g ain ti g hten the saddle g irth. Horses often swell up when first saddled, and failure to ti g hten g irths later can result in serious accidents. D) Never mount the horse in a small barn, near fences, trees, or over-han g in g pro j ections. Side-steppin g mounts have in j ured riders who failed to take these precautions. turn him in a circle and ti g hten the circle until he stops. C) If y our horse is fri g htened b y an obstacle, stead y him; g ive him time to overcome his fear. Then ride b y the obstacle. Do not punish him. D) When y our horse is too full of steam, work him on a lon g line a few minutes before ridin g .2.RIDING YOUR HORSE SAFELYA) Ride with y our wei g ht at the balls of y our feet so B) Hold y our mount to a walk when g oin g up or down D) Reduce speed when ridin g rou g h g round or in sand fallin g or slippin g E) Avoid paved roads or streets. Slow y our mount to a walk when crossin g such roads. If he is a spirited y oun g horse, dismount and lead him across. F) Don't for g et y ou are doin g the drivin g Keep awa y from obstacles where y ou or the horse ma y g et hurt. G) Travel sin g le file and on the ri g ht side of the road. H) On lon g rides, dismount and lead for five minutes each hour. I) Walk the horse to and from the stable. This keeps him from runnin g home and refusin g to leave the stable.


SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS Pa g e 51December 1989IV. SHOWING THE HORSE WITH V. GENERAL SAFETY RULES SAFETY AND COURTESYA) Don't tr y to show a g reen horse. Teach the horse at home, and not in the show rin g B) Avoid lettin g the horse kick when close to other horses. Space horses when possible. C) Keep calm, confident and collected. Remember that the nervous showman creates an unfavorable impression. D) Carefull y and courteousl y follow the instructions of the j ud g e and the rin g master. E) Be cautious and respect the ri g hts of other exhibitors. F) Be a g ood sport: win without bra gg in g and lose without complainin g .SAFETY RULES FOR JUMPING1.The rider should be able to g o over Cavaletti (poles on the g round which are properl y spaced) and do this adequatel y both with and without stirrups. 2.Before startin g to j ump the main ob j ective is to instill confidence in the rider and therefore a safe, quiet, but willin g horse is a necessit y 3.A g reat variet y of low j umps should be used at first until skill has been sufficientl y developed. 4.The rider should g o over these low j umps at the trot to develop control and the abilit y to "sta y with the horse." 5.Keep the rider at the low j umps until all errors have been corrected. 6.Riders should wear "hard hats" at all times when j umpin g 7.Onl y riders with superior ridin g abilit y should be permitted to j ump. 8.If a rider should fall from the horse in the process of j umpin g he should not be moved until checked b y a nurse or a ph y sician.1.SAFETY LESSENS DANGERA) Know y our horse, his temperament and reactions. Control y our temper at all times, but let him know that y ou are his firm and kind master. B) Know y our horse's peculiarities. If someone else is ridin g him, tell them what to expect. C) Horses require kind, g entle, but firm, treatment. There are few vicious horses. Most of those become vicious throu g h abuse. However, y ou must be firm and consistent. Decide what y ou want from y our horse, and insist on g ettin g it. D) Never tease y our horse. He ma y develop bad and dan g erous habits the rest of his life. If so, y our safet y is in serious j eopard y E) Do not punish y our horse, except at the instant of his disobedience. If y ou wait even a minute he will not understand wh y y ou are punishin g him. Punish without an g er, lest y our punishment be too severe. Never strike or kick y our horse about the head or le g s. F) Riders and attendants should not be loud or rowd y Noise makes a horse j ump y and nervous both on the g round and under saddle. Eventuall y some horses will react b y kickin g A sharp tone of voice ma y be used for checkin g an animal, but y our voice should never be louder than is required to meet the situation. G) Ask permission when leadin g throu g h a g roup of people. H) Manners and suitabilit y to the experience of the owner are prime qualities in an y horse. Above all, know y our horse, and make sure y our manners are at least equal to his. I) Never race. Horse pla y is onl y for the unmounted horse, not for the horse and rider. J) Alwa y s treat other people on horses and afoot in the same wa y y ou would like to be treated. K) Remember "Kickin never g ets y ou nowhere, lessn y ou're a mule." Cowbo y Proverb


GLOSSARYAction: How a horse moves its feet and le g s as at walk, Buck kneed: knees bent forward. trot, etc. Aids: The le g s, hands, wei g ht, and voice, as used in controllin g a horse. Alter: To castrate a horse, to g eld. Amble: A slow, eas y pace. The front and rear feet on a side move in unison. Appaloosa: A breed of horses characterized b y leopard-spot markin g s. Developed b y the Nez Perce Indians. Appointments: That equipment and clothin g used in showin g Astringent: Dru g s that cause contraction of infected areas, such as tannic acid, alum, and zinc oxide or sulphate. Back: To step a horse backward. Bandy Legs: a horse pi g eon-toed on his hind feet with the points of his hocks turned outward. Banged tail: Hair of tail cut below the dock or bon y part of the tail. Barren mare: a mare that is not in foal. Bearing rein: Neck rein rein pushed a g ainst neck in direction of turn. Bight of the reins: The part of the reins passin g between thumb and fin g ers and out the top of the hand. Bitting rig: a combination of bridle, harness pad and crupper. Used to teach horse to flex at the poll. Black points: Mane, tail, and le g s black or darker than rest of horse. Blemish: An y mark or deformit y that diminishes the beaut y but does not affect usefulness. Bloom: Usuall y refers to hair that is clean and g loss y denotin g a health y appearance. Bosal: That part of hackamore that fits over the nose. Brand: A mark of identification. A private re g istered mark burned (in cheek, shoulder, or hip. A number burned on upper neck as in arm y horses. Temporar y brands are made b y burnin g a number on the hoof, or paintin g a mark on the skin with silver nitrate. Brands are now tattooed on inside of upper lip to avoid disfi g urin g bod y Broom tail: A western ran g e horse; a poor, ill-kept horse of uncertain breed. Bugeyed: E y e protrudin g ; horse usuall y cannot see well Calf kneed: opposite of buck-kneed. Knees bent backward. Canter: The Canterbur y g allop. A three-beat g ait, a moderate, eas y collected g allop. Cantle: The back of a saddle. Cannon: The lower le g bone below knee and below hock. Castration: Removal of testicles from a male. A castrated male horse is a g eldin g Cavesson: A noseband on a bridle. A stiff noseband on a halter used with lon g er strap in trainin g Cavy: A collection of horses. Cayuse: A g eneral term used to describe a horse of nondescript breedin g Center fire: A western saddle with cinch hun g from center. Chaps; chaparajos: Seatless overalls made of leather, sometimes fur covered, for protection when ridin g in brush or for protection from cold. Also spelled chaparreras, chapareros. Chestnuts: The horn y g rowths on inside of horse's le g ; also called ni g ht e y es. Cinch; cincha: A wide cord g irth used on western saddles. Chukker: A seven-and-one-half-minute period in a polo g ame. (From Hindu meanin g a circle"). Coarse: Lackin g refinement, rou g h, harsh appearance. Cob: A st y lish, hi g h-actioned horse used for drivin g and ridin g Cold-blooded: A horse with ancestr y from the draft breeds. Collected: Controlled g ait; a correct coordinated action. Colt: A male foal. Combination horse: One used for saddle and drivin g Conformation: Structure, form, and s y mmetrical arran g ement of parts as applied to a horse. Congenital: An abnormal condition that an animal possesses at birth, such as hernia.


GLOSSARY Pa g e 53December 1989Coon Footed: Lon g slopin g pasterns throwin g Fiadore: A special knot on hackamore, exerts pressure fetlocks low.at rear of j aws. Corona: Saddle pad cut to fit shape of saddle; has a Filly: A female foal up to 3 y ears. lar g e colorful roll around ed g e. Coupling: Re g ion of the lumbar vertebrae, loin, or space between last rib and hip. Cow-hocked: Hocks close to g ether, feet wide apart. Crest: Upper, curved part of neck, peculiar to stallions. Cribbing: Bitin g or settin g teeth a g ainst man g er or some other ob j ect while suckin g air. Flat race: A race without j umps. Criollo: A breed of South American horses; a small, sturd y horse used as a cow pon y Cross: A dark stripe across the shoulders. Cross reins: Method of holdin g sin g le reins where reins overlap in hands across horse's neck. Croup: Part of the back j ust in front of base of tail. Crow hops: Mild buckin g motions. Dam: The female parent of a horse. Defect: An y mark or blemish that impairs usefulness: unsoundness. Gaits: The manner of g oin g The strai g ht g aits are Docked: Bones of the tail cut in shortenin g the tail. Dressage: Advanced exercises and trainin g in horsemanship. Dropped sole: Downward rotation of toe of coffin bone inside hoof due to chronic founder or laminitis. Entire: A stallion. Equine: of or pertainin g to a horse. Equitation: art of ridin g horseback, horsemanship. Ergot: A horn y g rowth behind fetlock j oint. Ewe-necked: Top profile of neck concave like a female sheep's neck. Farrier: A horse shoer. Far side: The ri g ht side of a horse. Favor: To favor: to limp sli g htl y Fenders: The wide pieces of leather alon g the stirrup leathers. Feral: A wild horse. Has escaped from domestication and become wild, as contrasted to one ori g inatin g in the wild. Five-gaited: a saddle horse trained to perform in five g aits namel y the walk, trot, canter, slow g ait, and rack. Flame: A few white hairs in center of forehead. Flat-foot: When the an g le of the foot is noticeabl y less than 45 de g rees. Floating: Filin g of rou g h, irre g ular teeth to g ive a smoother g rindin g surface. Foal: Colt or fill y under one y ear old. Forefooting: Ropin g an animal b y the forefeet. Forehand: The fore part of a horse; the forele g s, head, and shoulders. Founder: Inflammation of the feet causin g lameness. Fox trot: A short-step g ait, as when passin g from walk to trot. walk, trot, canter, and g allop. Fiveg aited horses walk, trot, canter, rack and do one of the slow g aits: Runnin g walk, fox trot, or steppin g pace. Gallop: A three-beat g ait resemblin g the canter but faster, 12 miles per hour. The extended g allop ma y be a four-beat g ait and is about 16 miles per hour. Gaskin: The muscular part of the hind le g above the hock. Geld: To g eld: to cut or castrate a horse. Gelding: An altered or castrated horse. Gestation period: The len g th of time for the development of the foal from time of breedin g usuall y about 11 months. Get: The pro g en y of a stallion. Girth: The measure of the circumference of a horse's bod y back of the withers. A leather, canvas, or corded piece around bod y of horse to hold saddle on. Glass eye: Blue or whitish e y e. Goose-rumped: Havin g narrow, droopin g rump. Go short: To take short steps, indicative of lameness.


GLOSSARY Pa g e 54December 1989Green horse: One with little trainin g Lead strap: A strap or rope attached to the halter for Groom: To g room a horse is to clean and brush him. Groom also refers to person who does this. Gymkhana: A pro g ram of g ames on horseback. Hack: A horse ridden to a hunt meet. A pleasure ridin g horse. Hackamore: A bitless bridle of various desi g ns used in breakin g and trainin g (From Spanish word Jaquima ). Hand: A measure of the hei g ht of horses: a hand's breadth equals 4 inches. Haw: A third e y elid or membrane in front of e y e which removes forei g n bodies from the e y e. Head shy: Applied to a horse that is sensitive about the head: j erks awa y when touched. Head stall: The leather bridle straps exclusive of bit and reins. Herd bound: A horse who refuses to leave a g roup of other horses. High school: Advanced trainin g and exercise of the horse. Hobble: Straps fastened to the front le g s of a horse to prevent him from stra y in g from camp. Hogged: Short-cut mane. Hoof: The foot as a whole in horses. The curved coverin g of horn over the foot. Honda: A rin g of rope, rawhide, or metal on a lasso throu g h which the loop slides. Horse: General term for an animal of the horse kind. Horse length: Ei g ht feet; distance between horses in a column. Horsemanship: Art of ridin g the horse and of understandin g his needs. Jack: A male donke y or ass. Jaquima: Spanish bridle: a hackamore. Jockey: The leather flaps on the side of a saddle. Laminae: The horn y g rooved inside of the hoof. Lariat: From Spanish, la reata meanin g the rope. A rope, often of rawhide, with runnin g noose, used for catchin g cattle. Lead: The first stride in the canter. leadin g Light horse: An y horse used primaril y for ridin g or drivin g : all breeds except draft breeds. Longe: A strap, rein, or rope about 30 feet lon g attached to halter or cavesson, used in breakin g and trainin g Mare: A mature female horse. Martingale: A strap runnin g from the g irth between front le g s to the bridle. The standin g martin g ale is attached to the bit. The runnin g martin g ale has rin g s throu g h which the reins pass. Maverick: An unbranded stra y Mecate: a hackamore lead rope. Mellow hide: Soft, pliable, and eas y to handle. Mule: A cross between a j ack and a mare. Near side: The left side of a horse. Neat's-foot: An oil made from suet, feet, and bones of cattle, used for softenin g leather. Off side: The ri g ht side. Open behind: Hocks far apart, feet close to g ether. Orloff: A breed of Russian trottin g horses. Outfit: The equipment of rancher or horseman. Outlaw: A horse that cannot be broken. Palatable: A g reeable and pleasin g to the taste. Passenger: One who rides a horse without control, lettin g the horse g o as he wishes. Pathological: A diseased condition. Paunchy: Too much bell y Pony: A horse under 14.2 hands. Pointing: Standin g with front le g extended more than normal a si g n of lameness. Poll: The top of a horse's head j ust back of the ears. Polochain: A chin chain of flat, lar g e links. Port: The part of the mouthpiece of a bit curvin g up over the ton g ue. Posting: The risin g and descendin g of a rider with the rh y thm of the trot. Pounding: Strikin g the g round hard in the stride.


GLOSSARY Pa g e 55December 1989Pudgy: Short and thickset. Spread: To stretch or pose. Pull leather: Holdin g to the saddle with hands while Stallion: An unaltered male horse. ridin g a buckin g horse. Pulled tail: Hairs of tail thinned b y pullin g Quality: Fineness of texture; freedom from coarseness. Stud: A place where stallions are kept for breedin g Ray: A black line alon g the spine. Also called dorsal Stylish: Havin g a pleasin g g raceful, alert, g eneral stripe.appearance. Reata: Spanish for lasso. Sunfisher: A buckin g horse that twists his bod y in the Registration: Recordin g an animal from re g istered parents in the breed re g istr y association. Remuda: A collection of saddle horses at a roundup from which are chosen those used for the da y A rela y of mounts. Ridgling: A male horse that has retained one or both testicles in his bod y cavit y Roached back: Thin, sharp, arched back. Roached mane: Mane cut off so part is left standin g walk trot, and canter. upri g ht. Rolling: Side motion of the forehand. Rowels: The toothed wheels on spurs.forward or backward movement. Rubberneck: A horse with a ver y flexible neck, hard to rein. Running walk: A four-beat g ait faster than a walk, g re y hound. often over 6 miles per hour. Sacking: To slap a horse with a sack, saddle blanket, or tarpaulin as a part of g entlin g and trainin g Shank: that portion of the cheek of the bit from the mouthpiece down. Sickle-hocked: With a curved, crooked hock. Side-wheeler: A pacer that rolls the bod y sidewise as he paces. Single-foot: A term formerl y used to desi g nate the rack. Sire: the male parent of a horse. Slab sided: flat ribbed. Snaffle-key bit: A snaffle with small metal pieces dan g lin g from center used in trainin g colts to the bit. Sound: Free from an y abnormal deviation in structure or function which interferes with the usefulness of the individual. Stargazer: A horse that holds his head too hi g h and his nose out. air. Surcingle: A broad strap about the g irth, to hold the blanket in place. Symmetrical: Proper balance or relationship of all parts. Tack up: To put on bridle and saddle. Tapadera: Stirrup cover. Three-gaited: a saddle horse trained to perform at the Thrifty condition: Health y active, vi g orous. Traverse or side step: Lateral movement without Tree: The wooden or metal frame of a saddle. Tucked up: Thin and cut up in the flank like a Undershot: protrudin g under j aw. Utility: the use to which a horse is desi g nated. Veterinarian: One who is trained and skilled in the treatin g of diseases and in j uries of domestic animals. Vice: An acquired habit that is anno y in g or ma y interfere with the horse's usefulness, such as cribbin g Walk-trot horse: A threeg aited horse: walk, trot, and canter. Walleyed: Iris of the e y e of a li g ht color. War bridle: An emer g enc y bridle made of rope. Weanling: a weaned foal. Wrangling: Roundin g up: saddlin g ran g e horses. Yeld mare: a mare that did not produce a foal durin g the current season.


GLOSSARY Pa g e 56December 1989Additional Horse TermsThe mark of a knowin g horseman is the terms and horse-talk which he uses frequentl y and correctly Learn these terms and use them correctl y AGEMALEFEMALEMIXED GROUP Sucklin g Colt Fill y Foals Weanin g Colt Fill y Foals Yearlin g Yearlin g Colt Yearlin g Fill y Yearlin g Foals or Foals of Last Year 2y ear old 2 y ear Old Colt 2 y ear Old Fill y Foals of such and such a y ear Mature Breedin g AnimalsHorse or Stallion Mare Horses Mature Non-Breedin g Animals Geldin g Spa y ed Mare Horses A mare is carr y in g a foal, or in foal, or with foal. Mare with foal at side or nursin g a foal (to be more specific, use colt or fill y ). A mare will foal, or is with foal, to (name of stallion). The sons and dau g hters of a mare are her produce. A foal is b y its sire. A foal is out of its dam. When a stallion stands for service, he is offered to the public for breedin g purposes. Stallion owners usuall y present one of the followin g terms to the mare owner when he offers his stallion for stud: Stud Fee: That char g e for breedin g services rendered b y a stallion. Stud Fee Each Service: The mare is not g uaranteed to be with foal and a stud fee is char g ed for each service. Guarantee Foal to stand and suck: Guarantees a live foal. Return privilege in season: You ma y brin g y our mare back until she is with foal for that breedin g season onl y A second fee will be char g ed after that current season if the mare is returned.


GLOSSARY Pa g e 57December 1989AuthorsBREEDS OF LIGHT HORSES..................................Arden H uff, Vir g inia Pol y technic Universit y COLOR AND COLOR MARKINGS OF LIGHT HORSES ..............................................* HORSE JUDGING I WHAT TO LOOK FOR .................. Bobb y J. Rankin, New Mexico State Universit y HORSE JUDGING II HOW TO JUDGE ...................... Bobb y J. Rankin, New Mexico State Universit y GAITS OF A HORSE........................................Ralph E. M orrow, Michi g an State Universit y WESTERN HORSEMANSHIP .............................W illiam R. Culbertson, Colorado State Universit y TACK EQUIPMENT AND ITS CARE ..............................D. C. Ga y lord, Universit y of Connecticut GROOMING AND PREPARATION FOR THE SHOW ................T. B. Kin g Penns y lvania State Universit y THE SHOW RING ARE YOU AND YOUR HORSE READY? .................S. W. Sabin, Cornell Universit y SHOWING LIGHT HORSES AT HALTER ............................Do y le Matthews, Utah State Universit y CARE OF HORSES FEET .......................................S. Dale Burnett, Texas A & M Universit y TRAINING YOUR HORSE ........................................Albert M. Lane, Universit y of Arizona SAFETY RULES AND PRECAUTIONS .......................W illiam F. Ta gg art, Oklahoma State Universit y GLOSSARY................................................. Dean Frischknecht, Ore g on State Universit y *Based on contributions b y Don Wakeman, M. Ko g er, and J. R. Crockett, Universit y of Florida; and John Moore and J. E. Havens, Washin g ton State Universit y




GLOSSARY Pa g e 59December 1989NOTES


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, Christine Tay lor Waddill, Director, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Cong ress; and is authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, ag e, sex, handicap or national origin. The information in this publication is available in alternate formats. Single copies of extension publications (excluding 4-H and y outh publications) are available free to Florida residents from county extension offices. Information on copies for out-of-state purchase is available from Publications Distribution Center, University of Florida, PO Box 110011, Gainesville, FL 32611-0011. Information about alternate formats is available from Educational Media and Services, University of Florida, PO Box 110810, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810. This information was published December 1989, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. 1 This document is 4HHS 10, one of a series of the 4-H Youth Development Prog ram, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2.Debbie Glauer, member of 4-H Animal Science Design Team, Department of Family, Youth and Community Science, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.