Front Cover

Group Title: Agrifest
Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. 1988.
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01300011/00020
 Material Information
Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands. 1988.
Series Title: Agrifest : agriculture and food fair of St. Croix, Virgin Islands.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publication Date: 1988
Subject: Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- United States Virgin Islands -- St. Croix -- Caribbean
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: CA01300011
Volume ID: VID00020
Source Institution: University of the Virgin Islands
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20948561

Table of Contents
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Full Text


"*, 0

Virgin Islands




Editor-Carrol B. Fleming
Advertising- Claire L. Roker
Sara Dahl-Smith
Norma Parsons
Cover Design George Staley

Jointly Sponsored By
The V.I. Department of Economic Development and Agriculture
The University of the Virgin Islands
Cooperative Extension Service Agricultural Experiment Station



While many people have contributed to this book, a few deserve special
mention: Dr. Darshan Padda for his interest and involvement; Dr. Erika Smi-
lowitz for her advice and support; Christene Henry for her constant help and
great typing; Fred Davenport of Custom Photos for film processing; Dr. Walter
Knausenberger and Rudy O'Reilly for help with the missing links technical
information, artwork, etc.; the entire staff at Antilles Graphic Arts, especially
Eloise and Jan. Thank you.

Reprinting of articles is permitted as long as the Agriculture and Food Fair bulletin is credited; mention of product
names in this book in no way implies endorsement by the authors or by the Agriculture and Food Fair Board of


A Publication of the 18th Annual
Virgin Islands
Agriculture and Food Fair

Bulletin Number 3

Table of Contents

1988 Fair Board of Directors ........................................................v
Governor Alexander A. Farrelly's Message .......................................... vi
Dr. Arthur A. Richards' Message ................ ................................. vii
Commissioner Eric E. Dawson's Message .......................................... viii
Senepol Research Symposium: A Team Effort on V.I. Cattle ............................ 1
Dr. Darshan S. Padda
The Baobob as a Source of Food ............... ...................................5
John Rashford
Contouring Going Around the Hill ............... ................................9
Ellen Craft
Tropical Bonsai... ........................................................... 13
Rudy O'Reilly, Jr.
A View from Estate Fredensborg ................ ................................. 17
Jean D. Larsen
The Tropical Bont Tick on St. Croix ............................................... 19
Robert Bokma, D.V.M. and Duke Deller, D.V.M.
Youth Education: Ecosystem Studies at VIERS ....................................... 23
Kirsten Canoy

Natural Resources for the Future ................................................... 27
Roland H. Wauer

Dairy Goat Production in the Virgin Islands ......................................... 31
Kofi Boateng

Take the Bite Out of Your Food Budget Through Shopping Practices ................... 35
Caryl Johnson

Oscar Henry Talks About Farming ................. ................................ 37
Oscar E. Henry

Recollections of a Former Commissioner of Agriculture ................................ 41
Rudolph Shulterbrandt

Living Fences in the Virgin Islands ................................................. 43
Toni Ackerman Thomas and Walter I. Knausenberger

Tea Leaves of St. Croix ................................... ........ ............... 47
Olivia H. Henry

Poster and Essay Contest Winners.................................................. 51

An Award-Winning Essay ................................................. ........ 52
Junior Durrant

An Award-Winning Essay ......................................................... 53
Sandra Singh

G ettin Ready for Da Fair?.......................................... ...............55
Arona Petersen

Creating with Calabash ................................................. ........... 57
Dana Ulsamer

Recipes and Photos .................................................... ........... 59

"ABC Agriculture Blooms Into Commerce"



V ,

- -,

1988 Agriculture and Food Fair
Board of Directors
President Vice President
Commissioner Eric E. Dawson Dr. Darshan S. Padda
Henry P. Schuster
Official Representative, Director of Publications and Promotions
Division of Agriculture Carrol B. Fleming
Eric L. Bough
Executive Secretary Director of Activities
Francois Dominique Zoraida E. Jacobs
Treasurer Director of Rules and Awards
Pholconah Edwards Dr. Arthur C. Petersen, Jr.
Director of Food Exhibits Director of Special Activities
Ruth Lang Claire L. Roker
Director of Plant and Crop Exhibits Director of UVI Exhibits
Michelle Thurland Clinton George
Director of Livestock Exhibits Recording Secretary
Dr. Duke Deller Sarah Dahl-Smith


Message from Honorable Alexander A. Farrelly
Governor of the Virgin Islands

Once again it is a pleasure to congratulate the
Board of Directors of the Agriculture and Food
Fair, Commissioner Dawson, Dr. Darshan
Padda, and employees of the Department of
Economic Development and Agriculture, the
University of the Virgin Islands, the farmers and
the exhibitors, who have spent a great deal of
time and effort to bring these educational oppor-
tunities to our community.
This year, the 18th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair marks a new
beginning one especially significant to me. This is the first Fair under the
newly organized Department of Economic Development and Agriculture.
This year's theme, "ABC Agriculture Blooms into Commerce," uitably
reflects our new optimism. I am optimistic that with sound business prin-
ciples, agriculture will not only survive but flourish. It will develop econom-
ically in the Virgin Islands both in terms of finances and in terms of land
Agriculture is admittedly a complex business. Success depends upon
education and technology, as well as rainfall, soil fertility and of course, hard
work. Yet, we here in the Virgin Islands can succeed, and indeed, we have.
I urge all the people of our islands to avail themselves of the outstanding
educational and informative exhibits that reflect the potentials and oppor-
tunities that are available in the field of food and agriculture.
My best wishes to all for a very successful Agribusiness affair.


Alexander A. Farrelly

- ---- ------

Message from Dr. Arthur A. Richards, President
University of the Virgin Islands

Welcome to the 18th Annual Agriculture and
Food Fair jointly sponsored by the University of
the Virgin Islands and the newly-created Depart-
ment of Economic Development and Agriculture.
This year's theme, "ABC Agriculture Blooms. i B
into Commerce," is very appropriate because we
know that learning one's ABCs is fundamental to
all subsequent learning. It is the foundation upon
which we build.

Similarly, modern agriculture, to be successful must be built on souuin
business principles. These are the building blocks of a successful economy.
The Agricultural Experiment Station and the Cooperative Extension
Service of the University have always been aware of the two-fold nature of
our responsibility. We are exponents of the philosophy of developing and
disseminating research-based information in the areas of agriculture, natural
resources, home economics, 4-H youth development and community
resource development for the greater good of the Virgin Islands people;
indeed, it is the very premise of our land-grant institution. We offer classes,
sponsor symposiums, publish pamphlets, answer questions, and, in general,
provide support for the vital segments of our economy.
However, we are also cognizant of the practical side. The UVI's educa-
tional exhibits and the various agricultural, as well as other local arts and
craft products, are on display so that the community may witness the
tangible products of our efforts.
In my role as president of the University, a co-sponsoring institution, I
urge all fairgoers to take advantage of this opportunity that has been made
possible by the hard working farmers, agricultural researchers and edu-
cators. My commendation also goes to all the members of the Board of
Directors of the 18th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair, for their dedication
and commitment for planning and organizing another successful fair.
Congratulations to you all!

Arthur A. Richards


Message from Commissioner Eric E. Dawson
Department of Economic Development
& Agriculture

Dear Friends:

This year, I am privileged to be an active
participant in the Agriculture and Food Fair,
particularly in the capacity of Commissioner of
Economic Development and Agriculture. The
merger of the Departments of Commerce and
Agriculture affords an inevitable linkage of two industries which are very
vital to the economic well-being of the Virgin Islands community.
The Fair this year is a product of the merger of the two departments and
we expect a tremendously exciting time. Thanks to the Executive Com-
mittee and all of the exhibitors who have put their hard earned efforts and
resources to making this Fair a great success.

From the 1988 Fair, we expect that all others to follow will be greater and
greater. We have the potential to be great.
Thank you.


Eric E. Dawson


Senepol Research Symposium:

A Team Effort On V.I. Cattle
Darshan S. Padda, Ph. D.
Vice President, Research and Land-Grant Programs
University of the Virgin Islands

The development of Senepol cattle a breed
developed in the Virgin Islands was the focus of an
international research symposium on St. Croix in Sep-
tember. The symposium was attended by nearly 60
people from five Caribbean islands and from nine states
on the mainland. This scientific gathering marked the
compilation of current Senepol information. The success
of the symposium was noted by Delegate Ron de Lugo in
the Congressional Record, as well as by Dr. James E.
Halpin, Director-at-Large, Southern Agriculture Exper-
iment Stations. When Dr. Halpin wrote to me after the
symposium, I believe he elucidated an important point
when he said, "I believe you made some good friends for
the University of the Virgin Islands..."
The papers delivered at the symposium were collected
and published to provide a record of the proceedings.
This 140-page book was distributed to the participants at
the symposium as well as to various experiment stations
and university libraries in the U.S. and the Caribbean.

From its inception, Senepol research in the Virgin
Islands has been a collaborative effort involving the
Land-Grant college and local cattle breeders.
IC :, C 1 1 A1n'

commercial value for the benefit of the Virgin Islands, the
southern United States, and the tropical and subtropical
Additionally, through on-farm research, a large part of
the extension or technology-transfer work already has
been done during the research phase.
The development of the Senepol breed was started in
the early 1900's when Bromley Nelthropp crossed local
Senegal (N'Dama) cows with a Red Poll bull imported
from Trinidad. His initial work was carefully continued by
a number of St. Croix breeders.
These pioneering farmers selected such traits as red
color, good conformation, early maturity, absence of
horns and gently pet-like disposition and they set the
scene for subsequent development of a breed with
uniform characteristics.
Natural selection under the harsh conditions of St.
Croix also worked to influence such traits as definite
heat tolerance, disease resistance, and such maternal
qualities as annual calving interval, adequate milk supply
and limited calving difficulties. These maternal qualities
have, in fact, become trademarks of the breed.

UVIs Agricultural Experiment taton as wor e
hand in hand with St. Croix breeders to characterize and Despite decades of innovative work by the local
performance-test the Senepol breed, enhancing its breeders and the cattle's physical appeal, the breed

Dr. Richards and Dr. Darshan Padda in the field during the Senepol Symposium.

O IIaUI .I L -l .a aCL. o0 aiU LI Ljai,..aI 0. rdUUi
lacked scientific characterization and performance

This situation could not be rectified until 1972, when
the then-College of the Virgin Islands was granted Land-
Grant status by the U.S. Congress, which resulted in the
creation of the V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station.

In 1974, when I joined the station, I immediately recog-
nized that the cattle industry in general, and the Senepol
cattle in particular, had the greatest potential through
research. The first few years were spent in establishing
the station and conducting economic-feasibility studies.

One early study examined the profitability of beef
production in the U.S. Virgin Islands that investigated
some of the biological and socioeconomic factors
associated with beef production in the environment.

In 1975, Oscar E. Henry, a Senepol breeder and com-
mitted agricultural leader, was named commissioner of
Agriculture by then-Gov. Cyril E. King. On Commis-
sioner Henry's recommendation, a Territorial Advisory
Committee was appointed by Gov. King "for the pur-
pose of giving consultative support and advice to the
Commissioner of Agriculture." The committee, along
with Commissioner Henry, identified the development of
Senepol cattle as a top priority. When I was named direc-
tor of the Agricultural Experiment Station, Commissioner
Henry and I started working as a team to implement the
committee's priorities.

In April 1976, at our invitation, a team of animal scien-
tists visited St. Croix to appraise the situation and based
on their recommendations, a four-point program was
formulated: (1) develop a breed registry to verify the
purity of the breed and establish breed standards; (2)
compare the Senepol cattle's performance against other
breeds; (3) characterize the purebred Senepol via a

sound performance-testing program; and (4) develop
exportation procedures, including a quarantine station.

The characterization and performance testing was
determined to be the mission of the Agricultural Exper-
iment Station. The research on characterization was
initiated in conjunction with the Region Project S-10 -
breeding methods for beef cattle in the Southern Region.

Later, in the fall of that year, the Agricultural Exper-
iment Station entered into a cooperative research
project with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agri-
cultural Research Service to compare Senepol per-
formance in various crosses. In 1979, semen samples
from 18 bulls were sent to Brooksville, Florida.

The V.I. Senepol Association was founded on October
12, 1976, with the strong encouragement of local Senepol
breeders: Hanz Lawaetz, Frits Lawaetz, Henry Nel-
thropp, Dr. and Mrs. Mario Gasperi. The V.I. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, under Commissioner Henry's
leadership, built a quarantine station to facilitate the
exportation procedures necessary to meet state, federal
and international health and shipping regulations.

June 1977 a proud time in V.I. agricultural history -
saw the first shipment of registered Virgin Islands
Senepol cattle to the mainland. Since then, work has
continued on the breed through the various state agri-
cultural experiment stations in the southern United
States, including the Virgin Islands, and also at the
Agricultural Research Service at Brooksville.

Research at the V.I. Agricultural Experiment Station
has resulted in descriptions of the history and devel-
opment of the breed. Several technical reports and
abstracts, as well as two graduate theses, have also been
generated in conjunction with mainland Land-Grant
institutions. Documentation of the Senepol breed con-
tinues to accumulate as cattle breeders and scientists
alike continue to accrue performance tests and exper-
iment results.
The story of the development of Senepol is a story of
teamwork, par excellence, involving the government,
the academic institution and private industry of which all
Virgin Islanders can be genuinely proud.

Mr. Hans Lawaetz Dr Darshan Padda and Dr. Orville Kean
Mr. Hans Lawaetz, Dr. Darshan Padda and Dr. Orville Kean


Box 1576


Tel. 778-2229

"Breeders Of Purebred Senepol Cattle"
Purebred Bulls for Sale

Purebred Heifers for Sale

Embryos and Semen
For more information
Contact Hans or
Frits Lawaetz


~-SP~L~ ~ F

G2-! founded in St. Croix U.S. Virgin Islands C

The Senepol Breed is Noted for Being:
Polled Fertile
Maternal Heat Tolerant
Adaptable Early Maturing

Good Foragers
Good Meat Production
Good Milk Production

All interested producers with Senepol Cattle are strongly encouraged to
become members and register their cattle with the Senepol Association.

The Quality of
Our Beef
Dairy Products

Reflects the clean shore breezes
that freshens our pastures and blue
sea that frames them.
Our healthy flocks of cattle give
St. Croix the taste treat and eye appeal
to please islander and tourist alike.



The Baobab As A Source Of Food
John Rashford
College of Charleston
Sociology & Anthropology Department
Charleston, South Carolina 29424

The photograph below shows Africa's spectacular
baobab (Adansonia digitata) tree which is one of the
most fascinating trees to be found anywhere in the world.
Its outstanding feature is its immense trunk or trunks
which often seesm way out of proportion to the trees'
moderate height and rapidly tapering branches.
Although the baobab has many uses, it is for some
groups primarily a food or fiber tree; for others it is
essentially a water cistern, a curiosity, a shade tree, or a
religious tree. This brief paper looks at the food value of
the baobab appreciated for its leaves and for the edible
seeds and pulp of its fruit; we also consider the baobab as
a honey tree.

The baobab derives its generic name Adanson from
the French botanist Michel Adanson who encountered
the tree while traveling in Senegal from 1749 to 1753.
Adanson was a student of Bernard de Jussieu and it was
Bernard de Jussieu's report of Adanson's findings that
led Linnaeus to mention the tree in his Species Plan-
tarum published in 1743. Digitatat, which is the scientific
name of the species, identifies the finger-like leaflets of
the baobab's large compound leaves. The African
baobab is often described as the "best known" or "the
most prominent" member of the genus Adansonia of
which there are some nine related species that are only
known to occur naturally in Madagascar and Australia.
The baobab now grows worldwide along roadsides
and in public and private grounds and it is also to be
found in religious places, nurseries, parks, home gardens
and botanic gardens. It remains "rare" wherever intro-
duced, however, being largely restricted to the more
4 Jill!

The baobab at Grove Place, St. Croix, is a local landmark.

active areas of human settlement. The tree can be seen
in Mauritius, India, and Sri Lanka and there have also
been reports of occasional specimens in the Philippines,
Malaysia and Hawaii.

Beautiful examples of this tree can also be found
scattered throughout the Caribbean although it is still
"rare" in most places. I have seen baobabs in St. Thomas,
St. Croix, Antigua, Barbados, Jamaica, Trinidad, Puerto
Rico and St. Kitts and there are reports that it can also be
found in Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Martin, Haiti, St.
Vincent, Tobago, Nevis, Dominica, Bahamas and the
Dutch Leeward Islands. Of the islands I have visited, St.
Croix is fortunate in having the greatest number of trees,
the widest variety of forms and some of the most
beautiful individual specimens.

The baobab has alternate compound leaves, each is
composed of a long leaf stalk with two to seven oval
shaped leaflets radiating from the top like fingers from
the hand.' For mature trees, the leaflets are usually five in
number and they vary in size. The tree sheds its leaves
with the approach of the winter dry season and new
leaves appear in the spring and early summer.

It is especially the young, tender leaves that are
cooked fresh or dried. Fresh, they are cooked and eaten
like spinach or used as a vegetable in soups and stews.
Dried leaves which are used whole, crushed or
powdered are also added to soups and stews and to
sauces as well.2 Chevalier (see Dalziel 1937:113) reports
that edible leaves are obtained from a particular variety
of this tree which is cultivated for its leaves which are
usually described as "glutinous," "glabrous" or "muci-
lagious." Based on Chevalier's work, Dalziel (1937:113)
notes that "the branches ... [of this variety] are kept
pollarded so that it never flowers, and young shoots with
tender leaves are produced abundantly..." Dalziel goes
on to suggest that the leaves of other varieties are
unsuitable for food.

Appearing as early as May are large, waxy, hibiscus-
like flowers that are white or creamy and hang "upside-
down" on long stalks. Flowering can continue into late
September and early October and from these flowers
develop large, woody, gourd-like capsules or pods (up to
12 inches in length and 4 inches in diameter) that are
generally oblong in shape and covered by what seems
like brown velvet. Each fruit can weigh from 3 to 12
pounds and contains some 30 or more brown, kidney-
shaped seeds. The seeds are embedded in a white or
creamy acidic pulp which is laced together by a mass of
tough, stringy fibers that also divide the interior of the

.o- **-*


An open baobab fruit reveals pulp and seeds.
pod into compartments. The relative weights of the shAl'l,
pulp and seeds has been shown to be approximately 45
percent, 15 percent and 40 percent respectively.3 This
means that some 55 percent of the weight of the fruit is its
edible pulp and seeds. A healthy, mature baobab tree
produces hundreds of fruit that mature through the
summer and autumn and ripen and fall from the tree in
the winter, spring and early summer. The fruits come at a
good time because the late winter and early spring in the
dryer part of the tropics is usually a period of the annual
cycle that is associated with "seasonal hunger," or what
is sometimes simply referred as "hard times."

The woody shell of the mature fruit is brittle and
breaks easily, and the seeds embedded in the acidic pulp
(which is very hard when dry) are difficult to remove. The
pulp of mature or immature fruits is eaten naturally, and
with mature fruits, the dry pulp is simply sucked from the
seeds. The dry pulp is also gently pounded to separate it
from the seeds and to reduce it to a fine powder-like flour
to which water is added to make a porridge or refreshing
drink. The acidic pulp resembles tamarind in taste. For
this reason, many of the common names given to the tree
in Africa, India and the Caribbean suggest that it is a kind
of tamarind. In Jamaica, for example, the tree is called
monkey tamarind and in St. Croix, it is called Guinea
Tamarind.4 Only a few people in Antigua, Jamaica, Bar-
bados and St. Croix eat the fresh pulp. In St. Croix,
Everette and Dale Goodwin (proprietors of "Under de
Taman Tree") use the pulp to make a cool drink which
they sell (along with other natural drinks and vegetarian
dishes) in the Christiansted market. In parts of Africa,
the grounded pulp is also used to adulterate or to curdle
milk and it is an important ingredient in producing an
alcoholic drink from sugarcane.

It is worth noting here that the seasonal value of the
pulp from a nutritional point of view has long been recog-
nized. Owen (1970:31) says that the dry season from
January to March "is the period when citrus fruits are
scarce in the forest belt and almost unobtainable in the
Northern parts of ... [Nigeria]. Hence the baobab
serves the dual purpose of providing a rich source of
ascorbic acid at the time of the year when it is most
needed." Lee (1979:480) also notes the "remarkable
high" levels of vitamin C contained in the pulp and he tells
us that "during the winter season the !Kung, [of the
Kalahari] simply by eating two or three baobab pods a
day, can provide themselves with an almost therapeutic
dose of vitamin C."

Although they are used as beads of necklaces and
other personal ornaments, pottery, soap, and medicines,
baobab seeds are most important as a source of food.
The soft oily kernel's which are difficult to remove from
their thick, tough husks are eaten in their natural state
either fresh or dried. The palatability of the seeds (which
Irvine [1961:186] say "taste like almonds") is indicated by
the fact that students at the boys' school of the Convent
of Mercy Academy, "Alpha," (in Kingston, Jamaica) eat
the fresh kernel-so much so that to save the zinc roof of
the building the boys would climb on to get at the fruits,
almost a third of the tree's crown was chopped off. The
kernels are also eaten after soaking, roasting or boiling;
or, they may be processed further by crushing or pound-
ing or grinding to produce a coarse or fine meal. In pre-
paring food, this meal serves as an ingredient a
"spice," "condiment" or "sauce" added to other foods
such as millet or groundnut; it is also used for flavoring
and to make a side dish and various drinks. There are
reports that the seeds can be used when ground and
roasted as "a kind of coffee" or as "a possible substitute
r ,,

People seem dwarfed by the Grove Place baobab tree

JlilOR1WRIAli~HATrRIl~-i' ~~I'
I'''''' ii'''' 31 '' 'jl 'il rl ~ ~ I'

," i, ,

Baobab seeds yield from 12 to 15 percent oil. It is said
that this amount is insufficient to make it commercially
valuable on the world market and that even Africans
"rarely" make use of it. Nevertheless, in French speaking
West Africa it is used to dilute groundnut oil, and as
Owen (1970:31) indicates, the oil is extracted by "boiling
for use in a native dish indulged at certain festivals in
some parts of Senegal."
While thinking about the baobab as a source of food
we should also include its value as a honey tree. The
tree's yellowish wood (often described as "spongy") is
light, soft and rots easily and this is certainly an important
reason why old trees are usually hollow. These hollow
trees are often home to colonies of bees a natural
apiary which makes the tree an ideal place to seek
honey. Africans frequently take advantage of this asso-
ciation between baobabs and bees by hanging artificial
hives in the trees.
While the baobab is not now (and probably will never
be) a major source of food in the Caribbean, it is a tree
worthy of cultivation for its edible (and nutritious) fruit
and leaves and for the many advantages that it provides.

1. Baobab seedlings usually have simple leaves which makes it
difficult to recognize them when they are young. Simple
leaves also appear on mature trees especially when new
leaves come after the winter dry season, and they also
appear on very small branches spurs or twigs that
develop from the trunk.


St. Croix
Ville La Reine

St. Croix
Golden Rock

St. Thomas
Wheatley Center

2. Writing of indigenous plants used domestically by East
African coastal fishermen, Weiss (1979:40) says that in addi-
tion to the leaves, "young germinating shoots" (which he
tells us are "rather like asparagus in appearance") and
"new shoots" are also eaten as a vegetable.

3. See Greene (1932:215) and Pelly (1913:778).

4. Some Crucians also know the tree as Guinea almond.


Dalziel, J.M. 1937. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa.
London: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and

Green, Robert A. 1932. "Composition of the Pulp and Seeds of
Adansonia Digitata." Botanica Gazette, 94:215-220.

Irvine, F.R. 1961. Woody Plants of Ghana (With Special Refer-
ence to Their Uses). London: Oxford University Press.
Lee, R. 1979. The !Kung San: Men, Women and Work in a
Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Owen, John. 1970. "The Medico-Social and Cultural Signif-
icance of Adansonia Digitata (Baobab) in African Com-
munities." African Notes 6(1):24-36.
Pelly, R.G. 1913. "Composition of the Fruit and Seedsof Adan-
sonia Digitata." Journal of the Society of Chemical
Industry. 32:778:779.
Weiss, E.A. 1979. "Some Indigenous Plants Used Domesti-
cally by East African Coastal Fishermen." Economic
Botany. 33(1):35-51.




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Southerland Tours


Government Lot


You can't get fresher milk. Both low-fat and regular
are produced fresh daily. Packaged in plastic and rushed
same day to your store in refrigerated trucks.
St. Thomas Dairies is the only on-island milk to use
the convenience of plastic containers where you can see
the quality and freshness right in the package. For
convenience, quality and freshness, drink
the milk produced for your health ...
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In both gallon and
half-gallon sizes!



Contouring -

Going Around The Hill
Ellen Craft
Extension Specialist Agronomy

When plants are grown on sloping hillsides, there are
several simple methods you can use to prevent rain from
washing your soil away. Conservation practices such as
terracing, hillside ditching, strip cropping, silt fencing and
many others can be combined with contouring to slow
erosion from your land. Combining these techniques will
work more effectively than using one alone.

A contour is a line that runs across a slope, always at
the same height or level. Creating a series of small
ditches and ridges on contours around the hillside allows
water and soil flowing down the hill to be caught. The
water then slowly infiltrates into the soil providing more
water to your plants. The soil is caught in the ditch until
you have time to clean it out. Any time a hillside is dis-
turbed by plowing, digging, etc., it should be done
across the slope rather than up and down the hillside.

Lines in
the direction
of the slope

Ridges, furrows, and terraces must be formed per-
fectly level around the hillside. If they are not perfectly on
the contour, water held behind the earth embankment
will begin to flow downhill behind the ridge, etc. As it
picks up speed, it carries even more soil particles. The
flowing water can burst through the ridge, increasing the
velocity and causing even more erosion than had no
ridges been formed. That small ridge could become a
gully with just one rainstorm.

Lines across
the slope

A paper cup full of water is a good example of how this
works. When the cup is perfectly level the water will not
flow over the ridges of the cup. When the cup is tilted, the
water flows over the edge. Should a lot of water flow
continuously over the edge of the cup, the edge will
weaken and collapse, allowing the rest of the water to
quickly flow out. It's easy to visualize the same result with
uneven contours.

Obviously, plowing land, building terraces, or install-
ing other conservation practices directly on the contour
is not easy unless you can measure whether or not it is
level. A simple hand tool called an "A-Frame" will help
you set out contour lines quickly and economically. All it
requires are three poles (these can be made from tan tan
or any other lightweight wood). Two of the poles should
be slightly greater than 2 yards with the third pole being
slightly longer than one yard, twine, and a rock which will
fit in your hand.

Building Your A-Frame
Starting from the end of both long poles, mark them at
0, 1 and 2 yards. The poles can be notched at the two
yard mark on each pole. Place the notched ends together
and tie the two poles together at the top where the mark
is, such that they can be spread apart.

Leaving some room on either end of the one yard pole,
mark one yard precisely. At the marks that you made in
the middle of the other two poles, tie the one yard pole at
precisely one yard to form a triangle.

I meter


Crossbar I meter

Leg 2 meter

Tie the rock to one end of the twine. Tie the other end
to the top of the triangle. The weight of the rock will keep
the twine straight.

I meter

Stand the frame on it's legs. Put the free end of the
twine with the rock over the top of the frame where the
two poles are joined so that it hangs down freely. The
twine should be long enough to hand at least six inches
below the cross bar.

Standardizing Your A-Frame
Stand the A-Frame upright. Drive a stake by the
bottom of each of the poles. Mark the crossbar exactly
where the twine crosses the pole. Lift up the A-Frame
and switch it around so that the legs are at the opposite
stakes. Make a second mark on the crossbar exactly
where the twine passes the pole.

The absolute level mark for your A-Frame is exactly
half way between these two marks. This center mark
should be permanently notched. However, do not make
the notch deep enough to catch the twine when it swings
freely from side to side.

Whenever both legs of the A-Frame are on the ground
and the twine lines up directly with the absolute level
mark, the A-Frame is level and your contour ridges or
other conservation practices will also be level.

Marking Contour Lines
Start laying out contour lines from the top of the hill-
side. Begin at one end of the field at a height where you
want your first terrace, ridge or other conservation prac-
tice to go. Start by driving a short stake into the ground.
Place one leg of the A-Frame next to the stake. Move the
other leg until the twine lines are straight with the center
notch. Do not let plants interfere with the twine, keeping
it from swinging freely. Drive a stake next to the remain-
ing leg of the A-Frame.

Place the first leg next to the second stake. Move the
free leg until the twine is centered again. Drive a third
stake into the ground near the A-Frame leg. Continue
doing this across the entire hillside at that height or level
until you reach the other side of the field. You should
have a row of stakes which go across the contour of the

Now move down the slope to where you want the next
terrace, row of ridges, etc. to be built. The distance
between the contours you are laying out will depend on

what conservation practice you are using, the steepness
of your slope, the type of soil and the amount of rainfall.
Generally, the greater the rainfall and/or the steeper the
slope, the closer the contours should be made.

Follow the same procedure as above to mark a
contour line at this level across the slope. Continue this
until there are a series of contours marked with stakes
across the face of the hillside slope.

-) -- -I 1 --

-- ,-_

Maintenance of Your A-Frame
Should the twine tying the poles together become
loose, tighten them again. It is necessary to re-standardize
the A-Frame after tightening the ropes, extended use
and after it has been stored for a while. Re-standardize it
by following the directions above.

Literature Cited:
1. The Soil, 1976, FAO

2. George Atkins, Saving Hillside Topsoil, Canadian Inter-
national Development Agency.

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Tropical Bonsai

Rudy G. O'Reilly, Jr.
Extension Agent -Natural Resources

The term "bonsai", pronounced (bone sigh), literally
means tray planted. This technique of miniaturizing trees
and growing them in small containers originated in
China. It quickly spread to Japan where it was further
pursued and developed. Basically what is required is
branch pruning and/or wiring to train the tree to the
desired shape and size, proper regulation and dosage of
fertilizer and periodic root pruning. Thus trees that
would, under normal conditions, grow to 10 or more feet
could be maintained at a height of 6 inches to 4 feet
depending on the design wanted and the plant species.

The essence of a bonsai lies in its shape which is not
symmetrical, but portrays nature and the hidden beauty
that lies within asymmetry. Leaves and width of the
trunk must be in proportion to the overall size of the
finished bonsai and its pot. Lines created by the trunk
and branches should flow harmoniously and be pleasing
to the eye. A finished bonsai signifies years of love, devo
tion and creativity on the part of the grower (s).

Although any hardwood or semihardwood plant can
be used, those with small leaves, short internodal spaces
(space between leaves) and attractive barks are pre-
ferred. Many of our local plants meet some or all of these
requirements and lend themselves to bonsai culture.
Some of the small-leaved Ficus species (figs or rubber
plants) are perfect for bonsai as they react well to con-
stant pruning. All of the acacias (cashas) can also be used
to create quite charming bonsai, but be careful with the
thorns! Some of the fruit trees that can be used include
the pomegranate, West Indian cherry, sweet lime and
Natal plum. For a flowering bonsai, use bougainvillea,
powder puff, hibiscus or lantana. For a more traditional
looking bonsai try any of the cone-bearing plants such as
arborvitae and junipers available at some nurseries. Even
our local Australian pine is a likely candidate.

Forms of Bonsai
There are five basic forms and many variations of
these in which bonsai are trained. These include the
upright, informal upright, slanted, semicascade and

cascade styles. Each shape differs in the degree or angle
that the tree grows from the pot. The upright has a
straight trunk growing at or near 90 degrees from the
pot. It is used mostly for plants with a conical or pyra-
midal shape. The informal upright style is similar, but its
trunk is much curved. A slanted tree grows about 45
degrees from the pot, suggesting a wind-blown tree. The
semicascade tree grows almost at ground level with its
branches growing over the edge of the pot, parallel to the
soil line. The cascade has most of the plant growing over
the side of the pot and below the soil line somewhat like a
waterfall as the name implies.

Before beginning a bonsai, a general idea of the final
shape must be kept in mind. Plants may be started either
by cuttings, grafting, layering, or by seed. Of course,
older plants grown by any method can be obtained from
nurseries. These, however, require careful studying to
find a potential shape. Once a desirable shape and form
is decided upon the training process may begin.

Training Bonsai
There are three areas of concern in training a bonsai.
The primary training of a bonsai is to shape the trunk and
main branches by one of two methods. Pruning is
preferred for training plants with stiff or brittle branches
that won't bend easily. This is one reason why it is impor-
tant to use plants with small internodal spaces. Pruning
at specific nodes will cause growth in the desired direc-
tion. To remove a section, the branch is cut as close to
the node as possible. This will allow proper healing and
not leave unsightly scars. Another method of training is
by wiring with either copper or aluminum wire. It should
be done when the soil is on the dry side. The branches
are more flexible and less likely to split when bent.

Secondary training of a bonsai involves the develop-
ment of individual sections of leaves, referred to as
clouds. These seem to "float" around the main trunk at
different levels. They are arranged in such a manner to

Informal Upright


Formal Upright

Slanting Semicascade
reveal portions of the trunk which indicate its shape and
movement. In a finished bonsai, there are usually three
levels of clouds representing heaven, man and earth.
Each level is positioned to suggest a triangle, but this
pattern doesn't work for every style. In addition to
pruning and wiring, a number of other horticultural tech-
niques may be used to create these clouds.

Another very important training process is root
pruning. This is required every 1 to 3 years depending on
the plant's age and growth rate. Some of our local plants
may even require more frequent root pruning. This pro-
cedure serves to reduce the root ball which sometimes
gets so restricted in the pot that proper plant growth and
root function is inhibited. Dead and old thick roots
especially are removed. For some plants with a tap root
system, this is gradually reduced over a period of years.
Thick roots near the base of the trunk are left. These will
later be slightly exposed to give the appearance of the
tree "clinging" to the soil, a characteristic noted in many
old trees. More importantly, root pruning encourages
the development of fine roots which are vitally important
in bonsai culture. These roots increase the surface area
of the toot system and therefore enhance the fluid intake
capability. For these roots to develop, a proper soil
mixture is needed.

Soil and Pots
For bonsai culture a light, sandy, well drained soil
usually works well. However, each plant has a preferred
soil texture in which it grows best. Garden loam, peat
moss, fine gravel or sand (not beach sand) may be used
in different quantities. Equal parts of sand, loam and peat
moss make a good working mixture. This soil drains
quickly, so frequent watering is required especially
during the summer. More peat may be added for plants
that prefer moist soils. Manure can be incorporated into
the soil, but is best applied as needed. Liquid fertilizers
may also be used if diluted to 1/2 or 1/4 the recom-
mended dosage. Care should be taken not to over-
fertilizer with liquids as this will cause rapid, sometimes
"straggly" growth and salt build-up in the soil.

Choosing a pot for your bonsai is the final major deci-
sion in creating a good specimen. Don't just obtain
anything and put a plant in it. The pot is chosen after the
final shape is decided upon or, in some cases, after it is
achieved, and should accent the shape and age of the
tree. It is just as wrong to put a young plant in an antique
pot as it is to put an old tree in a brand new shiny one.

Bonsai pots are usually shallow stoneware trays. Only
pots used for cascade and semicascade trees are deep.
They come in a variety of shapes, sizes, depths and
colors. Unglazed and glazed pots are available. Mostly
earth colors are used, representing sky, grass, water or
stone. Pot shapes include round, square, hexagonal,
oval and rectangular. Trees planted in equilateral or
round pots are placed in the center, while those in rec-
tangular or oval pots are positioned 1/3 the length from
either side. The depth of the pot should be equal to the
width of the base of the trunk. A cascade or semi-
cascade tree is placed on the side opposite where its
trunk grows over the edge of the pot.

Suitable bonsai trays may be difficult to obtain, and
just the right one may not be available. Other containers
such as ceramic bowls and saucers, terra cotta water
trays and plastic pans may be easily substituted as bonsai
pots or used until one is found. Adequate drain holes at
least 1/2 inch in diameter must be drilled in these make-
shift pots. To prevent soil from falling out, coconut fiber
or screen can be placed over the opening (s).

The finishing touch that so often "captures" the
scenery is the ground cover. Moss creates one of the
most beautiful settings in bonsai. It looks like a well-
managed, just-cut lawn under the tree. A number of
varieties can be found in the wild, or if you are lucky, with
plants obtained from a nursery. Bonsai require at least 3
hours of direct light, so those mosses able to withstand
direct sun are best used. In our tropical environment
some plants grow under arid conditions, so other ground
covers like small ferns, rocks, sand, herbs and even tiny
figures can be used to add scenery.

Creating a bonsai can be a very rewarding experience
and can even turn into a great family hobby. Some
masters of the art, especially in the Orient, consider it a
spiritual discipline as well. But bonsai culture is not for
everyone. It requires creativity, a love of plants and most
importantly, a lot of time and patience. To those willing to
spend the time it offers special challenges and years of
--u -L

Many local plants can be used as bonsai.


Monday thru Saturday
7 A.M. to 11 P.M.

Sunday 7 A.M. to 9 P.M.

St. Croix's Newest

extends wishes for A Grand and Successful Fair

A *

Estate Bethlehem
*Fresh fish whole cleaned or fillet *Fingerlings *Fresh vegetables hydroponic + natural farming
Visitors Days will be announced *
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A View From Estate Fredensborg

Jean D. Larsen, Director, SBDA
Department of Economic Development & Agriculture

I am very proud to be an employee affiliated with the
Department of Economic Development and Agriculture.
This is the closest I have worked to my real roots.

I grew up in Estate Bethlehem and Estate Fredensborg
at a time when the biggest festival was Crop-Done. Crop-
Done was a celebration at the end of the sugarcane
cutting season. The Crop-Done was signaled by a
contest and a parade. The contest took place when the
last standing stalk of sugarcane remained. The workers
gathered around the last stalk of sugarcane and tossed
their hooked cutting bills at the stalk. The worker who
succeeded in cutting the stalk of sugarcane down won a
prize, not unlike that won for knocking down the Parass
at the Bull and Bread games at Grove Place. Then the
last load of sugarcane was drawn by a mule, all decorated
with flamboyant flowers, down to the Bethlehem Sugar
Factory. In later years, the rubber tired Spider tractors
and the metal bagoons would be decorated in the same
way. These activities took place in the spring at the end
of the sugarcane harvesting season.

During an earlier festival around the Christmas holi-
days, the workers had taken part ir what may have been
the precursor of the Crucian Christmas Festival. They
traveled from estate to estate in troupes...the Devil
dragging a long chain, the Donkey, Wild Indians, Masked
Dancers, and the Scratch Band with the tail pipe, tri-
angle, snare drum and flute. The Christmas festivities
were marked with the issuance of rations of Government
House Rum, in many instances, consumed with a florish,
straight up, no chaser.

In the summer and fall the workers followed a rhythm
of life governed by plantings, harvesting and caring for
livestock. Some images stand out about this way of life.
One in particular. It is that of the Bomba or driver sitting
in the field supervising a gang of workers. The Bomba
would lop off the top of a Tan Tan tree and carefully dig it
up while retaining the spreading roots. The skin of the
tree would then be peeled away and the Bomba Stick
would be cured. The Bomba stick, turned top down, with
the roots forming a seat, was used by the Bomba in two
ways, as a portable seat and as a mace. The latter rarely,
but to good effect.

One may wonder how these childhood experiences
and images shaped my life. Why would anyone with such
roots leave the island to study physics and eventually end
working in the field of labor relations and management,
or even become a poet. Maybe it is kismet or something
much simpler. Perhaps the awe of being a witness to the
rhythms of this agricultural lifestyle leads one along paths
that ultimately fold back on themselves.

There was a certain kind of vitality surrounding that
time on St. Croix that may have stemmed from the
global fascination of youth. But even when one compen-
sates for the excess, there was still a strong element of
something special in the air. There was structure and
continuity, and pride, in growing things. Everyone knew
that after the celebration of Crop-Done, the cycle would
begin again. The ratoon would sprout through the
bronzen longtop; the fields would slowly flood to green
again. In due time the arra would wave bright and golden
in the late afternoon Crucian sun.

There was also a sense of accountability. Every
activity fit neatly in place with all other activities depen-
dant on it. One had to deliver or the entire system would
fail. What was the strongest, perhaps, was the sense of
continuity. My grandfather, Hans Larsen, supervised the
sugar boiling operation at the Bethlehem Sugar Factory,
from gangplank to storehouse, long before I was born.
My dad was Manja at Fredensborg. And I would
be... well, I wasn't sure where I would fit in, but at best I
had at Fredensborg, the wildest laboratory imaginable to
try new things out.

There is nothing in the world as awesome for a young-
ster to crank-up, on the QT of course, as a big diesel
crawler. One so big that the diesel engine had to be
cranked off of a small gasoline engine. You can imagine
how many hours I spent observing Adam Petersen and
the other tractor drivers, taking mental notes. Finally
one morning when all the folks were out, I did it! I got the
tractor going, backed the monster out of the tractor shed
and tooled around the yard, turning on a dime, and scat-
tering the chickens, ducks and turkeys, to all points of
the compass.

The only experience that topped this was my first solo
flight in a Piper PA-19 aircraft out of an airfield in Hunts-
ville, Alabama. And perhaps that's another connection,
the sense of high risk, body numbing power as the big
engine comes up to full power, and flight ensues.

I suppose it is more difficult to make the connection
with poetry. Although poetry is a medium of expression
of unfettered wonder, of displaced intense experiences,
welling up at a remote time and place.

So I still carry Fredensborg, my home for the better
part of a lifetime, with me in memory and in character. I
can touch the past even as I reach out to the future. Now
I plant seeds in the form of new business ideas. I cultivate
these new enterprises with financial, managerial and
technical assistance. In due time, my staff and I will
witness the reaping of the harvest of the wealth these
businesses produce.




P.O. Box 2570, Kingshill
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00850





The Tropical Bont Tick on St. Croix

Robert Bokma, D.V.M.
Duke Deller, D.V.M.

The tropical bont tick is back on St. Croix. The proper
name of this tick is Amblyomma variegatum, although it
is also known as the bont tick, the gold tick, the St. Kitts
tick, the Senegalese tick, and the red tick. The tick was
originally from Senegal, West Africa and first arrived in
the Caribbean in the early 1800's, when it was trans-
ported to Guadaloupe on cattle from West Africa. The
tick has spread to some twenty islands, including
Guadaloupe, Martinique, Marie-Galante, Antigua, St.
Kitts, St. Maarten/St. Martin, Anguilla, St. Lucia, Puerto
Rico, Vieques, Culebra and St. Croix.

Diseases Transmitted by the Tick
This tick feeds on blood and lymph fluid from all
species of warm-blooded animals, especially livestock,
but also man and his pets. The adult female tick requires
several grams of blood, and a heavy infestation of ticks
can cause debilitation just due to blood loss.

The tropical bont tick also presents problems because
it transmits animal and possibly human diseases. The
most important of these are heartwater and derma-
tophilosis. Heartwater, which is found on Guadaloupe,
Antigua, and Marie-Galante, is fatal to sheep, goats, and
cattle which have not previously been infected as young
animals. It causes severe lung infections and brain

inflammation. It also causes secretions of liquids into the
internal body cavities and around the heart. That is why
this disease is called heartwater.

Dermatophilosis, also called cutaneous streptothri-
cosis, is known to exist on St. Croix, is almost always
associated with tropical bont tick infestations, and
especially affects cattle. The skin becomes thickened
and swollen and there are bumps and open wounds on
the skin. This disease spreads over the body of the ani-
mal and eventually results in severe anemia, swelling of
the limbs of the animal, and intoxication with waste
products. The animal usually dies, unless it is treated
both for ticks and with long-acting antibiotics.

Appearance of the Tropical Bont Tick
The tick's upper shield or shell is patterned in black,
yellow, and red. The adult male tick is about a quarter
inch in diameter. Females which are fully fed with blood
can be three quarters of an inch in diameter. These ticks
have very long, penetrating mouth parts, much longer
than those of the typical cattle tick (tropical cattle fever
tick) or the typical horse tick (the tropical horse tick).
Another characteristic of this tick is that the legs have
distinctive white bands at the joints.

A cow suffering from the bont tick and its affects provides a vivid picture of the seriousness of tick infestation.

This photo dramatically illustrates the size of a fully engorged
female bont tick.
Life Cycle
The tropical bont tick is a three-host tick. This means
that the tick requires three different animals for its com-
plete development. The young ticks or larvae hatch from
eggs, which were laid in clusters in the moist soil when
the females drop off the last animal. Larval ticks climb
and feed on smaller mammals and possibly birds, such as
chickens. After a few days, they drop off and change into
"nymphs" (immature ticks, which still do not show any
sexual characteristics). The nymphs again usually feed
on smaller mammals or birds, however both larval and
nymphal ticks can feed on all species of livestock. After
the nymphal ticks feed for a few days, they can be the
size of the typical cattle or horse tick. The nymph drops
off the second animal and matures into the adult male or
female tick. These adults usually feed on cattle, but they
are also very common on other species of livestock.
Males may remain on the third animal for several weeks,
but female ticks usually stay on the animal for seven to
twelve days after mating. They will remain on the host
animal for about two weeks before dropping off to find a
place to lay about 20,000 eggs and then die.

History of the Tropical Bont Tick on St. Croix
The tropical bont tick was known to exist on St. Croix
from 1967 to 1972. Six adjoining farms on the western
end of St. Croix were placed under quarantine. All live-
stock, dogs, and cats on these farms needed to be
treated every week for the first year and every two weeks
for a second year. In addition, the farms were sprayed
with airplane- or truck-mounted sprayers for six treat-
ments at three-week intervals. Livestock treatments
were with coumaphos (CoRal) and farm spraying was
with sprayable carbaryl (Sevin). This treatment program
was very successful and St. Croix has remained free of
Amblyomma variegatum since 1972.

Keeping the Tropical Bont Tick -and the
Diseases it Transmits- off St. Croix
On July 26, 1987, tick specimens, later confirmed to be
the tropical bont tick, were submitted to the University
of the Virgin Islands. These ticks were from a farm on the
Sion Hill Estate. At the time of this writing there is only
one known infested farm.

The presence of Amblyomma variegatum situation on
St. Croix is being attacked on several fronts. The one
known infested premises and several neighboring farms
are now all under quarantine and regular treatment. All
secondary neighbors and other risk herds are being
identified and will be inspected on a regular basis. Exten-
sion work has promoted increased awareness, and
hopefully, reporting of the tick or suspicious conditions
on animals in the community. We anticipate that there
may be a few additional premises detected, however all
leads to date have been negative.

Because of the existence of dermatophilosis on St.
Croix, and the presence of heartwater on neighboring
islands, it is critical that all animal owners on St. Croix
work together in the effort to eradicate this tick, to
assure that these devastating diseases are not



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Youth Education:

Ecosystems Studies At VIERS

Kirsten Canoy

Too often our children sit in school classrooms sur-
rounded by building developments and are expected to
memorize information out of text books or from their
teachers regarding the Virgin Islands natural environ-
ment. It is difficult for them to learn about our island
ecosystems without actually seeing them or under-
standing their importance. Teachers, especially those
hired from off island, are not adequately prepared to
discuss the Virgin Islands fragile ecosystems. The text
books they use in their classes come from the states and
they do not take into consideration the Virgin Islands nor
do we have teaching units available which provide this

The University of the Virgin Islands Ecological
Researh Station (VIERS) provides an option-a
research and education site where our island students
can stay while learning about and enjoying the living
ecosystems of the Virgin Islands.

Learning experiences are gained from exploring the
mature ecosystems that lie within easy walking distance
of the main station. This experience provides a natural
classroom for our children. This actual preview of the
natural environment prepares them for slide programs
and discussions in the VIERS classroom.

The Virgin Islands youth deserve to know and feel that
what we have on the three islands is very important and
t! t they are a part of its preservation. Study material

V. I .




The VIERS display at the 1987 Fair.

2herl I.he b*st Part of he
tTendrp W.Wi

developed for stateside students does not stimulate a
feeling of self worth nor an appreciation of our specialized
island environments.

Discussions, classes and nature walks stimulate a
great need to learn more about our environment. The
students are encouraged to ask questions about these
natural systems, for example:

What do these natural ecosystems look like?
How do they grow?
Why do we preserve them? and
What happens to the environment when the systems
are destroyed?

Natural ecosystems in the VIERS area include a sandy
beach, a rocky beach, mangroves, coral reefs, and a salt
pond. These habitats are rich in life which the students
can observe during their walks or snorkeling trips.
Numerous animals, birds and fishes make their homes in
this area since they are in no danger here. Along with
these nature walks at Reef Bay, students will have a
chance to see the ruins of a sugar cane factory and petro-
glyph (rock carving) dating back before Columbus. At
Little Lameshur Bay the ruins of a bay rum factory can be
seen. A short walk up the hill there is an old estate house

ri.. ;. .. .-

The relaxed setting at VIERS on St. John enhances the environmental studies of students and scientists.
from the days of raising sugar cane. The house is pres- where there is space for up to 40 students plus teachers.
ently being used by the V.I. National Park Service to We have a large classroom with a slide screen, slide pro-
house the south coast ranger. A two mile hike to a salt jector, chalk board and space for microscopes. Kitchen
pond helps students to learn how salt comes from sea and dining facilities are available so the teachers and
water. supervisors of the class can prepare meals. Adequate
bathroom and shower facilities are also on site.
Experiencing these natural ecosystems is a thrill and site.

real learning experience since many of the students have
never seen them. Many ecosystems have been des-
troyed for houses, marinas and industry because people
didn't know or care about them. Unless our young
people become aware of their importance these natural
systems will soon disappear.
The University of the Virgin Islands encourages our
public and private school children to come to VIERS

GoL Heqltlt Stire
St. Croix
For Your Health Foods
Natural Herb Teas, Drinks, Cosmetics,
and much, much more!

OPEN: Mon. Fri. 9am-.7pm Sat. 9 am-8pm
TEL: 778-5565

Teachers and parents who are interested in the pro-
gram offered at VIERS and want to bring their classes are
encouraged to contact the station manager, Ms. Kirsten
Canoy, to reserve space: call 776-6721 or write VIERS in
care of P.O. Box 719, Cruz Bay, St. John 00803.

(809) 772-1205
(800) 524-2018

Owner / Manager

P.O. Box 1908
Frederiksted. St. Croix
U S Virgin Islands 00840



* Golden Rock
*Sunny Isle

Kentucky Fried






Best Wishes
& Success
on the
18th Annual
and Food
Fair of the
Virgin Islands.

St. Thomas
A.H. Riise Mall,
(At the waterfront)
Phone 4-7195
St. Croix
Ville La Reine
Phone 8-2750
St. Croix
United Shopping Center
Phone 8-6292

_____________________ J

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Natural Resources For The Future

Roland H. Wauer

At least one million species of plants and animals are
likely to become extinct by the end of this century. Right
now, the world is loosing one species every day. And
scientists tell us that the heaviest losses occur on islands.
A 1985 report by the International Congress for Bird
Protection stated that "Fully 93'1 of the birds which have
become extinct since 1600 have been island forms."

There are medical, economic, utilitarian, and moral
reasons why Virgin Islanders should care about the
declining numbers of native animals and plants and do
whatever can be done to protect their natural heritage.
Let's look at some examples.

One dramatic instance is that ol the native, perennial
corn plants that were discovered in the foothills of
central Mexico. These plants were located by a botanist
just before the hillside where the plants were growing
was to be cleared for planting a crop of annual corn
plants. Corn as we know, is an annual plant that pro-
duces only one crop in its lifetime from each stalk. This
wild corn plant produces continuously. The saving of
only a few acres of land that contained a few plants of the
native Mexican teosinte species, in this case, may
someday keep millions of people from starving.

Another example of the value of protecting plants is
that of the amaranth plant, a plant that is native to the
Virgin Islands. It is extremely rich in protein and is easily
digested. There are about 60 native wild and weedy
forms of this plant in the New World. The Aztecs used it
as a primary grain and cultivated it prior to the arrival of
the Spanish. In fact, toasted amaranth seeds were
mi: ed with the blood of the humans sacrificed in their
ceremonies and eaten as ceremonial cakes. The Spanish
completely destroyed the amaranth crops when they
found this out. Only recently has the plant begun to be
cultivated again. It may well be that some of the wild
amaranth plants in the Caribbean have equal or greater
nutrient value and should be cultivated as well.


In the world of medicine, penicillin provides a classic
example. In the early years of this century, penicillium
was only a nuisance mold on bread. Nobody would have
believed that this group of molds should be saved,
studied and encouraged, even after Alexander Fleming
in 1929 discovered that its by-product had an antibiotic
effect on bacteria. But the many soldiers who survived
World War II, because of the availability of penicillin and
the millions of people since then who have been cured by
its various antibiotic descendants, would be more than
willing to speak out in favor of saving that "useless"

The point of these examples is that the wild things of
this earth represent a reservoir of genetic materials that
we can ill afford to lose. There is no way to predict or
foresee the ways that unstudied plant and animal species
might someday prove valuable. It is vitally important,
therefore, that examples of our world be preserved
intact with the minimum of human influence until a time
when we are wiser and possess greater technology.

It is interesting to note that many worthwhile discov-
eries relate directly to either early folktales or folk
medicines derived from native plants and animals. The
interrelationships between historic remedies and
modern medicine are becoming more obvious with each
passing year.

The economics of natural areas and wild species can
be extremely important, as well, but is often ignored in
arguing for protecting landscapes. In the Virgin Islands
and throughout the world, the tourist industry has
become one of the most important sources of revenue.

Developments are being proposed and constructed
for the visiting public all around the Caribbean. The
number of new hotels, condos, restaurants and marinas
presently proposed for the Virgin Islands can virtually
destroy the significant resources which attract the
tourist trade in the first place. And all the while very little
attention is being given to protecting or properly main-
taining the natural values to utilize the attraction of an all-
that-remains natural scene.

People the world over spend great sums of money
enjoying the spectacle of wild creatures and natural
habitats. Bird watchers in the U.S. alone spend over $500
million each year in the pursuit of their hobby. And a
growing number of people all around the world roam the
earth in search of wildlife, spending billions of dollars
annually in trying to glimpse a rhino in Africa, a brown
bear in Alaska, or a Puerto Rican parrot in the

'5 g'
c 1~

There also is the extremely important and practical
argument for resource protection that can be called
"ecosystem services." Closest to home are our man-
groves which cleanse the reefs and bays by acting as a
filter of pollutants from the land. They also provide the
nurseries necessary to produce our major fisheries; the
reduction of an area's fisheries usually is directly related
to the degradation of the island mangroves.
Consider too the waterholding capacity of the hillside
vegetation. Siltation of our streams and marine systems
usually is directly related to the irresponsible manage-


TELEPHONE: (8091 772-2780


ment of our forests and woodlands. It is more than just
the prevention of soil erosion and flooding, but the pro-
duction of the necessary oxygen we breathe and the
nutrients on which our foodstuff depends.
The very unique, internationally significant Virgin
Islands resources also provide its citizens with a sense of
pride or respect for the land and our ability to manage the
landscapes for the future, not for short-term benefits.
Protecting landscapes for future generations to enjoy
and benefit from provides options that would otherwise
be lost.

TEL (809) 772-0365

R yial "Frederik Storwes. GInc.
Liquor and Gift Shop Best prices in theVirgin Islands


friendly, courteous service and expert help with
all your banking needs.
At First Pennsylvania Bank, our customers are
number one!

First Pennsylvania Bank

St. Thomas St. Croix Tortola

1985 First Pennsylvania Bank, N.A. in U.S.V.I. Member F.D.I.C.


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Consumer Products White Westinghouse Appliances

pressurized 10 to 20 lb.
dry chemical extinguishers

When and Where You Need It


I Portable Generators



Supplies for the Agriculture Department,
and others of Fruit Trees Mango, Avacado,
Citrus, Breadfruit, Coconut, etc.
Liquid Fertilizer.
Chemicals of all kinds.

For more information
Contact J.. San Roman

G.P.O. Box 65
San Juan, P.R. 00936



entals. .and... Sales
Sion Farm Shopping Center
Christiansted,St Croix 778-5738
Member American Rental Association

6obster Conn-~
Catering Company
Call us at 773-0263

Dairy Goat Production

In The Virgin Islands

Kofi A. Boateng
Extension Livestock Specialist

Goats were among the first animals to be domesti-
cated. Most countries of the world have used goats as a
source of milk and meat since the earliest days of re-
corded history. It is estimated that 80 percent of the milk
used in the Old World comes from goats. There, the goat
is often referred to as the "poor man's cow." Today,
many of the earth's people keep dairy goats as a source
of milk.
The reason goat milk is not generally used today in
commercial operations is purely an economic one. A
cow yields more milk than a goat. But with the new health
consciousness, more people are investing in large dairy
goat farms and are finding it profitable.
Goat milk has often been considered the cure-all for a
wide variety of ailments including arthritis, heart disease,
eczema, asthma, hay fever, stomach ulcers and many
other digestive disorders. Unfortunately, goat milk is not
a miracle food. It is however, a good tasting nutritious
food that is enjoyed by many people, especially those
who have a difficult time digesting cow milk, but want to
include milk in their diet.
The quality of goat milk is superior to cow milk for
human consumption. It is naturally homogenous, having
more nonprotein nitrogen, better quality of proteins and
more niacin and thiamine than almost any other food or
food product. The extremely high niacin content in goat
milk makes it a beneficial food source for small children
that are suffering from diarrhea.
The fat globules in goat milk are also much smaller
than those in cow milk and the curds are softer and
smaller, which gives it ease of digestibility. Goat milk is
whiter in color because vitamin A in goat milk contains
no carotenoid pigments. These pigments cause fat to
have various degrees of yellow coloring. The absence of
these pigments in goat milk cause butter and cheese
made from it to be white.
Goat milk can be used in all the ways cow milk is used.
It has an advantage over cow milk though, in that the
young of more types of animals can be satisfactorily
raised on goat milk.
Goat milk is used directly for drinking purposes, as
buttermilk, and for making cottage and the other soft
cheeses, hard cheeses, butter, ice cream and yogurt.
Goat milk is also used to make soap.
A small family in the Virgin Islands can supply its own



Goat milk can provide a valuable addition to the diet.
wholesome milk from two dairy goats for much less
money than it takes to keep a cow. Milk goats usually
require little initial investment and a relatively small
amount of room and feed. As a family milker, a milk goat
can pay her way even if all of her feed has to be
To supply your family with goat milk all year round
with only two goats, the goats should be bred in such a
way that they kid at least two months apart. This allows
each doe a 60-day dry period (no milk) before kidding.
Also two goats may keep each other company. The
amount of milk a goat will give is variable. A good milker
will give about 3 to 5 quarts of milk a day for about 10
months of the year.
In the Virgin Islands, two main breeds of milk goats are
utilized. The Nubian breed, the most common in the V.I.,
has long drooping ears, a Roman nose and a short glossy
hair coat. Although Nubians give less milk than the other

breed found in the V.I., their milk is richer in milk fat. The
other breed is the Saanen, which is white or light cream in
color. They give more milk than the Nubian, but less milk

In the V.I. there are three producers of purebred dairy
goats who sell dairy goats and goat milk. These produ-
cers are reliable breeders and can provide you with a
good quality milker from $150 to $300. Before buying,
visit the producer's farm and check carefully any doe you
plan to buy. Ask about her production record and if
possible drink a glass of her milk. It is always advisable to
buy a doe that has already freshened (given milk) at least

In checking the general conformation of a goat, do not
let the large size of the udder fool you. Udder size is not a
good indicator of milk production because of the varia-
bility in the amount of skin tissue present. But it should at
least show enough capacity to indicate adequate amount
of milk. The udder should be strongly attached to the
body and have two well-shaped teats of a size com-
fortable to hand milking.

Goats are browsers by nature, and will normally clear
land of brush and small trees. But they cannot be
expected to produce milk without a good pasture and
grain supplement. An acre of good guinea grass pasture
will provide enough forage for two milking does. They will
also need an additional supplement of 1/2 to 1 pound of a
14 to 16% crude protein concentrate each, daily. This
amount should be increased during dry conditions when
forage is scarce, during pregnancy, and when they are
producing above average quantities of milk.

A cup of calf manna could be added to the grain con-
centrate at feeding time. Also a mineral salt block should
be provided at all times. Goats, like all livestock, should
have access to plenty of clean, fresh water. The concen-
trate feed, calf manna and mineral salt block can all be
purchased at your local feed store.

Goats do not need any fancy kind of housing. Any well-
built barn or shed that is dry and free from drafts will do.
Shipping containers make excellent goat houses.

Young does are normally bred when they weigh 85-90
Ibs. Does come in heat about every 17 to 21 days. They
are normally restless during this time and constantly
shake their tail. There are bucks available locally for
breeding purposes. Your does will give birth about 149
days (5 months) after they are bred, and will normally
produce twins or triplets. Kids can be weaned at about 2
months of age.

The first milk that the doe produces after kidding is
called colostrum. This should be fed to the kid. After this
you are ready to begin milking for home consumption.

Remember that you will be sharing the does milk with the
kid for the first two months.

Milking is best done on an easily constructed and inex-
pensive wooden stand. A stand holds the doe at a height
that is convenient for the person milking. It also facil-
itates keeping the milk clean.

A milking stand includes a grain box which serves two
purposes. It pacifies the goat while she is being milked
and provides an individualized feed supplement based on
her requirements.

When handling milk always use smooth, nonabsor
bent, noncorrosive and non-toxic utensils. Stainless
steel utensils are normally recommended for milking.
They are inexpensive, durable and easy to keep clean.
Plastic and glass utensils are also used. Sterilize all
milking utensils with boiling water before use. Clean and
sterilize all milking utensils immediately after use, as well.
Store milking utensils between milking sessions, bottom
up, in a dry place, free from dust and flies.

Milking should be a satisfying experience for both the
goat and the person milking. The best results occur
when you are gentle and quiet during milking and un
usual distractions are avoided in the milking area.

Before milking, first wash and dry the udder to remove
any foreign material. This also stimulates milk let down by
the doe. Milking normally does not take much time, so be
gentle and milk the doe out completely. After milking, dip
the doe's teats in a germicidal teat dip which can be pur-
chased locally. Dipping helps to prevent mastitis disease.

Cleanliness is essential to good milk. Therefore, you
should weigh, strain and cool the milk as soon as it is
drawn from the doe. Milk held at room temperature or
above deteriorates rapidly.

Raw milk should be used within one week of produc-
tion and the sooner it is used, the better. If you decide to

pasteurize your goat milk to prolong its quality, stability
and shelf life, you can buy a small portable pasteurizer for
about $90.
Goats are generally hardy and do not have as many
diseases as other animals. In the Virgin Islands, they are
distrubed more by internal parasites than diseases.
Stomach worms usually cause the most trouble. The
important symptoms of worm infestation are loss of
flesh, digestive disturbances, diarrhea and constipation.
You can control worms by following a routine worming
schedule. Practicing good sanitation where goats are
penned will also help decrease the incidence of these

SBest Wishes
for a
/ Successful Fair

Dr. Ed Jacobs, DVM


St. Croix Animal Hospital
7 A Peter's Rest
St. Croix
' 773-7109

Remember to maintain clean, dry and well ventilated
housing; keep an available supply of fresh water; move
animals from pasture to pasture on a regular basis; feed a
well balanced diet in adequate amounts, and supple-
ment feeding with mineral salt mix; talk with your veter-
inarian and plan a program for your herd; and observe
your goats daily.
For more information on dairy goat production, please
feel free to contact me or call me at UVI Cooperative
Extension Service at 778-0246.

The Princess


OPEN Mon. Fri. 8:00 5:30
Saturday 8:00 4:30
North Shore Road La Grande Princess
Food Stamps Welcome



TELEPHONE: (809) 778-6333

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Agriculture & Food Fair


To All Participating in the 1988 Agriculture and Food Fair



P.O Box 763 Christiansted, St. Croix U.S.V.I. 00820
(809) 778-6240

Local No. 8248

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Take The Bite

Out Of Your Food

Budget Through Shopping Practices

Caryl Johnson
Home Economics Program

With the price of food 25-50% higher here in the Virgin
Islands than stateside, people need to practice and
develop good shopping habits.
The following list will help take a bite out of your family
food budget:
1. Make a shopping list to avoid impulse buying
2. Watch the newspaper ads for specials
3. Do not shop when you are hungry
4. Use a pocket counter to watch your budget as you
shop and check for accuracy at the cash register
5. Resist pickingup and examining items not on the
shopping list, you will buy them five times out of ten
6. Check the bottom shelves, higher priced items are
usually put at eye level
7. Try store brands or generic brands
8. Buy items with cents off coupons only if the price
is lower than regular price
9. Larger sizes are usually but not always more

10. Buy produce according to season
11. Avoid foods with fancy extras like sugar or sauces
12. Compare meat by cost per serving not cost per
13. Learn to use lower grades of meat and meat
14. Use dry milk for cooking
15. Try to shop once or twice a week and not every
day (the more one goes into the store the more
one buys)
16. Keep a list of groceries that you need and organize
the list so that items located in the same place in
the store are grouped together on the list
17. Keep a record of the amount of food you throw
away in a week, it may help to reduce the waste
18. Avoid foods that are packaged as individual
servings extra packaging boosts the price -
individual packages of potato chips, ready to eat
cereals, raisins, cheese, etc.




Box 596 Kingshill, St. Croix 00850 Alexander Hamilton Airport

Oscar E. Henry Talks About

Farming In The V.I.
Oscar E. Henry
As told to Carrol B. Fleming

I have always tried to do things by discussion and by
observation and by trying to reason things out. I have
always had an interest in farming. I had a godfather that
had a farm, and I spent my summer vacations there. I was
also interested in cattle and horses. When we were all
younger I was fortunate enough to be associated with
nearly all the larger farmers all over the island. And in
those days, life was more leisurely, so there was more
conversing during weekends and on holidays and so
forth. And so, we younger people sat around and listened
to these conversations about farming and so forth.
I have also given consideration and regards to profes-
sionals that I feel have the qualities to give you maximum
information and guidance. Therefore, I got in with Soil
Conservation and had a proper farm plan. My farm is
sixty-nine acres, all told. I have about sixty acres for
cattle; and the other five I have developed for cottages.
The Soil Conservation plan, I felt, was a very, very ade-
quate plan. In addition to their making the plan, I gave
them a general idea and outline of my thoughts, my
aspirations, my hope, and got guidance from them. I also
got their feeling of acceptance with some of the general
ideas that I have. That is what has helped me to develop
my farm the way it is.

I listened attentively to animal breeders who always
knew and still know that overgrazing is not going to do
my pastures any good. And funny enough, as I am
repeating, I have always felt that you could learn from
people with experience by listening to older farmers
and older farm hands. And by paying attention to their
sayings and their feelings and their experience of living in
the area and being able to judge the weather by certain
ways of looking at signs and characteristics and plants
and stuff like that. I was fortunate enough to grasp quite a
lot of that, and understood it well enough to use it
We often have intrusions in the grasses of undesirable
weeds and other plants and so forth. We have, what is
locally termed hurricanee grass," which is grass that is
very intrusive, very poor quality. I would say it would be
useful for grazing about four months of the year. The
other eight months, it gets dry and stalky and smelly. The
animals don't like it. It is superb for lawn but it was
coming into my pasture. But as I said, it makes poor
pasture. And I spoke with Bob Scott who was head of
Soil Conservation at that time and he felt that it was a
good thought. Scott was able to get my idea about hurri-
cane grass included in one of the practices for soil con-

JbIdi c. nriiry
servation-you could then get $10.00 an acre for planting
some other type of grass that it was felt would either
minimize or retard or get rid of this hurricane grass.

All my cattle are range fed. I made a promise to myself
that anytime I have to buy grass or feed for my animals,
then I am out of business. And by not overgrazing and by
culling, I am able to keep my pastures in good shape.
When I see an animal does not look good all the time,
then I feel something is wrong. After checking and con-
sulting with the vet, after they have done what they felt
they should do and when we are still not getting desired
results, I am culling that animal out. So, I have animals
that have good conformity. I have animals that drop a calf
every year. I have animals that must give sufficient milk
to take care of the calf adequately. Then, I notice my
pasture. And because of the peculiarities in rainfall, you
have certain successive years, sometimes as much as
three successive years, of poor rainfall, and that makes it
difficult and hard on the pasture. So, then I cut down on
my stock. On the average sixty acres, for the cattle only,
I have had up to seventy-five heads. Now, it must be
questionable as to why I was able to carry seventy-five
heads. This, I attribute, among other things, besides
rotating properly, to that fact that I used to pen my
animals. Therefore, you don't have damage where the
animals are sleeping all night. So, I have been cutting
down. I now have an average of 50.
Coming back to what I was speaking about the
pastures, I felt, observing and looking at the pangola
grass, that the pangola grass has the same similar
characteristics as this hurricane grass, with long runners
and thick body grass and flowering and all that. I tried
that. The thing is, that my preference is really the guinea
grass. The guinea grass grows bountifully during wet
spells, but it dries out rapidly as soon as it becomes dry.

During the rainy season, the guinea grass does very, very
well. As I was saying, I was trying to eliminate the hurri-
cane grass and the locally-called sour grass. If you are
doing that with a similar grass, then it is to be anticipated
that this grass is going to take over which is your
preference. And which, funny enough, I have not had the
chance to get the scientific explanation as to why this
might be the reason.
At the western end of my farm, guinea grass took over
most of my section in about an average of 7 years, yet, to
the eastern end of my farm, the intrusion is nothing near
that. I still have 75% of my section with guinea grass and
25% with the pangola grass. And even though, on the
eastern end, my sheep section, which is only pangola,
has not intruded to any extent with the guinea grass. I
don't know why. The only thing I could attribute some of
this to is, perhaps with air flow which is usually out of the
southeast. Maybe, during the dry season, when your
guinea grass has receded, and the pangola flowers, then
the seeds sprout in between the spaces more readily. On
E the lower western end of my farm and on the eastern
side, it is blowing away. So, I am assuming that that is one
of the things that has caused it not to take over as readily
as it did in the western section. As you can see, I am
o always trying to reason things out.
Oscar E. Henry framed by the pastures he discusses.


East Airport Road, St -Croix




U "St. Croix's Best Building Buys"
%iR 1A y N I

Sunny Isle

Shopping Center

Salute the Virgin Islands Department of

Agriculture on the occasion of the







Supply Inc.

For years you've known us as Triumpho Electric of St. Croix.
Now we have new owners, but the same old commitment to
providing the island's largest inventory of electrical products
at reasonable prices.
Electricians and contractors know our extensive inventory.

We invite you, our retail customers to see us for:
St. Croix's best selection of Table Lamps
Lighting and Fixtures by Thomas & Starlight
Onan Generators (Sales and Service)
Hunter Fans
Fasco Fans
Power and Hand Tools
Light Bulbs and Tubes
Complete Welding Shop
Anything Electrical!

7-C Peter's Rest, St. Croix 773-4630

"If you need advice, we've got it also-for free. "

Recollections Of A Former

Commissioner Of Agriculture
Rudolph Shulterbrandt

As I reminisce my past life and work in the field of
Agriculture here in the Virgin Islands, I recall many posi-
tive achievements. These experiences cover a period of
over three and one half decades.

I started my agricultural career here on St. Croix as an
agricultural instructor in 1953, and was assigned to the
Frederiksted Junior High School. At this time a major
decision was being considered at the Virgin Islands
Corporation sugar industry. This industry was suffering
significant financial losses. The VICORP owned most of
the sugarcane acreage. It was felt that if about 1,000
acres of the land was sold, at a very low price $50-$70 per
acre, to about ten qualified natives, the efficiency and
management of the sugar industry could be improved.
This was accomplished in 1954.

The ten candidates did well on their new farms but the
financial losses at VICORP continued. Ten years later
the factory went completely out of the sugarcane busi-
ness. The new farmers tried their best at diversified farm
enterprises, the cash returns were slow in coming.

It was about this time that the demand for land for
other uses became an effective reality. The farmers were
made offers for portions of their land that was hard to
refuse. Thus commenced the conversion of farmland to
industrial or commercial development.
We might, however, take relief in the fact that this
situation is not unique to the Virgin Islands, but is true of
most land masses where economic development is in
progress. The advances in agricultural science have
created situations where more food is produced on fewer

Most of our citizens over fifty years of age will recall the
areas that were once used for farming but are now used
for shopping centers, housing projects, schools, hospi-
tals, hotels, and for other tourist attractions.
If you were on St. Thomas during the 1940's and were
traveling eastward, you were already in the countryside
after passing Raphune Hill. Much of St. Thomas' meat
and milk were produced at Estates Charlotte Amalie,
Donoe, Tutu, and Smith Bay. I recall the days when the
only house at Estate Tutu was the main residence of the
Christensens and the supporting farmstead. I remember
the days when from Estate Contant westward was
considered countryside.
I recollect the days when Estate Golden Rock just
adjacent to Christiansted was a livestock farm. It was
owned by Sr. Rufino Ruiz. During these days St. Croix

was shipping and marketing cattle to Puerto Rico. This
farm is where the Golden Rock Shopping Center,
McDonalds, Easterly Building and other units now stand.

Sr. Rufino was a buyer of cattle from other farmers. He
also acted as lending agency. He advanced or loaned
money to the cattlemen. He got repaid after the cattle
were sold.

Now, St. Croix breeders of Senepol beef cattle have a
market outlet abroad for their cattle. The animals must
be rigidly quarantined and tested for disease before ship-
ment can be made. This is a more sophisticated market
and commands better prices.

To summarize our agricultural situation for the past
fifty years, the answer is "We have much less agriculture
now." I was told of a tomato project that encompassed
over two hundred acres, around the 1940's. A group of
Crucian farmers had formed a corporation to produce
food crops. The location of this project was in the area of
Estate Slob and La Reine. Some members of the cor-
poration were the Skeochs, Nelthropps, and W.
Johansen. The crops were harvested, sized, graded,
packed, and shipped to New York City. However, much
of the shipment arrived in poor condition due to the long
five-day trip by boat. There was also a canning operation
at Estate St. John. This was a demonstration project.
During the years of World War II, St. Croix was very
active in food crops production. It was because of this
activity that able-bodied men like Charlie Schuster were
deferred from going into the armed forces. St. Croix had
also been producing onions and peanuts on some shore

The abattoir was then located at Estate St. John. It
was capable of slaughtering, and did slaughter, up to
sixty heads of cattle a day. At this time, our abattoir
slaughters only about 40 heads of cattle a week.
Figures from the slaughtering at the St. Croix Abattoir
show that in the year 1973-74, this abattoir killed and
dressed 3,839 heads of livestock. In the reporting period
of 1985-86 the records show that only 2,414 heads were
slaughtered. A decrease of these figures is one of the
measurements of the decreasing agricultural activities.
Decreases can be recorded in most of the islands' agri-
cultural activities except dairying. In my Annual Report
of 1970, I wrote that there four or five commercial poultry
farms on St. Croix. It has now been brought to my atten-
tion that the only poultry farm that may be classified as
commercial is in financial trouble, and could go under
I have pleasant memories of the days in 1963 when our
department shipped five DC-4 planeloads of cucumbers
and watermelons to the United States. We were assis-
ting farmers in the marketing of their crops.
I recall the Sorghum Program of the early 1970's when
the V.I. Department of Agriculture had planted over 780
acres of sorghum for grain and roughage feed. I remem
ber our trench silo on Kingshill into which sorghum silage
was preserved and distributed to farmers.
Most vivid in my memory is the Cost Sharing Program
of 1980-81. One hunderd and fifty (150) farmers received

cash subsidies that helped them through a critical year.
Payments ranged from over $16,000.00 downward.
The Virgin Islands Department of Agriculture is not to
be blamed for the dimishing agricultural industry. In
1979, there were (133) employees in the department.
Today, in 1987, there are only (95).
The low priority and insensitivity given to the agricul-
ture of the islands by past administrations is one reason
for much of the failure of the industry's continued
growth. Our government is simply not putting enough
into this important industry.
If an activity or service is to be improved, the weak-
nesses, needs, and potentials of the activity must first be
identified and recognized. In this article I have tried to do
just that.

/ CARIBE Tel. 778-5280

Across from Sunny Isle BUILDING MATERIALS


A. H. UMMERT %eedco.
If You're in a Growing Business, Let Us Help You Grow
Before you buy, call Arthur Pefersen, our Caribbean
Expert for a Quote
Lawn & Garden Supplies Insecticides
Greenhouses Fungicides
Auto-watering Equipment Flower & Vegetable Seeds
Plant Containers Ornamental Plants & Cuttings
Fertilizers & Fertilizer Injectors Soil Conditioner &
Horticultural Supplies Growing Mediums

Regional Sales Office
P.O. Box 484, Frederiksted
St. Croix V.I. 00840-0484
(809) 772-4129
(809) 772-0463

Homes Sales Office
2746 Chouteau Ave.
St. Louis, Missouri 63103-0646
(314) 771-0646


FAX No. 314-771-5303 or 809-772-9289
Serving the Horticultural Community for Over 52 Years

Living Fences In The Virgin Islands
Compiled by
Toni Ackerman Thomas and Walter I. Knausenberger
Natural Resources Program

Good fences make good neighbors, goes the old adage. They are also good for a lot else as well. Living fences-hedges,
and other plant borders of all sorts-add a special touch to any property. Besides serving as things of beauty, living
fences can:
Confine traffic to walkways Provide background to low plants

* Exclude unsightly areas
* Exclude animals

* Act as windbreaks
* Ensure privacy
* Act as light screens
* Control erosion

* Serve as boundaries
* Provide shelter to birds and wildlife
* Enhance security

* Screen unsightly areas
* Muffle road and other noise
* Hide objects such as fuel tanks
* Provide edible fruits
* Help cool the air

This list illustrates a small selection of the plants which can be used as living fences. Some require more care than others.
Many of these plants are native to the Caribbean, and these as a rule are very well adapted to our conditions. All can be
found readily in the Virgin Islands. For assistance, call the Natural Resources Program at the Virgin Islands Cooperative
Extension Service, St. Thomas or St. Croix, 774-0210 or 778-0246.

Name: Cat's Claw, Bread and Cheese
(Pithecellobium unguis-cati)
Family: Fabaceae Mimosoideae
Size: Shrub or small tree to 20 ft.
Key Features: Spiny, bushy appearance, several trunks
with widely spreading crown; butterfly shaped
bipinnatee) leaves; small light yellow or pinkish flowers,
reddish to dark brown covered pods.
Uses: Ornamental hedge, either in natural shape or
formal (e.g. box hedge); grazing animals won't eat
foliage; good in drier areas, coastal regions from sea level
to 600 ft. altitude.
Security: Good, dense bushy formation and spines.
Maintenance: Low to medium, depending on hedge
size desired. A regular pruning is probably necessary.
Propagation: Seeds
Availability: Common in towns; UVI campuses.

Name: Sweet-lime, limeberry
(Triphasia trifolia)
Family: Rutaceae
Size: Shrub 6-10 ft.
Key Features: Shiny dark green leaflets (aromatic when
crushed); fragrant white flowers, edible juicy reddish
fruits with sticky pulp used in jams, closely related to
citrus fruits; honey plant.
Uses: Ornamental hedge, does well in dry areas, adapts
to moist regions.
Security: Excellent potential.
Maintenance: Medium-high, depending on shape
desired, makes a good box hedge.
Propagation: Seeds and cuttings.
Availability: Grows wild in drier wooded areas, near

Name: Lignum vitae Lignum vitae
(Guaiacum officinale)
Family: Zygophyllaceae
Size: Small tree to 15-30 ft.
Key Features: Slow growing evergreen tree, dense
dark green foliage; smooth light brown mottled and
peeling bark; pale blue flowers in clusters; bright yellow
fruit revealing seeds with glossy red coatings; flowering
and fruiting from spring to fall.
Uses: Ornamental hedge, screen or windbreak, dense
foliage, showy appearance; does well in both dry and
moist areas, flowers best in dry season.
Security: Good screen, protects privacy.
Maintenance: Low-medium depending on whether or
not pruning is done.
Propagation: Seeds, occasionally wild seedlings can be
successfully transplanted with care.
Availability: Found in local nurseries. Seedlings under
large trees.

~1L~r 'Ilri~

Name: Surinam cherry
(Eugenia uniflora)
Family: Myrtaceae
Size: Shrub or small tree
Key Features: Shiny delicate leaves, fragrant white
flowers, tinged with pink; tart cherry-like edible coral
colored berries, may be eaten raw or preserved.
Uses: Ornamental fruiting hedge or fence, either kept in
natural graceful form or pruned.
Security: Variable depending on density of growth.
Maintenance: Low-medium, according to whether
hedge is kept natural or pruned; watering and fertil-
ization increases fruit yield.
Propagation: Seeds
Availability: Cruzan Gardens, other nurseries.

Century Plant
Name: Century plant
(Agave americana)
Family: Agavaceae
Size: Large succulent with leaves to 6 ft., flower stalk 13-
40 ft.
Key Features: Rosette of long, fleshy strap-shaped
leaves lined with hooked spines and spines at leaf tips;
plant makes a branched flower stalk after 10 years or
more, plant dies after flowering, usually leaving suckers
which make new plants.
Uses: Formidable barrier hedge, difficult to remove
once planted, grows in dry areas, fire retardant.
Security: Excellent, spines and stiff thick leaves.
Maintenance: Medium, dangerous protruding lower
branches should be pruned back.
Propagation: Use suckers growing from base of plant.
Availability: Grows wild in dry areas.

Name: Ginger Thomas
(Tecoma stans)
Family: Bignoniaceae
Size: Shrub or small tree 10-25 ft.
Key Features: Official flower of Puerto Rico and the
Virgin Islands; evergreen, radially growing with saw-
toothed leaves; showy clusters bright-yellow bell-shaped
flowers, usually long-lasting; dark-brown cigar-shaped
seed pods.
Uses: Fence, privacy screens, boundary plantings; gets
bushy; very adaptable, does best in well-drained soils, in
dry areas with full sun.
Security: Low-medium, depending on fullness and
density determined by pruning and spacing.
Maintenance: Low-high, regular pruning necessary to
maintain plant in shrubby, bushy state; faded flowers can
be cut to prolong blooming.
Propagation: Seeds or soft greenwood cuttings, grows
best when young, should be replanted after 10-15 years.
Availability: Growing in public places, seeds common.

Sea Rrape
Name: Sea grape, seaside grape
(Coccoloba uvifera)
Family: Polygonaceae
Size: Small shrub or tree to 25 ft., under optimum
Key Features: Large thick and leathery bluish-green
leaves with red veins, fragrant flowers in long narrow
clusters; edible "grapes" also drooping in clusters;
flowering and fruiting throughout the year.
Uses: Fruiting ornamental hedge, windbreak, and
privacy screen; can be kept low and shaped, has inter-
esting branch formations, salt tolerant, excellent near
beaches; adapts to other areas but may not produce
abundance of flowers and fruits away from beaches.
Security: Low-medium, pruning density of hedge and
Maintenance: Low-medium, according to amount of
pruning required.
Propagation: Seeds, cuttings.
Availability: Seeds or seedlings can be easily found near
or on beaches.

Name: Prickly pear
(Opuntia dilleni, other similar species are also
called "prickly pear")
Family: Cactaceae
Size: 3-8 ft.
Key Features: Low shrubby branched plant with spiny
leaves shaped like broad flat joints, light yellow flowers
often tinged salmon pink towards base, red edible berry-
like fruit.
Uses: Low barrier hedge, good in dry areas, adapts to
more moist areas.
Security: Good, leaves covered with fine spines which
dan damage both man and animals. A 7 ft. tall, thick'
growing prickly pear hedge surrounded the St. Thomas
fort instead of a moat and ramparts according to a 1767
report made by a Moravian missionary.
Maintenance: Low
Propagation: Cuttings (leaf sections)
Availability: Grows wild in drier areas, upper parts of
sand beaches.

Name: Pinguin, wild pineapple
(Bromelia pinguin)
Family: Bromeliaceae
Size: To 3 ft.
Key Features: Low shrubby plant with sharp sword-like
leaves edged with spines; bright pink flower cluster on
stalk growing from center of plant, yellow edible fruits
replacing flowers.
Uses: Low barrier hedge; good in dry areas, does well on
shallow rocky soils.
Security: High (spines and pointed leaves), low height of
plant allows good visibility but does not offer privacy.
Maintenance: Low to none required.
Propagation: Plant suckers (small plants) shooting
from bases of plants.
Availability: Grows wild in drier areas.

Wild Pineapple

Name: Orchid Ginger, Small Shell Ginger
(Alpinia mutica)
Family: Zingiberiaceae (Ginger)
Size: Stalks and leaves to 7 ft.
Key Features: Perennial herb. Tall leafy stalks termi-
nating in small clusters of white and yellow orchid-like
flowers marked with pink. Grows into dense stands.
Uses: Ornamental border, with attractive long bright
green leaves and medium-sized flowers. Forms dense
clumps. Requires water.
Security: Moderate; quite impenetrable when dense.
Maintenance: Very little, if water available. May need
thinning out after several years' growth.
Propagation: By division of rhizomes (tubers).
Availability: V.I. gardens, nurseries, UVI campus.

Name: Monkey puzzle, mottled spurge
(Euphorbia lactea)
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Size: Shrub or small tree
Key Features: Cactus-like with segmented fleshy green
3-angled branches edged with gray spines; tree sheds
minute leaves and often appears leafless; very small
Uses: Forms thick medium-height barrier hedge or
fence; like cactus,grows in dry placesadapting to other
Security: Excellent, spines; plant's white milky sap is
poisonous, caustic, and may cause blindness.
Maintenance: Low, requires some pruning when estab-
lished, recommended for hedges along ocean front.
Propagation: Cutting
Availability: Local nurseries.

Name: Jerusalem Thorn
(Parkinsonia aculeata)
Family: Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae
Size: Shrub or small tree to 20 ft.
Key Features: Rapidly growing, often branching near
ground, very open crown of smooth green branches with
thin drooping foliage; appears green throughout year
even though leaves are periodically shed; fragrant yellow
flowers and pods all year.
Uses: Ornamental barrier hedge; grazing animals love
the foliage; grows well in dry regions; adapts to moister
Security: Good sharp spines, long branches growing
close to ground when kept pruned.
Maintenance: Medium to high, regular pruning re-
quired to keep tree hedge-sized, full, and compact.
Propagation: Seeds
Availability: Trees with seed pods are accessible in
many public places.

Name: Beach hibiscus, Seasides Mahoe
(Hibiscus tiliaceus)
Family: Malvaceae
Size: Shrub 10-20 ft.
Key Features: Evergreen tree with short crooked trunk
or several trunks, bright yellow funnel-shaped flowers
(not numerous) bloom throughout year; hairy seed
Uses: Thick hedge, leaning trunks and branches form
strong network or roots which bind soil and control ero-
sion. Fibrous bark also used as source of twine for
constructing fish pots; plant was pruned to create more
long straight branches for fiber production.
Security: Good, hedge can grow thick with branches
intertwining, offers privacy.
Maintenance: Medium to high, plant must be regularly
pruned to keep bushy and avoid straggly appearance.
Propagation: Cuttings and seeds.
Availability: Grows near seasides.

Name: Aloe, Medicine Plant
(Aloe barbadensis)
Family: Aloe vera or barbadensis; other Aloe species
may also be used.
Size: 1-2 ft.
Key Features: Short-stemmed rosette of narrow,
fleshy, stiffly upright leaves, lined with soft prickles;
flowers in dense spike atop a long stalk (to 3 ft.), flowers
said to be edible; important medicinal herb.
Uses: Low hedge, permitting visibility; thrives in pebbly,
dry areas, adapts to other areas; extra watering
improves appearance.
Security: Low, no privacy.
Maintenance: Low
Propagation: Use new budding plants on rhizomes
coming from sides of parent plant.
Availability: Grows wild in drier areas.

.',- '3r


Silver Buttonwood
Name: Silver Buttonwood
(Conocarpus erectus)
Family: Combretaceae
Size: Moderately growing shrub or small tree to 20 ft.
Key Features: Pale-colored leathery leaves covered
with silky down which gives silvery appearance; greenish
small ball-shaped flowers in clusters, small cone-shaped
flowers in clusters; small cone-like purplish-brown fruit,
flowering and fruiting all year.
Uses: Hedge or privacy screen when pruned; grows in
sand, on poor soils, soils high in calcium and brackish
swampy ground; shore-builder; best in full sun, grows
well in limited spaces, salt resistant.
Security: Medium, dense foliage.
Maintenance: Medium, depends on pruning schedule;
for best appearance should be pruned 3 times a year to
maintain 15 ft. height, 10 ft. crown diameter; fertilize after
Propagation: Hardwood cuttings or air layering.

An example of the use of formal hedges in the Virgin Islands.

Tea Leaves Of St. Croix

Olivia H. Henry/Modified by Clarice Clarke
Home Economics Program
Cooperative Extension Service
University of the Virgin Islands

Not very many years ago "tea" on St. Croix meant
using leaves plucked from a wide variety of trees, bushes,
vines and weeds in backyards or gathered from fields or
woods. To a large extent teas made from these leaves
supplied the hot beverages for the morning and evening
meals. They were also used to alleviate discomforts of
minor ailments such as colds, fevers and strains.

Nutritionally these teas were full of water-soluble
vitamins available from the leaves. Therefore, bush teas,
as they were called, were healthful drinks. Time
changed, and it brought about a significant social and
cultural change, which in turn altered habits and
customs. The cup of "bush tea" that was so solidly a part
of every day life is seldom heard of now. Could this be
due to the uncertainty as to which leaves are usable? Or,
is it that homemakers are not as frugal as they used to
be? What ever the reason this is a good time to take a
look backward.

Recently there is a lot of talk in favor or herb teas. An
herb is defined in part as "a plant or plant part valued for
its medicinal, savory or aromatic qualities." Using this
definition as a guide it is safe then to say that local "bush
teas" are nothing less than herb teas. Therefore why not
utilize local leaves as herbs for making teas; they are
offered free by nature, they are safe, healthy, flavorful
and inexpensive. Give it a try. Start collecting and using
the tropical leaves for teas. Use them green or dried.

Three Ways of Drying Leaves
Sun Drying Spread leaves openly on tray and set in
sun to day. This may take several hours or several days.

Oven Drying Spread leaves on cookie sheet and set
in warm oven for several hours.

Refrigerator Drying Wrap leaves loosely in brown
paper bags or spread loosely on trays and set on lowest
shelf of refrigerator for several days. Be sure to keep
leaves from becoming wet. The length of time necessary
for drying by any method will depend upon the texture of
the leaves. Test for dryness by feeling leaves. They
should be crisp and brittle. Refrigerator-dried leaves
always retain some greenness than oven-dried or sun-
dried leaves. After leaves have been dried they can be
bottled in clean, dry jars, covered tightly and kept on a
cool shelf for several months. Here is a listing of some
leaves leaves that are useful for making teas.

Pour boiling water over leaves. Steep for 3 to 5 minutes.

Note: Many of these plants contain potent active ingredients
which can be dangerous if overused. We make no claim that
these teas are a substitute for "modern medicine." When you
use these teas, be sure the plants are accurately identified.
Remember not to steep too long.

Wild Coffee

Pop Bush

Sweet Scent

Tea Leaves Of St. Croix

Local Name Scientific Name Traditional Uses Description

Garden Balsam Ocimum sanctum L. Tea, colds and menstrual pains Leaves are long, narrow and pointed.
Has a mild scent.

Sweet Balsam Ocimum micranthum Tea About 24"-30" tall. Grows from seeds,
has a mild scent and flavor

Bay Leaf Pimenta racemosa Use as a condiment in stews and Grows as a tall tree, leaves are
cereals. As a folk medicine soaked in bright green. Has a mild scent and
alcohol and used as a rubbing compound taste.

Black Wattle Piper amalago L. Tea. As a folk medicine, the tea can Grows tall and bushy. Thrives best in
be used with honey and lemon juice for cool, damp spots. Has a fragrant
colds. smelling leaf.

Bull Tongue Pseudelephantopus spicatus Tea, colds Grows to 10" high with long tapered
leaves that are about 5-6 inches long.
Leaves are odorless.

Chiggernit Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Makes a good ice tea with lemon, and Grows wild in mostly dense, cool,
can be used as a base when making fruit damp areas. Leaves turn black when
punch. Hot with lemon, it is used for dried. Has a mild scent and flavor.

Cotton Gossypium barbadense Tea, menstrual pains, and cleansing Cotton plant grows wild, leaf can be
drink for nursing mothers. used for making a mild tea. Enjoyed
for its flavor.

Ginger Thomas Yellow Cedar-Tecoma stans L. As a folk medicine the tea is used with This plant grows wild and is very
a pinch of salt for colds, fevers and common. It bears a yellow flower.
headaches. Leaves can be used dried or green.

Hibiscus (single red) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Can be brewed with leaves of other This is a common decorative plant.
plants -sweet scent, balsam, yellow Blooms can be used for making a tea
plum, sugar apple and made into a enjoyed for its flavor.
cough syrup. Blooms are helpful with
simple colds.

Jumbie Bead

Abrus precatorius L.

Folk medicine, colds

This vine has a bright green oval
leaf. Tea is bitter, only used as a
folk medicine.

Tea Leaves Of St. Croix

Local Name Scientific Name Traditional Uses Description

Maiden Apple Momordica charantia L. Leaves make a bitter tea used as a Sometimes called wild balsam pear, a vine that
folk medicine for indigestion and grows from seeds. This plant bears a spindle
fevers. Leaves can be crushed, mixed shape fruit which changes from green to orange
with a little salt and used as a when ripened. The sweet pulp of this fruit is
poultice. edible.

Pap Bush Passiflora foetida L. The pulp of the fruit is sweet and This vine grows wild and bears a fruit that
edible. The leaf makes a good tea. gives a "popping" sound when pressed between
the fingers.

Lemon Grass Cymbopogon citratus The blades can be used to make tea. As A grass-like plant, it has a pleasant odor
a folk medicine, it eases discomforts that resembles the smell of lemon.
of fevers and simple colds.

Sage Salvia occidentalis Leaves can be used for tea and as There are two types of sage found growing wild
condiment for flavoring food. wild. One has a small, rounded leaf and the
Salvia serotina L. other with a larger leaf, called "broad-leaf"
sage. The broad-leaf sage has orange, pink
or pale yellow blossoms with black seeds.
The small-leaf bears lilac color blossoms and

Soursop Annona muricata L. Leaves make a pleasant, rich-flavored The tree is covered with dark shiny leaves.
tea. Can also be used for fevers. A The soursop leaf has a mild odor and be found
common bedtime tea. growing wild or in many home gardens. It bears
a large, green, spine covered fruit which is

Spanish Needle Cosmos caudatus Tea can be enjoyed for its flavor and Grows to a height of about 20 to 24 inches
used for slight strains, colds, fevers, and is very common. It has pleasant scent
and flavor.

Sugar Apple Annona squamosa L. Leaves can be used for flavorful teas One of the most common trees of the island.
and as folk medicine for treating It grows short and bears a green fruit that
worms and gripes in children, is edible. The leaf has a mild odor similar
to its fruit.

Tea Leaves Of St. Croix

Local Name Scientific Name Traditional Uses Description

Sweet Scent Pluchea odorata Leaves make an enjoyable tea. As a Low growing bushy plant with sweet-scented
folk medicine, leaves help with colds, heart shaped leaves. You will find it
coughs and headaches. growing abundantly in the wild.

Tamarind Tamarindus indica L. Leaves can be used for making a nice A large tree, widely distributed and
tea. It is said that the leaves and familiar to island residents. The tea has
flowers are usable in fresh vegetable pleasant acid taste. When use for making
salads, tea, green leaves change yellow in color
due to tartaric acid, but this is

Trumpet Cecropia peltata L. It makes a pleasant tea, as a folk The trumpet bush grows tall and has a
medicine it is used to extract fluids papaya-type leaf shape. The trumpet bush
and for indigestion. is now scarce and difficult to find.

Wild Coffee Hidionda Cassia occidentalis L. Tea is made of scraped bark from the Grows wild and bears long pods with seeds
roots of the plant along with sweet that are believed poisonous until roasted.
scent leaves, helpful for gas pains, Leaves have a strong disagreeable odor
colds and cramps. The seeds, when and are used only as folk medicine.
roasted and ground, make a delicious
coffee substitute.

Gooseberry Phyllanthus acidus L. Leaves can be used green or dried for The Gooseberry tree has a multiple-leaf
making tea. structure. It bears creamy white berries
in bunches. These are edible. The tea has
a very pleasant acid flavor.

Inflamation Bush Verbesina alata L. Leaves make a pleasant tasting mild This plant is a weed that grows wild. It
tea. Leaves can be used with Spanish has rounded leaves and bears a small
needle leaf and a pinch of salt, yellow flower. Leaves are unscented.
unsweetened, to help with strains and
muscular aches.

1988 Poster and Essay

Contest Winners

"ABC Agriculture Blooms Into Commerce"

Poster Winners

1st Prize Etna Rivera
Pearl B. Larsen School ("111 Crew" 4-H Club)
2nd Prize Mervelle Sage
Pearl B. Larsen School ("111 Crew" 4-H Club)
3rd Prize Almarie Powell
Claude O. Markoe School ("Thunderbirds" 4-H Club)
Honorable Mention Michael Lionel
Claude O. Markoe School ("Thunderbirds" 4-H Club)

Junior High
1st Prize Glentis Abbott
Elena Christian Jr. High School
2nd Prize Maurice Doyle
Elena Christian Jr. High School
3rd Prize George Garcia
Manor School
Honorable Mention Diana Babooram
Elena Christian Jr. High School

Honorable Mention Brenda Levine
Elena Christian Jr. High School
Senior High
1st Prize Karen Joseph
Manor School .
2nd Prize Joseph A. Garcia T"
Manor School
3rd Prize Roland Richardson
Manor School

Essay Winners

1st Prize Junior Durrant
Claude O. Markoe School ("Thunderbirds" 4-H Club)

2nd Prize Nitsaliz Garcia
Pearl B. Larsen School ("111 Crew" 4-H Club)

3rd Prize Chenelle Gonzalezx
Claude O. Markoe School ("Thunderbirds" 4-H Club)

Junior High
1st Prize Sandra Singh
Elena Christian Jr. High School
2nd Prize Alwin Mars
Elena Christian Jr. High School
3rd Prize Brenda Levine
Elena Christian Jr. High School
Honorable Mention Dawn Bradshaw
Elena Christian Jr. High School
Honorable Mention Denise Gore
Elena Christian Jr. High School
Honorable Mention Julia Baly
Elena Christian Jr. High School

"Agriculture Blooms Into Commerce"

An Award Winning Essay
Junior Durrant
Claude O. Markoe School
6th Grade Accelerated

Agriculture is one of the world's oldest and most
important industries. It supplies us with almost all the
food that we eat and many of the clothes that we wear. It
began about 10,000 years ago in the Middle East. Over
the years, agriculture has changed. In recent years agri-
culture was a way of life, a way to live. Now it has devel-
oped into business.

Agriculture has changed because in the years past
people lived on farms. They used the food they grew for
their families. Now with all the cities, people are selling
their farms. Others are setting up bigger farms. They are
growing vegetables, and are selling them to the super-
markets. They are also herding cattle, goats, and sheep.
In herding these animals, they sell the wool or hides to
factories. They sell the milk to the dairies to make dairy
products, such as ice cream, low fat milk, butter and

Agriculture also helps produce other businesses -
factories that manufacture leather goods, textiles,
butcher shops, rum factories, dairies and many more. It
helps produce clothing because when the sheep have
their wool they can be shaved. Then they wash the wool.
Then perhaps they dye it and make it into coats and
clothes. It helps produce milk because you could have
cattle and milk them. After that, you pasteurize and
homogenize it, put it in bottles and sell it to super-
markets. Also you can sell the cattle's meat to meat
shops. You can also sell their hides to factories to make
them into handbags, shoes and boots.
Personally, here on St. Croix if I had some land I would
make it into a farm. I would plant tropical fruits that are
grown here in the Caribbean, such as mangoes, sugar
apples, guavas, soursops, and genips. After they are ripe,
I would set up a booth by the pier and sell some to the
tourists. I would also sell some to small stores, and

I would also grow sugarcane. When it is ripe, I could
set up a booth and sell to people. I would aslo sell to the
Cruzan Rum factories. I could also squeeze the juice
from the cane. Then I would pasteurize it. I would bottle
it and refrigerate it. I would set up a booth and sell it to the
general public. After that I would sell them to stores and
supermarkets. I would also export some to the United
States and other places in the world to be refined into
table sugar.

Through agriculture, I would grow provisions, and
corn. I could grow the provisions and sell them to provi-

sion stores. I would also go around to people's houses
and sell it to them at a lower price. With growing corn, I
would harvest it, put it in sacks, then sell it to super-
markets. I could also take the kernels right off the cob,
put them in plastic bags and sell to people who have
pigeons as pigeon feed. I could also sell it to the animal
feed stores.

I would also raise chickens, sheep, and cattle. When
the chickens lay their eggs I would sell some and hatch
the others. I would also kill some, clean them, and sell
some to the supermarkets. The others I would use as
family dinners. With the sheep I would sell their wool to
factories and their meat to meat shops. With the cattle I
would milk them, then sell the milk to the dairies to make
dairy products such as ice cream, cheese, and low fat
milk. I would also sell the cattle's meat to the meat shops.
I would also sell their hides to factories.
Agriculture is the world's most important industry.
Without it, where would we get our food? Agriculture is
important to us humans not only with our food but with
our clothes, and our businesses. I hope my essay proves
all this to be true.
[ N7

An award winning poster by George Garcia.

"Agriculture Blooms Into Commerce"

An Award Winning Essay

Sandra Singh
Elena Christian Jr. High School
Grade 9

Hibiscus is a large genus of flowering plants, including
hardy and tender shrubs and annual and perennial plants
belonging to the mallow family. The hardy hibiscus, often
known as Rose of Sharon, comes from Syria and has
many garden hybrids. These large shrubs often grow ten
to fifteen feet tall. The flowers are light pink or mauve.
The rose mallow is native to Eastern and Southern North
America. Tropical kinds of hibiscus are quite large,
woody shrubs with vivid pink or scarlet flowers. They are
common in Hawaii and are planted in California and
Florida. In other parts of the country, they are often
grown in greenhouses.
I think the hibiscus would make a good business in
agriculture because it would make farmers want to plant
the hibiscus flower and sell to to businesses. I think hibis-
cus can improve St. Croix commerce by making
different products out of the flower and putting them out
into the market. Some products that can be made out of
the hibiscus flower are hibiscus drink, hibiscus tea, and
hibiscus soap. If the people like the products and they are
being sold out, we can then let the hibiscus product go on
to other islands to be sold. By doing this, St. Croix's
commerce will grow more and more.

The agriculture in St. Croix is very poor. There is a lot
of wasted land all over St. Croix. If the government
would do something about the wasted lands such as
investing in agricultural projects, then St. Croix's
commerce would probably improve.

Tourism in many parts of the world is providing the
fastest growing source of dollars which in turn provide
new funds for local investment in industries. In St. Croix
there is a need to produce business because without
business our islands would not be making any money.
Furthermore without business, people would not be able
to get when they need locally.

Before you can buy a certain product it has to go
through many processes. First of all you have to grow the
plant. Then you have to pick it and sell it to industries
that process it through machines in a factory. Then you
have to decide what you are going to make with that par-
ticular product. For example, from the flower you can
make tea, drink, perfume, and soap, which you can sell
to make a profit.

I think the hibiscus business will improve tourism
because it will give the farmers something to plant for
them to sell to businesses. I think that making a business
using hibiscus will help to make the Virgin Islands grow.
We need to have more business on St. Croix so that the
commerce on the island will grow.

I think that making a business using hibiscus will help
to make the Virgin Islands a better tourist attraction and
a better place because it is an unusual plant used to make
unusual products. Also when tourists see unique things
they have never seen before, it usually attracts them.
Also they buy the product to try it out, and if they like it
they buy more.

-- =


by Glentis Abott by Karen Joseph
imaginative interpretations of the theme ABC--Agriculture Blooms into Commerce are evident in the award winning posters.


NEIGHBORHOOD CAR SALES, your auto connection that gives you
a touch of class; brings to the island, especially for you, the greatest
variety of taxi vans, cargo vans, church vans, trucks, used cars (small,
medium, and large), and special ordered new and used cars.

Located just across from Super Foods. Stop by and wheel a deal with
Rodgers for the vehicle of your choice!
P.O. Box 321
Christiansted, St. Croix
Located across from U.S. Virgin Islands 00820
Island Food Distributors (809) 778-5007

Scotiabank a

774-0037 778-5350 773-1013

Gettin Ready For Da Fair?

Arona Peterson

"Gettin ready for da Fair? I hear dem say it goin be a
big affair."

"Yes marm... I overhear wan convershun was takin
place between Jane Eliza Martin an Mattie Telltale
James, it wus meh good luck to hear Jane Eliza axin
Mattie if she ever notice how farsited Columbus wus."

"Wich wan ar dem had know Columbus? An wat he
gat to do wid Fair?"

"Tain to say dat any ar dem had know he because
he go back long, long time befo dey time but wat dey
was trying to bring out is from time he wus sailin oshun
blue and he eye spangle on dis rock, he had say it wus
gem in Caribbean to behold, and it stay so still up to

"Like how Mattie put it Columbus had know real
ting wen he see it, and since dey say he had discover it
fuss long time ago, now it come time fo everybody to
come rediscover it fo dey ownself. Tain nottin rong wid
dat as far as she is consarn dey mo dan Welcome."

"Come to tink bout it I well agree, and den now it gat a
lot mo preshus jewel dan it had befo, so now tis All For
the Better. Dey cud eksplore from end to end an split up
treasure between dem sitting down on Golden Rock."

"Jane Eliza say: Fair goin be advencher, Field Day and
eksposishun which part everything goin ekspose fren
and family meet, greet and eat in Contentment."

"Matti say: wen it come to eatin do wat ever you appe-
tite tell you tain no limit to no customer, if tis world
record you want to mek go ahead go ahead as long as
pocket book allow we out fo quick sale small Profit. An

like she say her hand gat spechul Blessing wen it come to
tantalizing taste bud she rite dey and every spoonful wat
come outa her pot is tradishun if tis tradishun you want.
Kallaloo ain no mystery tis mo William's Delight dan any
ting else."

"After we wance start wid food bizness sharpenin teet
and wettin appetite an all dem senses perk up it hard to
stop of cose it gat lil mix up here an dere wid name and
flavor but dat is because every place gat dey own cooking
style but wan an all only aim to please crowd."

"You mean like how Mattie tink she cud cook better
dan Jane Eliza and Maria swear her arroz con polio es
mas chicken que nadir? So if tis French, Spanish, Dutch
you interested in, tain no sweat because all mix up wid
some African wedder tis Judith's Fancy or Sally's all is fo
you pleasure to enjoy."

"Chicken: roast, bake, stuff, broil, fry or whatever even
delishus chicken pie you cud have if you want, but if you
insist dat all you want is a chicken leg to relish, dat too is
available an you cud sit down on a Tan Tan Terrace to
eat it. Use you own finger dey come befo knife an fork."

"Doan argue if goat mutton ain as good as sheep
mutton and if goat water better dan mutton stew lay it go
at dat remember, everybody gat rite to show off dey
own native land keep peace in family. Doan Humbug
up you head."

"Panchita gat her own strategy to fixin lechon asado,
long befo you taste it from how it smell you know how it
taste already, but wen it come to spare ribs Julia ain lazy
at all her seasonin smell all up Tipperary, so if you gat any
question anser rite deh waiting "

"Roast bef gat to mek anybody spellbound wen dey
see wat a eksperiunce it is in a sandwich tis a complete
advencher by itself. Ham come in second bess unless it gat
mo ham lover dan roast beef lover Upper Love or
Lower Love."

"Tis time fo menshun to mek bout fish unless fish goin
stay in sea an everybody ketch dey own."
"No marm: Mattie say, fish cooking go back befo
Columbus set foot here, in fack tis fish he had smell
roastin mek he had pull up he boat. So putting aside roast
fish it goin have all kinda fish fry fish wat is fry fish an
fry fish wat some call stew fish but is still is fry fish only
it cook in sauce to mek it look like it stew. (Keep every-
4 body in harmony lay dem say wat dey want). Conch,
0 whelk, crab, lobster in any style. See wat Spratt Hall got
to offer."
Fish for the Fair-author Aarona Peterson has long partWi in the
Fair in one way or another.

"If anybody desire soup -
goat head to bull foot -
pumpkin wid salt fish tail,

- plenty hearty soup from
red peas, pidgeon peas,
fish soup wid cornmeal

"Now dis ain juss a lil Whim ar mine own but a Fair ain
no big affair unless it gat bread to go wid it an tis also
Anna's Hope to see all kinda fancy bread on bill-of-fare."
"Doan worry bout dat, it goin gat bread fo times -
wite, black, brown, French, Creole, banana, sweet
potato, coconut, cassava, pumpkin, dum johnny cake,
fry johnny cake, salt fish cake, pate, plus sweet bread,
tart, pie an whatever else you looking for wat bake.
"But how up to now nottin ain come up bout rice?"
"Since everybody know it gat to have rice tain no need
mekin no big fuss bout it, always room fo rice peas an
rice rice an peas, season rice, crab an rice, whelks an
rice, shrimp an rice. Rice, rice all kinda rice fo

"Time like dis crowd always thirsty

plenty maubi,

ginger beer, soursop, pineapple, passion fruit, sorrel an
all dem cool refreshin drink nobody ain drinking in
"Between eatin, drinking, ramblin you bound to get
tired wid Gentle Winds behine you back pick you
choice Peter's, Catherine's or Hannah's wan is good as
anudder tek a good rest or pick up Diamond Ruby,
Betsy's Jewels an rest in lap ar luxury until time to ramble
"Remember it still gat mo to come all da jams an jelly
preserve wat mek you wonder which part people like
Laura get all dey energy. Sugar cane, tea bush, plants an
flowers, big, big yam, tania, cassava, pumpkin, fruit wat
in season, harf ar dem ting is ting wat Columbus never
see nor taste or even dream bout but all is beauty an
richniss wat come outa wan lil gem."
"Dem wat coming behine will inherit some ar dese
problem ar today but dese is minor tings compare to
richniss and fulniss ar wat is dey riteful due an dey own to
discover. Tomorrow will be better.

P.O Box 5968
Heron Commercial Park
Christiansted, St. Croix
T. CROIX CABLE TV U.S. Virgin Islands

24 Hours


Entertainment "We're growing
E7 Dntertays a Week with St. Croix

7 Dayswith St. Croix"
7 Days a Weeke

Creating With Calabash
Dana Ulsamer
Extension Assistant Home Economics Program

What is a Calabash?
The calabash is an unedible fruit native to the West
Indies. It grows on a tree (Crescentia spp.) known for
its stark-like appearance and the leaves and fruit that
grow on its branches and trunk alike. Calabash vary,
ranging from tennis ball to basketball size. They have
been used throughout the history of our islands as bowls,
water containers, boat bailers, cups, and the like.

Steps for Creating with Cut Calabash

Picking the Calabash
Pick calabash from tree when it is the deep green color
of maturity. It should be of full size and firm to the touch.
Take care not to mark up outer surface since scrapes
may remain after calabash is dried.

Cutting the Calabash
Wear old clothes and gloves since pulp causes stains.
Work outside if possible. Decide what you would like to
use the calabash for and where it should best be cut.
Consider balance. (Will the calabash bowl sit right after it
is cut?).

Mark desired cutting line with felt pen and begin
cutting with hacksaw. Begin cut with extreme caution
since it is impossible to change the path of the hacksaw
blade after it has been started.

Cleaning Out Inside
Clean out inside with large spoon, butter knife, or other
utensil. Scrape inside as clean as possible since remain
ing pulp will eventually turn black. Rinse with water.

Two Bowls

At this point calabash can be carved if desired. Mark
your pattern on surface with felt pen. Use one hand to
hold calabash firm while the other hand begins carving
with a carving tool. Use tools according to carving direc-
tions. Always point tools away from body.

Let calabash dry in partial sunlight for 1-2 weeks. If
residue remains on inside, fill with water-bleach mixture
and let sit for one hour. Empty, rinse, and dry. Your
calabash is now ready to use!

Steps for Creating with Uncut Calabash

Finding Calabash
This method uses fully dried calabash. Calabash can
be picked when fully ripe and given 2-3 months to dry out
or it can be found already dried under tree. The calabash
will feel light and have a rattling sound when fully dried.

Empty Contents
Drill or bore hole at stem making it large enough so
that seeds can be removed. Calabash is now ready to

Making Christmas Tree Ornaments
Insert ornament hanger or other expanding object
inside of hole with looped ribbon attached. Spray paint.
Decorate with acrylic paint, glitter, sequins.

Making Doll Head
Sand surface smooth with sandpaper. Make features
with acrylic paint or with wood burning tool. Seal with
acrylic spray.

Container on a Pedestal

Container with Lid

Hanging Lamp Shade
(drill holes when fully dried)

Bowl with Handle



I Sunday,

April 10, 1988

Bringing together the world's top triathletes on a small, but beautiful Caribbean Island
A grueling 66-mile combination of swimming, biking, and running
APRIL 4th 10th, 1988 the most exciting happening ever to occur in this hemisphere


Name: Phone home:
Address: work:
T-shirt size: S M L

Please mark the area/areas that interest you most:
Swim -- lifeguard type of responsibility

Bike -- help assure the safety of cyclists through intersections

SRun -- help monitor street corners as athletes race from C'sted to
Cotton Valley-Fire Station and back
Transitions -- help athletes switch from swim to bike and bike to run

Registration -- Saturday and Sunday (April 9 & 10)
Build-up -- Sat. and Sun. assemble bike racks, scaffolding, etc.

STear-down -- not a hard job!
Aid Stations -- hand out water and food 'for groups of 10+)
Timers -- for all start/finish check points and prime areas

Miscellaneous -- Be brave! Be happy! Be excited!
Office Work -- Help with typing, copying, mailing, errands

What's in it for you aside from an exciting day?
** -. T-shirt and cap
** post-race refreshments (Bud Light and Coca-Cola of course!)
** Volunteer Video to be shown at a special Thank You Party to be held
the following Saturday
THANKS!!! We mean it! Without YOU, this race would not happen!

FOR i11111111111111 11aotTrc,73111111158

Fairgoers have a chance to taste many local specialities.

Mango Bread
2 cups flour, sifted
2 teaspoons cinnamon
2 teaspoons baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 1/4 cups sugar
3/4 cup salad oil
3 large eggs
2 1/2 cups mangoes, chopped
1 teaspoon lemon juice
1/2 cup raisins
1/2 cup nuts, chopped
Preheat oven to 3500. Combine dry ingredients and mix
well. Beat eggs with oil and add to dry ingredients, then
add mangoes, lemon juice, raisins and nuts.

Coconut Bread
1 tablespoon butter softened, plus
4 tablespoons melted
5 cups plus 3 tablespoons flour
2 cups sugar
1 tablespoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon salt
1 fresh coconut, grated
2 cups milk
Preheat oven to 3500. Grease and flour pans. Sift dry
ingredients into bowl. Add coconut, mix well. Pour in
milk, 1/2 cup at a time, stir in butter. Bake until done.

From Almira's Kitchen:
Beer Cake
1 cup shortening
2 cups brown sugar, firmly packed
2 eggs, well beaten
3 cups sifted flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons baking soda
1 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon allspice
1/2 teaspoon cloves
1 cup chopped walnuts or pecans
2 cups dates or prunes, finely chopped
2 cups beer
Cream shortening until smooth, gradually add sugar,
creaming until light and fluffy. Add beaten eggs and beat
together well. Sift dry ingredients, reserve about 2 table-
spoons and beat the rest into the batter. Slowly add the
beer and blend thoroughly. Add reserved flour mixture
to fruits and nuts until lightly coated. Blend into batter.
Pour batter into a 10" tube pan and bake in 350 oven for
1 hour. Refrigerate overnight. Serve plain, dusted with
confectioner's sugar or with lemon glaze.

Local produce can be enjoyed in lots of ways.

Compliments of



Hannah's Rest, Frederiksted




"The Best is Fresh


Governor Farrelly and Dr. Darshan Padda admire the central display of local produce
Governor Farrelly and Dr. Darshan Padda admire the central display of local produce.

Vegetarian Stuffed Eggplant Baked Eggplant Slices

1 large eggplant
1 large onion, chopped
1 clove garlic, chopped
2 large carrots, shredded
1 green pepper, chopped
2 small zucchini sliced into 1/4" rounds
2 ripe tomatoes, chopped
1/4 cup parsley, chopped
1 teaspoon vegetable oil
1 egg, beaten
1 teaspoon black pepper
1 teaspoon thyme
1 teaspoon oregano
1 teaspoon marjoram
8 ounces cheddar cheese, grated
1/3 cup dried bread crumbs
Slice eggplant in half and boil until tender in salted water.
Remove from water and drain. Scoop out pulp, leaving a
1/4 inch thick shell and put in bowl. Saute onion, garlic,
green pepper and zucchini in vegetable oil for 5 minutes.
Add shredded carrots, parsley, tomatoes, eggplant pulp,
black pepper and herbs. Continue to cook, stirring
constantly an additional 5 minutes. Remove from heat.
Add beaten egg, grated cheese and bread crumbs. Fill
eggplant shells with mixture and bake at 350 degrees for
20 minutes.

Peel a medium sized eggplant. Cut into crosswise slices
1/2 inch thick. Brush both sides lightly with melted
margarine or vegetable oil. Season with salt, pepper, lime
juice or basil. Place slices on a baking sheet and bake
until tender, about 12 minutes, turning once.


A Quality House of
Fine Food Products


(809) 773-2071

TO THE 1988




***** ** "'-'*


Can your investments outrun

inflation without running up taxes?

A special seminar sponsored by Prudential-Bache Securities will discuss some inflation-fighting
investments and techniques that could help reduce your tax bill.
Come learn more about the risks and potential rewards of these investment opportunities, and
decide if they may be suitable for you.

When: Thursday February 18, 1988 5:30 p.m.
Where: Villa Morales Fredriksted

Admission is free, but reservations are required. Reserve your place today by calling
(809) 778-8885 Bring us your future.



Compliments 0 Best Wishes
Schusters services and

Blue Mountain Water

9 778-6177

S1HaveIt our Way
Winners of the 1988 4-H and Agriculture Youth Garden
Competition,"111 Crew 4-H Club" of Pearl B Larson at your neighborhood IURG ER
School, show their healthy plants to judge Errol Chichester
(left) of the UVI Cooperative Extension Service. BURGER KING K IN G

Sunny Isle Shopping Center


r .. .mU-r

Thairen Greene portray market women in a skit.

Home Economics Youths Daria Bryon (left) and

3 cups all purpose flour
1/2 cup whole rye flour
1/4 cup chopped onion
1/2 cup chopped green sweet pepper i t
2 tablespoons chopped celery leaves
1 package dry yeast
1 cup very warm water
2 tablespoons sugar
3 tablespoons shortening or margarine
1 tablespoon shortening or margarine
1 teaspoon salt

On waxed paper combine rye flour and enriched flour.
In large mixing bowl put 1-1/2 cups mixed flour, yeast,
salt, sugar, and 3 tablespoons shortening.
In saucepan cook lightly until tender but not brown,
onion, green pepper and celery in 1 tablespoon of
shortening. Add to mixture in bowl. Add 1 cup water,
beat for 1 minute. Set aside until doubled. Gradually add
remaining flour. Knead on floured surface until smooth;
put in bowl. Grease top; set in a warm place to rise until
doubled. Punch down; let rise again. Grease 8 inch round
layer cake pan; shape dough to fill pan; set to rise until
doubled. Bake in moderate oven 400F until brown and

The Cooperative Extension Service Home Economics Program
offers a variety of classes. Crocheted handiwork is proudly
displayed here.





1 ma 4, -Al

r n

Youngster glimpses the unseen world at the CES Integrated Pest
Management display.



Compliments of

Bob and Harriet Soffes

&t. oroix family cao66ies
Remote Controlled Cars st. Croix
Shopping Center
OPEN Mon. Sat.
9:00 am 9:00 pm
10:00 am 3:00 pm

Members of 4-H Dairy Calf Project are all smiles as they receive their calves.

Baked Papaya
1 medium papaya, still green
1/3 cup grated cheese
1/4 cup melted margarine
1/2 cup bread crumbs
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon black pepper
2 eggs
Peel and remove seeds of papaya. Cut into small pieces.
Steam with very little water. Mash steamed papaya; add
salt, pepper and margarine. Combine cheese with
beaten eggs and add to papaya mixture. Grease baking
dish with margarine. Pour mixture into dish, top with
dried bread crumbs, and dot with margarine. Bake 15-20
minutes at 325F. This may be served as a side dish with
meat or fish. Serves 4.
-CES Home Economics Program Recipe

Editor Liz Wilson was honored for her years of

I :


Phone: Office (809) 778-5285

Compliments of




Across from Sunny Isle
St. Croix, U.S.V.I. 00820


Governor Farrelly and Miss Bea Mopsy amid the Fair crowd.

The UVI exhibits always offer new information.

Compliments Of

"Serving St. Croix Since 1954"
Telephone: 773-4140 or 773-1268

Brammer,Chasen O'Conndl


Leonard J Chasen CPA Daid J O'Connell CPA
Pablo O NeIll CPA
P 0 Box 2665 P 0 Box 3016 Lemon Tree
Old Tramnway BlIq ChrIslidnlen r Monqoose Junction
St Thomas St Croix St John
774-6789 773-4305 774-6789
Affiliated with Grant Thornton International


111~." ;.


Young dancers charm the crowd at the opening ceremonies.

773-7171 (After hour emergencies)




Plot 82-C Estate Whim. F sed, St. Croix


ill Cater For Groups,
Business Meetings

Closed Sundays
and Mondays

School booths form an integral part of the Fair.

A4(I1 .E

Compliments of


..,*,,:,, P-1i IPHARMACY
varieties of sweet potatoes were displayed in 1987.02 King Str t
102 King Street Frederiksted
Open Mon. Sat. 8:30 a.m. 7:30 p.m
Sun. 9 a.m. 1:00 p.m.

Medley of Vegetables i
1/2 cup diced green papaya
1 eggplant unpeeled, cubed
1 medium cucumber unpeeled, sliced
1 large tomato unpeeled, wedged
1 large carrot, sliced into rounds
1 sweet red pepper, sliced into strips
2 tablespoons margarine
1 tablespoon Romano cheese or Parmesan cheese
1/2 teaspoon pepper
1 teaspoon soy sauce

Steam papaya slightly. Remove from water. Combine 1"AIISi[
with other vegetables except tomato. Melt margarine in
medium skillet, add vegetables and saute until tender,
but not soggy. Vegetables should be crisp for serving.
Add tomato and cook an additional minute. If necessary
add a tablespoon of water to vegetables, cover and cook
over low flame for about 5-7 minutes longer. Serves 6.
-CES Home Economics Program Recipe


Young fairgoers find much of interest.


Hibiscus Jelly

2 cups hibiscus blossoms
4 cups sugar
5 cups water
1 box pectin
1 1/2 limes, juiced
orange peel, from about half an orange
Choose hibiscus blossoms that are fully open. Use the
same day, as they do not keep. Boil blossoms, lime juice
and orange peel in water. Simmer 15 minutes, uncov-
ered. Skim off any froth that forms. Let this stand for 1/2
hour. Strain. Add sugar and pectin. Cook until jelly sets.
Begin to test the juice 10 minutes after the sugar and
pectin have been added.
There are three methods to test for doneness:
1. Spoon or Sheet Test dip metal spoon in the
boiling jelly mixture. Raise it about a foot above the
kettle, out of the steam and turn the spoon so the
syrup runs off the side. If the syrup forms 2 drops that
flow together and fall off the spoon as one sheet, the
jelly should be done.
2. Refrigerator Test pour a small amount of boiling
jelly on a cold plate and put it in the freezer compart-
mant of a refrigerator for a few minutes. If the mixture
jells, it should be done. During this test, the jelly
mixture should be removed from heat.
3. Thermometer Test if you have a candy ther-
mometer, place it in jelly. Jelly is done at 225"F.
Pour jelly into clean hot jars to within 1/4" of top. Seal
with a single layer of hot paraffin.
-CES Home Economics Program Recipe


The Farmer's Market offers an array of local produce.

Baked Yam

1/2 cup evaporated skim milk or cream
1 large yam
1 tablespoon margarine
2 egg whites
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon pepper
Select a large smooth yam, scrub it with a brush, wrap in
aluminum foil. Bake in a hot oven (3500) until soft, about
40 minutes (or it may be boiled instead), then make an
incision. Remove the pulp, leaving the skin. Mash the
pulp, add evaporated milk, margarine, 1/2 teaspoon
pepper, 1/2 teaspoon of salt, and whites of two eggs,
beaten. Mix well and return to the shell, dot with mar-
garine. Return to a hot oven to brown slightly, about 5
minutes. Optional: cheese may be added to milk and egg
mixture. Serves 4.
-CES Home Economics Program Recipe

* We are proud to be a part of the 18th Annual Agriculture and Food Fair


and we are proud of our 144 years of service to St Croix


1 /u1 'riermLm/TIAM
f/ UL10t

Centerline Road at Ville La Reine 778-7867

Aquaculture research is an ongoing project at the UVI
Agriculture Experiment Station.

int and Crop Exhibits with happy prize winners.



CES Home Economics Youths learn to prepare and serve local

Eggnog Cake

2 cups of sifted flour
2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 cup butter softened
1 cup sugar (divided)
2 eggs, separated
1/2 cup orange juice
' 1/2 cup light rum (divided)
S 1 1/2 teaspoon grated orange peel
M 1 teaspoon vanilla

S Sift flour with baking powder, nutmeg, baking soda and
S salt. Cream butter with sugar until fluffy. Add egg yolks,
beat well. Blend orange juice with 1/4 cup rum, orange
peel and vanilla. Add alternately with flour. Beat egg
whites until soft peaks form; gradually beat in remaining
1/4 cup sugar until egg whites are stiff but still glossy.
Bake in 9" cake pans in 3500 over for 25 minutes or until
done. Cool split layers and sprinkle with remaining 1/4
cup rum. Put layers together with eggnog filling, frost top
and sides with bittersweet chocolate frosting. Cover
sides with chopped nuts.

1 1/4 cups milk
5 tablespoons all purpose flour
1 cup butter or margarine
2 cups rum
1/4 teaspoon nutmeg
Combine milk and flour in saucepan. Cook and stir over
moderate heat until mixture thickens. Cool. Cream butter
until light and stir in rum and nutmeg. Add cooled flour
by the spoonful, beating until light and fluffy.
4 ounces chocolate, melted
1 1/4 cups sifted confectioner's sugar
3/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
2 tablespoons hot water
2 eggs
6 tablespoons softened butter
Melt chocolate and combine with confectioner's sugar,
cinnamon and nutmeg; beat well. Gradually add the hot
water and blend until smooth. Beat in the eggs, one at a
time. Blend in the softened butter and beat until smooth.
-From Almira's Kitchen

Compliments of

Delgado's Electrical &

Plumbing Supply

TEL. 772-0149

Farm Family Of The Year


FARM FAMILY OF THE YEAR 1987: Dr. Darshan Padda (left) and
Governor Farrelly (right) present the much-coveted annual award to Alfred
and Ruth Tull and sons.

~Wb"-as~3~ ~ ,


Blooms into

Antle Grpi Art

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