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Meeting the Information Needs of the American People: Past Actions and Future Initiatives

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Title:
Meeting the Information Needs of the American People: Past Actions and Future Initiatives
Creator:
Russell, Judith Coffey
Davenport, Nancy
Place of Publication:
Washington, D. C.
Publisher:
U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS)
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
U.S. Government Publication

Notes

Abstract:
In the FY2007 and FY2008 Budgets, the President recommended that the National Commission on Libraries and Information Sciences (NCLIS) be consolidated with the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). In FY2007, while waiting for Congressional action on the proposal in the President’s FY2008 Budget, the Commission recognized the need to summarize its work and document its accomplishments in anticipation of a change in its status. Background and Historical Information are included in the first section of the report. Key statutory functions of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) are summarized as: (1) NCLIS discovers the needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information services; (2) NCLIS translates those needs into recommended national policy to meet needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information services; and (3) NCLIS advises the President, the Congress, state and local governments, and others on implementation of national policy. To carry out its functions, NCLIS conducts studies, surveys, and analyses of the nation’s library and information needs, appraises the adequacies and deficiencies of the current library and information resources and research and development activities, conducts hearings, and issues publications. The final section of the report discusses a recommended research agenda to meet needs expressed by multiple sectors of the information community. From interviews and recommendations elicited from the information community, a specific research agenda emerged that clustered around four broad topics: Public Libraries: Their Changing Role in U.S. Society and Measuring Their Societal Value; Digital Libraries; Building and Sharing Collections; and Disaster Planning and Relief Efforts. Each of the recommendations is keyed to the purpose of ensuring an informed American public with adequate access to information for decision-making, civic engagement, and a higher quality of life. Seven appendixes are included: (1) Enabling Legislation; (2) NCLIS Chairs; (3) Current Commissioners; (4) Former Commissioners; (5) Senior Staff; (6) NCLIS Publications; and (7) NCLIS Timeline. ( English )
Acquisition:
Collected for University of Florida’s Institutional Repository by the UFIR Self-Submittal tool. Submitted by Judith Russell.
General Note:
A report based on research sponsored by the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science conducted by Nancy Davenport and Judith Russell on behalf of Information International Associates, Inc., under contracts ED-07-PO-0751 and ED-07-PO-0752.

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University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida Institutional Repository
Rights Management:
Permissions granted to the University of Florida Institutional Repository and University of Florida Digital Collections to allow use by the submitter. This publication is in the public domain as defined under Title 17 USC §105.
Resource Identifier:
219723075 ( OCLC )

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Meeting the Information Needs
of the American People:
Past Actions and Future Initiatives


- 4
A


March 200
U.S Naioa Co m ssino irre n Infrato Sce e
:180 M Stret NV Sut 5IothTwr ahngoD 03












NCLIS


Phone: 1202) 606-9200 Fax: (202) 606-9203
E-Mail: info( ncdis.gov *Web: ,,,:h. /


U.S. National Commission on
Libraries and Information Science


1800 M Street, NW. Suite 350 North Tower
v. ,.-,,r,,;.:,,.. DC 20036-5841


The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science is a permanent, independent agency of the
federal government, established in 1970 with the enactment of Public Law 91-345. The Commission is charged
with:
Advising the President and the Congress on the implementation of policy
Conducting studies, surveys, and analyses of the library and informational needs of the nation
Appraising the adequacies and deficiencies of current library and information resources and services
Developing overall plans for meeting national library and informational needs.

The Commission also advises Federal, state, and local governments, and other public and private organizations,
regarding library and information sciences, including consultations on relevant treaties, international
agreements, and implementing legislation, and it promotes research and development activities that will extend
and improve the nation's library and information handling capability as essential links in the national and
international networks.

Commissioners and Staff include:

C. Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D., Chairman
Bridget L. Lamont, Vice Chairman


Jose A. Aponte
Jan Cellucci
Patricia M. Hines
Mary H. Perdue


Sandra F. Ashworth
Carol L. Diehl
Colleen E. Huebner, Ph.D., MPH
S. Diane Rivers, Ph.D.


Edward L. Bertorelli
Allison Druin, Ph.D.
Stephen M. Kennedy
Herman L. Totten, Ph.D.


James H. Billington, Ph.D.
Librarian of Congress
Deanna Marcum, Ph.D.
Alternate for Dr. Billington


Anne-Imelda M. Radice, Ph.D.
Director, Institute of Museum
and Library Services


Madeleine C. McCain
Director of Operations
Acting Executive Director


Kim A. Miller
Special Assistant Technical


Joseph J. Dyer
Management Operations Analyst


Disclaimer
The views, opinions, and recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect official position or policy of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information
Science.

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirement of American National Standard for
Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials.

Citation
U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science.
Meeting the information needs of the American people: past actions and future initiatives; a report based on
research sponsored by the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and conducted by
Nancy Davenport and Judith Russell on behalf of Information International Associates, Inc.
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008.


Cover design by Terri Lloyd.










U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE:
PAST ACTIONS AND FUTURE INITIATIVES







A Report Based on Research Sponsored by the
U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science
Conducted by Nancy Davenport and Judith Russell
On Behalf of Information International Associates, Inc.
Under Contracts ED-07-PO-0751 and ED-07-PO-0752


















U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
1800 M STREET, NW, SUITE 350, NORTH TOWER, WASHINGTON, DC 20036























































































For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800
Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC, Washington, DC 20402-0001

ISBN 978-0-16-080304-8









Phone: Q2021 606-9200 Fax: (202) 606-9203
W ~ NX C LIS E-Mail 4i ..'.. 1 .*... Web wwwnclis.gov
U.S. National Commission on 1800 M Street, NW. Suite 350 North Tower
Libraries and Information Science V.,.,I,,:1 .., DC 20036-5841


March 2008


The President
The White House
Washington, DC 20500

The Vice President
The United States Senate
Washington, DC 20510

The Speaker of the House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
Washington, DC 20515

Dear Mr. President, Mr. Vice President, and Madam Speaker:

The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science was established by Congress in
1970 as an independent agency to advise the President and Congress on information policy issues. I am
honored to have served as the Chairman of the Commission since January 28, 2004.

Over the last 37 years the Commission has addressed through research, meetings of experts, and public
hearings most of the issues that have been encountered by the American public in their quest for information to
make decisions common in daily life, to participate in the democratic process, to educate their children, and to
seek health care for themselves and their families. We have studied the relationship of students' academic
achievements to the presence of a school library media center and a school librarian. We have looked at the
role of information in innovation and research and in daily commerce, before the Internet existed, and since it
has become the most used way to retrieve and send information. We have sent recommendations to the
President and the Congress in our reports and in our visits. We have seen changes in law affected as we
recommended.

This will be the final report from the U.S. National Commission on Library and Information Science. I
contracted this work when we were seeking advice to assist the Commissioners in deciding the research issues
we would undertake during the fiscal year. As events unfolded during the past few months, it became clear that
the report needed to serve two functions: (1) to document the history and accomplishments of the Commission
and (2) to remind the public and those who take up this mantle that the work of the Commission is not done. A
compelling future agenda for information policy research and development is also presented as part of this
report.

I salute the Commissioners, both former and current, who have served with distinction throughout the
life of the Commission and thank the staff for their dedication and hard work on behalf of the American public.
The Commission has been led by extraordinarily gifted men and women, and I have been privileged to have
been advised by them and count them as my friends.

Sincerely,


Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D.
Commission Chair






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE




Table of Contents

E x ecutiv e Su m m ary ....................................................... .................................................. iii
H historical C contributions of N CLIS.................................... ........................ .............. iii
Inform ation A access for the Am erican Public................................................... .............. iv
Acknowledgments ........................................ ........... ........................... .. v
I. B a c k g ro u n d ............... ...................................................................................................... 1
II. H historical C contributions of N CL IS ..................................... ...................... .............. 3
N CLIS Positions on Inform ation Policy ................................... ..................... .............. 3
B background ..................................................................... .................. 3
The First D ecade: 1970-1979 .................................................................... .............. 4
The Second D ecade: 1980-1989 ....................................... ........................ .............. 6
T he T third D decade: 1990-1999 .................................... ......................... ... ................. 11
The Final Y ears: 2000-2008 .................................................................. .............. 14
Principles of Public Inform ation ...................................... ....................... .............. 20
Inform ation Access for the Am erican Public.................................................. .............. 22
B a c k g ro u n d ................................................................................................................. ... 2 2
T he F irst D ecade: 1970-1979......................................... ......................... .............. 22
The Second D ecade: 1980-1989 ...................................... ....................... .............. 24
The Third D decade: 1990-1999 .................................... ......................... .............. 26
T he F inal D ecade: 2000-2008.................................................................... .............. 28
Measuring Libraries and Access to Information...................................................... 33
NCLIS Role in the White House Conferences on Libraries and Information Science....... 34
The First White House Conference on Library and Information Services, 1979 .......... 34
The Second White House Conference on Library and Information Services, 1991...... 37
III. Future R research A genda ... ...................................................................... .............. 40
N CLIS Future R research Topics .................................................................. .............. 40
In tro d u ctio n ................................................................................................................. ... 4 0
M methodology ...................... . .... ..... ..... ................................. 40
Topic for Research: Public Libraries, Their Changing Role in U.S. Society and
M easuring T heir Societal V alue .................................................................................... 4 1
Topic for R research: D igital Libraries ....................................................... .............. 43
Topic for Research: Building and Sharing Collections .......................................... 45
Topic for Research: Disaster Planning and Relief Efforts...................................... 46
Other Areas of Research Recommended to the Commission.................................. 46
A ppendix A E enabling L legislation ....................................... ........................ .............. A -1
A ppendix B N C L IS C hairs ....................................................................................... B -1
A ppendix C Current Com m issioners..................................... ...................... .............. C-1
A ppendix D Form er Com m issioners ..................................... ...................... .............. D -I
Appendix E. Senior Staff ...................... ............ ............................. E-
A ppendix F N C L IS Publications ......................................... ........................ ................ F-i
A ppendix G N CLIS Tim eline. .................................................................. .............. G -1






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Executive Summary
In the FY2007 and FY2008 Budgets, the President recommended that the National
Commission on Libraries and Information Sciences (NCLIS) be consolidated with the
Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). In FY2007, while waiting for
Congressional action on the proposal in the President's FY2008 Budget, the Commission
recognized the need to summarize its work and document its accomplishments in anticipation
of a change in its status.

To document its past contributions, the Commission performed an analysis of its policy
recommendations, research initiatives, and other past actions in fulfillment of its mission.
Looking to the future, the Commission also identified and prioritized the two or three
information policy issues that should be addressed during FY2008. This was done with the
expectation that, should NCLIS remain an independent agency, it would address these issues
to the best of its ability with the funds it received. If the consolidation with IMLS was
authorized by Congress, NCLIS intended to utilize this information to advise IMLS on the
need for action on these policy issues.

Public Law 110-161, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2008, provided funds
for the Commission to close. The accompanying language in Senate Report 110-107 stated:
"The administration budget for fiscal year 2008 requested that NCLIS be eliminated and the
activities of the Commission be taken over by the Institute for Museum and Library Services.
The Committee concurs with this request and has included $400,000 for close out activities."
At this critical point in the history of the Commission, as it completes the complex activities
necessary to close down a federal agency, documenting the significant contributions that it
has made and identifying important issues that still need to be addressed are essential
transition activities. This document, which will be the final publication of the Commission,
serves both purposes. It provides a historical overview of the accomplishments of a small and
modestly funded Commission with a large and vital responsibility to address the information
needs of the American public, and it also summarizes the results of a survey of opinion
leaders in the fields of library and information science, who offered their advice on the most
important issues that should be addressed in the next twelve to eighteen months.

Historical Contributions of NCLIS

The key statutory functions of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information
Science (NCLIS) can be summarized as follows:

1. NCLIS discovers the needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information
services.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


2. NCLIS translates those needs into recommended national policy to meet needs of the
people of the U.S. for library and information services.
3. NCLIS advises the President, the Congress, state and local governments, and others
on implementation of national policy.

NCLIS is not a regulatory or operating agency. To carry out the above functions, it conducts
studies, surveys, and analyses of the nation's library and information needs, appraises the
adequacies and deficiencies of the current library and information resources and research and
development activities, conducts hearings, and issues publications. These activities support
the development of policy advice and recommendations to the President, the Congress, and
others.

This section summarizes the historical contributions of NCLIS to information policy and to
information access and its supporting infrastructure, as well as the Commission's role in two
White House Conferences on Libraries and Information Services, one in 1979 and another in
1991. It documents selected policy positions and actions of the Commission, as well as many
of its hearings, studies, surveys, and other activities in fulfillment of its mission. (Refer to
Appendix G for a table summarizing NCLIS events from 1970 2008.)

Information Access for the American Public

NCLIS developed a forward looking research agenda that would have the support of and
meet needs expressed by multiple sectors of the information community. From interviews
and recommendations elicited from the information community, a specific research agenda
emerged that clustered around four broad topics: Public Libraries: Their Changing Role in
U.S. Society and Measuring Their Societal Value; Digital Libraries; Building and Sharing
Collections; and Disaster Planning and Relief Efforts.

Each of the recommendations is keyed to the purpose of NCLIS-policy development that
ensures an informed American public with adequate access to information for decision-
making, civic engagement, and a higher quality of life. Interviewees were asked to describe
an issue or an obstacle that if removed or ameliorated would facilitate their work in the
information community, whether it was in the public, private or academic sector. Underlying
each issue is a public policy question-the legislative mandate of NCLIS or its successor
agency-to be resolved.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Acknowledgments

I would like to thank all of the former Commissioners and staff. The quality and value of
your work is apparent from the accomplishments summarized in this report. I would also
like to express gratitude to the many individuals and organizations who have participated in
and supported the work of the Commission through the years and to the staff at the U.S.
Department of Education.

I must acknowledge the current staff who have supported us so ably during our tenure as
Commissioners and are traveling with us to the finish line on March 30, 2008. In particular, I
would like to acknowledge the efforts of Kim Miller and Madeleine McCain. Serving the
Commission since July 1990, Kim has played a significant role in the operation of the
Commission office, development of its website, and providing outstanding support to the
library statistics program. As Director of Operations since 2002, Madeleine has sustained the
activities of the Commission while managing all the administrative challenges of meeting the
requirements of a Federal agency. As this report is being published, she is skillfully leading
us through the myriad of tasks and complexities to close the Commission.

For this report, NCLIS contracted with Information International Associates, Inc. (IIa), and I
would like to thank IIa and the two individuals who prepared the report: Judith Russell,
former Deputy Director of NCLIS and now Dean of Libraries at the University of Florida
and Nancy Davenport, former Commissioner acting on behalf of the Librarian of Congress
who holds a statutory seat on the Commission, and now Interim Director of Library Services
at the District of Columbia Public Library.

Finally, I must thank the Commissioners who have served with me. It has been a great honor
to share with you the important work of this Commission in addressing the information needs
of the American people. I am grateful for your support, your counsel, and your friendship.

C. Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D.
Ann Arbor, Michigan
February 20, 2008






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Meeting the Information Needs of the American People:
Past Actions and Future Initiatives



I. Background
The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) is a
permanent, independent agency of the federal government, established in 1970 by Public
Law 91-345, to advise the President and Congress, as well as other Federal, State, local, and
private agencies, on national and international library and information policies. In
establishing the Commission, Congress affirmed that "library and information services
adequate to meet the needs of the people of the United States are essential to achieve national
goals and to utilize most effectively the nation's educational resources and that the federal
government will cooperate with State and local governments and public and private agencies
in assuring optimum provision of such services."

NCLIS is responsible for addressing the information and learning the needs of the American
people, not through implementation of specific programs, but rather though analysis and
advice to others. Specifically, the Commission is authorized to:

Conduct studies, surveys, and analyses of the library and informational needs of the
nation;
Appraise the adequacies and deficiencies of current library and information resources
and services;
Evaluate the effectiveness of current library and information science programs;
Develop overall plans for meeting national library and information needs; and
Promote research and development activities which will extend and improve the
nation's library and information-handling capability.

The Commission consists of fourteen part-time members who are appointed by the President,
with the advice and consent of the Senate, as well as the Librarian of Congress and the
Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). It is supported by a small
professional staff. Though its mission is broad, addressing issues that affect every American,
the resources available to the Commission are modest. Only twice since its inception has its
annual appropriation exceeded $1 million. As a result, the Commission has always prioritized
its activities to address a few key issues each year. Nevertheless, when viewed in its totality,
the range of the issues it has addressed and its ability to bring national attention to issues in
the increasingly important and rapidly changing environment of library and information
science has been impressive.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Through the FY2007 and FY2008 Budgets, the President recommended that NCLIS be
consolidated with IMLS. Since the Commission is a permanent, independent agency, such a
consolidation could not occur except through enactment of enabling legislation by the U.S.
Congress. Although the legislation governing the Commission has not been amended, the
FY2008 appropriations bill (H.R. 2764, Public Law 110-161) provided funding only for
close out activities of the Commission. That effort is now in process. Report language
accompanying H.R. 2764 Consolidated Appropriations Act, Fiscal Year 2008 gives the
IMLS the authority and resources to carry out the mission of the Commission: "The
Appropriations Committees concur with language included in the House report that gives the
Institute of Museum and Library Services the authority and resources to carry out the mission
of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science."

In FY2007, while waiting for Congressional action on the proposal in the President's FY2008
Budget, the Commission recognized the need to summarize its work and document its
accomplishments in anticipation of a change in its status. It also recognized its responsibility
to continue to fulfill its legislative mandate by identifying a research agenda on information
policy issues that affect the American public's access to information even as it prepared for
the contingency of a consolidation with IMLS.

To document its past contributions, the Commission contracted for an analysis of its policy
recommendations, research initiatives, and other past actions in fulfillment of its mission.
Looking to the future, the Commission sought to identify and prioritize the two or three
information policy issues that should be addressed during FY2008, with the expectation that,
should NCLIS remain an independent agency, it would address these issues to the best of its
ability with the funds it received. If the consolidation with IMLS was authorized by
Congress, NCLIS intended to utilize this information to advise IMLS on the need for action
on these policy issues.

At this critical point in the history of the Commission, as it completes the complex activities
necessary to close down a federal agency, documenting the significant contributions that it
has made and identifying important issues that still need to be addressed are essential
transition activities. This document, which will be the final publication of the Commission,
serves both purposes. It provides a historical overview of the accomplishments of a small and
modestly funded Commission with a large and vital responsibility to address the information
needs of the American public, and it also summarizes the results of a survey of opinion
leaders in the fields of library and information science, who offered their advice on the most
important issues that should be addressed in the next twelve to eighteen months.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


II. Historical Contributions of NCLIS
The key statutory functions of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information
Science (NCLIS) can be summarized as follows:

NCLIS discovers the needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information
services.
NCLIS translates those needs into recommended national policy to meet needs of the
people of the U.S. for library and information services.
NCLIS advises the President, the Congress, state and local governments, and others
on implementation of national policy.

NCLIS is not a regulatory or operating agency. To carry out the above functions, it conducts
studies, surveys, and analyses of the nation's library and information needs, appraises the
adequacies and deficiencies of the current library and information resources and research and
development activities, conducts hearings, and issues publications. These activities support
the development of policy advice and recommendations to the President, the Congress, and
others.

This section summarizes the historical contributions of NCLIS to information policy and to
information access and its supporting infrastructure, as well as the Commission's role in the
White House Conferences on Libraries and Information Services. It documents selected
policy positions and actions of the Commission, as well as many of its hearings, studies,
surveys, and other activities in fulfillment of its mission.



NCLIS Positions on Information Policy


Background
As an agency with a unique charge to advise both the President and the Congress on national
and international library and information policies, it is not surprising that the NCLIS has
focused on federal laws and policies relating to information throughout its history. It has paid
special attention to laws and policies affecting public access to government information.

Created in 1970, the first Commissioners were appointed in May 1971, and the first
employee was hired in August of that year. The first Commission meeting was held on
September 20, 1971 in Washington, DC. In keeping with its statutory mandate, NCLIS
established the pattern that would be repeated throughout the years. It identified problems
and opportunities and recommended solutions, including the appropriate agencies or
organizations to take action.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


The First Decade: 1970-1979
One of its earliest resolutions urged that the need for appropriate documentation and
bibliographical and other information resources should be recognized in federal programs
and called for executive orders and other directives that would include such support. It also
urged Congress to enact a Copyright Act revision that would resolve the issue of "fair use"
by libraries and library users, an issue that has reasserted itself in the digital age.

In its second year of operation, the Commission also made several significant
recommendations with respect to the Library of Congress (LC), including that the LC expand
its role as the national lending library of last resort and seek to "acquire, catalog, and process
for current and future use approximately eighty-five to ninety percent of the world output."
NCLIS recognized the importance of the emerging area of machine readable cataloging and
recommended the LC expand its coverage to "substantially all languages of ... materials
being acquired" by the Library and make these records available through "online
communication." NCLIS also identified the need for improved access to state and local
government publications and suggested that the LC could assist in the development of
policies and programs to make such publications "of greater benefit to various governmental
bodies of the nation and to the people served by those governments."

The Commission achieved a significant milestone in 1974 with the publication of its official
program document, Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services:
Goals for Action. After two years of preparation, including broad consultation with and input
from "institutions, associations and individuals from every segment of the library and
information community, as well as from executives, administrators, legislators and members
of the general public of all ages, from many walks of life, and from all over the country,"
NCLIS released the report that "lays the foundation and provides a framework for a balanced
evolutionary approach to achieving adequate library and information services for all." The
five assumptions, articulated in the report and summarized in the Annual Report of the
Commission for fiscal year 1974-1975, indeed established fundamental guidance that
informed the future work of the Commission:

First, that the total library and information resource in the United States is a
national resource which should be strengthened, organized, and made available to
the maximum degree possible in the public interest. This national resource is the
cumulated and growing record of much of our nation's and, indeed, the world's
total cultural experience intellectual, social, technological, and spiritual.

Second, that all people of the United States have the right, according to their
individual needs, to realistic and convenient access to this national resource for
their personal enrichment and achievement, and thereby for the progress of
society.

Third, that with the help of new technology and with national resolve, the
disparate and discrete collections of recorded information in the United States can
become, in due course, an integrated nationwide network.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Fourth, that the rights and interests of authors, publishers, and other providers of
information be recognized in the national program in ways that maintain their
economic and competitive viability.

Fifth, that legislation derived for the coherent development of library and
information services will not undermine constitutionally-protected rights of
personal privacy and intellectual freedom and will preserve local, state, and
regional autonomy.

These assumptions led the Commission to develop two major program objectives: (1) to
strengthen or create, where needed, the human and material resources that are supportive of
high quality library and information services; and (2) to join together the library and
information facilities in the country, through a common pattern of organization, uniform
standards, and shared communications, for forming a nationwide network. The Commission
recognized that the national library and information services were not yet organized in a
manner that met the needs of the nation as a whole and that the changes would come about
gradually, but it was satisfied that the library and information communities were prepared to
work together on these objectives. From this point forward, many of the Commission's
initiatives can be viewed through the prism of these assumptions and objectives.

In 1974, the Commission also joined with the U.S. Copyright Office to sponsor a Conference
on the Resolution of Copyright Issues. The conference brought together representatives of
"virtually every conceivable constituency with an interest in copyright" to seek a resolution
to the differences between librarians and publishers on library photocopying of copyrighted
material. In 1975, this group identified the need for more complete and accurate data on
library photocopying. With financial assistance from the National Science Foundation (NSF),
NCLIS sponsored a study, which also included a "feasibility test" for a "royalty payment
mechanism." This study, completed in 1977, was the basis for the creation of the Copyright
Clearance Center. Once again, in 1976, the Commission found itself advising Congress on
copyright legislation. This time the Commission urged Congress to prepare to update the
Copyright Act to reflect technological changes and address library photocopying, but advised
Congress to refrain from acting until the results for the NCLIS study were published.

In fiscal year 1975-1976, NCLIS urged the U.S. Office of Education to increase the
effectiveness of its Office of Libraries and Learning Resources and to provide "leadership
training and technical assistance" to state library agencies. It also supported extension of the
Library Services and Construction Act and the Medical Library Assistance Act. The
Commission supported improved federal government stewardship of scientific and technical
information (STI) through federal legislation to have the President's Science Advisor survey
"ways and means for improving federal effort in scientific research and information-handling
and in the use thereof." In the same resolution, the Commission urged that the National
Science Foundation undertake research and development "to improve intersectoral
coordination, management, information interchange, raise the performance of information
services, rationalize the establishment of interactive networks, and such other actions that
will contribute to the progress of science and technology."






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


That same year NCLIS addressed Governors and Chief State School Officers on the critical
importance of including school library and media expertise on the state advisory councils for
implementation of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The Commission also
established a task force to develop plans for a national system for provision of periodicals,
which recommended, among other things, establishing a National Periodicals Center to
compliment state and regional networks of libraries that would share their collections and
ensure access to historical journals.

In 1976, the President's Domestic Policy Council was given six months to undertake a
comprehensive study of emerging information policy issues regarding the rapidly growing
information sector of the U.S. economy, the impact of computers and related technology, the
relationship between privacy and freedom of information, and access to information. To
assist the Council in meeting its deadline, NCLIS organized the Committee on the Right to
Privacy and held an intense two-day conference at which 40 representatives from various
sectors of the information community, both public and private, for-profit and not-for profit,
"assembled to identify, categorize and analyze the critical information issues from a variety
of viewpoints." The results were a valuable source of information for the National
Information Policy Report to the President, which NCLIS published on behalf of the
outgoing administration in January of 1977. Among the recommendations in the report were
that the U.S. set as a goal the development of a coordinated national information policy and
that an Office of Information Policy be established in the Executive Office of the President,
supported by an advisory committee "representative of the private sector, state government,
and the academic and professional disciplines concerned with the information policy issues
discussed in the report" and an interagency Council on Information Policy of high-level
federal agency representatives.

As is clear from its efforts to bring together diverse groups with widely varying interests to
address copyright and other information policy issues, the Commission has not shied away
from difficult or controversial issues. In 1977, it tackled the issue of intellectual freedom,
speaking out against the prevailing trend to use "local community standards" to exclude
materials from libraries and even to prosecute individuals associated with nationally
distributed materials that were locally objectionable. Asserting the importance of protecting
"materials which are critical of accepted values or otherwise unpopular," NCLIS condemned
the use of "local community standards" as a "threat to each citizen's full exercise of the
rights guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments."

In 1978, NCLIS issued The Role of the Library of Congress in the Evolving National
Network, addressing the need for specifications for the telecommunications and computer
architecture to support the "distributed computer processing system required by the national
network." It also encouraged the LC to provide online access to its cataloging records and in-
process files and to provide other online services.


The Second Decade: 1980-1989
In 1980, NCLIS created an international cooperation planning group that in turn
recommended establishment of a task force on international relations to foster library and






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


information works it relates to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO); provide a forum for discussion of mutual concerns between
countries engaged in international information cooperation; serve as a clearinghouse for all
U.S. public and private agencies interested in international information cooperation; and
recommend to the Department of State policies that represent the best interests of the U.S. in
the information age. (NCLIS continued to serve as the secretariat until it formally withdrew
from UNESCO in December of 1984, but it continued a similar role through the International
Contributions for Scientific, Educational and Cultural Activities (ISECA) until the United
States rejoined UNESCO in 2003.)

The following year, this intensification of interest in international information led NCLIS to
accept a request from the Department of State to serve as the secretariat of the U.S. National
Committee for the UNESCO General Information Program. The Commission also agreed to
coordinate the participation of U.S. representatives to international meetings concerned with
library and information topics. A decade later, in 1991, the enabling legislation for the
Commission was amended to expand its responsibility to "promote research and
development activities which will extend and improve the nation's library and information-
handling capability as essential links in the national communications and cooperative
networks" to "national and international communications and cooperative networks" (20
USC 1504(a)(6)).

In Fiscal Year 1981-1982, the Commission assisted then Representative (later Senator) Paul
Simon with Congressional hearings on the reauthorization of the 25-year-old Library
Services and Construction Act (LSCA). NCLIS helped identify witnesses who could testify
to the value of LSCA and make substantive recommendations for its improvement. These
included recognition of the potential value of library automation and the need to include
funding for automation in the scope of the LSCA. The importance of addressing the
information needs of rural populations, the elderly, Indians, illiterate adults, and other special
populations was also highlighted. Congress was advised to allocate LSCA funds so that states
could take a larger role in determining the most urgent library and information needs of their
citizens. Once the hearings were completed, Representative Simon asked the Commission to
prepare specifications for the legislative amendments. Working with the American Library
Association (ALA), the Chief Operating Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA), and
others, the Commission prepared and submitted a list of recommended changes that were the
basis for the legislation that was subsequently enacted.

At its November 1982 meeting, the Commission addressed pending legislation for a jobs
creation program and urged the Congress and the President to include library and information
service occupations among the occupations to be funded, saying: ... our economy's future
growth lies in large part in technological, information and service enterprises. The need to
strengthen the nation's physical infrastructure must be joined by a commitment to healthy
'information infrastructure.' When the bill became law, it included $50 million for public
library construction, to be distributed to the states through Title II of the LSCA. This was the
first time that Title II had been funded since 1972.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


In 1982, NCLIS published another major report on information policy, Public Sector /
Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services. The report was reissued twenty
years later, when many of the same issues about the appropriate roles for the public and
private sector were being debated anew as the Internet provided substantial new means for
information dissemination and altered the balance within and between the public and private
sectors. A review of the report in the context of the new environment created by enormous
changes in technology reaffirmed, rather than altered, the recommendations that the
Commission had made two decades earlier.

The report identified issues of national concern and stressed the need for an environment that
would enhance private sector competition and stimulate innovation. It also affirmed the
applicability of the First Amendment to information products and services and encouraged
Congress to be consistent in language and principles relating to information products and
services when it formulated legislation and exercised oversight. It recommended a periodic
economic assessment of the impact of federal government information products and services
and encouraged research and gathering of statistics to provide data necessary to address
information policy issues.

With respect to the publishing activities of the federal government, the report encouraged
agencies to regard dissemination of information as a high priority responsibility and to use
the most efficient information technology available to fulfill their information dissemination
missions. The report cautioned that concerns about competition with the private sector should
not arbitrarily restrict the federal government from enhancing its information products and
services, even as it asked agencies to announce publishing plans sufficiently far in advance to
allow private sector involvement, evaluate the impact of agency publishing plans on the
private sector, and periodically review the desirability of continuing an information product
or service. Agencies were also advised to support libraries as an active means for public
access to government information and to provide incentives for libraries, bookstores, and
others to expand their participation in the dissemination of government information.

The report encouraged both sectors to participate in developing voluntary standards that
would enhance, not inhibit, further development of innovative information products and
services.

The private sector was asked to support educational programs that would provide the skills
needed to develop information as an economic and social resource, as well as basic and
applied research in library and information science. It was encouraged to "add value" to
government information and asked to identify and help eliminate legal and regulatory
barriers to the introduction of new information products and services.

In 1983, the Commission sought to raise awareness of the importance of community
information and referral services (CI&R). It urged that CI&R be included in current federal
library legislation and national information policies and recommended that libraries be
included in CI&R options in other federal, state, and local legislation.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


In 1983, at the White House Conference on Productivity, President Regan said, "The
challenge of greater productivity growth is of supreme importance to America's future."
NCLIS had assisted with the planning and coordination of the White House Conference and
provided a briefing paper on the information component of productivity to all pre-conference
and conference participants. Following the President's call for action, NCLIS cosponsored a
bilateral U.S. / U.K. seminar on "Information and Productivity-Implications for Education
and Training." One of the themes of the seminar was national and international information
policy. Among its major recommendations was that a completely new approach to the school
curriculum be adopted "whereby children, in addition to learning computer skills from an
early age, learn to use libraries and how to find and use information effectively." This set of
skills was identified as the "fourth R" and deemed as essential in life long learning. Another
key recommendation was that "employers and educators work together to identify the crucial
competencies needed in the emerging information sector" and to determine the best way to
teach them.

In 1984, the LSCA reauthorization was finally enacted, as was another piece of legislation
for which NCLIS had provided technical assistance, the Older Americans Act (OAA). The
Commission provided information about its own program related to information services for
the aging as well as the results of a COSLA survey on library services for the elderly.
Testimony by the NCLIS Vice Chair urged Congress to specify that public libraries could
receive OAA grants, and this was supported by the Commissioner of the Administration on
Aging. During the floor debate on the legislation, several senators acknowledged the
important services libraries were already providing to older Americans and encouraged them
to expand their services under the Act.

Copyright was once again on the Commissions agenda as the NCLIS executive director
participated in a February 1984 Congressional symposium on copyright and technology. One
result of the symposium was that the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA)
initiated a study on Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information in
which NCLIS participated. That same year, OTA also began a two-year study on Federal
Government Information Technology: Administrative Processes and Civil Liberties, again
with NCLIS participation. The Commission found the area of greatest interest to be public
and private sector roles in access and dissemination of government information, noting that
"the lack of laws, regulations and executive orders governing the dissemination of federal
information" underscores the need to provide guidance in this area. The next year, the Office
of Management and Budget (OMB) issued a draft circular on Management of Federal
Information Resources, and NCLIS provided its comments.

The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) is an agency within the Department of
Commerce that is charged with collecting, organizing, announcing, and marketing the results
of government-sponsored research. In 1985-1986, the Department of Commerce began to
explore the possibility of privatizing NTIS and other options for its management. The
Commission monitored the matter closely, met with Commerce and NTIS officials, and when
legislation relating to privatization was introduced in 1987, NCLIS supported language that
would prevent privatization. NCLIS was to play a role in saving NTIS again in 2000 when
the Department of Commerce proposed closing the agency.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


In 1987, the Commission also convened hearings on National Security Directive 145, which
introduced the controversial new category of "sensitive but not classified" government
information and published a report on its findings and recommendations in 1998.

During 1986 and 1987, the Commission cosponsored and participated in three trilateral
conferences on the role of information in the economy. Leaders from industry, academia, and
government in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom met to promote public
policy agendas at the national and international levels on the use and effects of information
resources on the economy and on the quality of life. The first conference, held in May 1986,
focused on the relationship between the growth of the information sector and that of the
national economies. In November 1987, the second conference addressed the place of the
public sector in the information infrastructure, particularly the role of libraries and
governments in creating and distributing information. The final conference was held in May
1987 and resulted in the Glenerin Declaration, which made recommendations on ways to
identify and measure the contributions of information to the economy, as well as ways to
gather, share, and disseminate relevant data and reports. Two important recommendations
were (1) to identify a coherent framework for the development of information policy in each
country and (2) to maintain awareness of government responsibility for the creation and
provision of certain types of information and to ensure accessibility regardless of the means
of the user.

At its meeting in January 1988, the Commission discussed the Federal Bureau of
Investigation's controversial Library Awareness Program, which attempted to monitor
patrons' reading habits and obtain personal information about library users. As a result of the
discussion, NCLIS adopted a resolution reaffirming its commitments to open access to
information and the right of privacy for library users, as well as unequivocal support for First
Amendment rights.

In March 1988, the Commission convened an invitational conference of information
providers and researchers to discuss how public libraries could provide information to
support local officials and citizen groups. It authorized the production and distribution of a
video tape that presented exemplary community information programs as a means to advise
local officials and citizens groups about the role the public library could play in support of
their local governance.

A proposed supplement to OMB Circular A-130 was published in the Federal Register in
January 1989. The Commission suggested a revision that would allow federal agencies
greater discretion in adding value to information they disseminate, taking into account prior
use of that information by the private sector. NCLIS also requested clarification of role of the
Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) in disseminating federal information in
electronic form. In the revised Circular, OMB acknowledged that it was good public policy
to include electronic government information in the FDLP, while noting that it was not
required by law.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


In April 1989, the Commission joined with the American Association of School Librarians to
hold a symposium on "Information Literacy and Education for the 21st Century: Toward an
Agenda for Action." Attendees represented leading organizations of teachers, educators, and
librarians. The symposium resulted in the unanimous adoption of 40 priority
recommendations in five topic areas: the way teachers are educated; the way teachers teach;
the way schools are administered; the way schools are funded; and the way school library
media programs are organized and implemented. NCLIS asked each of the represented
organizations to include the recommendations in their own action agendas.

The Commission conducted a hearing on the Office of Technology Assessment's report,
Informing the Nation, in July 1989. This resulted in a series of activities focusing on the
principles that are necessary to address information policies in a pluralistic society, including
a public forum, held in October 1989, to discuss three topics: (1) Technology and Proprietary
Rights Using Public Domain Information in the Private Sector; (2) Technology and Public
Access to Information; and (3) Identification of Information Policy Issues. As a result of this
forum, NCLIS concluded that the most important contribution it could make at that time was
to attempt to "develop a consensus among all interested parties as to the basic underlying
principles that should shape all decisions in and out of government regarding information
policies, procedures, and practices."


The Third Decade: 1990-1999
In June 1990, the Commission published its Principles of Public Information (see page 20).
Like assumptions presented in its 1974 official program document, Toward a National
Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action, the Principles articulated
long held views of the Commission and established criteria that would be touchstones for all
its future positions on policy related to public access to government information. These
principles were also used by others in the library and information community to support their
advocacy for broad public access to government information. In its 2000 report, A
Comprehensive Assessment of Public Information Dissemination, the Commission restated
these principles, and their influence is clearly present in many of the recommendations. What
is clear in the Principles is both the public's right of access to public information and the
government affirmative obligations to disseminate its information and to ensure its integrity
and preservation.

The High Performance Computing Act (Public Law 102-194; 15 USC 5511) became law in
December 1991. It called for the establishment of the National Research and Education
Network (NREN) to "provide users with appropriate access to high-performance computing
systems, electronic information resources, other research facilities, and libraries."
Furthermore, the legislation stated that "The Network shall provide access, to the extent
practicable, to electronic information resources maintained by libraries, research facilities,
publishers, and affiliated organizations." During 1988 and 1989, the Commission had
coordinated comments on the legislation from the library and information services
community. In 1992, it hosted an open forum on the role of libraries and information services
in NREN, and the findings were shared with the White House Office of Science and
Technology Policy and others.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


There were a number of other significant legislative initiatives of interest to the Commission
in 1993, including copyright reform, and a number of education proposals, the Electronic
Libraries Act, the Government Reform and Savings Act, the National Information
Infrastructure Act, and the Paperwork Reduction Act.

In May, September, and December 1993, the Commission sponsored forums of the status,
needs, and visions for services to children and youth through school library media centers
and public libraries. One goal of the forums was to identify federal government roles and
responsibilities in providing such services to inform the Commission's advice to Congress
and the Administration.

In the spring of 1994, the Commission testified at a congressional hearing on libraries and the
National Information Infrastructure (NII). The Commission also submitted comments on
individual privacy rights in an era of electronic technology to the Senate. Comments were
also made on intellectual property and libraries in the NII for the draft Information
Infrastructure Task Force report, Putting the Information Infrastructure to Work. Comments
were also submitted to OMB on principles for providing and using personal information.

In September, the Commission hosted a briefing for representatives from Congress and the
Administration on the federal role relating to libraries in the information super highway
based on the findings of its report, Public Libraries and the Internet.

In 1995, as it celebrated its 25th anniversary, the Commission played a key role in the
transformation of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) into the Library
Services and Technology Act (LSTA) and the creation of the Institute of Museum and
Library Services (IMLS). In the legislation, the Commission received new responsibilities for
advising IMLS, and the director of IMLS became an ex officio member of the Commission.

In May 1996, the Commission and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
conducted a forum on library and information services policy on the Impact of Information
Technology and Special Programming on Library Services to Special Populations. A similar
forum in was held in 1997 on the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) State Grant
Program: Implications for Use of and Additions to National Library Data. The objective of
this series of forums was to ensure that statistics about libraries and information services
meet the needs of policy-makers at various levels of government, as well as to guide the
development of related public policies.

In 1997 and again in 2001, NCLIS contracted for reports on Policy Issues & Strategies
Affecting Public Libraries in the National Networked Environment. The 1997 report, with the
subtitle Moving Beyond Connectivity, raises pertinent questions about the unequal
distribution of Internet connectivity, costs and provision of services in public library systems
at the time, and the need for the federal government to act to level the playing field. The
report also noted the need to move beyond identifying the number of libraries with Internet
access and begin to assess the speed and quality of the services available. The findings of the
2000 study, with the subtitle Setting Agendas and Extending Research, reflected significant






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


strides in connectivity, funding sources, and services to support technology use by library
visitors and offered recommendations for future research and analysis broadly related to
libraries (especially public libraries), the Internet, and networked services.

In the face of rising pressure for national legislation to mandate filtering and other
protections for children using the Internet in schools and libraries, the Commission
conducted a hearing on Kids and the Internet: The Problems and the Perils at the Freedom
Forum in Arlington, Virginia in November 1998. As a result of the hearing, the Commission
determined that a broad national approach to protecting children by limiting their access to
the Internet in public libraries and schools was inappropriate and, very likely, unworkable,
and that it was the responsibility of local governing authorities to address these issues and
establish policies for the public and school libraries in their jurisdictions. The Commission
determined that facilitating the development of appropriate local policies through the
preparation and dissemination of practical guidelines, designed to assist librarians and library
trustees (or other governing bodies) in their efforts to evaluate and respond to the promise
and the perils of Internet access for children, was the best approach, so it prepared and widely
disseminated such guidelines. These practical guidelines, offering balance and compromise,
outlined the promise, the perils, policy issues, and potential solutions for librarians and
library trustees and for school librarians and school administrators.

In July 1999, the Commission conducted a hearing on Library and Information Services for
Individuals ii /ih Disabilities at the Kellogg Conference Center of the Gallaudet University,
one of the nation's foremost educational facilities for the deaf. The Commission concluded
that recent advances in information technology have improved conditions for some people
with disabilities while presenting new challenges to others. Computer technology facilitates
the production of talking books and closed captioning. Electronic text can be manipulated in
ways that print cannot to assist persons with disabilities. Information technology can also
help eliminate distance and physical barriers. However, a mouse-driven graphical interface
can present problems for a sightless person. Moreover, certain intellectual property
restrictions stifle the easy production of information in alternative formats for the disabled.

In 1999, the Commission released the Report on the Assessment of Electronic Government
Information Products, which was funded by the Government Printing Office (GPO) to gather
information for the administration of the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP). As
anticipated, the report confirmed that there was an overall lack of government information
policy guiding electronic publishing, dissemination, permanent public access, or information
life cycle management, exacerbated by a lack of overall coordination of these initiatives at
the governmental, branch, or even agency level. The report documented that responsibility
for electronic publishing within agencies was decentralized, diffuse, and unclear, resulting in
a lack of specific planning for product development and technological migration. The
concept of permanent public access was not well understood, and there was a lack of
understanding of what ensuring authenticity entailed and a lack of planning for, or
consideration of, ensuring authenticity of electronic government information products.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


The Final Years: 2000-2008
As noted above, the Commission had previously intervened when privatization of NTIS was
considered by the Commerce Department. In 1999-2000, it once again acted to address a
proposal to close NTIS. The Commission's recommendations addressed the broader
information policy issues as well as the specific plan for closure in its report issued in 2000.
First, it asked that the Commerce Department commit to retaining NTIS at least through
FY2001. It also recommended that Congress appropriate funds to cover the legislative
mandated activities of NTIS that are inherently governmental, allowing the other services to
remain self-sustaining. Once an appropriation for its inherently governmental functions was
in place, the Commission advocated that NTIS be required to abide by existing federal
information resource management policies and procedures by (1) setting user charges to
recover the incremental cost of its sales, excluding all costs financed by appropriations; (2)
cease improperly restrictive practices such as charging fees or royalties for the reuse, resale
or re-dissemination of government information products and services; and (3) ensure that
decisions to introduce new products or services are made only after careful consideration of
the capabilities of the private sector to create commercial products through public-private
partnerships or independent efforts. The Commission urged a one-time appropriation to
defray the costs of setting up a mechanism to provide free and permanent public access to
current NTIS materials and future acquisitions through the Federal Depository Library
Program in electronic form and to ensure that retrospective materials converted to electronic
formats are also made available for permanent public access through the FDLP. The
commission also suggested that the broader government information policy issues should be
addressed through an in-depth study.

This is, in fact, exactly what occurred. In the summer of 2000, the Senate Committee on
Commerce, Science and Transportation requested that NCLIS undertake a comprehensive
assessment of the federal government's information dissemination policies and practices,
including the need for new or revised laws, rules, regulations, and policies; the need to
consolidate, streamline or simplify missions and functions; and the need to strengthen other
components of the overall federal information dissemination infrastructure. This was to be
accompanied by recommendations on the future of NTIS that would be consistent with any
overall federal government information dissemination recommendations that NCLIS would
provide. The Commission was asked to consider whether NTIS could be a fully electronic
repository of federal scientific and technical information, accessible via the Internet. NCLIS
immediately convened four panels of experts to assist with the assessment. The panels were
to address the NTIS business model, internal government reforms, external user needs, and
public-private sector partnerships.

Although the result of this call for a comprehensive assessment was a multi-volume report
with three dozen specific recommendations, the Commission's principle recommendation
was that the United States government formally recognize and affirm the concept that public
information is a strategic national resource with an importance similar to that accorded to
land, labor, and capital. The Commission believed that this recommendation, if adopted,
would dramatically alter federal information policy and lead to implementation of many of
its other recommendations.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


In this report, A Comprehensive Assessment of Public Information Dissemination, the
Commission reaffirmed that public ownership of information created by the federal
government is an essential right that not only allows individuals to fulfill their civic
responsibilities, but also contributes to an overall improvement in their quality of life. The
Commission acknowledged that current information technology not only brings with it
expanded opportunities for using government information but also a number of difficulties,
including adequacy of finding tools, technological incompatibilities, and sometimes just the
overwhelming amount of information. Furthermore, the Commission noted that not all
needed information is available on the Internet nor do users of public information necessarily
have the professional skills to use what is available in any format, and also that government
information made available electronically can disappear as quickly as it has appeared.

Through this report, the Commission called attention to the absence of policy for long term
or permanent public access to web-based public information, as well as the fact that special
populations, especially individuals with disabilities, but also those who, for whatever reason,
find it difficult to use computers and computer networks, existed throughout the nation. The
Commission noted that such populations clearly could benefit from information technology,
but special efforts need to be taken to guarantee the availability to them of appropriate
information technology and government information content.

This is how the Commission summarized the then current situation:

The federal government has a critical role in formulating and overseeing public
information dissemination policy. Hundreds of laws establish the requirement and
authority of agencies to disseminate public information, but there is little
distinction made between "passive dissemination" and "proactive dissemination."
Moreover, the authority of agencies differs widely in terms of how broadly they
are permitted to disseminate information to the public. It is evident that there are
costs involved in managing and disseminating public information resources, but
the manner of paying these costs is inconsistent and, at times, invisible across
government. There are existing central service agencies, such as GPO, NTIS, and
the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), who, in partnership
with individual agencies, play a crucial role in information dissemination.
However, there is no effective enforcement mechanism to use when these
partnerships fail.

There will always remain a strong need for central information service agencies,
but these agencies need new business models that reflect the realities of the
Internet and the World Wide Web. Overlap and competition among these
agencies is unnecessary and wasteful. There are efforts to improve coordination-
for example, through interagency committees-and these efforts should be
continued and strengthened.

The Commission also indicated that everything that it learned about problems and
opportunities affecting federal government information was likely to apply to public






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


information at the state and local government levels and urged again that the inconsistencies
and incompatibilities among programs at the different levels of government need to be
eliminated.

This is how the Commission summarized the recommendations found in the report:

Strategic Recommendations
1. Adopt the national goal that public information is a strategic resource.
2. Establish the Public Information Resources Administration (PIRA).
3. Include broad, explicit public information dissemination authority in all
agencies' missions.
4. Implement an Information Dissemination Budget.
5. Enact "The Public Information Resources Reform Act of 2001."
6. Establish the Congressional Information Resources Office (CIRO).
7. Establish the Judicial Information Resources Office (JIRO).
8. Extend key provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act to the Legislative
and Judicial Branches.
9. Encourage state, local, and tribal governments to adopt comparable
policies and programs for their public information resources.
10. Retain, temporarily, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) in
the Commerce Department.
11. Provide funding for the public good functions of NTIS and other
comparable information service agencies.
12. Update the NTIS business model.
13. Partner with the private sector, both for-profit and not for-profit, to
perform public information disseminations functions.
14. Remove barriers to public information for individuals with disabilities and
for other special populations.
15. Coordinate the information dissemination activities among the Legislative,
Judicial, and Executive Branches.
16. Improve training of librarians and other information professionals to better
assist users of public information.

Other Recommendations
17. Implement recommendations regarding NTIS in the Commerce
Department.
18. Improve Congressional oversight of public information dissemination
laws.
19. Review and harmonize all laws that deal with public information
resources.
20. Strengthen cooperative efforts to promote public information sharing.
21. Improve "Government Information Life-Cycle Planning and
Management."
22. Modernize current awareness systems for public information.
23. Make consistent federal identifiers for information across all agencies.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


24. Harmonize information identifiers at all levels of government-federal,
state, local, and tribal.
25. Evaluate pre-electronic government information for digital conversion.
26. Develop guidelines regarding the availability of public information by
branch and level of government.
27. Develop a comprehensive inventory and database of public information
resources.
28. Specify the metadata by which agencies classify records prior to archival
retention or disposal.
29. Partner broadly, in and outside government, to ensure permanent public
availability of public information resources.
30. Identify the public's most critical unmet requirements for public
information resources.
31. Identify the federal government's most critical requirement for
technologies to manage public information resources.
32. Involve the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the effective
management of scientific and technical information.
33. Monitor cooperation between PIRA and the National Archives and
Records Administration.
34. Require that data elements set forth in the Government Paperwork
Elimination Act be reported in XML (Extensive Markup Language) and
review the impact of this requirement regularly.
35. Ensure the availability of a trained federal workforce with skills in Internet
Age technologies.
36. Advance the recommendations of this Assessment report to other nations
worldwide.

In April 2001, the Commission held a hearing in Cincinnati on School Librarians:
Knowledge Navigators Through Troubled Times. In calling for participation in the hearing,
the Commission noted that: "The role of the school librarian or the school library media
center must not be understated. The school library is the place where students develop the
skills necessary to become effective information users capable of locating, interpreting,
analyzing and evaluating information. The skills for life-long learning must begin at an early
age through adequate, credible and up-to-date information, therefore, we must be certain that
funds for school media center personnel and material are not diverted to other projects." At
the hearing, the Commission heard testimony on the role of the school librarian in student
performance, curriculum, and literacy. The resulting information supported the
Commission's continued advocacy for improved federal government support for school
libraries and media centers.

Shortly after the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the Commission began to look at the
role of libraries in preparing for and responding to disasters. The result was Trust and
Terror: New Demands for Crisis Information Dissemination and Management. The
Commission proposed to expand the role of U.S. libraries in crisis information dissemination
and management. The DVD, narrated by Walter Cronkite, noted that the nation's more than
16,000 public libraries already form an extensive network of resources that can be






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empowered to meet this need for crisis information. The Commission recommended that
federal, state, and local government agencies put systems in place-and use them-to
distribute essential, up-to-date information to public libraries. It further recommended that
this be done in cooperation with the state libraries which can efficiently channel the
information to appropriate libraries and library systems in each state and that the libraries and
librarians, in turn, prepare to disseminate the information to people when and where it is
needed. The Commission acknowledged that funding must be allocated from federal, state,
and local emergency sources so that libraries can remain open for extended hours during
crises-even 24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week, when necessary.

In 2005, the Commission once again turned its attention to international information policy
issues, issuing a report on The Role of Libraries in HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination in
Sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of this NCLIS study was to explore how information is being
disseminated in the part of the world where the impact of HIV / AIDS has been by far the
greatest, and the resources of the countries impacted have been the smallest-Sub-Saharan
Africa. In particular, the Commission examined the role of libraries-and library-like
institutions-as change-agents in developing countries that must deal with high rates of
illiteracy, how levels of information technology infrastructure, multiple languages, and
cultural attitudes and practices were better suited for centuries past, not for the 21st century,
anticipating that lessons learned from this investigation will be useful in the U.S. and
elsewhere, wherever there are pockets of poverty, illiteracy, poor information technology
infrastructure, and lack of sufficient libraries and information institutions to meet the needs
of the people.

Mass Digitization: Implications for Information Policy is a report from a symposium on
"Scholarship and Libraries in Transition: A Dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization
Projects" held at the University of Michigan in March 2006. Among the recommendations in
this report is a call for updating the Copyright Act to address the digital world. The report
urged greater cooperation among libraries to avoid duplication of effort and make available
their unique and rare materials. It called for greater attention to quality, authentication, and
preservation and acknowledged the need for standards for interoperability and cross
searching of digital repositories. Alternatives to the advertiser supported model, such as the
open source model, need to be explored, especially with regard to sustainability. The
information literacy skills of students and scholars need to be improved, and understanding
changing user needs and preferences requires ongoing assessment and market research.

Not all NCLIS information policy initiatives are in the form of studies, reports, and hearings.
In many instances, NCLIS responds to inquires or initiates correspondence, consultations or
resolutions in order to provide a rapid response to an emerging situation, particularly pending
legislation. For example, in May 2005, NCLIS called on the President and Congress to
support libraries as health information distribution centers, noting that this would position
libraries as the central resource for providing citizens with consumer health information. The
Commission noted that this was particularly important when they require health information
in a critical or unusual situation and for helping citizens learn how to live a healthy lifestyle.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


In November 2006, the Commission advised Congress to take action to ensure net neutrality
and preclude legislation or regulations that would create tiered services on the Internet.
Quoting from a 1992 hearing on allowing commercial traffic on the Internet, NCLIS
reminded Congress that "It is essential as the network is structured that all commercial
providers of network services receive equal treatment and that government policy in
managing the network not favor any provider or set of providers over others." The
Commission also supported four principles adopted by the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC) in 2005 to "encourage broadband deployment and preserve and promote
the open and interconnected nature of [the] public Internet," noting that tiered service is
contrary to those principles.

NCLIS also recommended that Congress refrain from changes to the e-rate (the familiar
program name of the extension of Universal Service authorized by Congress in the
Telecommunication Act of 1996) to require all schools and libraries that receive federal
funds to restrict access to digital social networking tools and online communities. Noting that
proposed legislation is overly broad, the Commission expressed concern its passage could
mean that "wikis, blogs, and even Amazon.com and Wikipedia could be construed as 'social
networking sites,' a situation which would have negative effects on learning and the access to
information and knowledge required for learning."

In 2007, noting that "a critical part of the comprehensive and renewed strategy to ensure that
students learn to read and are effective users of information and ideas, is the requirement that
every school have a school library and that school libraries be staffed by highly qualified,
state certified school library media specialists," the Commission urged Congress to provide
adequate resources in the No Child Left Behind Act reauthorization to support school libraries
and media centers. Later that year, NCLIS urged Congress to make permanent a moratorium
on Internet access taxes. "To tax citizens for Internet access in order to fill out tax forms and
Medicare forms required by the government is patently unfair and an economic burden for
our citizens," the Commission asserted, adding "If the government is increasingly requiring
citizens to use the Internet, then federal, state or local taxes on its use should be prohibited."

While many voices are raised in the discussion of pending federal legislation and other
information policy initiatives, the Commission has served a unique and important role as a
permanent, independent agency within the federal government with the mandate to advise the
President and Congress on national and international library and information policies, to
appraise and assess the adequacies and deficiencies of library and information resources and
services, and to develop overall plans for meeting national library and information needs.
Though its mission is broad, addressing issues that affect every American, the resources
available to the Commission are modest. Only twice since its inception has its annual
appropriation exceeded $1 million. As a result, the Commission has always prioritized its
activities to address a few key issues each year. Yet NCLIS has, since its inception, been a
consistent voice for recognition that U.S. library and information resources are a national
resource that should be strengthened, organized, and made available to the maximum degree
possible in the public interest and remained dedicated to the assumptions so well articulated
in its 1974 official program document, Toward a National Program for Library and
Information Services: Goals for Action.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Principles of Public Information

Preamble
From the birth of our nation, open and uninhibited access to public information
has ensured good government and a free society. Public information helps to
educate our people, stimulate our progress and solve our most complex economic,
scientific and social problems. With the coming of the Information Age and its
many new technologies, however, public information has expanded so quickly
that basic principles regarding its creation, use and dissemination are in danger of
being neglected and even forgotten.

The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, therefore,
reaffirms that the information policies of the U.S. government are based on the
freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, and on the recognition of public
information as a national resource to be developed and preserved in the public
interest. We define public information as information created, compiled and / or
maintained by the Federal Government. We assert that public information is
information owned by the people, held in trust by their government, and should be
available to the people except where restricted by law. It is in this spirit of public
ownership and public trust that we offer the following Principles of Public
Information.


Principles
1. The public has the right of access to public information.

Government agencies should guarantee open, timely and uninhibited access to
public information except where restricted by law. People should be able to
access public information, regardless of its format, without any special training or
expertise.

2. The Federal Government should guarantee the integrity and preservation
of public information, regardless of its format.

By maintaining public information in the face of changing times and technologies,
government agencies assure the government's accountability and the accessibility
of the government's business to the public.

3. The Federal Government should guarantee the dissemination,
reproduction, and redistribution of public information.

Any restriction of dissemination or any other function dealing with public
information must be strictly defined by law.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


4. The Federal Government should safeguard the privacy of persons who
use or request information, as well as persons about whom information exists
in government records.

5. The Federal Government should ensure a wide diversity of sources of
access, private as well as governmental, to public information.

Although sources of access may change over time and because of advances in
technology, government agencies have an obligation to the public to encourage
diversity.

6. The Federal Government should not allow cost to obstruct the people's
access to public information.

Costs incurred by creating, collecting and processing information for the
government's own purposes should not be passed on to people who wish to utilize
public information.

7. The Federal Government should ensure that information about
government information is easily available and in a single index accessible in
a variety of formats.

The government index of public information should be in addition to inventories
of information kept within individual government agencies.

8. The Federal Government should guarantee the public's access to public
information, regardless of where they live and work, through national
networks and programs like the Depository Library Program.

Government agencies should periodically review such programs as well as the
emerging technology to ensure that access to public information remains
inexpensive and convenient to the public.

Conclusion
The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science offers these
Principles of Public Information as a foundation for the decisions made
throughout the Federal Government and the nation regarding issues of public
information. We urge all branches of the Federal Government, state and local
governments and the private sector to utilize these principles in the development
of information policies and in the creation, use, dissemination and preservation of
public information. We believe that in so acting, they will serve the best interests
of the nation and the people in the Information Age.

Adopted by the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science
June 29, 1990






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Information Access for the American Public


Background
When the Commission was created by the U.S. Congress in 1970, access to information was
very different than it is in 2008. During the ensuing 38 years that NCLIS has been advising
the Congress and the President on policy issues, the world of information has been
transformed from one where information is fixed in a particular geographic location (a
physical library) to one that is global and known as the world wide web; from one that was
paper-based to digital-based information and research accessible via a variety of electronic
devices; from one that relied upon the collections of a particular institution to one where
libraries throw open their collections on the Internet; from one that 'relied' on unreliable
room-size computers, to one where multiple books are carried on a flash drive the size of a
child's finger.

Through these vast changes NCLIS has appraised library and information services on behalf
of the American people, reported its findings to the Congress and the President, and made
recommendations to benefit the American public's access to information. While their
legislative mandate did not include advising libraries, the Commission has not been shy
about recommending changes to better serve the American public, has in fact brokered some
of the changes, and has applauded and recognized outstanding work, in the hope of
encouraging other libraries to follow the honored peer.

This section looks at the emphasis NCLIS has placed on assuring access to information and
in realization that libraries created an informal network spread across the country, the
Commission encouraged libraries and library systems to undertake the development of
activities that would strengthen the infrastructure of libraries and information providers to
provide better access to information services. Along the way, NCLIS strongly encouraged
the Congress to amend legislation to include technology and its applications as a library
service eligible for federal funding.


The First Decade: 1970-1979
In its first annual report NCLIS established the primacy of access as its focus, declaring that
'national equality of access to information is as important as equality in education.' It
immediately delved into copyright issues noting that a legal framework for resolving fair use
issues in libraries and by library users needed a legislative solution and called on the
Congress to enact a revision to the Copyright Act.

During the early 1970s, NCLIS issued several recommendations concerning the Library of
Congress (LC or the Library) and identified the role of the congressional and de facto
national library in building a national library infrastructure accessible by libraries nationwide
on behalf of their users. NCLIS urged the LC to seek to acquire 85 to 90% of the world's
output of written materials, noting that if materials were held at the LC, the country would
derive broad national benefits, and research libraries alone would save $66 million. The






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Commission urged the Library to make its holdings available as the 'library of final resort'
by lending them to other libraries, by purchasing additional copies for this particular purpose,
and by creating microfilm copies as a preservation medium. The Commission further urged
the Library of Congress to create a mechanism to distribute its cataloging data to other
research libraries and information organizations and to expand its reference service to
support a national system of bibliographic service. The reuse of cataloging data created by
the LC would provide a standard way for a library user to access information in any library
and would save local jurisdictions millions of dollars since the work would not have to be
replicated in every local and academic library.

Ensuring access to information about the federal government, the Commission noted that
appropriate documentation, bibliographical and other information resources should be
recognized in federal programs and that support for them should be included in Executive
Orders and other implementing directives.

In 1974, NCLIS, with a coalition of information advocates, brought about the enactment of
PL93-58 which authorized a White House Conference on Library and Information Services,
a conference that would focus on the importance of libraries and information in American
society.

In 1974 and 1975, NCLIS sponsored two conferences that focused on continuing education
for librarians. CLENE, Continuing Library Education and Networking Exchange, emerged
from the conferences and continues today as a principal organization in the development and
delivery of continuing professional education for librarians and information professionals.

During these same years, NCLIS focused on the very concrete portion of the national
infrastructure, urging Congress to extend the Library Services and Construction Act which
provided federal funds for local construction, the law mandating the distribution of federal
funds for certain library services, and the development of a technology infrastructure at the
local level.

NCLIS in 1976 was riveted on federal information policy issues. It published the National
Information Policy Report, urging that the U.S. set as a goal the development of a
coordinated National Information Policy; recommending that the Executive Office of the
President establish an Office of Information Policy and that an interagency federal Council
on Information Policy be created.

In FY1977, the Commission focused again on access to information in several of its actions.
It recommended a staged process to increase state and federal funding for public libraries,
recommending a formula of 20% federal funds, 50% state funds, and 30 % local funds. It
urged that the Library Services and Construction Act be amended with a new title that would
provide financial assistance to large urban public libraries.

Directly rebutting those who would censor access based on community standards, the
Commission issued its condemnation of the use of 'local community standards,' identifying






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


such use as a threat to accessibility and to citizens' full exercise of rights guaranteed by the
First and Fourteenth Amendments.

Access to periodical literature featured prominently in the same year with the publication of
The Role of the Library of Congress in the Evolving National Network. The report called for
establishing a national periodicals center and an Advisory Committee to develop policy for
coordinating the center and charged the Library of Congress to design plans for the center.
Envisioned to serve individual libraries, the Commission was looking for an appropriate
organization to assure access for the libraries and their users. An Advisory Committee
developed a draft amendment to Title II of the Higher Education Act, but Congress took no
action.

Another broad access initiative was the 1979 NCLIS Conference on Libraries and Literacy
which resulted in recommendations for libraries and for the Commission. Seeing the utility
of using public libraries across the country for literacy efforts, the Conference recommended
that libraries act as clearing houses and community resource centers to coordinate
community-based literacy programs and that the libraries should develop plans to reach the
non-literate members of the community who are not regular library users. For NCLIS, the
recommendations included an expanded mission-to embrace a National Commission on
Literacy and to create a national resource center for local and state literacy programs.
Recommendations further sought federal legislation and funding that would identify local
libraries as alternative education agencies and designate them to receive funds to conduct
literacy programs; on their part, the libraries were to take the initiative to conduct local
assessments of community needs and resources for improving literacy.



The Second Decade: 1980-1989
The White House Conference on Libraries Report issued in 1980 carried multiple
recommendations affirming NCLIS' continued interest in access to information and the need
to build a strong infrastructure for libraries. It called for new legislation to replace LSCA
and increased budgetary support for resource sharing among libraries and the innovative
application of technologies to public and research libraries and argued for Federal
Information Centers to be placed within libraries. The role of NCLIS as the Secretariat for
the Conference and the recommendations produced by the Conference are covered in detail
later in this report.

In 1980, the Commission made several broad recommendations to the President and the
Congress that would affect positively conditions of access to information. The Committee on
the Right to Privacy recommended that the U.S. set a goal of coordinating a national
information policy, establish an Office of Information Policy in the Executive Office of the
President, create an interagency Council on Information Policy chaired by the Director of the
recommended Office of Information Policy, and create an Advisory Committee to the Office.
In the same year the Commission recommended establishing a task force on international
cooperation to foster library and information science work related to UNESCO, provide a
forum for discussion with countries involved in mutual cooperation, provide a clearinghouse
for all U.S. public and private agencies interested in international information cooperation






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


and recommend policies to the Department of State. The following year NCLIS became the
Secretariat for the UN National Commission for UNESCO General Information Program.

In fiscal year 1981-82, the Commission worked with the American Library Association, the
Council of State Library Agencies, and a congressional delegation recommending changes to
the Library Services and Construction Act that would better deal with issues of library
automation, the needs of special populations, and the problems of illiteracy. The
Commission created its own specialization in special populations by establishing the
National Rural Information Services Development Program-a population to which the
Commission would continue to address its efforts for the next 20 years.

During the same year the Nairobi Protocol was ratified by the Congress. Under this
international instrument, signatories agreed to dismantle customs barriers for imported
books; works of art; audiovisual material of educational, scientific, and cultural nature; and
scientific equipment, appliances, and materials for the blind. The instrument also states that
convertible currencies and import licenses should be granted for the purchase of books to be
used in public libraries.

The Florence Agreement, originally reached in 1950, was updated in 1976 through the
adoption of the Nairobi Protocol which extended the free circulation principles to other
cultural goods, particularly those using the technologies developed at that time, such as
audiovisual materials. This international agreement particularly improved access for special
populations to materials from abroad and improved access for all Americans to materials
produced outside the U.S., and in turn made U.S.-produced cultural and educational materials
more widely available abroad.

The Commission partnered with the Special Library Association to create a task force which
examined and produced a report on The Role of the Special Library in Networks and
Cooperatives: Executive Summary and Recommendations. Ever mindful of the citizen
searching for information, the Commission realized that many private and corporate
organizations have libraries for their own business purposes. One of the myths was that the
general public could not benefit directly from these libraries. Through this joint effort, the
services and the collections of special libraries would become more widely known and more
easily accessed.

The Commission demonstrated its continuing focus on access to information for Americans
in the 1990s through a series of recommendations that encompassed literacy training,
technology demonstration programs, access to government produced information, and higher
levels of funding for school library and media centers. Citing the prominent role that access
to information has on citizens' participation in the democratic process, the Commission
recommended that Congress mandate open access to information through legislation that
would require open access for public use to information received by the federal government
or information that was created at public expense. They urged that uniform policies and
standards for the management, preservation, and access to this information for the public be
developed. These recommendations in FY1992 presage the debate that continues today to
guarantee public access to research and information created at tax-payer expense.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


They recommended that the President and the Congress recognize and affirm that literacy for
all remains a national priority by funding school library service through categorical grants
administered by the Department of Education, that a national, library-based literacy training
model be developed, and that funds be appropriated for demonstration grants.

In similar fashion, they urged libraries to develop and support the use of a nationwide multi-
type library network that would improve resource sharing among libraries, thereby providing
better access to information for the public, particularly in areas with little or no access.
Noting the importance of local information to decision making, libraries were urged to
collaborate closely with community service providers to distribute local information to their
communities.

The Commission's recognition of the development of technology and networks to deliver
information to the public was seen in their recommendation to the Congress to support and
fund the National Research and Education Network (NREN) so that it would be available in
all libraries and other information repositories and to provide additional funding through the
Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) for libraries in rural areas to acquire NREN
access terminals and other networking needs.

For school library services the Commission recommended that the Department of Education
establish its own office responsible for leadership of school media programs, and the
Commission recommended federal incentive programs for states to assure that school media
centers would be fully staffed by professional school library media personnel.

Over the next couple of years the Commission continued to focus on literacy and library
services for children and youth, advocating for demonstration grants for services to children
offered by public libraries and parent / family education projects for early childhood services
that also involved childhood support agencies. Libraries were encouraged to become
partners with day care centers and other early childhood providers by offering the centers
deposit collections and training in the use of library resources. For youth the Commission
supported demonstration grants for services for young adults, demonstration grants to
provide outreach services for at-risk youth by providing partnership with community youth-
serving agencies for young adults on the verge of risky behavior and those already in crisis.
Public and school libraries were encouraged to form partnership programs to provide
comprehensive services to youth and teens, with the libraries developing an agenda for
research to document and evaluate how children and young adults develop abilities that make
them information literate. They further encouraged school and public libraries to develop
intergenerational demonstration programs that provide meaningful services to children and
teens.



The Third Decade: 1990-1999
In 1992, the Commission issued its report, Patli, up" to Excellence: A Report on Improving
Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples. The Report's
recommendations dealt with both access to library and information services and






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


strengthening the information infrastructure to support enhanced access. The Report called
for adequate and consistent funding at all governmental levels to improve library and
information services. The Report recommended a study that would document library and
information services provided to Native Americans and the establishment of a national
information policy for library and information services to the communities and recommended
amending the Community Services Act to provide family literacy programs and culturally
based programs that incorporate the oral tradition and Native American cultural materials.
Other recommendations called for funds for a basic program of library and information
technologies, including specialized training for Native American library and information
services personnel.

The Commission paid particular attention to the aged population in 1994-96 in preparation
for its participation in the White House Conference on Aging. The Commission sought to
define the priorities for library services needed by aging Americans. The Commission used
the opportunity to make recommendations to the President and the Congress and to the
library and information community. NCLIS recommended funding the expansion of
traditional library development to include new technology centers to support lifelong
learning, economic training, and senior-related information. The Commission called for
public policy for a multi-agency approach to develop training modules for seniors, further
recommending participation by geriatric associations and centers, university research centers,
library associations, and federal, state, and local agencies. They recommended preferential
rates be provided to libraries and similar institutions in telecommunications services.

To libraries the Commission recommended expanding their role in electronic technology to
heighten attention to the continuum of lifespan, to develop separate units to focus on services
to the deaf community, and to offer programs drawing on the talents of all ages with the goal
of strengthening society's value for the contributions made by all generations. Libraries were
further urged to make facilities accessible and to provide collections that were more
accessible to the aged with disabilities.

The 1996 National Survey of Public Libraries and the Internet: Progress and Issues
recommended developing, operationalizing, and validating a range of performance measures
that would be essential if public libraries intended to determine which networked information
resources are effective for their users. The data could also be used to make known to federal,
state, and local policy makers information and issues describing how public library
involvement in the Internet affects the public good-beginning, albeit indirectly, to address
the new role of public libraries to provide access across the digital divide. The Commission
also recommended that the data could be analyzed to better plan and design public library
involvement to best benefit the public.

On September 30, 1996, the President signed into law the Library Services and Technology
Act (PL 104-208), changing markedly the direction and distribution of federally funded
library initiatives. The change from Library Services and Construction Act to the Library
Services and Technology Act affirmed the increasing role of technology in delivering library
services and providing access to information for the public. It brought to fruition a federal
law change the Commission had recommended years before. The 1997 report on Public






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Libraries and the Internet looked at the prominent role technology had already taken in the
public library, and it explored specific actions that the federal government should take to
ensure that access to government-produced and government-collected information was
available to the public via their libraries.

NCLIS remained focused on the Internet and its effect on information access for the public
and in 1999 issued its report, Kids and the Internet. In its report, it again made
recommendations to the government and to libraries. For the government, in this case local
government bodies, the Commission recommended "that the governing body of school and
public libraries, in order to meet its trustee responsibilities, should establish, formally
approve, and periodically review a written acceptable use policy statement on Internet
access." While the commission stopped short of recommending filters to the governing
bodies, they did suggest that "software which can be turned on or off- and that restricts
access to designated web site for specific Internet functions could be considered as a measure
to protect children while they are using the Internet." The Commission noted that libraries
can provide Internet training and education and other awareness programs to parents,
guardians, and teachers and alert them to both the promise and the perils of the Internet for
children.



The Final Decade: 2000-2008
The Commission explored the convergence of the Public Sector and Private Sector in
Information Services. In their 2000 recommendations they affirmed the applicability of the
First Amendment to information products and services. They encouraged government
agencies to utilize the most efficient information technologies, encouraged the setting and
use of voluntary standards that will not inhibit further development of innovative information
products and services, and supported statistical programs and research to provide the data
needed to deal with information policy issues. They supported the use of libraries as active
means for access to governmental information by the public. To further ensure public access
to information, they recommended that the government not assert any federal government
copyrights on information made available domestically, and they recommended using the
nation's libraries as information centers for distributing government information rather than
creating new governmental units.

In 2000, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), an arm of the Department of
Commerce, was to be closed due to insufficient funding. The information service was a
principal distribution point for non-classified technical information to the public. In response
to this possibility of diminished public access, the Commission called for appropriations to
enable the agency to continue functioning while seeking an alternative business model to
finance its operations. The Commission sought assurances that materials were not discarded
and asked that reports on NTIS operations be submitted to the congressional oversight and
appropriation committees and to NCLIS.

Recognizing the strong relationship between school library media programs and student
achievement and the importance of information literacy, the Commission returned to the






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


topic of school libraries in 2001. The Commission invited public comment at its hearing in
Cincinnati, OH examining five questions:

1. How is student performance affected by having a well-equipped library and
professionally trained staff?
2. How does the school librarian's involvement in the development and active
participation in the curriculum influence student success?
3. How do school librarians help students develop the ability to identify, access, and
evaluate information resources for problem solving, i.e., to move from literacy to
information literacy?
4. How do school librarians address, promote, and sustain literacy?
5. What is the impact of federal government support for school libraries, and how
should future needs be met?

In September 2001, the Commission turned its attention to the role of information access in
emergency preparedness and recovery. Following the attacks on the World Trade Center in
New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, the Commission, like other federal
agencies, reviewed its mandate in light of the tragedy. Through its earlier work with libraries
and state library agencies, the Commission was keenly aware that the U.S.'s 16,000 public
libraries form an unofficial nationwide distribution system for information needed and
wanted by the public. The Commission's first publication on the topic was Trust and Terror:
A Proposal to Expand the Role of US Libraries in Crisis Information Dissemination and
Management. The CD presentation was shown broadly to audiences of librarians to heighten
their awareness of the pivotal role they could fulfill for vital and accurate information during
a disaster. The Commission continued its work with other federal agencies, bringing this
already-made network to the attention of Homeland Security and Emergency Management
officials. NCLIS took a three-prong approach to link libraries and emergency preparedness:
(1) bringing together stakeholders in emergency response and apprising them of the role
libraries can play; (2) persuading library and information service leaders to identify the
distribution of emergency preparedness information as a critical and natural role for libraries;
and (3) promoting to the general public the idea that libraries can be the place to find the
information they need for critical emergencies. During the subsequent floods from
Hurricanes Rita and Katrina, libraries were the centers for information and were among the
first public services restored.

In organizing its activities, the Commission was guided by its strategic plan of April 2004. In
the plan, the Commission established three goals for its work:

To appraise library and information services provided for the American people
To strengthen the relevance of libraries and information science in the lives of the
American people
To promote research and development for extending and improving library and
information services for the American people






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


To achieve its goals, the Commission undertook several strategic initiatives. Each initiative
in turn resulted in specific policy advice or comment delivered to the President and to
Congress as required by law.

The NCLIS initiative on health communication and the role of libraries in distributing
consumer health information and in promoting healthy lifestyles for all Americans
was designed to mobilize the resources of libraries to help solve a critical national
problem: unhealthy lifestyles. Many citizens do not know where to go to find
consumer health information and this initiative sought to expand the role of libraries
in addressing this problem. The Commission's goal was to enable libraries to play a
key role in encouraging the development of healthy lifestyles and raise the standard
of health literacy for all American citizens. The overarching objectives of the
initiative were to identify methodologies and strategic partners to working with the
Commission, to ensure that all libraries in America were empowered to respond to
citizens' health communication needs.

Specific activities supporting this initiative were the 2004 NCLIS Blue Ribbon
Consumer Health Information Recognition Awards for Libraries and the 2006 NCLIS
Health Information Awards for Libraries and the Libraries and Health Information
Forum, May 3, 2006. At the forum, the keynote speaker was Dr. J. Edward Hill,
President, American Medical Association, and representatives of each of the ten
finalists for the award described their specific programs in detail. These recognition
activities were developed in partnership with the Chief Officers of State Library
Agencies (COSLA), the National Library of Medicine /National Institutes of Health,
the American Medical Association, The Henderson Foundation, Commissioner Mary
H. ("Mitzi") Perdue in memory of Frank Perdue, Thomson Gale, and the ProQuest
Company.

In its report to the President and the Congress, the Commission gave extensive
examples of programs through the U.S. that provided excellent health information to
their communities.

By 2005, information available on the Internet from commercial and private sources
was augmented significantly as agencies and educational institutions began digitizing
their holdings, particularly their special collections. This work was epitomized by the
American Memory project by the Library of Congress and its many university
partners. An announcement by Google that it had partnered with five major research
libraries to digitize the millions of books in their general book collections changed
dramatically the landscape for research information available via the Internet. That
partnership was followed shortly by another collaboration spearheaded by the Internet
Archive with other academic partners called the Open Content Alliance. While the
Commission cannot endorse any specific commercial activity, Commission members
were quick to applaud the concept and the participants. "Seldom has there been an
occasion that so clearly brings together the mutual interests of readers, researchers,
and library managers."






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


The Commission's work on digitization was realized in a 2006 symposium offered in
partnership with the University of Michigan Library. The symposium, "Scholarship
and Libraries in Transition: A Dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization
Projects," was planned and organized by the University of Michigan Library staff and
funded mainly by the University of Michigan and brought together some 300
interested participants to discuss large-scale digitization and its implications for
society.

This NCLIS initiative in looking at the mass digitization of books and other materials
for the purposes of preserving them for future generations and making them available
to a much wider audience underscores its continuing emphasis on access to
information. They sought to inform American citizens about the legal, social,
economic, and other impacts of large-scale digitization and to identify opportunities
for research and the development of policy recommendations as large-scale
digitization is implemented through the larger field of library and information
science.

NCLIS renewed its emphasis on the importance of early literacy by again looking at
the role of school libraries and student achievement. This NCLIS initiative sought to
identify how school libraries affect the achievement of excellence in learning in order
to disseminate the information to community organizations, school administrators,
local politicians with funding authority, the media, the larger educational community,
and to all others who have an interest in the role of libraries in educational
achievement. The purpose of the initiative was to raise the awareness of community
leaders and other influential citizens about the value of school libraries and to provide
them with scientific-based evidence that could be used as they address funding issues.
Specific activities focus on identifying excellence in school library service delivery,
including school library programs which support literacy efforts for students.

Related to the student achievement, the Commission made a commitment to support
literacy efforts, especially in terms of reading initiatives, adult literacy (for those who
cannot read enough to carry out basic life skills), and health literacy. This NCLIS
initiative focused on a review and report on activities and programs that support adult
literacy and family literacy (in which children and parents learn together the
educational values of literacy across generations, with both children and parents
pursuing educational goals). In connection with this initiative, the Commission
partnered with Borders Books, Scholastic, the Chicago Public Schools Department of
Libraries, the Quills Literacy Foundation, and Rotary International to expand local
and regional "Battle of the Books" activities, with particular attention to the role of
school libraries as the focus for these efforts.

In 2006 the Commission devoted much of its time to focusing on two policy issues before the
Congress: proposed changes to Internet neutrality and to legislation that would restrict
eligibility for e-rate funding. In November, the Commission published a statement of its
position on Internet neutrality ("net neutrality"), then being debated in the Congress. The
Commission took the position that-with respect to Internet neutrality-Congress should






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


take action to assure that tiered access is prevented. In fact, according to a study done under
contract for the Commission, the government has already taken a stand. In 1992, when
Congress permitted commercial traffic on the Internet, the Committee report on the
legislation noted that the change did not alter the "goals or characteristics" of the network.
Congressman Rick Boucher, the Chairman of the House subcommittee that developed the
legislation, explained during a hearing on the legislation: "It is essential as the network is
structured that all commercial providers of network services receive equal treatment and that
Government policy in managing the network not favor any provider or set of providers over
others."

The Commission also referred to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), as it has
been suggested that the FCC handle net neutrality in a regulatory manner, but a position has
been taken by the FCC. However, in August 2005, the FCC adopted and published four
principles "to encourage broadband deployment and preserve and promote the open and
interconnected nature of [the] public Internet." While the principles have no legal force and
have not been codified, the FCC Chairman stated at the time that these principles will be
incorporated into the policymaking activities of the FCC. The four principles are:

1. Consumers are entitled to access the lawful Internet content of their choice.
2. Consumers are entitled to run applications and services of their choice (subject to the
needs of law enforcement).
3. Consumers are entitled to connect their choice of legal devices that do not harm the
network.
4. Consumers are entitled to competition among network providers, application and
service providers, and content providers.

With respect to content on the Internet, NCLIS supported these principles in full and in its
statement the Commission encouraged Congress to reiterate strongly the position it took
when legislation permitting commercial traffic on the Internet was developed, noting that
equal treatment of content is important to all information seekers.

The Commission continued to monitor the e-rate program, as its implementation and any
threats to its continuation or attempts to curtail the program would seriously affect public
schools and libraries. The funding provided by the program enables libraries and schools to
have access to telephone and Internet services, and without the program, that service would
be seriously hampered. In November, 2006 the Commission published a statement of concern
about proposed legislation that, if enacted, would require all schools and libraries which
receive federal funds to restrict access to digital social networking tools and online
communities. Particularly affected would be schools and libraries receiving discounted
telecommunication services under the e-rate (the familiar program name of Universal
Services, Section 245 of the Telecommunication Act of 1966).

This overview of its work throughout its history makes clear the broad scope of the NCLIS
mission. It has been the only government agency given the statutory responsibility that is the
Commission's very reason for being, to provide policy advice to the President and the
Congress with respect to libraries and information science. In much of its work the






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Commission has involved others in its deliberations and collaborations. While its specific
purpose and mission has been to advise the President and the Congress, the Commission has
shared its recommendations broadly for the common good of the American people.

Measuring Libraries and Access to Information
Through most of its history NCLIS has been involved in library statistics and conducting
surveys of libraries. To the Commissioners the statistics were important tools in evaluating
how libraries were serving the public, how schools benefited from connecting students to the
school libraries, and in measuring the effects of federal funding programs on library services.
The benefits to libraries were equally valuable. Every library has to justify its funding
request often in competition with other needed municipal services. The statistics allow
libraries to compare and contrast their services and budgets with other comparable libraries,
academic to academic libraries, public libraries to those of similar size or population, and
school media centers to those of other districts. The statistics told the Commissioners how
many volumes there are in the collections of academic libraries, how many branches were
operated by public libraries, what the nationwide attendance was at children's story hours,
and how expenditures for school library media centers relate to total school expenditures, the
answer to each question a data point in assessing the quality of library service and the access
Americans had to information resources.

In 1867, the U.S. Office of Education was established with the specific responsibility to
collect statistics that would aid the people of the United States to establish and maintain an
effective education system and promote the cause of education. Within nine years the
agency had produced its first report on public libraries.

Many attribute the passage of the Library Services Act in 1956 to the facts revealed by the
statistics that library services in the rural areas of the nation were appalling. Stronger
reporting by the states led to greater commonality in the definition of services measured and
a better way of collecting information at the federal level. The National Center for Education
Statistics (NCES) was established in 1965 with the responsibility for collection, analysis, and
reporting of all education statistics.

NCLIS has been a partner of NCES in collecting statistical information about libraries. The
Commission's role has been to serve as the liaison to the library community; to design,
organize, and conduct training workshops for the state personnel involved in data collections;
to provide technical assistance and monitor trends; and to provide advice to NCES on policy
matters. Training programs, with appropriate instructions, manuals, meetings, etc., were
essential to the national statistics program, both at the State and local levels for general
understanding, accuracy or returns and compliance. The development of the Federal-State
cooperative to collect library statistics and data has served many purposes. Local libraries
need statistical data about their own operations to assess their current status and to plan for
future enhancements. The statistics support budget requests and inform policy making at the
local level.

The final report of The Cooperative System for Public Library Data Collection: A Pilot
Project in 1987 specifically addressed the Commission's need for library-related data in






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


policy making: "legislative and administrative groups in the federal government will use
them (the statistics) to plan, administer and monitor federal programs related to libraries."
Statistics are needed, for example, to support periodic review of legislation such as the
Library Services and Construction Act. Statistics are also needed to help shape
recommendations of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and to
assist governmental and congressional officials in planning such programs as postal services
legislation and telecommunications regulations-programs which have a substantial though
indirect impact on library services.


NCLIS Role in the White House Conferences on Libraries and
Information Science

The First White House Conference on Library and Information Services, 1979
For decades White House Conferences were a mechanism to bring together experts and
advocates to develop policy recommendations on an important topic. White House
Conferences have been held on topics as diverse as aging, productivity, and travel and
tourism. The first proposal for a White House Conference on Library and Information
Services (WHCLIS) was in 1957. It took more than twenty years of advocacy to obtain the
authorization for the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services,
which took place on November 15-19, 1979.

Public Law 93-568 stated the goal of the conference as the development of recommendations
"for the further improvement of the nation's libraries and information centers and their use
by the public," and set seven considerations for the conference participants to address:

1. Access to information and ideas is indispensable to the development of human
potential, the advancement of civilization, and the continuance of enlightened self-
government.
2. The preservation and the dissemination of information and ideas are the primary
purpose and function of libraries and information centers.
3. The growth and augmentation of the nation's libraries and information centers are
essential if all Americans are to have reasonable access to adequate services of
libraries and information centers.
4. New achievements in technology offer a potential for enabling libraries and
information centers to serve the public more fully, expeditiously, and economically.
5. Maximum realization of the potential inherent in the use of advanced technology by
libraries and information centers requires cooperation through planning for, and
coordination of, the services of libraries and information centers.
6. The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science is developing plans
for meeting national needs for library and information services and for coordinating
activities to meet those needs.
7. Productive recommendations for expanding access to libraries and information
centers will require public understanding and support as well as that of public and
private libraries and information centers.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


The legislation authorizing WHCLIS named NCLIS as the agency responsible for
coordination and management of the process and administration of the federal funding, and it
was a complex, multi-year process. State conferences began in September of 1977 and were
held in nearly all of the states and many U.S. territories. Delegates included librarians, of
course, but also many state and local officials, community and business leaders, educators
and students, and other individuals reflective of the diverse population of library users and
supporters. Each state conference developed its own resolutions and selected its own
delegates to take those resolutions to Washington for WHCLIS.

Several other pre-conferences were held. For example, there was a specific pre-conference
for Native Americans living on or near reservations and another for the federal library
community. In addition there were five themed conferences, one for federal funding of
patterns for library and information services; another for library network structure and
governance; a third on libraries and literacy; a fourth on international information exchange;
and a fifth on citizen access to new communication and information technology.

These state and themed pre-conferences resulted in thousands of resolutions that were
analyzed and sorted into five theme areas under which the issues would be discussed at the
conference. These were library and information services for meeting personal needs;
enhancing life-long learning; improving organizations and the professions; effectively
governing our society; and increasing international understanding and cooperation.

WHCLIS passed 64 resolutions, 25 by voice vote and 39 by paper ballot, seeking a national
information policy ensuring full access to publicly funded information, access to library
positions and boards for deaf and disabled people, expansion of books and documents
available in a machine-readable form, an omnibus bill addressing library services for Native
Americans, and no-fee access to information in publicly supported libraries, among other
topics. These resolutions were reviewed and approved for publication by the Committee of
the Conference at its meeting in Chicago on January 5, 1980 and contained in the Final
Report of the White House Conference. Also included in the Final Report was an outline for a
proposed National Library and Information Services Act to implement many of the
recommendations.

The NCLIS Annual Report for 1979-1980 described the results of the White House
Conference as follows:

The resolutions call for changes of many kinds, and they also set some major
goals: to reshape library and information services to serve the people in more
useful and convenient ways, to maintain local control of these services, and to
obtain greater economy and accountability from the institutions and organizations
that provide the services.

Resolutions urge libraries to take an increased role in literacy training; in
improving access to information for all, including ethnic minority groups, blind
persons, physically handicapped persons, and others who are not adequately
served. They favor increased activity by the United States to encourage the free
flow of information among nations. Many endorse the idea of the library as both a






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


total community information center and as an independent learning center.
Generally, the resolutions support the concept of the library as essential to a
civilized society, a concern the government must view with high priority in the
decision-making process. Delegates to the Conference also emphasized the
importance of technology and considered ways this nation can use it to improve
library and information services. They discussed and refined such concepts as the
linking of public telecommunications and the Postal Service with a new,
expanded role for libraries.

As complex and time-consuming as it was to hold the conference, in its aftermath there were
many resolutions to address and initiatives to manage. The Commission began its follow-up
on WHCLIS late in fiscal year 1980. One of its first actions was to implement the two
resolutions of the WHCLIS calling for the convening of an Ad Hoc Committee on
Implementation of the Resolutions of the White House Conference, and that meeting was
held in Minneapolis in October. In addition to the work sessions at which they began the
task of setting priorities, the Ad Hoc Committee organized itself as a continuing independent
body, the White House Conference on Library and Information Services Taskforce
(WHCLIST). After an intensive three days and nights in Minneapolis, WHCLIST agreed
upon a governance structure consisting of four officers, chosen at large, and five public
members with five alternates who are in the profession, elected on a regional basis. This
group is called the Steering Committee. The delegates reviewed the 64 resolutions from the
WHCLIS and made recommendations on the tasks to be undertaken to accomplish the goals
of each resolution, on which groups should act as agents for the tasks, and on what time
frame should be established for each task.

Having completed its function as a catalyst to the organization of WHCLIST, and respecting
WHCLIST's desire to function as a separate, independent group, the Commission turned its
attention to its own activities in response to various resolutions of the White House
Conference. Three new task forces were established: Task Force on Community Information
and Referral Services; Task Force on the Role of the Special Library in Nationwide
Networks and Cooperative Programs; and Task Force on Library and Information Services to
Cultural Minorities.

The need for a Task Force on Community Information and Referral Services was based on
the premise that, if the library is to become the first place in the community to which people
turn when seeking information services to meet their needs, it must provide the library user at
all socio-economic and cultural levels with information and, where appropriate, referral to
sources (e.g., governmental, community, neighborhood or voluntary organizations) that can
provide answers and assistance. The Task Force defined appropriate roles for libraries in the
provision of such services and to define ways in which libraries can more effectively fulfill
those roles. Its recommendations were used to support improvements in the Library Services
and Construction Act (LSCA).

The Task Force on the Role of the Special Library in Nationwide Networks and Cooperative
Programs was established to examine ways of making the under-utilized and often
inaccessible resources of the nation's special libraries available to emerging nationwide






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


networks and making the resources of networks available to the special libraries. By helping
to bring this very large constituency (more than 10,000 special libraries in the United States)
into the mainstream of networking and cooperative programs, the Task Force sought to make
a major contribution to improving the effectiveness of the nation's use of its knowledge
resources.

The Task Force on Library and Information Services to Cultural Minorities was established
to explore the development of programs that would encourage ethnic groups in local
communities to cooperate in the planning, delivery, and evaluation of library programs,
community information, and cultural and educational centers. The Task Force was also asked
to identify the means for determining the strength of existing collections and develop criteria
and methods for expanding and improving cultural minority materials for library and
information services such as bilingual materials and foreign language books, films, and tapes.

Also as a result of WHCLIS, NCLIS joined with the Library of Congress and the Federal
Library Committee in a study of governmental (federal, state, and local) library resources and
services around the United States in order to identify ways to improve coordination among
government libraries and information services to meet both national and local needs.


The Second White House Conference on Library and Information Services,
1991
At the first conference there was a call for a second conference within a decade. This time the
advocates were successful in obtaining Congressional support and in 1988 the President
signed Public Law 100-382, authorizing the second White House Conference on Libraries
and Information Science, which took place on July 9-13, 1991. The three conference themes
were library and information services for literacy, democracy, and productivity.

Once again the legislation authorizing WHCLIS named NCLIS as the agency responsible for
coordination and management of the process and administration of the federal funding, and it
launched a complex, multi-year process.

State pre-conferences began in 1990 and were held in all 50 states, the District of Columbia,
and many U.S. territories. Special themed pre-conferences were again held on library
services for Native Americans, federal libraries, and networking. More than 100,000 pre-
conference delegates once again represented a broad array of librarians, other state and local
officials, community and business leaders, educators and students, and other individuals
reflective of the diverse population of library users and supporters. Each state conference
developed its own resolutions and selected its own delegates to take over 2,500 resolutions to
Washington for WHCLIS. There were 984 delegates and alternates and close to 1,000
honorary delegates, international guests, and observers at the national conference.

Information 2000: Library and Information Services for the 21st Century was the final report
of the 1991 White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services. The letter
transmitting the final report to the President stated: "This Nation stands with the world at a
major crossroads. Technological advances present dramatic new information challenges






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


created by the emergence of the Information Age. Decisions made this decade will shape the
global information culture into the next century and, to a great extent, the nature of the
society in which we live." The President, George H.W. Bush, in turn, transmitted the report
to Congress, saying:

The Conference Report makes it clear that library and information services are
changing rapidly in response to an increasingly complex and global society. As
we strive for a more literate citizenry, increased productivity, and stronger
democracy, we must make certain that our libraries and information services will
be there to assist us as we lead the revolution for education reform. As I stated in
my speech at the White House Conference, "Libraries and information services
stand at the center of this revolution."

The WHCLIS delegates approved 95 recommendations, with two top priorities being on
services for children and youth and the information superhighway. In December 1991, the
White House Conference and the American Library Association supported a national
teleconference on "Library and Information Services Action Agenda" to review the
resolutions and plan for their implementation. In its 1991-1992 Annual Report the
Commission synthesized the priority recommendations from WHCLIS as follows:

1. Availability and Access to Information (Theme: Democracy)

That the President and Congress support increased appropriations for all types of library
and information services under existing law.

That NCLIS conduct a forum to develop a coordinated national research and
development agenda for information technologies to generate innovative approaches to
meet the information needs of all potential library and information service users.

That Congress mandate open access to information through federal legislation, including
public information received by the federal government or created at public expense,
regardless of format. That uniform policies and standards for management, preservation,
and access to such public information be developed.

2. Education Services for Diverse Needs (Theme: Literacy)

That the President and the Congress invigorate student learning and literacy through
legislation to support and fund:

School library services (through categorical aid administered through a dedicated
office and program at the Department of Education);
Public library children and young adult services (including partnerships with relevant
organizations and library-based salaried Kids Corps projects);
Research public and school library partnerships, participation in the nation-wide
network, and education for service to children and young adults.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


That appropriate demonstration grants and technology also be funded.

That literacy for all remains a national priority, with emphasis on training for culturally
disadvantaged rural and urban minorities and access to training for the disabled. That the
Congress support and fund library literacy programs; development of a national library-
based literacy training model, new technologies and equipment, and quality literacy
materials; and administration of LSCA Titles 6 and 8 as non-discretionary programs
through the States.

3. Information Networks Through Technology (Theme: Productivity)

That libraries develop and support the use of a nationwide multi-type library network for
improved resource sharing, including interlibrary loan, particularly among small, low-
density population, rural, tribal, and urban libraries. That local libraries also collaborate
with community service providers for universal access to community information and
referral services.

That Congress enact legislation creating and funding the National Research and
Education Network (NREN), the information superhighway which should be available in
all libraries and other information repositories and whose governance structure should
represent all interested constituencies. That the Congress provide additional LSCA
funding for NREN access terminals and other networking needs of small and rural
libraries.

As it had after the 1979 conference, NCLIS focused its own activities in response to various
WHCLIS resolutions. For example, in the early 1990s, the Commission held three hearings
on library and information services for young people, surveying selected school libraries and
working toward school library media provisions in the reauthorized Elementary and
Secondary Education Act. Other meetings and discussions led to the Commission's 1994
sponsorship of research into public libraries and the Internet, also related to a WHCLIS
priority.

Calls for a third White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services did not gain
traction. The time and costs necessary to hold a traditional White House Conference seemed
an insurmountable barrier, and the White House itself moved toward a different model for
White House Conferences, as smaller and shorter meetings of experts without the complex
pre-conferences and delegate selection and as Internet-based meetings allowing broad,
simultaneous participation without long lead times and statutory authorization.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


III. Future Research Agenda


NCLIS Future Research Topics

Introduction
Identification of issues for action by the Commission may come from the Commissioners
themselves, through a request from Congress, the White House or a federal agency, or as
recommendations from other individuals and organizations. In this instance, the Commission
initiated a contract to seek the views of opinion leaders in the fields of library and
information science, representing various types of libraries, as well as for-profit and not-for-
profit providers of information resources and services. The contractor was asked to identify
at least 50 such individuals and consult with them to determine their views on the major
information policy issues that need to be addressed in the next 12 to 18 months, obtaining at
least 35 responses. The contractor was also asked to develop a set of questions and distribute
them to selected organizations for additional input. The contractor was asked to evaluate the
data gathered through this process and select two or three research / policy initiatives for the
Commission or its successor to implement. This report presents the prioritized responses,
based on both importance of the issue and the feasibility for meaningful action by the
Commission or its successor.

Methodology
The library and information community is a broad one composed of librarians, vendors,
educators, researchers and scholars, technology specialists, supporting associations and
research institutes, funding sources both private and public, and library users and information
seekers. For this research, the authors conducted interviews with leaders from:

Research, college, law, corporate, public, and school libraries
Technology companies and publishing houses
Library associations
University faculty
Scholars and information industry leaders
Intellectual property specialists and attorneys
Open access proponents
Organizations representing rights' holders
Organizations and libraries deeply involved in creating and managing digital
intellectual assets
State libraries
Foreign national libraries and U.S. national libraries
Foundations which have provided support for library activities
Library and information science educators

Each interviewee was asked to make two or three recommendations-from their
perspective-of how NCLIS could develop an agenda that addresses problems or issues the






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


interviewee faces on a regular basis with information policy, access to information, or using
information technology as an integral part of professional life. The foreign interviewees
were not asked to make specific recommendations for changes in U.S. policy; rather, they
were asked to reflect on policy issues encountered in working on collaborative international
projects that were simple for them to handle but vexing for their U.S. colleagues.

From the interviews, conducted via email, in person, and by telephone, the results were
compiled, and the authors, each familiar with NCLIS operations and research, have chosen
the four topics that are recommended to the Commission. The remaining topics
recommended by the interviewees could also be the subject of research, and they will be
briefly addressed at the end of this paper.


Topic for Research: Public Libraries, Their Changing Role in U.S. Society and
Measuring Their Societal Value
Specific requests were made for a model to describe who is using public libraries and for
what purpose. What are the usage models? Are these models sustainable into the future?
Are they affordable? Are they understood by the library professionals? Are they understood
and accepted by funding entities? Are the same services available at all public libraries,
urban, suburban, rural or tribal? Should the services be the same? Without access to
libraries with similar collections and services, has the library community permitted, albeit
unintentionally, a tiered level of service to develop that privileges some and continues to
disenfranchise others, comparatively speaking? Is there a baseline of services, collections,
and access that all public libraries must meet? Should the Commission establish a threshold
or baseline of service that is a 'national right'? Can a 'good public library' be defined?

Data from a recent study released by the American Library Association looks at connectivity
and broadband access in public libraries. As user demand for video streaming, social
networking, and the need to download complex applications increases, libraries have to
provide high speed connectivity and broadband access. The survey shows that 62% of public
libraries have broadband, but more than one-third of public libraries have much slower
connectivity. The Congress has spent some time looking at broadband policy options, but
their discussion has not been informed from the perspective of the library community,
particularly public libraries, which are sometimes a user's only connection to the information
highway. NCLIS could lead the discussions, documenting the need for a policy that
recognizes the important role libraries perform, and would seek an accommodation for them
in the policy. Broadband policy and Internet neutrality are examples of information policy
respondents expect NCLIS to address. Multiple respondents believe that the single most
important thing the Commission could do, is to coordinate and bring coherence to
information policy that is developed across various government agencies having now no
central agency charged with its coordination.

What has been the impact on public libraries that new media has had as it is or is not added to
the collections? What have libraries chosen to exclude from the collections, not to censor
information, but because the budget only stretches so far? With web-based information
widely available, electronic games in every handheld device, and on-demand TV structured






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


to an individual's taste and schedule, what role does the public library have-or should the
library have-in such a personalized information world?

Rural public libraries raise additional issues to be addressed. While several library scholars
have spent their careers studying rural libraries, no national level agency has a clear mandate
or mission to address and coordinate their needs or to establish priorities for their programs
of service or support them at a threshold level. Interviewees espouse a need for a champion
at the national level. Census data tracking the retirement migration of 'baby boomers'
predict a higher demand as they retire from urban areas with high expectations for extensive,
high quality library service.

Even at their current level of service, rural libraries often suffer from a lack of professional
leadership and staff trained in technology and automation. Many of the libraries cannot
sustain public access computing for communities most in need of such access. They do not
have sufficient automation resources to participate in state- or region-wide consortia, state-
wide networks or resource sharing programs. Many suffer from a lack of affordable access
to broad band connectivity or have none.

Documenting the needs, identifying programmatic needs and funding support, and setting a
priority agenda in critical and priority areas are ripe areas for NCLIS research and
collaboration with others.

Value of a Public Library
The last ten years have seen several models produced that measure the value of a public
library to a community. Measuring the value of access to information and technology
through public libraries as a critical gateway in ensuring that the economic, educational,
health, and other benefits that come with such access can undergird requests for national and
local funding. Several studies have examined libraries in specific cities; others have
recommended a methodology for calculating state-wide benefits. But interview respondents
requested that NCLIS commission a methodology that can be applied broadly by each of the
segments of the library community, resulting in methodologies for public libraries, for school
libraries, and for academic libraries. With an agreed upon set of models for use by the
various kinds of libraries, work could be done to establish the value of a single library to its
community, of a state network of public libraries to the state economy, and of the state's
school libraries to the educational performance standards.

If such studies were performed across the country, we could as a nation begin to calculate the
value of libraries to the national economy. Library advocates would indeed welcome a
validated, replicable methodology to use as a basis for measuring a library's impact on the
economy, the educational attainment, and the quality of life. Having data to refute the
conjecture that a library represents only overhead to its community is needed. Library
advocates would then have a firmer foundation for championing additional financial support
from funding bodies to maintain services when threatened or establish new libraries or
expanded programs of service.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


In addition to the replicable methodology, respondents asked that the resulting measures also
document the value of libraries through success stories and anecdotes that celebrate the
impact they have in supporting local small businesses, families, recreation, and the
community.

A particular focus requested for research is the impact of e-government on public libraries.
One of the reasons that governments-federal, state, and local-distribute information via
the Internet is to get wider dissemination and deeper penetration of their community. But
most librarians accustomed to working with government publications will usually concur that
government information-the piece a user wants and needs today-is not always readily
found. Libraries of all types rely heavily on access to government information for satisfying
a variety of user needs: census data, small business loans, grants, scholarships, and keeping
track of the local jurisdiction. For those without access to the Internet at home and for those
lost in the trail of documents, the public library is the place they go. Local governments
frequently require that job and benefits applications be filed online-the user seeks help with
the format and the inputting.

The converse is also worth research. As governmental units remove information from the
Internet, users are denied access to information that can affect their research, personal health,
or financial condition. Examples of the challenges are the roles of libraries and information
services in addressing 21st century global challenges with the need for constant access to
reliable research information on such issues as: global climate change research, assured
access to clean water and sanitation, development of systematic treatments for and
prevention of infectious diseases common to animals and humans, and scientific knowledge
and information on nutrition, food quality, and safety.


Topic for Research: Digital Libraries
A considerable number of recommendations focused attention on the library in the digital
world. If one approaches studying the library from a functional perspective rather than as a
concentration of content, the entire proposition of what is a library can be rethought. How
does one define the community served by a digital library? What is its mission, and what are
the services? How are these linked to a specific community as contrasted to the larger world-
wide circle of people who might want to use the library or its collections? What has been the
impact of Google as a search engine on the library's traditional role of finding answers to
questions? What has been and what is likely to be future impacts on libraries of Google and
other mass digitization efforts?

Interviews repeatedly turned to the role of libraries in a digital world and the role of
librarians in that milieu. Increasingly the products of our culture are digital-born in digital
form, accessible only electronically, and available for preservation only in digital form.
Recent statistics estimate that 161 exabytes of digital information was produced just last year.
The amount of digital information produced in a single year exceeds that in all of the written
texts produced throughout human history.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


The explosion in use and availability of digital information has the advantage of increasing
access and lowering the conventional barriers of time and location. The global knowledge
economy is driven by access to digital information. But there are disadvantages. Unlike clay
tablets, papyrus, and even paper, digital preservation media are extremely fragile and require
an active-not passive-preservation strategy. Digital technologies change constantly and
many digital objects are rendered inaccessible as the underlying technologies are outdated.
Many digital objects are being preserved without sufficient metadata to provide the
contextual information necessary to understand the full meaning of the object. Interviewees
thought that this is primarily because the responsibility for providing and preserving the
necessary metadata typically has not been assigned to or assumed by any particular
individual or organization. Others interviewees concluded that after years of testing and
applying various schemas for digital preservation, there remains a lack of a viable,
sustainable, replicable economic model.

The questions posed for NCLIS to explore in future research revolve around the role(s) of
libraries and librarians in preserving digital cultural products for use by future generations.
Will libraries have a role in preserving digital objects other than published text? What roles
should libraries play in the collection, access, archiving, and managing of data and data sets
in the U.S. in support of scientific research? What is the role libraries should play in the
evolution of cyber infrastructure developments? Are there viable economic models for
digital preservation organizations that will allow both the organizations and the materials to
persist over multiple decades? What partnerships are necessary between librarians and
archivists as one set, and computer, data, and cyber infrastructure scientists and technologists
as the other? What unique skills and capabilities do librarians bring to the issues involved in
complex preservation situations? What types of institutions and organizations are needed to
provide reliable, decade's long digital preservation?

These intense questions can be illustrated by a historian's frustration working actively in
producing ground breaking digital scholarship. The biggest issue digital scholars face is the
longevity of their work. If one produces scholarship as a book, it gets printed and shelved as
a book somewhere in a library even if in just the largest of the research libraries. But a
digital work that is more than a PDF file, a work that requires the processing power of a
system of hardware and software, one that uses any form of client / server queries presents
obstacles to its longevity. The complex arrangement of hardware, software, and middleware
and its tailoring to a particular research problem or question requires ongoing maintenance
and engagement by some institution to assure that it works as originally designed even as the
technology changes around it. And scholars often use a suite of systems to produce a work-
each of them has to be kept in synch, creating more demand for constant and persistent
management and systems coordination. Scholars are per force becoming technologists, some
enthusiastically, some reluctantly. Without active preservation, the work will become
inaccessible to future students and scholars, a particular issue in disciplines where issues are
researched longitudinally.

Other interviews focusing on digital libraries posed more fundamental questions worthy of
deep research. If a purely digital library were constructed, what would its mission be? How
would its community be defined, and what services would it offer? What people would be






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


needed, and how would needed skill sets be defined? What are the characteristics that make
an online library a 'real' library' as opposed to just a website? Are more or other types of
virtual libraries likely to develop in the future? For purposes of copyright, should they be
treated as libraries under Section 108 of the Copyright Act?

Others suggest that the roles and functions of American libraries in a Google-dominant future
should be researched. Questions suggested are: How should libraries position (or reposition)
their resources, missions, and services given the increasing dominance of Google's
commercial search service? Can libraries take advantage of this trend to reinvigorate and
revitalize the roles they play in our institutions, communities, and nation? What are the
implications of the public and private sector roles in this increasingly complex arena?

Others postulate that without a policy framework for libraries, considered as a public good,
the legal framework for the music and movie industries is likely to prevail. Specific
recommendations to NCLIS are to conduct a series of national summits on topics that are
part of a policy framework. Others call for the establishment of a national open lab in
information research, conducting studies that look at the cognitive edge in learning in a
digital environment, that speed the diffusion of innovations, and that create a culture for
change.

If one looks at the globalization of information, other policy implications emerge: What are
the economic, social, and policy implications for the creation, exchange, and use of
information content and services in an increasingly global and interconnected world? How
can the United States develop information policies and alliances needed to balance our
freedom, security, and prosperity?

Others suggest that privacy is an important component of information policy, particularly as
it interplays with information security. What constraints threaten information privacy and
security in a world increasingly dependent on global networked information technologies?
What government policies are needed to balance competing interests in this complex mix of
conflicting needs?


Topic for Research: Building and Sharing Collections
While the primary purpose of building an academic library collection is to support the
teaching and research programs of the university, much of their collections are duplicated
across many institutions-in the same state or even in the same city. Yet there are no
institutional mechanisms for sharing collections, digital, digitized or print. Further, they
assert, copyright law prevents the academic libraries from making optimal use of digital
technology, and they are looking for an accommodation with rights holders, especially for
out of print works that provide little or no revenue stream to the rights holders but are an
integral part of academic scholarship. They attribute the decrease in institutional buying
power and the subsequent decline in the breadth and richness of collections to the
commoditization of information.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Academic administrators suggested other areas for information policy research that affect
college and university campuses. They say that the changes in copyright laws that occurred
during the 1990s have resulted such that a teacher or student who wishes to comply fully
with the law now faces severely restricted access or often has a significant financial burden.
They recommend that research on the 'real cost' of access to library materials would cut
through stereotypes and might lead to a sustainable, market-based system of scholarly
communication.

Specifically, they recommend that NCLIS analyze copyright law and fair use in the 21st
century, especially the copyright laws' impact on restraining the development of truly rich,
participatory, engaged, and example-rich research (including historical, sociological,
political, and scientific research in the academic and nonprofit sector). The current copyright
regime, developed from the mindset of a print-centric world of information scarcity, is now
providing a functional monopoly on content (audio, video, text), effectively precluding, for
example, analysis of the historical development of the civil rights movement (most footage,
news photographs, stories, and other material being "owned" and operationally impossible to
obtain, for a university-based historian). The same argument can be made about nearly
anything that happened between 1923 and today. The impact on libraries is fairly self-
evident, in hampering access and re-use by the public. A radical proposal from an
interviewee included a seven-year absolute copyright, followed by a nonprofit exemption for
scholarly / academic / public work.


Topic for Research: Disaster Planning and Relief Efforts
Until the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, not too many people thought of the public
library as an important player in disaster preparation or relief efforts. Some respondents
recommended that NCLIS focus in this area-in addition to the work that was done on Trust
and Terror, a publication NCLIS released soon after the terrorist attacks in 2001. Many
libraries are already equipped with broadband public access computers and staff with
expertise in finding information and guiding others through the process. While each public
library is a part of a local jurisdiction, looked at geographically, they form a network across
the country. To many users, they are already a third place-not home and not work or
school, but a community gathering space in which all are welcome. The libraries that stayed
in business or immediately set up shop after the hurricanes were the principal source of
access to accurate information about the disaster and relief possibilities and a link to worried
families and friends. If organized in advance, and with training in advance, the library can be
a center for improving community resilience.


Other Areas of Research Recommended to the Commission

Copyright
Issues in intellectual property were raised by most respondents to the survey for this study,
including some that, if clarified, could form the basis of discussions among parties on various
sides of the copyright debate. Questions arising from the Library of Congress Section 108






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Study Group suggest research in the application of Technological Protection Measures
(TPMs), trends in licensing and e-reserves, copying for use in Inter-Library Loans (ILL), and
the development of totally virtual libraries.

Internet
Research recommended to be undertaken related to the pervasiveness of the Internet
includes: how the manner and style of information and communication exchange has been
affected by the Internet. The impact of the Internet on learning styles and information
delivery in the classroom has been the focus of research in various sectors of the educational
communities, but no study has sought to integrate them from kindergarten to post-graduate
studies.

The global village is a phrase attributed to the way the Internet has streamlined and speeded
communication around the world-but some wonder how the Internet has changed
information delivered in the local village. Has the Internet replaced or supplanted the
traditional neighborhood or community newsletter? Is the information packaged now for the
random reader or for the intended consumer?

Library Education
Library educators point to the dual requirements for educating students to work in a paper-
based library environment and in a digital environment. Several schools have focused all
their curricula on the requirement for educating digital-savvy librarians, leaving a smaller
number to train children's librarians and school librarians. With the forward looking focus
on the digital world, doctoral students are avoiding research in traditional library scholarship.
The lack of Ph.D. level teaching faculty for traditional library subject matter now hampers
offering the curricula needed to produce the number of children's librarians or school
librarians needed nationwide.

Current Model of Scholarly Publishing Is It Sustainable?
Respondents likened the consortia model for purchasing scholarly serials to the development
of 'scholarly Sam's Clubs' which has lowered the unit price for a serial, but because of the
publishers' techniques of bundling a package of serials, academic libraries are too often
collecting material they do not really want or need for the institution's collections. The net
result is that the libraries have had to prune serials from their collections. They suggest
looking to the recording industry for a prediction of the future. One used to be able to buy
45s (print journal subscriptions), the industry then moved to albums (prepackaged collections
of journals), and now the preferred method is to buy individual tunes via the Internet. Some
predict that limited funds will push libraries in this direction, and usage will be the factor that
determines what survives the shift. Even if the long tail theory is applied, niche markets
create demand, can that hold true for esoteric journals for which there is a very limited
audience at best? If one follows that argument through the life cycle of library materials, the
role of preservation and the role of building deep and rich research collections are abandoned
to the marketplace. Respondents asked if leaving the U.S. scholarly output in the hands of
the private sector is in the long term national interest.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


They recommended an analysis of the library's and public sector's roles in supporting
scholarly, academic, and nonprofit publishers and their infrastructures. The current
predominant model of "free market" is clearly failing for content that is scholarly / academic,
especially in fields that have limited markets-often traditionally produced by university
presses and specialty scholarly publishing houses. Because "the market" cannot support these
kinds of publications does not mean that the value of the material, especially in a library
context, is low-just that the value may be more long-term (humanities, social sciences).

And some recommended a new role for academic libraries in scholarly communications-
acting less as "concentrations of content" and more as arbiters of scholarly, academic, and
societal significance and value. Perhaps libraries, universities, and scholarly societies could
perform in a "good housekeeping seal of approval" model, identifying valued or valuable
content, both traditionally published and openly published in digital venues.

School Libraries
In the rapidly developing electronic information world, how does society balance the
continuing need for physical public and school libraries with the need to support electronic
access? This is a problem not limited to public and school libraries, as libraries on all
academic campuses are concerned with the question of "the library as place." However, on
most campuses there is still an acceptance of the need for physical libraries-even if their
function is changing. Is there a strong social mission that requires the continued investment
in physical structures, people, and collections, while also offering and instructing on
electronic access to information sources? Given the tightness of local government budgets,
how are decisions made and how should they be made on choices between bricks and bytes?






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Appendix A. Enabling Legislation






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science
Consolidation of NCLIS' Legislation*
Public Law 91-345
July 20, 1970
As amended by Public Law 93-29, Section 802, May 3, 1973,
Public Law 102-95, August 14, 1991, Public Law 104-208, Title II, Section 3, September 30, 1996 and Public
Law 108-81, Title IV, Section 401, 402, (505 Repealed), September 25, 2003
An Act

To establish a National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House ofRepresentatives of the United States ofAmerica in Congress
assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "National Commission on Libraries and Information
Science Act"

STATEMENT OF POLICY
SEC. 2. The Congress hereby affirms that library and information services adequate to meet the needs
of the people of the United States are essential to achieve national goals and to utilize most
effectively the Nation's educational resources and that the Federal Government will
cooperate with State and local governments and public and private agencies in assuring
optimum provision of such services.

COMMISSION ESTABLISHED
SEC. 3. There is hereby established as an independent agency within the executive branch, a National
Commission on Libraries and Information Science (hereinafter referred to as the
"Commission").

CONTRIBUTIONS
SEC. 4. The Commission is authorized to, solicit, accept, hold, administer, invest in the name of the
United States, and utilize gifts, bequests, and devises of services or property, both real and
personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission. Gifts,
bequests, and devises of money and proceeds from sales of other property received as gifts,
bequests, or devises shall be deposited in the Treasury and shall be available for
disbursements upon the order of the Commission.

FUNCTIONS
SEC. 5. (a) The Commission shall have the primary responsibility for developing or recommending
overall plans for, and advising the appropriate governments and agencies on, the policy set
forth in section 2. In carrying out that responsibility, the Commission shall-
(1) advise the President and the Congress on the implementation of national policy by
such statements, presentations, and reports as it deems appropriate;
(2) conduct studies, surveys, and analyses of the library and informational needs of the
Nation, including the special library and informational needs of rural areas, or
economically, socially, or culturally deprived persons, and of elderly persons, and the
means by which these needs may be met through information centers, through the
libraries of elementary and secondary schools and institutions of higher education, and
through public, research, special, and other types of libraries;
(3) appraise the adequacies and deficiencies of current library and information resources
and services and evaluate the effectiveness of current library and information science
programs;


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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


(4) develop overall plans for meeting national library and informational needs and for the
coordination of activities at the Federal, State, and local levels, taking into consideration
all of the library and informational resources of the Nation to meet those needs;
(5) be authorized to advise Federal, State, local, and private agencies regarding library
and information sciences;
(6) promote research and development activities which will extend and improve the
Nation's library and information-handling capability as essential links in the national and
international communications and cooperative networks;
(7) submit to the President and the Congress (not later than January 31 of each year) a
report on its activities during the preceding fiscal year; and
(8) make and publish such additional reports as it deems to be necessary, including, but
not limited to, reports of consultants, transcripts of testimony, summary reports, and
reports of other Commission findings, studies, and recommendations.
(b) The Commission is authorized to contract with Federal agencies and other public and
private agencies to carry out any of its functions under subsection (a) and to publish and
disseminate such reports, findings, studies, and records as it deems appropriate.
(c) The Commission is further authorized to conduct such hearings at such times and places
as it deems appropriate for carrying out the purposes of this Act.
(d) The heads of all Federal agencies are, to the extent not prohibited by law, directed to
cooperate with the Commission in carrying out the purposes of this Act.

MEMBERSHIP
SEC. 6. (a) The Commission shall be composed of the Librarian of Congress, the Director of the
Institute of Museum and Library Services (who shall serve as an ex officio, nonvoting
member), and fourteen members appointed by the President, by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate. Five members of the Commission shall be professional librarians or
information specialists, and the remainder shall be persons having special competence in or
knowledge of the needs of our society for library and information services, at least one of
whom shall be knowledgeable with respect to the technological aspects of library and
information services and sciences, and at least one other of whom shall be knowledgeable
with respect to the library and information service and science needs of the elderly. One of
the appointive members of the Commission shall be designated by the President as Chairman
of the Commission. A majority of members of the Commission who have taken office and are
serving on the Commission shall constitute a quorum for conduct of business at official
meetings of the Commission The terms of office of the appointive members of the
Commission shall be five years, except that-
(1) a member of the Commission appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the
expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed, shall be
appointed only for the remainder of such term; and
(2) any member of the Commission may continue to serve after an expiration of the
member's term of office until such member's successor is appointed, has taken office, and
is serving on the Commission
(b) Members of the Commission who are not in the regular full-time employ of the United
States shall, while attending meetings or conferences of the Commission or otherwise
engaged in the business of the Commission, be entitled to receive compensation at a rate
fixed by the Chairman, but not exceeding the daily equivalent of the maximum rate
authorized for a position above grade GS-15 of the General Schedule under section 5108 of
title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel-time) during which the members
are engaged in the business of the Commission. While so serving on the business of the
Commission away from their homes or regular places of business, they may be allowed travel


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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5,
United States Code, for persons employed intermittently in the Government Service.
(c) (1) The Commission is authorized to appoint, without regard to the provisions of title 5,
United States Code, covering appointments in the competitive service, such professional
and technical personnel as may be necessary to enable it to carry out its function under
this Act.
(2) The Commission may procure, without regard to the civil service or classification
laws, temporary and intermittent services of such personnel as is necessary to the extent
authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed the
rate specified at time of such service for grade GS-18 in section 5332 of title 5, United
States Code, including travel time, and while so serving on the business of the
Commission away from their homes or regular places of business they may be allowed
travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703
of title 5, United States Code, for persons employed intermittently in the Government
service.

AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS
SEC 7. There are authorized to be appropriated $911,000 for fiscal year 1992 and such sums as may
be necessary for each succeeding fiscal year thereafter to carry out the provisions of this Act.



*The official source of statutes in effect as of a certain date is the United States Code. NCLIS legislation is in
Title 20, Chapter 34, parts 1501-1506. Various editions of the US Code are available online. (The address is
http://uscode.house.gov/title_20.htm.)

NCLIS updated October 30, 2003







MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


PUBLIC LAW 102-95-AUG. 14, 1991


105 STAT. 479


Public Law 102-95
102d Congress


AnAct


To improve the operation and effectiveness of the United States National
Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States ofAmerica in Congress assembled,
Section 1. Short Title
This act may cited as the "National Commission on Libraries and
Information Science Act Amendments of 1991".
SEC. 2. COMMISSION ESTABLISHED.
Subsection (b) of section 3 of the National Commission on Libraries and
Information Science Act (hereafter in this Act referred to as the "Act")
(20 U.S.C. 1502(b)) is repealed.
SEC. 3. CONTRIBUTIONS
Section 4 of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1503) is amended to read as follows:
"SEC. 4. CONTRIBUTIONS.
"The Commission is authorized to accept, hold, administer, and utilize
gifts, bequests, and devises of property, both real and personal, for the
purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission. Gifts,
bequests, and devises of money and proceeds from sales of other
property received as gifts, bequests, or devises shall be deposited in the
Treasury and shall be available for disbursement upon the order of the
Commission."
"SEC. 4 FUNCTIONS.
Paragraph (6) of section 5(a) of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1504(a)(6)) is
amended by striking "the national communications networks" and
inserting "national and international communications and cooperatives
networks".


Aug. 14, 1991
[S. 1593]

National
Commission on
Libraries and
Information Science
Act Amendments of
1991.
20 USC 1501 note.


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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


105 STAT. 480 PUBLIC LAW 102-95-AUG. 14, 1991

SEC. 5. MEMBERSHIP.
Subsection (a) of section 6 of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1505(a)) is amended-
(1) after the third sentence thereof, by inserting the following new
sentence: "A majority of members of the Commission shall
constitute a quorum for conduct of business at official meetings of
the Commission."; and
(2) in the fourth sentence thereof by striking "(1) the terms of office"
and all that follows through "time of appointment," and inserting
"(1) the term of office of any member of the Commission shall
continue until the earlier of (A) the date on which the member's
successor has been appointed by the President; or (B) July 19 of the
year succeeding the year in which the member's appointed term of
office shall expire,".
SEC. 6. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
Section 7 of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1506) is amended to read as follows:
"Sec. 7. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.
"There are authorized to be appropriated $911,000 for fiscal year 1992
and such sums as may be necessary for each succeeding fiscal year
thereafter to carry out the provisions of this Act".


Approved August 14, 1991.








LEGISLATIVE HISTORY-S. 1593:
CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 137 (1991):
July 30, considered and passed Senate.
Aug. 1, considered and passed House.


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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


SEC. 703 U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science

Public Law 104-208
Title II, Section 3
September 30, 1996

An Act


(a) FUNCTIONS.

Section 5 of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20
U.S.C. 1504) is amended-

(1) by redesignating subsections (b) through (d) as subsections (d) through (f), respectively;
and

(2) by inserting after subsection (a) the following:

"(b) The Commission shall have the responsibility to advise the Director of the Institute for
Museum and Library Services on general policies with respect to the duties, powers and
authority of the Institute of Museum and Library Services relating to library services,
including-

"(1) general policies with respect to-
"(A) financial assistance awarded under the Museum and Library Services Act for
library services; and
"(B) projects described in section 262(a)(4) of such Act; and

"(2) measures to ensure that the policies and activities of the Institute of Museum and
Library Services are coordinated with other activities of the Federal Government.

"(c)(1) The Commission shall meet not less that 1 time each year in a joint meeting with the
National Museum Services Board, convened for purposes of providing advice on general
policy with respect to financial assistance for projects described in section 262(a)(4) of such
Act.

"(2) All decisions by the Commission and the National Museum Services Board with respect
to the advice on general policy described in paragraph (1) shall be made by a 2/3 majority
vote of the total number of the members of the Commission and the National Museum
Services Board who are present.

"(3) A majority of the members of the Commission and a majority of the members of the
National Museum Services Board shall constitute a quorum for the conduct of business at
official joint meetings of the Commission and the National Museum Services Board.".


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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


(b) MEMBERSHIP.

Section 6 of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20 U.S.C.
1505) is amended-

(1) in subsection (a)-

(A) in the first sentence, by striking "Librarian of Congress" and inserting "Librarian of
Congress, the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (who shall serve as
an ex officio, nonvoting member),";

(B) in the second sentence-
(i) by striking "special competence or interest in" and inserting "special competence
in or knowledge of; and

(ii) by inserting before the period the following: "and at least one other of whom
shall be knowledgeable with respect to the library and information service and
science needs of the elderly";

(C) in the third sentence, by inserting "appointive" before "members"; and

(D) in the last sentence, by striking "term and at least" and all that follows and inserting
"term."; and

(2) in subsection (b), by striking "the rate specified" and all that follows through "and while"
and inserting "the daily equivalent of the maximum rate authorized for a position above
grade GS-15 of the General Schedule under section 5108 of title 5, United States Code, for
each day (including travel-time) during which the members are engaged in the business of
the Commission. While".


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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science
Public Law 108-81 1
Title IV
September 25, 2003
An Act

SEC. 401. AMENDMENT TO CONTRIBUTIONS.

Section 4 of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20
U.S.C. 1503) is amended by striking "accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, bequests,
and devises of property," and inserting "solicit, accept, hold, administer, invest in the
name of the United States, and utilize gifts, bequests, and devises of services or
property,".

SEC. 402 AMENDMENT TO MEMBERSHIP.
Section 6(a) of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20
U.S.C. 1505(a)) is amended--
(1) in the second sentence, by striking 'and at least one other of whom shall be
knowledgeable with respect to the library and information service and science
needs of the elderly';
(2) by striking the fourth sentence and inserting the following: 'A majority of
members of the Commission who have taken office and are serving on the
Commission shall constitute a quorum for conduct of business at official
meetings of the Commission'; and
(3) in the fifth sentence, by striking 'five years, except that' and all that follows
through the period and inserting 'five years, except that--
'(1) a member of the Commission appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to
the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed,
shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term; and
'(2) any member of the Commission may continue to serve after an expiration of
the member's term of office until such member's successor is appointed, has taken
office, and is serving on the Commission.'.

SEC. 505. REPEALS.

(a) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
ACT- Section 5 of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act
(20 U.S.C. 1504) is amended--
(1) by striking subsections (b) and (c); and
(2) by redesignating subsections (d), (e), and (f) as subsections (b), (c), and (d),
respectively





To reauthorize the Museum and Library Services Act, and for other purposes


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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Appendix B. NCLIS Chairs






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


U.S. National Commission on
Libraries and Information Science
Chairpersons
1970 2008




Mr. Burkhardt of Bennington, Vermont was the former Vice
Chairman of the National Advisory Commission on Libraries
(1966-68). Frederick Burkhardt was nominated to the Commission
on July 15, 1971 by President Richard Nixon. Mr. Burkhardt was
renominated on April 15, 1976 by President Ford and reappointed
Chairman on August 2, 1976 with a term expiring on July 19,
1980. Mr. Burkhardt submitted his resignation on March 13, 1978
to pursue his writing and research commitments abroad.

Frederick Burkhardt
Chairman 1970-78
Chairman Emeritus



President Jimmy Carter nominated Charles Benton as a Member of
the Commission on August 21, 1978. President Carter named Mr.
Benton Chairman of NCLIS following his Senate confirmation of his T
nomination on October 11, 1978. At the time of his nomination Mr. "*
Benton was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Films, Inc., V J
Wilmette, Illinois. Mr. Benton was renominated to the Commission
on July 31, 1980. Upon his confirmation of his reappointment by the
Senate, Mr. Benton was redesignated Chairman. Mr. Benton is
currently Chairman, Public Media, Inc. of Chicago, IL, and
President of the Benton Foundation based in Washington, D.C. Mr. Charles Benton
Benton's term expired in 1985. Chairman 1978-82
Chairman Emeritus


-B-2






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Elinor Hashim of Norwalk, CT, was confirmed by the Senate as
Chairman of the Commission on October 1, 1982. At the time, Ms.
Hashim was Supervisor of Reference and Technical Services,
Perkin-Elmer Corporate Library in Norwalk, CT. Elinor Hashim
was former OCLC Government Relations Officer in Newington,
CT. Ms. Hashim served as NCLIS Acting Executive Director in
1986.


Elinor M. Hashim
Chairman 1982-86
Chairman, Emeritus


President Reagan nominated Kenneth Tomlinson as the fourth
Chairman in October 1986. At the time of his nomination Mr.
Tomlinson was Executive Editor, Reader's Digest, Pleasantville,
New York. During his chairmanship the Commission celebrated
15 years of activities under Public Law 91-345. Mr. Tomlinson
resigned from the Commission in May 1987. The President had
assigned him to another post.


Kenneth Y. Tomlinson
Chairman 1986-87


B-3


V.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Jerald Newman was confirmed by the Senate as a Member of
NCLIS on December 21, 1982. At the time of his appointment
Mr. Newman was President & Chief Administrative Officer and
Trustee of The Bowery Savings Bank in New York, New York.
President Reagan named Mr. Newman NCLIS Chairman on May
13, 1987. Mr. Newman has over 40 years experience with
computer and microform technologies and automated systems.
Mr. Newman's term expired July 19, 1992.
Jerald C. Newman
Chairman 1987-90
Chairman Emeritus





Charles Reid of Ft. Lee, New Jersey, was nominated as NCLIS
Chairman by President George Bush in February 1990. Mr. Reid L
had chaired NCLIS' Committee on Library and Information
Services to Native Americans and Program Review Committee. Mr.
Reid also served as Chair of NCLIS Ad hoc Committee on the '
Library of Congress, formed in December 1989. Charles Reid *-
served as Chairman of the 1991 White House Conference on
Library and Information Services (WHCLIS). The Charles E. Reid
Branch Library was dedicated on June 25, 1994. Charles E. Reid
Chairman 1990-92
Chairman Emeritus






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


J. Michael Farrell of Washington, D.C. was confirmed as a
Member of NCLIS on October 15, 1990. President George Bush
designated J. Michael Farrell Chairman of the Commission on

'" partner in the law firm of Manatt, Phelps, Phillips, & Kantor. Mr.
Farrell served as General Counsel for the U.S. Department of
l LEnergy. In addition, he served as a Member on the Commission for
J. Michael Farrell the Study of Alternatives to the Panama Canal from 1988-1991.
Chairman 1992-93 Mr. Farrell's term expired July 19, 1993.







In November 1993, Mrs. Simon was appointed by President
Clinton as the Chairperson of the U.S. National Commission on
Libraries and Information Science. She was nominated to a
second term on November 6, 1997. Mrs. Simon was a member of
the District of Columbia and Illinois Bars. She belonged to
several organizations, including The League of Women Voters,
The American Library Association, the American Association of
University Women, the District of Columbia Bar Association, the
Illinois Bar Association, and the Women's Bar Association of
Illinois. In January 1997, Mrs. Simon was appointed Adjunct
Professor of Library Affairs at Southern Illinois University in
Carbondale, Illinois. Mrs. Simon died on Sunday, February 20, Jeanne Hurley Simon
2000 following her gallant struggle with cancer. Chairperson 1993-2000


B-5






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Martha Gould brought a wealth of experience gained through a
distinguished career in both public and state libraries. Beginning
her professional career as a children's librarian at the New York
Public Library, from 1984 1995 she directed the Washoe
County Library in Reno, Nevada, where she also held positions
as Public Services Librarian and Assistant Director. Mrs. Gould
is now a consultant. She was nominated to a second term on
January 29, 1998. Mrs. Gould was designated Chairperson on
Friday, March 3, 2000 and served until July 19, 2003.
Martha B. Gould
Chairperson 2000-2003






Dr. Challinor serves as the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee
of the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of
Women in America at Radcliffe College, and she is a member of 0'
the Madison Council at the Library of Congress. In addition, she is ,
a Director of Knight-Ridder, Inc., a newspaper and electronic
publisher responsible for 29 daily newspapers and a variety of
business, financial, professional, science, and technology on-line
retrieval, database, and CD ROM services. Mrs. Challinor was
designated Chairperson on July 20, 2003 and served until January Joan R. Challinor
28, 2004. Chairperson 2003-2004


-B-6






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Since 1975, Dr. Fitzsimmons has provided a full range of
information services for high tech companies. Her firm,
Information Strategists, founded in 1987, features
Development of technical information centers, corporate
R information audits, electronic online and Internet information
resources, database creation and maintenance, customized
S/ market research, and patent searches. From 1996-1999, Dr.
Fitzsimmons was involved with several projects at the U.S.
Patent and Trademark. From 1993-1996, she was associated
Beth Duston Fitzsimmons with CENDI; Dr. Fitzsimmons served as the information
Chairperson 2004-current specialist for 10 years at Aerodyne Research, Inc. Dr.
Fitzsimmons also has served as the Chairman of the
Depository Library Council to the U.S. Public Printer (1993-94) and received the Public
Printer's Distinguished Service Award. She was a Presidential appointee to the Advisory
Board of the 2nd White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services (1991) and
based on her understanding of Information technology, chaired the conference's Technology
Committee. She is also a member of the American Chemical Society (ACS), Special
Libraries Association (SLA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science
(AAAS).


B-7







US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


-B-8






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Appendix C. Current Commissioners






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Current Commission Members

C. Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. (2004-)
NCLIS Chairman (2004-2008); Chair, Technology Committee, 1991 White House
Conference on Library and Information Services; Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White
House Conference on Library and Information Services; Delegate, 1979 White House
Conference on Library and Information Services, President, Information Strategists (Ann
Arbor, MI)

Bridget L. Lamont (2004-)
NCLIS Vice Chairman (2004-2008), State Librarian, 1991 White House
Conference on Libraries and Information Science, Director of Policy Development, State of
Illinois; former Director, Illinois State Library (Springfield, IL)

Jose A. Aponte (2004-)
Director, San Diego County Library; Member, Advisory Council, the Laura Bush Foundation
for America's Libraries Advisory Council (San Diego, CA)

Sandra F. Ashworth (2004-)
Director, Boundary County District Library; Recipient, 2002 National Award for Library
Service; Recipient, 2003 Idaho's Brightest Star Award (Bonners Ferry, ID)

Edward L. Bertorelli (2004-)
Director, Benefits & Employee Programs, Massachusetts Highway Department; Member,
Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners (Vice-Chairman 1998-1999; Chairman in
2000-2002) (Milford, MA)

James H. Billington, Ph.D. (Ex-Officio, 1987-)
Librarian of Congress; Former Director, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
(Arlington, VA)

Jan Cellucci (2005-)
Member, President's Advisory Council on the University Library, University of British
Columbia; Former Goodwill Ambassador, Canadian Association of Research Libraries;
Former Associate University Librarian, Boston College (Hudson, MA)

Carol L. Diehl (2004-)
Former Director, Board of Education, Manawa School District; Former Director of Library
Media Services and Grant Consultant, School District of New London, Wisconsin; Delegate,
1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services (Appleton, WI)

Allison Druin, Ph.D. (2004-)
Associate Professor, College of Information Studies and Member, Human-Computer
Interaction Lab, University of Maryland; Research Leader, International Children's Digital
Library (Chevy Chase, MD)






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Patricia M. Hines (2004-)
Former Executive Director, National Council on Education Research; former Chief of Staff,
Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy; former Deputy Director, Office of Policy
Development, Executive Office of the President (Mayesville, SC)

Colleen E. Huebner, Ph.D. (2004-)
Associate Professor of Health Services, Director, Maternal and Child Health Program,
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington (Seattle, WA)

Stephen M. Kennedy (2004-)
Former Director, State and Local Government Marketing, Honeywell-Bull Information
Systems; Former CFO/CIO, State of New Hampshire (Concord, NH)

Deanna Marcum, Ph.D. (Alternate for the Librarian of Congress, 2006-)
Associate Librarian for Library Services, Library of Congress; former president of the
Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) (Arlington VA)

Mary H. Perdue (2004-)
Founder, Healthy U of Delmarva; Author and Columnist; Past President, American Agri-
Women; recipient, [Maryland] Governor's Citation for Outstanding Service (Salisbury, MD)

Anne-Imelda Radice, Ph.D. (Ex-Officio, 2006-)
Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS); former acting assistant chairman
for programs, National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH); former acting chairman,
National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) (Washington, DC)

S. Diane Rivers, Ph.D. (2005-)
President and CEO, Quality Educational Systems, Inc.; Developer, QuESt Quality
Educational Systems: Tools for Transformation, American Society for Quality (Birmingham,
AL)

Herman L. Totten, Ph.D. (2004-)
Regents Professor and Dean (2005-2007), School of Library and Information Sciences,
University of North Texas; Past President, Texas Library Association (TLA); recipient, 2001
Melvil Dewey Award, American Library Association (ALA) (Denton TX)


C-3






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Appendix D. Former Commissioners






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Former Commission Members 1970 Present

Each name is followed by dates in parentheses i. ;... 1,g the years ofservice as a Commissioner. Positions
held with the Commission, such as Chairman and Vice Chairman, are listed below the name in italics with the
years ofservice noted. The professional auliliation during the time ofservice on the Commission is indicated.
Where known, the current assignment and place ofresidence or year of death is provided in parentheses.

C.E. "ABE" ABRAMSON (1995-2001)
Founding and current Trustee of the Missoula Public Library Foundation (Missoula, MT)

SHIRLEY GRAY ADAMOVICH (1992-1996)
Commissioner, Department of Cultural Affairs, and New Hampshire State Librarian
(Durham, NH)

ANDREW A. AINES (1971-1976)
Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1980) (Deceased 1996)

HELMUT A. ALPERS (1980-1984)
Vice President, General Bookbinding Company (Gates Mills, OH)

GORDON M. AMBACH (1980-1985)
Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information
Services; Member, Board of Trustees, The CNA Corporation; Former Executive Director,
Council of Chief State School Officers; Former President, University of the State of New
York and Commissioner of Education (Washington, DC)

WALTER ANDERSON (1995-2001)
Chairman, CEO and Publisher, Parade Publications; member, National Advisory Board,
Literacy Volunteers of America; member, Board of Advisors, National Center for Family
Literacy (New York, NY)

WILLIAM 0. BAKER (1971-1975)
Former President, Bell Telephone Laboratories (Morristown, NJ)

PATRICIA BARBOUR (1985-1988)
Member, Executive Board, American Research Institute (Dearborn Heights, MI)

JOSEPH BECKER (1971-1974; 1974-1979)
President, Becker and Hayes, Inc. (Deceased 1995)

CHARLES BENTON (1978-1980; 1980-1985)
NCLIS Chairman (1978-1982); Chairman Emeritus (1982-); Chairman, 1979 White House
Conference on Library andInformation Services; Chairman, Public Media, Inc. (Chair and
President, Benton Foundation; Chicago, IL)


D-2






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


REBECCA T. BINGHAM (1998-2002)
Retired Director, School Library Media Services, Jefferson County Public Schools in
Louisville, KY; former President of the American Association of School Librarians
(Louisville, KY)

DANIEL J. BOORSTIN (1975-1987)
Librarian of Congress (Librarian Emeritus, Library of Congress) (Deceased 2004)

FREDERICK BURKHARDT (1971-1975; 1976-1978)
NCLIS Chairman (1971-78); Chairman Emeritus (1978-); Vice Chairman, National
Advisory Committee on Libraries (1966-1968); President, American Council of Learned
Societies (historian and author; Bennington, VT) (Deceased 2007)

ROBERT W. BURNS, JR. (1978-1981)
Assistant Director of Libraries for Research Services, Colorado State University (Fort
Collins, CO)

LEVAR BURTON (1995-2001)
Actor, producer, director and author; host and co-executive producer of "Reading Rainbow"
(Los Angeles, CA)

DANIEL W. CARTER (1985-1989; 1989-1991)
Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1988); President, Daniel Carter Consulting (Deceased
2001)

DANIEL W. CASEY (1973-1978; 1985-1989; 1989-1995)
Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information
Services; communications executive (Deceased 1995)

JOAN R. CHALLINOR (1995-2005)
NCLIS Chairperson (2003-2004); NCLIS Vice Chairman (2000-2003); Chairperson,
Advisory Committee, Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe
Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University (Washington, DC)

HAROLD CROTTY (1971-1972; 1972-1975)
President, Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way Employees (Deceased 1986)

CARLOS A. CUADRA (1971-1974; 1974-1979; 1980-1984)
President, Cuadra Associates; former General Manager, SDC Service (Los Angeles, CA)

CAROL K. DIPRETE (1990-1991; 1991-1996)
Dean for Academic Services, Roger Williams University (Director of Libraries, Zayed
University; East Greenwich, RI)


D-3






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


LESLIE W. DUNLAP (1971-1975)
Dean, Library Administration, The University of Iowa Libraries (Iowa City, IA)

LEE EDWARDS (1986-1990)
NCLIS Vice Chairman (1988-1990); Delegate-at-Large, 1991 White House Conference on
Library and Information Services; Director, Institute on Political Journalism, Georgetown
University; former Senior Editor, The World & I (Alexandria, VA)

J. MICHAEL FARRELL (1990-1993)
NCLIS Chairman (1992-93); Member, Rules Committee, 1991 White House Conference on
Library and Information Services; Attorney at Law (Washington, DC)

WANDA L. FORBES (1985-1988; 1988-1993)
Former School Librarian; former Member, South Carolina Commission on Higher Education
(Columbia, SC)

DIANE B. FRANKEL (1996-1999)
Ex-officio; Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) (San Francisco, CA)

MARY S. FURLONG (1994-2000)
CEO and founder, Third Age Media, Inc. and Senior Net (San Francisco, CA)

FRANK GANNON (1986-1990)
President, Frank Gannon Productions; former Editor, Saturday Review (New York, NY)

MARTIN GOLAND (1971-1977)
President, Southwest Research Institute (Deceased 1997)

MARTHA B. GOULD (1994-2003)
NCLIS Vice Chairman (1994-2000), NCLIS Chairman (2000-2003), Retired Director,
Washoe County Library System, named Nevada Librarian of the "Years" in 1993, (Reno,
NV)

JOSE-MARIE GRIFFITHS (1996-2002)
Dean and Professor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Information &
Library Science; a nationally and internationally known information scientist, researcher and
teacher (Chapel Hill, NC)

JOAN H. GROSS (1978-1982)
Psychotherapist; former Assistant for Public Affairs, New York City, Department of
Housing, Preservation and Development (Northampton, MA)


D-4






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


ELINOR H. HASHIM (1981-1986)
NCLIS Chairman (1982-1986); Chairman Emeritus (1986); Interim Executive Director
(1986); Government Relations Officer and Program Director, Special Libraries, OCLC, Inc.
(Newington, CT)

JACK E. HIGHTOWER (1999-2005)
NCLIS Vice Chairman (2003-2004); Counsel, Hilgers and Watkins, Austin (Austin, TX)

PAULETTE H. HOLAHAN (1980-1985, 2000-2001)
Deputy Judicial Administrator for Public Information, Louisiana Supreme Court (New
Orleans, LA)

CLARA STANTON JONES (1978-1982)
Former Director, Detroit Public Library; Former President, American Library Association
(Oakland, CA)

JOHN E. JUERGENSMEYER (1982-1987)
Attorney, Juergensmeyer and Associates (Elgin, IL)

NORMAN KELINSON (1992-1995)
President, Universal Financial Services (Davenport, IA) (Deceased 2002)

JOHN KEMENY (1971-1973)
President, Dartmouth College (Deceased 1992)

FRANCIS KEPPEL (1979-1983)
Director, Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies (Deceased 1990)

BYRON LEEDS (1982-1986)
Vice President, Post Graphics, Inc. (Flander, NJ)

MARIAN P. LEITH (1976-1980)
Assistant Director and Federal Program Director, North Carolina State Library (Salinas, CA)

LOUIS A. LERNER (1971-1972; 1972-1977)
Publisher, Lemer Home Newspapers (Deceased 1985)

BEN-CHIEH LIU (1991-1993)
Professor of Management and Information Science, Chicago State University (Lisle, IL)

JOHN G. LORENZ (1971-1975 while representing the Librarian of Congress)
Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1990); Coordinator, NCLIS Library Statistics Program
(1987-1997); Deputy Librarian of Congress; Acting Librarian of Congress (Cranberry
Township, PA)


D-5






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


FRANK J. LUCCHINO (1994-1999)
Controller, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh, PA)

JAMES E. LYONS (1991-1993)
Publisher, University Press of America, Inc. (President, University Press of America;
Washington, DC)

ROBERT S. MARTIN (2001-2005)
Ex-officio; former Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) (Denton, TX)

MARILYN G. MASON (2000-2001)
Retired, Director of the Cleveland Public Library; former Director of the White House
Conference on Library and Information Service (Seattle, WA)

BESSIE BOEHM MOORE (1971-1973; 1973-1978; 1979-1983; 1984-1988)
NCLIS Vice Chairman (1972-1988); NCLIS Vice Chairman Emeritus (1988-); Vice Chair,
1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Advisory Committee
Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Former
Executive Director, State Council on Economic Education (Deceased 1995)

L. QUINCY MUMFORD (1971-1975)
Librarian of Congress (Deceased 1982)

FRANCES H. NAFTALIN (1978-1982)
President, Minneapolis Public Library Board (Minneapolis, MN)

GEORGE H. NASH (1987-1990)
Author, historian, and biographer of Herbert Hoover (South Hadley, MA)

JERALD C. NEWMAN (1982-1987; 1987-1992)
NCLIS Chairman (1987-1990); Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference
on Library and Information Services; President, Transnational Commerce Corporation
(North Woodmere, NY)

RAYMOND J. PETERSEN (1988-1991)
Executive Vice President, Hearst Magazines (New York, NY)

MARGARET PHELAN (1985-1989)
Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1988); President, Phelan Business Research (Deceased
2005)

CHARLES E. REID (1988-1993)
NCLIS Chairman (1990-1992); Chairman Emeritus (1992); Vice Chairman, 1991 White
House Conference on Library and Information Services; Senior Vice President, Prodevco
Group (Ft. Lee, NJ)


D-6






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


RALPH A. RENICK (1975-1977)
Vice President / News Director, WTVJ News (Deceased 1991)

KAY W. RIDDLE (1991-1995)
Political activist; Board Member, Adams County Public Library System (Northglenn, CO)

BOBBY ROBERTS (1993-2004)
Director, Central Arkansas Library System (Little Rock, AR)

DONALD L. ROBINSON (2000-2001)
Director of the Washington Internship Program of Boston University; Adjunct Professor at
Boston University, the University of Houston and Texas Southern University; co-founder of
the Congressional Internship Program; President of Robinson Associates, Inc. (Wellfleet,
MA)

CATHERINE D. SCOTT (1971-1976)
NCLIS Vice Chairman (1971-1972); Librarian, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian
Institution (Washington, DC)

BEVERLY SHEPPARD (1999-2001)
Ex-officio; former Acting Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)
(Washington, DC)

JEAN HURLEY SIMON (1993-2000)
NCLIS Chairman (1993-2000), member of the Bar in the District of Columbia and Illinois,
author of Codename: Scarlett (Deceased 2000)

PHILIP A. SPRAGUE (1979-1983)
Advisory Committee Member, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information
Services; Associate Administrator for Management Assistance, Small Business
Administration (Deceased 1999)

GARY NEIL SUDDUTH (1993-1997)
President and CEO, Minneapolis Urban League (Deceased 1997)

ELEANOR H. SWAIM (1988-1989; 1989-1994)
NCLIS Vice Chair (1991-1993); Chairman, North Carolina State Library Commission
(Salisbury, NC)

HORACE E. TATE (1978-1981)
Georgia State Senator and Executive Director, Georgia Association of Educators (Deceased
2002)

BARBARA J. H. TAYLOR (1986-1990; 1991-1995)
Librarian General, Daughters of the American Revolution (Deceased 2002)


D-7






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


KENNETH Y. TOMLINSON (1986-1987)
NCLIS Chairman (1986-1987); Executive Editor, Reader's Digest (Middleburg, VA)

JOEL D. VALDEZ (1994-1999)
Senior Vice President for Business Affairs, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ)

SALLY JO VASICKO (1987-1989)
Chairperson and Professor, Political Science Department, Ball State University (Assistant
Dean, University College, Ball State University; Muncie, IN)

JOHN E. VELDE, JR. (1971-1974; 1974-1979)
Advisory Committee Member, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information
Services; Velde, Roelfs and Company (Deceased 2002)

MARGARET S. WARDEN (1980-1984)
Advisory Committee Member, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information
Services; Member, Montana State Advisory Council for Libraries; former Montana State
Senator (Deceased 2005)

WILLIAM A. WELSH (1976-1988 while representing the Librarian of Congress)
Deputy Librarian of Congress (Bethesda, MD)

ROBERT S. WILLARD (1994; 1994-1998)
Executive Director (1998-2004); Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1998); At-Large
Delegate to the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Group
Facilitator, 1979 White House Conference; former Vice President, Government Relations,
Lawyers Cooperative Publishing (University Park, MD)

JULIA LI WU (1973-1978; 1982-1987; 1987-1992)
Head Librarian, Virgil Junior High School and President, Board of Directors, Los Angeles
Community College District (Los Angeles, CA)

MILDRED E. YOUNGER (1976-1980)
Member, Board of Directors, Los Angeles Library Association (Beverly Hills, CA)

ALFRED R. ZIPF (1971-1973)
Executive Vice President, Bank of America (Deceased 2000)


D-8






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Appendix E. Senior Staff






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science

History of Executive Directors, Deputy Directors,
Associate Executive Director and Office Locations

Executive Directors
Madeleine C. McCain (acting) June 2006-current
Trudy Bellardo Hahn May 2005-May 2006
Trudi Bellardo Hahn (interim) November 2004-April 2005
Madeleine C. McCain (acting) March 2004-October 2004
Robert S. Willard- June 1998-February 2004
Robert S. Willard (acting) February 1998-June 1998
Jane Williams (acting) June 1997-January 1998
Peter R. Young August 1990-May 1997
John G. Lorenz (acting) July-August 1990
Susan K. Martin- August 1988-June 1990
Margaret Phelan (acting) August 1988
Daniel Carter (acting) February-July 1988
Vivian J. Arterbery November 1986-January 1988
Elinor M. Hashim (acting) September-October 1986
Toni Carbo Bearman- November 1980-August 1986
Andrew A. Aines (acting) July-November 1980
Alphonse L. Trezza- November 1974-June 1980
Roderick G. Swartz (acting) October 1974
Charles H. Stevens January 1972-September 1974

Deputy Directors
Judith C. Russell August 1998-December 2002
David Hoyt- 1987
Sarah G. Bishop June 1983-February 1987
Douglas S. Price March 1975-April 1983
Roderick G. Swartz 1971-December 1974

Associate Deputy Director, Associate Director, Associate Executive Director
Mary Alice Hedge, 1971-1998

NCLIS Offices
(all in Washington, DC)
1800 M Street, NW; Suite 350 North Tower- March 2005-Current
1110 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 820 April 1993-February 2005
1111 18th Street, NW, Suite 310 1987-March 1993
7th & D Streets, SW, Suite 3122 February 1983-1986
1717 K Street, NW, Suite 601 1971-January 1983






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Appendix F. NCLIS Publications






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES
AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (NCLIS)
(1971 to 2006)

Reports produced as a result of Surveys, Studies, Forums, Hearings, Task Forces,
Conferences, and Policy (1973-2006)

Continuing Library and Information Science Education, Final Report. Elizabeth W.
Stone. May 1974.

Resources and Bibliographic Support for a Nationwide Library Program, Final Report.
Vernon E. Palmour and others. August 1974.

Library and Information Service Needs of the Nation. Proceedings of a Conference on
the Needs of Occupational, Ethnic, and other Groups in the United States. 1974.

Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action.
1975.

Elements of Information Resources Policy. February 1975.

National Program for Library and Information Services (Final Draft). March 1975.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Federal Funding of Public Libraries. Government
Studies and Systems, Inc. December 1976.

National Information Policy. Report to the President of the United States submitted by
the staff of the Domestic Council Committee on the Right to Privacy. Published by
NCLIS. 1976.

Improving State Aid to Public Libraries. Urban Libraries Council. Published by NCLIS.
February 1977.

National Inventory of Library Needs, 1975: Resources Needed for Public and Academic
Libraries and Public School Library Media Centers. Boyd Ladd. published March
1977.

Effective Access to Periodical Literature: A National Program. Vernon E. Palmour.
April 1977.

Library Photocopying in the United States: With Implications for the Development of a
Copyright Royalty Payment Mechanism. King Research, Inc. October 1977.

Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action, A
Summary. October 1977.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


A Computer Network Protocol for Library and Information Science Applications.
Prepared by the NCLIS / National Bureau of Standards Task Force on Computer
Network Protocol. December 1977.

American National Standards Committee Z39: Recommended Future Directions.
Prepared by the NCLIS Task Force on American National Standards Committee Z39
Activities and Future Directions. February 1978.

The Role of School Library Media Program in Networking. Prepared by the NCLIS Task
Force on the Role of the School Library Media Program in the National Program.
September 1978.

Toward a National Program for Library and Information Science: Goals for Action. An
Overview. September 1978.

The Role of the Library of Congress in the Evolving National Network. Lawrence F.
Buckland and William L. Basinski. 1978.

A Comparative Evaluation of Alternative Systems for the Provision of Effective Access to
Periodical Literature. Arthur D. Little, Inc. October 1979.

Problems in Bibliographic Access to Non-Print Materials: Project Media Base: Final
Report. A project of the NCLIS and the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology. October 1979.

White House Conference on Library and Information Services -Summary. 1979.

The Final Report -Summary Information for the 1980s. White House Conference on
Library and Information Services. March 1980.

Hearings Held at the American Library Association Annual Conference, San Francisco,
California. Task Force on Library and Information Services to Cultural Minorities.
November 1981.

Public Sector /Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services. Prepared
by the NCLIS Public Sector / Private Sector Task Force. February 1982.

Toward a Federal Library and Information Services Network: A Proposal. 1982.

Joint Congressional Hearing on the Changing Information Needs of Rural America: The
Role of Libraries and Information Technology. July 1982.

Final Report to the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science from the
Community Information and Referral Services Task Force. July 1983.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


The Role of the Special Library in Networks and Cooperatives: Executive Summary and
Recommendations. NCLIS / SLA Task Force Report. June 1984.

To Preserve the Sense of Earth From Space: Report of the National Commission on
Libraries and Information Science Panel on the Information Policy Implications of
Archiving Satellite Data. August 1984.

Information and Productivity Implications for Education and Training. Report of a
joint UK / US Seminar held at Cranfield, England. 27-30 July 1984.

The NARBINReport. Report of the National Advisory Board on Rural Information
Needs Planning Committee. April 1985.

The Role of Fees in Supporting Library and Information Services in Public and Academic
Libraries. April 1985.

Censorship Activities in Public and School Libraries, 19 75-1985. A Report to the Senate
Subcommittee on Appropriations for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human
Services, and Educational and Related Agencies. March 1986.

NCLIS Sponsored Assessments of Information Needs: A Review and Summary. Barbara
Chappell. July 1986.

Conference on Access: Information Distribution, Efficiency and Protection. The Institute
for Research on Public Policy, The British Library and the National Commission on
Libraries and Information Sciences. Background Papers. 1986.

Hearing on Sensitive But Not Classified Information. A Public hearing held by the
National Commission on Libraries and Information Science at the Library of
Congress. 1988.

Information Literacy and Education for the 21st Century: Toward and Agenda for Action.
A Symposium sponsored by the US National Commission on Libraries and
Information Science and the American Association of School Librarians. 1989.

Principles of Public Information: Preamble. June, 1990.

Strategic Plan for the Development of Library and Information Services to Native
Americans. February 1991.

Statistical Compendium. Sandra Milevski. 1991.

Selected Statistics: Addressing the Areas of Concern to the 1991 White House
Conference on Libraries and Information Services. 1991.






MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE


Information 2000: Final Report of the 1991 White House Conference on Library and
Information Services. November 1992.

Information 2000: Summary Report of the 1991 White House Conference on Library and
Information Services. November 1992.

Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy on Library and Information
Services' Roles in the National Research and Education Network. November 1992.

Open Forum on Recommendations of the White House Conference on Library and
Information Services. 1992.

Padniii ,- to Excellence: A Report on Improving Library and Information Services for
Native American Peoples. 1992.

Paihi ip- to Excellence: Summary Report on Improving Library and Information
Services for Native American Peoples. 1992.

Open Forum on Children and Youth Services: Redefining the Federal Role for Libraries.
Report on May 1993 forum in Boston. July 1993.

Open Forum on Children and Youth Services: Redefining the Federal Role for Libraries.
Report on December forum in Des Moines. 1993.

Library and Information Services Policy: A Forum Report. 1993.

Toward A Just and Productive Society. Kathleen de la Pena McCook. 1993.

Briefing and Open Forum on Children and Youth Services: Redefining the Federal Role
for Libraries. Sacramento, CA. 1994.

Libraries and the National Information Infrastructure: Proceedings of the 1994 Forum
on Library and Information Services Policy. 1994.

Public Libraries in the Internet: Study Results, Policy Issues, and Recommendations.
Charles R. McClure, John Carlo Bertot, and Douglas L. Zweizig. 1994.

Public School Library Media Centers in 12 States: Report of the NCLIS /ALA Survey.
Mary Jo Lynch, Pamela Kramer, and Ann Weeks. 1994.

The National Information Infrastructure and the Recommendation of the
1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services. Taylor Walsh.
1994.

Hearing on the Federal Role of Libraries: Planning for the Reauthorization of the Library
Services and Contraction Act (LSCA). Incline Village, Nevada. 1995.






US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE


Internet Costs and Cost Models for Public Libraries: Final Report. Charles R. McClure,
John Carlo Bertot, and John C Beachboard. 1995.

Toward the 1995 White House Conference on Aging: Priorities and Policies for Library
and Information Services for Older Adults. Proceedings of a National Pre-White
House Conference on Aging (February 3, 1995, Philadelphia, PA). 1995.

White House Pre-Conference on Aging. Recommendations. February 1995.

Changes in Library and Information Services, Library and Information Services Forum.
May 1995.

The 1996 National Survey of Public Libraries in the Internet: Progress and Issues.
Charles R. McClure, John Carlo Bertot, and Douglas L. Zweizig. 1996.

Summary Report of the 1996 Forum on Library and Information Services Policy on
Impact of Information Technology and Special Programming on Library Services to
Special Populations. May 20-21, 1996.

Library and Information Services Policy Forum Proceedings "Library Services and
Technology Act (LSTA) State Grant Program: Implications for Use of and Additions
to National Library Data." September 15-16, 1997.

The 1997 National Survey of U.S. Public Libraries and the Internet: Final Report.
December 1997.

Policy Issues and Strategies Affecting Public Libraries in the National Networked
Environment: Moving Beyond Connectivity. Charles R. McClure and John Carlo
Bertot. December 1997.

Assessment of and Planningfor NCLIS Role in Library Statistics Cooperative Program
(LSCP). Howard Harris. October 1997, Revised June 1998.

Moving Toward More Effective Public Internet Access: 1998 National Survey of Public
Library Outlet Internet Connectivity. March 1999.

Report on the Assessment of Electronic Government Information Products. Westat, Inc.
March 30, 1999.

Library and Information Services for Individuals n ith Disabilities: An NCLIS Hearing in
Washington. DC. July 8, 1999.

Kids and the Internet: The Promise and the Perils. 1999.




Full Text

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U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCI ENCE Meeting the Information Needs of tfie American People: Past Actions and Future Initiatives

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The National Commission on Libraries and Information Science is a permanent, independent agency of the federal government, established in 1970 with the enactment of Public Law 91-345. The Commission is charged with: Advising the President and the Congress on the implementation of policy Conducting studies, surveys, and analyses of the library and informational needs of the nation Appraising the adequacies and deficiencies of current library and information resources and services Developing overall plans for meeting national library and informational needs. The Commission also advises Federal, state, and local governments, and other public and private organizations, regarding library and information sciences, including consultations on relevant treaties, international agreements, and implementing legislation, and it promotes research and development activities that will extend and improve the nation’s library and information handling capability as essential links in the national and international networks. Commissioners and Staff include: C. Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D., Chairman Bridget L. Lamont, Vice Chairman Jos A. Aponte Sandra F. As hworth Edward L. Bertorelli Jan Cellucci Carol L. Diehl Allison Druin, Ph.D. Patricia M. Hines Colleen E. Huebner, Ph.D., MPH Stephen M. Kennedy Mary H. Perdue S. Diane Rivers, Ph.D. Herman L. Totten, Ph.D. James H. Billington, Ph.D. Anne-Imelda M. Radice, Ph.D. Librarian of Congress Di rector, Institute of Museum Deanna Marcum, Ph.D. and Library Services Alternate for Dr. Billington Madeleine C. McCain Kim A. Miller Joseph J. Dyer Director of Operations Sp ecial Assistant – Technical Ma nagement Operations Analyst Acting Executive Director Disclaimer The views, opinions, and recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect official position or policy of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirement of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. Citation U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. Meeting the information needs of the American people: past actions and future initiatives; a report based on research sponsored by the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and conducted by Nancy Davenport and Judith Russell on behalf of Information International Associates, Inc. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008. Cover design by Terri Lloyd. • NCLIS U . S . National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Phone: 1202) 606-9200. Fax: (202) 606-9203 E-Mail: info@ nclis.gov . Web: www.nclis.gov 1 800 M Street , NW• Sui te 350 North Tower Washington , DC 20036-5841

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U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE M ME E E E T T I I N N G G T T H H E E I IN N F F O O R R M M A A T T I I O O N N N NE E E E D D S S O O F F T T H H E E A AM M E E R R I I C C A A N N P PE E O O P P L L E E: : P PA A S S T T A AC C T T I I O O N N S S A A N N D D F F U U T T U U R R E E I IN N I I T T I I A A T T I I V V E E S S A Report Based on Research Sponsored by the U.S. National Commission on Libr aries and Information Science Conducted by Nancy Davenport and Judith Russell On Behalf of Information In ternational Associates, Inc. Under Contracts ED-07PO-0751 and ED-07-PO-0752 U.S. NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 1800 M STREET, NW, SUITE 350, NORTH TOWER, WASHINGTON, DC 20036

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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Internet: bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2104 Mail: Stop IDCC , Washington, DC 20402-0001 ISBN 978-0-16-080304-8

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March 2008 The President The White House Washington, DC 20500 The Vice President The United States Senate Washington, DC 20510 The Speaker of the House of Representatives United States House of Representatives Washington, DC 20515 Dear Mr. President, Mr. Vice President, and Madam Speaker: The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science was established by Congress in 1970 as an independent agency to advise the Presid ent and Congress on information policy issues. I am honored to have served as the Chairman of the Commission since January 28, 2004. Over the last 37 years the Commission has addressed through research, meetings of experts, and public hearings most of the issues that have been encountered by the American public in their quest for information to make decisions common in daily life, to participate in th e democratic process, to educate their children, and to seek health care for themselves and their families. We have studied the relationship of students’ academic achievements to the presence of a school library media center and a school librarian. We have looked at the role of information in innovation and research and in daily commerce, before the In ternet existed, and since it has become the most used way to retrieve and send information. We have sent recommendations to the President and the Congress in our reports and in our vis its. We have seen changes in law affected as we recommended. This will be the final report from the U.S. National Commission on Library and Information Science. I contracted this work when we were seeking advice to a ssist the Commissioners in deciding the research issues we would undertake during the fiscal year. As events unfolded during the past few months, it became clear that the report needed to serve two functions: (1) to document the history and accomplishments of the Commission and (2) to remind the public and those who take up this mantle that the work of the Commission is not done. A compelling future agenda for information policy research and development is also presented as part of this report. I salute the Commissioners, both former and current , who have served with distinction throughout the life of the Commission and thank the staff for their dedication and hard work on behalf of the American public. The Commission has been led by extraordinarily gifted men and women, and I have been privileged to have been advised by them and count them as my friends. Sincerely, Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. Commission Chair •NCLIS U . S . National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Phone: (202) 606-9200 • Fax: (202) 606-9203 E-Mail: info@nclis.gov . web: www.nclis.gov 1800 M Street, NW • Suite 3 50 North Tower Washington, DC 20036-5841

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Table of Contents Executive Summary ................................................................................................................. iiiHistorical Contributions of NCLIS ...................................................................................... iiiInformation Access for the American Public ....................................................................... ivAcknowledgments ..................................................................................................................... vI.Background ...................................................................................................................... 1II.Historical Contributions of NCLIS .................................................................................. 3NCLIS Positions on Information Policy ............................................................................... 3Background ...................................................................................................................... 3The First Decade: 1970-1979 ........................................................................................... 4The Second Decade: 1980-1989 ...................................................................................... 6The Third Decade: 1990-1999 ....................................................................................... 11The Final Years: 2000-2008 .......................................................................................... 14Principles of Public Information .................................................................................... 20Information Access for the American Public ...................................................................... 22Background .................................................................................................................... 22The First Decade: 1970-1979 ......................................................................................... 22The Second Decade: 1980-1989 .................................................................................... 24The Third Decade: 1990-1999 ....................................................................................... 26The Final Decade: 2000-2008 ........................................................................................ 28Measuring Libraries and Access to Information ............................................................ 33NCLIS Role in the White House Conferences on Libraries and Information Science ....... 34The First White House Conference on Li brary and Information Services, 1979 .......... 34The Second White House Conference on Library and Information Services, 1991 ...... 37III.Future Research Agenda ................................................................................................ 40NCLIS Future Research Topics .......................................................................................... 40Introduction .................................................................................................................... 40Methodology .................................................................................................................. 40Topic for Research: Public Libraries, Their Changing Role in U.S. Society and Measuring Their Societal Value .................................................................................... 41Topic for Research: Digital Libraries ........................................................................... 43Topic for Research: Building and Sharing Collections ................................................ 45Topic for Research: Disaster Planning and Relief Efforts ............................................ 46Other Areas of Research R ecommended to the Commission ........................................ 46Appendix A. Enabling Legislation ...................................................................................... A-1Appendix B. NCLIS Chairs ................................................................................................. B-1Appendix C. Current Commissioners .................................................................................. C-1Appendix D. Former Commissioners .................................................................................. D-1Appendix E. Senior Staff ...................................................................................................... E-1Appendix F. NCLIS Publications ......................................................................................... F-1Appendix G. NCLIS Timeline ............................................................................................. G-1 — i —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — ii —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Executive Summary In the FY2007 and FY2008 Budgets, the Pres ident recommended that the National Commission on Libraries and Information Scie nces (NCLIS) be consolidated with the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). In FY2007, while waiting for Congressional action on the proposal in the President's FY2008 Budget, the Commission recognized the need to summarize its work and document its accomplishments in anticipation of a change in its status. To document its past contribu tions, the Commission performed an analysis of its policy recommendations, research initiatives, and other past actions in fu lfillment of its mission. Looking to the future, the Commission also id entified and prioritized the two or three information policy issues that should be addressed during FY2008. This was done with the expectation that, should NCLIS remain an inde pendent agency, it would address these issues to the best of its ability with the funds it received. If the consolidation with IMLS was authorized by Congress, NCLIS intended to utili ze this information to advise IMLS on the need for action on these policy issues. Public Law 110-161, the Consolidated Appropriati ons Act, Fiscal Year 2008, provided funds for the Commission to close. The accompanyi ng language in Senate Report 110-107 stated: “The administration budget for fiscal year 2008 requested that NCLIS be eliminated and the activities of the Commission be taken over by the Institute for Museum and Library Services. The Committee concurs with this request a nd has included $400,000 for close out activities.” At this critical point in the history of the Commission, as it completes the complex activities necessary to close down a fede ral agency, documenting the sign ificant contributions that it has made and identifying important issues that still need to be addressed are essential transition activities. This document, which w ill be the final publication of the Commission, serves both purposes. It provides a historical overview of the accomplishments of a small and modestly funded Commission with a large and vita l responsibility to ad dress the information needs of the American public, and it also summ arizes the results of a survey of opinion leaders in the fields of librar y and information science, who offered their advice on the most important issues that should be addressed in the next twelve to eighteen months. Historical Contributions of NCLIS The key statutory functions of the U.S. Na tional Commission on Libr aries and Information Science (NCLIS) can be summarized as follows: 1. NCLIS discovers the needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information services. — iii —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — iv — 2. NCLIS translates those needs into recommended national policy to meet needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information services. 3. NCLIS advises the President, the Congress, state and local governments, and others on implementation of national policy. NCLIS is not a regulatory or operating agency. To carry out the above functions, it conducts studies, surveys, and analyses of the nation’s library and information needs, appraises the adequacies and deficiencies of the current libra ry and information resources and research and development activities, conducts hearings, and issues publications. These activities support the development of policy advice and recommendations to the Presiden t, the Congress, and others. This section summarizes the historical contributions of NCLIS to information policy and to information access and its supporting infrastructure , as well as the Commission’s role in two White House Conferences on Libraries and Info rmation Services, one in 1979 and another in 1991. It documents selected policy positions and actions of the Commission, as well as many of its hearings, studies, surveys, and other activ ities in fulfillment of its mission. (Refer to Appendix G for a table summarizi ng NCLIS events from 1970 – 2008.) Information Access for the American Public NCLIS developed a forward look ing research agenda that wo uld have the support of and meet needs expressed by multiple sectors of the information community. From interviews and recommendations elicited from the informa tion community, a specific research agenda emerged that clustered around four broad topics: Public Libraries: Their Changing Role in U.S. Society and Measuring Their Societal Value; Digital Libraries; Building and Sharing Collections; and Disaster Pl anning and Relief Efforts. Each of the recommendations is keyed to th e purpose of NCLIS—policy development that ensures an informed American public with adequate access to information for decisionmaking, civic engagement, and a higher quality of life. Interviewees we re asked to describe an issue or an obstacle that if removed or am eliorated would facilitate their work in the information community, whether it was in the public, private or academic sector. Underlying each issue is a public policy question—the legislative mandate of NCLIS or its successor agency—to be resolved.

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Acknowledgments I would like to thank all of the former Commi ssioners and staff. The quality and value of your work is apparent from the accomplishments summarized in this report. I would also like to express gratitude to the many individuals and organizations who have participated in and supported the work of the Commission thro ugh the years and to the staff at the U.S. Department of Education. I must acknowledge the current staff who have supported us so ably during our tenure as Commissioners and are traveling with us to the finish line on March 30, 2008. In particular, I would like to acknowledge the efforts of Ki m Miller and Madeleine McCain. Serving the Commission since July 1990, Kim has played a significant role in the operation of the Commission office, development of its websit e, and providing outstanding support to the library statistics program. As Director of Op erations since 2002, Madeleine has sustained the activities of the Commission while managing all the administrative chal lenges of meeting the requirements of a Federal agency. As this report is being published, she is skillfully leading us through the myriad of tasks and co mplexities to close the Commission. For this report, NCLIS contracted with Information International Associat es, Inc. (IIa), and I would like to thank IIa and the two individuals who prepared th e report: Judith Russell, former Deputy Director of NCLIS and now Dean of Librarie s at the University of Florida and Nancy Davenport, former Commissioner acti ng on behalf of the Librarian of Congress who holds a statutory seat on the Commission, and now Interim Director of Library Services at the District of Columbia Public Library. Finally, I must thank the Commi ssioners who have served with me. It has been a great honor to share with you the important work of this Commission in addressing the information needs of the American people. I am grateful fo r your support, your couns el, and your friendship. C. Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. Ann Arbor, Michigan February 20, 2008 — v —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — vi —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Meeting the Information Needs of the American People: Past Actions and Future Initiatives I. Background The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) is a permanent, independent agency of the federal government, established in 1970 by Public Law 91-345, to advise the President and Congress, as well as other Federa l, State, local, and private agencies, on national and international library a nd information policies. In establishing the Commission, Congress affirmed that “library and in formation services adequate to meet the needs of the people of th e United States are essential to achieve national goals and to utilize most effectively the nati on's educational resources and that the federal government will cooperate with State and local governments and public and private agencies in assuring optimum provision of such services.” NCLIS is responsible for addressing the inform ation and learning the needs of the American people, not through implementation of specific programs, but rather though analysis and advice to others. Specifically, th e Commission is authorized to: Conduct studies, surveys, and analyses of the library and informational needs of the nation; Appraise the adequacies and deficiencies of current library and information resources and services; Evaluate the effectiveness of current li brary and information science programs; Develop overall plans for meeting nationa l library and information needs; and Promote research and development activities which will extend and improve the nation's library and inform ation-handling capability. The Commission consists of fourteen part-tim e members who are appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, as well as the Librarian of Congress and the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (I MLS). It is supported by a small professional staff. Though its mission is broad, addressing issues that affect every American, the resources available to the Commission are m odest. Only twice since its inception has its annual appropriation exceeded $1 million. As a re sult, the Commission has always prioritized its activities to address a few key issues each ye ar. Nevertheless, when vi ewed in its totality, the range of the issues it has addressed and its ability to bring national attention to issues in the increasingly important and rapidly changi ng environment of library and information science has been impressive. — 1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — 2 — Through the FY2007 and FY2008 Budgets, the Pr esident recommended that NCLIS be consolidated with IMLS. Since the Commission is a permanent, independent agency, such a consolidation could not occur except through en actment of enabling legislation by the U.S. Congress. Although the legislation governing the Commission has not been amended, the FY2008 appropriations bill (H.R. 2764, Public Law 110-161) provided funding only for close out activities of the Commission. That e ffort is now in process. Report language accompanying H.R. 2764 Consolidated Approp riations Act, Fiscal Year 2008 gives the IMLS the authority and resources to carry out the mission of the Commission: “The Appropriations Committees concur with language included in th e House report that gives the Institute of Museum and Librar y Services the authority and re sources to carry out the mission of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science.” In FY2007, while waiting for C ongressional action on the propos al in the President's FY2008 Budget, the Commission recognized the need to summarize its work and document its accomplishments in anticipation of a change in its status. It also recognized its responsibility to continue to fulfill its legislative mandate by identifying a research agenda on information policy issues that affect the American public’s access to information even as it prepared for the contingency of a consolidation with IMLS. To document its past contributi ons, the Commission contracted fo r an analysis of its policy recommendations, research initiatives, and other past actions in fu lfillment of its mission. Looking to the future, the Commission sought to identify and prioritize the two or three information policy issues that should be a ddressed during FY2008, with the expectation that, should NCLIS remain an independent agency, it would address these issues to the best of its ability with the funds it recei ved. If the consolidation w ith IMLS was authorized by Congress, NCLIS intended to ut ilize this information to advise IMLS on the need for action on these policy issues. At this critical point in the history of the Commission, as it completes the complex activities necessary to close down a fede ral agency, documenting the sign ificant contributions that it has made and identifying important issues that still need to be addressed are essential transition activities. This document, which w ill be the final publication of the Commission, serves both purposes. It provides a historical overview of the accomplishments of a small and modestly funded Commission with a large and vita l responsibility to ad dress the information needs of the American public, and it also summ arizes the results of a survey of opinion leaders in the fields of librar y and information science, who offered their advice on the most important issues that should be addressed in the next twelve to eighteen months.

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE II. Historical Contributions of NCLIS The key statutory functions of the U.S. Na tional Commission on Libr aries and Information Science (NCLIS) can be summarized as follows: NCLIS discovers the needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information services. NCLIS translates those needs into recommended national policy to meet needs of the people of the U.S. for library and information services. NCLIS advises the President, the Congress, state and local governments, and others on implementation of national policy. NCLIS is not a regulatory or operating agency. To carry out the above functions, it conducts studies, surveys, and analyses of the nation’s library and information needs, appraises the adequacies and deficiencies of the current libra ry and information resources and research and development activities, conducts hearings, and issues publications. These activities support the development of policy advice and recommendations to the Presiden t, the Congress, and others. This section summarizes the historical contributions of NCLIS to information policy and to information access and its supporting infrastructure , as well as the Commission’s role in the White House Conferences on Libraries and Info rmation Services. It documents selected policy positions and actions of the Commissi on, as well as many of its hearings, studies, surveys, and other activities in fulfillment of its mission. NCLIS Positions on Information Policy Background As an agency with a unique charge to advise both the President and the Congress on national and international library and information polic ies, it is not surprising that the NCLIS has focused on federal laws and polic ies relating to inform ation throughout its history. It has paid special attention to laws a nd policies affecting public acce ss to government information. Created in 1970, the first Co mmissioners were appointed in May 1971, and the first employee was hired in August of that year. The first Commission meeting was held on September 20, 1971 in Washington, DC. In k eeping with its statutory mandate, NCLIS established the pattern that w ould be repeated throughout the y ears. It identified problems and opportunities and recommended solutions, including the appropria te agencies or organizations to take action. — 3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE The First Decade: 1970-1979 One of its earliest resolutions urged that the need for appropriate documentation and bibliographical and other information resource s should be recognized in federal programs and called for executive orders and other directiv es that would include such support. It also urged Congress to enact a Copyri ght Act revision that would re solve the issue of “fair use” by libraries and library users, an issue that has reasserted itself in the digital age. In its second year of operation, the Co mmission also made several significant recommendations with respect to the Library of Congress (LC), includin g that the LC expand its role as the national lending library of last resort and seek to “acquire, catalog, and process for current and future use approximately eightyfive to ninety percent of the world output.” NCLIS recognized the importance of the emergi ng area of machine readable cataloging and recommended the LC expand its coverage to “substantially all langua ges of materials being acquired” by the Library and make these records availa ble through “online communication.” NCLIS also identified the n eed for improved access to state and local government publications and suggested that th e LC could assist in the development of policies and programs to make such publications “of greater benefit to various governmental bodies of the nation and to the peop le served by those governments.” The Commission achieved a signif icant milestone in 1974 with th e publication of its official program document, Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action. After two years of preparation, includ ing broad consultati on with and input from “institutions, associations and indivi duals from every segment of the library and information community, as well as from executiv es, administrators, legislators and members of the general public of all ag es, from many walks of life, a nd from all over the country,” NCLIS released the report that “lays the f oundation and provides a framework for a balanced evolutionary approach to achie ving adequate library and information services for all.” The five assumptions, articulated in the report and summarized in the Annual Report of the Commission for fiscal year 1974-1975, indeed established fundamental guidance that informed the future work of the Commission: First, that the total library and inform ation resource in the United States is a national resource which should be strengthe ned, organized, and made available to the maximum degree possible in the public interest. This national resource is the cumulated and growing record of much of our nation’s and, indeed, the world’s total cultural experience intellectual, social, te chnological, and spiritual. Second, that all people of the United Stat es have the right, according to their individual needs, to realistic and conv enient access to this national resource for their personal enrichment and achieve ment, and thereby for the progress of society. Third, that with the help of new tec hnology and with national resolve, the disparate and discrete collec tions of recorded information in the United States can become, in due course, an integrated nationwide network. — 4 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Fourth, that the rights and in terests of authors, publishe rs, and other providers of information be recognized in the nationa l program in ways that maintain their economic and competitive viability. Fifth, that legislation derived for the coherent development of library and information services will not undermine constitutionally-protected rights of personal privacy and intellectual freedom and will preserve local, state, and regional autonomy. These assumptions led the Commission to develop two major program objectives: (1) to strengthen or create, where needed, the human and material resources that are supportive of high quality library and information services; and (2) to join together the library and information facilities in the country, thr ough a common pattern of organization, uniform standards, and shared comm unications, for forming a nationwide network. The Commission recognized that the national library and inform ation services were not yet organized in a manner that met the needs of the nation as a whole and that the changes would come about gradually, but it was satisfied that the library and information communities were prepared to work together on these objectives. From th is point forward, many of the Commission’s initiatives can be viewed through the pris m of these assumptions and objectives. In 1974, the Commission also joined with the U. S. Copyright Office to sponsor a Conference on the Resolution of Copyright Issues. The c onference brought together representatives of “virtually every conceivable constituency with an interest in copyright ” to seek a resolution to the differences between librarians and publishers on library photocopying of copyrighted material. In 1975, this group identified the need for more complete and accurate data on library photocopying. With financial assistance from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NCLIS sponsored a study, which also included a “feasibility test” for a “royalty payment mechanism.” This study, completed in 1977, was the basis for the creation of the Copyright Clearance Center. Once again, in 1976, the Commission found itself advising Congress on copyright legislation. This time the Commission urged Congress to prepare to update the Copyright Act to reflect tec hnological changes and address lib rary photocopying, but advised Congress to refrain from acting until the results for the NCLIS study were published. In fiscal year 1975-1976, NCLIS urged the U. S. Office of Education to increase the effectiveness of its Office of Libraries and Learning Resources and to provide “leadership training and technical assistance” to state library agencies. It also supported extension of the Library Services and Construction Act and the Medical Library Assistance Act. The Commission supported improved fede ral government stewardship of scientific and technical information (STI) through federa l legislation to have the President’s Science Advisor survey “ways and means for improving federal effort in scientific research and information-handling and in the use thereof.” In the same resolu tion, the Commission urge d that the National Science Foundation undertake research a nd development “to improve intersectoral coordination, management, information intercha nge, raise the performance of information services, rationalize the establishment of intera ctive networks, and such other actions that will contribute to the progre ss of science and technology.” — 5 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE That same year NCLIS addressed Governors and Chief State School O fficers on the critical importance of including school library and media e xpertise on the state ad visory councils for implementation of the Elementary and Sec ondary Education Act. The Commission also established a task force to develop plans for a national system for provision of periodicals, which recommended, among other things, establ ishing a National Periodicals Center to compliment state and regional networks of libraries that would share their collections and ensure access to historical journals. In 1976, the President’s Domestic Policy Council was given six months to undertake a comprehensive study of emerging information po licy issues regarding the rapidly growing information sector of the U.S. economy, the im pact of computers and related technology, the relationship between privacy and freedom of information, and access to information. To assist the Council in meeting its deadline, NCLIS organized the Committee on the Right to Privacy and held an intense two-day conference at which 40 representatives from various sectors of the information community, both public and private, for-prof it and not-for profit, “assembled to identify, categorize and analyze the critical information issues from a variety of viewpoints.” The results were a valu able source of information for the National Information Policy Report to the President, which NCLIS published on behalf of the outgoing administration in January of 1977. Among the recommendations in the report were that the U.S. set as a goal the development of a coordinated national information policy and that an Office of Information Policy be established in the Executive Office of the President, supported by an advisory committee “representat ive of the private sector, state government, and the academic and professional disciplines concerned with the info rmation policy issues discussed in the report” and an interagency Council on Information Policy of high-level federal agency representatives. As is clear from its efforts to bring together diverse groups with widely varying interests to address copyright and other information polic y issues, the Commission has not shied away from difficult or controversial issues. In 1977, it tackled the issue of intellectual freedom, speaking out against the prevai ling trend to use “local community standards” to exclude materials from libraries and even to prosecute individuals associated with nationally distributed materials that were locally objectionable. Asserti ng the importance of protecting “materials which are critical of accepted valu es or otherwise unpopular,” NCLIS condemned the use of “local community standards” as a “t hreat to each citizen’s full exercise of the rights guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments.” In 1978, NCLIS issued The Role of the Library of C ongress in the Evolving National Network , addressing the need for specifications for the telecommunica tions and computer architecture to support the “dis tributed computer processing system required by the national network.” It also encouraged the LC to provide online access to its ca taloging records and inprocess files and to provide other online services. The Second Decade: 1980-1989 In 1980, NCLIS created an in ternational cooperation plan ning group that in turn recommended establishment of a task force on in ternational relations to foster library and — 6 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE information works it relates to the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); provid e a forum for discussion of mutual concerns between countries engaged in internat ional information cooperation; serve as a clearinghouse for all U.S. public and private agencies interested in international inform ation cooperation; and recommend to the Department of State policies that represent the best interests of the U.S. in the information age. (NCLIS continued to serve as the secretariat until it formally withdrew from UNESCO in December of 1984, but it continued a similar role through the International Contributions for Scientific, Educational and Cultural Activities (ISECA) until the United States rejoined UNESCO in 2003.) The following year, this intensification of intere st in international information led NCLIS to accept a request from the Department of State to serve as the secretaria t of the U.S. National Committee for the UNESCO General Information Program. The Commission also agreed to coordinate the participation of U.S. representatives to international meetings concerned with library and information topics. A decade la ter, in 1991, the enabli ng legislation for the Commission was amended to expand its responsibility to “promote research and development activities which will extend and improve the nation’s library and informationhandling capability as essential links in the national communicat ions and cooperative networks” to “national and international communications and cooperative networks” (20 USC 1504(a)(6)). In Fiscal Year 1981-1982, the Commission assisted then Representative (later Senator) Paul Simon with Congressional hearings on the reauthorization of the 25-year-old Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA). NCLIS helped identify witnesses who could testify to the value of LSCA and make substantive recommendations for its improvement. These included recognition of the potential value of library automation and the need to include funding for automation in the scope of the LSCA. The importance of addressing the information needs of rural populations, the elderly, Indians, illiterate adults, and other special populations was also highlighted. Congress was advised to allocate LSCA funds so that states could take a larger role in determining the most urgent library and information needs of their citizens. Once the hearings were completed, Representative Simon asked the Commission to prepare specifications for the legislative amendments. Worki ng with the American Library Association (ALA), the Chief Operating Officer s of State Library Agencies (COSLA), and others, the Commission prepared and submitted a list of recommended changes that were the basis for the legislation that was subsequently enacted. At its November 1982 meeting, the Commission addressed pending legislation for a jobs creation program and urged the Congress and the President to include library and information service occupations among the occupations to be funded, saying: “ our economy’s future growth lies in large part in technological, in formation and service ente rprises. The need to strengthen the nation’s physical infrastructure must be joined by a commitment to healthy ‘information infrastructure.’ ” When the bill became law, it included $50 million for public library construction, to be distributed to the st ates through Title II of the LSCA. This was the first time that Title II had been funded since 1972. — 7 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE In 1982, NCLIS published another major report on information policy, Public Sector / Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services . The report was reissued twenty years later, when many of the same issues about the approp riate roles for the public and private sector were being debated anew as th e Internet provided substantial new means for information dissemination and altered the balanc e within and between the public and private sectors. A review of the repor t in the context of the new e nvironment created by enormous changes in technology reaffirmed, rather than altered, the recommendations that the Commission had made tw o decades earlier. The report identified issues of national concern and stressed the need for an environment that would enhance private sector competition and stimulate innovation. It also affirmed the applicability of the Fi rst Amendment to information produc ts and services and encouraged Congress to be consistent in language and pr inciples relating to information products and services when it formulated legislation and exercised oversight. It recommended a periodic economic assessment of the impact of federal government information products and services and encouraged research and gathering of sta tistics to provide data necessary to address information policy issues. With respect to the publishing activities of the federal government, the report encouraged agencies to regard dissemination of informati on as a high priority responsibility and to use the most efficient information technology availa ble to fulfill their information dissemination missions. The report cautioned that concerns abou t competition with the private sector should not arbitrarily restrict the federal governmen t from enhancing its information products and services, even as it asked agencies to announce publishing plans sufficiently far in advance to allow private sector involvement, evaluate the impact of agency publishing plans on the private sector, and periodically review the de sirability of continui ng an information product or service. Agencies were also advised to support libraries as an active means for public access to government information and to provi de incentives for libraries, bookstores, and others to expand their participation in the dissemination of government information. The report encouraged both sectors to partic ipate in developing vol untary standards that would enhance, not inhibit, further devel opment of innovative information products and services. The private sector was asked to support educ ational programs that w ould provide the skills needed to develop information as an economic and social resource, as well as basic and applied research in library and information science. It was encouraged to “add value” to government information and asked to identify and help eliminate legal and regulatory barriers to the introduction of new information products and services. In 1983, the Commission sought to raise awar eness of the importance of community information and referral services (CI&R). It urged that CI&R be includ ed in current federal library legislation and national information policies and recommended that libraries be included in CI&R options in other fede ral, state, and lo cal legislation. — 8 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE In 1983, at the White House Conference on Productivity, President Regan said, “The challenge of greater productivity growth is of supreme importance to America’s future.” NCLIS had assisted with the planning and c oordination of the White House Conference and provided a briefing paper on the information com ponent of productivity to all pre-conference and conference participants. Fo llowing the President’s call for action, NCLIS cosponsored a bilateral U.S. / U.K. seminar on “Information and Productivity—Implications for Education and Training.” One of the themes of the seminar was national and international information policy. Among its major recommendations was that a completely new approach to the school curriculum be adopted “whereby children, in ad dition to learning computer skills from an early age, learn to use librarie s and how to find and use information effectively.” This set of skills was identified as the “fourth R” and deemed as essential in life long learning. Another key recommendation was that “employers and educators work together to identify the crucial competencies needed in the emerging informati on sector” and to determine the best way to teach them. In 1984, the LSCA reauthorization was finally en acted, as was another piece of legislation for which NCLIS had provided technical assi stance, the Older Americans Act (OAA). The Commission provided information about its own program related to information services for the aging as well as the results of a COSLA survey on library services for the elderly. Testimony by the NCLIS Vice Chair urged Congre ss to specify that pub lic libraries could receive OAA grants, and this was supported by the Commissioner of the Administration on Aging. During the floor debate on the legisl ation, several sena tors acknowledged the important services libraries we re already providing to older Americans and encouraged them to expand their servi ces under the Act. Copyright was once again on the Commissions agenda as the NCLIS executive director participated in a February 1984 Congressional symposium on copyright and technology. One result of the symposium was that the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) initiated a study on Intellectual Property Rights in an Age of Electronics and Information in which NCLIS participated. That same y ear, OTA also began a two-year study on Federal Government Information Technology: Admini strative Processes and Civil Liberties , again with NCLIS participation. The Commission found the area of greatest interest to be public and private sector roles in access and dissemi nation of government information, noting that “the lack of laws, regulations and executive orders governing the dissemination of federal information” underscores the need to provide guidance in this area. The next year, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued a draft circular on Management of Federal Information Resources, and NCLIS provided its comments. The National Technical Information Service (NTIS) is an agency within the Department of Commerce that is charged with collecting, organizing, announci ng, and marketing the results of government-sponsored research. In 1985-1986, the Department of Commerce began to explore the possibility of privatizing NTIS and other options for its management. The Commission monitored the matter closely, met w ith Commerce and NTIS officials, and when legislation relating to privatization was in troduced in 1987, NCLIS supported language that would prevent privatization. NCLIS was to play a role in saving NTIS again in 2000 when the Department of Commerce pr oposed closing the agency. — 9 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE In 1987, the Commission also convened hearings on National Security Directive 145, which introduced the controversial new category of “sensitive but not classified” government information and published a report on its findings and recommendations in 1998. During 1986 and 1987, the Commission cosponsored and participated in three trilateral conferences on the role of information in the economy. Leaders from industry, academia, and government in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom met to promote public policy agendas at the na tional and international levels on th e use and effects of information resources on the economy and on the quality of life. The first conference, held in May 1986, focused on the relationship between the growth of the information sector and that of the national economies. In November 1987, the second conference addressed the place of the public sector in the information infrastructure, particularly the role of libraries and governments in creating and distributing inform ation. The final conference was held in May 1987 and resulted in the Glenerin Declarati on, which made recommendations on ways to identify and measure the contributions of information to the economy, as well as ways to gather, share, and disseminate relevant da ta and reports. Two important recommendations were (1) to identify a coherent framework for the development of information policy in each country and (2) to maintain awareness of government responsibility for the creation and provision of certain types of information and to ensure accessibility regardless of the means of the user. At its meeting in January 1988, the Commi ssion discussed the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s controversia l Library Awareness Program, which attempted to monitor patrons' reading habits and obtain personal informa tion about library users. As a result of the discussion, NCLIS adopted a re solution reaffirming its commitments to open access to information and the right of privacy for library users, as well as une quivocal support for First Amendment rights. In March 1988, the Commission convened an invitational conferen ce of information providers and researchers to discuss how pub lic libraries could provide information to support local officials and citizen groups. It authorized the pr oduction and distribution of a video tape that presented exemplary community information programs as a means to advise local officials and citizens groups about the role the public library coul d play in support of their local governance. A proposed supplement to OMB Circular A-130 was published in the Federal Register in January 1989. The Commission suggested a revision that would allow federal agencies greater discretion in adding value to informati on they disseminate, taking into account prior use of that information by the private sector. NCLI S also requested clarification of role of the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) in disseminating federal information in electronic form. In the revised Circular, OMB acknowledged that it was good public policy to include electronic government information in the FDLP, while noting that it was not required by law. — 10 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE In April 1989, the Commission join ed with the American Associa tion of School Librarians to hold a symposium on “Information Literacy and Education for the 21st Century: Toward an Agenda for Action.” Attendees represented leadi ng organizations of teachers, educators, and librarians. The symposium resulted in the unanimous adoption of 40 priority recommendations in five topic areas: the way teachers are educated; the way teachers teach; the way schools are administer ed; the way schools are funded; and the way school library media programs are organized and implement ed. NCLIS asked each of the represented organizations to include the recommendations in their own action agendas. The Commission conducted a hearing on the Of fice of Technology Assessment’s report, Informing the Nation , in July 1989. This resulted in a series of activities focusing on the principles that are necessary to address inform ation policies in a plur alistic society, including a public forum, held in October 1989, to discus s three topics: (1) Tec hnology and Proprietary Rights – Using Public Domain Information in the Private Sector; (2) Technology and Public Access to Information; and (3) Id entification of Information Policy Issues. As a result of this forum, NCLIS concluded that th e most important contribution it could make at that time was to attempt to “develop a consensus among all in terested parties as to the basic underlying principles that should shape al l decisions in and out of gove rnment regarding information policies, procedures, and practices.” The Third Decade: 1990-1999 In June 1990, the Commission published its Principles of Public Information (see page 20). Like assumptions presented in its 1974 official program document, Toward a National Program for Library and Informa tion Services: Goals for Action, the Principles articulated long held views of the Commission and establishe d criteria that would be touchstones for all its future positions on policy related to pub lic access to government information. These principles were also used by others in the li brary and information community to support their advocacy for broad public access to govern ment information. In its 2000 report, A Comprehensive Assessment of Public Information Dissemination , the Commission restated these principles, and their influence is clearl y present in many of the recommendations. What is clear in the Principles is both the public’s right of access to public information and the government affirmative obligations to disseminate its information and to ensure its integrity and preservation. The High Performance Computing Act (Public Law 102-194; 15 USC 5511) became law in December 1991. It called for the establishmen t of the National Research and Education Network (NREN) to “provide users with appr opriate access to high-performance computing systems, electronic information resources, other research facilities, and libraries.” Furthermore, the legislation stated that “The Network shall provide access, to the extent practicable, to electronic inform ation resources maintained by libraries, research facilities, publishers, and affiliated organizations.” During 1988 and 1989, the Commission had coordinated comments on the legislation from the library and information services community. In 1992, it hosted an open forum on the role of libraries and information services in NREN, and the findings were shared w ith the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and others. — 11 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE There were a number of other significant legisla tive initiatives of interest to the Commission in 1993, including copyright reform, and a numbe r of education proposal s, the Electronic Libraries Act, the Government Reform a nd Savings Act, the National Information Infrastructure Act, and th e Paperwork Reduction Act. In May, September, and December 1993, the Commission sponsored forums of the status, needs, and visions for services to children and youth through school library media centers and public libraries. One goal of the forums was to identify federal government roles and responsibilities in providing such services to inform the Commission’s advice to Congress and the Administration. In the spring of 1994, the Commi ssion testified at a congressional hearing on libraries and the National Information Infrastructure (NII). The Commission also submitted comments on individual privacy rights in an era of electronic technology to the Senate. Comments were also made on intellectual property and librari es in the NII for the draft Information Infrastructure Task Force report, Putting the Information Infrastructure to Work. Comments were also submitted to OMB on principles for providing and using personal information. In September, the Commission hosted a briefing for representatives from Congress and the Administration on the federal ro le relating to libraries in the information super highway based on the findings of its report, P ublic Libraries and the Internet. In 1995, as it celebrated its 25th anniversary, the Commission played a key role in the transformation of the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA) into the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) and the creation of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). In the legislation, the Commission received new responsibilities for advising IMLS, and the director of IMLS becam e an ex officio member of the Commission. In May 1996, the Commission and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) conducted a forum on library and information services policy on the Impact of Information Technology and Special Progr amming on Library Services to Special Populations . A similar forum in was held in 1997 on the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) State Grant Program: Implications for Use of and Additions to National Library Data . The objective of this series of forums was to ensure that statistics about lib raries and information services meet the needs of policy-makers at various le vels of government, as well as to guide the development of relate d public policies. In 1997 and again in 2001, NCLI S contracted for reports on Policy Issues & Strategies Affecting Public Libraries in th e National Networked Environment. The 1997 report, with the subtitle Moving Beyond Connectivity , raises pertinent questions about the unequal distribution of Internet connectiv ity, costs and provision of servi ces in public library systems at the time, and the need for the federal govern ment to act to level the playing field. The report also noted the need to move beyond identif ying the number of libraries with Internet access and begin to assess the speed and quality of the services available. The findings of the 2000 study, with the subtitle Setting Agendas and Extending Research, reflected significant — 12 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE strides in connectivity, funding sources, and services to support technology use by library visitors and offered recommendations for future research and analysis broadly related to libraries (especially public libraries), the Internet, and networked services. In the face of rising pressure for national legislation to mandate filtering and other protections for children using the Internet in schools and libr aries, the Commission conducted a hearing on Kids and the Internet: The Problems and the Perils at the Freedom Forum in Arlington, Virginia in November 1998. As a result of the hearing, the Commission determined that a broad national approach to protecting children by limiting their access to the Internet in public libraries and schools wa s inappropriate and, very likely, unworkable, and that it was the responsibility of local gove rning authorities to a ddress these issues and establish policies for the public and school libraries in their jurisd ictions. The Commission determined that facilitating the developmen t of appropriate local policies through the preparation and dissemination of practical guidelines, designed to assist librarians and library trustees (or other govern ing bodies) in their efforts to evaluate and respond to the promise and the perils of Internet access for children, was the best approach, so it prepared and widely disseminated such guidelines. These practical guidelines, offering balance and compromise, outlined the promise, the perils, policy issues , and potential solutions for librarians and library trustees and for school libr arians and school administrators. In July 1999, the Commission conducted a hearing on Library and Information Services for Individuals with Disabilities at the Kellogg Conference Center of the Gallaudet University, one of the nation's foremost educational faci lities for the deaf. Th e Commission concluded that recent advances in information technol ogy have improved conditions for some people with disabilities while presenting new challenge s to others. Computer technology facilitates the production of talking books and closed captio ning. Electronic text can be manipulated in ways that print cannot to assist persons with disabilities. Information technology can also help eliminate distance and physical barriers. However, a mouse-driven graphical interface can present problems for a sightless person. Moreover, ce rtain intellectual property restrictions stifle the easy production of information in al ternative formats for the disabled. In 1999, the Commission released the Report on the Assessment of Electronic Government Information Products, which was funded by the Government Printing Office (GPO) to gather information for the administration of the Federal Depository Librar y Program (FDLP). As anticipated, the report confirmed that there was an overall lack of government information policy guiding electronic publishi ng, dissemination, permanent public access, or information life cycle management, exacerbated by a lack of overall coordination of these initiatives at the governmental, branch, or even agency level. The report documented that responsibility for electronic publishing within agencies was d ecentralized, diffuse, and unclear, resulting in a lack of specific planning for product de velopment and technological migration. The concept of permanent public access was not well understood, and there was a lack of understanding of what ensuring authenticity entailed and a lack of planning for, or consideration of, ensuring authenticity of electronic government information products. — 13 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE The Final Years: 2000-2008 As noted above, the Commission had previously in tervened when privatization of NTIS was considered by the Commerce Department. In 1999-2000, it once again acted to address a proposal to close NTIS. Th e Commission’s recommendations addressed the broader information policy issues as well as the specific plan for closure in its report issued in 2000. First, it asked that the Commerce Department commit to retaining NTIS at least through FY2001. It also recommended that Congress appr opriate funds to c over the legislative mandated activities of NTIS that are inherently governmental, allowing the other services to remain self-sustaining. Once an appropriation fo r its inherently governmental functions was in place, the Commission advo cated that NTIS be required to abide by existing federal information resource management policies and procedures by (1) setting user charges to recover the incremental cost of its sales, ex cluding all costs financed by appropriations; (2) cease improperly restrictive practices such as ch arging fees or royalties for the reuse, resale or re-dissemination of government information products and services; and (3) ensure that decisions to introduce new products or services are made only af ter careful consideration of the capabilities of the private sector to create commercial products through public-private partnerships or independent efforts. The Commission urged a one-time appropriation to defray the costs of setting up a mechanism to provide free and permanent public access to current NTIS materials and future acquisi tions through the Federal Depository Library Program in electronic form and to ensure that retrospective materials converted to electronic formats are also made available for pe rmanent public access through the FDLP. The commission also suggested that the broader government information policy issues should be addressed through an in-depth study. This is, in fact, exactly what occurred. In the summer of 2000, the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation request ed that NCLIS undertake a comprehensive assessment of the federal government’s info rmation dissemination po licies and practices, including the need for new or revised laws, ru les, regulations, and po licies; the need to consolidate, streamline or simp lify missions and functi ons; and the need to strengthen other components of the overall federal information di ssemination infrastructure. This was to be accompanied by recommendations on the future of NTIS that would be consistent with any overall federal government information disse mination recommendations that NCLIS would provide. The Commission was aske d to consider whether NTIS could be a fully electronic repository of federal scientific and technica l information, accessible via the Internet. NCLIS immediately convened four panels of experts to assist with the assessment. The panels were to address the NTIS business model, internal government reforms, external user needs, and public-private sector partnerships. Although the result of this call for a compre hensive assessment was a multi-volume report with three dozen specific recommendations , the Commission’s prin ciple recommendation was that the United States government formally recognize and affirm the concept that public information is a strategic national resource with an importance similar to that accorded to land, labor, and capital. The Co mmission believed that this recommendation, if adopted, would dramatically alter federa l information policy and lead to implementation of many of its other recommendations. — 14 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE In this report, A Comprehensive Assessment of Pu blic Information Dissemination , the Commission reaffirmed that public ownership of information created by the federal government is an essential right that not onl y allows individuals to fulfill their civic responsibilities, but also contributes to an overall improvement in their quality of life. The Commission acknowledged that current inform ation technology not onl y brings with it expanded opportunities for using government info rmation but also a number of difficulties, including adequacy of finding t ools, technological incompatibili ties, and sometimes just the overwhelming amount of information. Furthermore, the Commission noted that not all needed information is available on the Internet nor do users of public information necessarily have the professional skills to use what is available in any format, and also that government information made available electronically can disappear as quickly as it has appeared. Through this report, the Commission called attent ion to the absence of policy for long term or permanent public access to web-based public in formation, as well as the fact that special populations, especially individuals with disabilities, but also those who, for whatever reason, find it difficult to use computers and computer networks, existed th roughout the nation. The Commission noted that such populations clearly could benefit from information technology, but special efforts need to be taken to guara ntee the availability to them of appropriate information technology and government information content. This is how the Commission summarized the then current situation: The federal government has a critical role in formulating a nd overseeing public information dissemination policy. Hundreds of laws establish the requirement and authority of agencies to disseminate public information, but there is little distinction made between “passive disse mination” and “proactive dissemination.” Moreover, the authority of agencies differs widely in terms of how broadly they are permitted to disseminate information to the public. It is evident that there are costs involved in managing and dissemin ating public information resources, but the manner of paying these costs is incons istent and, at time s, invisible across government. There are existing central serv ice agencies, such as GPO, NTIS, and the National Archives and Records Admi nistration (NARA), who, in partnership with individual agencies, play a cruc ial role in information dissemination. However, there is no effective enfor cement mechanism to use when these partnerships fail. There will always remain a strong need for central information service agencies, but these agencies need new business mode ls that reflect the realities of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Overlap and competition among these agencies is unnecessary and wasteful. There are efforts to improve coordination— for example, through interagency comm ittees—and these efforts should be continued and strengthened. The Commission also indicated that everyt hing that it learned about problems and opportunities affecting federal government in formation was likely to apply to public — 15 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE information at the state and local government le vels and urged again that the inconsistencies and incompatibilities among programs at the different levels of government need to be eliminated. This is how the Commission summarized the recommendations found in the report: Strategic Recommendations 1. Adopt the national goal that public in formation is a strategic resource. 2. Establish the Public Information Resources Administration (PIRA). 3. Include broad, explicit public inform ation dissemination authority in all agencies’ missions. 4. Implement an Information Dissemination Budget. 5. Enact “The Public Information Resources Reform Act of 2001.” 6. Establish the Congressional Inform ation Resources Office (CIRO). 7. Establish the Judicial Inform ation Resources Office (JIRO). 8. Extend key provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act to the Legislative and Judicial Branches. 9. Encourage state, local, and tribal governments to adopt comparable policies and programs for their public information resources. 10. Retain, temporarily, the National Techni cal Information Service (NTIS) in the Commerce Department. 11. Provide funding for the public good functions of NTIS and other comparable information service agencies. 12. Update the NTIS business model. 13. Partner with the private sector, both for–profit and not for-profit, to perform public information disseminations functions. 14. Remove barriers to public information fo r individuals with disabilities and for other special populations. 15. Coordinate the information dissemina tion activities among the Legislative, Judicial, and Executive Branches. 16. Improve training of librarians and other information professionals to better assist users of public information. Other Recommendations 17. Implement recommendations regarding NTIS in the Commerce Department. 18. Improve Congressional oversight of public information dissemination laws. 19. Review and harmonize all laws that deal with public information resources. 20. Strengthen cooperative efforts to pr omote public information sharing. 21. Improve “Government Informa tion Life-Cycle Planning and Management.” 22. Modernize current awareness systems for public information. 23. Make consistent federal identifiers for information across all agencies. — 16 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 24. Harmonize information identifiers at all levels of government—federal, state, local, and tribal. 25. Evaluate pre-electronic government information for digital conversion. 26. Develop guidelines regarding the ava ilability of public information by branch and level of government. 27. Develop a comprehensive inventory a nd database of public information resources. 28. Specify the metadata by which agencies classify records prior to archival retention or disposal. 29. Partner broadly, in and outside gover nment, to ensure permanent public availability of public information resources. 30. Identify the public’s most criti cal unmet requirements for public information resources. 31. Identify the federal government’s most critical requirement for technologies to manage public information resources. 32. Involve the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the effective management of scientific and technical information. 33. Monitor cooperation between PIRA and the National Archives and Records Administration. 34. Require that data elements set fo rth in the Government Paperwork Elimination Act be reported in XML (Extensive Markup Language) and review the impact of this requirement regularly. 35. Ensure the availability of a trained fe deral workforce with skills in Internet Age technologies. 36. Advance the recommendations of this Assessment report to other nations worldwide. In April 2001, the Commission held a hearing in Cincinnati on School Librarians: Knowledge Navigators Through Troubled Times. In calling for particip ation in the hearing, the Commission noted that: “The role of the school librarian or th e school library media center must not be understated. The school library is the place where students develop the skills necessary to become e ffective information users capable of locatin g, interpreting, analyzing and evaluating information. The skills for life-long learning must begin at an early age through adequate, credible and up-to-date info rmation, therefore, we must be certain that funds for school media center personnel and material are not diverted to other projects.” At the hearing, the Commission heard testimony on th e role of the school librarian in student performance, curriculum, and literacy. The resulting information supported the Commission’s continued advocacy for improved federal government support for school libraries and media centers. Shortly after the tragic events of Septem ber 11, 2001, the Commission began to look at the role of libraries in preparing for and responding to disasters. The result was Trust and Terror: New Demands for Crisis In formation Dissemination and Management. The Commission proposed to expand the role of U.S. libraries in crisis information dissemination and management. The DVD, narrated by Walter Cronkite, noted that the nation's more than 16,000 public libraries already form an extens ive network of resources that can be — 17 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE empowered to meet this need for crisis information. The Commission recommended that federal, state, and local government agen cies put systems in place—and use them—to distribute essential, up-to-date information to public libraries. It further recommended that this be done in cooperation w ith the state libraries which can efficiently channel the information to appropriate libraries and library systems in each state and that the libraries and librarians, in turn, prepare to disseminate the information to people when and where it is needed. The Commission acknowledged that fundi ng must be allocated from federal, state, and local emergency sources so that librar ies can remain open for extended hours during crises—even 24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week, when necessary. In 2005, the Commission once again turned its a ttention to international information policy issues, issuing a report on The Role of Libraries in HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination in Sub-Saharan Africa . The goal of this NCLIS study was to explore how information is being disseminated in the part of the world where the impact of HIV / AIDS has been by far the greatest, and the resources of the countries impacted have been the smallest—Sub-Saharan Africa. In particular, the Commission examin ed the role of libraries—and library-like institutions—as change-agents in developing countries that mu st deal with high rates of illiteracy, how levels of information tec hnology infrastructure, multiple languages, and cultural attitudes and practices were better suited for centuries past, not for the 21st century, anticipating that lessons learned from this i nvestigation will be useful in the U.S. and elsewhere, wherever there ar e pockets of poverty, illiterac y, poor information technology infrastructure, and lack of sufficient libraries and information institutions to meet the needs of the people. Mass Digitization: Implicati ons for Information Policy is a report from a symposium on “Scholarship and Libraries in Transition: A Dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization Projects” held at the Univer sity of Michigan in March 2006. Among the recommendations in this report is a call for updating the Copyright Act to address the digital world. The report urged greater cooperation among libraries to avoi d duplication of effort and make available their unique and rare materials. It called for greater attention to qua lity, authentication, and preservation and acknowledged the need for standards for interoperability and cross searching of digital repositories . Alternatives to the advertiser supported model, such as the open source model, need to be explored, espe cially with regard to sustainability. The information literacy skills of students and scholars need to be improved, and understanding changing user needs and preferences require s ongoing assessment and market research. Not all NCLIS information policy initiatives are in the form of studies, reports, and hearings. In many instances, NCLIS responds to inquires or initiates correspondence, consultations or resolutions in order to provide a rapid response to an emerging situation, particularly pending legislation. For example, in May 2005, NCLI S called on the President and Congress to support libraries as health information distri bution centers, no ting that this would position libraries as the central resour ce for providing citizens with consumer health information. The Commission noted that this was particularly im portant when they require health information in a critical or unusual situati on and for helping citizens learn how to live a healthy lifestyle. — 18 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE In November 2006, the Commission advised Congre ss to take action to ensure net neutrality and preclude legislation or re gulations that would create tiered services on the Internet. Quoting from a 1992 hearing on allowing commercial traffic on the Internet, NCLIS reminded Congress that “It is e ssential as the network is stru ctured that all commercial providers of network services receive equa l treatment and that government policy in managing the network not favor any provider or set of providers over others.” The Commission also supported f our principles adopted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2005 to “encourage broadband deployment and preserve and promote the open and interconnected nature of [the] public Internet,” noting that tiered service is contrary to those principles. NCLIS also recommended that Congress refrain from changes to the e-rate (the familiar program name of the extension of Universal Service authorized by Congress in the Telecommunication Act of 1996) to require al l schools and libraries that receive federal funds to restrict access to digital social netw orking tools and online communities. Noting that proposed legislation is overly broad, the Co mmission expressed concern its passage could mean that “wikis, blogs, and even Amazon.com and Wikipedia could be construed as ‘social networking sites,’ a situation which would have negative effects on learning and the access to information and knowledge required for learning.” In 2007, noting that “a critical part of the comp rehensive and renewed st rategy to ensure that students learn to read and are effective users of information and ideas, is the requirement that every school have a school libra ry and that school libraries be staffed by hi ghly qualified, state certified school library me dia specialists,” the Commissi on urged Congress to provide adequate resources in the No Child Left Behind Act reauthorization to su pport school libraries and media centers. Later that year, NCLIS urged Congress to make permanent a moratorium on Internet access taxes. “To tax citizens for Internet access in order to fill out tax forms and Medicare forms required by the government is patently unfair and an economic burden for our citizens,” the Commission asserted, adding “If the government is increasingly requiring citizens to use the Internet, then federal, state or local taxes on its use should be prohibited.” While many voices are raised in the discus sion of pending federal legislation and other information policy initiatives, the Commission ha s served a unique and important role as a permanent, independent agency within the fede ral government with the mandate to advise the President and Congress on nationa l and international library and information policies, to appraise and assess the adequacies and deficien cies of library and information resources and services, and to develop overall plans for m eeting national library a nd information needs. Though its mission is broad, addressing issues th at affect every American, the resources available to the Commission are modest. On ly twice since its inception has its annual appropriation exceeded $1 million. As a result, the Commission has always prioritized its activities to address a few key issues each year. Yet NCLIS has, since its inception, been a consistent voice for recognition that U.S. lib rary and information resources are a national resource that should be streng thened, organized, and made ava ilable to the maximum degree possible in the public interest and remained de dicated to the assumptions so well articulated in its 1974 official program document, Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services : Goals for Action . — 19 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Principles of Public Information Preamble From the birth of our nation, open and uninhibited access to public information has ensured good government and a free so ciety. Public information helps to educate our people, stimulat e our progress and solve our most complex economic, scientific and social problems. With the coming of the Information Age and its many new technologies, however, public in formation has expanded so quickly that basic principles regarding its crea tion, use and disseminati on are in danger of being neglected and even forgotten. The National Commission on Libraries a nd Information Science, therefore, reaffirms that the information policies of the U.S. government are based on the freedoms guaranteed by the Constitu tion, and on the recognition of public information as a national resource to be developed and preserved in the public interest. We define public information as information created, compiled and / or maintained by the Federal Government. We assert that public information is information owned by the people, held in trust by their government, and should be available to the people except where restricted by law. It is in this spirit of public ownership and public trust that we offe r the following Principles of Public Information. Principles 1. The public has the right of access to public information. Government agencies should guarantee open, timely and uninhibited access to public information except where restrict ed by law. People should be able to access public information, regardless of its format, without any special training or expertise. 2. The Federal Government should guar antee the integrity and preservation of public information, regardless of its format. By maintaining public information in th e face of changing times and technologies, government agencies assure the governmen t's accountability and the accessibility of the government's busin ess to the public. 3. The Federal Government should guarantee the dissemination, reproduction, and redistribution of public information. Any restriction of dissemination or an y other function dealing with public information must be strictly defined by law. — 20 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 4. The Federal Government should safe guard the privacy of persons who use or request information, as well as persons about whom information exists in government records. 5. The Federal Government should ensu re a wide diversity of sources of access, private as well as governme ntal, to public information. Although sources of access may change over time and because of advances in technology, government agencies have an obligation to the pub lic to encourage diversity. 6. The Federal Government should not allow cost to obstruct the people's access to public information. Costs incurred by creating, collecting and processing information for the government's own purposes should not be passed on to people who wish to utilize public information. 7. The Federal Government should ensure that information about government information is easily available and in a single index accessible in a variety of formats. The government index of public informati on should be in addition to inventories of information kept within i ndividual government agencies. 8. The Federal Government should guarantee the public's access to public information, regardless of where they live and work, through national networks and programs like the Depository Library Program. Government agencies should periodically review such programs as well as the emerging technology to ensure that access to public information remains inexpensive and convenient to the public. Conclusion The National Commission on Libraries a nd Information Science offers these Principles of Public Information as a foundation for the decisions made throughout the Federal Government and th e nation regarding issues of public information. We urge all branches of the Federal Government, state and local governments and the private sector to util ize these principles in the development of information policies and in the creati on, use, dissemination and preservation of public information. We believe that in so acting, they will serve the best interests of the nation and the people in the Information Age. Adopted by the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science June 29, 1990 — 21 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Information Access for the American Public Background When the Commission was created by the U.S. Congress in 1970, access to information was very different than it is in 2008. During the ensuing 38 years that NC LIS has been advising the Congress and the Presiden t on policy issues, the world of information has been transformed from one where information is fixed in a particular geographic location (a physical library) to one that is global and known as the world wide web; from one that was paper-based to digital-based information and re search accessible via a variety of electronic devices; from one that relied upon the collections of a partic ular institution to one where libraries throw open their collections on the In ternet; from one that ‘relied’ on unreliable room-size computers, to one where multiple books are carried on a flash drive the size of a child’s finger. Through these vast changes NCLIS has appraised library and information services on behalf of the American people, reported its findings to the Congress and the President, and made recommendations to benefit the American public’s access to information. While their legislative mandate did not include advising libraries, th e Commission has not been shy about recommending changes to better serve the American public, has in fact brokered some of the changes, and has applauded and r ecognized outstanding work, in the hope of encouraging other libraries to follow the honored peer. This section looks at the emphasis NCLIS has placed on assuring access to information and in realization that lib raries created an informal network spread across the country, the Commission encouraged libraries and library systems to undertake the development of activities that would strengthen the infrastructure of libraries and information providers to provide better access to information servic es. Along the way, NCLIS strongly encouraged the Congress to amend legisla tion to include technology and it s applications as a library service eligible for federal funding. The First Decade: 1970-1979 In its first annual report NCLIS established the primacy of access as its focus, declaring that ‘national equality of access to information is as important as equality in education.’ It immediately delved into copyright issues noting that a legal framework for resolving fair use issues in libraries and by lib rary users needed a legisla tive solution and called on the Congress to enact a revision to the Copyright Act. During the early 1970s, NCLIS issued several recommendations concerning the Library of Congress (LC or the Library) and identified th e role of the congressional and de facto national library in building a na tional library infrastructure accessible by libraries nationwide on behalf of their users. NCLIS urged the LC to seek to acquire 85 to 90% of the world’s output of written materials, noti ng that if materials were held at the LC, the country would derive broad national benefits, and research libraries alone would save $66 million. The — 22 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Commission urged the Library to make its holdings available as the ‘library of final resort’ by lending them to other libraries, by purchasing additional copies for this particular purpose, and by creating microfilm copies as a preser vation medium. The Co mmission further urged the Library of Congress to create a mechanism to distribute its cataloging data to other research libraries and information organizati ons and to expand its reference service to support a national system of bib liographic service. The reuse of cataloging data created by the LC would provide a standard way for a libra ry user to access information in any library and would save local jurisdictions millions of dollars since th e work would not have to be replicated in every local and academic library. Ensuring access to information about the fe deral government, the Commission noted that appropriate documentation, bib liographical and other inform ation resources should be recognized in federal programs and that support for them should be included in Executive Orders and other implementing directives. In 1974, NCLIS, with a coalition of informa tion advocates, brought about the enactment of PL93-58 which authorized a White House Conf erence on Library and Information Services, a conference that would focus on the importan ce of libraries and information in American society. In 1974 and 1975, NCLIS sponsored two conferen ces that focused on continuing education for librarians. CLENE, Con tinuing Library Education and Networking Exchange, emerged from the conferences and continues today as a principal organization in the development and delivery of continuing professional education fo r librarians and inform ation professionals. During these same years, NCLIS focused on the very concrete portion of the national infrastructure, urging Congress to extend the Library Services and Construction Act which provided federal funds for local construction, the law mandating the distribution of federal funds for certain library services, and the deve lopment of a technology infrastructure at the local level. NCLIS in 1976 was riveted on federal informati on policy issues. It published the National Information Policy Report, urging that the U. S. set as a goal the development of a coordinated National Information Policy; r ecommending that the Executive Office of the President establish an Office of Information Policy and that an interagency federal Council on Information Policy be created. In FY1977, the Commission focused again on access to information in several of its actions. It recommended a staged process to increase state and fede ral funding for public libraries, recommending a formula of 20% federal funds, 50% state funds, and 30 % local funds. It urged that the Library Services and Construction Act be amende d with a new title that would provide financial assistance to large urban public libraries. Directly rebutting those who would censor access based on community standards, the Commission issued its condemnation of the use of ‘local community standards,’ identifying — 23 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE such use as a threat to accessibility and to citizens’ full exer cise of rights guaranteed by the First and Fourteenth Amendments. Access to periodical literature fe atured prominently in the same year with the publication of The Role of the Library of Congre ss in the Evolving National Network . The report called for establishing a national periodical s center and an Advisory Co mmittee to develop policy for coordinating the center and charged the Library of Congress to design plans for the center. Envisioned to serve individual libraries, th e Commission was looking for an appropriate organization to assure access for the librarie s and their users. An Advisory Committee developed a draft amendment to Title II of the Higher Educat ion Act, but Congress took no action. Another broad access initiative was the 1979 NC LIS Conference on Libraries and Literacy which resulted in recommendations for libraries and for the Commission. Seeing the utility of using public libraries across the country for literacy efforts, the Conference recommended that libraries act as clea ring houses and community resource centers to coordinate community-based literacy programs and that the libraries should develop plans to reach the non-literate members of the community who are not regular library users. For NCLIS, the recommendations included an expanded mission—to embrace a National Commission on Literacy and to create a national resource cen ter for local and state literacy programs. Recommendations further sought federal legislation and funding that would identify local libraries as alternative educa tion agencies and designate them to receive funds to conduct literacy programs; on their part, the libraries were to take the initi ative to conduct local assessments of community needs and resources for improving literacy. The Second Decade: 1980-1989 The White House Conference on Libraries Report issued in 1980 carried multiple recommendations affirming NCLIS’ continued inte rest in access to information and the need to build a strong infrastructure for libraries. It called for new legislation to replace LSCA and increased budgetary support for resource sharing among libraries and the innovative application of technologies to public and research libra ries and argued for Federal Information Centers to be placed within libraries . The role of NCLIS as the Secretariat for the Conference and the recommendations produced by the Conference are covered in detail later in this report. In 1980, the Commission made se veral broad recommendations to the President and the Congress that would affect positively conditions of access to information. The Committee on the Right to Privacy recommended that the U.S. set a goal of coordinating a national information policy, establish an Office of Information Policy in the Executive Office of the President, create an interagenc y Council on Information Policy chai red by the Director of the recommended Office of Information Policy, and cr eate an Advisory Committee to the Office. In the same year the Commission recommended es tablishing a task force on international cooperation to foster library and information science work related to UNESCO, provide a forum for discussion with countries involved in mutual cooperati on, provide a clearinghouse for all U.S. public and private agencies interested in international information cooperation — 24 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE and recommend policies to the Department of St ate. The following year NCLIS became the Secretariat for the UN National Commission for UNESCO General Information Program. In fiscal year 1981-82, the Commission worked with the American Library Association, the Council of State Library Agencies, and a congr essional delegation recommending changes to the Library Services and Construction Act that would better deal w ith issues of library automation, the needs of special populations , and the problems of illiteracy. The Commission created its own specialization in special populations by establishing the National Rural Information Services Deve lopment Program—a population to which the Commission would continue to address its efforts for the next 20 years. During the same year the Nairobi Protocol was ratified by the Congress. Under this international instrument, signatories agreed to dismantle customs barriers for imported books; works of art; audiovisual material of educ ational, scientific, a nd cultural nature; and scientific equipment, appliances, and materials for the blind. The instrument also states that convertible currencies and import licenses should be granted for the purchase of books to be used in public libraries. The Florence Agreement, originally reach ed in 1950, was updated in 1976 through the adoption of the Nairobi Protocol which extende d the free circulation principles to other cultural goods, particularly thos e using the technologies developed at that time, such as audiovisual materials. This international agreement par ticularly improved access for special populations to materials from abroad and im proved access for all Americans to materials produced outside the U.S., and in turn made U.S.-produced cultural and educational materials more widely available abroad. The Commission partnered with th e Special Library Association to create a task force which examined and produced a report on The Role of the Special Library in Networks and Cooperatives: Executive Summary and Recommendations . Ever mindful of the citizen searching for information, the Commission r ealized that many private and corporate organizations have libraries for their own busin ess purposes. One of the myths was that the general public could not benefit directly from these libraries. Through this joint effort, the services and the collections of special librar ies would become more widely known and more easily accessed. The Commission demonstrated its continuing focus on access to information for Americans in the 1990s through a series of recommendati ons that encompassed literacy training, technology demonstration programs, access to g overnment produced information, and higher levels of funding for school lib rary and media center s. Citing the prominent role that access to information has on citizens’ participation in the democratic pr ocess, the Commission recommended that Congress mandate open access to information through legislation that would require open access for public use to information received by the federal government or information that was created at public ex pense. They urged that uniform policies and standards for the management, preservation, and access to this information for the public be developed. These recommendations in FY1992 pres age the debate that continues today to guarantee public access to re search and information crea ted at tax-payer expense. — 25 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE They recommended that the President and the Congress recognize and affirm that literacy for all remains a national priority by funding school library service through categorical grants administered by the Department of Education, that a national, library-b ased literacy training model be developed, and that funds be appropriated for demonstration grants. In similar fashion, they urged libraries to develop and support the use of a nationwide multitype library network that would improve res ource sharing among libraries, thereby providing better access to information for the public, particularly in areas with little or no access. Noting the importance of local information to decision making, libraries were urged to collaborate closely with commun ity service providers to distribute local information to their communities. The Commission’s recognition of the developm ent of technology and networks to deliver information to the public was seen in their recommendation to the Congress to support and fund the National Research and Education Networ k (NREN) so that it would be available in all libraries and other information repositories and to provide additi onal funding through the Library Services and Constructi on Act (LSCA) for libraries in rural areas to acquire NREN access terminals and other networking needs. For school library services the Commission recommended that the Department of Education establish its own office responsible for lead ership of school media programs, and the Commission recommended federal incentive programs for states to assure that school media centers would be fully staffed by prof essional school library media personnel. Over the next couple of years the Commission continued to focus on literacy and library services for children and youth, a dvocating for demonstration grants for services to children offered by public libraries and parent / family education projects for early childhood services that also involved childhood support agencies . Libraries were encouraged to become partners with day care centers and other ea rly childhood providers by offering the centers deposit collections and training in the use of library resources. For youth the Commission supported demonstration grants for services for young adults, demonstration grants to provide outreach services for at-risk youth by providing partnership with community youthserving agencies for young adults on the verge of risky behavior and those already in crisis. Public and school libraries were encouraged to form partnership programs to provide comprehensive services to youth and teens, with the libraries developing an agenda for research to document and evaluate how childre n and young adults develop abilities that make them information literate. They further encouraged school and public libraries to develop intergenerational demonstration programs that provide meaningf ul services to children and teens. The Third Decade: 1990-1999 In 1992, the Commission issued its report, Pathways to Excellence: A Report on Improving Library and Information Servic es for Native American Peoples . The Report’s recommendations dealt with both access to library and information services and — 26 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE strengthening the information infrastructure to support enhanced access. The Report called for adequate and consistent funding at all governmental levels to improve library and information services. The Report recommended a study that would document library and information services provided to Native Americans and the establishment of a national information policy for library and informati on services to the communities and recommended amending the Community Services Act to provide family literacy programs and culturally based programs that incorporate the oral tradition and Native American cultural materials. Other recommendations called for funds for a basic program of library and information technologies, including specia lized training for Native Ameri can library and information services personnel. The Commission paid particular attention to the aged population in 1994-96 in preparation for its participation in the White House C onference on Aging. The Commission sought to define the priorities for librar y services needed by aging Americans. The Commission used the opportunity to make recommendations to the President and the Congress and to the library and information community. NC LIS recommended funding the expansion of traditional library development to include new technology centers to support lifelong learning, economic training, and senior-relate d information. The Commission called for public policy for a multi-agency approach to develop training modules for seniors, further recommending participation by geriatric associati ons and centers, university research centers, library associations, and federal, state, and local agencies. They recommended preferential rates be provided to libraries and similar in stitutions in telecomm unications services. To libraries the Commission recommended expa nding their role in electronic technology to heighten attention to the conti nuum of lifespan, to develop separate units to focus on services to the deaf community, and to offer programs dr awing on the talents of all ages with the goal of strengthening society’s value for the contribu tions made by all generations. Libraries were further urged to make facilities accessible and to provide collections that were more accessible to the aged with disabilities. The 1996 National Survey of Public Libraries and the Internet: Progress and Issues recommended developing, operationalizing, and va lidating a range of performance measures that would be essential if public libraries inte nded to determine which networked information resources are effective for their users. The data could also be used to make known to federal, state, and local policy makers informati on and issues describing how public library involvement in the Internet affects the public good—beginning, albeit in directly, to address the new role of public libraries to provide access across the digital divide. The Commission also recommended that the data could be anal yzed to better plan and design public library involvement to best benefit the public. On September 30, 1996, the President signed into law the Library Services and Technology Act (PL 104-208), changing markedly the direc tion and distribution of federally funded library initiatives. The change from Library Services and Constructi on Act to the Library Services and Technology Act affirmed the incr easing role of technology in delivering library services and providing access to information fo r the public. It brought to fruition a federal law change the Commission had recomme nded years before. The 1997 report on Public — 27 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Libraries and the Internet looked at the prominent role technology had already taken in the public library, and it explored specific actions that the federal government should take to ensure that access to government-produced and government-collected information was available to the public via their libraries. NCLIS remained focused on the Internet and its effect on information access for the public and in 1999 issued its report, Kids and the Internet . In its report, it again made recommendations to the government and to librar ies. For the government, in this case local government bodies, the Commission recommende d “that the governing body of school and public libraries, in order to meet its trust ee responsibilities, should establish, formally approve, and periodically review a written acceptable use policy statement on Internet access.” While the commission stopped short of recommending filters to the governing bodies, they did suggest that “s oftware – which can be turned on or off – and that restricts access to designated web site for specific Internet functions could be considered as a measure to protect children while they are using the In ternet.” The Commission noted that libraries can provide Internet training and education and other awar eness programs to parents, guardians, and teachers and alert them to both th e promise and the perils of the Internet for children. The Final Decade: 2000-2008 The Commission explored the convergence of the Public Sector and Private Sector in Information Services . In their 2000 recommendations they affirmed the applicability of the First Amendment to information products and services. They encouraged government agencies to utilize the most efficient inform ation technologies, encouraged the setting and use of voluntary standards that will not inhibit further develo pment of innovative information products and services, and suppor ted statistical programs and re search to provide the data needed to deal with information policy issues. They supported the use of libraries as active means for access to governmental information by the public. To further ensure public access to information, they recommended that the government not assert any federal government copyrights on information made available dom estically, and they recommended using the nation’s libraries as information centers for di stributing government information rather than creating new governmental units. In 2000, the National Technical Information Serv ice (NTIS), an arm of the Department of Commerce, was to be closed due to insuffi cient funding. The information service was a principal distribution point for non-classified technical informa tion to the public. In response to this possibility of dimini shed public access, the Commissi on called for appropriations to enable the agency to continue functioning while seeking an alternative business model to finance its operations. The Commission sought a ssurances that materials were not discarded and asked that reports on NTIS operations be submitted to the congressional oversight and appropriation committees and to NCLIS. Recognizing the strong relationship between school library media programs and student achievement and the importance of informati on literacy, the Commission returned to the — 28 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE topic of school libraries in 2001. The Commission invited public comment at its hearing in Cincinnati, OH examin ing five questions: 1. How is student performance affected by having a well-equipped library and professionally trained staff? 2. How does the school librarian’s involv ement in the development and active participation in the curriculum influence student success? 3. How do school librarians help students deve lop the ability to identify, access, and evaluate information resources for problem solving, i.e., to move from literacy to information literacy? 4. How do school librarians address, pr omote, and sustain literacy? 5. What is the impact of federal governmen t support for school libraries, and how should future needs be met? In September 2001, the Commission turned its atte ntion to the role of information access in emergency preparedness and recovery. Followi ng the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Wash ington, the Commission, like other federal agencies, reviewed its mandate in light of the tragedy. Through its earlier work with libraries and state library agencies, the Commission was keenly aware that the U.S.’s 16,000 public libraries form an unofficial nationwide dist ribution system for information needed and wanted by the public. The Commission’ s first publication on the topic was Trust and Terror: A Proposal to Expand the Role of US Librarie s in Crisis Informa tion Dissemination and Management . The CD presentation was shown broadly to audiences of librarians to heighten their awareness of the pivotal role they could fulfill for vital and accurate information during a disaster. The Commission continued its work with other federal agencies, bringing this already-made network to the attention of Homeland Security and Emergency Management officials. NCLIS took a three-prong approach to link libraries and emergency preparedness: (1) bringing together stakeholde rs in emergency response and apprising them of the role libraries can play; (2) persuadi ng library and information service leaders to identify the distribution of emergency prepared ness information as a critical and natural role for libraries; and (3) promoting to the genera l public the idea that libraries can be the place to find the information they need for critical emerge ncies. During the subsequent floods from Hurricanes Rita and Katrina, libraries were the centers for informa tion and were among the first public services restored. In organizing its activities, the Commission wa s guided by its strategic plan of April 2004. In the plan, the Commission established three goals for its work: To appraise library and information serv ices provided for the American people To strengthen the relevance of libraries and information science in the lives of the American people To promote research and development for extending and improving library and information services for the American people — 29 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE To achieve its goals, the Comm ission undertook several strategic initiatives. Each initiative in turn resulted in specific policy advice or comment delivered to the President and to Congress as required by law. The NCLIS initiative on health communication and the role of libra ries in distributing consumer health information and in prom oting healthy lifestyles for all Americans was designed to mobilize the resources of lib raries to help solve a critical national problem: unhealthy lifestyles. Many citi zens do not know where to go to find consumer health information and this initia tive sought to expand the role of libraries in addressing this problem. The Commission’ s goal was to enable libraries to play a key role in encouraging the development of healthy lifestyles and raise the standard of health literacy for al l American citizens. The overarching objectives of the initiative were to identify methodologies a nd strategic partners to working with the Commission, to ensure that all libraries in America were empowered to respond to citizens’ health communication needs. Specific activities suppor ting this initiative were the 2004 NCLIS Blue Ribbon Consumer Health Information Recognition Awards for Libraries and the 2006 NCLIS Health Information Awards for Libraries and the Libraries and Health Information Forum, May 3, 2006. At the forum, the keynote speaker was Dr. J. Edward Hill, President, American Medical Association, and representatives of each of the ten finalists for the award described their speci fic programs in detail. These recognition activities were developed in partnership with the Chie f Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA), the National Library of Medicine / National Institutes of Health, the American Medical Association, The Henderson Foundation, Commissioner Mary H. (“Mitzi”) Perdue in memory of Fra nk Perdue, Thomson Gale, and the ProQuest Company. In its report to the Presid ent and the Congress, the Commission gave extensive examples of programs through the U.S. that provided excellent health information to their communities. By 2005, information available on the Intern et from commercial and private sources was augmented significantly as agencies a nd educational instituti ons began digitizing their holdings, particularly th eir special collections. This work was epitomized by the American Memory project by the Library of Congress and its many university partners. An announcement by Google that it had partnered with five major research libraries to digitize the millions of books in their general book collections changed dramatically the landscape for research info rmation available via the Internet. That partnership was followed shortly by another co llaboration spearheaded by the Internet Archive with other academic partners calle d the Open Content A lliance. While the Commission cannot endorse any specific commercial activity, Commission members were quick to applaud the concept and the participants. “Seldom has there been an occasion that so clearly brings together the mutual interests of readers, researchers, and library managers.” — 30 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE The Commission’s work on digitization was realized in a 2006 symposium offered in partnership with the University of Michig an Library. The symposium, “Scholarship and Libraries in Transition: A Dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization Projects,” was planned and organized by the University of Michigan Library staff and funded mainly by the Univer sity of Michigan and brought together some 300 interested participants to discuss large-scale digitization and its implications for society. This NCLIS initiative in l ooking at the mass digitization of books and other materials for the purposes of preserving them for futu re generations and making them available to a much wider audience underscores its continuing emphasis on access to information. They sought to inform Amer ican citizens about the legal, social, economic, and other impacts of large-scale digitization and to identify opportunities for research and the development of policy recommendations as large-scale digitization is implemented through the la rger field of library and information science. NCLIS renewed its emphasis on the importan ce of early literacy by again looking at the role of school libraries and student ach ievement. This NCLIS initiative sought to identify how school libraries affect the achie vement of excellence in learning in order to disseminate the information to community organizations, school administrators, local politicians with funding authority, the media, the larger educational community, and to all others who have an interest in the role of libra ries in educational achievement. The purpose of the initiative wa s to raise the awareness of community leaders and other influential ci tizens about the value of scho ol libraries and to provide them with scientific-based evidence that c ould be used as they address funding issues. Specific activities focus on identifying ex cellence in school libr ary service delivery, including school library programs which support literacy effort s for students. Related to the student achievement, the Commission made a commitment to support literacy efforts, especially in terms of read ing initiatives, adult literacy (for those who cannot read enough to carry out basic life sk ills), and health li teracy. This NCLIS initiative focused on a review and report on activities and programs that support adult literacy and family literacy (in which ch ildren and parents learn together the educational values of literacy across generations, with both children and parents pursuing educational goals). In connection with this initiative, the Commission partnered with Borders Books, Scholastic, th e Chicago Public Schools Department of Libraries, the Quills Literacy Foundation, a nd Rotary International to expand local and regional “Battle of the Books” activities, with particular attention to the role of school libraries as the focus for these efforts. In 2006 the Commission devoted much of its time to focusing on two policy issues before the Congress: proposed changes to In ternet neutrality and to legi slation that would restrict eligibility for e-rate funding. In November, the Commission published a statement of its position on Internet neutrality (“net neutrality ”), then being debated in the Congress. The Commission took the position that—with respec t to Internet neutrality—Congress should — 31 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE take action to assure that tie red access is prevented. In fact, according to a study done under contract for the Commission, the government has already taken a stand. In 1992, when Congress permitted commercial traffic on the Internet, the Committee report on the legislation noted that the change did not alter the “goals or ch aracteristics” of the network. Congressman Rick Boucher, the Chairman of the House subcommittee that developed the legislation, explained during a hearing on the legi slation: “It is essent ial as the network is structured that all commercial providers of netw ork services receive equal treatment and that Government policy in managing the network not favor any provider or set of providers over others.” The Commission also referred to the Federa l Communications Commission (FCC), as it has been suggested that the FCC handle net neutrality in a regulatory manner, but a position has been taken by the FCC. However, in August 2005, the FCC adopted and published four principles “to encourage broadband deploymen t and preserve and promote the open and interconnected nature of [the] public Internet.” While the principles have no legal force and have not been codified, the FCC Chairman stated at the time that these principles will be incorporated into the policymaking activities of the FCC. The four principles are: 1. Consumers are entitled to access the lawful Internet content of their choice. 2. Consumers are entitled to run a pplications and services of their choice (subject to the needs of law enforcement). 3. Consumers are entitled to connect their choi ce of legal devices that do not harm the network. 4. Consumers are entitled to competition among network providers, application and service providers, a nd content providers. With respect to content on the Internet, NCLI S supported these principles in full and in its statement the Commission encouraged Congress to reiterate strongly the position it took when legislation permitting commercial traffic on the Internet was developed, noting that equal treatment of content is important to all information seekers. The Commission continued to monitor the e-ra te program, as its implementation and any threats to its continuation or attempts to curt ail the program would seriously affect public schools and libraries. The funding provided by the program enables libraries and schools to have access to telephone and Inte rnet services, and without th e program, that service would be seriously hampered. In November, 2006 the Commission published a statement of concern about proposed legislation that , if enacted, would require al l schools and libraries which receive federal funds to rest rict access to digital social networking tools and online communities. Particularly affected would be schools and libraries receiving discounted telecommunication services unde r the e-rate (the familiar program name of Universal Services, Section 245 of the Telecommunication Act of 1966). This overview of its work throughout its histor y makes clear the broad scope of the NCLIS mission. It has been the only government agency gi ven the statutory respons ibility that is the Commission’s very reason for being, to provide policy advi ce to the President and the Congress with respect to librari es and information science. In much of its work the — 32 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Commission has involved ot hers in its deliberations and co llaborations. While its specific purpose and mission has been to advise the President and the Congre ss, the Commission has shared its recommendations broadly for th e common good of the American people. Measuring Libraries and Access to Information Through most of its history NCLIS has been in volved in library statistics and conducting surveys of libraries. To the Commissioners th e statistics were important tools in evaluating how libraries were serving the public, how school s benefited from connecting students to the school libraries, and in measuring the effects of federal funding programs on library services. The benefits to libraries were equally valuab le. Every library has to justify its funding request often in competition with other needed municipal services. The statistics allow libraries to compare and contra st their services an d budgets with other comparable libraries, academic to academic libraries, public libraries to those of similar size or population, and school media centers to those of other districts. The statis tics told the Commissioners how many volumes there are in the collections of academic libraries, how many branches were operated by public libraries, what the nationwide attendance was at children’s story hours, and how expenditures for school library media centers relate to total school expenditures, the answer to each question a data point in assess ing the quality of library service and the access Americans had to information resources. In 1867, the U.S. Office of Education was esta blished with the specific responsibility to collect statistics that would aid the people of the United States to establish and maintain an effective education system a nd promote the cause of educat ion. Within nine years the agency had produced its firs t report on public libraries. Many attribute the passage of th e Library Services Act in 1956 to the facts revealed by the statistics that library servi ces in the rural areas of the nation were appalling. Stronger reporting by the states led to greater commonality in the defin ition of services measured and a better way of collecting information at the fe deral level. The Nationa l Center for Education Statistics (NCES) was established in 1965 with the responsibility for collection, analysis, and reporting of all education statistics. NCLIS has been a partner of NCES in collectin g statistical information about libraries. The Commission’s role has been to serve as the liaison to the library community; to design, organize, and conduct training workshops for the st ate personnel involved in data collections; to provide technical assistance and monitor tr ends; and to provide a dvice to NCES on policy matters. Training programs, with appropriate instructions, manuals, meetings, etc., were essential to the national statistics program, both at the State and lo cal levels for general understanding, accuracy or returns and complian ce. The development of the Federal-State cooperative to collect library statistics and da ta has served many purposes. Local libraries need statistical data about their own operations to assess their cu rrent status and to plan for future enhancements. The sta tistics support budget re quests and inform policy making at the local level. The final report of The Cooperative System for Public Library Data Collection: A Pilot Project in 1987 specifically addressed the Commi ssion’s need for library-related data in — 33 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE policy making: “legislative and administrative groups in the federal government will use them (the statistics) to plan, administer and monitor federal programs related to libraries.” Statistics are needed, for example, to support periodic review of legi slation such as the Library Services and Construction Act. St atistics are also needed to help shape recommendations of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and to assist governmental and congressional officials in planning such programs as postal services legislation and telecommunica tions regulations—programs whic h have a substantial though indirect impact on librar y services. NCLIS Role in the White Hou se Conferences on Libraries and Information Science The First White House Conference on Li brary and Information Services, 1979 For decades White House Conferences were a mechanism to bring together experts and advocates to develop policy recommendations on an important topic. White House Conferences have been held on topics as di verse as aging, productivity, and travel and tourism. The first proposal for a White H ouse Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS) was in 1957. It took more than twenty years of advocacy to obtain the authorization for the first White House Conf erence on Library and Information Services, which took place on November 15, 1979. Public Law 93-568 stated the goal of the conf erence as the development of recommendations “for the further improvement of the nation’s li braries and information centers and their use by the public,” and set seven considerations fo r the conference participants to address: 1. Access to information and ideas is indi spensable to the development of human potential, the advancement of civilization, and the contin uance of enlightened selfgovernment. 2. The preservation and the dissemination of information and ideas are the primary purpose and function of librari es and information centers. 3. The growth and augmentation of the nation' s libraries and information centers are essential if all Americans are to have reasonable access to adequate services of libraries and information centers. 4. New achievements in technology offer a potential for enabling libraries and information centers to serve the public mo re fully, expeditiously, and economically. 5. Maximum realization of the potential inherent in the us e of advanced technology by libraries and information centers requires cooperation through planning for, and coordination of, the services of libraries and information centers. 6. The National Commission on Libraries and In formation Science is developing plans for meeting national needs for library and information services and for coordinating activities to meet those needs. 7. Productive recommendations for expanding access to libraries and information centers will require public understanding and support as well as that of public and private libraries and information centers. — 34 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE The legislation authorizing WHCLIS name d NCLIS as the agency responsible for coordination and management of the process and administration of the federal funding, and it was a complex, multi-year process. State conf erences began in September of 1977 and were held in nearly all of the states and many U.S. territories. Delegates included librarians, of course, but also many state and local officials, community and business leaders, educators and students, and other individua ls reflective of the diverse p opulation of library users and supporters. Each state conference developed its own resolutions and selected its own delegates to take those resolu tions to Washington for WHCLIS. Several other pre-conferences were held. For example, there was a specific pre-conference for Native Americans living on or near reserv ations and another fo r the federal library community. In addition there were five them ed conferences, one for federal funding of patterns for library and information services ; another for library network structure and governance; a third on libraries a nd literacy; a fourth on international information exchange; and a fifth on citizen access to new communication and information technology. These state and themed pre-conf erences resulted in thousands of resolutions that were analyzed and sorted into five theme areas under which the issues woul d be discussed at the conference. These were library and informa tion services for meeting personal needs; enhancing life-long learning; improving organizations and th e professions; effectively governing our society; and increasing international understand ing and cooperation. WHCLIS passed 64 resolutions, 25 by voice vot e and 39 by paper ballot, seeking a national information policy ensuring full access to publ icly funded information, access to library positions and boards for deaf and disabled people, expansion of books and documents available in a machine-readable form, an omni bus bill addressing library services for Native Americans, and no-fee access to information in publicly supported libraries, among other topics. These resolutions were reviewed a nd approved for publication by the Committee of the Conference at its meeting in Chica go on January 5, 1980 and contained in the Final Report of the White House Conference . Also included in the Final Report was an outline for a proposed National Library and Information Services Act to implement many of the recommendations. The NCLIS Annual Report for 1979-1980 described the results of the White House Conference as follows: The resolutions call for changes of many kinds, and they also set some major goals: to reshape library and information services to serve the people in more useful and convenient ways, to maintain local control of thes e services, and to obtain greater economy and accountability from the institutions and organizations that provide the services. Resolutions urge libraries to take an increased role in literacy training; in improving access to information for all, including ethnic minority groups, blind persons, physically handica pped persons, and others who are not adequately served. They favor increased activity by th e United States to encourage the free flow of information among nations. Many e ndorse the idea of the library as both a — 35 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE total community information center and as an independent learning center. Generally, the resolutions support the con cept of the library as essential to a civilized society, a concern the government must view w ith high priority in the decision-making process. Delegates to the Conference also emphasized the importance of technology and considered ways this nation can use it to improve library and information services. They disc ussed and refined such concepts as the linking of public telecommu nications and the Postal Service with a new, expanded role for libraries. As complex and time-consuming as it was to hold the conference, in its aftermath there were many resolutions to address and initiatives to manage. The Commission began its follow-up on WHCLIS late in fiscal y ear 1980. One of its first actions was to implement the two resolutions of the WHCLIS calling for the convening of an Ad Hoc Committee on Implementation of the Resolutions of the Wh ite House Conference, and that meeting was held in Minneapolis in October. In addition to the work sessions at which they began the task of setting priorities, the Ad Hoc Committee organized itself as a continuing independent body, the White House Conference on Library and Information Services Taskforce (WHCLIST). After an intensive three days and nights in Minneapolis, WHCLIST agreed upon a governance structure consisting of four of ficers, chosen at large, and five public members with five alternates who are in the profession, elected on a regional basis. This group is called the Steering Committee. The dele gates reviewed the 64 resolutions from the WHCLIS and made recommendations on the tasks to be undertaken to accomplish the goals of each resolution, on which groups should act as agents for the tasks, and on what time frame should be established for each task. Having completed its function as a catalyst to the organization of WHCLIST, and respecting WHCLIST’s desire to function as a separate , independent group, the Commission turned its attention to its own activities in response to various resolutions of the White House Conference. Three new task forces were established: Task Force on Community Information and Referral Services; Task Force on the Role of the Special Library in Nationwide Networks and Cooperative Programs; and Task Force on Library and Information Services to Cultural Minorities. The need for a Task Force on Community Info rmation and Referral Services was based on the premise that, if the library is to become the first place in the community to which people turn when seeking information services to meet th eir needs, it must provide the library user at all socio-economic and cultural levels with in formation and, where appropriate, referral to sources (e.g., governmental, community, neighbor hood or voluntary organizations) that can provide answers and assistance. The Task Force defined appropriate roles for libraries in the provision of such services and to define ways in which libraries can more effectively fulfill those roles. Its recommendations were used to support improvements in the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA). The Task Force on the Role of the Special Library in Nationwide Networks and Cooperative Programs was established to examine ways of making the under-utilized and often inaccessible resources of the nation's special libraries available to emerging nationwide — 36 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE networks and making the resources of networks available to the special libraries. By helping to bring this very large constituency (more than 10,000 special libraries in the United States) into the mainstream of networking and cooperative programs, the Task Force sought to make a major contribution to improving the effectiv eness of the nation's use of its knowledge resources. The Task Force on Library and Information Serv ices to Cultural Minorities was established to explore the development of programs that would encourage ethnic groups in local communities to cooperate in the planning, delivery, and evaluation of library programs, community information, and cultural and educatio nal centers. The Task Force was also asked to identify the means for determining the strengt h of existing collections and develop criteria and methods for expanding and improving cult ural minority materials for library and information services such as bilingual material s and foreign language books, films, and tapes. Also as a result of WHCLIS, NCLIS joined wi th the Library of C ongress and the Federal Library Committee in a study of governmental (federa l, state, and local) library resources and services around the United States in order to identify ways to improve coordination among government libraries and information services to meet both national and local needs. The Second White House Conference on Library and Information Services, 1991 At the first conference there was a call for a se cond conference within a decade. This time the advocates were successful in obtaining Congressional support and in 1988 the President signed Public Law 100-382, authorizing the s econd White House Conference on Libraries and Information Science, which took place on July 9-13, 1991. The three conference themes were library and information services for literacy, democracy, and productivity. Once again the legislation aut horizing WHCLIS named NCLIS as the agency responsible for coordination and management of the process and administration of the federal funding, and it launched a complex, multi-year process. State pre-conferences began in 1990 and were held in all 50 stat es, the District of Columbia, and many U.S. territories. Special themed pre-conferences were again held on library services for Native Americans, federal li braries, and networki ng. More than 100,000 preconference delegates once again represented a broa d array of librarians, other state and local officials, community and business leaders, ed ucators and students, and other individuals reflective of the diverse populat ion of library users and suppor ters. Each state conference developed its own resolutions a nd selected its own delegates to take over 2,500 resolutions to Washington for WHCLIS. There were 984 dele gates and alternates and close to 1,000 honorary delegates, international guests, a nd observers at the national conference. Information 2000: Library and Information Services for the 21st Century was the final report of the 1991 White House Conference on Librarie s and Information Services. The letter transmitting the final report to the President st ated: “This Nation stands with the world at a major crossroads. Technological advances pr esent dramatic new information challenges — 37 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE created by the emergence of the Information Age. Decisions made this decade will shape the global information culture into the next century and, to a grea t extent, the nature of the society in which we live.” The President, George H.W. Bush, in turn, transmitted the report to Congress, saying: The Conference Report makes it clear that library and information services are changing rapidly in respons e to an increasingly comp lex and global society. As we strive for a more literate citizenry, increased productivity, and stronger democracy, we must make certain that our libraries and information services will be there to assist us as we lead the revol ution for education reform. As I stated in my speech at the White House Conference, “Libraries and information services stand at the center of this revolution.” The WHCLIS delegates approved 95 recommen dations, with two top priorities being on services for children and youth and the info rmation superhighway. In December 1991, the White House Conference and the American Library Association supported a national teleconference on “Library and Information Services Action Agenda” to review the resolutions and plan for thei r implementation. In its 1991-1992 Annual Report the Commission synthesized the priority reco mmendations from WHCLIS as follows: 1. Availability and Access to Information (Theme: Democracy) That the President and Congre ss support increased appropriations for a ll types of library and information servic es under existing law. That NCLIS conduct a forum to develop a coordinated national research and development agenda for information technolog ies to generate innova tive approaches to meet the information needs of all potential library and information service users. That Congress mandate open access to informa tion through federal legislation, including public information received by the federal gove rnment or created at public expense, regardless of format. That uniform policies and standards for management, preservation, and access to such public information be developed. 2. Education Services for Diverse Needs (Theme: Literacy) That the President and the Congress invigor ate student learning and literacy through legislation to support and fund: School library services (t hrough categorical aid admini stered through a dedicated office and program at the Department of Education); Public library children and young adult services (including partnerships with relevant organizations and library-based sa laried Kids Corps projects); Research public and school library partnerships, partic ipation in the nation-wide network, and education for serv ice to children and young adults. — 38 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE That appropriate demonstration gran ts and technology also be funded. That literacy for all remains a national prio rity, with emphasis on training for culturally disadvantaged rural and urban minorities and ac cess to training for the disabled. That the Congress support and fund library literacy pr ograms; development of a national librarybased literacy training model, new technologies and equipment, and quality literacy materials; and administration of LSCA Titles 6 and 8 as non-discretionary programs through the States. 3. Information Networks Through Technology (Theme: Productivity) That libraries develop and support the use of a nationwide multi-type library network for improved resource sharing, includ ing interlibrary loan, particularly among small, lowdensity population, rural, tribal , and urban libraries. That lo cal libraries also collaborate with community service providers for unive rsal access to community information and referral services. That Congress enact legisl ation creating and funding the National Research and Education Network (NREN), the information s uperhighway which should be available in all libraries and other information repositori es and whose governance structure should represent all interested constituencies. Th at the Congress provide additional LSCA funding for NREN access terminals and othe r networking needs of small and rural libraries. As it had after the 1979 conference, NCLIS focuse d its own activities in response to various WHCLIS resolutions. For example, in the early 1990s, the Commission held three hearings on library and information services for young people, surveying selected school libraries and working toward school library media provisi ons in the reauthori zed Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Other meetings a nd discussions led to the Commission's 1994 sponsorship of research into public libraries and the Internet, also related to a WHCLIS priority. Calls for a third White House Conference on Libr aries and Information Se rvices did not gain traction. The time and costs necessary to hold a traditional White H ouse Conference seemed an insurmountable barrier, and the White Hous e itself moved toward a different model for White House Conferences, as smaller and shorte r meetings of experts without the complex pre-conferences and delegate selection and as Internet-bas ed meetings allowing broad, simultaneous participation without long l ead times and statutory authorization. — 39 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE III. Future Research Agenda NCLIS Future Research Topics Introduction Identification of issues for action by the Co mmission may come from the Commissioners themselves, through a request from Congress, th e White House or a federal agency, or as recommendations from other individuals and or ganizations. In this instance, the Commission initiated a contract to seek the views of opinion leaders in the fields of library and information science, representing various types of libraries, as well as for-profit and not-forprofit providers of information resources and se rvices. The contractor was asked to identify at least 50 such individuals and consult with them to determine their views on the major information policy issues that need to be addressed in the next 12 to 18 months, obtaining at least 35 responses. The contractor was also aske d to develop a set of questions and distribute them to selected organizations for additional input. The contractor was asked to evaluate the data gathered through this process and select tw o or three research / po licy initiatives for the Commission or its successor to implement. This report presents the prioritized responses, based on both importance of the issue and th e feasibility for mean ingful action by the Commission or its successor. M The library and i ethodology nformation community is a br oad one – composed of librarians, vendors, ation Research, college, law, corporate, public, and school libraries ation industry leaders ys g rights’ holders in crea ting and managing digital l libraries a nd U.S. national libraries activities ach interviewee was asked to make tw o or three recommendations—from their perspective—of how NCLIS could develop an age nda that addresses problems or issues the educators, researchers and scholars, technology specialists , supporting associations and research institutes, funding sources both private and public, and library users and inform seekers. For this research, the author s conducted interviews with leaders from: Technology companies and publishing houses Library associations University faculty Scholars and inform Intellectual property spec ialists and attorne Open access proponents Organizations representin Organizations and libraries deeply involved intellectual assets State libraries Foreign nationa Foundations which have provided support for library Library and information science educators E — 40 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE interviewee faces on a regular basis with information policy, access to informatio information technology as an integral part of professional life. The foreign interviewees were not asked to make specific recommendations for changes in U.S. policy; rather, they were asked to reflect on policy issues encount ered in working on colla borative internation projects that were simple for them to handle but vexing for their U.S. colleagues. From the interviews, conducted via email, in person, and by telephone, the results n, or using al were ompiled, and the authors, each familiar with NCLIS operations and research, have chosen opic for Research: Public Libraries, The ir Changing Role in U.S. Society and easuring Their Societal Value dels? Ar e these models sustainable into the future? od to ld vity nd broadband access in public libraries. As user demand for video streaming, social public n olicy hat new media has had as it is or is not added to e collections? What have lib raries chosen to exclude from the collections, not to censor c the four topics that are recommended to the Commission. The remaining topics recommended by the interviewees could also be the subject of research, and they will be briefly addressed at th e end of this paper. T M Specific requests were made for a model to de scribe who is using public libraries and for what purpose. What are the usage mo Are they affordable? Are they understood by the library professionals? Are they understo and accepted by funding entities? Are the same services available at all public libraries, urban, suburban, rural or tribal? Should th e services be the same? Without access to libraries with similar collections and services, has the library community permitted, albeit unintentionally, a tiered le vel of service to develop that pr ivileges some and continues disenfranchise others, compara tively speaking? Is there a ba seline of servi ces, collections, and access that all public libraries must meet? Should the Commission establish a thresho or baseline of service that is a ‘national right’? Can a ‘good public library’ be defined? Data from a recent study released by the Americ an Library Association looks at connecti a networking, and the need to download complex applications increases , libraries have to provide high speed connectivity and broadband a ccess. The survey shows that 62% of libraries have broadband, but more than one-third of public libraries have much slower connectivity. The Congress has spent some time looking at broadband policy options, but their discussion has not been informed from the perspective of the library community, particularly public libraries, which are sometime s a user’s only connection to the informatio highway. NCLIS could lead the discussions , documenting the need for a policy that recognizes the important role libraries perfor m, and would seek an accommodation for them in the policy. Broadband policy and Internet neutrality are examples of information p respondents expect NCLIS to address. Multip le respondents believe th at the single most important thing the Commission could do, is to coordinate and bring coherence to information policy that is developed acro ss various government agencies having now no central agency charged with its coordination. What has been the impact on public libraries t th information, but because the budget only stretc hes so far? With web-based information widely available, electronic games in every handheld device, and on-demand TV structured — 41 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE to an individual’s taste and schedule, what role does the public library have—or should t library have—in such a personalized information world? Rural public libraries raise addi tional issues to be addresse he d. While several library scholars ave spent their careers studying rural libraries, no national leve l agency has a clear mandate service, rural lib raries often suffer from a lack of professional adership and staff trained in technology and automation. Many of the libraries cannot eamma tic needs and funding support, and setting a riority agenda in critical and priority areas are ripe areas for NCLIS research and y several models produced that measure the value of a public l asuring the va lue of access to information and technology l and of the s d as a nation begin to calculate the alue of libraries to the na tional economy. Library advocat es would indeed welcome a pport h or mission to address and coordinate their needs or to establish priorities for their programs of service or support them at a threshold level. Interview ees espouse a need for a champion at the national level. Census data tracki ng the retirement migration of ‘baby boomers’ predict a higher demand as they retire from ur ban areas with high expectations for extensive, high quality library service. Even at their current level of le sustain public access computing for communities most in need of such access. They do not have sufficient automation resources to participate in stateor region-wide consortia, stat wide networks or resource sharing programs. Many suffer from a lack of affordable access to broad band connectivity or have none. Documenting the needs, identifying progr p collaboration with others. Value of a Public LibrarThe last ten years have seen ibrary to a community. Me through public libraries as a cr itical gateway in ensuring th at the economic, educational, health, and other benefits that come with such access can undergird requests for nationa local funding. Several studies have examined libraries in specific cities; others have recommended a methodology for calculating statewide benefits. But interview respondents requested that NCLIS commission a methodology that can be applied broadly by each segments of the library community, resulting in methodologies for public libraries, for school libraries, and for academic libraries. With an agreed upon set of models for use by the various kinds of libraries, work could be done to establish the value of a single library to its community, of a state network of public libraries to the st ate economy, and of the state’ school libraries to the educa tional performance standards. If such studies were performed across the countr y, we coul v validated, replicable methodology to use as a basis for measuring a library’s impact on the economy, the educational attainment, and the qua lity of life. Having data to refute the conjecture that a library repr esents only overhead to its community is needed. Library advocates would then have a firmer foundati on for championing additional financial su from funding bodies to maintain services when threatened or establish new libraries or expanded programs of service. — 42 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE In addition to the replicable methodology, respon dents asked that the resulting measures also particular focus requested for research is th e impact of e-government on public libraries. at ng ith he converse is also worth research. As gove rnmental units remove information from the h, owledge opic for Research: Digital Libraries focused attention on the library in the digital e d terviews repeatedly turned to the role of libraries in a digital world and the role of digital ear. document the value of libraries through succe ss stories and anecdotes that celebrate the impact they have in supporting local small businesses, families, recreation, and the community. A One of the reasons that governments—federal, state, and local—dist ribute information via the Internet is to get wider dissemination and deeper penetration of their community. But most librarians accustomed to working with government publications will usually concur th government information—the piece a user wants and needs today—is not always readily found. Libraries of all types rely heavily on access to government information for satisfyi a variety of user needs: census data, small bus iness loans, grants, scholarships, and keeping track of the local jurisdiction. For those without access to the In ternet at home and for those lost in the trail of documents, the public library is the pl ace they go. Local governments frequently require that job and benefits applications be filed online—the user seeks help w the format and the inputting. T Internet, users are denied access to information th at can affect their re search, personal healt or financial condition. Examples of the challenges ar e the roles of librari es and information services in addressing 21st century global cha llenges with the need for constant access to reliable research information on such issues as: global climate change research, assured access to clean water and sanitation, developm ent of systematic treatments for and prevention of infectious diseases common to animals and humans, and scientific kn and information on nutrition, food quality, and safety. T A considerable number of recommendations world. If one approaches studying the library from a functional pe rspective rather than as a concentration of content, the entire proposition of what is a library can be rethought. How does one define the community served by a digita l library? What is its mission, and what ar the services? How are these linked to a specific community as contrasted to the larger worldwide circle of people who might want to use the library or its collections? What has been the impact of Google as a search engine on the li brary’s traditional role of finding answers to questions? What has been and wh at is likely to be future im pacts on libraries of Google an other mass digitization efforts? In librarians in that milieu. Increasingly the produc ts of our culture are digital—born in form, accessible only electronically, and availa ble for preservation only in digital form. Recent statistics estimate that 161 exabytes of di gital information was produced just last y The amount of digital information produced in a single year exceeds that in all of the written texts produced throughout human history. — 43 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE The explosion in use and availability of dig ital information has the advantage of increasing access and lowering the conventional barriers of time and location. The global knowledge economy is driven by access to digital informati on. But there are disadvantages. Unlike clay tablets, papyrus, and even paper, digital pres ervation media are extremely fragile and require an active—not passive—preservation strategy. Di gital technologies ch ange constantly and many digital objects are rendered inaccessible as the underlying technologies are outdated. Many digital objects are bei ng preserved without sufficien t metadata to provide the contextual information necessary to understand the full meaning of the object. Interviewees thought that this is primarily because the re sponsibility for providing and preserving the necessary metadata typically has not been assigned to or assumed by any particular individual or organization. Ot hers interviewees concluded th at after years of testing and applying various schemas for di gital preservation, there re mains a lack of a viable, sustainable, replicable economic model. The questions posed for NCLIS to explore in fu ture research revolve around the role(s) of libraries and librarians in preserving digital cu ltural products for use by future generations. Will libraries have a role in preserving digita l objects other than published text? What roles should libraries play in the co llection, access, archiving, and mana ging of data and data sets in the U.S. in support of scientif ic research? What is the role libraries should play in the evolution of cyber infrastructure developmen ts? Are there viable economic models for digital preservation organizations that will allo w both the organizations and the materials to persist over multiple decades? What partne rships are necessary between librarians and archivists as one set, and computer, data, and cy ber infrastructure scientists and technologists as the other? What unique skills and capabilit ies do librarians bring to the issues involved in complex preservation situations? What types of institutions and organi zations are needed to provide reliable, decade’s long digital preservation? These intense questions can be illustrated by a historian’s frustration working actively in producing ground breaking digital scholarship. The biggest issue digital scholars face is the longevity of their work. If one produces scholarship as a book, it gets printed and shelved as a book somewhere in a library even if in just the largest of th e research libraries. But a digital work that is more than a PDF file, a work that requires th e processing power of a system of hardware and software, one that uses any form of client / server queries presents obstacles to its longevity. The complex arra ngement of hardware, software, and middleware and its tailoring to a particul ar research problem or question requires ongoing maintenance and engagement by some institution to assure that it works as originally designed even as the technology changes around it. And scholars ofte n use a suite of systems to produce a work— each of them has to be kept in synch, creati ng more demand for constant and persistent management and systems coordination. Scholar s are per force becoming technologists, some enthusiastically, some reluctantly. Without active preservation, the work will become inaccessible to future students and scholars, a pa rticular issue in discip lines where issues are researched longitudinally. Other interviews focusing on digital libraries posed more fundamental questions worthy of deep research. If a purely digital library we re constructed, what would its mission be? How would its community be defined, and what serv ices would it offer? What people would be — 44 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE needed, and how would needed skill sets be defi ned? What are the characteristics that make an online library a ‘real’ library’ as opposed to just a websit e? Are more or other types of virtual libraries likely to deve lop in the future? For purposes of copyright, should they be treated as libraries under Section 108 of the Copyright Act? Others suggest that the roles a nd functions of American libraries in a Google-dominant future should be researched. Questions suggested ar e: How should libraries position (or reposition) their resources, missions, and services gi ven the increasing do minance of Google's commercial search service? Can libraries take advantage of this tre nd to reinvigorate and revitalize the roles they play in our institu tions, communities, and nation? What are the implications of the public and private sector roles in this increasingly complex arena? Others postulate that without a policy framework for libraries, considered as a public good, the legal framework for the music and movie in dustries is likely to prevail. Specific recommendations to NCLIS are to conduct a seri es of national summits on topics that are part of a policy framework. Others call for the establishment of a national open lab in information research, conducting studies that look at the cognitive edge in learning in a digital environment, that speed the diffusion of innovations, and that create a culture for change. If one looks at the globalization of informati on, other policy implications emerge: What are the economic, social, and policy implications for the creation, ex change, and use of information content and services in an increa singly global and interc onnected world? How can the United States develop information po licies and alliances needed to balance our freedom, security, and prosperity? Others suggest that privacy is an important component of info rmation policy, particularly as it interplays with information security. What constraints threaten information privacy and security in a world increasingly dependent on global networked information technologies? What government policies are needed to balance competing interests in this complex mix of conflicting needs? Topic for Research: Building and Sharing Collections While the primary purpose of building an acad emic library collection is to support the teaching and research programs of the university , much of their collections are duplicated across many institutions—in the same state or even in the same city. Yet there are no institutional mechanisms for sharing collections, digital, digitized or pr int. Further, they assert, copyright law prevents the academic libraries from making optimal use of digital technology, and they are looking for an accommodation with rights holders, especially for out of print works that provide little or no revenue stream to the rights holders but are an integral part of academic schol arship. They attribute the d ecrease in institutional buying power and the subsequent decline in the br eadth and richness of collections to the commoditization of information. — 45 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Academic administrators suggested other areas for information policy research that affect college and university campuses. They say that the changes in copyri ght laws that occurred during the 1990s have resulted such that a teach er or student who wishes to comply fully with the law now faces severely restricted access or often has a significant financial burden. They recommend that research on the ‘real co st’ of access to library materials would cut through stereotypes and might lead to a sustai nable, market-based system of scholarly communication. Specifically, they recommend that NCLIS analyze copyright law and fair use in the 21st century, especially the copyright laws' impact on restraini ng the development of truly rich, participatory, engaged, and example-rich re search (including hist orical, sociological, political, and scientific research in the academ ic and nonprofit sector). The current copyright regime, developed from the mindset of a printcentric world of inform ation scarcity, is now providing a functional monopoly on c ontent (audio, video, text), effectively precluding, for example, analysis of the histor ical development of the civil rights movement (most footage, news photographs, stories, and other material being “owned” and opera tionally impossible to obtain, for a university-based hi storian). The same argument can be made about nearly anything that happened between 1923 and today. The impact on libraries is fairly selfevident, in hampering access and re-use by the public. A radical proposal from an interviewee included a seven-year absolute copyright, followed by a nonprofit exemption for scholarly / academic / public work. Topic for Research: Disaster Planning and Relief Efforts Until the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, not too many people thought of the public library as an important player in disaster preparation or reli ef efforts. Some respondents recommended that NCLIS focus in this area —in addition to the work that was done on Trust and Terror , a publication NCLIS released soon afte r the terrorist attacks in 2001. Many libraries are already equippe d with broadband public access computers and staff with expertise in finding informati on and guiding others through the process. While each public library is a part of a local jurisdiction, looke d at geographically, they form a network across the country. To many users, they are alre ady a third place—not home and not work or school, but a community gathering space in which a ll are welcome. The libraries that stayed in business or immediately se t up shop after the hurricanes we re the principal source of access to accurate information about the disaster and relief possibilitie s and a link to worried families and friends. If organized in advance, and with training in advance, the library can be a center for improving community resilience. Other Areas of Research Recommended to the Commission Copyright Issues in intellectual property were raised by most respondents to th e survey for this study, including some that, if clarified, could form the basis of discussions among parties on various sides of the copyright debate. Questions arising from the Library of Congress Section 108 — 46 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Study Group suggest research in the applica tion of Technological Protection Measures (TPMs), trends in licensing and e-reserves, copy ing for use in Inter-Library Loans (ILL), and the development of totally virtual libraries. Internet Research recommended to be undertaken related to the pervasivene ss of the Internet includes: how the manner and style of info rmation and communication exchange has been affected by the Internet. The impact of the Internet on learning st yles and information delivery in the classroom has been the focus of research in various sect ors of the educational communities, but no study has sought to integrate them from kindergarten to post-graduate studies. The global village is a phrase attributed to the way the Internet has streamlined and speeded communication around the world—but some wo nder how the Internet has changed information delivered in the local village. Has the Internet replaced or supplanted the traditional neighborhood or community newsletter? Is the information packaged now for the random reader or for the intended consumer? Library Education Library educators point to the dual requirements for educating students to work in a paperbased library environment and in a digital en vironment. Several schools have focused all their curricula on the requirement for educati ng digital-savvy librarians, leaving a smaller number to train children’s librarians and school librarians. With the forward looking focus on the digital world, doctoral students are avoiding research in traditional library scholarship. The lack of Ph.D. level teaching faculty for traditional library subject matter now hampers offering the curricula needed to produce th e number of children’s librarians or school librarians needed nationwide. Current Model of Scholarly Publishing – Is It Sustainable? Respondents likened the consortia model for purchasing scholarly serials to the development of ‘scholarly Sam’s Clubs’ which has lowered the unit price for a serial, but because of the publishers’ techniques of bundling a package of serials, academ ic libraries are too often collecting material they do not re ally want or need for the in stitution’s collections. The net result is that the libraries ha ve had to prune serials from th eir collections. They suggest looking to the recording industry fo r a prediction of the future. One used to be able to buy 45s (print journal subscriptions ), the industry then moved to albums (prepackaged collections of journals), and now the preferred method is to buy individual tunes vi a the Internet. Some predict that limited funds will pus h libraries in this direction, a nd usage will be the factor that determines what survives the sh ift. Even if the long tail th eory is applied, niche markets create demand, can that hold true for esoteric journals for which there is a very limited audience at best? If one follows that argument through the life cy cle of library materials, the role of preservation and the role of building d eep and rich research collections are abandoned to the marketplace. Respondents asked if leav ing the U.S. scholarly output in the hands of the private sector is in the long term nationa l interest. — 47 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — 48 — They recommended an analysis of the libra ry's and public sector's roles in supporting scholarly, academic, and nonprof it publishers and their infr astructures. The current predominant model of “free market” is clearly fa iling for content that is scholarly / academic, especially in fields that have limited mark ets—often traditionally produced by university presses and specialty scholarly publishing houses. Because “the market” cannot support these kinds of publications does not mean that the va lue of the material, especially in a library context, is low—just that the value may be more long-term (humanities, social sciences). And some recommended a new role for academic libraries in scholarly communications— acting less as “concentrations of content” and more as arbiters of scholarly, academic, and societal significance and value. Perhaps libraries, universities, and sc holarly societies could perform in a “good housekeeping seal of approv al” model, identifying valued or valuable content, both traditionally published and openly published in digital venues. School Libraries In the rapidly developing electronic info rmation world, how does society balance the continuing need for physical public and school lib raries with the need to support electronic access? This is a problem not limited to public and school libraries, as libraries on all academic campuses are concerned with the questi on of “the library as place.” However, on most campuses there is still an acceptance of the need for phys ical libraries—even if their function is changing. Is there a strong social mission that requ ires the continued investment in physical structures, people, and collecti ons, while also offering and instructing on electronic access to information sources? Given the tightness of local government budgets, how are decisions made and how should they be made on choices between bricks and bytes?

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix A. Enabling Legislation — A-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE U.S. National Commission on Libr aries and Information Science Consolidation of NCLIS’ Legislation* Public Law 91-345 July 20, 1970 As amended by Public Law 93-29, Section 802, May 3, 1973, Public Law 102-95, August 14, 1991, Public Law 104-208 , Title II, Section 3, September 30, 1996 and Public Law 108-81, Title IV, Section 401, 402, (505 Repealed), September 25, 2003 An Act To establish a National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and for other purposes. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled , That this Act may be cited as the “Nati onal Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act” STATEMENT OF POLICY SEC. 2. The Congress hereby affirms that library and information services adequate to meet the needs of the people of the United States are essential to achieve national goals and to utilize most effectively the Nation’s educational resour ces and that the Federal Government will cooperate with State and local governments a nd public and private agencies in assuring optimum provision of such services. COMMISSION ESTABLISHED SEC. 3. There is hereby established as an independe nt agency within the ex ecutive branch, a National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (hereinafter referred to as the “Commission”). CONTRIBUTIONS SEC. 4. The Commission is authorized to, solicit, accep t, hold, administer, invest in the name of the United States, and utilize gifts, bequests, and devises of services or property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission. Gifts, bequests, and devises of money and proceeds fro m sales of other property received as gifts, bequests, or devises shall be deposited in the Treasury and shall be available for disbursements upon the order of the Commission. FUNCTIONS SEC. 5. (a) The Commission shall have the primary responsibility for developing or recommending overall plans for, and advising the appropriate governments and agencies on, the policy set forth in section 2. In carrying out that responsibility, the Commission shall— (1) advise the President and the Congress on the implementation of national policy by such statements, presentations, and reports as it deems appropriate; (2) conduct studies, surveys, and analyses of the library and informational needs of the Nation, including the special library and informational needs of rural areas, or economically, socially, or culturally deprived persons, and of elde rly persons, and the means by which these needs may be met th rough information centers, through the libraries of elementary and secondary schools and institutions of higher education, and through public, research, special, and other types of libraries; (3) appraise the adequacies and deficiencies of current library and information resources and services and evaluate the effectiveness of current library and information science programs; —A-2 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE (4) develop overall plans for meeting national library and informational needs and for the coordination of activities at the Federal, State, and local levels, taking into consideration all of the library and informational resour ces of the Nation to meet those needs; (5) be authorized to advise Federal, State, local, and private agencies regarding library and information sciences; (6) promote research and development ac tivities which will extend and improve the Nation’s library and information-handling capability as essential links in the national and international communications and cooperative networks; (7) submit to the President and the Congress ( not later than January 31 of each year) a report on its activities during the preceding fiscal year; and (8) make and publish such additional reports as it deems to be necessary, including, but not limited to, reports of consultants, tran scripts of testimony, summary reports, and reports of other Commission findings, studies, and recommendations. (b) The Commission is authorized to contract with Federal agencies and other public and private agencies to carry out any of its func tions under subsection (a) and to publish and disseminate such reports, findings, studie s, and records as it deems appropriate. (c) The Commission is further authorized to co nduct such hearings at such times and places as it deems appropriate for carrying out the purposes of this Act. (d) The heads of all Federal agencies are, to th e extent not prohibited by law, directed to cooperate with the Commission in carrying out the purposes of this Act. MEMBERSHIP SEC. 6. (a) The Commission shall be composed of the Librarian of Congress, the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (w ho shall serve as an ex officio, nonvoting member), and fourteen members appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Five members of the Commission shall be professional librarians or information specialists, and the remainder sha ll be persons having special competence in or knowledge of the needs of our society for library and information services, at least one of whom shall be knowledgeable with respect to the technological aspects of library and information services and sciences, and at least one other of whom shall be knowledgeable with respect to the library and information ser vice and science needs of the elderly. One of the appointive members of the Commission shall be designated by the President as Chairman of the Commission. A majority of members of the Commission who have taken office and are serving on the Commission shall constitute a quorum for conduct of business at official meetings of the Commission . The terms of office of the appointive members of the Commission shall be five years, except that— (1) a member of the Commission appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which the memb er's predecessor was appointed, shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term; and (2) any member of the Commission may continue to serve after an expiration of the member's term of office until such member's successor is appointed, has taken office, and is serving on the Commission (b) Members of the Commission who are not in the regular full-time employ of the United States shall, while attending meetings or conferences of the Commission or otherwise engaged in the business of the Commission, be entitled to receive compensation at a rate fixed by the Chairman, but not exceeding the daily equivalent of the maximum rate authorized for a position above grade GS-15 of the General Schedule under section 5108 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (incl uding travel-time) during which the members are engaged in the business of the Commissi on. While so serving on the business of the Commission away from their homes or regular places of business, they may be allowed travel — A-3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code, for persons employed intermittently in the Government Service. (c) (1) The Commission is authorized to appoint, without regard to the provisions of title 5, United States Code, covering appointments in the competitive service, such professional and technical personnel as may be necessary to enable it to carry out its function under this Act. (2) The Commission may procure, without regard to the civil service or classification laws, temporary and intermittent services of such personnel as is necessary to the extent authorized by section 3109 of title 5, United States Code, but at rates not to exceed the rate specified at time of such service for gr ade GS-18 in section 5332 of title 5, United States Code, including travel time, and while so serving on the business of the Commission away from their homes or regular places of business they may be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5, United States Code, for persons employed intermittently in the Government service. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS SEC 7. There are authorized to be appropriated $911,000 for fiscal year 1992 and such sums as may be necessary for each succeeding fiscal year thereafter to carry out the provisions of this Act. ------------------------*The official source of st atutes in effect as of a certain date is the United States Code . NCLIS legislation is in Title 20, Chapter 34, parts 1501-1506. Various editions of the US Code are available online. (The address is http://uscode.house.gov/title_20.htm.) NCLIS – updated October 30, 2003 —A-4 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE PUBLIC LAW 102-95—AUG. 14, 1991 105 STAT. 479 Public Law 102-95 102d Congress An Ac t To improve the operation and effectiveness of the United States National Commission on Libraries and Informa tion Science, and for other purposes. Aug. 14, 1991 [S. 1593] Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, Section 1. Short Title This act may cited as the “National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act Amendments of 1991”. SEC. 2. COMMISSION ESTABLISHED. Subsection (b) of section 3 of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (hereafter in this Act referred to as the “Act”) (20 U.S.C. 1502(b)) is repealed. SEC. 3. CONTRIBUTIONS Section 4 of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1503) is amended to read as follows: “SEC. 4. CONTRIBUTIONS. “The Commission is authorized to accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, bequests, and devises of property, both real and personal, for the purpose of aiding or facilitating the work of the Commission. Gifts, bequests, and devises of money and proceeds from sales of other property received as gifts, bequests, or devises shall be deposited in the Treasury and shall be available for disbursement upon the order of the Commission.” “SEC. 4 FUNCTIONS. Paragraph (6) of section 5(a) of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1504(a)(6)) is amended by striking “the national communications networks” and inserting “national and internationa l communications and cooperatives networks”. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act Amendments of 1991. 20 USC 1501 note. — A-5 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 105 STAT. 480 PUBLIC LAW 102-95—AUG. 14, 1991 SEC. 5. MEMBERSHIP. Subsection (a) of section 6 of the Ac t (20 U.S.C. 1505(a)) is amended— (1) after the third sentence ther eof, by inserting the following new sentence: “A majority of members of the Commission shall constitute a quorum for conduct of business at official meetings of the Commission.”; and (2) in the fourth sentence thereof by striking “(1) the terms of office” and all that follows through “tim e of appointment,” and inserting “(1) the term of office of any member of the Commission shall continue until the earlier of (A) the date on which the member’s successor has been appointed by the President; or (B) July 19 of the year succeeding the year in which the member’s appointed term of office shall expire,”. SEC. 6. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS. Section 7 of the Act (20 U.S.C. 1506) is amended to read as follows: “Sec. 7. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS. “There are authorized to be appr opriated $911,000 for fiscal year 1992 and such sums as may be necessary for each succeeding fiscal year thereafter to carry out the provisions of this Act”. Approved August 14, 1991. _________________________ LEGISLATIVE HISTORY —S. 1593: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, Vol. 137 (1991): July 30, considered and passed Senate. Aug. 1, considered and passed House. —A-6 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE SEC. 703 U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Public Law 104-208 Title II, Section 3 September 30, 1996 An Act (a) FUNCTIONS. Section 5 of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20 U.S.C. 1504) is amended— (1) by redesignating subsections (b) through (d) as subsections (d) throu gh (f), respectively; and (2) by inserting after subsection (a) the following: “(b) The Commission shall have th e responsibility to advise the Director of the Institute for Museum and Library Services on general polic ies with respect to the duties, powers and authority of the Institute of Museum and Li brary Services relating to library services, including— “(1) general policies with respect to— “(A) financial assistance awarded under the Museum and Library Services Act for library services; and “(B) projects described in sect ion 262(a)(4) of such Act; and “(2) measures to ensure that the policies and activities of the In stitute of Museum and Library Services are coordinated with ot her activities of the Federal Government. “(c)(1) The Commission shall meet not less that 1 time each year in a joint meeting with the National Museum Services Board, convened for purposes of providing advice on general policy with respect to financial assistance for projects described in section 262(a)(4) of such Act. “(2) All decisions by the Comm ission and the National Museum Services Board with respect to the advice on general policy described in pa ragraph (1) shall be made by a 2/3 majority vote of the total number of the members of the Commission and the National Museum Services Board who are present. “(3) A majority of the members of the Comm ission and a majority of the members of the National Museum Services Boar d shall constitute a quorum fo r the conduct of business at official joint meetings of the Commission and the National Museum Services Board.”. — A-7 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (b) MEMBERSHIP. Section 6 of the National Comm ission on Libraries and Informa tion Science Act (20 U.S.C. 1505) is amended(1) in subsection (a)(A) in the first sentence, by striking “Librari an of Congress” and in serting “Librarian of Congress, the Director of the Institute of Mu seum and Library Services (who shall serve as an ex officio, nonvoting member),”; (B) in the second sentence— (i) by striking “special competence or inte rest in” and inserting “special competence in or knowledge of; and (ii) by inserting before th e period the following: “and at least one other of whom shall be knowledgeable with respect to the library and information service and science needs of the elderly”; (C) in the third sentence, by inserting “appointive” before “members”; and (D) in the last sentence, by striking “term and at least” and all that follows and inserting “term.”; and (2) in subsection (b), by striking “the rate specified” and all that follows through “and while” and inserting “the daily equivalent of the maximum rate authorized for a position above grade GS-15 of the General Schedule under se ction 5108 of title 5, United States Code, for each day (including travel-time) during which the members are engaged in the business of the Commission. While”. —A-8 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Info rmation Science Public Law 108-81 1 Title IV September 25, 2003 An Act SEC. 401. AMENDMENT TO CONTRIBUTIONS. Section 4 of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20 U.S.C. 1503) is amended by striking ‘‘accept, hold, administer, and utilize gifts, bequests, and devises of property,’’ and inserting ‘‘so licit, accept, hold, administer, invest in the name of the United States, and utilize gifts, bequests, and devises of services or property,’’. SEC. 402 AMENDMENT TO MEMBERSHIP. Section 6(a) of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20 U.S.C. 1505(a)) is amended-(1) in the second sentence, by striking `and at least one other of whom shall be knowledgeable with respect to the library and information service and science needs of the elderly'; (2) by striking the fourth sentence and inserting the following: `A majority of members of the Commission who have taken office and are serving on the Commission shall constitute a quorum for conduct of business at official meetings of the Commission'; and (3) in the fifth sentence, by striking `five years, except that' and all that follows through the period and inserting `five years, except that-`(1) a member of the Commission appointed to fill a vacancy occurring prior to the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed, shall be appointed only for the remainder of such term; and `(2) any member of the Commission may continue to serve after an expiration of the member's term of office until such member's successor is appointed, has taken office, and is serving on the Commission.'. SEC. 505. REPEALS. (a) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ACTSection 5 of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Act (20 U.S.C. 1504) is amended-(1) by striking subsections (b) and (c); and (2) by redesignating subsections (d), (e), and (f) as subsections (b), (c), and (d), respectively 1 To reauthorize the Museum and Library Services Act, and for other purposes — A-9 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE —A-10 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix B. NCLIS Chairs — B-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Chairpersons 1970 2008 Mr. Burkhardt of Bennington, Vermont was the former Vice Chairman of the National Advi sory Commission on Libraries (1966-68). Frederick Burkhardt wa s nominated to the Commission on July 15, 1971 by President Richard Nixon. Mr. Burkhardt was renominated on April 15, 1976 by President Ford and reappointed Chairman on August 2, 1976 with a term expiring on July 19, 1980. Mr. Burkhardt submitted his resignation on March 13, 1978 to pursue his writing and rese arch commitments abroad. Frederick Burkhardt Chairman 1970-78 Chairman Emeritus President Jimmy Carter nominated Charles Benton as a Member of the Commission on August 21, 1978. President Carter named Mr. Benton Chairman of NCLIS following his Senate confirmation of his nomination on October 11, 1978. At th e time of his nomination Mr. Benton was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Films, Inc., Wilmette, Illinois. Mr. Benton wa s renominated to the Commission on July 31, 1980. Upon his confirmation of his reappointment by the Senate, Mr. Benton was redesign ated Chairman. Mr. Benton is currently Chairman, Public Media, Inc. of Chicago, IL, and President of the Benton Foundation based in Washington, D.C. Mr. Benton's term expired in 1985. Charles Benton Chairman 1978-82 Chairman Emeritus —B-2 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Elinor Hashim of Norwalk, CT, wa s confirmed by the Senate as Chairman of the Commission on October 1, 1982. At the time, Ms. Hashim was Supervisor of Reference and Technical Services, Perkin-Elmer Corporate Library in Norwalk, CT. Elinor Hashim was former OCLC Government Relations Officer in Newington, CT. Ms. Hashim served as NCLIS Acting Executive Director in 1986. Elinor M. Hashim Chairman 1982-86 Chairman, Emeritus President Reagan nominated Kenneth Tomlinson as the fourth Chairman in October 1986. At the time of his nomination Mr. Tomlinson was Executive Editor, Reader's Digest, Pleasantville, New York. During his chairmanship the Commission celebrated 15 years of activities under Public Law 91-345. Mr. Tomlinson resigned from the Commission in May 1987. The President had assigned him to another post. Kenneth Y. T Chairman omlinson 1986-87 — B-3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Jerald Newman was confirmed by the Senate as a Member of NCLIS on December 21, 1982. At the time of his appointment Mr. Newman was President & Chie f Administrative Officer and Trustee of The Bowery Savings Bank in New York, New York. President Reagan named Mr. Newman NCLIS Chairman on May 13, 1987. Mr. Newman has over 40 years experience with computer and microform technol ogies and automated systems. Mr. Newman's term expired July 19, 1992. Jerald C. Newman Chairman 1987-90 Chairman Emeritus Charles Reid of Ft. Lee, New Jersey, was nominated as NCLIS Chairman by President George Bush in February 1990. Mr. Reid had chaired NCLIS' Committee on Library and Information Services to Native Americans and Program Review Committee. Mr. Reid also served as Chair of NCLIS Ad hoc Committee on the Library of Congress, formed in December 1989. Charles Reid served as Chairman of th e 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS). The Charles E. Reid Branch Library was dedicated on June 25, 1994. Charles E. Reid Chairman 1990-92 Chairman Emeritus —B-4 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE s, o J. Michael Farrell of Washingt on, D.C. was confirmed as a Member of NCLIS on October 15, 1990. President George Bush designated J. Michael Farrell Chairman of the Commission on March 11, 1992. At the time of hi s appointment, Mr. Farrell was a partner in the law firm of Manatt, Phelps, Phillips, & Kantor. Mr. Farrell served as General Counsel for the U.S. Department of Energy. In addition, he served as a Member on the Commission for the Study of Alternatives to the Panama Canal from 1988-1991. Mr. Farrell's term expired July 19, 1993. J. Michael Farrell Chairman 1992-93 In November 1993, Mrs. Simon was appointed by President Clinton as the Chairperson of the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. She was nominated to a second term on November 6, 1997. Mr s. Simon was a member of the District of Columbia and Illinois Bars. She belonged to several organizations, including The League of Women Voter The American Library Association, the American Association University Women, the District of Columbia Bar Association, the Illinois Bar Association, and th e Women's Bar Association of Illinois. In January 1997, Mrs. Simon was appointed Adjunct Professor of Library Affairs at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois. Mrs. Sim on died on Sunday, February 20, 2000 following her gallant struggle with cancer. f Jeanne Hurley Simon Chairperson 1993-2000 — B-5 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Martha Gould brought a wealth of experience gained through a distinguished career in both public and state libraries. Beginning her professional career as a childr en's librarian at the New York Public Library, from 1984 1995 she directed the Washoe County Library in Reno, Nevada, where she also held positions as Public Services Librarian a nd Assistant Director. Mrs. Gould is now a consultant. She was nominated to a second term on January 29, 1998. Mrs. Gould was designated Chairperson on Friday, March 3, 2000 and served until July 19, 2003. Martha B. Gould Chairperson 2000-2003 Dr. Challinor serves as the Chairperson of the Advisory Committee of the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America at Radcliffe Co llege, and she is a member of the Madison Council at the Library of Congress. In addition, she is a Director of Knight-Ridder, Inc., a newspaper and electronic publisher responsible for 29 daily newspapers and a variety of business, financial, professiona l, science, and technology on-line retrieval, database, and CD ROM services. Mrs. Challinor was designated Chairperson on July 20, 2003 and served until January 28, 2004. Joan R. Challinor Chairperson 2003-2004 —B-6 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Since 1975, Dr. Fitzsimmons has provided a full range of information services for high tech companies. Her firm, Information Strategists, founded in 1987, features development of technical information centers, corporate information audits, electronic onl ine and Internet information resources, database creation and maintenance, customized market research, and patent searches. From 1996-1999, Dr. Fitzsimmons was involved with se veral projects at the U.S. Patent and Trademark. From 1993-1996, she was associated with CENDI; Dr. Fitzsimmons served as the information specialist for 10 years at Aerodyne Research, Inc. Dr. Fitzsimmons also has served as the Chairman of the the U.S. Public Printer (1993-94) and received the Public Printer's Distinguished Service Award. She was a Presidential appointee to the Advisory Board of the 2nd White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services (1991 based on her understanding of Information t echnology, chaired the conference's Technolo Committee. She is also a member of the Am erican Chemical Society (ACS), Special Libraries Association (SLA), and the American Association for the A dvancement o (AAAS). Beth Duston Fitzsimmons Chairperson 2004-current Depository Library Council to ) and gy f Science — B-7 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE —B-8 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix C. Current Commissioners — C-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Current Commission Members C. Beth Fitzsimmons, Ph.D. (2004-) NCLIS Chairman (2004-2008); Chair, Technology Committee, 1991 White House Conference on Library a nd Information Services ; Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Informati on Services; Delegate, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services, President, Information Strategists (Ann Arbor, MI) Bridget L. Lamont (2004-) NCLIS Vice Chairman (2004-2008), State Librarian, 1991 White House Conference on Libraries and Information Science , Director of Policy Development, State of Illinois; former Director, Illinoi s State Library (S pringfield, IL) Jos A. Aponte (2004-) Director, San Diego County Libr ary; Member, Advisory Counc il, the Laura Bush Foundation for America's Libraries Advi sory Council (San Diego, CA) Sandra F. Ashworth (2004-) Director, Boundary County Dist rict Library; Recipient, 2002 National Award for Library Service; Recipient, 2003 Idaho's Bri ghtest Star Award (Bonners Ferry, ID) Edward L. Bertorelli (2004-) Director, Benefits & Employee Programs, Ma ssachusetts Highway Department; Member, Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners (Vice-Chairman 1998-1999; Chairman in 2000-2002) (Milford, MA) James H. Billington , Ph.D. (Ex-Officio, 1987-) Librarian of Congress; Former Director, Woodr ow Wilson International Center for Scholars (Arlington, VA) Jan Cellucci (2005-) Member, President’s Advisory Council on the University Library, University of British Columbia; Former Goodwill Ambassador, Canadi an Association of Research Libraries; Former Associate University Librarian, Boston College (Hudson, MA) Carol L. Diehl (2004-) Former Director, Board of Education, Manawa School District; Former Director of Library Media Services and Grant Consultant, School District of New London, Wisconsin; Delegate, 1991 White House Conference on Libr ary and Information Services (Appleton, WI) Allison Druin, Ph.D. (2004-) Associate Professor, College of Informa tion Studies and Memb er, Human-Computer Interaction Lab, University of Maryland; Research Leader, International Children's Digital Library (Chevy Chase, MD) — C-2 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Patricia M. Hines (2004-) Former Executive Director, National Council on E ducation Research; former Chief of Staff, Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy; former Deputy Director, Office of Policy Development, Executive Office of the President (Mayesville, SC) Colleen E. Huebner , Ph.D. (2004-) Associate Professor of Health Services, Di rector, Maternal and Child Health Program, School of Public Health and Community Medici ne, University of Washington (Seattle, WA) Stephen M. Kennedy (2004-) Former Director, State and Local Government Marketing, Honeywell-Bull Information Systems; Former CFO/CIO, Stat e of New Hampshire (Concord, NH) Deanna Marcum, Ph.D. (Alternate fo r the Librarian of Congress, 2006-) Associate Librarian for Library Services, Libr ary of Congress; former president of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) (Arlington VA) Mary H. Perdue (2004-) Founder, Healthy U of Delmarva; Author and Columnist; Past President, American AgriWomen; recipient, [Maryland] Governor's Citation for Outstanding Service (Salisbury, MD) Anne-Imelda Radice, Ph.D. (Ex-Officio, 2006-) Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS); former acting assistant chairman for programs, National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH); former acting chairman, National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) (Washington, DC) S. Diane Rivers , Ph.D. (2005-) President and CEO, Quality Educational Systems, Inc.; Developer, QuESt – Quality Educational Systems: Tools for Transformati on, American Society for Quality (Birmingham, AL) Herman L. Totten , Ph.D. (2004-) Regents Professor and Dean (2005-2007), School of Library and Information Sciences, University of North Texas; Past President, Texas Library Associati on (TLA); recipient, 2001 Melvil Dewey Award, American Libr ary Association (ALA) (Denton TX) — C-3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — C-4 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix D. Former Commissioners — D-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Former Commission Members 1970 – Present Each name is followed by dates in parentheses indicating the years of service as a Commissioner. Positions held with the Commission, such as Chairman and Vice Chairman, are listed below the name in italics with the years of service noted. The professional affiliation during the time of service on the Commission is indicated. Where known, the current assignment and place of residence or year of death is provided in parentheses. C.E. “ABE” ABRAMSON (1995-2001) Founding and current Trustee of the Missoula Public Library Foundation (Missoula, MT) SHIRLEY GRAY ADAMOVICH (1992-1996) Commissioner, Department of Cultural Affairs, and New Hampshire State Librarian (Durham, NH) ANDREW A. AINES (1971-1976) Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1980) (Deceased 1996) HELMUT A. ALPERS (1980-1984) Vice President, General Bookbinding Company (Gates Mills, OH) GORDON M. AMBACH (1980-1985) Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Member, Board of Trustees, The CNA Co rporation; Former Executive Director, Council of Chief State School Officers; Former President, University of the State of New York and Commissioner of Education (Washington, DC) WALTER ANDERSON (1995-2001) Chairman, CEO and Publisher, Parade Pub lications; member, National Advisory Board, Literacy Volunteers of America; member, Board of Advisors, National Center for Family Literacy (New York, NY) WILLIAM O. BAKER (1971-1975) Former President, Bell Telephone Laboratories (M orristown, NJ) PATRICIA BARBOUR (1985-1988) Member, Executive Board, American Resear ch Institute (Dearborn Heights, MI) JOSEPH BECKER (1971-1974; 1974-1979) President, Becker and Hayes, Inc. (Deceased 1995) CHARLES BENTON ( 1978-1980; 1980-1985) NCLIS Chairman (1978-1982); Chairman Emeritus (1982); Chairman, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Chairman, Public Media, Inc. (Chair and President, Benton Foundation; Chicago, IL) — D-2 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE REBECCA T. BINGHAM (1998-2002) Retired Director, School Libr ary Media Services, Jeffers on County Public Schools in Louisville, KY; former President of the American Association of School Librarians (Louisville, KY) DANIEL J. BOORSTIN (1975-1987) Librarian of Congress (Librarian Emerit us, Library of Congress) (Deceased 2004) FREDERICK BURKHARDT (1971-1975; 1976-1978) NCLIS Chairman (1971-78); Chairman Emeritus (1978); Vice Chairman, National Advisory Committee on Libraries (1966-1968); President, American Council of Learned Societies (historian and author; Bennington, VT) (Deceased 2007) ROBERT W. BURNS, JR. (1978-1981) Assistant Director of Libraries for Research Services, Colorado State University (Fort Collins, CO) LEVAR BURTON (1995-2001) Actor, producer, director and author; host and co-executive producer of “Reading Rainbow” (Los Angeles, CA) DANIEL W. CARTER (1985-1989; 1989-1991) Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1988) ; President, Daniel Carter Consulting (Deceased 2001) DANIEL W. CASEY (1973-1978; 1985-1989; 1989-1995) Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; communications executive (Deceased 1995) JOAN R. CHALLINOR (1995-2005) NCLIS Chairperson (2003-2004); NCLIS Vice Chairman (2000-2003); Chairperson, Advisory Committee, Schlesinger Library on th e History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harv ard University (Washington, DC) HAROLD CROTTY ( 1971-1972; 1972-1975) President, Brotherhood of Maintenan ce of Way Employees (Deceased 1986) CARLOS A. CUADRA (1971-1974; 1974-1979; 1980-1984) President, Cuadra Associates; former Genera l Manager, SDC Service (Los Angeles, CA) CAROL K. DIPRETE (1990-1991; 1991-1996) Dean for Academic Services, Roger Williams University (Director of Libraries, Zayed University; East Greenwich, RI) — D-3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE LESLIE W. DUNLAP (1971-1975) Dean, Library Administration, The Univers ity of Iowa Libraries (Iowa City, IA) LEE EDWARDS (1986-1990) NCLIS Vice Chairman (1988-1990); Delegate-at-L arge, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Director, Institute on Politi cal Journalism, Georgetown University; former Senior Editor, The World & I (Alexandria, VA) J. MICHAEL FARRELL (1990-1993) NCLIS Chairman (1992-93); Member, Rules Committee, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services ; Attorney at Law (Washington, DC) WANDA L. FORBES (1985; 1988-1993) Former School Librarian; former Member, South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (Columbia, SC) DIANE B. FRANKEL (1996-1999) Ex-officio ; Director, Institute of Museum and Libr ary Services (IMLS) (San Francisco, CA) MARY S. FURLONG (1994-2000) CEO and founder, Third Age Media, Inc. and Senior Net (San Francisco, CA) FRANK GANNON (1986) President, Frank Gannon Productions; former Editor, Saturday Review ( New York, NY) MARTIN GOLAND (1971-1977) President, Southwest Research Institute (Deceased 1997) MARTHA B. GOULD (1994-2003) NCLIS Vice Chairman (1994-2000), NCLIS Chairman (2000-2003) , Retired Director, Washoe County Library System , named Nevada Librarian of the “Years” in 1993, (Reno, NV) JOS -MARIE GRIFFITHS (1996-2002) Dean and Professor, University of North Caro lina at Chapel Hill, School of Information & Library Science; a nationally a nd internationally known informa tion scientist, researcher and teacher (Chapel Hill, NC) JOAN H. GROSS (1978-1982) Psychotherapist; former Assistant for Public Affairs, New York City, Department of Housing, Preservation and Development (Northampton, MA) — D-4 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE ELINOR H. HASHIM (1981-1986) NCLIS Chairman (1982-1986); Chairman Emeritus (1986); Interim Executive Director (1986) ; Government Relations Officer and Program Director, Special Libraries, OCLC, Inc. (Newington, CT) JACK E. HIGHTOWER (1999-2005) NCLIS Vice Chairman (2003-2004); Counsel, Hilgers and Watkins, Austin (Austin, TX) PAULETTE H. HOLAHAN (1980-1985, 2000-2001) Deputy Judicial Administrator for Public Information, Louisiana Supreme Court (New Orleans, LA) CLARA STANTON JONES (1978-1982) Former Director, Detroit Public Library; Form er President, American Library Association (Oakland, CA) JOHN E. JUERGENSMEYER (1982-1987) Attorney, Juergensmeyer and Associates (Elgin, IL) NORMAN KELINSON (1992-1995) President, Universal Financial Serv ices (Davenport, IA) (Deceased 2002) JOHN KEMENY (1971-1973) President, Dartmouth College (Deceased 1992) FRANCIS KEPPEL (1979-1983) Director, Aspen Institute for Humanistic Studies (Deceased 1990) BYRON LEEDS (1982-1986) Vice President, Post Gra phics, Inc. (Flander, NJ) MARIAN P. LEITH ( 1976-1980) Assistant Director and Federal Program Director , North Carolina State Library (Salinas, CA) LOUIS A. LERNER (1971-1972; 1972-1977) Publisher, Lerner Home Newspapers (Deceased 1985) BEN-CHIEH LIU (1991-1993) Professor of Management and Information Scie nce, Chicago State University (Lisle, IL) JOHN G. LORENZ (1971-1975 while represe nting the Librarian of Congress) Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1990); Coor dinator, NCLIS Library Statistics Program (1987-1997); Deputy Librarian of Congress; Acti ng Librarian of Congress (Cranberry Township, PA) — D-5 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE FRANK J. LUCCHINO (1994-1999) Controller, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh, PA) JAMES E. LYONS (1991-1993) Publisher, University Press of America, Inc. (President, Un iversity Press of America; Washington, DC) ROBERT S. MARTIN (2001-2005) Ex-officio ; former Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) (Denton, TX) MARILYN G. MASON (2000-2001) Retired, Director of the Cleveland Public Li brary; former Director of the White House Conference on Library and Inform ation Service (Seattle, WA) BESSIE BOEHM MOORE (1971-1973; 1973-1978; 1979-1983; 1984-1988) NCLIS Vice Chairman (1972-1988); NCLIS Vice C hairman Emeritus (1988); Vice Chair, 1979 White House Conference on Library and In formation Services; Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Former Executive Director, State Council on Economic Education (Deceased 1995) L. QUINCY MUMFORD (1971-1975) Librarian of Congress (Deceased 1982) FRANCES H. NAFTALIN (1978-1982) President, Minneapolis Public Library Board (Minneapolis, MN) GEORGE H. NASH (1987-1990) Author, historian, and biographer of Herbert Hoover (South Hadley, MA) JERALD C. NEWMAN (1982-1987; 1987-1992) NCLIS Chairman (1987-1990); Advisory Committee Member, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; President, Transnational Commerce Corporation (North Woodmere, NY) RAYMOND J. PETERSEN (1988-1991) Executive Vice President, Hearst Magazines (New York, NY) MARGARET PHELAN (1985-1989) Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1988); President, Phelan Business Research (Deceased 2005) CHARLES E. REID (1988-1993) NCLIS Chairman (1990-1992); Chairman Emeritus (1992); Vice Chairman, 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Senior Vice President, Prodevco Group (Ft. Lee, NJ) — D-6 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE RALPH A. RENICK (1975-1977) Vice President / News Director, WTVJ News (Deceased 1991) KAY W. RIDDLE (1991-1995) Political activist; Board Member, Adams Count y Public Library System (Northglenn, CO) BOBBY ROBERTS (1993-2004) Director, Central Arkansas Library System (Little Rock, AR) DONALD L. ROBINS ON (2000-2001) Director of the Washington Internship Program of Boston University; Adjunct Professor at Boston University, the University of Houston and Texas Southern Univ ersity; co-founder of the Congressional Intern ship Program; President of Robinson Associates, Inc. (Wellfleet, MA) CATHERINE D. SCOTT (1971-1976) NCLIS Vice Chairman (1971-1972); Librarian, Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC) BEVERLY SHEPPARD (1999-2001) Ex-officio ; former Acting Director, Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) (Washington, DC) JEAN HURLEY SIMON (1993-2000) NCLIS Chairman (1993-2000), member of the Bar in the Distri ct of Columbia and Illinois, author of Codename: Scarlett (Deceased 2000) PHILIP A. SPRAGUE (1979-1983) Advisory Committee Member, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Associate Administrator for Management Assistance, Small Business Administration (Deceased 1999) GARY NEIL SUDDUTH (1993-1997) President and CEO, Minneapolis Urban League (Deceased 1997) ELEANOR H. SWAIM (1988-1989; 1989-1994) NCLIS Vice Chair (1991-1993); Chairman, North Carolina State Library Commission (Salisbury, NC) HORACE E. TATE (1978-1981) Georgia State Senator and Executive Director, Georgia Association of Educators (Deceased 2002) BARBARA J. H. TAYLOR (1986-1990; 1991-1995) Librarian General, Daughters of the American Revolution (Deceased 2002) — D-7 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — D-8 — KENNETH Y. TOMLINSON (1986-1987) NCLIS Chairman (1986-1987); Executive Editor, Reader's Digest (Middleburg, VA) JOEL D. VALDEZ (1994-1999) Senior Vice President for Business Affairs, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) SALLY JO VASICKO (1987-1989) Chairperson and Professor, Political Science Department, Ball State University (Assistant Dean, University College, Ball State University; Muncie, IN) JOHN E. VELDE, JR. (1971-1974; 1974-1979) Advisory Committee Member, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Velde, Roelfs and Company (Deceased 2002) MARGARET S. WARDEN (1980-1984) Advisory Committee Member, 1979 White House Conference on Library and Information Services; Member, Montana State Advisory Council for Libraries; former Montana State Senator (Deceased 2005) WILLIAM A. WELSH (1976-1988 while repre senting the Librarian of Congress) Deputy Librarian of Congress (Bethesda, MD) ROBERT S. WILLARD (1994; 1994-1998) Executive Director (1998-2004); Acting NCLIS Executive Director (1998); At-Large Delegate to the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Inform ation Services; Group Facilitator, 1979 White House Conference; former Vice President, Government Relations, Lawyers Cooperative Publis hing (University Park, MD) JULIA LI WU (1973-1978; 1982-1987; 1987-1992) Head Librarian, Virgil Junior High School and President, Boar d of Directors, Los Angeles Community College District (Los Angeles, CA) MILDRED E. YOUNGER (1976-1980) Member, Board of Directors, Los Angeles Library Association (Beverly Hills, CA) ALFRED R. ZIPF (1971-1973) Executive Vice President, Bank of America (Deceased 2000)

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix E. Senior Staff — E-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — E-2 — U.S. National Commission on Libr aries and Information Science History of Executive Directors, Deputy Directors, Associate Executive Director and Office Locations Executive Directors Madeleine C. McCain (acting) – June 2006-current Trudy Bellardo Hahn – May 2005-May 2006 Trudi Bellardo Hahn (interim) – November 2004-April 2005 Madeleine C. McCain (actin g) – March 2004-October 2004 Robert S. Willard– June 1998-February 2004 Robert S. Willard (actin g) – February 1998-June 1998 Jane Williams (acting) – June 1997-January 1998 Peter R. Young – August 1990-May 1997 John G. Lorenz (acting) – July-August 1990 Susan K. Martin– August 1988-June 1990 Margaret Phelan (acting) – August 1988 Daniel Carter (actin g) – February-July 1988 Vivian J. Arterbery – November 1986-January 1988 Elinor M. Hashim (acting) – September-October 1986 Toni Carbo Bearman– N ovember 1980-August 1986 Andrew A. Aines (actin g) – July-November 1980 Alphonse L. Trezza– November 1974-June 1980 Roderick G. Swartz (acting) – October 1974 Charles H. Stevens – January 1972-September 1974 Deputy Directors Judith C. Russell – August 1998-December 2002 David Hoyt – 1987 Sarah G. Bishop – June 1983-February 1987 Douglas S. Price – March 1975-April 1983 Roderick G. Swartz – 1971-December 1974 Associate Deputy Director, Associate Di rector, Associate Executive Director Mary Alice Hedge, 1971-1998 NCLIS Offices (all in Washington, DC) 1800 M Street, NW; Suite 350 North Tower – March 2005-Current 1110 Vermont Avenue, NW, Suite 820 – April 1993-February 2005 1111 18th Street, NW, Suite 310 – 1987-March 1993 7th & D Streets, SW, Suite 3122 – February 1983-1986 1717 K Street, NW, Suite 601 – 1971-January 1983

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix F. NCLIS Publications — F-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (NCLIS) (1971 to 2006) Reports produced as a result of Surveys, Studies, Forums, Hearings, Task Forces, Conferences, and Policy (1973-2006) Continuing Library and Information Science Education, Final Report . Elizabeth W. Stone. May 1974. Resources and Bibliographic Support for a Nationwide Library Program , Final Report. Vernon E. Palmour and others. August 1974. Library and Information Service Needs of th e Nation. Proceedings of a Conference on the Needs of Occupational, Ethnic, and other Groups in the United States . 1974. Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action. 1975. Elements of Information Resources Policy . February 1975. National Program for Library and Info rmation Services (Final Draft) . March 1975. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Federal Funding of Public Libraries . Government Studies and Systems, Inc. December 1976. National Information Policy. Report to the President of the United States submitted by the staff of the Domestic Council Committee on the Right to Privacy. Published by NCLIS. 1976. Improving State Aid to Public Libraries. Urban Libraries Council. Published by NCLIS. February 1977. National Inventory of Library Needs, 1975: Resources Needed for Public and Academic Libraries and Public School Library / Media Centers . Boyd Ladd. published March 1977. Effective Access to Periodical Literature : A National Program. Vernon E. Palmour. April 1977. Library Photocopying in the United States : With Implications for the Development of a Copyright Royalty Payment Mechanism. King Research, Inc. October 1977. Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services : Goals for Action, A Summary. October 1977. — F-2 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE A Computer Network Protocol for Libr ary and Information Science Applications . Prepared by the NCLIS / National Bureau of Standards Task Force on Computer Network Protocol. December 1977. American National Standards Committee Z39 : Recommended Future Directions. Prepared by the NCLIS Task Force on Am erican National Standards Committee Z39 Activities and Future Dir ections. February 1978. The Role of School Library Media Program in Networking. Prepared by the NCLIS Task Force on the Role of the School Library Media Program in the National Program. September 1978. Toward a National Program for Library and Info rmation Science: Goals for Action. An Overview. September 1978. The Role of the Library of Congre ss in the Evolving National Network . Lawrence F. Buckland and William L. Basinski. 1978. A Comparative Evaluation of Alte rnative Systems for the Provision of Effective Access to Periodical Literature . Arthur D. Little, Inc. October 1979. Problems in Bibliographic Access to Non Print Materials : Project Media Base: Final Report . A project of the NCLIS and the Association for Educational Communications and Te chnology. October 1979. White House Conference on Library and Information Services – Summary. 1979. The Final Report – Summary Information for the 1980s. White House Conference on Library and Information Services . March 1980. Hearings Held at the American Library A ssociation Annual Conference, San Francisco, California . Task Force on Library and Information Services to Cultural Minorities. November 1981. Public Sector / Private Sector Intera ction in Providing Information Services. Prepared by the NCLIS Public Sector / Private Sector Task Force. February 1982. Toward a Federal Library and Information Services Network : A Proposal. 1982. Joint Congressional Hearing on the Changing Information Needs of Rural America : The Role of Libraries and Information Technology . July 1982. Final Report to the National Commission on Li braries and Information Science from the Community Information and Referral Services Task Force. July 1983. — F-3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE The Role of the Special Libr ary in Networks and Cooperatives : Executive Summary and Recommendations. NCLIS / SLA Task Force Report. June 1984. To Preserve the Sense of Earth From Space : Report of the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Panel on the Information Policy Implications of Archiving Satellite Data . August 1984. Information and Productivity – Implic ations for Education and Training . Report of a joint UK / US Seminar held at Cranfield, England. 27-30 July 1984. The NARBIN Report . Report of the National Advisory Board on Rural Information Needs Planning Committee. April 1985. The Role of Fees in Supporting Library and In formation Services in Public and Academic Libraries. April 1985. Censorship Activities in Pub lic and School Libraries, 1975-1985. A Report to the Senate Subcommittee on Appropriations for the De partments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Educational and Related Agencies. March 1986. NCLIS Sponsored Assessments of Inform ation Needs: A Review and Summary. Barbara Chappell. July 1986. Conference on Access: Information Distributio n, Efficiency and Protection. The Institute for Research on Public Policy, The Br itish Library and the National Commission on Libraries and Information Sciences . Background Papers. 1986. Hearing on Sensitive But Not Classified Information. A Public hearing held by the National Commission on Libraries and Info rmation Science at the Library of Congress. 1988. Information Literacy and Education for the 21st Century: Toward and Agenda for Action. A Symposium sponsored by the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and the American Association of School Librarians. 1989. Principles of Public Information: Preamble. June, 1990. Strategic Plan for the Development of Libr ary and Information Services to Native Americans. February 1991. Statistical Compendium. Sandra Milevski. 1991. Selected Statistics: Addr essing the Areas of Concer n to the 1991 White House Conference on Libraries and Information Services . 1991. — F-4 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Information 2000: Final Report of the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services . November 1992. Information 2000: Summary Report of the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services . November 1992. Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy on Library and Information Services’ Roles in the National Research and Education Network. November 1992. Open Forum on Recommendations of th e White House Conference on Library and Information Services. 1992. Pathways to Excellence: A Report on Improving Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples . 1992. Pathways to Excellence: Summary Report on Improving Library and Information Services for Native American Peoples . 1992. Open Forum on Children and Youth Services: Re defining the Federal Role for Libraries . Report on May 1993 forum in Boston. July 1993. Open Forum on Children and Youth Services: Re defining the Federal Role for Libraries. Report on December forum in Des Moines. 1993. Library and Information Servic es Policy: A Forum Report. 1993. Toward A Just and Productive Society . Kathleen de la Pena McCook. 1993. Briefing and Open Forum on Children and Yout h Services: Redefining the Federal Role for Libraries. Sacramento, CA. 1994. Libraries and the National Information Infrastructure : Proceedings of the 1994 Forum on Library and Information Services Policy. 1994. Public Libraries in the Internet: Stud y Results, Policy Issues, and Recommendations . Charles R. McClure, John Carlo Bert ot, and Douglas L. Zweizig. 1994. Public School Library Media Centers in 12 States: Report of the NCLIS / ALA Survey . Mary Jo Lynch, Pamela Kramer, and Ann Weeks. 1994. The National Information Infrastructure and the Recommendation of the 1991 White House Conference on Li brary and Information Services . Taylor Walsh. 1994. Hearing on the Federal Role of Libraries : Planning for the Reauthorization of the Library Services and Contraction Act (LSC A). Incline Village, Nevada. 1995. — F-5 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Internet Costs and Cost Mode ls for Public Libraries : Final Report. Charles R. McClure, John Carlo Bertot, and John C Beachboard. 1995. Toward the 1995 White House Conference on Ag ing: Priorities and Policies for Library and Information Services for Older Adults . Proceedings of a National Pre-White House Conference on Aging (February 3, 1995, Philadelphia, PA). 1995. White House Pre-Conference on Aging, Recommendations . February 1995. Changes in Library and Information Services , Library and Information Services Forum. May 1995. The 1996 National Survey of Public Libraries in the Internet : Progress and Issues. Charles R. McClure, John Carlo Be rtot, and Douglas L. Zweizig. 1996. Summary Report of the 1996 Forum on Librar y and Information Services Policy on Impact of Information Technology and Speci al Programming on Li brary Services to Special Populations. May 20-21, 1996. Library and Information Services Policy Forum Proceedings “Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) State Grant Program: Implications for Use of and Additions to National Library Data.” September 15-16, 1997. The 1997 National Survey of U.S. Public Li braries and the Internet: Final Report . December 1997. Policy Issues and Strategies Affecting Public Libraries in the National Networked Environment: Moving Beyond Connectivity . Charles R. McClure and John Carlo Bertot. December 1997. A ssessment of and Planning for NCLIS Role in Library Statistics Cooperative Program (LSCP). Howard Harris. Octobe r 1997, Revised June 1998. Moving Toward More Effective Public Intern et Access: 1998 National Survey of Public Library Outlet Internet Connectivity . March 1999. Report on the Assessment of Electron ic Government Information Products . Westat, Inc. March 30, 1999. Library and Information Services for Individuals with Disabilities: An NCLIS Hearing in Washington. DC . July 8, 1999. Kids and the Internet: The Promise and the Perils . 1999. — F-6 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Preliminary Assessment of the Proposed Closure of the Nati onal Technical Information Service (NTIS): A Report to the President and the Congress . March 16, 2000. Public Sector / Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services: Report to the NCLIS from the Public Sector / Private Sector Task Force. October 2000. Comprehensive Assessment of Public Info rmation Dissemination, Final Report, Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3, and Volume 4 (draft). January through June, 2001. Policy Issues and Strategies Affecting Public Libraries In the National Networked Environment: Setting Agendas and Extending Research Report prepared by: John Carlo Bertot and Charles R. McClure. December 2001. Trust and Terror Brochure. July 2002. Trust and Terror: New Demands for Cr isis Information Dissemination and Management. A Proposal to Expand the Role of US Libraries in Crisis Information Dissemination and Management. Narrated by Walter Cronkite. December 2002 (CDROM format) This CD-ROM describes the proposal of NCLI S to expand the role of libraries as an essential component of U.S. crisis info rmation dissemination and management. The CD-ROM (with brochure included) of th is presentation is available free while supplies last by contacting the NCLIS o ffice (email info@nclis.gov; telephone 202606-9200). Brochures without the CD-ROM ar e also available free while supplies last. The Role of Libraries in HIV / AIDS In formation Dissemination in Sub-Saharan Africa . 2005. The NCLIS Health Information Awards fo r Libraries and the Libraries and Health Information Forum , Final Report. May 3, 2006. Mass Digitization: Implicati ons for Information Policy Report from Scholarship and Libraries in Transition: a dialogue about the Impacts of Mass Digitization Projects, Symposium held on March 10-11, 2006, Un iversity of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. May 9, 2006. Numbered “Related” Papers (1974-1977) Related Paper No. One. Relationship and Involvement of th e State Library Agencies with the National Program Proposed by NCLIS. Alphonse F. Trezza. November 1974. Related Paper No. Two. Role of the Public Li brary in the National Program . Allie Beth Martin. October 1974. — F-7 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE Related Paper No. Three. The Relationship and Involvement of the Special Library with the National Program. Edward G. Strable. November 1974. Related Paper No. Four. The Independent Research Library . William D. Budington. October 1974. Related Paper No. Five. The Information Service Environment Relationships and Priorities . Paul G. Zurkowski. November 1974. Related Paper No. Six. Manpower and Educational Programs for Management, Research, and Professional Growth in Library and Information Services. Robert S. Taylor. October, 1974. Related Paper No. Seven. School Library Media Programs and the National Program for Library and Information Services . Bernard M. Franckowiak. November 1974. Related Paper No. Eight. National Program of Library and Information Services of NCLIS: Implication for College and community College Libraries. Beverly P. Lynch. December 1974. Related Paper No. Nine. The National Library Network Its Economic Rationale and Funding. Robert M. Hayes. December 1974. Related Paper No. Ten. Intellectual Freedom and Privacy Comments on a National Program for Library and Information Services . R. Kathleen Molz. December 1974. Related Paper No. Eleven. International Library and Information Service Developments As They Relate to the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science . Foster E. Mohrardt. December 1974. Related Paper No. Twelve. An Economic Profile of the US Book Industry . Curtis G. Benjamin. November 1974. Related Paper No. Thirteen. The Role of the Informati on Center in the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science Program for the Improvement of National Information Services . Herman W. Weisman. November 1974. Related Paper No. Fourteen . The Relationship of the Go vernment and the Private Sector in the Proposed National Program . David Carvey. November 1974. Related Paper No. Seventeen. The Future of Federal Categorical Library Programs. Robert W. Frase. March 1975. Related Paper No. Twenty-two. Quantitative Date Required to Support and Implement A National Program for Librar y and Information Service . Theodore Samore. July 1977. — F-8 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Related Paper No. Twenty-three. Urban Information Centers and their Interface with the National Program for Librar y and Information Services . Jane E. Stevens. May 1975. Related Paper No. Twenty-five. The Role of NotforProf it Discipline – Oriented Information-Accessing Services in the Na tional Program of Library and Information Services . Fred A. Tate. December 1975. Related Paper No. Twenty-six. The Impact of Machine Reada ble Data Bases on Library and Information Services . Martha Williams. April 1975. Other Publications, Reports (1978-2006) Information for Successful Living: Programs That Work for Third Agers and Beyond. (no date – probably in the early 1970s) Public Libraries Who Should Pay the Bills? 1978. Our Nation’s Libraries: An Inventory of Resources & Needs. 1978. The Changing Role of Public Librarie s: New Technology for Libraries . A conference background paper prepared under the joint auspices of the American Library Association, National Commission on Librar ies and Information Science, Urban Libraries Council and Nationa l Citizens Emergency Committee to Save Our Public Libraries. 1979. Directory of Selected Associations and In formal Groups in the Library / Information Field. 1984 (final edition). An NCLIS Library Statistical Sampler. October 15, 1985 (reprint from Library Journal). The White House Conference on Library and Information Services , 1991, National Associations and Organizations, Call for Participation. (published 1989) The White House Conference on Library and Information Services . 1991. (published 1989) Principles of Public Information, Preamble. June 29, 1990. The United States Commission on Libraries and Information Science. (no date, probably in the early 1990s) The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science: A Fact Sheet. January 1991. — F-9 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE The U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. (draft 1/15/91) Library Statistics Cooperative Program, Prepared for the National Center for Education Statistics by the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. 1997. Kids and the Internet: The Promise and the Peri ls. Practical Guidelines for Librarians and Library Trustees. October 1, 1998; Revised April 1999. Library Statistics Cooperative Program. 1999. Sister Libraries, A White House Millennium Council Project. 1999. Sister Libraries, A White House Millennium Council Project. Project Summaries From Designated Sister Libraries . September 1999. Sister Libraries, A White House Millennium Council Project. Project Summaries from Designated Sister Libraries. (as of ) June 2000. NCLIS Brochure: Advancing Public Access to Knowledge Through Library and Information Services . August 2001. Library Statistics Coope rative Program Brochure. Prepared for the National Center for Education Statistics by the US National Commission on Libraries and Information Science. 2002. NCLIS Brochure (bi-fold). April 2004. NCLIS Brochure (tri-fold). April 2005. NCLIS Position Paper on Informatio n Services for the Elderly. May 2005. The Booming Dynamics of Aging: From Awareness to Action Report by Commissioner Sandra Ashworth. April 2006. FSCS Brochure (Federal-State Cooperative System fo r Public Library Data), Prepared by the FSCS Steering Committee. November 2005. NCLIS Brochure (tri-fold). March 2006. NCLIS Annual Reports NCLIS Annual Report – 1971-1972 NCLIS Annual Report – 1972-1973 NCLIS Annual Report – 1973-1974 — F-10 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE NCLIS Annual Report – 1974-1975 NCLIS Annual Report – 1975-1976 NCLIS Annual Report – 1976-1977 NCLIS Annual Report – 1977-1978 NCLIS Annual Report – 1978-1979 NCLIS Annual Report – 1979-1980 NCLIS Annual Report – 1980-1981 NCLIS Annual Report – 1981-1982 NCLIS Annual Report – 1982-1983 NCLIS Annual Report – 1983-1984 NCLIS Annual Report – 1984-1985 NCLIS Annual Report – 1985-1986 NCLIS Annual Report – 1986-1987 NCLIS Annual Report – 1987-1988 NCLIS Annual Report – 1988-1989 NCLIS Annual Report – 1989-1990 NCLIS Annual Report – 1990-1991 NCLIS Annual Report – 1991-1992 NCLIS Annual Report – 1992-1993 NCLIS Annual Report – 1993-1994 NCLIS Annual Report – 1994-1995 NCLIS Annual Report – 1995-1996 NCLIS Annual Report – 1996-1997 NCLIS Annual Report – 1997-1998 NCLIS Annual Report – 1998-1999 NCLIS Annual Report – 1999-2000 — F-11 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — F-12 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Appendix G. NCLIS Timeline — G-1 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE NCLIS Timeline Year Event 1970 NCLIS established by Public Law 91-345. 1971 First Commission Meeting; Commission a dvocates all Federal program funding support appropriate documentation and bibliographical information. 1972 Commission recommends expanded role for Library of Congress; studies application of new technologies. 1973 Commission conducts hearings to develop a national program for library and information services. 1974 Commission publishes Toward a National Program for Library and Information Services: Goals for Action; Commission jo int sponsor of conference on copyright. 1975 NCLIS sponsors 1st of three trilateral conf erences with UK and Canada on the role of information in the economy. 1976 NCLIS issues National Inventory of Library needs; report on the role of the Library of Congress in a national network. 1977 NCLIS examines the role of school libraries in a national network; evaluates standardization efforts. 1978 NCLIS publishes reports on: The Role of the Library of Congress in the Evolving National Network; Toward a National Program for Library and Information Science: Goals for Action. 1979 First White House Conference on Libraries & Information Services. 1980 NCLIS conducts oversight hearings on LSCA. 1981 NCLIS publishes its analysis of Public Sector / Private Sector Interaction in Providing Information Services. 1982 NCLIS publishes the results of its studies on library and information services for cultural minorities. 1983 NCLIS begins partnership with State Departme nt on international library, information, and archival programs. 1984 NCLIS issues report on policy impli cations of archiving satellite data. 1985 Commission coordinates Congressional hearing on changing information needs of rural America. 1986 NCLIS sponsors 1st of three trilateral conf erences with UK and Canada on the role of information in the economy. 1987 Adoption of trilateral Glenerin Declaration on the role of information in the economy. 1988 NCES and NCLIS establish the Federal-State Cooperative Statistics program for public library data. 1989 NCLIS co-sponsors symposium on Information Literacy and Education for the 21st Century. — G-2 —

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MEETING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE NCLIS Timeline Year Event 1990 NCLIS adopts its Principles of Public Information. 1991 Second White House Conference on Libraries & Information Services. 1992 NCLIS completes investigation of library and information services for Native Americans. 1993 NCLIS leads forums on library and information services for children and young adults. 1994 NCLIS conducts 1st study on public libraries and the Internet. 1995 NCLIS conducts 2nd study on public librar ies and the Internet; advices Congress on changes to LSCA. 1996 NCLIS conducts 3rd study on public librari es and the Internet; conducts hearing on Libraries, Interactive Services, and the In formation Superhighway; LSTA becomes law, creating IMLS and new responsibilities for NCLIS. 1997 NCLIS conducts 4th study on public libraries a nd the Internet; begins study on Federal agency publishing practices. 1998 NCLIS conducts 4th study on public libra ries and the Internet; passes resolution on Important Role of Libraries in the Lives of America's Children 1999 NCLIS conducts hearings on Libraries and Information Services for Individuals with Disabilities and Kids and the Internet: The Promise and the Perils. 2000 NCLIS conducts 4th study on public librari es and the Internet; advises against the closure of NTIS; begins comprehensive assessment of government information. 2001 NCLIS conducts hearing on School Librarians: Knowledge Navigators Through Troubled Times; prepares Trust and Terror: New Demands for Crisis Information Dissemination and Management. 2002 Congress rejects Executive Branch attemp t to close NCLIS; Agency is funded. 2003 NCLIS, the National Forum on Information Literacy and UNESCO sponsor “Towards An Information Literate Society” conference in Prague. 2004 NCLIS establishes Blue Ribbon Award for health information; adopts a new strategic plan for the Commission's work. 2005 Commission reports on Role of Libraries in HIV/AIDS Information Dissemination in Sub-Saharan Africa; urges Congress to support libraries as health information distribution centers. 2006 Commission co-sponsors symposium on Mass Dig itization: Implications for Information Policy; advises Congress to enact legislation to ensure net neutrality and to refrain from adding restrictions to obtain e-rate funding for technology in libraries. — G-3 —

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US NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE — G-4 — NCLIS Timeline Year Event 2007 NCLIS advocates for support for school libraries as part of the No Child Left Behind reauthorization; Public Law 119-161 provides funding for NCLIS to close. 2008 NCLIS publishes its final report: Meeting the Information Needs of the American People; Commission office closes March 30.

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U U . . S S . . N NA A T T I I O O N N A A L L C CO O M M M M I I S S S S I I O O N N O O N N L LI I B B R R A A R R I I E E S S A A N N D D I IN N F F O O R R M M A A T T I I O O N N S SC C I I E E N N C C E E ISBN 978-0-16-080304-8 I 9 0 0 0 0 9 780160 803048