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Sondeo Report : North Florida FSRE Program, Suwannee and Columbia Counnties, 1981

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Sondeo Report : North Florida FSRE Program, Suwannee and Columbia Counnties, 1981
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Hildebrand, Peter E.
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North Florida ( local )
Columbia County ( local )
Farms ( jstor )
Farmers ( jstor )
Agricultural land ( jstor )

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ONDEO


REPORT


NORTH


FLORIDA


FARMING


TEMS


RESEARCH


EXTENSION


PROGRAM


SUWANNEE


COLUMBIA


COUNTIES


September


1981










The following persons contributed to this report:


Carl


Amerling, Food and Resource Economics


George Clough,


Vegetable Crops


James Dean, Food and Resource Economics

Bruce Dehm, Food and Resource Economics


Edwin C.

Peter E. Hildebrand,


French, Agronomy

Food and Resource Economics


Dwight Schmidt, Anthropology

Marilyn Swisher, Geography











CONTENTS


Page


Introduction.


. . 0 0 .


Farming Systems Approach

Preliminary Survey .


Sondeo.


Results


. . . 0 0 .


0 0 0 5 S S S S 5


S a S S S a 6


Old-line and recently

Black and white farmer

Production systems .


established small


farmers


Discussion.


S S S S S S S S S S


Proposed Projects as Indicated by the Sondeo.








SONDEO REPORT

NORTH FLORIDA FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION PROJECT

Suwannee and Columbia Counties


Introduction


The North Florida Farming


stems Research and Extension (FSR/E) Project


has as objectives, 1) generate and promote scal


specific technology for the


small scale farmers in the northern part of the state who li


mainstream


outside


IFAS research and extension activities, and 2) test the appli-


ability and cost effectiveness of the FSR/E approach to Florida conditions.

The FSR/E procedure evolved over the last ten years in several developing

countries as a means of helping the very large number of small farmers in


those country


solve their production and marketing problems


o Administra-


tors in IFAS were interested in the potential of the approach to reach the


farme


difficult to include in usual research and extension practices under


the budgetary restrictions placed upon them.


On a pilot basi


a multidisciplinary team of three full-time profes-


sionals, with part-time participation from


seven


ral others, has begun activi-


ties in the northern part of the state.


Initial screening narrowed the


area for the pilot project to six counties and a preliminary survey was used


to select two counties as the primary action area.


Suwannee and Columbia


counties comprise the area within which a more intensive, but rapid survey

called.a "Sondeo" (a Spanish term from its Central American origin) was


conducted.


The Sondeo is designed to provide the initial and basi


orien-


station for research and extension activities directed to the small farm tar-






-2-

during the Sondeo process and which must be understood and taken into con-

sideration if appropriate and acceptable solutions to the problems of these


farmers are to be found.


More complete and definitive studies will be forth-


coming after the team has had time to work with these farmers over the next

few months and years in an attempt to help them in the problem solving process.


Farming Systems Approach


A wide range of dynamic and interrelated variable


including tradition


education, credit structures, economic status, soil, weather, and market


factors shape the character of farm operations.


The ability of farmers to


successfully respond to this complex of factors depends on many things, but


one key item is the farmers


resource base.


The farming systems


approach views the farm as a holistic


sys-


temno


Components of this system include the natural and human environments


and the links established between these through such elements as technology.

A systematic approach allows a delineation and comprehension of the nature


of resources and resource constraints associated with farm operations


which research and appropriate technology may be directed


In addition to


constraints, a systems approach identifies the needs and interests of the

farmers themselves, under the assumption that generated technology will be

adopted when the farmers desire such innovations and directly perceive

these to be beneficial.

The complexity of external (off-farm) factors impinging upon local

farm systems, the rapidity of agricultural change, and the increasingly high
n%4 A -C It -4 .. nt 4 n A- II 4t.Ltmn 1 n .. A,.. 2J I C 4. -.- .1. rC. ..- 1 1









Nonethel


ess,


it is


important to remember that traditional


farming


sys-


teams have been successful

tions to their traditional


in the past, and that farmers have made adapta-

systems when new technology proved appropriate


An examination of the characteristics of


existing systems,


requirements


of a successful farming strategy specific to North Florida, and the farmer's

own prerequisites and interests can point to the direction in which the


FSR/E Program must move.


Preliminary


survey


A preliminary survey was conducted


in six North Florida counties during


week period following March


1981.


The purpose


of thi


survey


was to assess


the frequency of small


farms within each individual


county and


to determine the


location of homogeneous farming system groups


large enough


to make the Farming Systems approach cost effective0


During the


survey period,


team members met with county extension per-


onnel


and local


farmers and observed local


farming practices.


Additional


information sources utilized during the preliminary


survey included the


Suwannee River Water Management District,


ning Offi


the North Florida Regional


the North Florida Association of Small


Plan-


Farm Cooperatives, and


various


local


governmental


offices.


The preliminary survey permitted the team to differentiate the tradi-


tional


mall,


family farm from at


least two other broad


asses:


large, agribusiness concern and the


ranchette or subdivision unit


The charac-


teristi


of the there


differ and of the three,


it is the small


family farmer


I .. em'


* I


L. L. - -1 5. -L.* -r -~n ~ lI -F 1a. a na Ia aa aatS fl -f le f


. i


I


I I








viewed


as a business venture by the


large scal


highly commercialized


farme r


is profit and growth oriented and makes his decisions


on the basis described by classic


economic theory.


largely


The ranchette or sub-


division farmer has normally moved to the country for other reasons than a


desire to farm


may be


per se.


important, hi


to buy land and


While the desire to own land and grow his own food

operation is minimally commercial and the money used


equipment is earned off-farm


in many ways, a


"hobby" farmer.


In contrast to both the agribusinessman and the ranchette


farmer,


small,


family farmer pi


aces


a high value on farming as a way


of life


. His operation is commercial


and profit


one of his goal


s, but


maintaining the farm


as a home is al


critical


, In the face of high


risk or the need to carry high debt


he may well


loads in order to maximize profit,


prefer to forego the opportunity to maximize profit if doing


so assures him of


survival.


The opportunities to avail


for small,


themsel


ves


family farmers for other reasons


of new technology are


as well.


limited


large scale,


commercial


farmer has a high volume of production, and has the capital


financing that permits him to purchase "state of the art"technology.


Much research is oriented to this


scal


of operation.


The ranchette


farmer is more concerned with production for home consumption.


The in-


formation


he needs


is available


e, and


he is


generally well


aware of


how to utilize the public and private servi


the small,


available to


family farmer who has been "left out"


of technology for the


last 20-25 years.


him.


in the development


Much of the research which






-5-


farms, so "state of the art" technology is not available to this group.1/

Further, the scale of operation has not permitted the small family

farmer to compete successfully as profit becomes more and more a function

of high volume production.

Although small operations were found in all six counties, survey


results indicated larger numbers in Suwannee and Columbia county


Coin-


cidentally, these counties are ideally located between Gainesville and the


Live Oak Agricultural Research Station.


Because of these considerations,


Suwannee and Columbia counties were chosen as the primary areas of inter-

est.


Sondeo


The primary purpose of a Sondeo or "sounding out" is the rapid compil-

ation of data necessary to orient an effective program to provide relevant


and realistic solutions to farm problems.


Suwannee and Columbia counties i


The recent Sondeo conducted in


the first step in the North Florida FSR/E


Project directed towards development and promotion of agricultural tech-

nology for small and/or limited resource farmers.

The strength of the Sondeo procedure is the representation of a num-

ber of disciplines; the more that are represented, the higher the proba-


abilities of unearthing real problems and generating acceptable


solutions


in an efficient and timely manner.








Sondeo activities


in Suwannee and Columbia county


began during the


week of


June


1981


. An average of two teams


compri


sed of two or three


persons each wa


in the field three days a week until


July


1981.


Sixty-


farm interviews were conducted


as well


as interviews with county Exten-


sion personnel,


other community


leaders, and persons knowledgeable


about


area agriculture.


Interview length averaged


hours.


Results


Sondeo results


led to a


further differentiation among groups of small,


family farmers


system (


see


veral


Figure


patterns of interest emerged.


1) which serves


A classification


identify target groups for technol-


ogy development and transfer on the basis of both socio-economi


duction factors has been developed.


and pro-


There are three production systems:


"livestock-centered"


"crop-centered"


and "mixed"


o These systems repre-


sent significant


social


and economic


differences among the farm operations


encountered


, especially with respect to resources and the management of


the farm


Observations indicate these


differences reflect variation in


terms of how farmers view and value their farm practi


ces,


and differences


in their social


networks.


uch networks represent


access


to labor


especially kin-based labor)


credit,


land, equipment, and other variable


important to a


farm operations.


Kinship, neighbor,


and local


community


political


social


structures are major


elements


influencing the structure


of these networks.


"Old-Line"


"Recently Established" Small


Farmers





FARMER


Recently
Established


BLACK


14
(21.2%)


WHITE


(7.6%)


9
(13.6%)


BLACK


at(


21
(31.


C2
(3.1%)


M 3 LO C3 M 3 L3 C 9 M 10
(4.5%) (4.5%) (4.5%) (4.5%) (13.6%) (15.


OLD-LINE


- Two or more generations on land, established kin/social networks i


RECENTLY ESTABLISHED


- First generation on land, new to area, no established


- Livestock-centered enterprise
- Crop-centered enterprise
- Livestock/crop mixed enterprise


Average Acreage per Farm Classification


- 200
- 161
- 110


- 222
- 226


REBL
REBM
REBC


- 154
- 105


REWL
REWM
REWC


- 221
- 367
- 104


- 143


OLD-LINE


- 219


- 184


REB 134


RECENTLY ESTABLISHED


- 230


- 196


BLACK


- 141


WHITE


- 221


1 ___~_
____


_ __






-8-


part of a local, established network of kin, has bought or inherited land

held within his/her family for two or more generations, and is socially in-


corporate within the local community.


A farmer is classified as recently


established if he is an "outsider" (does not have membership in a local


established kin network), is not


southern, and/or has had to obtain land


from a stranger or non-related individual.


o -- Selected Characteristics of the "Recentl


"01d-Line" Farms


Characteristics


Kin/Social
Networks

Land



Labor and Custom
Operations


Cash and Capital









Frequency in
Sample


Established" and


Farm Group


Old-Line


Recently Established


ur p-r---


Strong


Slightly smaller (184


Frequent


acres


inherited or


purchased from family


Family


labor


More assured availability
Highly motivated

Low investment in land and
equipment
Low cash flow
Low indebtedness in land
and equipment
Informal loan arrangements

Very risk averse
Share equipment

Higher (79%)


Weak

Slightly larger (196 acres)
Purchased on open market


Hired labor
Uncertain availability
Indifferent

High investment in land and
equipment
High cash flow
High indebtedness in land and
equipment
Institutionalized loan arrange-
ments
Less risk averse
Purchase or hire equipment

Lower (21%)


Old-line farmers (79% of the sample) tend to be Dart of well established


Table 1


_ __..___









all the tobacco allotments.


On the other hand, these ties also bring added


responsibility; reciprocal labor in tobacco harvesting may mean a farmer is

working continuously for several weeks even though his own allotment is


small o


Among the recently established group, such ties are much less devel-


oped and goods and services are supplied on a


cash basis o


This group has


more limited


access


to less expensive kin-based labor, to local community


power figures who make agricultural decisions or influence markets, and to


shared equipment than do old-line farmers.


The latter exchange these re-


sources along their social networks with considerable savings.


The kinds of differences described above


extend into many areas.


01d-


line farmers acquire part or all their land from family members, whereas


new farmers have to purchase their land on the open market.


Even when old-line


farmers purchase land, family


members may sell more cheaply t


kin, and often


at lower interest rates and with flexible, non-institutional payment


sched-


ules.


Some land is also inherited.


This both lowers the debt load of the


old-line farmer in compare


son to the recently established farmer, and


gives a slight advantage in terms of farm si


Sharing equipment similarly decreases the relative indebtedness of


the old-line


farmer compared to the recently established farmer.


Partly


because of this lower indebtedness


cash flow i


and partly because of risk aversion,


much lower for old-line farmers.


There are also differences in arrangements for labor and custom oper-


ationso


since old-line farmers often use family labor


is relatively well assured.


Recently established farm


, their labor supply

ers must







-10-

Black and White Farmers

The separation in Figure 1, based on race, (Table 2), represents a


historic division in Southern culture.


Some black farmers feel certain


production outlets, for example watermelons, are "white-controlled".


These


perceptions may influence their evaluation of risks and opportunities to


try other production enterprises.


Black farmers, in general, own older,


specialized equipment than do white farmers.


They own less land than


white farmers and are less apt to irrigate. White farmers have greater

access to capital and higher capital investments. On the other hand, black

farmers share capital much more freely within their kin units than do white


farmers.


They also rely more heavily on non-paid kin labor.


There may be


important constraints on black farmers based upon the bonds of obligatory


sharing that their culture prescribes.


Sharing capital, land, labor and


equipment has permitted black farmers to maintain their farms despite the

severe constraints facing each individual farmer.


Tabl


-- Se


elected Characteristics of Black and White Farms


Black Farms


Predominantly crop centered

Small (141 acres)

Less capital availability


Greater labor availability (sharing


High frequency of tobacco-centered
systems with small allotments


White Farms


Predominantly livestock centered

Larger (221 acres)

More capital availability


Less Labor

Larger tobacco acreage


I,,,,,,,,,,., L ,,,,, L, L~


.,.. r






-11-


Production System


The third separation in Figure


delineates the production modes of


the farmers.


Social


networks and their influence on access


to capital,


labor and other inputs are related to whether a farmer is old-line or re-


cently established, and to race.


These social


variable


in turn,


influence


the production


tem.


Owing to smaller acreage and, perhaps,


of black farmers with crops,


the historical


42% of the black farming system


experience


are crop-


centered


White farming systems,


in contrast, are primarily


livestock-


centered


(35%) with only a small


Fully, half of the small


farms vi


proportion (10%) centered on crops.


ited, black or white operated,


mixed crop-livestock


teams


Whil


both black and white farmers rai


tobacco,


black farmers are


apt to plant small


acreages, usually limited to their own allotments.


White farmers however,


that it i


not economical


to plant such small


acreages and


either rent out their allotments or consolidate several allot-


ments into


larger acreages.


Black farmers may be abl


to continue with


small


acreages because they do not own new, expensive machinery and be-


cause they have access


to kin


labor.


Very few black farmers plant peanuts for commercial


whereas many


white farmers do


of black-owned farms


This


tied to the skewed geographic distribution


Peanuts are grown in southern


uwannee and Columbia


counties


where few black farms occur.


Black farms are,


for the most part,


outside the peanut production zone, concentrated on and near old planta-





-12-


high input crops.


Even though the acreage planted


in peanuts or tobacco


may be small,


the high value and guaranteed market for these crops means


that disproportionate demands

The farmer must always take i


on the farmer and his resources are made.


nto consideration the needed cash flow so


that other crops that compete with them at peak cash demand receive


er priority.


low-


Even more important are the demands of these crops from


managerial


time and labor.


Because these are also scarce resources,


their


demand places severe constraints on the system.


Further, both tobacco and


peanuts


should be planted in rotation, on different


land each year.


Most


peanut farmers and


ome tobacco farmer


Again,


this pi


aces


additional


constraint on


land use


in the overall


farming


tem.


While


innovation in tobacco or peanut production per


an important part of the FSR/E Program,


must be kept in mind.


importance of the


Innovations in other farm enterprises


may not be

se crops

must take


into account the constraints imposed on the overall


system by tobacco or


peanut production.


shown in


Tabl e


, hogs and associated corn production are key ele-


ments


in almost all


farms and offer exce


llent opportunities for technology


devel opment.


However,


the kind


of differences


in capital


and labor con-


strains between black and white farmers may well


require somewhat


differ-


ent approaches.






-13-


Table


-- Frequency of Selected Enterprises and Disposition of Product,
Small Farmers, Suwannee and Columbia Counties


Enterprise


Frequency


Hogs


Corn

Vegetabi


Disposition


On-Farm Use


Sold Off-Farm


Based, in all
Based, in all


cases


on a sample of 66


Corn (Table 4) has traditionally been an important crop not only because

the technology for its production is relatively simple and well known, but


also because it provides alternatives and fl


exibility to the farmer; it can


be grazed off, fed to livestock as grain or silage, stored, or sold as a


cash crop.


As the local corn market has become more and more


subject to


pricing in the national and international markets, and as relative costs


of corn production have increased in Florida, corn has become 1


and profitable.


versatile


Drought conditions over the last 4 years have exacerbated


the problem.


Table 4.,


-- Aspects of the Corn
Columbia Counties


Enterprise


Small Farmers, Suwannee and


Farm Class Type % Farms % On-Farm % Sale
(Number) With Corn Use

Old-line Black (21) 81.0 66.7 333
Old-line White (31) 75.2 48.4 35.5
r - .. . L i--. r t






-14-


Vegetable production (Table 5), both for on-farm consumption and commer-


cial

cial


sales,


is very common to both black and white farming systems.


production however,


is critical


Commer-


black farmers with more than


half of thi


group producing vegetables for sal


Tabi


-- Aspects of Vegetabl
Columbia Counties


Production


Small


Farms, Suwannee and


Farm Class Type % Farms with Vegetables % Sale
(Number).

Old-line Black (21) 85.7 52.4
Old-line White (31) 67.7 22.6
Recently estab-
lished Black ( 5) 100.0 60.0
Recently estab-
lished White ( 9) 66.7 33.3

Black Total (26) 88.5 53.8
White Total (40) 67.5 25.0

Overall Total (66) 75.8 36.4


The number of farmers in North Florida using irrigation has risen sharply


in the


last two years due to


lack of rainfall.


The farmers who are


installing


irrigation represent a group with sufficient resource flexibility to overcome


unpredictable


variable.


Limited resource farmers who cannot make this


change have experienced severe, consecutive


losses.


Discussion


Sondeo results


group


how that the old-line


For emphasis within the FSR/E Program


the sample group and represents


that


farmer should be a major

o This category predominates in


segment of the farm population which






-15-


facing those categorized


as old-line will allow for easier transfer of that


technology to recently established farmers who utilize similar production


systems, but face less stringent constraints.


One specific target group


indicated by the Sondeo is the old-line white farmers who are livestock


oriented, with primary emphasis


on cattle production.


Another i


the old-


line black farmers who are primarily crop oriented with emphasis on vege-


tables


A third group


and perhaps the most important,


is the old-line


mixed crop-livestock farmers


both black and white, who together comprise


nearly half the sample.


Many farmers


, large and small


store


desire and need for diver-


sification.


Family farms in North Florida do exhibit diversified farming


systems with a wide variety of crop and animal combinations.


Swine and


cattle play a vital role on many small farms, often even in peanut or


tobacco-centered systems.


Corn production and the high acreage devoted


to hay and pasture both reflect the importance of animal


One key fac-


tor, then, is to include and increase the viability of the livestock com-

ponent within the overall farming systems.


The small family farmer


ital


stresses


the importance of low risk, low cap-


, low labor, and low management farm operations0


While it may not be


possible to devise innovations that satisfy all these concerns

solution must address a substantial number of these factors.


, any possible

High manage-


ment time and skills or unlimited capital resources, for example, cannot


be assumed to be available.


Acceptability to the farmer is the focal point


of innovation, and acceptance


will certainly be based upon innovations






-16-


The Sondeo has permitted us to identify appropriate target groups and


a guideline for technology development.


However, the Sondeo is no more


than an introduction to the farmers and their problems and an initial basis


for orienting problem solution.


next phase


The process of learning continues in the


- on farm research, farm records and continued contact with the


farmers.


As we become acquainted on a first-hand basi


with the farmers,


their problems and conditions, we will be abl


to modify our research acti-


viti


comply


as new knowledge is gained


exes


The understanding of the agro-socioeconomic


of the small, family farm sector we obtain by these methods, will be


even more critical as we approach the technology transfer stage.


Proposed Projects as Indicated by the Sondeo


Socio-Economic Studies


General Information Transfer


This is a continuing activity and involves a constant interaction

with area farmers, primarily by the anthropologist, but with active partici-


pationof all the members of the inter-disciplinary team0.


Information flow


is both to and from the farmers.

Information transfer studies will include comparison of black and

white kin and social networks and information transfer mechanisms in order

to more completely identify resources and constraints found in the various


farmer groups.


The kinds of differences in capital and labor constraints


between black and white farmers, for example, may require somewhat differ-


- -






-17-



Enterprise Records

Cooperating farmers will be asked to keep records on enterprises


specific interest to the program.


These budgets will be used as a


basi


of comparison for analyzing new technology as it i


being tested and


will also provide basic information for general budgeting purposes.


graduate assistant will have primary responsibility for initiating this

project.


Ad-Valorum Taxes


A study will be initiated to determine the effect of ad-valorum


taxes on the small farms in the study area.


Specifically, the effects of


greenbelt assessment on the decline of small farm numbers will be studied.


Do Marketing

Studies of marketing alternatives available to area farmers, par-


ticularly in conjunction with modular vegetable


production systems, will


provide a guide for further directions of research and extension.


II. Cropping Studies


Ao Modular Intercropping System

A modular system designed around 42-inch rows and a small one


row tractor will be studied at the Live Oak Research Station.


Inter-crop-


ping will be utilized to increase efficiency of fertilizer use, decrease

the use of pesticides, intensify farming operations, and spread risk.


r.....2r2..~I .L1 .2 3 -- ,


..___I, L 'I


I





-18-






ince 90% of old-line black farms are crop-centered or mixed, with 45%


producing vegetabi


should be directed toward


for commercial


e, modular cropping system research


this group and should include vegetable


produc-


tion as a key element.


However,


the technology developed


should be trans-


ferable to other classifications


Machinery


Simple


and inexpensive equipment will


be designed around a 20 hp


tractor


similar to that used by many small


farmers


in the area.


The equip-


ment will


be designed for the


modular system, but will


be flexible so it


can be adapted to conventional


systems


should that prove


more appropriate.


Interest in


cost, reduced tillage agriculture suitable for


smaller equipment with parts readily availabi


strongly and this will


on farms was evidenced very


be included in the study.


Irrigation


cost, small


scale


irrigation systems will


be studied as one


means of increasing the intensity of operations on small


farms and reduc-


ing ri


. Low cost,


low input irrigation


terns for high income crops,


conjunction with alternate fuel


sources, will


be investigated.


Nutrient Recycling


This project will


be conducted both on the campu


and at Live Oak


A nr .. -I, ^ I-n r4-m.Anrf ?rt4.e r- n.J 4\ n r ^n4-^^v\ 4nn *.,44. kI e t m lrn


rl h il~\ll~mnn~~ f~






-19-


Eo On-Farm Trials


At least ten on-farm trial


are planned for the year.


Most of


these will be in the specific


study area, but some may be on farms in sur-


rounding counties to obtain broader regional response information.


nature of the trials remains to be determined, but may include some of the

following:


The use of alternate feed crops such as sorghum and


pigeon pea as a means of penetrating compaction layers

of soil.


Establishment of perennial peanut and intercropping in


previously established stands.


Variety trials under


specific small farm conditions.


example, corn has traditionally been a cash crop in the


sample


area.


Interviews have indicated a need for testing


corn varieties under non-irrigated, low input, local condi-

tions.

Soil type and farming systems.


For the farming


systems chosen for study


the soils will be clas-


sified to determine any

systems and soil type.


specific relationships which may exist between the

If small farms predominately are found on poorer


soils or on any specific type of soils, this will facilitate crop and live-


stock research efforts


o Soil types versus farming systems studio


will


provide a valuable tool for future recommendations


is nearing completion)


(A preliminary study


In addition, the study will examine soil compac-






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III.


Livestock Studies


Catti


Systems


Alternate forage systems.


Examination of alternative forage


teams to include perennial peanut, leucaena, and others.


would incorporate adaptable


These systems


low cost, energy efficient concepts.


Swine


The corn-hog association is of great importance to the small farms


in the


urvey region.


More than half the farmers surveyed produce swine and


of them produce feed (corn) on their own farms.


Management.


In many


cases


swine production techniques and


facilities


are rustic.


For example, either poor or non-existent farrowing


facilities were noted at most farms which produced their own litters.


may be a result of the lack of information available


extension service


through the existing


, or it may indicate the need for modifications in recom-


mended facilities to make them more appropriate to the conditions of these


producers.


The FSR/E team will work with county Extension personnel to test


a means of disseminating available information to thi


unique target group


as well as test the acceptability of recommended facilities.


Corn processing.


One major constraint in the corn-hog


asso-


citation has been the need for the farmer to utilize off-farm facilities for


drying, storing, grinding, and mixing hi


corn for feed.


The resulting


negative


cash-flows involved have drastically reduced the profit margin for


hog production


Investigation of high moisture grain storage a


well as in-


clusion of grinding, mixing, and storage facilities within the farm bound-





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alternate crops which could be


integrated into present swine systems,


eluding sorghum, wheat, soybeans, pigeon pea, and others


will


be conducted.


Nutrition studies.


Nutrition studies will


be conducted in


conjunction with the Swine Unit at Live Oak Research Center.


studied will


Specifically


be the feasibility of feeding mixes of alternate feed crops


such as pigeon pea, wheat and grain sorghum.