Title Page
 Cursory remarks


Cursory Remarks upon the Reverend Mr. Ramsay's Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the Sugar Colonies
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 Material Information
Title: Cursory Remarks upon the Reverend Mr. Ramsay's Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the Sugar Colonies
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Friend to the West India Colonies, and their Inhabitants
Publisher: G. and T. Wilkie
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1785
Copyright Date: 1785
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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System ID: CA03700021:00001


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Cursory remarks
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Full Text

C U R S 0 R Y









Wl.art th tlmtjdudgefaotm rman'a hryutl
Bma-t 3.t..A. -.
Lett aI bIterea and s 1ww, sad auger, aNd demur, ati nll(jcniina
e: [ar|way fem pou, with all iunlkiw.

Whlftrom $flI Come, I wilt 'numswbar hi; t4Mm which hedocth, j{inisg


3. tzczt, nukarot.



UNAMBITIOUS of literary fame, the
author of the following little unpolished
trr fvitures to offer it to the public with
all its imperfections on its head, with no
higher with, than that it may contribute,
in fome degree, to remove a train of very
unjuft and ill-founded notions, which have
been long encouraged, by the productions
of uninformed writers, to the prejudice of
asworthy, as useful, as loyal, but as nifre-
prefented, a fet of fubjedts as any in the
dominions of Great Britain.

He is well convinced, that he runs no
fmall rik of expofig himfelf to the cen-
fures of the diffeint tribunals of periodical
criticifmi more especially of fackof them

as have been uncommonly, and perhaps
guardedlyl, lavish in the encomimns they
have bellowed on the Efay he has taken the
liberty to fcrutinize. He is not however
without hopes, that on a cool retrogedtion,
there arbiters of modern literary reputation
may be induced, with that impartial equity
which generally does, and ever should, ac-
company their decisions, to retrad fome-
thing of their indiscriminate applaufc;
when they find, that dazzled hy the fpe-
cious and benevolent profectliOn of a re-,
fpevable writer, they have been mifled to
overlook the general and illiberal acrimony
of his language, the inconclufivenefs of
many of his argument t, the crual perfo-
nality of his invecives, and the striking
incoqiftency of his different aftertions; as
well as to enquire too lightly into the
authenticity of his fasfs.-Under thefe fa.
vourable impreflions, the enfuing pages are
cheerfully faubmitted to the candid and
Judicious corredion of fuperior leifre and


R E M A R K S, &c.

'W HEN a Clergyman of learning and
abilities introduces himself to thenotice
of the world in the amiable charad&r of a
friend to humanity, and fands forth a
volunteer in the noble cause of univerfal
liberty, he is undoubtedly entitled to the
applause, and reverence of mankind. But
When Luch an author endeavours to attain
fo defiaible an end, by means which would,
if poffihble tend to its difgrace; when he
deals in taih affertions, grofs mifrepre-
fentations, a$d virulent invectives; when
he lavithly sacrifices to the abfurdet pre-
B judices

ji.es of .the vulgar; when he aims at
loading with contempt and infamy a very
useful and refpetable body of men when
he difturbs the peaceful afhes of the dead;
when he even proceeds, in the moft un-
feeling manner, to hang up the private
chara&ers of Ivying individuals to public
deteoftition, and abhorrence: in fhmat,
when a preacher of primitive meeknefs,
oftenfibly desirous of spreading the invala-
able bleffinge of liberty and chritUanity,
takes the moft illiberal and unchriftian-
like manner of doing it; the true motives
of his zeal, and the immaculate purity of
his intentions, may become juftly liable
to fufpicion; and it may Rtrik impartial
and unprejudiced readers, as not, abfo-
lately imppffible, that the apparently be-
nevolent advocate for the rights of human
nature, may either be atluated by private
pique and resentment, encouraged by jhe
flattering hope of patronage, or (purred an
by the ardent delire of popularity. I was
involuntarily led into this unpleafing re-
fledtion, by the attentive peruali of a book
not long fiance published by the Reverend

1[ 3 1
Mrtif atnfy, laiday tA A S4 C atifO
roeiarantftled '^Av en i& tterg
amendt and Onkf eSa efAft Im A RMw in
C" th*B- B i S r Mbniu."' Sitev this
efTay f et At into my aihadr, I have. been
walking with impatience, iIt hIpes of
Lbing imemrnuith nbler pen th a nzty own,
itnployet in dekteing its fillaeies, an-
twering its inj ttrOus anid il -foundcd Afper.
fions, and expofmg its palpable, and
numerous dentradiHions. Nothing, how-
ever, wieijate t& may wiheis, hai* ng yet
appeed, Fam induced to offer the fol-
lowing remarks epon this fpecious and
plausible performance, many part of
which call aloud for fome kind of reply,
add ought not- longer to circulate uanro-
ticed. It may carry the femtblalipe of
prefutantion, to oppose the pr4dWain of
a -few hburs ocetafionally f'nathed fitn
a ife of employment, agMaft the wcetk of
an author praaired in the ways of the
profits a work, which' has been fulb-
mifted 04 corrtaions of ftil 'better
judges thaA it l original father;" a work,
** thefevesth copy of which has been read,
B- and


4 .gpfv4, by .perfons of wortkS"
:i. wik4nchu bBdtrgohfe try Og-
f l cttd irr ctfosad received -every
" inpiovemetit thit p4w fuCccefllve
" tranfftiionI could. give it."* :,;,wo.k,
which ywitk aU thec% rblfte4 adwiv^ gps,
oe tka'j w tIll moi? confideraIc ty
it' rq9 e1 autfor's-. having poilici2y
taken hisb B d",oa the pOplAr groqnda0 f
liberty, and deeply entrenchOed- hliifelf
wiatn -the faced lines.of religion .am
lkewife well awaftehow invidicus a talk
it is, to take up the pon evens in feeming
opposition to a book of fuch an apparent
liberal -tendency; confcioas, however, ;of
the reftitude of my own intentions,-I fiall
frety venture to deliver my lfntimeute,
regardlefs of fuch cenfure as is founded
only in the prejudices of the mifinformed
multitude;, and in firm reliance, tht
while, Iam defending the chara rsof fo
valuable, refpediable, ard Uttful .Af~t 4f
men, as the Britih WcftIdaT.h #aters,
againfl- the acrimonio us. ni f pj nations
of intemperate zeal, or offended felt-fuf-
Sec the author's prefawc,

Rcfii, I (ball oc-,)eC 4,,iri' di-
flood by the candid J 7idjudicious palt o6
mankind, as to be tanked among the ad-
voentes far flaryS as I mot finterely
join MrI Ramnfy, 'and every other man of
Afibility, in hoping, the blefi ngs of free-
dom will in die time, be equally'diffufed
over the face of the whole globe. I can-
not, however, help exprefling my doubts,
as to any additional support the caafe of
generalliberty is likely to receive, from
hii-prefent attempt; as moft of his argu-
ments feem to be produced in a very
Squeftionable fhape."-It may. perhaps,
be shrewdly demanded, how it has hap-
pened, that neither Mr. Ramfay, or any
other of his profeffed brother reformers,
have, by way of experiment, fe the bene-
volent example, of manumitting fueh
Wlves, as they have been. poffef'ed of, after
they had no further call for their services,
iifttaI of difperfing them by fale, among
fuch a fet of illiberat cyrants, as the inha-
bitants of the Weft India islands are re-
prefented to be. 'If fuch a question should
actually be aWed, I leave it to Mr. Ramfay,
B 3 *

s, gqxisft perfoo, to find ,s. f tis-.
!ry au4We..iAn4tee I minuft bcg1sve
to obkrve. that it appcae a little ext rv
diunary, that during the authbpr's refidence
of twcaty. years in thp colonies, it never
occunSd to him, o favour the. world with
the ehallttions of his philanthropy b-.
fore Co late. period; but, perhaps,; iia
thofe days, his views, and cpeEtticis
were cont0ned within .the tropic,, Ia.hp
lived in social intimacy, ando.e relation,
with the very men whom (now he i&sother-
wife more agreeably fettled) he to lavishly
abuses; and in. a situation, according to
his own account, pleafqt, cay., and af-

After the profeiop I have made, it will
hardly be ncceffary for me to premfe, that
it is by no means my intention, tp cat;e
into a minute review of Mr, Rafs(y'
diffufive and declamatory arg-emqi 4 t-
fpeaing the legality of flavery: tWis fb-.
jt&: has been repeatedly. and am'ly,
difcuffed, by many writers of cgfnfive
abilitics, whofe arguments have bcp lonI

S7 ]
before the public, or iteded#Ofi I ifl
therefore, content sayfli with ob~tvifg,
that after ail which has been produced on
fo fruitful, and intereftng theme, flavery
may perhaps beconfidered as one of thofe
evils which, likepain, ficknefs, poverty, &c.
were originally interwoven into the con-
ftitution of the preeat world, for purposes'
wholly unknown to its fliort-fighted in-
habitants; and to account for the origin
of which, has hitherto baffled our iaoft
acute and laborious metaphyficians. It
will not, however, be deemed entirely
inconliftent with the main fcope of my
defign, to point out the weaknefs, infuf-
ficiency, and oppofite tendency, of fome
of the rcafonings made ufc of by Mr.
Ramfay, in support of the opinion, which
is the very foundation of his whole trea-
fift. Under this confidence, I hall now
proceed, to consider the different parts of
this very elaborate efty.

The author's firft chapter is taken up,
in tracing the origin and progrtfs Lof civil
societyy, the confequent division of men
B 4 into

G 8 1
i6s Pider-at ranks, tho connedion de-
p ding between fach different ranks, and
more especially that between master apd
flave'; which particular connecions, as
noticed by the hiftorians,, both fared and
profane, of the different periods, he follows
from the remotft antiquity down to
the modern ftavery of thq European colo-
nies. In this enquiry he feems to have
taken uncommon pains to prove, that
flavery has ,axied in gall ages of the world,
"* even as far back as history carries us '"
that it has prevailed in the moft civilized,
as well as the rudeft nations; among the
chofen people of God, as well as among
the Heithcns, they were commiffioned to
extirpate; that it was equally counte-
nanced by the pious Jews, the philofophic
Greeks, and the polilbed Romans; that it
was fandioned and regulated by Mofes and
the prophets; and that it was not abo-
lifhed, or even interditted, by. oLr Saviour
or his apofiles; in a word, that the exif-
tencc of flavery, in moft parts of theglC.be,
has been nearly coeval with the creation, r
Thece are acknowledgments, which fomq


profemfi'A advocato.or fave y may, pwRba"-
bly, one time or other, be tempted to tuen,
against the author; for my own part, I
have already difclaimed fo odious a pro-

Page 5.-" In every independent late,
whether monarchy or republic, that has
got beyond the'firlt fteps of civilization,
the people, .or citizens, natural di-
vide into fovereign and fubjdc, master
"and family, employer and employed;
all other ranks being arbitrary, and ar-
tificial." The division of matter (or
father) and family may, indeed, with fame
propriety, be called a natural divif on; but
I do not readily conceive why the ranks of
fovereign and fubje&t, &c. are not as arbi-
tary, and artificial, as any which are to

Pages i and 12.-" The profefiors"
(teachers I prefume) of religion are Let-
tied in every little corner of the (rate, to
S promote order and good conduct among
" the people, by the hopes and fears of

S* - ,

"ttliglon." I am afraid the author's very
izfpetable brethren of the church will be
inclined to efteem themselves but little
complimented, by the department he has
been graciously pleafed to affign them,
in his diftribution of the artificial ranks
of foeiety.

Page 17.-He calls slavery, an artificial
fcrvitude, unprofitable to the public," &c.
Yet (in pages 109, i12, &c.) ho proves,
by what he efteems an accurate calculation,
that the labour of the flaves in the Englifh
Weft India colonies, brings a clear annual
income to the exchequer of near two mil-
lions flerling; and that, during the late
war, a fixth part of the whole national re-
venue was fupplied from that fource alone.
If this is not making slaveryy tolerably
profitable to the public, language has no
meaning !

Page 18.-" Slavery being the nega-
Stion of law, cannot arife from law, :or
" be compatible with it." As much de-
pends on the particular fenfet inwhich the

In 1
wod4 l is here 4d this is.a ppfsti I
(hall leave to be Argciw bytthe fiages o
that intricate profe&oW; observing only,
as fa&s, that many ads of parliament made
i4 ESgland, have taken the liberty to coun-
tsnanc& slavery in particular cafes and
that all the colonial laws in being, for the
regulation, good government, &c. of flaves,
have iavari.bly received the fmn&ion of the
cxecusiv pbanach of the Britifli legislature.

Page ao..-" By frome of our colonial
laws, the evidence of a free African will
not be taken against a white man." Mr.
Ramfay should have Laid here, By the
laws, of fme of our colonies," for in, many
of the ifiands (and if I miftake not, in the
very island where he was fo long refidcnt)
a .free Afticap is as free, to all inteats and
purposes, as the faireft member of the
community; and his oath, if a chriftian,
qually admiffable in the several courts of
judi at.e >,the weight of his testimony
will indeed there, mad to it woald in
Great Britain, depend much on his good
or bad chara.ir,

4Iage.A.-2In describing the eteicntbe-
jhaviour of the polite .Athenians towards
their laaes, the author obferves, "* Their
"afzers fomnctnes, the ftater often, -re-
" warded their fervice and fdelity- with
** freedom." If this is produced as a
ftrikk&g mark ofpolifhed humanity, it very
frcqucntly occurs in the Weft India iflands.
Inl moft of them freedom (attended with
pecuniary provision,) has been extended to
individuals by the legiflture, in recom-
pence of fome public service: and as to
freedoms granted by maiters and tniftreffes
to faithful or favourite flaves, they are
fo notoriously common and pumerqus, as
to be complained of in several four colo-
nies, as a growing political evil.

Page 33.-" Had Europe, as a much
diftinguifihed quarter of the globe,
reaped no other focial advantage from'
the eftablifment, of chriftianity, the r
the abolition of slavery, this bnaAefit lone
would have been immenfe., &o. ?: But
has Europe, or even half Europe, reaped
this boafted advantage from-tho ediablfi-

r , *

jf 43 ]
aredtnefehrlftianityrandMA.f Webllhngs
OtI chf Oit O elrlt4r fo- afttriwtuy
handzu 'and&1 t tnta< author th e
qucftionsiof th;thrlftian bbters -otflRia,
Poland, livon i.ihimiania, and t*h" K.
.tenfiva- province W..ill trey'not All join
in telling himn that 'hey contmiui to.this
day, in a ftate of themoftr .abjet~ila esy,
conftantly transferred, wih the foil-, from
thab: oprtbain. of 'onor Sttoultr ltant
toth be of a6o'her, who' hve' bibltite
power'bifbef theirlives. and ptopetites, .id
who daily abufeit, the moff cruel' tad
naetcilefs, manner "Let him even come
nearer home, and make the fame inquiries
among the prtt ant peafaritsof Iienttrk
and Norway, and they will inform him,
that their fituatioa is fcarcely a fliade
tetteh And wifth r'Ifpett to America,
*hehn MkiE.taii y% aedd ethi; g o ig
safTrtior, )e zinuft Usye totally orgt, that
lwitfianity and i ery made their
oriina appearance 1i ihat quarter to-
gether s 'd' that, P6pe Nich6las V. in
the celebrate hull iy wl(ch he refnted
the new a Und ;known world to the Spa-


4"Mad&Port4goUee, not only rmitted,
A W ordq&rd, diareC&fllkCr tomc-
*tic l the l ideldibabitats irtojtyadw -
a Ccomand whichidfis well known wxa
capzSoate execdtt*,'i with tie utrdimoft
barbaRity of sel by tfik pious ecclefiafics,
aw wtll a, the military comiaandmcrs of
bethn d tiatioeOn
w" 1 W
tng an 4s AcB with whIt
Jhame and fotow mnti we itwit~ that
**'jh wWho h beeniffed fo high eove
'hct IAllows, by he inflece of this
heaven-doef4cded liberty, at this day is,
and for more thni two centarae- paft,
has beea, fltiving, withAill e yenatu-

For be it from me to ipn, this tuhe fightofR *
fletiou on a religion, under wioo T*,fpr tions we
enjoy too many folid blci.gv, tpo nndAr it Wielffmy
to cdl in theaEflance of idel advntagea. It rhasb
frequently lamented by the tcmpnrae uAnd judiolo6-
friends of Chrift anity, tnAI.t ha. (fitdn .Im im4
the inconfiderat, b tho.Vgh CWl) Beartn ttflts tfweak
defenders, than from the potent attatartild
enemies. Perhaps Mr, Ramray's readers a.y thiqk,
that, gnrat as his knowledge may h1i6 has-on this,
404# other occafiuns, pcrmittcd his zeal to outrun it.

,r fs 1
[ I
rous energy oft gcampc vl pmt, to
eftabflz lavery ia. ttwam w wor4l3
"region where thM cutfe of flarvey was
Unknown, U through an infernal
Love of goli?. jA introduced, and Axed
"it ? But when the Englifh (for though
thePortuguefeand Spaniards had trass-
ported Africaws moje early to their
American fettlements; yet Hawkins, an
SEnglin na, is fid fi4 -to hawv given
ocaSion for the prefeat inhuman trade)
a natipi moft highly fyour d ofliberty
"is viewed, as taking thb lead. in this sift
odious traffic, and as bending down the
fi .io utterdarknefs, the more effao-
c tually to inflave the body; freedom
muff bluth indignantly, while humanity
t mournS : over the reproachful tale." I
muff confefs I do not readily comprehend
,the exa&%-,meaning" of this long and la-
boured period it r'tes, however, to con-
tail foiaeoing of a pmpilinent to the
Poritwgaue and Spaniards, at the expence
of the poor Englifb, by infinuating, that
aftheugh tlt.two former did akually firft
introduce Aftians into the new world,

tbe^ 4 ofthd them only off parties of
i WfIr it; btr tt they were m6dh more
fnodent infleahtt ligrbes, than Sir John
Hawkins was in purchhaingthem. Hving
tlrtWy thewn, that tshe ufdrtunate na-
tivei df America were reduced by their
inhalitin difcoverers arid conquerors to the
moft atje& idid horrid flate of flaveryj I
am led to 'r iark, tat Mr. Raifay is
'eqtillff hii'Aeh, in fuppding ,that tAe
trade for neghbds was originally ~ftbhIAfied
by qy Eutopet natibn, much tW~6 .t e
English. If he had read the Nubian &eo-
grapher,* he would have found, that the
Moors of'the noith bfAk ica iradeA fbr
flaves with the inhabittn idf die different
branches of the river Niger, byaTd Inland

He lived in the twelfth century; wa-- native of
Africa, and wrote originaly in A4 i-; his work in
that language was fir4k printed at Rome, and was. at.
terwards tranflted into Latin, and publlhcd, at Paris
in 619g, under the dtle of Gteographia Nubti'fi,

Vide alfo Leo Afrianus, another Moovikh author,
whore work was publifhd in Italian* at Rome, in
1554, in the firft volume of Ramuflo's Colledtion of

1 17 1
conpuunication, wa far back, as iiitory
fu f$ihes us with -my aem uht of -thqIp
counties; and long before the ea codks
ofWG uinea were difcoveed by the early Pore
tuguefc adnv tuers,t who found this trade
firaly and regularly etablhihed, on their
Bfirt vifting thofe countries. TheirownfIave
trade, however, had its beginning fo foon
as i443, many years preceding the difco-
very of America. At flrt-f the Portuguefc
carril off the natives by force, but about
the ar z444, Gonzales, oAe of their
leaders, returned from the coaft of Guinea
with:a cargo of negro flaves regularly pur-
chafed; and they foon after fettled proper
markets, on difirent parts of the goaft,
for that purpofe. This traffic foon in-
creafe4d, that in 6445 not lefs than even
or eight hundredd negroes were annually
brought as Alaves to Lilbon. It was not,
however, till, the beginning of the fix-
teenth century that the Spaniards and
Paotuguefe thought of exporting negroes
to their fotdlements in the weffern world,
which began to. be motl dreadfully depo-
pulated by the unufual labour the natives
C were

[ 18is ]
w torsmed to uNdergo, and e den(air
*t$abIned by fath theatm-breakingtchage
t circumftances I and it was many years
afterwards that the Englilh endeavoured
to follow to promising an example. For
what teafon, then, does Mr. Rsmfay take
fuch potl to load his innocent country-
man. ith the odium of being thje*ffwM
embarked in fuch adifgracefulcommerce?

In this part of'his work, the author intro.
duos a long no~, giving an account of a
moft favage inftance of barbarity in a
Gaines captain. But fappofing the fait
to be as he plates it, what does it prove
further, than that power intrafted to ig-
*;norant and merciless monsters will fome-
times be abufed: the trials of different
barbarians, to be found in the aanals of
the Old Bailey, will provw as much. I1
cannot help, however, being inclined to
fufpe4, that 'fome circumrfances of horiad
neceflity muft have come out on the triml
alluded to, in palliation of the captai's
condud & if not, why was he fadfered to
fccape a criminal profecution ?-In the
fame note the author alfo adduces, as a

C '9 3
prodtof the bumankty of tht Nort" A4
rican Indians, that they are to who4
" without the conception, of the potflbi
t lity of one man's being fubmitted to the
4 will of another, that they know no
" medium between rafting their pioneers
"* and adopting them into their families ja
which is as much as to fay, tjiat roafling
a man alive is more humane than com-
pelling him to fervitude. But I muft beg
leave to doubt, whether fuch guropean
prifoners as may occasionally fall into the
hands of there tender-hearted Iqdians will
not be of a different opinion.

Set. iv. page 37.-This whole fedioa
is filled with a cool,, deliberate, and di-
getted fchieme,propofed by that celebrated
friend to liberty, Fleter of Saltoun, for
reducing the Scotch nation into their ori-
gnmal fate of slavery. What immediate
coitnecion this has with Mr. Ram&y's
own plan, or with what propriety he has
introduced it into his Cly, I do noteafily
discover. It ifeves, however, to fhew, into
what inconflftencies and absurdities men
C 2 of

[ o]
of arm imaginations are fometimeshur-
-ed in purfuit of fame favourite political
1hypothefis. A much, fronger instance of
which, indeed, immediately follows; for
would you think itL reader ? in a long and
laboured note, our reverend author him-
(ef (p. 41) proposes one of the moft
Accentric, and extraordinary schemes of
bis own, that ever entered into the heart of
man to conceive ; nothing lefs, I .afure
you, than but let Mr. Ramfay
(peak for himfelf-'- Vagabond beggars
are a nufWancc which call loudly for re-
drafs, and which every well-regulated
society will exert itfelf to get rid of.
Let every vagabond be considered as the
** property of the public. Let a day be
fixed, by proclamation, for, apprehending
them throughout the kingdom. Let
their service be fold, for feven years, to
fuch as have employment for them.
Let the money got for the firong be
given to the weak. If, at thesepira-
"tion of their avery, they thew adifpo-
"fition to fettle, and can make a private
bargain with any refpopfible perfon,

" who will answer to the public for f
" behaviour, and will take them to wbrk
" on the footing of free labourers, let
"them be discharged. This will excite
" them to be honeft and faithful. Slawry,
" except for a crime which forfeits life,
" should not be for life, that it may not
" perpetuate ]fwmry to their children.
" Every vagabond child flioud be brought
t up to !fome ufeful calling, and be free
"at thirty years of ago.' They all, when
"reftorea to freedom, thouid be allowed
"a settlement. A particular magiftrate
" should fuperintend their treatment, hear,
" and decide on their and their mailers
" complaints. If, at the termination of
S" any period of/wvery, they be found gn-
" worthy of freedom, lit them be &old
" anew. Ifputchafers do not oftir, let
E* them be divided by lot, and their thil-
" dren be apprentices. Coarfe, wholefome
"'food Thould be allotted them; the kind,
".aridmtinimum to be fixed by law, &c.
" Icc. &c."-.Thus, by eniyaving and fel-
ling all the Englifh white vagabonds, and
enfranchifing all the Weft India black ones,
C 3 and

I0AU.p. ar,

thereby engraftiung this undplot into
&auihor's main design, it may very foon
ppen, that an African negro will enjoy
the heartfelt triumph, of feeing half a
fcore w itelaves crouching abjectly at-his
feet, and trembling at his very nod; an
event which will undoubtedly furnish a
new and pleasant compartment, to that
well known and moft deletable print
failed bc world turned upfle-t-w," in
which the cook is roafted by tlde pig, the
man addled by the horfe, &c. 4c. But
to be feriQus, is it credible, that fo wild
a project could have gravely dropped from
the pen of fo zealous and profefled an ad-
vocate for universal liberty !

Page 44.-Speaking of Flet, res, argu-
menrits, our author obferves, "Hp fuppofeth
* that a fenfe of interest will prevent the
" abufc of power in the master. There
* cannot be a fairer deduction in theory,
" (which was all he could have to go upon)
" nor is there one ipore fale in f&.'"-
So far, however, is Fletcher'F conclusion
from being falft in fiat, taken generally,


that a vity flight acquaintance wit44
man nature will be fufficient to eftablil
the truth of it.

Sef. v. page 5.--* Mafter and Rave,
i in the French colonies."--Througi the
whole of this fedion the author Jeems
eagerly to embrace every opportunity, of
exprefling fudh an unnatural prepoTfeffion
again the Britifh planters, as exhibits no
very exuaaedidea either of his patriotifin, or
his candour; of this unaccountable illi-
berality there are fo many glaring instances,
that they deserve to be expofed. He is
equally induftrious in villifying our own
colonial inftitutiens, and crying up thofe
qf our inveterate and natural enemies,
On what weak and infufficient grounds, he
founds this fiagular and prepofterots pre-
ference, hall be the next object of 'ny
inquiry; nor am I totally difqualified for
fuch italk, having occasionally vifited moft
of the French windward islands from mo-
tives of cumiofity alone, and having re-
ceived much informationn' from tome of
C 4 the

4jmazmft. capital, and intelligent fettlers
aong themn

Page S2, &c. contain a brief Rate of
the regulations relating to flaves in the
French ilwads, which I allow to be a'
pretty exadt repreintation, of what ought
to be. The. Code Noir of the French,
meptioned with to'much applaufe by Mr.
Ramfay, and from which his extrats are
chiefly takeais afqt of rules mn deinFrance
in the year x685, as a choek upon the natural
abiuf of unlimited authority. Many enco-
miums have been lavished qpon this cele-
brated Code, but whoever will takethetrou-
ble p compare it with the different. laws
(laws made by the very matters themIelves,
who arc bound by them) in force among,
the BritiUh islands, in favour of the ne-
groes, will find the French flaves have few,
or no clential advantages fecured to them,.
beyond what are enjoyed by thoe- ianthe
English fettlements. The misfortuneat-
tending our regulations is, that they are
fcattcred through different volumes,_ and
many of the moft modern, and eaif hu-

man6 adh in favor offlVer 'n-
printed and unknown; whereas the oela&
Noir of France is a fhort and compact
ordinance, easily to be met with, and foon
to be read over. And here Iscannat but
exprefs a hope, that it was an igeamance of
the many unpainted lawsof the different
iflands concerning flaves, which has led
Mr. Ramfay, to peak in 'uch acrimonious,
terms of the Englith colonial infhitutions;
and I can iafure my readers, at-'the fame
time, that 'in moff of our iflands the fol-
lowing printed laws, among many others
in favour of negroes, continue in force,
allowing for a few variations, arifing from
unexpected accidents and local circtum.
frances, viz;

1. A specific allowance of clothing, un-
der penalty of fine, on their masters,
6cc. to be levied on oath, by juflices,
confaables, &c.

2. Provifions to be planted on every estate,
in proportion to the number of its
3. Jail-

[ sJ
ftJikeepem, having delinquent flaves
Sin cuftody, to supply them with pro-
per food, water, and lodging, under a
proper penalty

4. Female convids pregnant, refpited until
a proper time after delivery.

5. Mafters, and mifteffes, &c. are to en-
deavour, as much as poffible, at the
inftru6ion of their flavor, in the
knowledge of the Deity, and the prin-
ciples of chriffianity, and to promote
their conversion, and baptifim.

6. Slaves not to work on Sundays, Chrift-
mas-day, Good Friday, ke. &c.

7. Liberty for flaves to plant provisions,
and to carry about, and fell the fame;
Sand alfo freffh meat, fifh, poultry
fall ftock, and vegetables; wit'pCe-
naltics on fuch as interrupt, or de-
fraud them.

8. Slaves

8. ShkvM.at to Ca..ur Wf pIf a "iy
cular thefts of ftock, &c. under the
value of five pounds.

9. Slaves not to. be maimed, or mutilated,
at the will of their.owners, 6&c, awder
very heavy penalties.

io. Perfuns killing flUves, wantonly, or in-
humanly, to be deemed guilty of fe-
Jony, with benefit pof clergy :for the
filoffence, but liable ta hpC'ad
imprifonmenc; for the second offence,
to sufferr death.

But to return to the Code Noir, 4aad the
difinguiflfed benefits the French flaves are
faid to enjoy under it. One of the prin-
cipal of thefe mentioned by the author,
(p. 52) is "the many holy-days the maf-
" ters are obligedd to allow their negroes,
" in confequence of the fafts and feftivals
" of the Roman church."-It is true, the
French planters do permit their flives to
refrain from work on fome particular fo-
lemn days; but the notorious consequence

S[ a8 ]
; tihatdr they compel them to make up
-&bh loft time, by working after fa-eat,
particularly when the moon favours fueh
extra labour.

Page 5.-" Every fave has a claim to :a
a certain allowance of-food, and cloath-
ing, &c. &c."-A daim, indeed, it ap-
pears by the Code Noir he has :but whether
he gets that certain allowance, or not, de-
pends (it is well known) intively on the
good, or bad understanding, between his
mailer and the officer of the quarter ap-
pointed to fee that law detected.

Page 54.--" The refpeft in which mar-
" rige is held, brings a further advantage
to French slaves, &c."-It is really
more than enough to make the graveft
cynic file, to hear of the refted in
which marriage is held by the French
flaves, when it is fo well known; that
among their masters adnd miiftreaes abroad,
as well as the whole nation in Europe,
this holy facramnent is considered as a mere
engagement of interest, or convenience;

and atl coatbe pde osiht h
of itsiwft folkmn vowis wlith ia
cuftom, and faxtionecLd by faiono: ~sa
in the French islands, them promifcuous
commerce with colored womenis carried
to fuch an indecent height, that in a
planter's houte, the waIiewife is ftiqueatly
the perfon of kit corfquence in the

P4ge 5-51-"-" The French flies reap a
" confiderable advantage -from the. pr-
Sfeinee of their owners, 8cc.%-1-T asWpy
in pact be true, apd for this reafon-.thie
being bus very f1w.,of the French Creoles,

4 The praclnee.of -the proprietor is by no means
i~afmily attcaded with advaptags to his negroes on
the contrary, I have generally obfeirved, in the Englilh
iflandt, that the ,aves oftmall propritonir, ho'efttd
6i their -own eftates we the wom provided fori fom
the inability. of their owners, who perfonally feels and
are co f( uently temptw4 avoid, the left additional
expenee. Whereas managers have no inducements to
curtail' thed ives commted to their care, as it cannot
but be much to ieir credit, t6have them noticed as
well doatbed, vAgous, healthy, .and contented.

f 30 1
o itbef etf ftent to Enrope for education;
*ltte^ 6 Bhught up entirely amdiR ft u-
tittoes and negroes; and it is no uhcoin-
mron thing, in the houfe of a Frenci
platter, to- fee his d children, of three ot
four diflteent complexions, fitting down
at the &Amietab e; aitdliice dbiefly arfte-
that ft iliatrity between'the whites and
coloured people, which our author chtffes
to' consider as fo honourable to Frenth
humtnity. In confequence, however, of
this wart 6f education, and this vinfa-
'iarity; with their flives, the European
NFench te induced' to hold the Creoles in
the' rdft fevereigilcodtinpt; and'their
naval and military officers frequently ex-
preffed their furprize, during their late
r-dfdence in the captured iflands, at find-
ing the Englith planters, in general, o
much more accomplished, and fo much
better informed.

Page 55, note.-" The French gover-
nors have liberal appointments fMtn the
crown, to fet them above'the necefity,
and to take' away the lerptai ts of
"t oppref-

[ 33 ]
oppreding tie people. wy-esatiagwc.
Ir traonadkary ees from. thua. uthioIa
ner of our WeftIndia governors, &c."-w.
In the whole of this note Mr. Ramthay
mcift feverw y arraigns' the conduct of the
Briviih govemnentA ref p&aing its trcat-
aent of the Sugar I lands: and happy
shouldd I be, to have it in my power to re-
move Luch pointed accufationa; but trath
obigei me t-o 'oniSl, that his charges,
heavy at they appear to be, are founded on
well4cnown fads. Long, indeed, hate
thofe valuable colonies looked up I thteli
mother-country in vain, for a redrel of
fuch a train of ppreffive evils.' Perhaps
the aupiclons time may be at laft ap-
promaciag when they may be deemed, of
eNfeqttnce-enough, to beincluded in the
gie-eral pla of reform, fo nobly and fea-
fqnably adopted, by the beft and ableft of
ministers. "'Tis a coanfummation -" dc-
*1voutly to be wished ;" for fare I am,
tha Ie.er was' a period,.when the Sugar
Cor* p, ftoodiore in need of encourage-
meat and a .ftanee, fufftring, as they do
at prefect, uider an accumulated load of

[ 3! -3
diftrfi arifing from unftvourable feafons,
t *ef'.ttaptivity, andenoimous tAes..

Page 56.--* An Englilh planter, if out
of debt, or a efual erop be plentiful,
"mnfut .m0 away to England, wiih he
Calls his honiMe, Where encrally kt so
ewry affiljparujfeu ju J he vies with
the ndbUity. in eptert~inments, extrava-
gance, and cxpencn*- while his attorney,
and manager, are obliged to tvcrworkd,
tfnd inuch- his poor ilavs, to keep tp,
Pv iaosd tb the ufoal remittances. It
would make: ndignation Icrfclf-almoft
"- failede,
It hrts me nor a little, to ti. der tlensecety
of tamenring, that this illibetalprjudicehar, att times,
even found its way into the Saioteo the nation, wbore
the duals, have been ubd awIamaents tov poveihe abaibty
or the Supr Colonlei bmr at dhnal asffients.
Little do fuek oraitors know, that for one planter wiro
lives at his eace i. GreatBritan, there are fifty.tolliig
under a load of debt in thelihInds. The Na#r## the
Eaft, in this paricular, enjoy a very mate'.id(Atmtage
over the Ceomts of the Well, tleir &wrfla riches,
though the common ruub/jf of envy suibAdePcimaiion,
remain perfectly untaxabl, e. .

t. 33 ]
"n(milep to hear tak pitcoos 60neplaiigg
Setters to their agents read, when 1 t
nacoffitics of the plantation have occa-
fined a frmall drapght to be made on
them, &c.'-ln this curious paflage, as
well as in many of the fine kind scattered
through his performance, Mr. Ramfay
lofes fight of his main fubjett, in purflit
of what 1ecms his peculiar delight, dee-
grading the Englifh planters, and exalting
thoie of the French islands. I feel my-
felf, therefore, obliged to observe, that it
*is enough to make Indignation do fame-
thing more than Jfmil, to find fuch a
deteftabli caricature endeavoured to be im-
pofed on the world, is applicable to the
generality of creoles refident in Great Bri-
tain. If, after three or four generations
of their ancestors have sacrificed their
health, and finihed their lives in the toils,
ytxations, and difappointments, neceifarily
gttgndant on the forming of new fettle-
jpeuts, amidft the uncultivated wilds of
anwtl'thby climate, atd under the fcorch-
ing fnuernceeof a vertical fun, a very few
of their defccndants are happily enabled

to irturon 6 therit mothethk citiatty 14 Af'y,
0? even Affiuent eifefiftftancesi is this the
reception they melt ? In fpite, o6*Wet,
of the unjuft and iitihrheou rfftirfiis bf
this reverend fatyrtift, I am convintHe etbf-
dout willallow, there aie ntmnbc 6fW *ft
India gentlemen, now fettled in Englatid,
of the Ai4ft atnible AMId ftpjetamle cha-
rater : hay, 1 coid ahooft venuit t apf
peal to Mr. Ramfay himfeldf Aiethtr he
does not know among them, man-y worthy
and independent members of the Hoife df
Commons, m yariy opulent merchants, thny
ffimnAbI6 *nd 'fbti private gelkddwen?
Whether men ofrealgeniiit*tibiliti ,b.Wn
in the Weft Indies, are Aot ppiHoffiabi y
ibtermixed anong tihe learned prd6fbsfob;?
and whether brave and dbftlvitg crble
officers are not to bt foiud, both 9 Ac
navy and trmy of Great Britain ? Ifequity
and truth obliges the author t6 iWtfsr
thefe queftions in the aflirmati*j~ With
what appearance ofdeency, 6r prtiety,
does he prefume to paint the Weithdiahs,
as a band of inhuman and -pritciPled
tyrants while abroad, and a*et bf ufelefs,

unthinking, dilipated fpbnt1hrift when
at home. Bollde,, :ll hie difpalionate
readers muft readily agree, that fuch ma-
levolent and cr:et afperftons, if even they
could Rtand the telt of truth, fall but with
A vTry ill gracefrom-the penof a preacher
of peace humility, and forbearance.

Page $gO..-"'The French players, not
a having interest money to provide, nor
' the.amhition of retidng to Earope, are
4' not under the neceuity, &c.-'$-iay
the author might have found Aome wor-
thier motres than empty a*mition, for the
defirc fo many Weft Indians exprefs of
fotdIng at hose-A with to re-eftablih a
conftitudon fafering from the climate ;
a d*efre so 4new' the pleading friendi&ips
of youth ; un anxiety to fuperiotend the
education ofat ring family; and an ineli-
latioa to neqtire knowledge and improve-
'tetthemfelvesi may fbrely be admitted
2Wi'tdale1ncentives to a wi.h, in idelf
veryjnatuvL ,:Te oharktafle Mr. Rtamfay
foees, h~wary4,e =nwtlting to allow, that
an Buaglih eradle -an poffibly have any
D 2 other

( 36 ]
o.dter' view. in coming to Europe, but
either to borrow money, or to throw -it awayq
or, as he good-naturedly expreffes it, to
be loft to every aftfulpurpofe in.f ."

Page 59.-" The French plantation
" haves are attached to the foil, and can-
" not be drawn off to pay debts, or be
" fold separate from it; this gives them,
" &c."-In federal of ouriflands the flaves
arcfixed to the freehold more firmly than
among the Frenth, and (if I miflake not)
this is adually the cafe in the very ifland
where the author was to long resident.

Page 59.--" From thefe circumftancea,.
and from their manners being more
communicative, the French in the co-
Ion is live more in a family way, among
their flames, than our planters, &c. "--
That the French planters do certainly live
more in a jmily way among their negroes
than the Englifh, I hate already slowed:
but -if fuch fjnily intercourfe is really any
advantage to their flaves, it is aQtorioufly
a depreciation of their own characters, and

[ 37 3
consequence %i life. In'may here bt ne-
ticed, as a little lingulir, that although
the author takes fovral opportunities of
exposing, in the moft glaring colours, the
promiscuous commerce too common be-
tween the Englilh managers and overseers,
and the female flaves under their charge,
he is entirely silent as to any fuch practice
in the French iftands, where (as well as in
the SpUnilh settlements) it is, notwith-
Itandibg, openly carried to the moft noto-
rious and extravagant excefs, not merely
by young, raw managers and overfeers, but
even in families of the first rank, opulence,
and diftindion.*

This family intimacy between the. French planters
and their flahv produces fuch a number of Mulattoes,
Meztizes, and other fhades of complexion, that their
owners cannot find employment for half their mixed
breed about their hours, which occaficns m.ny flames,
nefry-as. fair their fallow matters, to be met with at
working thecammon fields and I have frequently feen,
the whip of French overseer laid over a pair of naked
Ihoulderitmuieh whiter than his own. In the Engliflh
iflandieven a Mdlattois feldoiareever found thelield,
or at other common hard labour. If there is no merit,
D 3 their

3[ 1
g. @4e, note.,-4' Though the French
",government ha cared, Ac."-In this
note our author appears unguardedly to
unfay, much of what he has been faying,
through many of his preceding pages; for
he allows that, had we governors, as dif-
" intrejed as the French, and aiding
" under the like benevolent infiru4tions,
" the difference would be highly in our
" favour."-So that, after all, the fault, it
fees, is not in the colonial laws, but in
the governors who administer them.

As the author has taken fuch uncom-
mon pains, to hold out to his readers, the
humanity, generosity, and attention, with
which the flaves are treated in the French
colonies, it may not be amifs to inquire,
what fame of their owt writers, much
better informed than either Mr. Ramfay,

their is molt certainly a decency, in pMrofVpJigtis
diltina&on. I h-ve aiually had a rich F$rcb later
pointed our to me, who took a pride in boafiny, that
At Icatf one third of his fieldgang wo tI produce of
his own loins.

[ 39 1
or myfUlf, Aave astpedyp pWbgi #z
fubje&. FatIer Cha.le4oix, a papUla
autJhr among h1is MoupUynC. in his hif-
tory of St. Domingo, thus expreffis him-
felf-" I ha41 finifll with what rejltes to
" the npgrops, who make a present the
largestt number of the fubjeas ip this
" colony. Nothing is more wretche4
" than the condition of the&e people ;
" they Aem to be considered as the dif-
grace of ntankjnd, and the ofca of
,' .atuwe: q4jed from their ative coqn-
* try, and deprived of l berty, a bleffing
'* which all other nations ,are jealous of,
" they find thcmfelves reduced npariy to
" the Pondition of beafts of burthen. A
" gcw rQeat is all their noorilhment: their
" loathing two mifersble rags, which
** neither procedt 4eWom from the heats of
".ihe day, or the chills of the night.
f? Their 4,wellings rfegable the dens de-
".pne4 Ir the lodging of bears; their
Sbed is a hurdle, apparently more fuited
" to bruife their bodies than to procure
" them reft; their moveables copftO in
" calabaihes, and a few earthen dishes;
D 4 their

M" *ad labour Ist conflt; their fieep
Sihorth ; no wages, and twenty ftrbkes
" with a whip for the mioft trifling fault."'

I hall ntxt cite a paffage, or two, from
a till more modern French traveller, whofe
liberal work has been deemed worthy a
translation into oar owi language. *" They
" (the flames) fays this spirited author,
" are treated in the following manner:
" At break of day, a final of three finacks
" of a whip calls them to work ; each of
" them betakes himself, with his fpade, to
" the plantations, where they work, almofl
" naked; in the heat of the fun. Their
" food is maize, bruised and boiled, or
bread made of manioc, and their cloath-
" ing a single piece of linen. Upon the
" commiffion of the rnolt trivial offence,
" they are tied hand and foot to a ladder;
" the overfeer then comes with a whip
" like a poffillion's, and gives them.^yA,
"a bun-
Hifloire de L' ifle Elpagnol, ou- de St. Domingue,
par P. P. F. X. de Charlevoix, 1731. Tome tfcond,
p. 496.

4 ] -
a iAnadW, or pemttnikdr Yed lthes
" tpont the back; Etch froke carries off
" its portion of fkin. The poor wretch
",is then untied, an iron collar with three
" spikes put round his neck, and he is
" then fent back to his talk. Some of
"them are unable to it down for a month
" after this beating, which punishment is
" inflilt with equid severity, en women
" W featlon men.

*T In the evening when they go home,
" they are obliged to pray for the prof-
" perity of their matter, and before they
" go to reft, theywifh him a good night.

".There is a law in force in their fa-
* vour, called the Code Nir, which or-
* dains, that they hall receive no -more
"than thirty lathes for any one offence-
" that they hall not work on Sun-
"Ldttys--that they hall eat meat once
" a week-and have a new flirt every
" year: but this low is not obferved. Some-
" times, when grown too old to labour,
" they are turned out to get their bread

6 $Orq.they Wa. Q day I Atw a poor
" crcagtur, whp was nothing but ikin and
"bone, cutting off the efh of added blrfe
" to eat.-It was .onc elcton devapring
" another."

Speaking of $f1ch laves as attempt to
run awmy, he fays-" In general they fev-
" cret themfelves in the woods, where
" they are hunted by parties of soldiers,
" and by other negroes with dogs. Some
",of the inhabitants form parties of plea-
"fjisre for this purpofek-put up a negro
" as they weud a wild beal, and if they
" cannot hunt him downi, will Thoot
"him-cut off his head-and bring it in
" triumph to town, upon the end of a
" ftick. Of this I am am eyc-wAtnoas
" every week.

*" When a Maronnegro is catches, he
"is .whipped, and one of hie ears cut off:
*" the fccond time, he is again whipped,
" the floews of hbi bams .c*. aerofs, and
' he is :put in chains: for &is .ir.d of-
C fenee, he is hanged; bt is UApt in ig-
4, norance

" nomaeo of h -AhptbV. till.. pwIkT
"aeeution." f -

A little further he faye-" Not a day
" paffes, but both men and women are
" whipped for having broken carthwiware,
" for not shuttingg the door after them, or
Sfoome fuih trifing r-afon; and when
" lmal vseed with bleoo am robbed
"w *ith iawg and falt to heal their
" pounds. On the key I have fometimes
"A.een thbm fo overwhelmed with grief,
"that thYq have been unable even to utter
" a cry-others biting the cannon to
" which they artied. My pen is weary
* of writing this recital of horrors; my
Sceyes of seeing, and my ears of hearing
'f their doleful moaninge."-Such is the
pidture of French Immaity, as recently
drawn by one of their own countrymen I
and -uch are the benevolent mafters and
miftreffes, whom Mr. Ramfay fits up as
patterns of imitation to the planters of the
Englih fizaIds1

A.pag or two further, this French

ttltor, thus -goesa on-" The :Coe Noir
" is faid to be made for relief oF the
" flaves. Be it fo-Yet does the cruelty
" of the makers exced the puniffiment it
" permits, and their avarice with-hotd the
" food, the reft, and the rewards it de-
" crees.-If the. poor wretches complain
" of this infringement, to whom do they
" feek for redrefs ? to judges, who are
" are perhaps the very tyrants under whofe
" appreflion they languilh."*
I have

Vide Voyaga to thq IflAnd of Mauritiu S &c. by a
French Officer i translated byJohanParilh. Pages zoo,
lot, o103, and 104.

It may be objerled, that I have hem quoted an author
who is giving an account of the Fiench oriental cold-
nics. My anfwar i, I did fo by choice: for the lhves
who amr carried to the islands of Bourbon, and Mauri-
tius, being generally people of better capacities, and
more civilized manner, than the Guina negroes, t ey
arc much lefs likely to deserve ill ulige.

I think it incumbent on me, in this plaue, to ani-
mnadvert on a note introduced by the traunfltor of the
French work I have juft quoted, wherein he fees to
triumph, in having detcB&ed a species offavage cruelty,

I have now followlt dwauthovr tvrgi
the whole of this fiMd fisaion. tcan = ot

pradifri by the poor ( igmatied EngliA planters;
which is the ufre or an iron malk, or muzzl, fuch as
he minutely defcrihcs, to prevent the flaves roth eating
canes, during thdck Lbour; in ctnp-thne. The tnily
inftrumeneof the kind, atluded to by Mr. Parit, Which
cverUfll uuder mf rouwQq, 4url'n foyaal -p m re.-
Lid4is pj #O WAct Indies, came fom he French
lOands, where ts :rel ure ii, to preveor their faves
dlin'tart, aihes, kc. while under cure fbt a lthler
wty prevaltnc among them, called Le MsldLfEftomac,
very analagous to our Chlorolis, or Green-licknefs.
This diLimpcr in pot (9 commonian tho EpgAIbAiflunds,
but is foincrimn'" mot with, nil I1 am convinced, the
machine I faw, was procured from one of the"French
fertlements, f(r the exprifs purpofe of uFing it in a cure
oth skind. As to the ftory of slaves in the Weft
Indies being muzzkld, as Mr. Pa4(l.prtexuds, to hinder
their feeding on the fugar canes, it is an idWal tlc,
calculated only to fil in with the prejudice' of the
Inoft ignorant of the vulgar ; the introduction of it,
therefore, in a translation of rome merit, recflts no
rendit either on the translator's candour, or undertand-
ing; as i cant be fully coufutrd, even by the evidence
oF eery common.-ailor whohas nude a voyageto the
EnglUfh ilamnds. Mr. Parih a(ys, with an affaftation
of humour, a friend of his, of well-known benevo-
" lCa, Makats uf, of one of thefe muz-les, as an

,ea o uonchdbe fmy remarks upon it,
Without confefling my ignorance of the
propriety of his introducing it at all into
his publication. For what immediate re-
lation has the good, or bad, uiage of jrench
flavs, to do with an Effay written pro-
feadlry on the Treatment and Converflon
oftE git onesf The only spprent rea-
fen, therefore, for Mr. Ramafy's having
given hinifelf fo tnuch unneceffary trouble,
frectm to be, the rooted prejudice he has
taken h, Avnor of dhe French planters, and
the iveterate tverfion he has imbibed
against his old friends and acquaintance of
the Enghib islands.

I fhali now proceed to consider the au-
thor's fixth fetion, intitled Mafter and
Slave in the Britiih Col6nies."-In this
part of his book, he continues to difcover,

IRON argument agaiut flava-holding." But if
Mr. P'rifT, and his honevolent friend hae no better
argument agalait Oaw-holding, than ibey can draw
from their iaon MrMeto, atheynMydoas wSn, to4cavc
-the fubJe&t to mow liberal, and kettinaronwd ad.

the fame avidity ft t2Moy. ocemhoC iff
ftigiksttiMag the 1*t$ planters as the
moft batbarout and cruel masters; and,
indeed, at the molt vicious and unprinci-
pled of men. I muft towatfs, fie feem
inclitAble, noow and then, to throw ina
little dafih or two of white-Waii aIOJng
his load of blatkibg-all; but it it dI e
with to little feltce, shtfuch very iligace,
that after giving twenty btokon hta s he
has tt the oharity to fumth -*ovae one
pwlfter bl e tttdtenefe in thi Mef&, ft
6tmlyr ike that of an inquifite, who ghnt
i trifling refpite to the obJedt he ki tor--
menting, that the dTroted 'vieim of his
perfecution may be enabled to bear a freAh
fueceffion of torture: for example-

rge 6z..--" The Englih flve has to-
thing to check him in ill-doing, but the
fears of the whip,* and this is a weak re-

The altthWI,- h nall orisfitewherele cmn in-
troduce it, bttlffig'n the feerityof the punidhmiets
infliald by the pliftson the lr delinquent&hives. I
have fortunately +ttiert ee wittfms say -eones of

*, fltinton af arvin er.w g appetite. The
, French flavevis placed above the Ilicita-
" tions of hunger and, rpefting his beha-
" viour, has to thedread of pain, fperadded
" as a guide, the hopes and fearsof religion,
"and the approbation and difpleafihre of
"his prieft. The French, in the treat-
' ment of their flaves, regard the fuggef-
" tions. of humanity, an4 enforce its
" didates by their laws. The .Engli.
" have not paid the left attention sto can-
" force by a law, either humanity or jufr
", tice, as ,they may refpeCt their flames.
"' But if you except a laiw, that Governor
" Lake got ena&ed in Nevis, to diftin-

this kind. Fifteen or twenty ftrokes with a whip is
reckoned a pretty (mart ,jnliftion ; and here ar ad-
miniftercd on that flcehy part of the body belt adapted
to bear hemn. Whoever has often attended a military
parade, may have had an opportunity of seeing tWo,
three, or five hundred laihes given to a poor culprit, on
a much more fiilible part, with regular profeffbrattend-
ing, to tell by the pulfe, how much tarture human na-
ture is capable of bearing, without expiring. Corporal
punishment is uf late much difuled in the Weft Indies,
and confinnement adopted in its place.

"obligeth maters -to allot to their slaves
" a certalaportion of land for the growth
" of provifions; and one, in thi? laft
" island, that grants them Saturday after-
" noon for the culture of it; I recalled:
" not a ngle claufe in all our colony
"adb s,4d I perA4 the fareral codes
w ,th Vtl ew of remarking fuch)
.40d to iecure them the left humane
tcatment, or to fave them from the
: capricious cruelty of an ignorant, 'un-
" principled ma( error, am ofec, unfeeling
" overfeer. Nay, a horfe, a cow., or a
" fheep, Is much better prote&ed, with us,
* by the law, than a poor flave, &c. &c."-
For a refutation of the afpcrfions con-
tained in the firfi part of this curious
paifage, and the comparison therein drawn
between the French and Englllih colonists,
I am convinced I need only refer my reader
to the quotations I have already produced
from well-informed French writers.-.
And as to the latter part of the foregoing
Ariltures, if Mr. Ramfay has really pe-
E rufed

Itf/, ournr col ny w I am ferry bi
rme ion Thoul ae to ftragely dc-
'erted him, when Ue compofed that re-
proachful paragraph; as I am firmly
convinced, if he will take the trouble,
once more to read over, attentively, the
laws made in the different iflands, both
in print and manufciipt, he will find
among them, many a&s maderpurpofely
for proteiing the perfons of flaves ; and
(if I may venture to ufe fuch anexprefion)
for fecuring to them the poffeflion of their
little property: a few of there I have al-
ready pointed out in the former part of
there remarks, and if I chofe to truft en-
tirely to my recollection, I could iniiance,
perhaps, many more.

That the lives of Wpft India flaves are
totally in the power, and at the difpofal of
their proprietors, and that a white man is
not accountable for the murder of a negroj
are mere vulgar errors, which fAbm, how-
ever, to be but too generally adopted in
Great Britain.-Local policy may fome-
times indeed have occafioned a remiflnefs

f tdon been pTred'
Si igatii on and in
S here proper evidence could
S C secured, the offenders have suffered
capital purnfl'raena As to the cruelties
Ww flam, on luothler, whic
b urfal gin&br.
'Ue.4 are g6*erully jirpt-
~4cr tet fiaion of theirelpae&ive

Inthe 1llud of -lior thw inn was, not
long fih iet xcitd for the uft"der dt ftt*mde flair;
with wham be cohabited; ro lately (I think) asA:uring
the govenrtin of Mr. Fitmmauricc.

In one of the old Leeward iflands 'I was, fiance tiat
priod, witnads to the apprchending of two white : an,
on rulicdan of the murder of a neiro 0v4 of
utn wais admitted evidence, and both comKitted to
jil. but the evidence breaking prisons and running
nwayfvom the ifand, the other has north yet been triu |
he continued, however, a 1 ngwhitel in clofe confine-
minet, and teniains (I belieV,) ill bourrd over, toalppear
from fedions to aims, being at libertyonlIyh vesy
Irget Ial. 2

own*, it is w*eUknown they are con-
fitn^ and-rigourotrflypunifhe*

Page 67.-"* It'will perhaps be al-
" pledged, &c."-Here the author conde-
fcends fo far, as to affure his readers, that
his firiitres are meant to extend to Euro-.
pean fettlees in the Wet India islands, as
wall as to the native inhabitants. If he
really means, by this concefion, to pay any
.thing like a compliment to the Cteoles,
it carries but an aukward appearance ina
this place.

Page 69.-In this, and the following
twenty pages, Mr. Ramfay gives a minute
account, after his manner, of the life of
the generality of negroes in the Englith
iflands. In this detail, every thing to-
fpcfing their hard labour, and ill treat-
ment, is grolly exaggerated; and all whic4
regards attention to their comfort .ait
hapjitnefs, is barely mentioned.-I uay,
perhaps, therefore, attend the reverend
author, fo eldfely through tlhe dtirent
parts of this fcfcion, as to incur the.cen-

A 1&, the.fubdtb
---f 1uch should
K an earnift defire to detc&
Snvetigate truth, plead my

0k tit. the main-
riqg. to Ceni
the feld."-Now every
ge-graphy' knows, that in the
ofde mof ilof our igar islands, it is
gbvcn wheneths days are longcit,
4 ttl f f ik~. Fovbat purpooe,
'*thbpi the negr es should b. collced
10 ( jo by four, Mr, Ranray alone

"Fgs 69, 70, &c.-In the authoe.s ae.
of the plantation duty of the flames,
otic ys the greatest part of four or
4 w g, in e;xpatiatin .on the toil of
pii grats. This is a department
iof*W4ei which is certainly attend
r t orc trodi e in the land where
tJived (from the peculiarity of its foil)
E 3 than

j L I

than riany, other ij the WeftIn4ies yet,
.teenj it is not hiAf io tirefomne i he en-
deavours to reprelt i, for in feafbnable
weather, add particularly when the flives
are employed in weeding, they have little
to do, more than to colled the grafs into
bundles, which they have already hoed
off the ground; in the drift parts of the
island, this is the cafe near half the year;
and in the mountainous and feafonable
parts, even of St. Chrifother, thc grarf
aid other food for cattle, which grows
among the canes, is in fuch plenty as to
* become a auifance.-The author muft
likewifo well know, that in wet feafons,
the -laves are not only able to procure
the grafs required of them for the eftate,
but that they frequently bring large bun.
dies to town to fell on their own. account,.
both at noon and in the evening. In mof
of the other iflands, this terrible talk is a
mere nothing, except now and then, dit-
a fpcll of uncommon drought.

By Mr. Ramfay's account A- negroes
do not get to fleep tll midnight, aad arc;

ro$.gft ^ by t&,[.tbe morning.1
The abiwrdipy of -fuppofing any fbt of
beings, cpud undergo a regular life of la-
bour,,.wih only four hours reft out of the
twenty-four, cfpecially when fed fo indif-
ferently, as be pretend, is too glaring to
noted ary comment.-TThe real fad is, that
thi work zxpedtod from the leaves
J r109 eIght o'clock except
A m when fuch as attend the
l a boiliig-houte (perhaps fifteen
ot twenty out of a hundred) continue their
attendance an hour or two laterI and on
plantation where there are only cattle
mills. thii division remains sometimes
employed with proper relief, molt part
Scthe night. So that it is a negro's own
fault, if he does not get a much larger
?ition of fleep, during a year, than falls
', the (hare of an officer in gArrgin, or
on Qard a fhbip of war.

Page 7.-,-After praising the fklAl Of
the overtor, in being able to take. out
hlake-of kin Nwith a whip, the author Lays,.
'.thc wretch, in this mangled condition,
E 4 "is

[ s )
*'is -tned ,o ato.,work in dry or wet
w weather, which 1i4l now ad then,
brings on the crampi and ends his fnf-
ferings and flavery together."--So far is
this from being the pra&ice, thtt .our
planters are remarkably careful to prevent
even their unmangled negroes from being
exposed in wet weather; they are per-
mitted, during rain, to retire from the
the field to the neareft shelter nor is it
uncommon, for temporary theds to be
ere4ked for that purpofi:c and it is alnioft
an unvaried cuftom, to supply fuch flaves
as have been unavoidably exposed to a
wetting, with a proper cordial to coun-
teraf the pernicious effe&s of fach an
accident; whole gangs being, don thef
occasions, ferved either with a dram, or an
allowance of warm toddy.

Page 77*-" Every plantation contains
little skirts &c."-Here Mr. Ram&y
allows that the Engg/b flaves have land
allowed them to plant for themselves;
which he fecmed totally to haie forgot,
while he was launching out in praife of

t 17 ]
theh cbae regulation i that rtaeOL He
fecas alfo to confe areven an A i
n1gro, under ail h mis erable oppreftlons,
want nothing but a little natural industry,
tO mnakW his life tolerably comfortable.

Palg 78.--" Formerly, before we be-
" o tC' i CCOual0te planters, and before
i~ haWIlG0y converted every
Sdof land itftofigar, the flavas
fitld or two of the fallow cane-
S.htn yearly divided among' them, for a
* crop of yams, &c. "-And fo they have
fill in mott of the vhatbs which have
fallen under my obfcrvation. 1i muft con-
fWl, howvcr., that had the proprietors of
fu&h plantations poffeffed the fecret al-
faded to by Mr. Ramfay, of converting
every inch of their land intofugar, iitmight
not have been the cate.

Page 79,-" Added tW the produce of
", their ow provifion lands, and the ca-
" fualty of' a fallow field, the flavek have
" a weekly itlowance of grain, varying in
" different pli9tationsi from one to three
.* pounds,

[ s8 ]
poundss, under the nominal iealue
'Ci6om two to eigikt pits. A few plan-
"tations go near t6five pounds; one or
" two as far as fix. They have aflob from
" three to eight herrings a week. ,l.
" general they are far from being well or
" plentifully fed."-So it feems, aftdr all
Mr. Ramfay has thought himfelfautho-
rifed to throw out in the former parts of
his elaborate treatife about "feanty allow-.
" ane,"-" wretched pittance,"-- b 6ia'f-.
"tflarved /leves," &c. now that he is la-
bouring this particular point, the fevereft
thing he can fay on the fubje& is,
that theWeft India slaves are, in general,
" fir from being wwel/, or plentrjilty /jdI"
and cannot he, with the utmofft propiety,,
affert the fame of the labouring poor of
the freeft countries on 'earth ? Their
fallow countenances, and emaciated figures,
fpeak this truth but too plainly I

I hall not differ greatly from Mr. Ram-
fay, when I affitre my renders, that the
general allowance,* on a toletably well
In fpeakitg of regulations, allowance, &c. I wifh

* antof crop-time, (Aiffix to 4 i4tapmw
o iour, oatmeal, rce, peafe, &c. and fr6di
fix to eight falted Scotch herrings, for a
wekel to each flave above the age of a
fiuking infant;-during grinding feafon,
which lafts from four to five months, this
allo~ae i3 ptrhapt reduced to from
fod of dA.r, &c. and to from
#,j40 heavng'. Exclhfivo of thi0
Af lt owance, it is cuftoinary, on moft
ttonws, to give each negro, at break-
Aift-time, during the rainy time of the
yearc. ; 4ip 1tf*uit, with a trautght of
mold C Anjld water, which iis diftlbuted
in the field. This breakfast allowance is,
in generil, extended to the negro children.
through the -whole year. I will, however,.
drop, for the present, all extra indulgences,
*ad fuppoft the average allowance. of
etch flave, through the whole year, to

thim to be winderftoad, as adopted by Cuch efates, as
bave fallen u--qdr my more immediate minrpefon.-In
a fo, perhapi the treatment of the flai s may not have
been lb libeinal; nf, in others, I havetnot the'tvanity
to doubt, but they may have been much muore o.

bedve.kly1 fipints o flour, &e. andfix
h&itgs. Now, iffmiay not be a difqui-
Alooa foreign to my piiupoc, to compare
this allotment of food with what ma.y b
purchased by the weekly earnings of aa
Enghlih hlbourer. A negro, for himself,
his wife, and four children, receiyes
thirty-fix pints of flour, Sc. and thifty-
firhIterrings. The labourer earns fix fhil-
li'gs a weekt to support himfeif, his wife,
and his four children. With his fix hil-
lings he purchfitst a buhel of wheat ,* he
carrots it to the mill, and brings home
two thirds, 6or fay, even three fourths, of
it in loutr. H1 has, therefore, at molA,
but forty-eight pints of flour to divide
among his family, or two pints a weekjC
each, more than the negr ; which diffe-
rence is amply made up' by the negro's

It may be objeced, that the labour ,6

This indeed he cannot always do, wheat being,
tome years, at eight and nine billings th'babel, In
miny parts of England the poor f'ldom, if ever, tafte
wheaten bread.

". ]
thcwl sinan', se a 4iildiq aJdd

but from the' fubl# ohfervation, ani
inquiry, I find, that in a poor family, with
foureor five.children, the children are ge-
neially too young to earn any thing, and
the time of the wife, of course, taken p
in attending them) and it is only as the
d wH 4p a Ici agot thsriwgt, that
th p b eo any Arvio to their
X however, the earnings of the
wif'and children should anouit to half
the wages of the man, how many calls ha
the popr wtrtch for tuch addaIong I :G
has haitSroitto pay, cloatha for l"imnfef
and fipgUy to purchase, drink and fuel to
procure, And something beyond mere bread
to look out for. All there are wants un-
known to the negro.-I will now d v t44s
mrnparfon for the present, with vw
o."f refusing it, on a mo te efnliged plan,
$lt the clofe of my oble nations on this di-
iton of my author's performance.

Page i ge-.- They have yearly allow-
a. df twc ,or three yards of coiarfe

g ai l &oth, A. &c."-Oh Maoft
c st : r the flavor we" allowed a hic-t
woollen cloth eor ,bWys, to make eitht'a
watch-coat, or a blanket to ffee in; an
as much Oienbrigs, or German. tlil, .as
ferves the men for1 a waiftcoat and `ia' p
of broeches; and the women for a jackte
sad petticoat r and oa fame plaktations,
hats or aps arealfob given thtm.

But if we are permitted to judge from
the cuftoms which prevail among the0 fa-,
tions on shle coaffof Guinea, the gene-
relity of krpes may juftly be fuppofed
to consider cleaths as an incumbrance,
rather than a neceffary article of ife; and
though, in the Weft India colonies, 'Ath
baves feem fond of drees, it is only whcA
they can have an opportunity of hewin g
it, which evinces, that their pafHon i&'
more for ornamental than ufeful covering
and founded in vanity alone. In co*i-
firmation of the jvftnefs of this remark,
I may refer to the alrmoft abfolitte naked-
nefs of the free niegroes in St. Vincent,
(very improperly called CaWiS) 'hoe pre-

f 63 J
Qr r qoife sad *IdozP, to, 4l the ,or-
,tl trnarpmels of drcfi and it is
on by a few of ctir chiefs that any kind
of cloathing is adopted, which is appa-
reCtly,done, for the fake of diftination,
amomg the white inhabitants of the island.
A a negro fecais really to want, is a warm

R deemed zlcfs.
iq am tht: night,, and with this they

Page 8.-r" At Chriftmas three holi-
."4 .tvruded to be given them,
"tht generally Sunday is jbjied in for
pnu .&c."-This is defceniding even
ito a minutenefs of mifreprefcntation.--a
4 moft cftates, the flaves have three whole
+y* at Chriltnas ; in fame, Good Friday,
M^d a day at Whitfuntide; and in many,
R"kind of harvelt-homc holiday, at the
finiting of the crop: all thefe days, as
well as every Sunday in the year, are con-
fide8 d as their own time.; nor are they
exprAcd to da- single firoke of work for

4 a4 ]
thir matters, beyond, perhaps, bringing
a finall bundle of gral in the mntrningt

Ibid.-n" Their huts are framtedaf
,, ifland timber, cut by each man onr him-
" felf, and carried down by him and his
" wife on Sundays. Sometimes the owner
* will fupply a board or two,, to make
"a door or window-fhutter, but, in gene-
- ral, fuch materials are folen; -nails and
"higes arc eithcrfloen, or bought, from
"thofe who have fiolen them. This of-
"* ten happens on a plantation where,
" perhaps, a thousand, pounds sterling
" have been expended on a flable for a fet
" of Englifh horfes. Indeed,; Englifh
"horfes are the leaft neceflary, yet baef
"attended, hbeft ferved, beft lodged, ard
"moft cxpenfively kept, animals poiffeTed
" by a fugar planter."-This is much of
a pierce with my lat quotation, and the
aflertions it contains are even wotfe
founded. The houofes of the negroes are
commonly placed in regular rows both
ways, and fituated in the centre of a
square of neatly a quarter of an acre

bejaccid od the iAdeb and
..~O4 poor.ofare divided.into
two ens, a fleoping and an eating
fEitwth a wooden partition and- door
.t... bui Some of their hofes ate
S+ g of three or- ad.

tdme have e eti ied
:; Ai i deas Thefe diffreas-d epfd
ad indtdybw, Wr.kh, or qt^ t7ij

*it*~rt af ale d gaiw
fuWe*lt hmke g thin t vtry conifort-
44 bias them. vOn the whole, the
fesanne.& of their- dwellings are upo-
**. better than t itumf-bu"ilIawe.s
4 hO'-cotch highlanders, or- 'he d4ei-
erns of the Irifh begqtttera; and
SF thofe

A.Shrpr, where land -itovery valusie,
omjuA.di not, ii cn. nn, icnpoy Wh f yE
d 1.t ,+iF, t +the ri ,fiat,, f fl,,,a pel' ps,
^^W~sW^fi~rdrficiticy, tr quntity.

ehfiv df thke better trt nty SOdat'
to, for eAstncfs and acaonmodatM n with
the habitations entri of' the Englifth41i
bouringvihager-: theauthor- iaded lia
to confefs somethingg like this, binem
tioning dosr, wsdwo-jbuttmn, saits, si
irgs,; which ace coaveniernces 'ftbaf
kfnowb, in. the highlands of Sootland, 6r
*.13, land. Whcn a aegro is
ibdtt building a new hofue, his m er in,
gencErt contributes, either 6i awcy at
materials, tha greVttft part of the ctxpenet
fo that e has little neaaed to firal himfelf,
Ott putchaffronl thofe.who do. -The day
of coveing a new-houfeit an= eftbli&hed
time.of rejoicing the negroes t4ilyed.
about it are commonlyallowed S.atw4
afternoon for the eomony, and the owanr.
of the new building ,cdnfantly 4hivc"
douceurof rum, igaa, flourv-&c. to hef
entertain his Sffiftan ts.

From the author's manner of ieuiMtion-
ing a ftt efiEng bhorfes, aqd, i(s fimp-
tuous and expensive ftile is-ywhich they
are kept, a reader little-oiqui t4 with

tl.ijdanis will aculudei~tt

thd planter. How will he be furprifed,
therefore, when I inform him, that the
Shordbt aluded to by Mr. Ramfay, are only
hfOh as are kept, for plantation work, in
auts, woggpno, &c.A and that very few
of ,te itbabl" tuv en of the spalidt
Siaed d
hlifmblewfitlt. Whrer
ItNdfpmpounsftables are ftated,
Son of which has coft a thousand
o$snierkt ebht Iaoac fomelote fe con-
E jesftaL. ThA .fbasiwweybawsmsto4 *or
Ww6 Mis *ap"Avo buildings put Np is,
n eMoitatndcg, very poflblesi I think,
bowmr I may fafely venture to pro-
' .lmce, that three fuch fitablcs as men-
(ned by our author, are not to be found
* the fiO Leeward lflands. Btt to temm
^ .19,4 F2 from

,1 ,Sith botfc were Utte ufed, in any of the
I :flos, lonr as Americu ones were to be pr-
'K4 orltifatwthcm, draught tattle were, a-nh arf
AMdi It p&fKrh m ceto awfyri-iamd evon inSt.
MhtMgluRS nty 'iw fi1bq hCorIA arnemployed,
utpsrative1y with oxen, mulcs, and American horfes.

etmqin lea ry rather foreign 4 ur

Page 8a.-" A furgeon;s ia
"employed, by the year, to a.e
tick flaie. His allowance, per %04,
"v,,ies from fourteen pence to three
( U ingss, &c." Where a furgeon is
employed, by the year, to attend the flaves .
QOn an cstatej the constant allowance is jA
]jhilings per head; at lgft, I.never knew
lets offered or taken; but as Mr. Raify
was formerly in the medical line himftl,
beforer he comunenced diviine he may, very
poflibly,tbe much better acquainted, than
I a-, with the fourteen-penny ppice a
now (peaks of with to much contempt,.

The allowance orfih killings per atiiu, om, i
attendance on each Iigfo, may feem but a trifling
oentive to the attention ofa qualified pradHtioncr; |b4
as many ufful dul efficacious medicinal fniple'tw
produced in the iflasudl and as night-vilifr,antputa-
tippt, midwifry, inoct4ation, &c. ar aall't $and
very heavy) charges, the cmoluments ar.ng from the
attendance on a gang of one hundmdilaves ma#, orW
year with other, bcreckoi .' .abo.i. oL. or 6ot.

| % ,10*khiSadtr thefI-is
S4 en iiuty in* Mble horfel-betaf,
&O&c. &c."-The author, however, aI-
1ow, tht i fomhe estates they have rice,
flRounu j ht, foup, fowls; kids, wine, cc.
to 4hich he might hive added' on all
weUll-regui.eW plantabons, oatmeal,' age,
ipearl-barley, and portable foups.' Media
adviceand attendance he acknowledges
thc inhave. In cafe of fickridfs, thereforeb
a irt-the negroes much better off than
-thelabouring poor of Great Britain?

Page 83.--* "Though m'a ied 2munagers
it otneh-'i takp proper care of the lickz
t'bihoth Ithey ftay more constantly at
.i; and have numberlefs other ad-
.tantages over single men, in point of
4ieharniter, faithfulnefs, and application;
-yct planters have determined it, to be
F 3 better

pr ~hrM XIt oy, perhipi, be worth te ader's
While, o na this wit A liaest of apotfwils
t ws nd iafirnArf, as wel as with
u _2ua t ow to fuch of thi faculty as undcrtcke
Se t bi. iic.

' w

theater t etployo rbhapes a diipated,
9qifrelbls, Snfeei ydugaMiamani,&r a *
sellingg lafcitvioa old. batchelor,6&e)
In the foregoing paflfge, and -i a long
note cotMedftwith it, the athor'Teprua
bates, without mewty, the encouragement
WIWehj he fas, i'given .tb gl6 mian.
.geras4t pm.fcnen to matried onesa Mr.
.&(y -lAwhereflarted1 a fubje%, the irn
isftigatibn of which is rather of delicate
and dtfagreeab e nature. That thein-iniob
hinted at byhbsil rather gaining gStinmmt
I muft readily.confefs; but I am at the
,,&me tier afraid, it will, prtve to ,bd.the
refult of tpeated experiopgt, and, by iho
peafts, the offspring of illiberdl prifldicm .
That a man, merely becaife he is m'anied,
has. more honefty, fidelity, and4Vplid L
tion, than alingleaine'; mnd that's platmte
should in diredb opposition i-is WS*
interest, choofe a groavelikg, lafciviu*, ear-
lefs, diffipated,' unfeeling batcheler, -to
hyperintend his coeaerns, in preferenee'to
a prudent, reglat, diligent, tmaked man,
are positions, w!ehI like c.ay. in Mr.
SRaufay's .treatife deferve fatu r con-

R *4 71
as at ll
Ieardomtno guldfepoeq 0eation4 but
re brz&ghtup under t.e immediate eye
A& 41mtnts, in a tbanwegh praftce of
L k Local domefl -TewaploynktBl they
wpm .wau tat bphmfewivcas, catefdit'di*a,
andmudi of thei t&e as dedisoed to
the n 6 f4ttenUeIsm rvq0iiS- Rick *o*g4qpP and the breeding wvewt4a
ta4 late a, d anas long a- fua wooen
Iwntinued to be the> wiveflr GoEf aae,
i-no complaint of the 1ia$ Mr. Rnayity
allUf tW WFCIi'Irhmi*d TIS cale, at
proatnt, It Why dI8ereit.. 'the Crole
yOp IwICen are now indulged with an
"lWf education, at fame capital board
flg-4fhool, in or near, LonIon, wbe tm
'tacquit only the exteror aIdpthtioldss
9w*omplinhienmsw nowdk WA'n i VOW)C;
4d where, from thr '06apdaions and
temporary equality, twia.h daughters of
4bAstof #i firft t hdri- family In
^^I lla l ar t v fla more hae-
: caiS r ryqy i*rute to thofe hot-
S-bcdttkaoiWheyne.xpofcd to imbibe
k bd d i4 the

rhd'ztrift reouantlo -anir peannviflotiiobs.
Thati6- mity bltgant1 agreeable. ye *g
women fhoaUt rcceivd ana education fo jt
adapted to the there in which-theyrtwr
moft likely tomove, is not their faul&bdt
their vbifrtune. 'To fuch of :them ao
pofWfe rial fanfibilit-' it muff invitably"
turn mat a faouce of irnard rand Idlting
ri 4 t4&*t th~c c of a linl, volatile
dilp fion it proves to :often tie fotun-
dation oil a 'life of gaiety, pltaft'gand
diffipation.* Sorry tiam, that truth oblige
', a me- ,

The want of p eopcr (eminaricfeduCatWion o w the
(pot, is not one of the leaI evils the lawds 1lahior
wider.' A man, who has been bldiced Witt i& libi
reatidfn himfrbItf, naturuly wtlbhis hidchidet mnmijoa
ba.eine advantage and a man, who hstA*n oir;
daily the want ofi, .Athe* yvng p-op therefot
of any wolcrablf profpcisb, arc ent early to Gnat B ri-.
tain, where, thiogh they' ?day cquiatlthe improve-
menm to be ft6ialat, tfhools and univerfitides thly tr&
fo hr removed fromh their parents, a fldoB: totrlappy
cwoug..toenjoy thkpre(nw oanpy real. fi, tyend,
capable of fupertintnding their monsjpw direting
their condudt. The accidental indilf t of young
Crels, either rek,ire, thefnfore,uIly entitled
Sto wrethanbmn "a wm harcm f lndidg*. 'lhrttifth
. e andlefi

though wtllnL*B the,1apt at V6t&U2p0n4 6
widch I have fm~endy- heauataflignedo, s
the principAl reafon for the partiality our
author tb Joedly, and, per,s) p nor very
ddicar y, exclaims agaui.. .- 9,;.

Page 8-It asA Uabdly bei Cupppfd,
the caleulaho conta4 d 4flSisa l 1
inteode to bieriouss or that-Mr. Rm ,
fay :.a pcrfuade the moft igorant.- of his
readers,, that fix and twentyIhiUngs is the
jf.ilr annual fum. appropriated bya
planteor, .to tpply a negri with food
cloa thiNgseddal attendande, E: Upon
thie.p well as other occafions, he feans
fe Ar to ovcr ffioot his mark, as.,to bring.
the gr ity of his intention into quc*$ioj..
%ere t'few Woft Indiaprap#AteprreA-h
.Tsve but wdwideltem thenwfalvs eqygdod
^ .... _,* Wecono-

a clt~ir jdifficul t if"plnrnent,,yW
tbua genel .6fiitulk have to gi-
So rW known, thy.,would foan ccai- to
j6i J blof nmyopf t&lavouritc butt for

( Ji
ceendfls, ecu ldthey maintain a Pgro
for fiIr times fwM, mOntioed4,'by
Mr.,Rarnfap -

Page 854--Thve ordinary paniib m ts
of Dlaves, &c."-c"wHer the nuthor-h.aa
Aint field for the difply of his dercriptive
pPW!. whiclithc BMakes the. b ltife of,
ldsgtiP ut his Atidipares,. P the real
,, bnaginary cruelties ezrcifod' on. the
Weft In4ifl aes, with no parig hand.
After iqdulgikOg,Jwever, in a Afw of the
,4*al ights of his warm imagination, e
eolacid4 witth the following conftffim-^
that the labour, the dist th. ptuail .
monte, in thort, the genrie,' treatment
."of Raves, depend on the character of the
l'.,owner, or maagef;. and thav.tt faic
plantatione they enjoy as -muh 4)
and indgeiner s ar, comparable wi$
their pretiftate of; ignorance:and, dB-
pendencei'--which Is saying, neither
'mor nor lifs, j p, that p6*'f in the
the binds of mrere1iefs and uphling maf-
ters,'is very liable to be abu,-r. Indeed,
. Mr. RamfAy, it reqgired nogMtt-a tel us

a*inaeh pattit ftr4& da aipecou
ant valuable bo of tmch, igth fch io-
human bohviour, when, .ataft, he fees
to acknowledge, that bt fewA of them de-
fet4t ? The Old Bailey ehvo1ices af
ford frequent initiAet f S n'Aid
miftrefe. Htarvtg, and bearing to leath,
their helpbths appreatticdsi t'e klted- it
not be f hly'utegenerous itWafordine4
apomi the~frength ofdhch pauit1 evidene1
atoefcfile the Engitbre apdolew whidi
delighted in, the pmin, trt-reM *d dOath
of (tch ipi$i% b dependewi&&8 fortune
hkadpipbtthiipowefl "

A14ag'.46, note.-"* In ai certain colony,
o 410lefa than two dhief judges, within
'thefe sfhirty years, have ibStn0epftma
?I- for c rdt i 'off'or -nohinhebr Q 'to
.*" mkte amp-utaion neceOiry 4 limbs
S'tir flava u &c."---iv4hia note, I am
Sinfoui l authr llballudes to
two iirenar for their feverity
to i air I Vi bu t A they actually pro-
j i -. do.

o& by him, inaypehap 4 11# r4ikeU
tong theexaggemtitiwbich conJray
Attend the regital of afa of horror. BeC
this howqIta A it iMay, confidence both
thcfc barbxriaa* have been long finfituta-
monned togive an, account of their A&ions
at the- afl'l ,trithica of the Juge/ of
Jup p. g.h *i& S cagried the appear-
arcei-ft iliai r charity' in Mr. Ranfay,
tihAve let: their enormitieasinstinue bw-
riedkwith ai .t .

; Page 88.- We cannot pafs over ifr
01,fil:i, tv unfual tUeatment of' pfnV -
'nant Women, and no&i-s. In aifidt
"every pThntation they are foriiof g4l ing
Every negro,.who can wicldia hde i-n the
4ield gang; to fond, that h4ly aiY
'Iremontrance from the furgeol can, i
ni"mahy 4eis, &fta poor dilired wretI
from. labour though if i methoQd h
Svailed, work may e found on tli th
stationn cqLaly ceiffitry and proj5iioned
to every variowif i ree Ot7; .and
though one or two days au t pts in the
.. ld


- lsa for ww i ,. 7 vJ

At this work ar' pregnant womre
" oft& kept during the laft mont4 of
"their pregnancy, and hence yffe may
an abortion which maom p2Waerre8
" unfeeling cnoigh to e~cpr qd.y
"at, becauqf the womna, o qk
" having no child to care. fog, %i up
" no pretence for, indulgence "--How far
thi jts a fair ifate pof f^4t^ erye perfoft
the left converiant with the fagar coli-
nics can cafily judge. It p however,
be neceofary toyf oram the airturopeas
reader, that what Mr. Jpmfay fugppofs
m ght .does really exift; aq that tht
very method he talks of, dpes aqdually pre-
jail.' n 41 plantations ohere are ,
,gangs; rit, the grei gng, .waiit a-

advAnc ji4#, young oawp growing up,
a wq whp hayvewking children;

pt*J ty, the gtapeb gang, confling of
hardy. young children, who are a ply-td,
under the care, of an old woman, in ga-
thering grahe for horfes and other ftockd
chiefly to keep them out of wifthiff, and
to ufe. them to an early regularitys. la
neither of .tho-g mgtag have I mentioned
pre a8at womM%, aoe aoould I with the
le.t j~se, as ihav fentdom (perhaps, I
njt fay never) lfen woman, vifibly ad-
vanced in her pregnancy, employed in
work the left laboidos, or even tumed
out with either of the regular gangs, thaei
OinAt eatiton beingtG cooled, during
e whole day, at the times it may bc*
3 fuit them, three or four burtheso of; grafs,
or other fock Meat. .

Page 88.-" if,4fter all, ie ear.a ej
Burden the full time, the mft he delip
"vered in a dark, damp, finmoaky hat
"perhaps without a rag, &c.."-In OAft
considerable platatiena thereis ;a .*gular
hospital or infirmary, one ptbaent of
which is" allotted for the pncution of
lying-in women, and two hitifs .f rady-

iftdt3 Ae hat alurfellpwgty
he4 and a woman to fiklc her child, tilt
(he is able to d -it herself.

Page8g..-- A lying-in woman ht, llwed
"three, in fome plantations four .weeks
for recovery. She then takes the. id,
with her chil"4, and hoa or belR /fm."-
A lying-in ,woman is always alowd,, a
month, and more if neceffary: the never
Wcons to work, as log- as* he buckles her
child, till an hour or mbre afterttieother
fltves; he picks no gtrat either.at noon
or night, and,,quit the field, iA the even-
ing, another hear before the reft. 'Tis
utrui the carries her child into the field
with her,. where there is, however, always
felter at hand, to protedt the infant
both from fa and rain't ad t ee is alfo
afel*erly careful woman confliatly in the
field, th-do nothing eff than attend the
fittang children, when :ahei mothers are
dmployeELL phe indlkenhes allowed toI
wompe ith infants .,at the breaft, are fo
m"By,, waften to be.made an ill ufe of;

Wtgc *nth tot kecp fieir

of food is given each child as goQn .as
their mperi. 4ik fit t wean 4 y
hic pean~, thi 19 e plenty counr
terdstec iQoyeo4f paAe and that this is
t*e iarip4i44wN4y2 fptsuggi" t0e
w 1llalbour of the wor, Pio man, yw4o
has studied human nature ever,k $tde,
will deny. T4iprilpg,.however1 thasywg
nant andlying-in woQmen, on ill- condu4d .
f `p,4 arp.trcated ht Jatle better 4in
iMr.Rkitay atlerts, 4tUpheir .tugga
under theofc circumstances, wIAflwopre thbn
bear acomparifon with the lot fQthfjm
or0dr of T'femaJs i Great Britpg ,whl
we frequently tkm en, in labor -
havve-c(1t, or, tfe waingnttb axv
who, after the tree q fou days re4ay
which biature abfolutly req*ircos, i
obligvd to retyv to the fam p ajn tcVd
drudgery, without the left ai qnee as to
the care of their off0 rinig,;

tge 90, note.-"* tdderlh'ii4Attlbn
'inf this negligence let me ttdreottlk
remedyd, &c."- The remedy proposed
in this long note, is to recommend the
building of a houfe, aon pirpofe, for the ufe
oflyiag-in women. Had Mr. RamAy been
at converfant With the interior management
of a plantation as he feems to affed, he
muft have found this reconiinendation
nearly unnecetffry, as few well fettled
eftates are without a convenient apartment
for this very purpose; not, in general, are
the Weft India planters half fo blind 'to
their own interfts, as this author chufes
to represent them.

1 Page 91.-Our reverend author's next
feifion (vii.) is intitled Mafter and Slave
F'in particular inftandces-In this fdeion
'he lets off by repeating an obfrvation he
has made once or twice before, That
" there is no law in the colonies to refrain
* the ill behaviour or cmelty of a master
" to his' flat."-I flatter myfelf, I have
already fJly refuted this ill-grounded af-
fcrtfon. Through the next page, or two,
G I fall

.5'olUpw W r cRamfay with much
El*teWfiO, as 4iey cont4* flaqpe
thing like.a b10a'te or the- P y wounds,
and lacerationsa, h&qs hleei hitherto em-
pipyed, in infli&ing on the poor delin-
quent planters. I cannot, however,F- help
remarking, that the paflages I w about to
* quote, do amebmore cegit to his vandour,
than t'hiS c6afsPcy,; which bpth his
,readers ad mine will rttily allow, when
he is found, at hlpgth, ;o aoknowlQdge, that
" the humanity of nmeay p ters more than
't fuppliesthe wantof lkw4s"-thatt 6 the
leaves s of many a platm. poffleha advaa-
" tages hbyond what th Wtoper ewas ia
" Britain enjoys ;"-that "their work i1
". generally easier -that thciTTives.paf
" more happily ona and they -ctqrWtin pi
" anxious thoughts* about sbir e@peapes
" when flik, or their mat.iswaage whim.
" old ;"-at p their talk is but half 0*
" the work of a ibcurcr of ordinary
" fcength;"--and that, in afee.cmOsfy,
" a peafant, in general, CexOCt4' twict the
" work o'fa flaie in the fugar-olonies."--,
How, I fay, can any imperial and unpre.

judiked neador ot li*B
pictures of minry, satapp 0 e as
.before been proected, with thrgh the
dgreatcft part of M a.dAM&y's Wry Ja-
Oatit'ed pcrfblotD -1_ *' -

SPage 931 9 4 95 vthtsuht*
as if he hatily ropeot" he feotiurable
S.conceffion he had been making rtunes
.the darkeft of his colours, to exhibit .the
Sai-t odious and ontmptibl# portraitof
S'A unfortuoae individual, wpofe amjle
fortune, it appears, ,ferd no better pur-
pofe, than to-Andnr his unworthinefs more
Confpiccus. The fuppojfd original of this
esggerased caricatuje, is alfo, I a in-
St4onc to his iaq t; Mr. Ra&y
atightthbrefore, wityh4r b ipred
Shis inhumanket bt ht emai like
"*he famous Sptg.nolet-t.de"tchi.efy i ,
pifureas which excithae di t an horror;
and like4mn therefore, tnd of dmawbig
from dra ad*bjes.'

Pge 95, taw-Frto b ace to the con-
SG s clufioa

sreftir iJ vemth fiction, the author
rganindeiafntb iutotbe nioesagreeable Aile
of panegyric, to esesbrate, for once, living
chara, er. That the gentletoan allrded
to, merits every pr4p o warmly befowed
on him, by'M r;ainiay, L have ot. tho
i0a# do4ti and I fincerey agree with
.him, lt y it is pleafiantto record fuch
ISn f:niice.hmIt happens, however,
that this deferving person was, very luckily,
" the friend of f, e author '"-that Mr.
Ramf.iy should have. hcn able, during to
long a refidence among the planters, .to
,fingest-.b.it one friend d.ferving.of his
encomipp~, may, perhaps, je attributed
to fom e unfortunate peculiaritJyhis own
difpofition; as every one acquaited with
the agreeable fo0 ,in which :. many of
the beytars Q r9_Ramay' life, w,1
paffed, u,* reeolloa@ many.gentlemen, as
jpfly entiAld to hir" partiality, as t|6
fpitcy friend he h4s feleted. The chq-
rai .tr, however, which the author has
thought proper to introduce, fiAgle as it is,
may tend, in a great meafuret q remove
.many wrong ideas, which rrecputertaincd

,da fenfe indh tfithe i tie ti c
tiat he cot triutes largely to the agran-
dizemient -of his mduiier country, Uas an
Un 'fi$6eld for tSe ilay of. tie t moft
iiiiable pivaie virtues, by eht4idigt&d
rendering iappy a very m"meriwlS let of
dependants. '

BefoilI procAdtod fit' e my author's
e'toid'chapter, TIil Wi l'lie liberty `f
retfuiing the' cbmparifoh 'litween t'he
fituation of 46' free laboarfnv or hi
England, ai&& flaves in the W, Indies
whdchi rni probably open a field of fpedu-
latiOn, tl1 calcuted 'tlo exercife the
i'f 'a liberal ~ itnquifidve mihd.
The ~nighli peantstl9bhotb ti s"iy,
without exaggeration, e i a ft ed as
ifo to fevre arind li Ldita. hour.*-
Th9'teinggle throiit die years of th6he

A vary Tfc m ipdeed, Avm d dthis uncomfortableot,
by being taken iqtop the rice of opulent families, or
otherwife more fortunately difpofed of in their youth.


cM~ha d4ta thatiilt*es and an cidbnps

fit*e, .eq-ua.lly.F its*e t es
ftommerr atxlthc ftpi te ism ap4d ia
ia ftate of attor or a
no loaner ablito handle a fok, or a p:o
n tlot4w the:ftep, of a 'bfcalong the
TrrAwdritan r tsi regult cnerc ef tpil
beginss e4cf^Wile8sb .thei* legs are
keptftenvfoifti ,yl t4avy pair of iron-
:rmed Tlibe;, !, ttelders are. hoved
by A cordotka aa 41h fail ii whiW k
they Wdhy.tJ gait- i~s awkward and
41SiZgMratW a"l thei-r At*vqn entoalw
ando xite If the atut b4blooat of
bcalltWun fpite of sil impedimine1feMas
Of-iita the coumntapoes of afr Andi-
vMleals, during o :aimat$t aftyoutix,
it-proves but a. t rgleanewhidcI'
(bon fubfd4 undeeiheparsn e* nae.?
siteed, lIauirs cofit&ns [ xpoibe, aj4
ksutydiet; and giaes. way'to thd*f iW
wtstlei of pkematwtold age., I.fthow-
ever, during this pleod, th izkxttuous
difatew of unpolihed nature W e.ul be-
tesy an unfoi-at ate'Yi-rth itftifinprudent

grallications, '5 l 'al
t* prsbvidd trTif4aimnhbra if* ifetfltsl
ceompoHedi eWhtedow0nca tthbltfMr
life with a,;abandoned want r an .in-
doleotatttroxi a tMagatfntihrew or
tpiy for Bver fraih his ntles cmut try,
and his dear&f con ndc&idn. IJf,*fb4rapca
this fate, And lies icnfelf wilt a ytltdg
woman of his oWn 'Oehifta, a- growing fa-
rtily foct increafit thbeAdtUdtns itr his
very trmaot effints. M1epaff&s day after
daSpnd year afteryWe,- i* the Aie la-
borious occupations, and dftdges equally
on, thtougNt af the anrity 6 Wsthra to
which our unfettled climate is fabje&-
mma.-s of ineefttnt rain, or continued
fEer,6,sbA'g no verfiffi-on to his teill and,
wbimu At46tumn8e at aiht to his rtm'&
t16anottagoehe eftdrMb hbialif happy,
A* he ffidsrtb6tly-filivef difrtWad fbIe
mn*felf and.. his family, or a' handful of
hieton m,- his benimnbed, libss, or to"
dry hit dripping ra:. An oatg0ol
AiouthfMfI a.heef ti a luxury to hi4,
and a- affief-etf runiy biaon, his highest
delicacy. .*,h-f- trajtw,,allU piece of
G 4 ground,

gutisL indueth h denomination of a gar-
ea,- as an appendac to his hovel, itN
o4ny by an extmAsa tch-of his own exer--
tions, during. ;an occasional tialf-hour
fnatched from the-time allottcd t*oeefth-
ment, that' tis made to afford him a few
cabbag-, or02 potatoes. To. dedicate the
unflpgrpai-ed h.ouft oftanday to the
cWdtivafioqevf. hi- 'rfefil fpot, he is
brought up beWieov.qwould be the worft
of 4as : and thb* tthe fbbath is a day-of
abfolut# and Uiverf4aetk is a trath he
hears frequently inculcated by the curate
4. .par t -who, vot~ihfitanditg, is
himfalf ,obliged to (pend. e vry Sunday4ih
th ye.ar in riding twenty or thirty miles,
through dirty or dufty roads, and in -per.-
forming the duty4othi more bpaleftetmn-
players, in :thr# or four different puriheal.
and who trtites, in-.the 'evemig, fo penm.
with fatigue, as to' be obliged to conferf
that the day of re/ is the oanlpone 4t
the week in which none fall to 64hare.
The poorlhind, however in coett* nce of
the opinion he has imbibed, is&4d,-for-want
of something ,to do, as much iifrom incli-
nation, to loiter away thofe hours of leifure

whieb Silasy prbeWs#p1et *8 !dt
fo fw fall to hfBi& Rft tli davgerw
indulgences affobtedd bjf ie neighliobniL
ing alehoofe. It wM be urged, thatt all
the hbadthipw of the'Bgzflilh peafant are
~ftenod -by the ide-bvfibertye fniak' e ufe
of the word ikde front a convifionf.hat
fuch of thet labouring poor id 'aighlad,
who are unfortuniel*l able to -sil-b pro-
perly owt theit* ow ftatiMti '`fft c6rfefs,
that great part c h&ih-liUberty they are
nbkoeed to poDibt& ir -ttly nominal an't
id el. They ae-htbfolutely boiud either
to woret O n ;le nor, do theywin fA4,
enjoy the proltege of changing the feene
of their labour, being under the almoft
abfolute dominion of Come-tyrannical over-
feear, or battling chfr b-warden, who,
S-evKy-- country paoiihlikrpettyafoe
Barchs, exer tifan unmercdifittliSay over
the poorer 'inhabitants'; and'wh6 are mn-
tually mbined, to exclude all new fa-!
milics fi&m' settling i thOeir refpeed6'
diftrias, left thoodd,-iA time, beconie
buthenbAr -.sfo -that fueh of the poor
as rmi< famiafilh ariil, are, in reality,

. I

vn4arl Aa4n w e1- to tthetfoil they
iutivate, aa.thepors of Ruffia ,qrAol-iil
Alowing,wb owa rt*at the, Englih a-a.
bourer is enableddring, the prime of hin
life, and the continuance ,of .hivsiealth
by a puudntand parfOnonious applications
, of therofits arifing from the,moMt affl,
duons and eafdlels:ec.stieA ofhip firength,
toprovidea tufici*ney.4 4hserfetfoeodj
andz cloatbiqgjttuhinfelf -.and amily ,
yet, what is hl litw*iuin, when h o or his
wife, or ehilds1n, aWe -ided with ficki
nej ?'-.without advice, without aflitineei
a^4, kwQaut uacefairies, JM 4., uuader t he
the.i cru).v compulsion of,,wawtig for the
gradual operations of nature, ia lll.en pa-
tiancesj and torpid, refigadtion, nearly .itri
different as to the favourable,. O fital
termination of the dillrefsfit cris. Bth
a much mote. adding pid9are of EngLi&
human ntery till remains to, be exhi-
bited; j.and' that is, when the, poor, d
hihafed, worn-out viCtims of ur, a're
become aged, infirmn andklblei e, amid
are forced, under the complict prffu-re
of-cold4,Jngcr, andfdeortoi l rfly,
I for

f"or 4 .e arpt-, p
oathe little pittchiwp a
pared thorn Lw twianpf eyongt
ptr of thei famfliesr, rouwhich is. more
dreadNlj to depmt4ieir4e 4for fRch
l etaut3 eief sa wil tbarely keep hbul and
bWdy together on the bumanhityotKct
petty tyrants :of theirvillge, whofr iua
terefl: it is,, that 4b*the :gaidI,.ant of
their, now afelefeh d find a
fpoedy pioed.-Th t4viAwhfgs 'Wre fo,
-i&.no to be dcaitidalthough fuch.a djif
gusting and reproachful truth may remainL
forgotten, ao.pa nhaeeed, aid ftshe aw
reer of-trifling nd expenfie purfuitt, orliL
centiousgratifications, too gnerallyadopted
by the lordly, owners .f that foil, which
'I ndere4mprodua&ivooaly by the ceafe
IM diudgeryc of thou devuoredoiar ns and
Stghters of-wrotchednef .*-vilI now
S *.. tumr

I havrcoifilpr this vigW of the situationn oE4a
labouring poor ly to Engman.--That it ifs .
more wretched Irtelan, apAs from the accounhs
or r tal Fr' ictlour-maknt : cqld that'- tee Hih
1Wdencas or Scothltt^ht jnotettan equaly snicrable,

1 I o ,
tfrib.r tli-s m &hifyling vie of ,irni-
mialibertyr ~l'4 me"ade'tifc across
lhe Atlainti, p'O 'w ptrpe of thbre
regions of' =f 1%nfarft,' nf cording 0
the reproefe'titintd f Mr. RdfriLyrie the
favouwite abodes of tyrannydtihrifi, ani
de4fdedkAt. The young neg ,es are n&
Co6iuiti ketl frbm the' briaftirof their
mtntheri;'i they idive an cpual al-
Ibwa ceb' wif i heimt;nwhich, oer many
eftates, is regurlydireffed for thentwith
a mixture of vigetarlgse and (erved "dt
tivo or' three times a day.-They are al-
& # t-cloaitK ccording`to their flie, but
are feldom feen with any in the daytith e,
being tufferd by their parents" to range
about In the fun without the leaf ind cn-
Biance, by whctidmcans their linibs be-
come Aupple, taidcula, iiSad adive.-A*
** Thoft
i eviscidqt froan a mry inteflgqnt, andjudiidaawswiwa
1 publiuhed by Mr. K4ox, who coDc &pol a de-
friptt nof their flate whichh makes hnutniry (hudder)
with dis ftrikjig parlage.-Z Upo'trii whole; jie
" Highlands of Staalnd, Taome ft4fe*tWtW excqpted,
" are the (feamt of opprCoibh, pover *Mo *uifh,
" and wild defpair."

loon As thpy ahreGd AgN Artly areput
into a little gang ]ky ,t Iels and eCaS
p$oyed, under cdirog4ion of Come steady,
careful old woman, i~ g-thering graf8, or
other fodi,for fleep, h4rfes, &cf-From
;. t4s light work, as theyadvaacc i age and
lengthh, they are draughted into .what is
called the finally gang and from .thence,
as they arrive at waohood, are taen into
the great, or ftroggeft gng.-When a
/ negro lad:, attains the agp of eighteen or
Stwenty, he begins to thihkAof quitting his
father's family,: and building, a houfe for
himself, and, at the fane time, ofcopn-
neting himfjff with Come particular
young woman as a wife. It muft be con-
feffed, that he does not always abide
fli.ridly .by the firft ch4oce he makes on
fph oaccafion j yet, attachments of long
4nanding are much more frequent than
could be expected under fuch a latitude
of toleration,, and are, perhaps, eftner the
rcfult of rtalinclinatiof. among the unciv--
lized negro., than in thofe highly pe.-
lifhed focieties,,wheret the bonds of union
are indiflfolule&-Whaen he has ereaed

h hItodfc datk&a, .ito himself a help-
mnte,- he 'Aegin.,n co afider 'inmelf 'as
settled, and..boate ae' Imis wik con-
tinue to improve tho* -fettleamest, and
.plant the ground around tt;:s well as
what may be allotted thcnAn oth6r past
of thp plantation, in caffada yams, potn-
4oes, ke. for eifet and .i' cotton, pot-
Jierbs, fruit, &c. forAie I and to enable
them to accormplithistwork, they have
for themfelvy the whole of acih imday,
frequently Saturday afternoon, apd their
own daily recefs every noon, which they
rely employy in eating fupper- being their
chief and'favourite repaf. With the fitA
money they acquire, they generally pur-
cdeWa hog, which is foon incrtaed to
weM, or more, 'with the addition.of goa t,
and poultry, if they are tfueofsful, aun
induftrious.- -Thelms moef o them, lik&
wife, are poficlbd of:afitaourite dog dr
two, which they are in no fear of being
deprived of by the gun of a fsrly over..
beafing game-keeper.--ThJ Ilbi plant
lime, lemon, planaifi, banari ldealbafli
trees about their houses, wjbA by; quick

[ 05 1
vegtation, foonD aftod them, both Cae
apd fruit. A aI young cgro advances
ian riches, he will fomnimties. far ven-
ture to indulge. hi. pride, or inclinations,
as to takeaadditienalW ife or two; but
Stdiable ladies are by no means exempt
fem thw trotiblefome paffion of jealoufy,
this is deemed rather a hazardous -adven
ture, and the few libertines of the to, who
take advantage ofIthis Icencc, have gene-
rally eaufk to repeat-of 'tiP-ahbnefs,*-
As the fundamental neceffaries of life .are
pretty amply provided for them, their
fpare time is only dedicated to thoeprm-
curing Cuob additions, as an Englifh over-
fear of a country parish would be inclined
to, confider, as the molt baneful luxuries
among his: iqualid dependants. The men
LpZoCre 1 ,cm'bbs, lobsters, .a various
g . other
t TIrough the whole ofthis parallel it is caeily feen,
that have odily thue ttmporadvantages of the different
pa rtite inview whatever, thoemfre, may be the opinion
of tb* wprld at lihig as to thi blrty of pofigamy, And
divorce they wgt lo.t,(b rickqnued privileges of
no full value, by& the converts and dirciples of the
reverend author otdit f-inOus'Thelypthora.

.tb#r fea productions, which, added to the
grain and Alt preqfions they receive from
the eftte, and dhe ,rots' and vegetables
raised by therafelvesj enable their wives
(who are naturally much better- caterers
and cooks than.the lower order of women
in 4Eland) not only to prepare the moft
nourif.hing, but the molt tvory meals for
their husbands and children. Their kids
and poultry they-carry to market ; their
hogs they ki4,. and relieving the head and
offals, and sometimes, a quarter for their
own eating, difpofe of the ref.,-By there
p.agnesa fober, indulrious negro is feldom
without a good fuit or two of cloaths to
his back, and a few dollars in his pocket:
neither is the whole of their own time,
by any means, devoted to laborious em-
ployments, but,mirth, feftivity, mufic,
and dancing, cngrofs nolman portion of
their leifure: theylhavo an ear for mufic,
tad a graceful activity in dancing, far
beyond the difmal fcrapings, and awkward
caperings of an Mangilh Ma.iaKy, or a
country wake.*--A negro kO6s the hours
4' of
*My readers will probably be tempted to frole, whln
I men-

,te eonceg of cMl ld~n th Us every
of hTh work, forI ntt -
hi, and Theif-iant* i 14at it'
peims his dtby ire&of t he Is in
cn danger of coeaidg 4 o n'ayi ther pi-
dnimente. e is lnonc the&drinchng

goheur ofnce of clment dfens th o he a every
ithducement ffh wihole life ntin a tiit

fures of a hulfand; ts& a fatt4I withbit
alloy. The tdfrois cof itutio, and pawhr
are uritigatfd by tihe rciuvltion, asht 6le is

Certain of having progre^idcbiuit aiot-f
aiCe, as well as necefariycare atd atten-
dance. He bha none the pincigfor-
rigours of inclement feafons to count
with, but ptlTh his whole life in a cl-imate
cofigenhl to Ms conflitution, and where a
d t. andi litriant vgetation, enfuM
:Nm aretumforfuch caltivation asheehufes
h beftow onliis' owicHbRftleantations.
Nor has he the Ieaft ain 4 look for-
( I mentionn S atjducb amuJonteAl
have occasional 4 gtbqtt^ and which awtao bed
burlfqued on I pld w /4 's. and rm 4n't
4eTi me's of thle & tlwop, or thQ ay-market.