Citation
Pioneering in Cuba : a narrative of the settlement of La Gloria, the first American colony in Cuba, and the early experiences of the pioneers

Material Information

Title:
Pioneering in Cuba : a narrative of the settlement of La Gloria, the first American colony in Cuba, and the early experiences of the pioneers
Creator:
Adams, James Meade, 1862-?
Place of Publication:
Concord, N.H.
Publisher:
The Rumford Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
Book

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Caribbean
Americans -- Cuba
History -- Cuba -- 1899-1906
Anthropology -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Antropología -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage:
Cuba -- Caribbean

Notes

Funding:
Digitized with funding from the Digital Library of the Caribbean grant awarded by TICFIA.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Central Florida Libraries
Holding Location:
University of Central Florida
Rights Management:
All rights to images are held by the respective holding institution. This image is posted publicly for non-profit educational uses, excluding printed publication. For permission to reproduce images and/or for copyright information contact Special Collections & University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries, Orlando, FL 32816 phone (407) 823-2576, email: speccoll@mail.ucf.edu
Resource Identifier:
F1787.A3 1901a ( LC )

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PIONEERING IN CUBA

A NARRATIVE OF THE SETTLEMENT OF
LA GLORIA, THE FIRST AMERICAN
COLONY IN CUBA, AND THE EARLY
EXPERIENCES OF THE PIONEERS






BY

JAMES M. ADAMS
ONE OF THF ORIGINAL COLONISTS






Illustrated







CONCORD, N. H:
Ube IRumtorb press
19or


































Copyright, 901o. by
JAMES M. ADAMS





























TO


MY FELLOW COLONISTS

WrH'-E ICOUi.'jE CHEFPFULNLE- .AN Mil LI 'LL SPIRIT WON .HM
.ADMIPATIN VdD T '_hll ,N

THI BC-(-Ok 15I

FESPECTFULLL DEDIC TED


















PREFACE.



My excuse for writing and publishing this book
is a threefold one. For some time I have strongly
felt that the true story of the La Gloria colony
should be told, without bias and with an accurate,
first-hand knowledge of all the facts. My close
relations with the colony and the colonists, and an
actual personal residence in La Gloria for nearly
half a year, have made me entirely familiar with
the conditions there, and I have endeavored to pre-
sent them to the reader clearly, correctly, and hon-
estly. Secondly, I have been imbued with the be-
lief that many of the daily happenings in the colony,
particularly those of the earlier months, are of suffi-
cient general interest to justify their narration; and
if I am wrong in this, I am quite sure that these
incidents, anecdotes, and recollections will find an
attentive audience among the colonists and their
friends. It is one of the author's chief regrets that
the size and scope of this book does not admit of
the mention by name of all of the colonists who were
prominent and active in the life of the colony.
Thirdly, while in La Gloria, in his capacity as a
member of the Pioneer Association, the author had









Preface.


the honor to be the chairman of the committee on
History of the Colony. This committee wa-, not
officially or outwardly active, but in a quiet way its
members stored up history as fast as it was made.
The author does not dignify the present work by
the name of history, but prefers to call it a narra-
tive of the first year of the colony. He believes,
however, that it contains many facts and incidents
which will be found useful material to draw upon
when in later years a complete history% of the first
American colony in Cuba may be written.
I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr.
V. K. Van De Venter, a professional photographer
of Dundee. Michigan. for some of the best pictures
in the book. The other photographs were taken,
and in several cases kindly furnished gratuitously,
by Robin H. Ford. John H. Rising, L. E. Mayo,
and \V. G. Spiker. I am also under obligation to
Mr. Spiker for the loan of the cut of the lake on
the Laguna Grande tract, and to Dr. \. P. Peirce
for the use of the cut of his pineapple garden in La
Gloria. All of the pictures in the book are scenes
in the province of Puerto Principe, and with two or
three exceptions, in or around La Gloria.
j. NI. \.
.\','f'i\ lli\ Y. H D,-,-, ii fit~ o.
















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER I.
THE ARRIVAL OF THE COLONIsi, IN NL EV'iTAS HARBOR.
PAGE.
A New Sight l.:r Old Nueitas-TlIe I', n.'.th drops
Anchor in the Hartor-The \.ianguard of the
First American C.-lon\% Planted in Cuba-The
BeautilulCulan Coast-Picturesque Appearance
of Nutritas-- LDijtarnce Lends Enchantment to
the View "--Charictr .l the Colonists-Gen.
Paul Van der \'Vorr-Ntarly all the States Rep-
resented-. The Onl, Canuck ,:n Board "-The
:oyage Ironi Ne. 'lork 17

CHAPT ER II.
THE J.'IPNINE\ I: Pi:'RI IL.A ILIHIIA.

An Irriiating Delay--.\shore at Nut \llas-Midnight
Row at the Pier-Con'ivial Colonists Clash
With Cul[ans-E--Soidj,'r Take .in Intoluntary
Bath--The Cuban Police-Hon Peter E. Park
-The Start for La (Glorla-Some Intending
Colonists Back Out-The Man With the Long,
Red Face-The Onl \Woman-Thie Fleet An-
chors-** Tonmurow. Four T'clock, Wind Right,
Go' "-An Uncomnrnrtable Night-Cublan Cap-
tain Falls Overboard- Port La Gloria Sighted 32









8 Contents.


CHAPTER III.
A TOUGH TRAMP TO LA GLORIA CITY.
Arrival at the Port-A Discouraging Scene-Mud,
Water, and Sand Flies-The Memorable Walk
to La Gloria City"-An Awful Road-Battle
With Water, Mud, Stumps. Roots, Logs. Briers
and Branches-Lawyer Park Leads the Strange
Procession-La Gloria at Last-The Royal
Palm-Women in Mascuhne Garb-Col. Thos.
H. Maginniss- First Night in La Gloria-The
Survey Corps-Chief Engineer KelIl-Experi-
ences of the Lowells and Spikers .. 44

CHAPTER IV.
FIRST DAYS IN THE NEW COLONY.
Isolation of La Gloria-The Camp at Night-Strange
Sounds in the Forest-The Colonists Happy-
Their Excellent Health-Remarkable Cures Ef-
fected by the Climate-The .Aieeable Temper-
ature-Prolonged Rainy Season--The Hotel"
-The Log Foundation-A Fauvorie Joke-The
Conmpan\'s Spring-Small Variety of Food-
My First Supper in La Gloria-Eating Flamin-
go and Aged Goat-A Commissary With Noth-
ing to Sell-A FlutuLating Population 59

CHAPTER V.
THE ALLOTMENT OF THE LAND.
The Character of the Contracts-The Question of
Subdivision-Some of the Difficulties-Matter
Placed in the Hands of a Committee of the Col-










Contents.


onists-Fair and Feasible Plan Adopted-Gen.
Van der Voort's Arrival in La Gloria-His Boat
S Nearly Wrecked-Delay in (letting Baggage-
Ii. Colonists Get Their Land Prllniptly-The
Town as Laid Out-Site Well Chosen--Wuods
Full of Colonists Hunting lor Their Plantations
-Different Kinds of Soil . .. "3

CHAPTER VI
THIF S't CAP RIOT.
Population of Colon, Sllil; Increases-Arrital of
:" Second );zr,:.Ih'I-Sensational and Ridiculous
Reports-ConstcrnaTio.n in Ashiur% Park-
Laughing Over Ner paper Stol i s-L citement
Over Sugar-Mass Mlc-tin, to Air rite Griev-
ance-An Unexpected Turn of Affains-Cable
From Ne,' York Bring- (Good Ne\,s-Van der
Voort Elected President of the Conpan --Sugar
Orarirs Remain Silent-A Nois\ Celebration 86

CHAPTER VII.
A. ENTURES .AND 'll]- DVENTI'RES.
The \Women in the Camp-Mrs. Muller-Her Cos-
tume and Extraordinary Adventurc---How She
Entered La Gloria-Ro: sts in a Tree all Night
-BuIldll the First House in La Gloria--Her
Famous Cow and Calf-W-onderful Bloonmers-
Ubiquitous Mrs Horn--\\eigheld 250, but
Waded Into La Glori.-'-Not Rattled by a
Bruuk Kiinniitg Through Her Tent-A Pig
Hunt and Its Re'uli--Survelors Lost in the
W oods . o.









Contents.


CHAPTER VIII.
THE CUBANS.
Good People to Get Along With"-Their Kind-
ness and Courtesy-Harmony and Good Feel-
ing Between the Colonists and Cubans-Their
Primitive Style of Living-The Red Soil and Its
Stains-Rural Homes-Prevalence of Children,
Chickens, and Dogs-Little Girl Dresses for
Company With Only a Slipper-Food and Drink
of the Cubans-Few Amusements-An Indiffer-
ent People-The Country Districts of the Prov-
ince of Puerto Principe ... o104

CHAPTER IX.
STEPS OF PROGRESS.
Clearing and Planting-The Post-office-Col. John
F. Early-The "Old Seiior"-La Gloria Police
Force-Chief Matthews' Nightly Trip Down
the Line"-No Liquor Sold, and Practically no
Crime Committed-Watchman Eugene Kezar-
Religious Services and Ministers-La Gloria
Pioneer Association-Dr. W. P. Peirce-Mr.
D. E. Lowell-Mr. R. G. Barner-Important
Work of the Association ... ... 118

CHAPTER X.
EVENTS IMPORTANT AND OTHERWISE.
Worth of the Colonists-Gen. Van der Voort's New
Cuban House-The Lookout Tree"-Its Part
in the Cuban Wars-The General's Garden-
Marvelously Rapid Growth of Plants-First










Contents.


Birth in La G ;loria-O-laf El Gluria Olson-G-C.en
a Town Lot- Tcmperature Figures-PerfeLtion
of Climate-The Maginni (.Lorlur,'% Road-
First \\ell Dug--Architect M. A. C. Ntff 33

CHAP FER \i
SEI F- ELI S ;I.E i.1 THIi ColiIoN'Tl .

The Man \\;li the Hoe--- Grandlpa" \Vitlee Able
to Take Cire of Himllelf--Not Dead. but \'cr
Much Ah.li.-.\ 1'unaciu iit hld M-ian-Mi
W itler Sli.ots Clii kens arid I)eie- tie Authori-
tie,--Iic.: .lai:k MI:Caule) and His "" Intlucn._e "--
--All.,an '" and the Moquliito: .--Arrnal I0
Third Ja'p .",u//,,- Arni.,ld Mlolleriniaier- lohnr
A. Connell-S. \\ Storni-The Fir-t St.lhool
and Its Te. lie 143

CHAPTER XIl.
T ti. FiR -i H .I. II.A'. IN L; IL ilt.

Cra ing for Athletic '~-prrt%--ilal Holida ForniallI
Proclaimed-.A Bleautiful D.)a-T-ihe Co'luonists
Phlotograplhed-Licut. Ltans aid His Soldier-
ol the -zlith U S. C.nairy--SulC.:c-ltul Sprit ts
-D-ast-l.ll i'.lmer--.\n L.tnt n..t LiD..n in the
Program-- L'.itled Col.:lnit--Lavr.\er C. Hugo
Drake ol Puerto Printipe-HiH S:hemc--Or-
dered Out i:if Camp-A Night in the \\ ood-
Lieiitet ant Cienlutrite .

CHAPTER Xlli
INDIJ.i-IR' I-R l ile e -I .,*NIT' *.

Pink Orchids on the Treci,-\'regtahle-- Raised and
Fruit Trees Set Out-The Variou ELniploi-







12 Contents.

ments-Working on the Survey Corps-Chief
Kell's Facetious Formula-An Oticial Kicker
-B. F. Seiltert-lmprovements at the Port-
Fish, Alli,.ators. and Flamingo-J. L. Ratekin
-First Banquet in La Gloria-Departure or
Mblginniis Part- -First Death in the Colony--
Onl\ One Death in Si; Months- Lowell's Cor-
duroy Road and Kell's Permanent Highay 166

CHAPf IFR XI\.
TIIF FlkT .AI L IN L.A (I.nRIA
A Semi-Annivcrs.iry--Town Lot- and Plantaliouns
Allotted in Fuiht Six Mbluths-A Grand Ball-
French Dancing Master in Charge-Dan Good-
man's Pernns..lania Modeit -Organizing an
Orchestra at Short Notice-The Ballroom-
Rev. Dr. Gill Lends His Tent Floor-Elaborate
Decorations-A Transformation Scene-Some
Taking Specialties-A Fine Supper-Music in
Camp-An Ageravating Cornet Player--.ingers
in the Colony. . . 177

CHAPTER XV.
A WALKING TRIP TO PUERTO PRINCIPLE.
Five Good \'a Ilktrs-A Halt at Mercedes-Sparsely
Settled Country-Cuban Trails-A Night in
the Wood--A Cripple From Sore Feet-A
Pretty Country Place-The Cubitas Mountains
-Hunting for the Late Cuban Capital-A
Broad and Beautiful View-Seventeen Miles
Without a House-Night on the Plain-The
City of Puerto Principe-Politeness of Its Peo-










Contents. 13

pie-The Journey Honie-Sanchez' Sugar Plan-
tation-Lost in the Forest-La Gloria Once
M ore . .

CHAPTER XVI.
IN AND AROi'ND LA GLORIA.
Horses That May Have Committed Suicide-Colonel
Maginniss "A Master Hand in Sickness"-Sud-
den and Surprising Rie no Water-A Deluge
of Frogs-A Greedy Snake-Catching Fish in
Central Avenue-D. Siefert's Industrr-Max
Neuber-Mountain View-A Facetious Sign-
board-The Sangjai-An Aggraiating and
Uncertain Channel 20

CHAPTER XVII.
THE COLONY A.T TlE END OF 1HE FIRST YEAR.
The Saw Mill-The Pole Tramway to the Ha.-A.
Traged) in the Colon\ -Death of Mr. Bosworth
-The Summer Season-The Country Around
La Gloria-The Cuban Colonization Compan) -
Guainaja-The Rural Guard-Organizations in
La Gloria-The March of Improvements-
Construction of Wooden Buildings-Coloni.ts
Delighted With Their New Home in the Tropics 21z


















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE.
James M. Adams Frontispiece.
Map of Cuba 16
City of Nucvitis, Cuba 20
Gen. Paul Van der Voort. 26
An Involuntary Bath 42
Port La Gloria 46
Author on Road to La Gloria. 48
Col. Thomas H. Magiini-- 52
The Hotel" 64
The Spring 68
Robert C. Beausejour 82
La Gloria, Cuba, Looking North 88
First House in La Gloria 97
Frank J. O'Reilly .
First Women Colonists of La Gloria 122
Dr. William P. Peirce 126
(en. Van der Voort's Cuban House 134
La Gloria, Cuba, Looking South 150
G roup of Colonists .158
The Survey Corps 168
Interior Gen. Van der Voort's House 182
.\gramonte Plaza, Puerto Principe, Cuba 200
Dr. Peirce's Pineapple Patch 208
Scene on LagunaGrande 214



















; i













f: i

~' 3!Q

~ bzi.


._,.













PIONEERING IN CUBA.



CHAPTER I.

ARRIVAL OF THE COLONISTS IN NUEVITAr.
HARBOR.

JL'ST alter noon on January 4, 1900, the
ancient city of Nuevitas, Cuba, lazily basking
in the midday sunshine, witnessed a iight
which had not been paralleled in the four
hundred years of its existence. A steamer
was dropping anchor in the placid -ater of
the harbor a mile off shore, and her decks
were thronged \ ith a crow d of more than two
hundred eager and active Americans. They
wore no uniforms, nor did they carry either
guns or swords; and yet the- had come on
an errand uf conquest. They had fared forth
from their native land to attack the formidable
forests and to subdue the untamed soil of the
province of Puerto Principe-a task which
required scarcely less courage and resolution
than a feat of arms might have demanded in
that locality two years before. Well aware








S8 Pioneering in Cuba.

that there %was a hard tight before them. they
were yet sanguine of success and eager to
begin active operations. It was the vanguard
of the first American colony planted in Cuba.
The vessel that lay at anchor in the beau-
tiful land-locked harbor of Nuevitas was the
screw steamer airmouth/, a steel ship which,
if not as fast and elegant as the ocean grey-
hounds that cross the Atlantic, wa. large and
tine enough to have easily commanded the
unbounded admiration and amazement of
Christopher Columbus had he beheld her
when he landed from the Sanl .riiTa on the
coast of Cuba near this point more than four
centuries ago. Great changes have been
wrought since the days of Columbus in the
manner o"f craft that sail the seas, but less
progress has been made by the city of Nue-
vitas in those lour hundred long years. The
afi,'ttoh., substantial if not handsome, and
sate if not s-wift. had brought the colonists to
this purt without mishap, thus redeeming one
of the many promises of the Cuban Land and
Steamship Company. Since early morning
the vessel had been slowly steaming along
the palm-fringed coast of the Pearl of the
Antilles." daybreak having revealed the fact
that the boat was too far to the eastward, and









The Arrival at Nuevitas. 19

late in the forenoon we entered the picturesque
bay of Nuevitas, took on a swarthy Cuban
pilot, and, gliding quietly past straggling
palm-thatched native shacks and tiny green-
clad isles, came to anchor in plain view of
the city that Velasquez founded in 1514. We
had passed two or three small circular forts,
any one of which would have been demol-
ished by a single well-directed shot from a
thirteen-inch gun. These defenses were
unoccupied, and there was naught else to
threaten the established peace.
The day was beautiful, freshened by a soft
and balmy breeze, with the delightlll temper-
ature of 75 degrees. Far back in the interior,
through the wonderfully transparent Cuban
atmosphere, one could see the light blue peaks
of lo'ty mountains, standing singly instead of
in groups, as i'feach were the monarch of a
small principality. Their outlines, as seen at
this distance, were graceful and symmetrical.
rather than rugged and overpowering like
some of their brother chieftains of the North.
Near at hand the listless city of Nuevitas
extended from the water's edge backward up
the hillside of a long, green ridge, the low,
red-tiled houses clinging to what seemed
precariou-. positions along the rough, water-




































I.I




I -I








The Arrival at Nuevitas. 21

worn streets that gashed the side of the
hill. To the right a green-covered promon-
tory projected far into the bay, dotted with
occasional native -.hacks and planted in part
with sisal hemp. The colonists on shipboard,
ignorant of the appearance of' this tropical
product. at first took the hemp for pineapple
plants, but soon learned their mistake from
one who had been in the tropics before.
Viewed from the harbor, Nuevitas looks
pretty and picturesque, but once on shore the
illusion vanishes. Mud meets you at the
threshold and sticks to you like a brother.
The streets. for the most part, are nothing
more than rain-furrowed lanes, tilled with
large, projecting stones and gullies of no little
depth. Stick', yellow mud is everywhere,
and once acquired is as hard to get rid of as
the rheumatism. The houses, in general, are
little better than hovels, and the gardens
around them are neglected and forlorn.
When a spot more attractive than the others
is found, Nature is entitled to all the credit.
The shops are poor and mean, and not over
well supplied with merchandise. The natives,
while kindly disposed toward the "'America-
nos," are, for the most part, unattractive in
dress and person. The few public buildings









22 Pioneering in Cuba.

are ugly and there is not a pleasant street in
the town. And vet when seen from the har-
bor the city looks pretty. mainly on account
of its red-tiled houses, grassy hillside slopes,
and waving cocoanut palms. The author of
the ancient sa ing that distancee lends en-
chantment to the view." might well have
gathered his inspiration at Nuevitas.
If the inhabitants ,of Nuevitas have the
quality of curiosiity. they clearly did not have
it w ith them at the time of our arrival. Al-
though it is said on good authority, that the
city had never before had more than twelve
or fliteen visitors at one time, save soldiers- or
sailors, the natives betrayed no excitement
and little interest in the advent of two hun-
dred American civilians. With the exception
of a handful of boatmen and a e\\ fruit \en-
ders, not a lperi-,n came to the piers to gaze
at the new arrivals, and in the town the peo-
ple scarcely gave themselve-, the trouble to
look out of their open dwellings and shops at
the colonist,. This may hale been inherent
courtesy-lor the Cuban is nothing it not
courteous-but to us it seemed more like
indifference. The Cubans are certainly an
indifferent people. and at this port they ap-
peared to have no object or interest in life.









The Arrival at Nuevitas. 23

They dwelt in drowsy content, smoking their
cigarettes, and doing their little buying and
selling in a leisurely and heedless manner.
The most of them pick up a precarious living
with but little labor. These easy-going habits
impress the close observer as being more the
result of indifference than downright indo-
lence, for when the occasion demands it the
Cuban often exhibits surprising activity and
industry. He does not, however. work for
the fun of it, and it never occurs to him that it
is necessary to lay up anything for the pro-
verbial rain\ delay Accustomed to the
fairest skies in the world, he never anticipates
cloudy weather.
It is quite possible that if wve had been
arrayed in brilliant unilfrms, resplendent of
gold lace, brass buttons, and all the accom-
panying trappings, we should have aroused
more interest, for the Cuban loves color,
pageant, and martial shl..w, but a.s a matter
of fact, nothing could have been plainer and
uglier than the dress of most of the colonists.
To the superficial observer, there was noth-
ing about the invaders to hold attention, but
to me, who had closely studied my compan-
ions and fellow-colonists for nearly a week,
they %were full ot" interest and inspiration.








24 Pioneering in Cuba.

They were, to be sure, a motley crowd, rep-
resenting many states and territories, and
several grades of social standing, but they
were obviously courageous, enterprising, and
of good character. In point of intelligence
and manifest honesty and energy they aver-
aged high-much higher than one would
expect of the pioneers in a project of this sort.
They were not reckless and unscrupulous
adventurers, nor yet rolling stones who
sought an indolent life of ease, but serious-
minded and industrious home-seekers. They
had counted the cost, and resolved to go
forward and achieve success, expecting
obstacles, but not anticipating defeat. A
thoughtful person could not fail to be im-
pressed by the serious and resolute manner
in which these voyagers entered upon the
work of establishing a new home for them-
selves in a tropical country. Since the days
when the Pilgrim Fathers landed upon the
bleak shores of New England, I doubt if a
better aggregation of men had entered upon
an enterprise of this character.
The colonists sailed from New York on the
'armouth on Saturday, December 30, 1899,
a stinging cold day. It was the first excur-
sion run by the Cuban Land and Steamship








The Arrival at Nuevitas., 25

Company, whose offices at 32 Broadway had
for several days been crowded with men from
all parts of the country eager to form a part
of the first expedition to establish an Ameri-
can colony at La Gloria, on the north coast
of Cuba, about forty miles west of Nuevitas.
Every passenger on board the a;rmouth was
supposed to have purchased or contracted for
land at La Gloria, and practically all had
done so. The steamer was commanded by
Capt. E. O. Smith, a popular and efficient
officer, and carried besides her complement
of crew and waiters, t\\o hundred and eleven
passengers, all men with one exception, Mrs.
Crandall. the wile of an employee of the com-
pany. The colonists represented all sections
of the country, from Maine to California,
from Minnesota to Florida. No less than
thirty states sent their delegations, two terri-
tories. Canada. Prince Edward's Island. and
British Columbia. All came to New York
to make up this memorable excursion. The
genial and stalwart Gen. Paul Van der Voort
of Nebraska, who was commander-in-chief
of the national G. A. R. in 1882-'83, had
led on a party of over twenty from the \est,
several of them his own neighbors in Omaha.
The others were from cliferent parts of

























































G.IN\. PM~ I VAN f'ET X\.--RF.









The Arrival at Nuevitas. 27

Nebraska, Kansas. and Iowa. General Van
der Voort was the assistant manager of the
company, and a little later became its presi-
dent. He went to Cuba in the double capac-
ity of an officerr of the company, to take
charge of its business there, and a colonist
to make La Gloria his permanent residence.
Honest, affable, and humorous, a magnetic
and convincing speaker, with a sunny nature
singularly free from affectation and ardently
loyal to his friends, General Van der Voort
was a natural leader oft men, well fitted to
head a colonizing expedition. One of his
sons had been in La Gloria for some time
working as a surveyor in the employ of the
company.
General Van der Voort's party, however,
formed but a small fraction of the Western
representation. Tuelve men came from
Illinois, six from Michigan, five from 1Minne-
sota. iour from Wisconsin. tour from Indi-
and, four from Oklahoma-men who were
** boomers" in the rush for land in that terri-
tory-tw o from Missouri, two from Wash-
ington state, one from Wyoming. one from
South Dakota, and one from California.
Ohio men, usually so much in evidence, were
hard to find. only one man on board ac-




28 Pioneering in Cuba.

knowledging that he hailed from that state.
The South was not so largely represented as
the WVest, but there were two men from
Maryland, two from Virginia, two from
Georgia, one from Florida, one from West
Virginia, and one from Washington. D. C.
New York state led the entire list with fifty-
one. Pennsylvania and Massachusetts came
next with twenty-one each. From New
Jersey there were fifteen. Among the New
England states. New Hampshire and Con-
necticut followed Massachusetts, with five
each. Rhode Island contributed four, Maine
two, and Vermont two. Two of the colonists
hailed from British Columbia, one from
Prince Edward's Island, and one from
Toronto, Canada. The latter, a tall, good-
looking Englishman by the name of Ruther-
ford, cheerfully announced himself as "the
only Canuck on board." Those who were
fortunate enough to become intimately ac-
quainted with this clear-headed and whole-
hearted gentleman were easily convinced that
while he might call himself a "Canuck"
and become a Cuban by emigration, he
would remain to the end of his days an
Englishman, and a very good specimen of
his race. If Rutherford had not taken part




The Arrival at Nuevitas. 29

in the "sugar riot"-but that's "another
story."
The colonists represented even more occu-
pations than states. There \were four physi-
cians, one clergyman, one lawyer, one editor,
one patent ollice employ, small merchants.
clerks, bookkeepers, locomoti\ e engineers,
carpenters, and other skilled mechanics.
besides many farmers. There were also a
number of .-pecialists. The embr\o colony
included several veteranss of the Spanish war,
some of" whom had been in Cuba before.
G. A. R. buttons were surprisingly numer-
ous. The men, generally speaking, ap-
peared to be eminently practical and thor-
oughly wide aw" ke. They looked able to
take hold of a business enterprise and push
it through to succe .ds regardless of obstacles.
Several of the colonists showed their thrift by
taking poultry \ith them, while an old gen-
tleman from Minnesota had brought along
two colonies of Italian honey bees. Another
old man explained his presence by jocularly
declaring that he \\as going down to Cuba to
search Ior the footprints of Columbus. Ac-
cents representing all sections of the country
were harmoniously and curiously mingled.
and the spirit of fraternity was marked. The








30 Pioneering in Cuba.

one colored man in the party, an intelligent
representative of his race, had as good stand-
ing as anybody.
The voyage down was uneventful. It
occupied four days and a hall, and for thirty-
six hours, in the neighborhood of Cape Hat-
teras, very rough water was encountered.
But few on board had ever known such a sea,
and sickness was universal. The discomfort
was great. partly owing to the crowded con-
dition of the boat. Many a hardy colonist
sighed tfr his Western ranch or his comforta-
ble house in the East. The superior attrac-
tion-. of Cuba were forgotten for the moment.
and there was intense longing for the land
that had been left behind. It is a fact hard
to believe that several on board had never
before seen the ocean, to say nothing of sail-
ing upon its turbulent bosom. With the
return of a smooth sea a marvelous change
came over the %oyagers, and all began to
look eagerly forward to a sight of the famed
" Pearl of the Antilles." We were now sail-
ing a calm tropical sea, with the fairest of
skies above us and a mild and genial tein-
perature that \\as a great delight after the
severe cold of the Northern winter. The
salubrious weather continued through the








The Arrival at Nuevitas. 31

remaining forty-eight hours of the voyage,
and the colonists resumed their interrupted
intercourse, having but a single subject in
their eager discussions-always the prospects
of the colony or something bearing on their
pioneer enterprise. The topic was far from
being talked out when we glided into the
tranquil harbor of Nuevitas.













CHAPTER II.


THE JOURNEY TO PORT LA GLORIm..

THE newly arrived colonists found the
Spani..h word rmaiana still in high favor
at Nuevrita, though it was difficult to fix the
resp'nsibilityv Ir the irritating delays. The
Cubans and :he tli-iceri of the company alike
came in for a good deal of straight-from-the-
shoulder Yankee criticism. Some of this
was de.erlved. but not all. The company's
officers had been handicapped in many ways,
and for this and perhaps other reasons, had
not pushed things, along as rapidly and suc-
cessfully as the colonis't had been lcd to
expect. It was leairnd that the town of La
Gloria was as Nvet onl\ a town in name, the
ICundation of it- tirst building. tlie hotel, hav-
ing just been laid. The lumber tor the ,truc-
ture lay on the docks at Nue\ita%. The com-
pany's portable sawmill machinery was rust-
ing in the open air at th ae same place... If the
colonists marveled at this, their wonder dis-
appeared when, a little later, they tramped
and waded the four miles of so-called road "









The Journey to Port La Gloria. 33

that lay between Port La Gloria and La
Gloria "city." Nothing daunted by these
discouraging signs and the many unfavorable
reports, the most of the colonists determined
to push ahead.
Arriving at Nuevitas Thursday noon, Jan-
uary 4, the passengers of the Yarmouth were
not allowed to leave the vessel that day or
evening. Many were desirous of exploring
the ancient city of Nuevitas, but the most fre-
quent and anxious inquiry was, When shall
we be taken to La Gloria?" It was a hard
question to answer, and no one in authority
attempted to do so. There were several
causes contributing to the delay, one of which
was the customs inspection.and another the
question of transportation. Communications
between Nuevitas and La Gloria was neither
easy nor regular. The overland route was.
the nearest, about forty miles, but could only
be utilized by a person on foot or horseback.
At the time of our arrival this way was
entirely impracticable by any mode of travel.
The inside or shallow water route was about
forty-eight miles long, and the outside or
deep water course, sixty miles. The officers
of the company decided upon the latter as the
most feasible, and set out to procure lighters
3








Pioneering in Cuba.


to cnvey the colonists and their baggage.
This was no easy matter, as the business had
to be dune with Cubans, and Cubans are
never in any hurry about coining to terms.
Friday morning the passengers of the Yar-
mouth were permitted to go ashore and wake
up the inhabitants of the .leepy city, each
person paying some thrifty Cuban twenty-fivh
cents for transportation thither in a sailboat.
The Cuban boatmen coined money during
our three days' stay in Nuevitas harbor. So
also did the fruit venders. who came out to
the steamer in small boats and sold us pine-
apple-, tiny fig bananas, and green orl-anges
at exorbitant prices. The fruit looked infe-
rior, but the flavor was good. Most of it
grew without care, and in a semi-wild condi-
tion. The colonists were eager to sample
any fruit of the country, as most of them
were intending to make fruit grw\\ing their
business. The "Americanos" succeeded in
waking up Nuii\ita.- in some degree, and at
night a few of them set out to "paint the town
red." Only a few, however; the great major-
ity behaved remairk:ably well. The day was
spent in quietly in .pecting the city and its
surrouLndings. Many of the visitors bought
needed supplies at the small stores.








The Journey to Port La Gloria. 35

Saturday ~ as passed in the same way as
Friday. the only incident of note being a
small-.-ized disturbance which took place at
the pier near midnight. Three belated Amer-
icans, who had done more than look upon
the c arguardiente," got into a quarrel with
a Cuban boatman in regard to their return to
the 1aImon Ath. The Americans were mainly
at fault. the boatman was obstinate, and a
\war of \onrd., was soon followed by blows.
The boatman was getting the worst of the
scrimmage \ hen several of the Cuban police
s\\wooped down upon the party. Two of the
Americans drew revolvers, but they were
quickly disarmed and overcome, one of the
trio. \\ho wore the uniform of the United
States army, which he had lately quitted,
calling over into the harbor in the scuttle.
This suddenn and unexpected ducking ended
the tight: the "Americanos" compromised
with the boatman, and were allowed to return
to the ',ruroiat. These intending colonists
did not remain long at La Gloria, although
,ne o" the three purposes to return. The
conduct of the Cuban police upon this occa-
sion, and upon all others which came under
my notice, \\as entirely creditable. They
dress neatly, are sober and inoffensive in








Pioneering in Cuba.


manner, and appear to perform their duties
conscientiously and well.
While we lay in Nuevitas harbor we re-
ceived several visits from Gen. A. L. Bres-
ler and the Hon. Peter E. Park, president
and resident manager, respectively, of the
Cuban Land and Steamship Company, both
of whom had been stopping in the city for
some time. They had acquired the Cuban
dress and, to some extent, Cuban habits. Mr.
Park decided to accompany the colonists to
La Gloria, and to share with them all the
hardships that they might encounter on the
journey. It was no new thing for Mr. Park
to make the trip. He had made it slowly
along the coast in a small sailboat; he had
made it in quicker time in a steam launch,
and he had sometimes gone overland on
horseback, struggling through mud and
water and tangled vines, swimming swollen
rivers and creeks, and fighting swarms of
aggressive mosquitoes in the dense woods.
He knew exactly what was before him; the
colonists did not. General Bresler, strange
to say, had never been at La Gloria.
It was on Sunday afternoon, at a little past
one o'clock, that the colonists finally got away
from Nuevitas and made the start for La








The Journey to Port La Gloria. 37

Gloria. The fleet consisted of three small
schooners loaded with light baggage, a little
freight, and nearly two hundred passengers.
Two of the boats were Nuevitas lighters,
with Cuban captains and crew, while the
third was a schooner from Lake Worth,
Florida. carrying about twenty colonists from
that state. This boat, known as the Emily B.,
had arrived at Nuevitas a day or two before
the Yarmouth. Among her passengers were
four or five women. The heavy baggage of
the Yarmouth colonists was loaded upon yet
another lighter, which was to follow later.
The colonists embarked upon the sailing
craft from the decks of the Yarmouth, leav-
ing behind a score or more of their number
whose backbone had collapsed or who for
some other reason had decided to return home
immediately. It is, I believe, a veritable fact
that more than one of the intending colonists
went back on the same boat without so much
as setting foot on the soil ot" Cuba. Probably
examples of the "'chocolate eclair" backbone
are to be found e\ eryNwhere. One of the re-
turning voyagers was a tall, thin man of
middle age, wearing a long, red, sorrowful
face. It had been apparent from the very
start that his was an aggravated case of









Pioneering in Cuba.


homne-sickne.,s. He had shown unmistakable
evidence of' it before the 1.7 intuioh!/ had exen
left North river, and he did not improve as
the vessel approached the coast of Cuba. He
rarely spoke to anybody, and could he seen
hour after hour kneeling in a most dejected atti-
tude upon a cushioned seat in the mdain saloon,
gazing mournfully out of the window at the
stern across the broad waters. His was about
the most striking example of sustained melan-
choly that ever came under my observation,
and could not seem other than ridiculous in
that company. \VWhn we slowly m, ,\ed :~ ay
from the Yarmouth, I was not surprised to see
this man standing silently upon the steamer's
deck. The look of unillumined dejection
was still upon his face. A man whose face
does not light up under the .uhtle charm of
the Cuban atmosphere is, indeed, a hopeless
case, and ought not to travel beyond the limits
of the county wherein lies his home. There
were others who remained behind on the
Yarmouth for better reasons. Mr. and Mrs.
Crandall returned to New York because the
company's sawmill, which he was to operate,
had not been taken to La Gloria and was not
likely to be for some time to come. Mrs.
Crandall was the only woman passenger on








The Journey to Port La Gloria. 39

the voyage down and had been fearfully sea-
sick all the way. Orders had been given that
no women or children should be taken on this
first excursion, hut an exception was made in
the case of Mrs. Crandall because she was
the wife of an employ f of the company.
The departing colonists \\ ward their good-bvs
to the Yarmouth, and the little fleet was towed
out to the entrance of Ntieritas harbor, about
ten miles, when the schooners came to anchor
and the tugboat returned to the city. Although
it was but little past three o'clock and the
\weather fine, the passengers learned to their
di.sm ay that the boats had anchored for the
night. The furrowed-faced old captain
would take no chances with the open sea at
night and so would proceed no farther. ;" To-
morrow-four o'clock-wind right-go! he
said, with a dramatic gesture and what seemed
to the colonists an unneces?.arlily explosive
emphasis on the last word.
The boats were anchored in the narrow
entrance to the harbor, where the smooth-
running tide closely resembled a river. On
one bank, one hundred yards away, were an
old stone fort and a few Cuban shacks. Some
of the passengers were desirous of going
ashore to see the fort and the houses, but








40 Pioneering in Cuba.

neither entreaties nor bribes could force the
old Cuban captain to allow the use of his small
boats. The Cubans are fond of waiting and
cannot appreciate American restlessness. So
we were obliged to sit quietly and gaze wist-
fully at the green-clad shore. As night came
on, it was found that loaves of bread and large
chunks of salt beef constituted the larder. It
was poor fare, but the colonists accepted the
situation cheerfully and broke bread and ate
as much of the greasy meat as they could.
It was a radiant evening, with soft, caress-
ing breezes and a starlit sky of incomparable
beauty. Many of the voyagers saw the famed
Southern Cross for the first time and gazed at
it long in silent contemplation, overcome by
that delicious feeling of dreamy content which
takes possession of one in the tropics. On
one of the boats, religious services were held,
conducted by a Georgia clergyman, the Rev.
A. E. Seddon of Atlanta, one of the most en-
thusiastic and uncomplaining of the colonists.
The singing of hymns was joined in by many
of the eighty-seven passengers on the boat,
and prayers were offered by no less than four
individuals. It was a singularly impressive
scene, not altogether unlike what took place
on board the .IlTaylo: -r centuries before.








The Journey to Port La Gloria. 41

The peaceful evening was followed by a
night of great discomfort. The passengers
were crowded together, and many slept, or
attempted to sleep, on boxes, barrels, or the
lumber which formed a part of the cargo of
the schooner. I slept, at intervals, on the
lumber designed for the hotel at La Gloria.
Often had I slept in hotels, but this was my
first experience in sleeping on one. Some of
the passengers on the schooners sat up all
night in preference to lying upon boxes and
lumber. We were not, however, without
entertainment during that long, wearisome
night. We had a philosopher among us, in
the person of quaint old Benjamin Franklin-
of Griffin's Corners, New York-\\ho talked
earnestly and eloquently upon his appalling
experiences in Confederate military prisons
many years before. The handful of soldiers
of the Spanish war were modestly silent in
the presence of this gaunt old veteran of the
great civil strife. Judge Groesbeck, of Wash-
ington, D. C., quoted poetry and told
anecdotes and stories, while the Rev. Mr.
Seddon, Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopeston, Ill.,
and others, contributed their share to the con-
versation. As we became drowsy, we could
hear, now and again, some one of our com-








Pioneering in Cuba.


panions giving an imitation oif the Cuban
captain : To-morrow-four o'cluck-wind
right -gin! "
Early in the morning, true to his wiird, the
captain set Lail. and as the wind was right


AN INVOLUNTARY BATH.


good progress was made. One of the divert-
ing incidents of the morning was the fall of
the captain overboard. In the crowded con-
dition of the boat, he lost his footing and went
over backward into the water. He scrambled
back again in a hurry, with a look of deep








The Journey to Port La Gloria. 43

disgust upon his rather repulsive face, but the
inconsiderate "Americanos" greeted him
with a roar of laughter. One enterprising
amateur photographer secured a snapshot of
him as he emerged dripping from his invol-
untary bath. A little later one of the Cubans
caught a handsome dolphin, about two feet
and a half long. The crew cooked it and
served it up at ten cents a plate. As our
schooner, drawing five feet of water, entered
the inlet about fifteen miles from the port o I
La Gloria, she dragged roughly over the
rocky bottom for some distance and came per-
ilously near -.utering misfortune. The other
schooners came in collision at about this time
and a panic ensued. No serious damage re-
sulted, however. It was between twelve and
one o'cl ock that afternoon that the port of La
Gloria was sighted.













CHAPTER III.


A TOUGH TRAMP TO LA GLORIA CITY.

As the fleet of schooners drew near La
Gloria port, a row of small tents was dis-
cerned close to the shore. Elsewhere there
was a heavy growth of bushes to the water's
edge-the mangroves and similar vegetation
fairly growing out into the sea. Between
and around the tents was a wretched slough
of sticky, oozy mud nearly a foot deep. with
streams of surface water flowing over it in
places into the bay. The colonists were
filled with excitement and mingled emotions
as they approached the shore, but their hearts
sank when they surveyed this discouraging
scene. They landed on the rude pier, and
after much difficulty succeeded in depositing
their light baggage in tents reserved for the
purpose. Narrow boards laid down to walk
on were covered with slippery mud, and some
lost their footing and went over headforemost
into the slough. One jaunty, well-dressed
.young man from New Jersey, who had found
the trip vastly entertaining up to this point,








A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 45

was so disgusted at suffering a "flop-over"
into the mire that he turned immediately back
and returned to his home in Atlantic City.
And so the liftingg process went on among the
intending colonists.
The conditions at the port at that time were
certainly most unpleasant. Mud and water
were on every hand, and sand flies were as
thick as swarms of bees, and nearly as fero-
cious; they allowed no one any peace. The
company had c,,nsiderately provided coffee
and bread for the landing "( immigrantss" and
something of the sort was certainly needed to
fortify them for what was to follow. Lunch
over, such of the colonists as had not decided
to turn back started for the city of La
Gloria, four miles inland. We found that
the electric cars were not running, that the
'bus line was not in operation, and that we
could not take a carriage to the hotel; nor
was there a volante, a \wagon, a bullock cart,
a horse, mule, or pony in evidence. Neither
was there a balloon or any other kind of
airship. We learned further that a row-
boat could be used only a portion of the
way. Under the circumstances, we decided
to walk.
The road, if such it may be called, led































-Id
a

c
t~



d










L: a









A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 47

through an in open a anna. with occasional
belt, olf timber. There had been heavy rains
just bef;:re our arri'.al. and the trail w\ais one
o.I' tlie most wretched ever Iifllowed by a
Ihulmn being. Fur about a tqutarter of a mile
there \\'i a an apology tor .1 cordluro road,
but the logs cominposing it w\-re .. irregular
-alnd iune\ L n in i ize, anld had been so diar-
rianged by ,.url ace \\ater and -so Inet;rl co\-
e-red with debris that it all -eemed to have
been pl a ic-d there to obsttruct travel rather
than to facilitate it. Alter tih cordurov, the
trail \a: a disheartening mixture of water,
mudjt. stunplls, roots, lo briers, and branchte-.
No\w \e would be \lading through shallow
\water and deep mud that almost pulled our
shoes -i': then splashing through \water and
tall. coarse grass; and again, ca-refully
threading our precarious wav among ugly
.stumlps, logs, antd fallen limbs, in \water
ahloe our knees. At tines the traveler found
hinmsell anlml'st atloat in the toirest. He was
lucky-. indeed, it lie did not fall down, a mis-
fortune which \\3s little less than a tragedy.
3Betbre leading the port \we had been advised
to remove our stockings and roll our trousers
above our knees. Few of us had on any-
thing better than ordinary shoes, and the








48 Pioneering in Cuba.

sensation ot" tramping through the mud and
water with these was far from pleasant.
Many had rubber boots or legging.- in their
trunks, but the trunks were still at Nuevitas.


AUTHOR ON ROAD TO LA GLORIA. (fan. 8, o900.)
Notwithstanding the bad road, one hundred
and sixty stout-hearted colonists set out for
La Gloria between I :30 and 3 o'clock. They
straggled along for miles, old men and young
men, and even lame men; some with valises,








A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 49

some with bundles, and many with overcoats.
In the lead was Peter E. Park, the Detroit
lawyer who for months had been acting as
the Cuban manager for the company. His
stalwart form was encased in a suit of white
duck, and he wore a broad, slouch hat and
high, leather boots. He looked quite pic-
turesque as he strode through the mud and
water, apparently trying -to impress the col-
onists with the idea that the poor road was
noitliing to juitir\ making a fuss. Inwardly,
no doubt, he was somewhat sensitive on the
subject of the road; justly or unjustly, the
colonists blamed him for its condition.
It was hot and hard work, this four-mile
walk under a tropical sun, but the men bore
it with a good deal of patience. I started
with a pair of rubbers on, but was compelled
to abandon them 'before getting far, leaving a
large amount of rich Cuban soil in and on
them. ,The scene which presented itself was
unique and interesting. All sorts of costumes
were worn, including some young fellows in
soldiers' uniforms, and there was no little
variety in the luggage carried. Some stag-
gered under very heavy loads. Quite a num-
ber of cameras and kodaks were to be seen.
The trail led through a rich savanna, soil







Pioneering in Cuba.


which is undoubtedly adapted to the raising
of sugar cane, rice. and cocoanuts. Many
palmetto and palm trees lined the way. One
could not %\ell vie\\ the scenery without stop-
ping. for fear of losing one's footing. Thorns-
were troublesome and easily penetrated the
\wet shoes of the weary travelers. The col-
onists all agreed that this road was the freest
from dust of any they had ever trod.
At last, after two hours of toil and discom-
fort. we came in sight of dry land and the
camp. \'e had crossed two small creeks and
seen a Iew\ unoccupied native s-hack,. No
part of the land had been cultivated. Many
of us had seen for the first time close at hand
the majestic royal palm, which is deservedly
the most distinguished tree in the island. It is
a tree without branches, crowned at the top of
a perfectly straight shaft with a bunch of long,
graceful, dark green leaves. The royal palm
rises to a height of sixty, seventy, and even
eighty feet, its symmetrical shape and whitish
color giving it the appearance of a marble
column. It bears no fruit, and affords little
shade, but it is highly ornamental and forms
a striking feature of the landscape. The tree
often lives to be two hundred years old; it
has twenty leaves, one of which is shed about








A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 51

once a month. It has been stated that the
seeds fioro a single tree will support one
good-sized hog.
As we approached our destination we
passed two buxom women sitting on a huge
stump. They were clad in shirt waists,
belted trousers and leggings. and wore broad
hats of a masculine type. We silently won-
dered if this was the prevailing fashion among
the women of La Gloria, but soon found that
it was not. Even the pair that we had tirst
seen came out a few days later in dainty
skirts and feminine headgear. Indeed. \we
found La Gloria, in some respects, more civ-
ilized than we had anticipated.
It \\as late in the afternoon of Monday, Jan-
uary 8. 1900oo that the one hundred and sixty
members of the first excursion to establish the
first American colony in Cuba, reached the
camp which occupied the site of La Gloria
city of to-day. \e found about a dozen
tents, and as many more native shacks occu-
pied by Cubans who were at work for the
company. The Cubans numbered about
til'.y and the American emnployts nearly as
many more. There were also a few Florida
and other settlers who had reached the spot
early. Altogether, the population just before








































..'.

. .


COL. THOMAS H. MAGINNISS.








A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 53

quur arrival was about one hundred, seven or
eight of whom were women.
The white city grew rapidly after we ap-
peared on the scene. The company had
tentI, which we were obliged to put up for
ouIrsel\v, and it was several hours before we
had opportunity to even partially dry our wet
leet and shoes. All that evening little groups
ol barefooted men could be seen gathered
around' camp-fires, drying themselves and
their clothing. The distribution, location, and
erection of the tents was placed in charge of
Col. Thomas H. Maginniss of Philadelphia,
Pa., an ex-officer of the United States regular
army and a veteran of the Civil War, who had
come down among the colonists on the Yar-
mouth. Colonel Maginniss was a handsome
man of great stature, youthful in appearance,
mentally alert and physically active, with
very prepossessing manners. Although a little
past fifty years of age, he looked to be hardly
more than forty. He was a favorite from the
-tart, and aside from being a picturesque.per-
sonality, soon became an influential power;
among the colonists. So efficiently did he
perform his duties in supervising the erection
of the tent city, that a little later he was regu-
larly given the position of superintendent of









Pioneering in Cuba.


camp. in the employ of the company. lie
held this post until his return to the States,
early' in April.
Our first night in La Gloria xwas not i.ne of
sybaritic pleasure. \e \\ere able i( secure
some poor cots and one thin blanket apiece.
This was insufficient, tor the nights, or rather
the early mornings. were quite cold. Snme
of the men were obliged t.- -,it up all night to
gather warmth from tiret-. The rotten cloth
on the cots went to pieces, in most cases, be-
fore the night was over, and, altogether, sleep
was at a premium. Many of the tents were
crowded; in mine were eight persons, repre-
senting nearly as many states. Fortunately,
the insects gave us very little trouble. The
population of the camp that first night nmut
have been nearly three hundred. and the next
day it increased to quite that number.

While the colonists did not arrive at La
Gloria in any considerable numbers until Jan-
ilary, 1900oo the preliminary operations began
there on October 9, 1899. when Chief Engi-
neer J. C. Kelly landed with a survey corps
from Texas. It was a splendid corps of
bright, hardy, plucky, indefatigable men.
skilful in their \ork and under discipline as








A Tough Tramp to La G!oria. 55

rigid as that of an armv. Chief Kelly was
from Eagle Lake. Texas, in which state he
had become well know n through the perform-
ance of a great deal of important work. He
was an exceedingly capable engineer, a strict
but just disciplinarian, a good financier, and
at all times highly popular with his men,
whose devotion to him was as striking as that
often shown by soldiers to their colonel or
their general. Mr. Kelly was an interesting
talker, and an athlete and amateur imperson-
ator of no mean pretensions. With him he
brought, as assistant chief, Mr. H. O. Neville.
a well-educated, versatile, and agreeable
young man. Among the others in the Texas
party were Sam M. Van der Voort, son o' the
general, and I. G. Wirtz, both of whom later
became instrument men. S. H. Packer, also
of'Texas, was one of the corps. From New
York came F. Kimble and J. A. Messier, the
latter familiarly known as "Albany." and
from Havana,' B. B. Lindsley, all three serv-
ing later as instrument men more or less of
the time. All the men above mentioned were
efficient surveyors and good fellows, each
something of a "character" in his way.
Among other early arrivals, most of whom
were attached to the survey corps, were O. V.








56 Pioneering in Cuba.

De Long of Havana. H. L. Starker of Chi-
cago, David Porter of Detroit, Richard Head
of Florida, J. A. MlcCaulev of New York,
Will Corlett, and Jack Griffith.
The experiences of the members of the
survey corps at La Gloria had been a con-
tinued story of hardship, privation, and ex-
posure. They came in before the rainy sea-
son had ended, pushing their toilsome way
through tangled vines and thorny thickets,
wading through mud and water, and often
being compelled to swim swollen creeks.
Much of the time they patiently worked knee
deep or waist deep in water, covered with
swarms of mos,,quitoe- or other pestiferous
insects. Often they had little to eat save
cornmeal mush" and boniatos (sweet
potatoes); but for all this, they were seldom
ill and rarely made a complaint. Sleeping
in their wet clothes, which would not dry in
the dampness of the night, they were up
early each morning ready for another day's
attack upon the jungle. The fact that they
were not more often sick is the best testi-
monial to the healthfulness of the climate of
northeastern Cuba that has come under my
notice. It speaks volumes, especially when
it is known that a little later men from the








A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 57

Northern states, and even British Columbia,
worked on the survey corps under similar
conditions and with like immunity from seri-
ous illness. Occaisiinally, to be sure, they
would be poisoned from landing too 1ing in
water or coming in contact with the giiao
tree, or shrub, but this affliction, while severe,
was never fatal. The good work faithfully
and uncomplainingly performed by the sur-
vey corps in and around La Gloria, under
such trying circumstances, is worthy of as
much praise and admiration as a sLucces.ifll
military campaign. It required courage,
skill, and patient endurance to move upon
and tame this tropical forest on the north
coast of Cuba.
A handful of colonists followed the survey
corps into La Gloria at intervals, the: first
ladies coming in December. These were
Mr.-. D. E. Lowell and Mrs. W. G. Spiker;
they came with their husbands. Mr. Lowell
had been a prosperous orange and pineapple
grow\ er in Florida until the great freeze came,
and Mr. Spiker was a successful photographer
in Ohio before leaving his state to find him a
new home in the tropics. The Lo\\ells and
Spikers were intelligent and cultivated people
who had been accustomed to a good style of









Pioneering in Cuba.


living, but who were inow ready' to undertake
a rouIgh. pioneer life in the strong hope ol a
bright Iuture. The p.irty landed at Palmoa.
northwest of La Gloria. and came in with
horses and wagon of their ow\n. Follow ing the
roughest kind of trail for the larger part ot
nine miles. It was a hardd and perilou trip:
only with the greatest difficulty could the
horses draw the load through the heavy mud
and over the deeply gullied road. More than
once the team seemed hopelessly stuck, but
was e\tricatc-d after a time and the toilsome
journey continued. At last the bedraggled
party reached La Gloria. and the firvt women
colonists set fiot on the soil of the future
Cuban-\merican city. When the 2,r'oll'tl/
colonists arrived, the Lowells and Spikers
had been living at La Gloria for several
week.-; they were well and happy, and
pleased with the climate and the country .














CHAPTER IV.


FIRST DAYS IN THE NEW COLONY.

THE first few days after our arrival we led
a strange and what seemed to many of us an
unreal life. Shut into a .mall open space by
a great ore'est. with no elevation high enough
for u- to see e\en so much of the outside
world as hill., mountains, or the sea. it
almost seemed as ifl we had dropped off of
the earth to some unknown planet. Day
after day passed without our seeing the hori-
zon, or hearing a locomotive or steamboat
whistle. \e had no houses, only tents, and
there \\as not a wooden building of any sort
within a dozen miles. At night the camp
\\as dimly lighted by flickering tires and the
starry sky, and through the semi-darkness
came the hollow, indistinct voices of men
discussing the outlook for the future. There
were always some who talked the larger part
of the night, and others \\ho invariably rose
at three o'clock in the morning ; this wa-s two
hours before light. In the deep forest at
night were heard strange sounds. but high








Pioneering in Cuba.


above them all. every night and the whole of
the night. the harsh, complaining note of a
certain bird \\ho seemed to be eternally
unreconciled to the departure of day. I think
it was a bird, but it may have been the wail
of a lost soul.
It was lonesome there in the wilds of Cuba
in those early days of the new colony, and
doubtless there was some homesickness. but
the reader should not gain the impression that
the pioneers were downcast and unhappy.
On the contrary, they were delighted with
the climate and the country, despite the diffi-
cultie:. encountered in entering it and the
deprivation., which had to be put up with.
From the first, the colonists. generally speak-
ing. were more than cheerful; they were
happy and contented. Buoyant in spirits,
eager to explore and acquire information con-
cerning the surrounding country, they enjoyed
the pioneer life with the keenest relish.
They laughed at the hardships and priva-
tionis, made friends with each other and with
the Cubans, and tramped the woods and
trails with reckless disregard of mud and
water and thorny underbrush. The men
were astonished to find themselves in such
excellent health; the more they exposed








First Days in the New Colony. 61

themelekes, the more they seemed to thrive.
until nearly every man in the colony wa,
trei:t~ to say that he was better phy. ically
;ind mentally than when he left home. It
w.i\ til same with the \\oinmer, \hlos1e im-
proved health, entire chelciuln!.s,. and evi-
dent contentment were a ri.cilatiln to tht-
ihirrt.'r. There are many women who take
;s ieadily to a pioneer life as do the men.
Thick %%as notably the case in La 1il<,i,,.
The colonists had not come to La Glori:i
in -.t:.lch of a health resort-at least, the
lea:r majority had not-but that is what they
iouind. Scarcely had we set foot on the soil
iO' C'uba when those of us who had catarrh-
and \\lat Yankee has not?-found that we
no longer tul'ifer-d from the attlictinri. Thi.
cuie. which proved permanent, was -umc-
thing the mIaji.ity of us had not counted on.
Nor had we counted on the entire ireelim
from clds which we enjoyed in the island.
But the cure of catarrh was of small import-
ance in comparison with the sudden and
marked improvement in those t ho -.uffercd
from nervous dii.ease-. It is not too much
to say, that many found the soothing Cuban
climate a specific for such disease which they
had not dreamt of in their philosophy. Those







62 Pioneering in Cuba.

with kidney ailments and rheumatism re-
ported themselves improved, and there was
not wanting evidence that persons with con-
sumptive tendencies and other weaknesses
would find the air salubrious and a residence
in this part of the island beneficial.
The temperature at this time was delight-
ful, a close approach to perfection, the ther-
mometer ranging from 70-' to 840' at noon,
and rarely falling below 6o'0 at any time of
day. It still rained frequently, an unusual
and remarkable prolongation of the rainy
.eason. which ordinarily ends in November,
but the water fell in brief showers and left
the rest of the day bright and clear. Indeed,
it was not until February that the rain ceased
altogether and the dry season fairly began.
The Cubans declared that they had never
known the wet season to continue so late.
The long continued rains were held respon-
sible, perhaps justly so, for many of the in-
conveniences and drawbacks which the col-
onists encountered. The company stoutly
declared that to these unusual meteorological
conditions was due the failure to build the
road to the port which had been promised,
and that the absence of the road prevented
the transportation of the lumber for the con-








First Days in the New Colony. 63

struction of the hotel. This latter assertion
was true beyond all question. The hotel "
was a subject of much comment and immod-
erate mirth. It existed on paper in spacious
and imposing elegance; it was a splendid
structure of the imagination. But let it not
be thought Ior one moment that the hotel was
wholl a. m\yth. Not so; the situation would
not have been hall so funny if it had been.
There stood the foundation for the immense
building squarely across Central avenue.
about a quarter of a mile back from the front
line of the town. A large space had been
cleared in the forest, and the centre of this
opening was the hotel site. The foundation
consisted of large logs of hard wood, sawed
about Iojr feet long and stood upright. They
were set in cement on stone that was sunk
slightly below the surface of the ground.
How many of these logs there were I cannot
say. but there was a small army of them,
aligned across Central avenue and extending
far to either side. Under the dim light of
the stars they looked like a regiment of
dwarfs advancing to attack the camp. Work-
men were putting the finishing touches on
this foundation when we arrived, but the
work was soon discontinued altogether, leav-






































































-






FC'















-4








First Days in the New Colony. 65

ing the wooden army to serve as an outpost
of slowly advancing civilization. Of course,
we always directed new arrivals to the
" hotel" as soon as they came in over the
"road" from the port! After a while we
became so fond of the hotel joke that I think
we should have been sorry to see the building
completed.
The bad road to the port also cut off all
chance of getting the sawmill up to La
Gloria, and it daily became more evident
that we should continue to dwell in tents for
some time to come. We were destitute
enough during those first days in the colony.
Our trunks had not come, and did not for
several weeks, and many of us were without
change of clothing or even -a towel. We
washed in a small creek which ran through
the Cuban camp, wiping our hands and faces
on handkerchiefs. This and other creeks
served us well for drinking water, and there
was also an excellent spring on the com-
pany's reserve north of the town. Very little
freight could be brought up from the port,
and hence it was that we were not over-n ell
supplied with provisions. There was usually
enough in quantity, but the quality was poor
and there was a painful lack of variety. The







Pioneering in Cuba.


engineer corps' cook house was hastily en-
larged into a public restaurant upon our
arrival, and did the best it could to feed the
hungry colonists. Some of the latter boarded
themselves from the start-purchasing what
supplies they could get at the commissary-
and perhaps had a shade the best of it.
I shall never forget my first supper in
La Gloria. It was at the company's restau-
rant. We were crowded together on long,
movable benches, under a shelter tent. Be-
fore us were rough board tables innocent
of cloth. The jejines (gnats or sand flies)
swarmed about us, disputing our food and
drink and even the air we breathed. The
food was not served in courses; it came on
all at once, and the all" consisted of cold
bread without butter, macaroni, and tea with-
out milk. There were not even toothpicks
or glasses of water. Amid the struggling
humanity, and regardless of the inhumanity
of the jejines (pronounced by the Cubans
"haheens"), my gentlemanly friend from
Medrield, Mass., sat at my right and calmly
ate his supper with evident relish. He was
fond of macaroni and tea. Alas I was not.
At home he had been an employed in an
insane asylum. I, alas! had not enjoyed







First Days in the New Colony. 67

the advantages of such wholesome discipline.
Of that supper I remember three things most
distinctly-the jejines, my friend's fondness
for macaroni and tea, and the saintlv patience
and good-humor of our waiter, Al Noyes.
It was not long before there was an im-
provement in the fare, although no great
variety was obtainable. We u-uallv had,
however, the best there was in camp. The
staples were salt beef, bacon, beant, and
sweet potatoes or yams, and we sometimes
had fresh pork (usually wild hog), fried
plantains, and thin, bottled honey. We often
had oatmeal or corn meal mush, and occa-
sionally we rejoiced in a cook whose culinary
talent comprehended the ability to make frit-
ters. The bread was apt to be good, and we
had Cuban coffee three times a day. We
had no butter, and only condensed milk. It
was considerably later, when I ate at the
chief engineer's table, that we feasted on
flamingo and increased our muscular devel-
opment by struggling with old goat. If it
had been Chattey's goat. no one would have
complained, but unfortunately it was not.
Chattey was our cook, and he kept several
goat-, one of which had a pernicious habit of
hanging around the dining tent. One day,
































O
5:
rr:
a
ir,

~68

3
d
r,
t2

E
u

4
r









a









First Days in the New Colony. 69

just before dinner, he was discovered sitting
on a pie in the middle of the table, greedily
eating soup out of a large dish. Chattey's
goat was a British goat, and had no respect
for the Constitution of the United States or
the table etiquette which obtained in the first
American colony in Cuba. The soup was
dripping from Billy's whiskers, which he had
not even taken the trouble to wipe. It is cer-
tain that British goats have no table manners.
But I am getting ahead of my story. The
condition of the road to the port was so bad
for some time after our arrival that it was
barely possible to get up sufficient provisions
to supply the daily needs of the camp, to say
nothing of other freight. We were in need
of almost everything to furnish our tents or to
begin agricultural operations. There was, to
be sure, the commissary," where the com-
pany had confidently assured us in its adver-
tising literature every necessary article from
a plough to a knitting needle would be on
sale "at the most reasonable prices." As a
matter of fact, the commissary was almost as
bare as the famous cupboard of old Mother
Hubbard, and of the commodities that were
stored there, very few seemed to be for sale
to the colonists. After several ineffectual









70 Pioneering in Cuba.

attempts to get what I wanted, I entered the
commissary tent one day to make a test case.
Of Mr. Richardson, the man in charge, I
blandly inquired:
"Can I get a tin pail ?"
"No," with a gentle shake of the head.
Can I get any kind of a pail?"
No," with another shake.
"Can I get a tin pan or a wash basin?"
No," with a shake.
Can I get a tin dish or an earthen dish or
a wooden dish?"
No," with more shakes.
"Can I buy a tin cup or an earthen mug?"
No," with a vigorous shake.
"Can I buy a knife, fork, or spoon?"
No, no," with two quick shakes.
Can I buy a piece of cloth of any kind? "
"No, sir," stiffly.
Can I buy an empty box?"
"No, sir, you can't-need 'em all our-
selves."
Is there anything that you have got to
sell? I inquired meekly.
Well, there is some mosquito netting over
there."
I had mosquito netting-but mosquito net-
ting did not make a very good drinking








First Days in the New Colony. 71

utensil. I left the commissary without in-
quiring for a plough or a knitting needle.
The population of La Gloria fluctuated
greatly during the first week after our ad-
vent. Our arrival and the additions of the
following day had brought the total popula-
tion of the camp up to at least three hundred.
The wet and muddy trails, and the back-
wardness of all improvements, increased
enormously the feeling of distrust among the
colonists, and some began to loudly question
the security of titles. This alarm, which ulti-
mately proved to be entirely unfounded, kept
the camp in a ferment for a day or two.
Oceans of discussion were indulged in, Mr.
Park was closely and warmly questioned,
and there was a general feeling of uneasiness
and unrest. The result was that when the
last half of the week had begun, La Gloria
had suffered a loss of nearly one hundred of
its population. Discouraged and disgusted
men made their way back to the coast, hop-
ing to get transportation to Nuevitas, and
thence back to their respective homes.
There was a delay at Port La Gloria, and a
few remained there until they had made up
their minds to return to the camp. The
others went on to Nuevitas, but were unable








72 Pioneering in Cuba.

to secure transportation at once to the States.
The consequence was that nearly or quite
one half eventually returned to La Gloria,
straggling in from time to time.
As the week drew to a close the town
quieted down, the restless spirits having de-
parted. Those of us who remained either
had faith in the ultimate success of the proj-
ect, or were at least disposed to give the
enterprise a fair trial. We were not easily
stampeded; and we placed some reliance on
Senator Park's positive assurance that the
deeds would be all right. We saw, of
course, that the company's affairs had been
badly managed, and that promised improve-
ments had not as yet materialized, but, on the
other hand, we had learned from personal
observation that the land was good, the tim-
ber valuable, the drinking water pure and
abundant, and the climate delightful beyond
description. The most of those wh6 returned
to the States with harrowing tales either never
got as far as La Gloria at all, or else spent
less than forty-eight hours in the camp. The
majority of the colonists cheerfully stuck by
the colony, and laughed at the untruthful and
exaggerated newspaper stories as they were
sent down to us from the frozen North.













CHAPTER V.


THE ALLOTMENT OF THE LAND.

THE chief of the immediate problems
which confronted the colonists and the offi-
cers of the company was the allotment of the
land. The company had purchased it, or
secured options on it, in large tracts, some
of these tracts containing over ten thousand
acres each. The colonists had contracted
for it in small holdings, varying from a town
lot, 25 x 1oo feet in size, to a forty-acre tract
of plantation land. No more than forty acres
were sold to any one on a single contract.
The contracts which could be made were,
respectively, as follows: Town lots, three
sizes, 25 x 100oo feet, 50 x Ioo, and 50 x 150;
plantation land, 2j acres, 5 acres, o1 acres,
20 acres, and 40 acres. The purchaser paid
in full or on monthly instalments, as he pre-
ferred, being allowed a discount of ten per
cent. for cash. According to the terms of the
contracts, he did not purchase the land at all,
but bought stock in a cooperative company
and the land was a gift to him. How\eve\r,








74 Pioneering in Cuba.

the cooperative company feature was always
in the background in the mind of the colonist,
and he felt that he was buying the land and
almost invariably so termed the transaction.
It was the land he had his eye on, and his
present anxiety was to have a good piece
promptly allotted to him.
At the company's headquarters in New
York, no plan of subdivision had been formu-
lated further than a general promise in adver-
tising circulars to allot the land in the order of
the numbers of the contracts. At first glance.
this seemed both fair and feasible, but once on
the ground at La Gloria, some very formida-
ble difficulties loomed up. Of the four or five
thousand persons who had invested up to
that time less than three hundred were at La
Gloria, and there was not in Cuba even a list
of the people who had made contracts \\ith
the company, to say nothing of their respec-
tive holdings and the status of their pa yments.
No such list could be obtained from New
York under several weeks. or perhaps months,
and when obtained would be of little value for
the reason that there could not possibly be
land enough surveyed by that time to allot
one half of the thousands of investors. Sur-
\ eying in this dense tropical forest was neces-








The Allotment of the Land.


sarily slow work, and progre.s- had been im-
peded by the long-continued rains.
It was manifestly impossible to make a
general allotment of the land at once, and
yet it was essential that the colonists who had
actually arrived on the spot should be given
their tracts promptly and permitted to, go to
work upon them. The life of the colony
seemed to hinge on action of this sort. Quite
early the company had stated that the subdi-
vision would be made about January i, and
when General Van der Voort arrived in New
York in the latter part of December, he
assured the colonists who were preparing to
sail with him to Cuba that they should have
their land by January 15. This promise was.
carried out to the letter, and was the only
rational course of action that could be pur-
sued under the existing circumstances; It
undoubtedly saved the colony at what was a
critical stage. During the voyage down, the
colonists on board the Yarmouth were greatly
exercised over the method of allotment; that
is to say, mian of them were, while others
declared that they would be satisfied if they
only got their land promptly. General Van
der Voort gave the subject much anxious con-
sideration, seeking to devise a plan which









Pioneering in Cuba.


should be at once just and practical. He
finally decided that the fairest and best thing
to do was to place the matter in the hands of
a committee of the colonists, giving them the
power to prescribe the method of allotment
within certain limitations, subject to the ap-
proval of the colonists on the ground. The
general described this as the "town-meet-
ing principle, and his decision gave entire
satisfaction to the pioneers.
General Van der Voort arrived in La
Gloria Thursday, January in, having re-
mained behind at Nuevitas to see the bag-
gage of the colonists through the custom
house. This accomplished, he took passage
for La Gloria on board the lighter carrying
the trunks, etc. The voyage was not a
smooth one. The boat came near being
wrecked in the rough sea, and suffered the
loss of its rudder. Finally an anchorage
was effected about a dozen miles from the
La Gloria shore, and General Van der Voort
and others were taken off in a small boat.
The trunks and other baggage were not
landed until nearly a week later, and it was
several weeks before much of the luggage
reached La Gloria city. The contents of
many of the trunks suffered serious damage








The Allotment of the Land.


from water and mould, although in some cases
the things came through entirely uninjured.
General Van der Voort rode from Port La
Gloria to the camp on horseback, a hard trip,
for the road had not improved. The mud
and water and debris made it a slow and
exhausting journey. He assumed charge of
the company's business in the colony at once.
Arrangements were made for a prompt allot-
ment of the land, and a committee of nine
colonists, with Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopes-
ton, Ill., as chairman, was chosen to devise a
plan of distribution. After several prolonged
sessions, the committee unanimously reported
a scheme by which those present should
select their land from the official map in the
order of the priority of their purchases. After
these, the investors having authorized repre-
sentatives on the ground, the latter holding
powers of attorney, were to have their chance.
In this second class, also, priority of purchase
governed the order of selection. The report
further provided that the investor should be
allowed a second choice if he found his land
to be unsatisfactory. This plan, which I be-
lieved then and believe now was the best that
could have been devised, was adopted by the
colonists with but a single dissenting vote.







78 Pioneering in Cuba.

On Saturday, January 13, the allotment
began, in what was known as headquarters
tent. The committee which had formulated
the plan of distribution was in charge, as-
sisted by Chief Engineer Kelly, Architect
Neff, and others. The town lots were given
out first, and by night nearly all who were
entitled to make selections in these classes
had been served. The town lot distribution
was completed Monday morning, the 15th.
The town was one mile square, and had been
laid out and surveyed under the supervision of
M. A. Custer Neff, civil engineer and archi-
tect. It was traversed and counter-traversed
by streets and avenues, appropriately named.
These were as yet, for the most part, only
surveyors' paths cut through the forest, but
they were much used as thoroughfares to
reach town lots and the plantation lands be-
yond. They were rough roads, filled with
mud, water, stumps, stubble, and roots, but
with the advent of the dry season they became
more easily passable. The highway running
through the centre of the town to and from
the coast was known as Central avenue, and
the road passing through the centre at right
angles was called Dewey street. Around the
intersecting point, the exact centre of the town,







The Allotment of the Land. 79

space had been reserved for a large plaza.
Central avenue and Dewey street were each
designed to be one hundred feet wide, and
were naturally the paths most used by the
colonists. The former actually extended from
the rear line of the town northward to the
bay, five miles away,while the latter continued
from the side lines of the town out into the
plantation lands to the east and west. The
town site was well chosen. It has a fair ele-
vation above the sea, a firm, hard soil, with
steadily rising ground. The front line of the
town is about twenty feet above tidewater; the
centre about one hundred feet, and the rear
line nearly or quite two hundred feet. Around
the town was a belt of land a quarter of a mile
wide reserved by the company; then came
the plantations on every side.
When the committee finished the allotment
of town lots on the morning of January 15, it
was found that nearly five hundred lots had
been taken up out of a total in all classes of
about three thousand six hundred. The col-
onists had not been slow in selecting corner
lots, and the lots on Central avenue and those
facing the plaza on all sides were early pre-
empted. The colonists had faith that a real
city would rise on the chosen site. When the








Pioneering in Cuba.


demand for town lots had been satisfied, the
committee began at once to give out the plan-
tation land. The choice was necessarily re-
stricted to about eight or ten thousand acres
to the west, southwest, and northwest of the
town, which was all that had been surveyed
up to that time. When this condition was
discovered by the colonists, the unsurveyed
land to the north, south, and east began, natu-
rally enough, to appear far more desirable in
the eyes of the investors than that which had
been surveyed to the westward, and some
refused to make a selection at all, preferring
delay to a restricted choice. The great ma-
jority, however, mindful that they were priv-
ileged to change if the land was not satisfac-
tory, went ahead and made their selections.
As a matter of fact, the surveyed tract to the
westward was probably as good as any, all of
the land held by the company being rich and
highly productive.
The first-man to choose his plantation was
Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopeston, Ill., who, it
so chanced, was chairman of the committee
on allotment. Dr. Peirce's contract was No.
2, and it was dated in January, 1899. But
few contracts were made before April of that
year. Contract No. i was not on the ground,








The Allotment of the Land. 81

and no one present knew who was the holder.
The allotment was well conducted, and went
on quite rapidly. It was eagerly watched by
a large group of interested spectators, impa-
tiently awaiting their turn. Some tried to
extract inside intirm.linti,,n from the surveyors,
who were supposed to know the relative value
of every square foot of the land, but the ma-
jority either made their choice blindly, with
knowledge of nothing save the proximity of
the tract to the town, or trusted to the meag-re
information they had acquired r-igarding the
character of the land in different localities
during their tramps in the few days since their
arrival.
It was a strange scene. Men of all .gy-,
and occupations, coming from nearly every
one of the United States, and several other
countries, strangers until a few days before,
were crowded together in a large tent, each
anxious to do the best possible for himself, and
yet in few instances discourteous to his neigh-
bor. It was a good-natured, well-behaved
crowd, and there was no friction in the pro-
ceedings. The colonists were satisfied that
the plan of allotment was a fair one; there
was no complaint about anything except the
restricted choice. Monday night saw the































































ROBERT C. BEAUSEJOUR.
(One of the Early Colonists.)


~'





.i
,i
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sU
Y~l~i~
:-r;~
;6:
'i.~i~k~is~








The Allotment of the Land.


allotment well ad\v'nced, and Tur-_day it was
finished. Everybody then on the ground who
wished to make a selection for himself or
those whom he represented had been accom-
modated, and the committee's duties were at
an end. Nearly seven thousand acres of
plantation land had been allotted.
As soon as they h;d s-elected their land from
the map the colonists scurried out into the
surrounding country to find it. The woods
were full of men hunting their plantations.
It was no easy matter to find them, since there
was nothing to go by but the numbered stakes
of the surveyors. These were anything but
plain guides to the uninitiated, and even the
more understanding were sometimes baffled
by reason of indistinct figures or mi-sing
stakes. The result was that many viewed
other people's land for their own, while some,
conscious of their helplessness, gave up the
search for the time being. The majority,
however, iouind their land with no more diffi-
culty than was inevitable in a long tramp
through the rough and muddy path ot' a jun-
gle. The mosquit,.es kept us company, and
the parrots scolded us from overhead, hut
there were no wild beasts or enormouss
snakes to be dreaded. Probably there are no







Pioneering in Cuba.


tropical forests in the world so safe as those
of Cuba; one may sleep in them night after
night without fear of death or disease. This
is true, at least, of the country within a radius
of forty miles from La Gloria, as I can testify
from personal experience and observation.
In most cases the colonists were pleased
with their land when they found it, and the
changes were comparatively few. A little of
the lowest land was more or less under water,
but even this was rarely given up, the holders
discovering that it was very rich, and realizing
that it would be all right in the dry season,
and that it could be drained for the wet.
Some experienced men from Florida showed
a decided preference for this land, and later
it developed that their judgment was good.
This lowest land was of black soil; that
slightly higher was apt to be yellow, and the
highest red or chocolate. All these different
colored soils were embraced in the allotment
which had been made, and they all repre-
sented good land. The colonists could never
agree as to which was the best. Undoubtedly
some were superior for certain purposes to
others, but all appeared to be fertile and gave
promise of being very productive. The black
and yellow soils were almost entirely free








The Allotment of the Land. 85

from stone, while the red and chocolate had
some, but seldom enough to do any harm.
The colonists set to work with energy clear-
ing their town lots, and a few began work at
once on their plantations. The colony was
soon a busy hive of industry.













CHAPTER VI.


THE SUGAR RIOT.

AFTER the middle of January and the be-
ginning of the allotment of the land, the
population of La Gloria began to pick up"
somewhat. Colonists who had been linger-
ing at Nuevitas, and some new ones who had
come down from the States by the Munson
line, would stiaggle in from time to time.
People were coming and going almost every
day, but the balance was in favor of the col-
ony and the population slowly but surely
increased. Among the new arrivals were
quite a number of women and children.
About January 20 the advance guard of the
colonists who had come on the second excur-
sion of the Yarmouth made its appearance.
On this trip the Yarmouth brought about
sixty passengers, the majority of whom finally
got up to La Gloria. More would have come
if Nu-evitas at that time had not been a hotbed
of misrepresentation regarding conditions in
the new colony. All the unfavorable features
were grossly and ridiculously exaggerated.








The Sugar Riot. 87

while stories of starvation, sickness, and
death were poured into the ears of new
arrivals until many an intending colonist be-
came convinced that it would be taking his
life in his hand for him to make even the
briefest visit to La Gloria. Such is the ten-
dency of human nature to exaggerate. and to
build a big sensation out of a small nucleus.
People who had never seen La Gloria were
the ones whose representations seemed to be
most credited in the States and by the new
arrivals therefrom. I saw a letter received
by one of the company's officials at La Gloria
from a woman in Asbury Park, N. J., who
was nearly crazed by anxiety for her young-
est son, who was then in the colony. She
had heard frequently from her oldest son,
who had been in La Gloria with the survey
corps for several months, and he had always
written very favorably of the place, so she
said, but she had lately seen an Asbury Park
man who had returned from Nuexita. and he
had told a terrible story of surffl-ing and
danger in the colony. The woman's letter
showed clearly that she discredited the ac-
counts of her son and accepted those of the
man who had brought back a lhairowing tale.
Why she credited the story of a man who










































z


0


0d



- Cl


* .:I.'







The Sugar Riot. 89

never got further than Nuevitas in preference*
to that of her own son, who had been at La
Gloria for months, I never could understand,
especially as the latter was an intelligent and
apparently perfectly reliable young man.
Doubtless mortals are predisposed to believe
the worst. I looked up the woman's young-
est son, and found him well and happy, and
ready to join with his brother in speaking
favorably of La Gloria.
Meanwhile, we were living contentedly in
La Gloria, enjoying excellent health and suf-
fering no serious discomfort, and laughing in
uproarious glee over the sensational articles
which appeared in many of the newspapers
of the States. With no little surprise we
learned from the great newspapers of the
United States that we were "marooned in a
Cuban swamp," suffering from malaria and
starvation," and "dying of yellow fever and
smallpox." As a matter of fact, at that time
there had not been a single death or one case
of serious sickness. The health of the colo-
nists remained good through the winter, the
spring, and even the following summer.
Indeed, the colonists had but few griev-
ances, so few that they would sometimes
manufacture them out of trifles. Of such was








Pioneering in Cuba.


.the -' sugar riot" with its laughable and har-
monious ending. One day in the latter part
of January, when the arrival of provisions
was barely keeping pace with the arrival of
colonists, a small invoice of sugar was
brought into La Gloria over the bad road
from the port. Scarcely had it been un-
loaded at the commissary when the head of
the engineer corps took possession of about
half of it for the surveyors and the boarders
at their table, and gave orders that the other
half should be turned over to the Cuban
workmen of the company. The carrying out
of this order aroused great indignation among
the colonists who were boarding themselves
and had run out of sugar, as most of them
had. This action of the amateur "sugar
trust caused certain of the colonists to sour,
so to speak, on all of the officers and chief
employs of the company, for the time being,
at least, and mutterings, not loud but deep,"
were heard all about the camp. Not that
there was danger of a sanguinary conflict,
but a war of words seemed imminent. The
"era of good feeling'" was threatened.
A day or two later, on the evening of
Saturday, January 27, a meeting of the colo-
nists was held preparatory to the organization








The Sugar Riot.


of a pioneer association, and it was arranged
among some of the leading spirits in the
sugar agitation that at the close of this session
the saccharine grievance should be publicly
aired. The gathering was held around a
camp-fire in the open air, in front of head-
quarters tent. The regularly called meeting
adjourned early, with a feeling of excited
expectancy in the air. Something was about
to happen. The officers of the company on
the ground, it was understood, were to be
raked over the coals for favoring the Cubans
and thus perpetrating an outrage on the colo-
nists. The colonists whose tempers had been
kept sweet by a sufficiency of sugar lingered
around in the pleasant anticipation of witness-
ing an opera boufe.
But it was the unexpected that happened.
Just as the sugar orators were preparing
to orate, a man with muddy boots pushed
through the crowd and entered headquarters
tent. A moment later the stalwart form of
Colonel Maginniss emerged from the tent,
and in his hand he bore a slip of paper. It
was a cablegram from New York, which had
just been brought in from Nuevitas, announc-
ing the election of General Van der Voort as
president of the Cuban Land and Steamship








Pioneering in Cuba.


Company. When the dispatch had been
read to the crowd, there was silence for an
instant, and then the air was rent with cheers.
There had never been any question about
General Van der Voort's popularity. The
colonists had full faith in his honesty and
devotion to the colony, and hence looked
upon his election to the presidency of the
company as the best possible security tor the
success of the enterprise. They had been
distrustful of the management of the com-
pany ; the choice for the new president in-
spired them with renewed hope and confi-
dence. It was the unanimous opinion that it
was the best thing that could have happened.
He was the right man in the right place ; he
was in La Gloria to stay, and reckoned him-
self as a colonist among them.
The sugar agitators forgot that their coffee
had not been sweetened for i, ri. -cight hours,
and joined heartily in the cheering. In fact,
all who had come to scoff remained to
pray," so to speak. It was voted to send a
cablegram to the New York office announc-
ing the deep satisfaction of the colonists in
the choice made for president. General
Van der Voort responded to calls and made
an excellent speech.








The Sugar Riot.


A little later in the evening there was a
big demonstration in honor of the significant
event. M[.re than anything else it resem-
bled a Fourth of July celebration. Bonfires
were lighted and salutes fired, and the air
of La Gloria resounded with cheers. The
Cubans came over from their camp, and after
the Americans had got through, started in
for a celebration of their own. This was
partly because of their fondness for General
Van der Voort and partly on account of their
childish love of noise and display. The colo-
nists became convinced that night that if the
Cubans ever become American citizens thev
will be equal to all of the Fourth of July
requirements. The noise they made double
discounted that made by the colonists. They
cheered and shouted and fired salutes by the
hundred. They marched up and down the
main street, singing and laughing and blow-
ing conch shells. They freed Cuba over
again, and had a rattling good time in doing
it. It seemed as if the racket would never
end, but about midnight they went jabbering
back to their camp. It was the noisiest night
in the history of La Gloria. But the sugar
riot" was averted, and never took place.













CHAPTER VII.


ADVENTURES AND M II-\IVENTURES.

AMONG the dozen women in the camp,
the most striking figure was Mrs. Moller, a
Danish widow, who came from one of the
states, Pennsylvania, I believe. I cannot
say exactly when she reached La Gloria,
but she was one of the earliest of her sex to
arrive, and achieved the distinction of build-
ing the first house in the city." Speaking
of sex, it was not easy to determine that of
Mrs. Miill-r upon a casual acquaintance.
Slight of figure, with bronzed face and close-
cut hair, she wore a boy's cap, blouse, trous-
ers, a very short skirt, and rubber boots,
while her belt fairly bristled with revolvers
and knives. She was a quiet, imperturbable
person, however, and it was difficult to get
her to relate her adventures, which had been
somewhat extraordinary.
She first came into La Gloria from Palota,
where she landed from a boat with no other
company than her trunk. There was not a
living person at or near Palota, so, deserting




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PIONEERING IN CUBA


A NARRATIVE
LA GLORIA,


OF THE SETTLEMENT OF
THE FIRST AMERICAN


COLONY IN CUBA, AND THE EARLY


EXPERIENCES


OF THE PIONEERS


JAMES M. ADAMS
ONE OF THE ORIGINAL COLONISTS






Illustrated







CONCORD, N. H.:
Ube 1uniforb Prezs


1901





































Copyright, 1901, by

JAMES M. ADAMS





























TO


My FELLOW COLONISTS

WHOSE COURAGft, CHiRFIU LN1SS. AND KINDLY SPiRF WON MY
ADMIRATION AND AFFlICTION

THIS BOOK IS

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED















PREFACE.


My excuse for writing and publishing this book
is a threefold one. For some time I have strongly
felt that the true story of the La Gloria colony
should be told, without bias and with an accurate,
first-hand knowledge of all the facts. My close
relations with the colony and the colonists, and an
actual personal residence in La Gloria for nearly
half a year, have made me entirely familiar with
the conditions there, and I have endeavored to pre-
sent them to the reader clearly, correctly, and hon-
estly. Secondly, I have been imbued with the be-
lief that many of the daily happenings in the colony,
particularly those of the earlier months, are of suffi-
cient general interest to justify their narration ; and
if I am wrong in this, I am quite sure that these
incidents, anecdotes, and recollections will find an
attentive audience among the colonists and their
friends. It is one of the author's chief regrets that
the size and scope of this book does not admit of
the mention by name of all of the colonists who were
prominent and active in the life of the colony.
Thirdly, while in La Gloria, in his capacity as a
member of the Pioneer Association, the author had







Preface.


the honor to be the chairman of the committee on
History of the Colony. This committee was not
officially or outwardly active, but in a quiet way its
members stored up history as fast as it was made.
The author does not dignify the present work by
the name of history, but prefers to call it a narra-
tive of the first year of the colony. He believes,
however, that it contains many facts and incidents
which will be found useful material to draw upon
when in later years a complete history of the first
American colony in Cuba may be written.
I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr.
V. K. Van De Venter, a professional photographer
of Dundee, Michigan, for some of the best pictures
in the book. The other photographs were taken,
and in several cases kindly furnished gratuitously,
by Robin H. Ford, John 11. Rising, L. E. Mayo,
and W. G. Spiker. I am also under obligation to
Mr. Spiker for the loan of the cut of the lake on
the Laguna Grande tract, and to Dr. W. P. Peirce
for the use of the cut of his pineapple garden in La
Gloria. All of the pictures in the book are scenes
in the province of Puerto Principe, and with two or
three exceptions, in or around La Gloria.
J. W ,. A.
;XPr//, (Vo/, A. H., icem~be'r, 1900.


6















CONTENTS.




CHAPTER 1.

Ti-En ARItVAL OF THE COLONISTS IN NUEVITAS HARBOR.
PAGE.
A New Sight for Old Nuevitas -The Jarmou/t drops
Anchor in the Harbor-The Vanguard of the
First American Colony Planted in Cuba-The
Beautiful Cuban Coast-Picturesque Appearance
of Nuevitas--"- Distance Lends Enchantment to
the View" -Character of the Colonists--Gen.
Paul Van der Voort-Nearly all the States Rep-
resented-" The Only Canuck on Board "--The
Voyage from New York . . 17

CHAPTER Ii.
Tn JOURNEY TIpo PORT LA Gjimi A.

An Irritating Delay-Ashore at Nuevitas-Midnight
Row at the Pier-Convivial Colonists Clash
With Cubans-Ex-Soldier Takes an Involuntary
Bath--The Cuban Police-I Ion. Peter E. Park
-The Start for La Gloria--Some intending
Colonists Back Out-The Man With the Long,
Red Face-"The Only Woman-The Fleet An-
chors---- omorrw, Four O'clock, Wind Right,
Go! "-An Uncomfortable Night-Cuban Cap-
tain Falls Overboard--Port La Gloria Sighted 32








8


Contents.


CHAPTER III.
A Toucii 'T'RAMPKTO LA GLORIA CITY.
Arrival at the Port--A Discouraging Scene-Mud,
Water, and Sand Flies-The Memorable Walk
to La Gloria City "--An Awful Road-Battle
With Water, Mud, Stumps, Roots, Logs, Briers
and Branches--Lawyer Park Leads the Strange
Procession-La Gloria at Last-The Royal
Palm-Women in Masculine Garb-Col. Thos.
H. Maginniss-First Night in La Gloria-The
Survey Corps-Chief Engineer Kelly--Experi-
ences of the Lowells and Spikers . . 44

CHAPTER IV.
FIRST DAYS IN THE NEW COLONY.
Isolation of La Gloria-The Camp at Night-Strange
Sounds in the Forest-The Colonists Happy-
Their Excellent Health-Remarkable Cures Ef-
fected by the Climate-The Agreeable Temper-
ature-Prolonged Rainy Season--The Hotel"
-The Log Foundation-A Favorite Joke-The
Company's Spring-Small Variety of Food-
My First Supper in La Gloria-Eating Flamin-
go and Aged Goat--A Commissary With Noth-
ing to Sell-A Fluctuating Population . 59

CHAPTER V.
THE AL ..TM ENT OF THE LAND.
The Character of the Contracts-The Question of
Subdivision-Some of the Diffculties--Matter
Placed in the Hands of a Committee of the Col-








Contents.


9


onists-Fair and Feasible Plan Adopted-Gen.
Van der Voort's Arrival in La Gloria--His Boat
Nearly Wrecked--Delay in Getting Baggage-
Colonists Get Their Land Promptly-The
Town as Laid Out-Site Well Chosen-Woods
Full of Colonists Hunting for Their Plantations
-Different Kinds of Soil . . 73

CHAPTER VI.
THi SUGAR. RIOT.
Population of Colony Slowly Increases-Arrival of
Second Karuout/-Sensational and Ridiculous
Reports-Consternation in Asbury Park-
Laughing Over Newspaper Stories-Excitement
Over Sugar-Mass lceting to Air the Griev-
ance-An Unexpected Turn of Affairs-Cable
From New York Brings Good News-Van der
Voort Elected President of the Company--Sugar
Orators Remain Silent-A Noisy Celebration 86

CHAPTER VII.
Ai)VENTURES AND MISADVENTURES.

The Women in the Camp-Mrs. Moller-Her Cos-
tume and Extraordinary Adventures-How She
Entered La Gloria-Roosts in a Tree all Night
-Builds the First House in La Gloria-lHer
Famous Cow and Calf-Wonderful Bloomers-
Ubiquitous Mrs. Horn-Weighed 250, but
Waded Into La Gloria-Not Rattled by a
Brook Running Through Her Tent-A Pig
Hunt and Its Results-Surveyors Lost in the
W oods . . . . 94








10


Contfelts.


CHAPTER VIII.
THE, CUBANS.
Good People to Get Along With "-Their Kind-
ness and Courtesy -ILarmony and (G ;Od Feel-
ing Between the Colonists and Cubans--Their
Primitive Style of Living-The Red Soil and Its
Stains-Rural Homfs-Prevalence of Children,
Chickens, and Dogs-Little Girl Dresses for
Company With Only a Slipper-lFood and Drink
of the Cubans- Few Amusements--An Indiffer-
ent People-The Country Districts of the Prov
since of Puerto Principe . .......104

CHAPTER ix.
STEj)s or P uxciss.
Clearing and Planting-The Post-office--Col. John
F. Early-The "-01 Senor"--La Gloria Police
Force-Chief Matthews' Nightly 'Trip Down
the Line---No Liquor Sold, and Practically no
Crime Committed-Watchman Eugene Kezar--
Religious Services and Ministers--La Goria
Pioneer Association-Dr. W. P. Peirce-Mr.
D. E. Lowell-Mr. R. (. Barner- Important
Work of the Association . . t 8

CHAPTER X.
EVENTS IMPO ANT AND OTitR wISE.

Worth of the Colonists-Gen. Van der Voort s New
Cuban Hlouse--The Lookout Tree"-Its Part
in the Cuban Wars-The General's Garden-
Marvelously Rapid Growth of Plants-First








Contents.


II


Birth in La Gloria-OlafYEl Gloria Olson-Given
a Town Lot- Temperature Figures-Perfection
of Climate-The Mlaginniss Corduroy Road-
First Well Dug-Architect M. A. C. Neff 133

CHAPTER XI.
SELF-REIANCE OF TiE COLOiN1STS.

The Man With the Hoe-" Grandpa" Withee Able
to Take Care of Himself-Not Dead, but Very
Much Alive--A Pugnacious Old Man-Mr.
Withee Shoots Chickens and Defies the Authori-
ties-Big Jack McCauley and H is Influence"
"Albany and the Mosquitoes-Arrival of
Third I ainou// -Arnold Mollenhauer-John
A. Connell-S. W. Storm-The First School
and Its Teacher..... . . 143

C-APTER Nil.
Tit FIRsT H[OLAI.)AX IN LA GLORIA.

Craving for Athletic Sports-Half Holiday Formally
Proclaimed-A Beautiful Day-The Colonists
Photographed--Lieut. Evans and His Soldiers
of the Eighth U. S. Cavalry-Successful Sports
-Baseball Game--An Event not Down on the
Program-Excited Colonists-Lawyer C. H1ugo
Drake of Puerto Principe-His Scheme-Or-
dered Out of Camp- A Night in the Woods-
Lieutenant Cienfuente . . . r.55

CHAPTER XlIi.
INDIUSTRY OF THE COLONISTS.

Pink Orchids on the Trees-Vegetables Raised and
Fruit Trees Set Out-The Various Eimploy-





12


Contents.


ments-Working on the Survey Corps-Chief
Kelly's Facetious Formula-An Official Kicker
-B. F. Seibert-Improvements at the Port-
Fish, Alligators, and Flamingo-J. L. Ratekin
-First Banquet in La Gloria-Departure of
Maginniss Party-First Death in the Colony-
Only One Death in Six Months-Lowell's Cor-
duroy Road and Kelly's Permanent Highway 166

CHAPTER XIV.
Tm. FimST BALL N LA GLORIA.

A Semi-Anniversary-Town Lots and Plantations
Allotted in First Six Months-A Grand Ball-
French Dancing Master in Charge--Dan Good-
man's Pennsylvania M odesty-Organizing an
Orchestra at Short Notice-The Ballroom-
Rev. Dr. GCill Lends His Tent Floor-Elaborate
Decorations-A Transformation Scene-Some
Taking Specialties--A Fine Supper-Music in
Camp-An Aggravating Cornet Player-Singers
in the Colony. . . 177

CHAPTER XV.
A WxArKl iN Tn>i To PLAETO P1INcIE.

Five Good Walkers-A Halt at Mercedes-Sparsely
Settled Country--Cuban Trails-A Night in
the Woods-A Cripple From Sore Feet-A
Pretty Country Place-The Cubitas Mountains
-Hunting for the Late Cuban Capital-A
Broad and Beautiful View-Seventeen Miles
Without a House -Night on the Plain-The
City of Puerto Principe-Politeness of Its Peo-








Contents.


13


ple-The Journey Home-Sanchez' Sugar Plan-
tation-Lost in the Forest-La Gloria Once
M ore . . . . 186

CHAPTER XVI.
IN AND AROUND LA GLORIA.

Horses That May Have Committed Suicide-Colonel
Maginniss ''A Master Hand in Sickness "-Sud-
den and Surprising Rise of Water -A Deluge
of Frogs-A Greedy Snake-Catching Fish in
Central Avenue-D. Siefert's Industry-Max
Neuber-Mountain View-A Facetious Sign-
board-'Ihe Sangjai-An Aggravating and
Uncertain Channel. ..... .203

CHAPTER XVII.
TE COLONY AT TIE END OF THE FIRST YEAn.
The Saw Mill-The Pole Tramway to the Bay-A
Tragedy in the Colony-Death of Mr. Bosworth
-The Summer Season-The Country Around
La Gloria-The Cuban Colonization Company-
Guanaja-The Rural Guard-Organizations in
La Gloria--The March of Improvements-
Construction of Wooden Buildings-Colonists
Delighted With Their New Home in the Tropics 21 2















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE.


James At. Adams Frontispiece.
Map of Cuba
City of Nuevitas, Cuba
Gen. Paul Van der Voort
An Involuntarv Bath
Port La Gloria
Author on Road to La Gloria
Col. Thomas H. Laginniss
" The Hotel"
The Spring
Robert C. Beausejour
La Gloria, Cuba, Looking North
First House in La Gloria
Frank J. O'Reilly
First Wormen Colonists of La Gloria
Dr. William P. Peirce
Gen. Van der Voort's Cuban IHouse
La Gloria, Cuba, Looking South
Group of Colonists
The Survey Corps .H
Interior Gen. Van der Voort's House
Agramonte Plaza, Puerto Principe, Cuba
Dr. Peirce's; Pineapple Patch
Scene on Laguna Grande .


16
20
_'6
42
46
48

64
68
82
88
97
I10
122
126
134
150
S-8
168
182
200
208
214























s P
PPt4


e d
T} Ma mn





SSArv w0D Vr ms, lr (









MAP OF CUBA.












PIONEERING IN CUBA.



CHAPTER I.

ARRIvA>L OF THE COLONISTS IN NUEVITAS
HARBOR.

Jus'r after noon on January 4, 1900, the
ancient city of Nuevitas, Cuba, lazily basking
in the midday sunshine, witnessed a sight
which had not been paralleled in the four
hundred years of its existence. A steamer
was dropping anchor in the placid water of
the harbor a mile off shore, and her decks
were thronged with a crowd of more than two
hundred eager and active Americans. They
w ore no uniforms, nor did they carry either
guns or swords ; and yet they had come on
an errand of conquest. They had fared forth
from their native land to attack the formidable
forests and to subdue the untamed soil of the
province of Puerto Principe-a task which
required scarcely less courage and resolution
than a feat of arms might have demanded in
that locality two years before. Well aware






Pioneering in Cuba.


that there was a hard fight before them, they
were yet sanguine of success and eager to
begin active operations. It was the vanguard
of the first American colony planted in Cuba.
The vessel that lay at anchor in the beau-
tiful land-locked harbor of Nuevitas was the
screw steamer iarmouth, a steel ship which,
if not as fast and elegant as the ocean grey-
hounds that cross the Atlantic, was large and
fine enough to have easily commanded the
unbounded admiration and amazement of
Christopher Columbus had he beheld her
when he landed from the San/a J/arzlz on the
coast of Cuba near this point more than four
centuries ago. Great changes have been
wrought since the days of Columbus in the
manner of craft that sail the seas, but less
progress has been made by the city of Nue-
vitas in those four hundred long years. The
)'2rrmo/,uth, substantial if not handsome, and
safe if not swift, had brought the colonists to
this port without mishap, thus redeeming one
of the many promises of the Cuban Land and
Steamship Company. Since early morning
the vessel had been slowly steaming along
the palm-fringed coast of the Pearl of the
Antilles," daybreak having revealed the fact
that the boat was too far to the eastward, and


18s







The Arrival at Nuevitas. 19

late in the forenoon we entered the picturesque
bay of Nuevitas, took on a swarthy Cuban
pilot, and, gliding quietly past straggling
palm-thatched native shacks and tiny green-
clad isles, came to anchor in plain view of
the city that Velasquez founded in 1514. We
had passed two or three small circular forts,
any one of which would have been demol-
ished by a single well-directed shot from a
thirteen-inch gun. rTyhese defenses were
unoccupied, and there was naught else to
threaten the established peace.
The day was beautiful, freshened by a soft
and balmy breeze, with the delightful temper-
ature of 75 degrees. Far back in the interior,
through the wonderfully transparent Cuban
atmosphere, one could see the light blue peaks
of lofty mountains, standing singly instead of
in groups, as if each were the monarch of a
small principality. Their outlines, as seen at
this distance, were graceful and symmetrical,
rather than rugged and overpowering like
some of their brother chieftains of the North.
Near at hand the listless city of Nuevitas
extended from the water's edge backward up
the hillside of a long, green ridge, the low,
red-tiled houses clinging to what seemed
precarious positions along the rough, water-







































(IT\ nf Nt TvlIAS.
Photo grafh by V. A, Van De Venter, jan. 31, 1900.







The Arrival at Nuevitas. 21

worn streets that gashed the side of the
hill. To the right a green-covered promon-
tory projected far into the bay, dotted with
occasional native shacks and planted in part
with sisal hemp. The colonists on shipboard,
ignorant of the appearance of this tropical
product, at first took the hemp for pineapple
plants, but soon learned their mistake from
one who had been in the tropics before.
Viewed from the harbor, Nuevitas looks
pretty and picturesque, but once on shore the
illusion vanishes. Mud meets you at the
threshold and sticks to you like a brother.
The streets, for the most part, are nothing
more than rain-furrowed lanes, filled with
large, projecting stones and gullies of no little
depth. Sticky, yellow mud is everywhere,
and once acquired is as hard to get rid of as
the rheumatism. The houses, in general, are
little better than hovels, and the gardens
around them are neglected and forlorn.
When a spot more attractive than the others
is found, Nature is entitled to all the credit.
The shops are poor and mean, and not over
well supplied with merchandise. The natives,
while kindly disposed toward the "America-
nos," are, for the most part, unattractive in


The few public buildings


dress and person.







22 Pioneering in Cuba.

are ugly and there is not a pleasant street in
the town. And yet when seen from the har-
bor the city looks pretty, mainly on account
of its red-tiled houses, grassy hillside slopes,
and waving cocoanut palms. The author of
the ancient saying that "1 distance lends en-
chantinent to the view," might well have
gathered his inspiration at Nuevitas.
If the inhabitants of Nuevitas have the
quality of curiosity, they clearly did not have
it with them at the time of our arrival. Al-
though it is said on good authority, that the
city had never before had more than twelve
or fifteen visitors at one time, save soldiers or
sailors, the natives betrayed no excitement
and little interest in the advent of two hun-
dred American civilians. With the exception
of a handful of boatmen and a few fruit ven-
ders, not a person came to the piers to gaze
at the new arrivals, and in the town the peo-
ple scarcely gave themselves the trouble to
look out of their open dwellings and shops at
the colonists. This may have been inherent
courtesy-for the Cuban is nothing if not
courteous-but to us it seemed more like
indifference. The Cubans are certainly an
indifferent people, and at this port they ap-
peared to have no object or interest in life.







The Arrival at Nuevitas.


They dxelt in drowsy content, smoking their
cigarettes, and doing their little buying and
selling ini a leisurely and heedless manner.
The most of them pick up a precarious living
with but little labor. These easy-going habits
impress the close observer as being more the
result of indifference than downright indo-
lence, for when the occasion demands it the
Cuban often exhibits surprising activity and
industry. I Ie does not, however, work for
the fun of it, and it never occurs to him that it
is necessary to lay up anything for the pro-
verbial rainy day." Accustomed to the
fairest skies in the world, he never anticipates
cloudy weather.
It is quite possible that if we had been
a rraved in brilliant uniforms, resplendent of
gold lace, brass buttons, and all the accom-
panying trappings, we should have aroused
more interest, for the Cuban loves color,
pageant, and martial show, but as a matter
of fact, nothing could have been plainer and
uglier than the dress of most of the colonists.
To the superficial observer, there was noth-
ing about the invaders to hold attention, but
to me, who had closely studied my compan-
ions and fellow-colonists for nearly a week,
they were full of interest and inspiration.


23







Pioneering in Cuba.


They were, to be sure, a motley crowd, rep-
resenting many states and territories, and
several grades of social standing, but they
were obviously courageous, enterprising, and
of good character. In point of intelligence
and manifest honesty and energy they aver-
aged high-much higher than one would
expect of the pioneers in a project of this sort.
They were not reckless and unscrupulous
adventurers, nor vet rolling stones who
sought an indolent life of ease, but serious-
minded and industrious home-seekers. They
had counted the cost, and resolved to go
forward and achieve success, expecting
obstacles, but not anticipating defeat. A
thoughtful person could not fail to be im-
pressed by the serious and resolute manner
in which these voyagers entered upon the
work of establishing a new home for them-
selves in a tropical country. Since the days
when the Pilgrim Fathers landed upon the
bleak shores of New England, I doubt if a
better aggregation of men had entered upon
an enterprise of this character.
The colonists sailed from New York on the
Yarmouth on Saturday, December 30, 1899,
a stinging cold day. It was the first excur-
sion run by the Cuban Land and Steamship


24







The Arrival at Nuevitas. 25

Company, whose offices at 32 Broadway had
for several days been crowded with men from
all parts of the country eager to form a part
of the first expedition to establish an Ameri-
can colony at La Gloria, on the north coast
of Cuba, about forty miles west of Nuevitas.
Every passenger on board the Thrmou/h was
supposed to have purchased or contracted for
land at La Gloria, and practically all had
done so. The steamer was commanded by
Capt. E. O. Smith, a popular and efficient
officer, and carried besides her complement
of crew and waiters, two hundred and eleven
passengers, all men with one exception, Mrs.
Crandall, the wife of an employe of the com-
pany. The colonists represented all sections
of the country, from Maine to California,
from Minnesota to Florida. No less than
thirty states sent their delegations, two terri-
tories, Canada, Prince Edward's Island, and
British Columbia. All came to New York
to make up this memorable excursion. The
genial and stalwart Gen. Paul Van der Voort
of Nebraska, who was commander-in-chief
of the national G. A. R. in 1882-'83, had
led on a party of over twenty from the West,
several of them his own neighbors in Omaha.
The others were from different parts of





















































GEN. 1\U \. \VAN I)ER V)ORT,







The Arrival at Nuevitas. 27

Nebraska, Kansas, and Iowa. General Van
der Voort was the assistant manager of the
company, and a little later became its presi-
dent. He went to Cuba in the double capac-
ity of an officer of the company, to take
charge of its business there, and a colonist
to make La Gloria his permanent residence.
Honest, affable, and humorous, a magnetic
and convincing speaker, with a sunny nature
singularly free from affectation and ardently
loyal to his friends, General Van der Voort
was a natural leader of men, well fitted to
head a colonizing expedition. One of his
sons had been in La Gloria for some time
working as a surveyor in the employ of the
company.
General Van der Voort's party, however,
formed but a small fraction of the Western
representation. Ittwelve men came from
Illinois, six from Michigan, five from Minne-
sota, four from Wisconsin, four from Indi-
ana, four from Oklahoma-men who were
"' boomers in the rush for land in that terri-
tory-two from Missouri, two from Wash-
ington state, one from Wyoming, one from
South Dakota, and one from California.
Ohio men, usually so much in evidence, were
hard to find, only one man on board ac-


28 Pioneering in Cuba.

knowledging that he hailed from that state.
The South was not so largely represented as
the West, but there were two men from
Maryland, two from Virginia, two from
Georgia, one from Florida, one from West
Virginia, and one from Washington, D. C.
New York state led the entire list with fifty-
one. Pennsylvania and Massachusetts came
next with twenty-one each. From New
Jersey there were fifteen. Among the New
England states, New Hampshire and Con-
necticut followed Massachusetts, with five
each. Rhode Island contributed four, Maine
two, and Vermont two. Two of the colonists
hailed from British Columbia, one from
Prince Edward's Island, and one from
Toronto, Canada. The latter, a tall, good-
looking Englishman by the name of Ruther-
ford, cheerfully announced himself as "the
only Canuck on board." Those who were
fortunate enough to become intimately ac-
quainted with this clear-headed and whole-
hearted gentleman were easily convinced that
while he might call himself a Canuck "
and become a Cuban by emigration, he
would remain to the end of his days an
Englishman, and a very good specimen of
his race. If Rutherford had not taken part



The Arrival at Nuevitas.


in the sugar riot "-but
storv."


that's "1 another


The colonists represented even more occu-


pations than states.


There were four physi-


cians, one clergyman, one lawyer, one editor,


one patent office employee, small


merchants,


clerks, bookkeepers, locomotive engineers,
carpenters, and other skilled mechanics,


besides many farmers.
number of specialists.


There were also a


The embrio


colony


included several veterans of the Spanish war,


some of whom had been in


Cuba before.


G. A. R. buttons were surprisingly-


numer-


ous. The men, generally speaking,


ap-


peared to be eminently practical and thor-
oughly wide awake. They looked able to
take hold of a business enterprise and push
it through to success, regardless of obstacles.
Several of the colonists showed their thrift by
taking poultry with them, while an old gen-
tleman from Minnesota had brought along


two colonies of Italian honey bees.


old man explained


Another


his presence by jocularly


declaring that he was going down to Cuba to


search for the footprints


of Columbus. Ac-


cents representing all sections of the country


were harmoniously and curiously


mii


and the spirit of fraternity was marked.


ngled,
The


29






30 Pioneering in Cuba.

one colored man in the party, an intelligent
representative of his race, had as good stand-
ing as anybody.
The voyage down was uneventful. It
occupied four days and a half, and for thirty-
six hours, in the neighborhood of Cape Hat-
teras, very rough water was encountered.
But few on board had ever known such a sea,
and sickness was universal. The discomfort
was great, partly owing to the crowded con-
dition of the boat. Alany a hardy colonist
sighed for his Western ranch or his comforta-
ble house in the East. The superior attrac-
tions of Cuba were forgotten for the moment,
and there was intense longing for the land
that had been left behind. It is a fact hard
to believe that several on board had never
before seen the ocean, to say nothing of sail-
ing upon its turbulent bosom. With the
return of a smooth sea a marvelous change
came over the voyagers, and all began to
look eagerly forward to a sight of the famed
" Pearl of the Antilles." We were now sail-
ing a calm tropical sea, with the fairest of
skies above us and a mild and genial tem-
perature that was a great delight after the
severe cold of the Northern winter. The
salubrious weather continued through the






at Nuevitas.


3'


remaining forty-eight hours of the voyage,
and the colonists resumed their interrupted


intercourse,


having but a


single subject


in


their eager discussions-always the prospects
of the colony or something bearing on their


pioneer enterprise.
being talked out
tranquil harbor of


The topic was


when we
Nuevitas.


glided


far from
into the


a


4\


The Arrival












CHAPTER II.


TIiIF: JouiNx4Y TO PORT LA GLORIA.

TI Newly arrived colonists found the
Spanish word banana" still in high favor
at Nuevitas, though it was difficult to fix the
responsibility for the irritating delays. The
Cubans and the officers of the company alike
came in for a good deal of straight-fromi-the-
shoulder Yankee criticism. Sonie of this
was deserved, but not all. The company's
officers had been handicapped in many ways,
and for this and perhaps other reasons, had
not pushed things along as rapidly and suc-
cesstnlly as the colonists had been led to
expect. It was learned that the town of La
Gloria was as vet only a town in name, the
foundation of its first building, the hotel, hav-
ing just been laid. The lumber for the struc-
ture lay on the docks at Nuevitas. The com-
pany's portable sawmill machinery was rust-
ing in tne open air at the same place-, If the
colonists marveled at this, their wonder dis-
appeared when, a little later, they tramped
and waded the four miles of so-called road"







The Journey to Port La Gloria. 3

that lay between Port La Gloria and La
Gloria city." Nothing daunted by these
discouraging signs and the many unfavorable
reports, the most of the colonists determined
to push ahead.
Arriving at Nuevitas Thursday noon, Jan-
uary 4, the passengers of the iTrmou/ were
not allowed to leave the vessel that day or
evening. Many were desirous of exploring
the ancient city of Nuevitas, but the most fre-
quent and anxious inquiry was. "1 When shall
we be taken to La Gloria ?" It was a hard
question to answer, and no one in authority
attempted to do so. There were several'
causes contributing to the delay, one of which
was the customs inspection. and another the
question of transportation. Communication
between Nuevitas and La Gloria was neither
easy nor regular. The overland route was
the nearest, about forty miles, but could only
be utilized by a person on foot or horseback.
At the time of our arrival this way was.
entirely impracticable by any mode of travel.,
The inside or shallow water route was about
forty-eight miles long, and the outside or-
deep water course, sixty miles. The officers.
of the company decided upon the latter as the
most feasible, and set out to procure lighters
'4







34 Pioneering in Cuba.

to convey the colonists and their baggage.
This was no easy matter, as the business had
to be done with Cubans, and Cubans are
never in any hurry about coming to terms.
Friday morning the passengers of the )r-
moulh were permitted to go ashore and wake
up the inhabitants of the sleepy city, each
person paying some thrifty Cuban twentv-five
cents for transportation thither in a sailboat.
The Cuban boatmen coined money during
our three days' stay in Nuevitas harbor. So
also did the fruit lenders, who came out to
the stealner in small boats and sold us pine-
apples, tiny fig bananas, and green oranges
at exorbitant prices. The fruit looked inife-
rior, but the flavor \ as good. Most of it
grew without care, and in a semi-wild condi-
tion. The colonists were eager to sample
anvy fruit of the country, as most of them
were intending to iake fruit growing their
business. The 'Americanos" succeeded in
waking up Nuevitas in some degree, and at
night a few of them set out to "paint the town
red." Only a few, however; the great major-
itv behaved remarkably well. The day was
spent in quietly inspecting the city and its
surroundings. Many of the visitors bought
needed supplies at the small stores.







The Journey to Port La Gloria. -5

Saturday was passed in the same way as
Friday, the oiiiv incident of note being a
small-sized disturbance which took place at
the pier near midnight. Three belated Amer-
icans, who had done more than look upon
the "r aguardiente," got into a quarrel with
a Cuban boatman in regard to their return to
the 2I;roulh. The Americans were mainly
at fault, the boatman was obstinate, and a
war of words was soon followed by blows.
The boat an was getting the worst of the
scrinmage when several of the Cuban police
swooped down upon the party. Two of the
Americans drew revolvers, but they were
quickly disarmed and overcome, one of the
trio, who wore the uni1rm of the United
States army, which he had latelv quitted,
falling over into the harbor in the scuflle.
rThis sudden and unexpected ducking ended
the eight : the -Americanos" compromised
with the boatman, and were allowed to return
to the )-eri//outh. These intending colonists
did not remain long at La Gloria, although
one of the three purposes to return. The
conduct of the Cuban police upon this occa-
sion, and upon all others which came under
my notice, was entirely creditable. They
dress neatly, are sober and inoffensive in







Pioneering


manner, and appear to perform their duties
conscientiously and well.
While we lay in Nuevitas harbor we re-
ceived several visits from Gen. A. L. Bres-
ler and the Hon. Peter E. Park, president


and resident manager, respectively,


of the


Cuban Land and Steamship Company, both
of whom had been stopping in the 'city for
some time. The had acquired the Cuban
dress and, to some extent, Cuban habits. Mr.
Park decided to accompany the colonists to
La Gloria, and to share with them all the
hardships that they might encounter on the
journey. It was no new thing for Mr. Park,


to make the trip.


He had made it


along the coast in a small sailboat ; he had


made it in quicker time


in a steam


and he had sometimes gone overland on


horseback, struggling


through mud and


water and tangled vines, swimming swollen
rivers and creeks, and fighting swarms of


aggressive


mosquitoes in the dense woods.


He knew exactly what was before him;


colonists did not.


General Bresler,


to say, had never been at La Gloria.
It was on Sunday afternoon, at a little past
one o'clock, that the colonists finally got away
from Nuevitas and made the start for La


slowly


launch,


the


strange


in Cuba.


36







The Journey to Port La Gloria. 7

Gloria. The fleet consisted of three small
schooners loaded with light baggage, a little
freight, and nearly two hundred passengers.
Two of the boats were Nuevitas lighters,
with Cuban captains and crew, while the
third was a schooner from Lake Worth,
Florida, carrying about twenty colonists from
that state. This boat, known as the Em/ly B.,
had arrived at Nuevitas a day or two before
the ]armouh. Among her passengers were
four or five women. The heavy baggage of
the lnzrmout colonists was loaded upon yet
another lighter, which was to follow later.
The colonists embarked upon the sailing
craft from the decks of the 2 irmoult,, leav-
ing behind a score or more of their number
whose backbone had collapsed or who for
some other reason had decided to return home
immediately. It is, I believe, a veritable fact
that more than one of the intending colonists
went back on the same boat without so much
as setting foot on the soil of Cuba. Probably
examples of the "' chocolate 6clair" backbone
are to be found everywhere. One of the re-
turning voyagers was a tall, thin man of
middle age, wearing a long, red, sorrowful
face. It had been apparent from the very
start that his was an aggravated case of







Pioneering in Cuba.


home-sickness. Ile had shown unmistakable
evidence of it before the )aermouth had even
left North river, and he did not improve as
the vessel approached the coast of Cuba. IHe
rarely spoke to anybody, and could be seen
hour after hour kneeling in a most dejected atti-
tude upon a cushioned seat in the main saloon,
gazing mournfully out of the window at the
stern across the broad waters. I us was about
the most striking example of sustained melan-
choly that ever came under my observation,
and could not seem other than ridiculous in
that company. When we slowly moved away
from the J2armoulh, I was not surprised to see
this man standing silently upon the steamer's
deck. The look of unillumined dejection
was still upon his face. A man whose face
does not light up under the subtle charm of
the Cuban atmosphere is, indeed, a hopeless
case, and ought not to travel beyond the limits
of the county wherein lies his home. There
were others who remained behind on the
Jirrmoulh for better reasons. Mr. and Mrs.
Crandall returned to New York because the
company's sawmill, which he was to operate,
had not been taken to La Gloria and was not
likely to be for some time to come. Mrs.
Crandall was the only woman passenger on


38






The Journey to Port La Gloria.


the voyage down and had been fearfully sea-
sick all the way. Orders had been given that
no women or children should be taken on this
first excursion, but an exception was made in
the case of Mrs. Crandall because she was
the wife of an employee of' the company.
The departing colonists waved their good-bys
to the Jarmoulh, and the little fleet was towed
out to the entrance of Nuevitas harbor, about
ten miles, when the schooners came to anchor
and the tugboat returned to the city. Although
it was but little past three o'clock and the
weather fine, the passengers learned to their
dismay that the boats had anchored for the
night. The furrowed-faced old captain
would take no chances with the open sea at
night and so would proceed no farther. To-
morrow-four o'clock-wind right-go '" he
said, with a dramatic gesture and what seemed
to the colonists an unnecessarily explosive
emphasis on the last word.
The boats were anchored in the narrow
entrance to the harbor, where the smooth-
running tide closely resembled a river. On
one bank, one hundred yards away, were an
old stone fort and a few Cuban shacks. Some
of the passengers were desirous of going
ashore to see the fort and the houses, but


39







Pioneering in Cuba.


neither entreaties nor bribes could force the
old Cuban captain to allow the use of his small
boats. The Cubans are fond of waiting and
cannot appreciate American restlessness. So
we were obliged to sit quietly and gaze wist-
fully at the green-clad shore. As night came
on, it was found that loaves of bread and large
chunks of salt beef constituted the larder. It
was poor fare, but the colonists accepted the
situation cheerfully and broke bread and ate
as much of the greasy meat as they could.
It was a radiant evening, with soft, caress-
ing breezes and a starlit sky of incomparable
beauty. Many of the voyagers saw the famed
Southern Cross for the first time and gazed at
it long in silent contemplation, overcome by
that delicious feeling of dreamy content which
takes possession of one in the tropics. On
one of the boats, religious services were held,
conducted by a Georgia clergyman, the Rev.
A. E. Seddon of Atlanta, one of the most en-
thusiastic and uncomplaining of the colonists.
The singing of hymns was joined in by many
of the eighty-seven passengers on the boat,
and prayers were offered by no less than four
individuals. It was a singularly impressive
scene, not altogether unlike what took place
on board the Mayflowc- centuries before.


40






The Journey to Iort La


The peaceful evening was allowed by a
night of great discomfort. The passengers
were crowded together, and many slept, or
attempted to sleep, on boxes, barrels, or the
lumber which formed a part of the cargo of
the schooner. I slept, at intervals, on the
lumber designed for the hotel at La Gloria.
Often had I slept in hotels, but this was my
first experience in sleeping on one. Some of
the passengers on the schooners sat up all
night in preference to lying upon boxes and
lumber. We were not, however, without
entertainment during that long, wearisome
night. We had a philosopher among us, in
the person of quaint old Benjamin Franklin-
of Griffin's Corners, New York-who talked
earnestly and eloquently upon his appalling
experiences in Confederate military prisons
many years before. The handful of soldiers
of the Spanish war were modestly silent in
the presence of this gaunt old veteran of the
great civil strife. Judge Groesbeck, of Wash-
ington, D. C., quoted poetry and told
anecdotes and stories, while the Rev. Mr.
Seddon, Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopeston, Ill.,
and others, contributed their share to the con-
versation. As we became drowsy, we could


again, some one of our com-


Gloria. 41


hear, now and







Pioneering in Cuba.


an imitation


of the Cuban


" To-morrow--our o'clock-w'ind


right -go !
Early in the morning,
captain set sail, and as


true to his word, the
the wind was right


4


ti


I'


AN INVOLUNTARY BATH.


good progress was made. One of the divert-
ing incidents of the morning was the fall of


the captain overboard.


In the Crowded con-


dition of the boat, he lost his footing and went
over backward into the water. He scrambled
back again in a hurry, with a look of deep


panions
captain:


giv ing


42


k".*'


44 'R






The Journey to Port La Gloria. 43

disgust upon his rather repulsive face, but the
inconsiderate A mericanos greeted him
with a roar of laughter. One enterprising
amateur photographer secured a snapshot of
him as he emerged dripping from his invol-
untary bath. A little later one of the Cubans
caught a handsome dolphin, about two feet
and a half long. The crew cooked it and
served it up at ten cents a plate. As our
schooner, drawing five feet of water, entered
the inlet about fifteen miles from the port of
La Gloria, she dragged roughly over the
rocky bottom for some distance and came per-
ilously near suffering misfortune. The other
schooners came in collision at about this time
and a panic ensued. No serious damage re-
sulted, however. It was between twelve and
one o'clock that afternoon that the port of La
Gloria was sighted.












CHAPTER III.

A TOUGH TRAMP TO LA GLORm CIrY.

As the fleet of schooners drew near La
Gloria port, a row of small tents was dis-
cerned close to the shore. Elsewhere there
was a heavy growth of bushes to the water's
edge-the mangroves and similar vegetation
fairly growing out into the sea. Between
and around the tents was a wretched slough
of sticky, oozy mud nearly a foot deep, with
streams of surface water flowing over it in
places into the bay. The colonists were
filled with excitement and mingled emotions
as they approached the shore, but their hearts
sank When they surveyed this discouraging
scene. They landed on the rude pier, and
after much difficulty succeeded in depositing
their light baggage in tents reserved for the
purpose. Narrow boards laid down to walk
on were covered with slippery mud, and some
lost their footing and went over headforemost
into the slough. One jaunty, well-dressed
young man from New Jersey, who had found
the trip vastly entertaining up to this point,







A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 45

was so disgusted at suffering a flop-over
into the mire that he turned immediately back
and returned to his home in Atlantic City.
And so the sifting process went on among the
intending colonists.
The conditions at the port at that time were
certainly most unpleasant. Mud and water
were on every hand, and sand flies were as
thick as swarms of bees, and nearly as fero-
cious ; they allowed no one any peace. The
company had considerately provided coffee
and bread for the landing immigrants," and
something of the sort was certainly needed to
fortify them for what was to follow. Lunch
over, such of the colonists as had not decided
to turn back started for the "r city of La
Gloria, four miles inland. We found that
the electric cars were not running, that the
'bus line was not in operation, and that we
could not take a carriage to the hotel ; nor
was there a volante, a wagon, a bullock cart,
a horse, mule, or pony in evidence. Neither
was there a balloon or any other kind of
airship. We learned further that a row-
boat could be used only a portion of the
way. Under the circumstances, we decided
to walk.
The road, if such it may be called, led


4






















A


a


lPn1 Lb G( 2.
Plit/ogra/ by I. Al fan De Vnter, jan. 2s, 1900.


R"







A Tough Tramp to La Gloria.


47


throtigh al1 open savanil, With occasional
belts of timber. There had been heavy rains
just before our arrival, and the trail was one
of the most wretched ever followed by a
human being. Foi about a quarter of a mile
there was an apology for a corduroy road,
but the logs composing it were so irreg 111ar
and uneven in size, and had been so disar-
ranged by surface water and so nearly cov-
ered with debris that it all seemed to have
been placed there to obstruct travel rather
than to facilitate it. After the corduroy, the
trail was a disheartening mixture of water,
mud, stumps, roots, logs, briers, and branches.
Now we would be wading through shallow
water and deep mud that almost pulled our
shoes off; then splashing through water and
tall, coarse grass ; and again, carefully
threading our precarious wav among ugly
stumps, logs, and fallen limbs, in water
above our knees. At times the traveler found
himself almost afloat in the forest. He was
lucky, indeed, if he did not fall down, a mis-
fortune which was little less than a tragedy.
Before leaving the port we had been advised
to remove our stockings and roll our trousers
above our knees. Few of us had on any-
thing better than ordinary shoes, and the







48 Pioneering in Cuba.

sensation of tramping through the mud and
water with these was far from pleasant.
Many had rubber boots or leggings in their
trunks, but the trunks were still at Nuevitas.






















AU41l(R )N R)A T) LA G I A. ('fn. 8, 19(30.)

Notwithstanding the bad road, one hundred
and sixty stout-hearted colonists set out for
La Gloria between 1:30 and 3 o'clock. Tie
straggled along for miles, 11 men and young
men, and even lame men ; some with valises,







A Tough Tramp to La Gloria.


49


some with bundles, and many with overcoats.
In the lead was Peter E. Park, the Detroit
lawyer who for months had been acting as5
the Cuban manager for the conpanV. IIis
stalwart tornm v as encased in a suit of- white
duck, and he wore a broad, slouch hat and
high, leather boots. I1c looked quite pic-
turesque as he strode through the mud and
water, apparently trying to impress the col-
onists with the idea that the poor road \ as
nothing to justify making a fuss. Inwardly,
no doubt, he wX as some what sensitive oil th
subject of the road ; justly or unjustly, the
colonists blamed him for its condition.
It was hot and hard work, this four-mile
walk under a tropical si, but the men bore
it with a good deal of patience. I started
with a pair of rubbers on, but was compelled
to allandon them before (rettillg far, leaving a
large amount of rich. Cuban soil in and on
them. The scene which presented itself wvas
unique and interesting. All sorts of costumines
were worn, including some young fellows ill
soldiers' uniforms, and there was no little
variety in the luggage carried. Some stag-
gered under very heavy loads. Oite a num-
ber of cameras and kodaks were to be seen.
The trail led through a rich savanna, soil
4






Pioneering in Cuba.


which is undoubtedly adapted to the raising
of sugar cane, rice, and cocoanuts. Many
palmetto and palm trees lined the way. One
could not well view the scenery without stop-
ping, for fear of losing one's footing. Thorns
were troublesome and easily penetrated the
wet shoes of the weary travelers. The cot-
onists all agreed that this road was the freest
from dust of any they had ever trod.
At last, after two hours of toil and discom-
fort, we came in sight of dry land and the
camp. We had crossed two small creeks and
seen a few unoccupied native shacks. No
part of the land had been cultivated. Many
of us had seen for the first time close at hand
the majestic royal palm, which is deservedly
the most distinguished tree in the island. It is
a tree without branches, crowned at the top of
a perfectly straight shaft with a bunch of long,
graceful, dark green leaves. The royal palm
rises to a height of sixty, seventy, and even
eighty feet, its symmetrical shape and whitish
color giving it the appearance of a marble
column. It bears no fruit, and affords little
shade, but it is highly ornamental and forms
a striking feature of the landscape. The tree
often lives to be two hundred years old ; it
has twenty leaves, one of which is shed about


50







A Tough Tramp to La Gloria.


51


once a month.


It has been stated that the


seeds from a single tree will support


one


good-sized hog.
As we approached our destination we


passed two buxom women sitting on


a huge


stump. They were clad in shirt waists,
belted trousers and leggings, and wore broad


hats of a masculine type.


We silently won-


dered if this was the prevailing fashion among
the women of La Gloria, but soon found that


it was not.


Even the pair that we had first


seen came out a few days later
skirts and feminine headgear. I


in dainty


ndeed,


we


found La Gloria, in some respects, more civ-
ilized than we had anticipated.
It was late in the afternoon of Monday, Jan-
uary 8, 1900, that the one hundred and sixty
members of the first excursion to establish the


first American


colony


in Cuba, reached the


camp which occupied the site of La Gloria


city of to-day.


We found about a dozen


tents, and as many more native shacks occu-
pied by Cubans who were at work for the


company.


The Cubans numbered about


fifty, and the American employes nearly as
many more. There were also a few Florida
and other settlers who had reached the spot
early. Altogether, the population just before




































144


































(o I H"' 'S I. > \ I N


m.
r.z

M3


r /a

r








A Tough Tramp to La Gloria.


53


our arrival was about one hundred, seven or
eight of whom were women.
The white city grew rapidly after we ap-
peared on the scene. The company had
tents, which we were obliged to put up for
ourselves, and it was several hours before we
had opportunity to even partially dry our wet
feet and shoes. All that evening little groups
of barefooted men could be seen gathered
around camp-fires, drying themselves and
their clothing. The distribution, location, and
erection of the tents was placed in charge of
Col. Tho ias H. Maginuiss of Philadelphia,
Pa., an ex-officer of the United States regular
army and a veteran of the Civil War, who had
come down among the colonists on the ) ar-
mouf. Colonel Maginniss was a handsome
man of great stature, youthful in appearance,
mentally alert and physically active, with
very prepossessing manners. Although a little
past fifty years of age, he looked to be hardly
more than forty. He was a favorite from the
start, and aside from being a picturesque per-
sonality, soon became an influential power
among the colonists. So efficiently did he
perform his duties in supervising the erection
of the tent city, that a little later he was regu-
larly given the position of superintendent of







Pioneering in Cuba.


camp, in the employ of the conpany. He
held this post until his return to the States,
early in April.
Our first night in La Gloria was not one of
sybaritic pleasure. We were able to secure
sonie poor cots and one thin blanket apiece.
This was insufficient, for the nights, or rather
the early mornings, were quite cold. Some
of the men were obliged to sit up all night to
gather warmth from fires. The rotten cloth
on the cots went to pieces, in most cases, be-
fore the night was over, and, altogether, sleep
was at a premium. Many of the tents were
crowded ; in mine were eight persons, repre-
senting nearly as many states. FortunatelV,
the insects gave us very little trouble. The
population of the camp that first night must
have been nearly three hundred, and the next
day it increased to quite that number.

While the colonists did not arrive at La
Gloria in any considerable numbers until Jan-
uary, 19oo, the preliminary operations began
there on October 9, 1899, when Chief Engi-
neer J. C. Kelly landed with a survey corps
from Texas. It was a splendid corps of
bright, hardy, plucky, indefatigable men,
skilful in their work and under discipline as


,54






A Tough Tramp to La G!oria.


rigid as that of an army.
from Eagle Lake, Texas


Chief Kelly was
in which state he


had become well known through the perform-


ance of a great deal of important work.


le


was an exceedingly capable engineer, a strict
but just disciplinarian, a good financier, and
at all times highly popular with his men,
whose devotion to him was as striking as that
often shown by soldiers to their colonel or


their general. Mr. Kelly was an


interesting


talker, and an athlete and amateur imperson-


ator of no mean pretensions.


With him he


brought, as assistant chief, Mr. H. O. Neville.
a well-educated, versatile, and agreeable
young man. Among the others in the Texas
party were Sam M. Van der Voort, son of the
general, and I. G. Wirtz, both of whom later
became instrument men. S. H. Packer, also


of Texas, was one of the corps.


From New


York came F. Kimble and J. A. Messier, the
latter familiarly known as Albany," and
from Havana, B. B. Lindsley, all three serv-
ing later as instrument men more or less of


the time.


All the men above mentioned were


efficient surveyors and good


fellows,


each


something of a character" in his way.
Among other early arrivals, most of whom
were attached to the survey corps, were O. V.


55






56 Pioneering in Cuba.

Ie Long of Havana, II. L. Starker of Chi-
cago, David Porter of Detroit, Richard Head
of Florida, J. A. McCauley of New York,
Will Corlett, and Jack Griffith.
The experiences of the members of the
survey corps at La Gloria had been a con-
tinued story of hardship, privation, and ex-
posure. They came in before the rainy sea-
son had ended, pushing their toilsome way
through tangled vines and thorny thickets,
wading through mud and water, and often
being compelled to swim swollen creeks.
Much of the time they patiently worked knee
deep or waist deep in water, covered with
swarms of mosquitoes or other pestiferous
insects. Often they had little to eat save
cornmeal mush and boniatos (sweet
potatoes) ; but for all this, they were seldom
ill and rarely made a complaint. Sleeping
in their wet clothes, which would not dry in
the dampness of the night, they were up
early each morning ready for another day's
attack upon the jungle. The fact that they
were not more often sick is the best testi-
monial to the healthfulness of the climate of
northeastern Cuba that has come under my
notice. It speaks volumes, especially when
it is known that a little later men from the






A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 57

Northern states, and even British Columbia,
worked on the survey corps under similar
conditions and with like immunity from seri-
ous illness. Occasionally, to be sure, they
would be poisoned from standing too long in
water or coming in contact with the giao
tree, or shrub, but this affliction, v while severe,
was never fatal. The good work faithfully
and uncomplainingly performed by the sur-
vey corps in and around La Gloria, under
such trying circumstances, is worthv of as
much praise and admiration as a successful
military campaign. It required courage,
skill, and patient endurance to move upon
and tame this tropical forest on the north
coast of Cuba.
A handful of colonists followed the survey
corps into La Gloria at intervals, the first
ladies coming in December. These were
Mrs. D. E. Lowell and Mrs. W. G. Spiker
they came with their husbands. Mr. Lowell
had been a prosperous orange and pineapple
grower in Florida until the great freeze came,
and Mr. Spiker was a successful photographer
in Ohio before leaving his state to find him a
new home in the tropics. The Lowells and
Spikers were intelligent and cultivated people
who had been accustomed to a good style of







Pioneering in Cuba.


living, but who were now ready to undertake
a rough, pioneer life in the strong hope of a
bright future. The party landed at Palota,
northwest of La Gloria, and came in with
horses and wagon of their own, following the
roughest kind of trail for the larger part of
nine miles. It was a hard and perilous trip;
only with the greatest difficulty could the
horses draw the load through the heavy mud
and over the deeply gullied road. More than
once the team seemed hopelessly stuck, but
was extricated after a time and the toilsome
journey continued. At last the bedraggled
party reached La Gloria, and the first women
colonists set foot on the soil of the future
Cuban-American city. When the 1lrrmout/
colonists arrived, the Lowells and Spikers
had been living at La Gloria for several
weeks ; they were well and happy, and
pleased with the climate and the country.













CHAPTER IV.

FIRST DA\ys iN TilE NEw COLONY.

THE first few days after our arrival we led
a strange and what seemed to many of us an
unreal life. Shut into a small open space by
a great forest, with no elevation high enough
for us to see even so much of the outside
world as hills, mountains, or the sea, it
almost seemed as if we had dropped ofW of
the earth to some unknown planet. Day
after day passed without our seeing the hori-
zon, or hearing a locomotive or steamboat
whistle. We had no houses, only tents, and
there was not a wooden building of any sort
within a dozen miles. At night the camp
was dimly lighted by flickering fires and the
starry sky, and through the semi-darkness
came the hollow, indistinct voices of men
discussing the outlook for the future. T]'here
were always some who talked the larger part
of the night, and others who invariably rose
at three o'clock in the morning ; this was two
hours before light. In the deep forest at
night were heard strange sounds, but high






Pioneering in Cuba.


above them all, every night and the whole of
the night, the harsh, complaining note of a
certain bird who seemed to be eternally
unreconciled to the departure of day. I think
it was a bird, but it may have been the wail
of a lost soul.
It was lonesome there in the xxilds of Cuba
in those early days of the new colony, and
doubtless there was some homesickness, but
the reader should not gain the impression that
the pioneers were downcast and unhappy.
On the contrary, they were delighted with
the climate and the country, despite the difli-
culties encountered in entering it and the
deprivations which had to be put up with.
From the first, the colonists, generally speak-
ing, were more than cheerful ; they were
happy and contented. Buoyant in spirits,
eager to explore and acquire information con-
cerning the surrounding country, they enjoyed
the pioneer life with the keenest relish.
Tihey laughed at the hardships and priva-
tions, made friends with each other and with
the Cubans, and tramped the woods and
trails with reckless disregard of mud and
water and thorny underbrush. The men
were astonished to find themselves in such
excellent health ; the more they exposed


60






First Days in the New Colony.


themselves, the more they seemed to thrive,
until nearly every mall inl the coloyiv was
ready to sly that he was better physically
and mnentallv than when he left home. It
was the same with the women, whose ii-
proved health, entire cheerluliu dent contentment were a revelation to the
Observer. There are many women who take
as readily to a pioneer life as do the men.
This was notably the case in La Gloria.
The colonists had not come to La Goria
in search of a heat h resort-at least, the
great majority had not-but that is \\ hat they
found. Scarcely had we set foot on the soil
of Cuba when those of us who had catarrh-
and what Yankee has not?-found that we
no longer sutered from the affliction. This
cure, which proved permanent, was soine-
thing the majority of us had not counted on.
Nor had we couinted on the entire fleedom
from colds which we enjoyed in the island.
But the cure of catarrh was of snall import-
ance in comparison with the sudden and
marked improvement in those who suffered
from nervous diseases. It is not too much
to say, that many found the soothing Cuban
climate a specific for such disease which they
had not dreamt of in their philosophy. Those


6 1






62 Pioneering in Cuba.

with kidney ailments and rheumatism re-
ported themselves improved, and there was
not wanting evidence that persons with con-
sumptive tendencies and other weaknesses
would find the air salubrious and a residence
in this part of the island beneficial.
The temperature at this time was delight-
ful, a close approach to perfection, the ther-
mometer ranging from 700 to 840 at noon,
and rarely falling below 6oc at any time of
day. It still rained frequently, an unusual
and remarkable prolongation of the rainy
season, which ordinarily ends in November,
but the water fell in brief showers and left
the rest of the day bright and clear. Indeed,
it was not until February that the rain ceased
altogether and the dry season fairly began.
The Cubans declared that they had never
known the wet season to continue so late.
The long continued rains were held respon-
sible, perhaps justly so, for many of the in-
conveniences and drawbacks which the col-
onists encountered. The company stoutly
declared that to these unusual meteorological
conditions was due the failure to build the
road to the port which had been promised,
and that the absence of the road prevented


the transportation of the


lumber for the con-






Firs


struction
was true


t Days in the New Colony. 63

of the hotel. This latter assertion


beyond all question.


The "4 hotel "


xvas a subject of much comment and immod-


crate mirth.
and imposing


It existed on paper in


spacious


elegance ; it was a splendid


structure of the imagination. But let


it not


be thought for one moment that the hotel was


wholly a


myth. Not so ; the situation would


not have been half so funny if it had been.
There stood the foundation for the immense
building squarely across Central avenue,
about a quarter of a mile back from the front


line of the town.


A large space had been


cleared in the forest, and the centre of this


opening was the hotel
consisted of large log


site.


The foundation


s of hard wood, sawed


about four feet long and stood upright.


Th]ey


were set in cement on stone that was sunk
slightly below the surface of the ground.


How many of these


logs there were I cannot


say, but there was a small army of them,
aligned across Central avenue and extending
far to either side. Under the dim light of


the stars they looked like a regiment


dwarfs advancing to attack the camp.


of


Work-


men were putting the


finishing touches on


this foundation when we arrived, but


the


work was soon discontinued altogether, leav-









































Ii 1 T
Pzotograpl by 1". IC. I ian Pe V enar, 'n, 1 (







First Days in the New Colony. 65

ing the wooden army to serve as an outpost
of slowly advancing civilization. Of course,
we always directed new arrivals to the
" hotel as soon as they came in over the
Sroal from the port After a while we
became so fond of the hotel joke that I think
we should have been sorry to see the building
completed.
The bad road to the port also cut off all
chance of getting the sawmill up to La
Gloria, and it daily became more evident
that we should continue to dwell in tents for
some time to come. We were destitute
enough during those first days in the colony.
Our trunks had not come, and did not for
several weeks, and many of us were without
change of clothing or even a towel. We
washed in a small creek which ran through
the Cuban camp, wiping our hands and faces
on handkerchiefs. This and other creeks
served us well for drinking water, and theme
was also an excellent spring on the com-
pany's reserve north of the town. Very little
freight could be brought up from the port,
and hence it was that we were not over-well
supplied with provisions. There was usually
enough in quantity, but the quality was poor
and there was a painful lack of variety. The
5






Pioneering in Cuba.


engineer corps' cook house was hastily en-
larged into a public restaurant upon our
arrival, and did the best it could to feed the
hungry colonists. Some of the latter boarded
themselves from the start-purchasing what
supplies they could get at the commissary-
and perhaps had a shade the best of it.
I shall never forget my first supper in
La Gloria. It was at the company's restau-
rant. We were crowded together on long,
movable benches, under a shelter tent. Be-
fore us were rough board tables innocent
of cloth. The jejines (gnats or sand flies)
swarmed about us, disputing our food and
drink and even the air we breathed. The
food was not served in courses; it came on
all at once, and the all consisted of cold
bread without butter, macaroni, and tea with-
out milk. There wvere not even toothpicks
or glasses of water. Amid the struggling
humanity, and regardless of the inhumanity
of the jejines (pronounced by the Cubans
haheens "), my gentlemanly friend from
Medfield, Mass., sat at my right and calmly
ate his supper with evident relish. Ile was
fond of macaroni and tea. Alas' I was not.
At home he had been an employee in an
insane asylum. I, ilas had not enjoyed


66






First Days in the New Colony.


the advantages of such wholesome discipline.
Of that supper I remeInlber three things most
distinctly-the jejines, my friend's fondness
for macaroni and tea, and the saintly patience
and good-humor of our waiter, Al Noyes.
It was not long before there was an im-
provement in the fare, although no great
variety was obtainable. We usually had,
however, the best there was in camp. The
staples were salt beef, bacon, beans, and
sweet potatoes or yams, and we sometimes
had fresh pork (usually wild hog), fried
plantains, and thin, bottled honey. We often
had oatmeal or corn meal mush, and occa-
sionally we rejoiced in a cook whose culinary
talent comprehended the ability to nake frit-
ters. The bread was apt to be good, and we
had Cuban coffee three times a day. We
had no butter, and only condensed milk. It
was considerably later. when I ate at the
chief engineer's table, that we feasted on
flamingo and increased our muscular devel-
opment by struggling with old goat. If it
had been Chattey's goat, no oli would have
complained, but unfortunately it was not.
Chattey was our cook, and he kept several
goats, one of which had a pernicious habit of
hanging around the dining tent. One day,


67







































T1 SpRiNG.
Photograph by V. K. Van De Venter, 'an. 23, 1000,







First Days in the New Colony.


just before dinner, he was discovered sitting
on a pie in the middle of the table, greedily
eating soup out of a large dish. Chattey's
goat was a British goat, and had no respect
for the Constitution of the United States or
the table etiquette which obtained in the first
American colony in Cuba. The soup was
dripping from Billy's whiskers, which he had
not even taken the trouble to wipe. It is cer-
tain that British goats have no table manners.
But I am getting ahead of my story. The
condition of the road to the port was so bad
for some time after our arrival that it was
barely possible to get up sufficient provisions
to supply the daily needs of the camp, to say
nothing of other freight. We were in need
of almost everything to furnish our tents or to
begin agricultural operations. There was, to
be sure, the comnmissary," where the com-
pany had confidently assured us in its adver-
tising literature every necessary article from
a plough to a knitting needle would be on
sale "' at the most reasonable prices." As a
matter of fact, the commissary was almost as
bare as the famous cupboard of old Mother
Hubbard, and of the commodities that were
stored there, very few seemed to be fir sale


After several ineffectual


69


to the colonists.







70 Pioneering in Cuba.

attempts to get what I wanted, I entered the
commissary tent one day to make a test case.
Of Mr. Richardson, the man in charge, I
blandly inquired :
Can I get a tin pail?
No," with a gentle shake of the head.
Can I get any kind of a pail?
No," with another shake.
Can I get a tin pan or a wash basin ?"
No," with a shake.
Can I get a tin dish or an earthen dish or
a wooden dish "
No," with more shakes.
Can I buy a till Clup or an earthen mu "
No," with a vigorous shake.
Can I buy a knife, lork, or spoon?"
No, no," with two quick shakes.
Can I buy a piece of cloth of any kind?
No, sir," stiffly.
Can I buy an empty box ?"
No, sir, yon can't-need 'em all our-
selves."
Is there anything that you have got to
sell?" I inquired meekly.
Well, there is some mosquito netting over
there."
I had mosquito netting-but mosquito net-
ting did not make a very good drinking






First Days in the New Colony. 7

utensil. I left the commissary without in-
quiring for a plough or a knitting needle.
The population of La Gloria fluctuated
greatly during the first week after our ad-
vent. Our arrival and the additions of the
following day had brought the total popula-
tion of the camp up to at least three hundred.
The Wet and muddy trails, and the back-
wardness of all i mprovenents, increased
enormously the feeling of distrust among the
colonists, and some began to loudly question
the security of titles. This alarm, which ulti-
mately proved to be entirely unfounded, kept
the camp in a ferment for a day or two.
Oceans of discussion were indulged in, Mr.
Park was closely and warmly questioned,
and there was a general feeling of uneasiness
and unrest. The result was that when the
last half of the week had begun, La Gloria
had suffered a loss of nearly one hundred of
its population. Discouraged and disgusted
men made their way back to the coast, hop-
ing to get transportation to Nuevitas, and
thence back to their respective homes.
There was a delay at Port La Gloria, and a
few remained there until they had made up
their minds to return to the camp. The
others went on to Nuevitas, but were unable






Pioneering in Cuba.


to secure transportation at once to the States.
The consequence was that nearly or quite
one half eventually returned to La Gloria,
straggling in from time to time.
As the week drew to a close the town
quieted down, the restless spirits having de-
parted. Those of us who remained either
had faith in the ultimate success of the proj-
ect, or were at least disposed to give the
enterprise a fair trial. We were not easily
stampeded ; and we placed some reliance on
Senator Park's positive assurance that the
deeds would be all right. We saw, of
course, that the company's affairs had been
badly managed, and that promised improve-
ments had not as vet materialized, but, on the
other hand, we had learned from personal
observation that the land was good, the tim-
ber valuable, the drinking water pure and
abundant, and the climate delightiul beyond
description. The most of those who returned
to the States with harrowing tales either never
got as far as La Gloria at all, or else spent
less than forty-eight hours in the camp. The
majority of the colonists cheerfully stuck by
the colony, and laughed at the untruthful and
exaggerated newspaper stories as they were
sent down to us from the frozen North.


72












CHAPTER V.

'ifHE ALLOTMENT OF TiE LAND.

THE chief of the immediate problems
which confronted the colonists and the ofli-
cers of the company was the allotment of the
land. The company had purchased it, or
secured options on it, in large tracts, some
of these tracts containing over ten thousand
acres each. The colonists had contracted
for it in small holdings, varying from a town
lot, 25 x 100 feet in size, to a forty-acre tract
of plantation land. No more than forty acres
were sold to any one on a single contract.
The contracts which could be made were,
respectively, as follows : Town lots, three
sizes, 25 x 100 feet, 50 x Too, and 50 x I50;
plantation land, 2 acres, 5 acres, 10 acres,
20 acres, and 40 acres. The purchaser paid
in full or on monthly instalments, as he pre-
ferred, being allowed a discount of ten per
cent. for cash. According to the terms of the
contracts, he did not purchase the land at all,
but bought stock in a cooperative company
and the land was a gift to him. However,







74 Pioneering in Cuba.

the cooperative company feature xvas alway s
in the background in the mind of the colonist,
andl he felt that he was buying the land and
almost invariably so termed the transaction.
It was the land he had his eye on, and his
present anxiety was to have a good piece
promptly allotted to him.
At the company's headquarters in New
York, no plan of subdivision had been formu-
lated further than a general promise in adver-
tising circulars to allot the land in the order of
the numbers of the contracts. At first glance,
this seemed both fair and feasible, but once on
the ground at La Gloria, some very formida-
ble difliculties loomed up. Of the four or five
thousand persons who had invested up to
that time less than three hundred were at La
Gloria, and there was not in Cuba even a list
of the people who had made contracts with
the co mpanv. to sav nothing of their respec-
tive holdings and the status of their payments.
No such list could be obtained from New
York under several weeks or perhaps months,
and when obtained would be of little value for
the reason that there could not possibly be
land enough surveyed by that time to allot
one half of the thousands of investors. Sur-
veying in this dense tropical forest was neces-







The Allotment of the Land. 75

sarily slow work, and progress had been im-
peded by the long-continued rains.
It was manifestly impossible to make a
general allotment of the land at once, and
yet it was essential that the colonists who had
actually arrived on the spot should be given
their tracts promptly and permitted to go to
work upon them. Ti life of the colony
seemed to hinge on action of this sort. Ctrite
early the company had stated that the subdi-
visin would be made about January 1, and
when General Van der Voort arrived in New
York in the latter part of December, he
assured the colonists who were preparing to
sail with him to Cuba that they shoulI have
their land by January 15. This promise was
carried out to the letter, and was the only
rational course of action that could be pur-
sued under the existing circumstances. It
undoubtedly saved the colony at what was a
critical stage. During the voyage down, the
colonists on board the 1lirmouth were greatly
exercised over the method of allotment that
is to say, many of them were, while others
declared that they would be satisfied if they
only got their land promptly. General Van
der Voort gave the subject much anxious con-
sideration, seeking to devise a plan which







Pioneering in Cuba.


should be at once just and practical.


le


finally decided that the fairest and best thing
to do was to place the matter in the hands of


a committee of the colonists, giving


them the


power to prescribe the method of allotment


within certain limitations,


subject to the ap-


proval of the colonists on the ground.


described


this as the town-meet-


ing principle, and his decision gave entire
satisfaction to the pioneers.
General Van der Voort arrived in La


Gloria ThursdaY, January


II, having


re-


mained behind at Nuevitas to see the bag-
gage of the colonists through the custom
house. This accomplished, he took passage
for La Gloria on board the lighter carrying


the trunks, etc.
smooth one. T


The voyage was not a
he boat came near being


wrecked in the rough sea, and suffered the


loss of its rudder.


Finally an anchorage


was effected about a dozen miles


from the


La Gloria shore, and General Van der Voort
and others were taken off in a small boat.
The trunks and other baggage were not


landed until


nearly a week later, and it was


several weeks before much of the luggage


reached La Gloria city.


The contents of


many of the trunks suffered serious damage


general


The


76






The Allotment of the Land. 77

from water and mould, although in some cases
the things came through entirely uninjured.
General Van der Voort rode from Port La
Gloria to the camp on horseback, a hard trip,
for the road had not improved. The mud
and water and debris made it a slow and
exhausting journey. Ile assumed charge of
the company's business ill the colony at once.
Arrangements were Inade for a prompt allot-
ment of the and, and a committee of nine
colonists, with Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopes-
toll, Ill., as chairman, was chosen to devise a
plan of distribution. After several prolonged
sessions, the committee unani mously reported
a scheme by \vhicll those present should
select their land from the official map in the
order of the priority of their purchases. After
these, the investors having authorized repre-
sentatives on the ground, the latter holding
powers of attorney, were to have their chance.
In this second class, also, priority of purchase
governed the order of selection. The report
further provided that the investor should be
allowed a second choice if he found his land
to be unsatisfactory. This plan, which I be-
lieved then and believe now was the best that
could have been devised, was adopted by the
colonists with but a single dissenting vote.






Pioneering in Cuba.


On Saturday, January 13, the allotment
began, in what was known as headquarters
tent. The committee which had formulated
the plan of distribution was in charge, as-
sisted by Chief Engineer Kelly, Architect
Neff, and others. The town lots were given
out first, and by night nearly all who were
entitled to make selections in these classes
had been served. The town lot distribution
xvas completed Monday morning, the 15th.
The town was one mile square, and had been
laid out and surveyed under the supervision of
I'. A. Custer Neil', civil engineer and archi-
tect. It was traversed and counter-traversed
by streets and avenues, appropriately named.
These were as yet, for the most part, only
surveyors' paths cut through the forest, but
they were much used as thoroughfares to
reach town lots and the plantation lands be-
yond. They were rough roads, filled with
mud, water, stumps, stubble, and roots, but
with the advent of the dry season they became
more easily passable. The highway running
through the centre of the town to and from
the coast was known as Central avenue, and
the road passing through the centre at right
angles was called Dewey street. Around the
intersecting point, the exact centre of the town,


78






The Allotment of the Land.


space had been reserved for a large plaza.
Central avenue and Dewey street were each
designed to be one hundred feet wide, and
were naturally the paths most used by the
colonists. The former actually extended from
the rear line of the town northward to the
bay, ive miles away,while the latter continued
from the side lines of the town out into the
plantation lands to the east and west. The
town site was well chosen. It has a fair ele-
vation above the sea, a firm, hard soil, with
steadily rising ground. The front line of the
town is about twenty feet above tidewater; the
centre about one hundred feet, and the rear
line nearly or quite two hundred feet. Around
the town was a belt of land a quarter of a mile
wvide reserved by the company ; then came
the plantations on every side.
When the committee finished the allotment
of town lots on the morning of January ij, it
was found that nearly five hundred lots had
been taken up out of a total in all classes of
about three thousand six hundred. The col-
onists had not been slow in selecting corner
lots, and the lots on Central avenue and those
facing the plaza on all sides were early pre-
empted. The colonists had faith that a real
city would rise on the chosen site. When the


79






Pioneering in Cuba.


demand for town lots had been satisfied, the
committee began at once to give out the plan-
tation land. The choice was necessarily re-
stricted to about eight or ten thousand acres
to the west, southwest, and northwest of the
town, which was all that had been surveyed
up to that time. When this condition was
discovered by the colonists, the unsurveyed
land to the north, south, and east began, natu-
rally enough, to appear far more desirable in
the eyes of the investors than that which had
been surveyed to the westward, and some
refused to make a selection at all, preferring
delay to a restricted choice. The great ma-
jority, however, mindul that they were priv-
ileged to change if the land was not satisfac-
tory, went ahead and made their selections.
As a matter of fact, the surveyed tract to the
westward was probably as good as any, all of
the land held by the company being rich and
highly productive.
The first man to choose his plantation was
Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopeston, Ill., who, it
so chanced, was chairman of the committee
on allotment. Dr. Peirce's contract was No.
2, and it was dated in January, 1899. But
few contracts were made before April of that
year. Contract No. i was not on the ground,


8o







The Allotment of the Land.


and no one present knew who was the holder.
The allotment was well conducted, and went
on quite rapidly. It was eagerly watched by
a large group of interested spectators, inpa-
tiently awaiting their turn. Some tried to
extract inside information from the surveyors,
who were supposed to know the relative value
of every square foot of the land, but the ma-
jority either made their choice blindly, with
knowledge of nothing save the proximity of
the tract to the town, or trusted to the meagre
information they had acquired regarding the
character of the land in different localities
during their tramps in the few days since their
arrival.
It was a strange scene. Men of all ages
and occupations, coming from nearly every
one of the United States, and several other
countries, strangers until a few days before,
were crowded together in a large tent, each
anxious to do the best possible for himself, and
yet in few instances discourteous to his neigh-
bor. It Was a good-natured, well-behaved
crowd, and there was no friction in the pro-
ceedings. The colonists were satisfied that
the plan of allotment was a fair one ; there
was no complaint about anything except the
restricted choice. Monday night saw the
6


81

































































t .. ,.





:

%
..
a 1. ?.



@:..

4 .
yFu
p 4 h.:.
jr+ 4




{ y



q v y a
k







The Allotment of the Land.


allotment well advanced, and Tuesday it was
finished. Everybody then on the ground who
wished to make a selection for himself or
those whom he represented had been accom-
modated, and the committee's duties were at
an end. Nearly seven thousand acres of
plantation land had been allotted.
As soon as they had selected their land from
the map the colonists scurried out into the
surrounding country to find it. The woods
were full of men hunting their plantations.
It was no easy matter to find theme, since there
was nothing to go by but the numbered stakes
of the surveyors. These were anything but
plain guides to the uninitiated, and even the
more understanding were sometimes baffled
by reason of indistinct figures or missing
stakes. The result was that many viewed
other people's land for their own, while some,
conscious of their helplessness, gave up the
search for the time being. The majority,
however, found their land with no more diffi-
culty than was inevitable in a long tramp
through the rough and muddy paths of a jun-
gle. The mosquitoes kept us company, and
the parrots scolded us from overhead, but
there were no wild beasts or venomous


snakes to be dreaded.


83


Probably there are no






84


Pioneering in Cuba.


tropical forests in the world so safe as those
of Cuba ; one may sleep in them night after
night without fear of death or disease. This
is true, at least, of the country within a radius
of forty miles from La Gloria, as I can testify
from personal experience and observation.
In most cases the colonists were pleased
with their land when they found it, and the
changes were comparatively few. A little of
the lowest land was more or less under water,
but even this was rarely given up, the holders
discovering that it was very rich, and realizing
that it would be all right in the dry season,
and that it could be drained for the wet.
Some experienced men from Florida showed
a decided preference for this land, and later
it developed that their judgment was good.
This lowest land was of black soil; that
slightly higher was apt to be yellow, and the
highest red or chocolate. All these different
colored soils were embraced in the allotment
which had been made, and they all repre-
sented good land. The colonists could never
agree as to which was the best. Undoubtedly
some were superior for certain purposes to
others, but all appeared to be fertile and gave
promise of being very productive. The black
and yellow soils were almost entirely free







The Allotment of the Land.

from stone, while the red and chocolate


some, but sel
The colonists
i h their town n
once on their


doing enough to
set to work with


lots, and
plantation


o anV harm.
energy clear-


a tew began work
Is. The colony w


at
gas


sooni at hi)15 hive of induillstrl





NT


had












CHAPTER VI.


Tc SucAR Rior.

ArrE It the middle of January and the be-
ginning of the allotment of the land, the
population of La Gloria began to pick up "
somewhat. Colonists who had been linger-
ing at Nuevitas, and some new ones who had
come down front the States by the Munson
line, would straggle in from time to time.
People were coming and going almost every
day, but the balance was in favor of the col-
ony and the population slowly but surely
increased. Among the new arrivals were
quite a number of women and children.
About Januarv 20 the advance guard of the
colonists who had Cone on the second excur-
sion of the )armouih made its appearance.
On this trip the Jarmou/h brought about
sixty passengers, the majority of whom finally
got up to La Gloria. More would have come
if Nuevitas at that time had not been a hotbed
of misrepresentation regarding conditions in
the new colony. All the unfavorable features
were grossly and ridiculously exaggerated,






The Sugar Riot.


while stories of starvation, sickness, and
death were poured into the ears of new
arrivals until nany an intending colonist be-
came convinced that it would be taking his
life in his hand for him to make even the
briefest visit to La Gloria. Such is the ten-
dencv of human nature to exaggerate, and to
build a big sensation out of a small nucleus.
People who had never seen La Gloria were
the ones whose representations seemed to be
most credited in the States and by the new
arrivals therefrom. I saw a letter received
by one of the company 's officials at La Gloria
from a woman in Asbury Park, N. J., who


was nearly crazed by a
est son, who was then
had heard frequently
who had been in La G
corps for several month
written very favorably
said, but she had lately
inan who had returned
had told a terrible st
danger in the colony.
showed clearly that sh
counts of her son and
man who had brought b
why\ she credited the


ety for her yo
the colonY.


ung-
She


from her oldest son,
jloria with the survey
s, and he had always
of the place, so she
seen an Asburv Park
from Nuevitas and he
ory of suffering and
Tl he woman's letter
e discredited the ac-
accepted those of the
rack a harrowing tale.
story of i man who


87


















000 :,z DuvN \L)/O f 7 [ y/ V / I '/)it/)\


ri


^





The Sugar Riot. 89

never got further than Nuevitas in preference
to that of her own son, who had been at La
Gloria for months, I never could understand,
especially as the latter was an intelligent and
apparently perlectly reliable young man.
1)oubtless inortflIs are predisposed to beli ex
fle worst. I looked up the woman's Young-
est son, and found him w ell and happy, and
ready to join with his brother in speaking
favorablV of La Gloria.
Meanwhile, we were living contentedly in
La Gloria, enjoying excellent health and suf-
fering no serious discomfort, and laughing in
uproarious glee over the sensational articles
which appeared in nany of the nVspapers
o0 the States. With no little surprise we
learned from the great newspapers of the
United States that we were narooned in a
Cuban swamp,' sull'erina from malaria and
starvation." and "1 dvinig of yellow fever and
smallpox." As a matter of fact, at that time
there had not been a single death or one case
of serious sickness. Te health of the colo-
uists remained good through the winter, the
spring, and even the following suninner.
Indeed, the colonists had but few griev-
ances, so fexv that they would sometimes
manufacture them out of trifles. Of such ""as






Pioneering in Cuba.


the sugar riot with its laughable and har-
monious ending. One day in the latter part
of January. when the arrival of provisions
was barely keeping pace with the arrival of
colonists, a small invoice of sugar was
brought into La Gloria over the bad road
front the port. Scarcely had it been un-
loaded at the commissary when the head of
the engineer corps took possession of about
half of it for the surveyors and the boarders
at their table, and gave orders that the other
hal should be turned over to the Cuban
workmen of the company. The carrying out
of this order aroused great indignation among
the colonists who were boarding themselves
and had run out of sugar, as most of them
had. T1his action of the amateur sugar
trust caused certain of the colonists to sour.
so to speak, on all of the officers and chief
employes of the company, for the time 1eing,
at least, and mutterings, "'not loud but deep,"
were heard all about the camp. Not that
there was danger of a sanguinary conflict,
but a war of words seemed imminent. The
era of good feeling was threatened.
A day or two later, on the evening of
Saturday, January 27, a iieeting of the colo-
nists was held preparatory to the organization


9o






The Sugar Riot.


of a pioneer association, and it was arranged
among some of the leading spirits in the
sugar agitation that at the close of this session
the saccharine grievanCe should 1e publicly
aired. The gathering was held larolnd a
camp-tire in the open air, in front of head-
quarters tent. The regularly called meeting
adjourned early, w ith a feeling of excited
expectancy in the air. Something was about
to happen. The officers of the company on
the ground, it Was understood, weere to be
raked over the coals for favoring the Cubans
and thus perpetrating an outrage on the colo-
nists. The colonists whose tempers had been
kept sweet hy a sufliciencv of sugar lingered
around in the pleasant anticipation of witness-
ing an opera hoc/Ii.
But it was the unexpected that happened.
Just as the sugar orators were preparing
to orate, a man with nimddV boots pushed
through the crowd and entered headquarters
tent. A moment later the stalwart form of
Colonel M aginniss emerged fr-on the tent,
and in his hand he bore a slip of paper. It
was a cablegram from New York, which had
just been brought in from Nuevitas, announc-
ing the election of General Van der Voort as
president of the Cuban Land and Steamship


91i







IiOt1CCri-1 10 III ( i a.


read t tO the
inlstant, alld


Whcn the
cro\d, thIr
thlen the ;Ilr


There ha(d net er
G_"ncral 'an der
ctolunists had fu lt
do8Ition to t0( c
upon his elect ion l
comlpany;IS the" be
suco-'s of the ent
di strullstful eof the
pmny : the dhwice
spired thema with,
dece. It w\S the
was the beSt thing


dispatch had been
c was silence f-or ;un
wa

been an
Voort's
ta-ith ini
olony1. 8a
to the
st possil
crprisc.

for thI I
relle cd


'n
tha


tnnlo1
t could


p pularity .
his honest
nd bcnie c
presidency
1e s1(rIty I
TIhey had
nent I I the-
IIt VttIilit V


hnpc and


s opmI
IS jil


.4
y


about
'1he
;Indl
oked
)1 the
>r the
been
Com01-
nt in-
coni-


inn that it
happened.


Ile

II
wa it


tiI I
and
;ill
prat
cab

the

a
Cn 1


\ as the right Ultn in the riuht i )
ill hA (iluria to stagy and reckon
as a C')1{)liSt ;i 14uIg thI (m1.
h* sa1 r a}. itators \or\tot that their
1not been swe ctened for I(orty-iht
* joiin Il hc tily in th. Ch rinFi I
who had "cime to s(o i renlti
y. so to sprak. It wIs voted to
l ilram to the NcV \ork office aln
the deep satisfaction ao- the colon
choice made fur pr'Sident. G
n der Voort responded to calls and
excellent speech.


c
d


; r h


coffee
hours,
I fact,
ned to
send a
nlotnlll'-
ists il
cncEraI
1 ade


O)2






The Sugar Riot.


93f


A little later in the evening there was a
big demOstration in 1h1nor 1 Of the signrjtiint
event. More than thitllii else it resem-
bled a Fourth of Jtuly CeltblratiOn. ]Illnflr)
were lighted 1and salutes tired, and the air
of La Gloria resml Ided with cheers. Tlh
Cubals Clame vcr \lIromi their Cliipl, and ;dtcr
the Anericans had got through, started in
for a celibration of their oXwn. Thjis \was
partly because of their fldness 6r General
Van der Voort and partly on account )I their
childish love of noise and displaV. The colo-
nists becalne coInvinced that night that if the
Cubans (v\r become Anericani citizens thcv
will be equal to all of the Fourth t Jtily
requirements. The noise they made douhl
discounted that made bV the colonists. Th
cheered ai(d shouted and Bired salutes hy the
hundred. iThy marched up and dow i the
main street, singing and lajghingr and bl-
ing conch shells. hey freed Cubit oer
again, and had t rattling good tile in doing
it. It seemed as if the racket would nevir
end, but about midnight they went jabbering
back to their camp. It was the noisiest night
in the history of La Gloria. Bit the sugar
riot" was averted, ;Ind never took place.













ClIAPTER VII.

An\ExT UR ES AND MISADVENTURES.


mONG thle dozenW
the most striking IIgu
Danish widow, who
states, IPennsVlv ania,
say exactly wheni sh
but she was one of the
arrive, and achieved t
ing the first house in
of sex, it was not elis
Mrs. Moller upon a
Slight of figure, with I
cut hair, she vor a b
UFs, a VVry short ski
while her helt Iairv


and k
person
her to
sonlew
She
where
comp,
living


wOImen
re \ as
c'111 fr4o
I iclie\
e reach
earliest


in the camp,
Mls. Moller, a
ml one of the
,. I cannot
d La Gloria,
of her sex to


he distinction of build-
the bcity.- Speaking
v to determine that of
casual ac(ujtintanCe.
)ronzed face and clos.-
oV's cap, house, trous-
rt, andt ruber boots,
briStled with revolvers


I Iivcs. She w a., a quiet, imllpert urbable
1, how over, and it wV\as diflicult to get
relate her adkveutures, which had been
hat extraordinarily.
first came into La Gloria from Palota,
she landed fromt my than her trunk. There was not a
perSon at or near Palota, so, deserting






Adventures and Misadventures.


her baggage, she started out ahwdt and alone,
and attempted to make her wiy along the
muddy and ditIhcult trail nine miles to ixa
Gloria. It W;s a hard road to travel, with
scarcely a habitation alone the way. Late
in the alternoon she reached an inhabited
shark, and the Culais invited her to spend
the night. Althouigt wIearv, she (IClined
the invitation, ;ilnd pressed on. I arkness


soon overtook her, but
through the dense wood
exceedingly rough, and
among stumps, roots, a
Every few steps she Ill
becoming exhausted, she
spend the night in the
She had no shelter whatc
of making a lire. She
night, not being abk t
only company heoli the
morning she toutnd she h


at last
taken


still she kep
s. The trail
.he stumbled a
nd muddy gtu
down, and fii


was
heart
vcer,
sat in-
1 go

td lo.


struck a Cuban trail,
by a natk e horseman


t on
Wits
don"
llics.
nalky


compelled to
of the forest.
and no mncam"
I the woods all
to sleep, her
uitoes. In til
st her way, but
and was ov er-
. Ile kindly


gVAve her a place in tiont of him on his pony,
and thus she entered the youthful city of La
Gloria.
Nor ~as this Mrs. 74oller's last adventure.
She had an extraordinary faculty for getting


95






Pioneering in Cuba.


into trouble. Iler trunk, which she had aban-
doned at iU1Iota, was"; killed by some one,
probably a wandering Cuban, and she spent
much time in traveling about the country
seeking to get the authorities to hunt up the
ofieinlcr and recover the stolen gr)o(ds. On
one occasion she started in the early evening
to \\alk into La Gloria trio) the port. WIen
she had dot about half Way darkness came on
and she lost the indistinct trail across the
savanna. Not daring to fo further, she
roosted in a tree all night. Iicr idea in tak-
ing to the tree \\as that the mosquitoes would
be less numerous at such an elevation, but
she did not escape them altogether. Nothing
serious happened and she ttirined up in camp
all right the next morning. Mrs. Mol1er had
no better luck when she rode than when she
walked. At one tine, while driving from Las
:Minas to Nievitas in a wagon wvith another
colonist, the team w\ent over an embankment
in the darkness and was so bad1v damaged
that she and her companion were obliged to
walk into Nuevitas, twelve or fifteen miles
distant, along the railroad track. The jour-
ney was neither easy nor pleasant.
But Mrs. 'Moller had both pluck and enter-
prise. She it was who built the first house in


go






and rl isadventures.


9-


Ia Gloria, (. low r8hin I'' up in the \Omls on


&C1)tral Uvn (ll.
part of Jainary
and a Cuthban to


It wlS put up


in the latter


She mployed ;in Arricatn


construct


cred with


t


r4
y a+1 L .Y


NI t.. (rr 1<\


superv ised


when it was done planted sunt
trees, pineapples, etc., around


he house, and
lowers, banana


it.


here alone for some time before she


near neighbors.


She lived
had ally


Mrs. Moller also enjoyed


FI1R>T lon' -


of t


Adventures


It, anld Ihad it


;t catn\

10


the erection





Pioneering in Cuba.


the distinction of owning the first cow, the
first calf, and the first goat in La Gloria. As
these animals roamed at large much of the
time and were noisy, disorderly beasts, they
were any-thing but popular ill the colony.
They were so destructive e to planted things,
that the threats to plant the cow and her
unhappy offspring were numerous and oft-
repeated, and the subject was discussed in
more than one meeting of the Pioneer Associa-
tion. It was said that Mrs. Moller had come
to La Gloria with the idea of starting a dairy
business, and it was further reported that she
had taken the first prize for dairy butter at
the World's Fair in Chicago. But the dairy
did not materialize, and La Gloria long went
butterless.
It was a standing wonder with is that the
Rural Guards did not disarm Mrs. Moller.
They fretquenty met her as she traveled
about the country, and must have seen that
she carried deadly weapons. They did not
relieve her of them, however, but the Ameri-
can authorities at La Gloria finally forbade
her to wear her revolvers about the camp.
It must not be thought that Mrs. Moller
always dressed as I have described her. On
state occasions, such as Sunday services and


98





Adventures and Misadventures.


the regular Saturday night meetings of the
Pioneer Association, she doffed her blue blouse
and rubber boots, and came out with a jacket
and the most innaculate starched and stiff
bloomers, gorgeous in light and bright colors.
At such times she was a wonder to behold.
Mrs. Moller spoke broken English, and was
not greatly given to talking except when she
had business on hand.
But if Mrs. Moller was the most striking
figure in camp, the most ubiquitous and irre--
pressible person was Irs. Horn of South
Bend, Indiana. She was one of the earliest
arrivals in La Gloria, coming in with two
sons and a daughter, but without her hus-
band. Mrs. IJorn was a loud-voiced, good-
natured woman, who would have tipped the
scales at about two hundred and fifty poundIs,
provided there had been ainy scales in La
Glori a to be tipped. She reached La Gloria
before the ) arnion/I colonists, but how is
something of a mystery. It is known, how-
ever, that she waded in through miles of mud
and water, and was nothing daunted by the
experience. Never for a moment did she
think of turning back, and when she had
pitched her tent, she announced in a high,
shrill voice that penetrated the entire camp,


99





100 Pioneering ini Cuba.

that she whits in the coloiiy to stay. She had
livct in South Viend, Indl., anti thought she
could stand anlythtin' that mtighlt come to her
in La G1Orin.
iIrs. IJorl claimed to be a le to (IO anyt-
thin;; andi go anywvhcrc that it Iman could, andt
lO one \aS inclined to dispute the ;sscrtiOn.
She had the temperament which nevtr gets
Srattlcd,- and wh len she woke up one might
and ti1u1d at brook lomr inches drop ad i oot
\idc runnini throu gh her tent slit w:as not in
the least disconcerted. In the morinii shi
used it to wash her dishes in. She continued
to make use of it until it dried up a day or
twI later. One of Mlis. I forns distiictiois
was that she was the first wtmin;ii to take a
sea bath at Port La Gloria, walkinga the round
trip of eight miles to do so. She was both a
good walker and a good swimmer. She was
delighted with La Gloria and Cuba. Iier
sns wAere near lV man-grown. and( her daugh-
ter was about twelve years of age. It was
one of the diversios of the camp to hear
Mrs. Ilorn call Edna at a distance of a quar-
ter of a mile or more. Mrs. Itorn may un-
hesitatingly be set down as a good colonist.
Though at times too voluble, perhaps, she was
energetic, patient, kind-hearted, and generous.







Adventures and Misadventures. 101

When the colonists \w1 came (in the );r-
m/1 //h first -rrived in La Gloria miaiy i f them
vwerc ca;;r tier hunting and tishin ,lbnt th(
sport of hunting Old hMols v cry- smn reccivAd
ia sethack. An H'nglishman 1)y the namne of
Curtis and two or three others went Milt to
hunt for big ;ramc. .After a rwugh and Nvcary
tramp td 1may m alils. thcy suddenly caml in
sight of a \whOI drO of hors. Ih\ y had
travcled so filr withmut seeing any (vanr,
that they culd scarcely hlhcvc their cycs,
but they R(O\VUred thiemseSl\s and( blaZCd
awy\X. Tjh result was that th.y trudged
into camp smile hours later trituphantly
shoulderinn the cirtCasses of three young
pigs. The triumph of the hiters was short-
lied, howvctxr. ThO next imrnin an in-


diignant C
( yc and
was ]n st
shot his
could 1otA
eight dol
The1 next
camiip wxitI
of him.
and the im
Curtis, cl


tiban
a kcc
arch
pigs.
he
lairs
day
h a i
This


r()de int() counp wIth I ire i
n cd(( ( 1(n his ImI achi'te.
of the '.Americanos"
IIr sMon frond them
niMliliied until he wV 11
in Mood American nu
the samel Cuban rodr
T ad pig on his h)rs in'
vw as larger than the ot


n his
Ilie
vh
and
paid

into
Front
her"'.


an waint'd seVrnten dollars for it.
a/, did not know whether they






102 Pioneering in Cuba.

shot the animal or not, but they paid the
"'hombre" twelve dollars. The following
day the Cuban again appeared bringing
another deceased porker. This was a full
grown hog, and its owner fixed its value at
twenty dollars. Again he got his money,
and the carcass as well. Ilow much longer
the Cuban would have continued to bring in
dead pigs, had he lnot been made to under-
stand that he would get no more ioney,
cannot be stated. TO this (lay, Curtis and
his friends do not know whether they actually
killed all those pigs. What they are sure of
is that there is small dit lerence in the appear-
ance of wild hogs and those which the
Cubans domesticate. And this is why the
hunting of wild hogs became an unpopular
sport in La Gloria.
The colony had its Mild excitements now
nid again. One evening there was Ion g
coitintel tiring of guns and blowing of
conch shells in that corner of the camp
where the surveyors had their tents. Inquir-
ing the cause, we learned that three sur-
veyors were lost in the woods and that the
noise was being made to iiiform them of the
location of the camp. The men, who had
come to Cuba as colonists, had separated







Adventures and Misadventures. 103

from the surveying party just before dark
and attempted to make a short cut back to
the camp. They had been at work in a low,
wet section two or three miles northwest of
the town, and their progress hmexward was
necessarily slow. Thev had not proceeded
far when it became perfectly (Lark and it was


borne in upon them that cutt
lots in a Cuban forest 'was quite
matter from doing it in some of
They were obliged to suspend
hold up Ifor the night. Although


in;g across
a different
the States.
travel and
they could


faintly hear
camp they \
through the
without food
an axe with
to keep there
tempted to
hard bed an


the reports
'ere unable
thick wood
or anythi ng
thn, they c
n fr-oml the


sl
dI


eel
the


upon
Imtllner


not conducive to sleep,
finally succumbed. W


of the guns in the
to make their way in
Is. The men were
for shelter. I aving
hopped don a tree,
wet round, and at-
its brLllches. The
oHls mosquitoes were
but the tired telloVws
hen they awoke in


the morning, one of them found that
slipped down and was lying with his
the water. Not long after daylig[
came into camp wet, tired, and hung
Vals no uncommon thing for surveyors
lost, but nothing serious ever resulted.


1he had
legs in
t they
ry. It
to get












CHAPTER \iII.

Till;: CIA\Ns.


I \aI often asked,
al\\ githl the Cihan,
(muiry mti-ght he made as
w ith the Apaches, o
(fone man said, decidecdly,

Cuba, but f cmuld never
Ice had ncver secen a Cu
Wec got alwwg with t


Ilo did X)I (rct
(ery rnch as iu-
tu huow we~ (got along
ith the Modocs: and
- I think I might like
stand those Cubtls.
ball, I b)cieve.
he Cubans very well


indeed, much better than with


nexpericnc
\IInCe of


iII the
c with
Puerto


Mates.
the inh
Principle


people on the face of the
with" than the Cubans.
anlost without exceptioi
kind, hospitable, and
somietimi s sc1cud as if
thcY \(Iuld not do Cor Us
power. They appeared
and fair tr.atient, and t(
the s58me to us. Thos


J
tbit
, th
cart





1. C
hon
the
tha
to

Ne c


some of our


d~g ing IrOml Otur
tnts of the pro-
ere are no better
Ih to get along
Wec found them,
ourtcous, social,
est. Indeed, it
ere was nothing
t lay within their
appreciate kind
eager to return
canmo in contact


classes,


with w ere mtainly


ofi the humlbler







Tllt Cubans.


bit \vw sa\\ nothing;
hi her in the sodia
and ransidcerate.
seemed to like the
* nists certainly re
After a residence c
them, Iln. Peter
declare d that there v
the Cuban. as iI an
cV(er fallen in with,
cas n l.a GIria coe
I can eatsily oonlc
Cubans would1( exhih


to indicate that
I scale x ere less fri
Thle CbIans e


Lnlericmns, ald the col-
prO(iated the Iuccjlin :.
nearly it ycar alnmi(;
E. Paruk cnmph atita
is as little mijealiness in
class 1 people hr lad
mnd manyv other Amncri-
oed this sentimient.
ite that under abuse the
saner err d1ia-reeable


qualities, but


spirit does not undt
Self-contrOl is not a
the Cuban, and he i
1tl)(up 1 his enemlyi in
tetrliest opportunity.
treatmulent, he is yau
feieids we tilund tl
colony at La Gloria.
are ; eSy-I ,
people, and they disp
to forci lers hto


.

s



r


'r such clrculistances? .
marked characteristic of
apt to rcevellge himself
aniy way he can at the
But with kind and just
friend, and very good
ese Cubans--we of the
X mong themselk-s they
tpo.d-natured, talkative
lay these salme qualities
Approach them rig;htly-.


Rude they\ never are, but they sometime
a childish sullenness Iwhen ottlendCd.
in their likes amt dislikes, they often


es show
Strong
exhibit


th( sc
undlym
mlit


lt)5


and doanger'Ous


vvhat pc()ple od







6 ioneering in Cuba.


no little devotion to those whom thev esteem
or respect, and I believe them to he quite as
reliable and trustworthy as the average among
the inhabitants of the tropics. I have heard
it said that the Cubans of some of the other
provinces do not compare favorably with those
of Puerto Principe, which may be true ; vet I
cannot help thinking that the race as a whole
has been much maligned. Under a strong,
just government I believe they would prove
to 1e excellent citizens, but I do not expect
that they will soon develop much administra-
tive ability.
Some writers and travelers have ilone the
Cubans justice, but many obviously have not.
The soldiers of the United States arm y have
an unconcealed dislike for them, which the
Cubans, naturally enough, ardently recipro-
cate. Perhaps the soldiers expect too much
homage froum ia people upon whom they feel
they conferred the priceless boon of liberty.
At all events, in many cases Where there has
been bad blood between the two, it is easy to
believe that the soldiers were the most to
blane, fP r the Cubans as we met them were
anything but aggressive. Many a Yankee
could take lessons of them in the noble art of
minding one's own business.


m06







The Cubans.


So much hir the character of the Cubans.
Less can be said for their style of living, which
in the rural districts and some parts of the
cities is primitive to the verge of squalor. In
the country around La Gloria it was no un-
commnon thing to find a Cuban who omned
htindlreds or thousands of acres of laud-most
of it uncultivated, to be sure-living ini a small,
palm-thatched hut with no other floor than the
hard red soil. The house would be furnished
in the scantiest way a rd11(le wooden table, a
few chairs, and perhaps a rough bench or two.
Often there would he no beds other than ham-
mocks, 11o stoves, and sometimes not even a
fireplace of ally description. The meals, such
as thev were, would be cooked in the open
front of the shack over a fire usually built on
the ground. Occasionally the enclosed room
which formed the rear of the shack would
halve an uneven loard floor, but thur were
never any carpets or rugs, or even a mattiing
of any sort. Of course there was no paint or
varnish, and very little color about the place
save the brown of the dry thatch on the roof
and the brick-red grime fromi the soil which
colored, or discolored, everything it came in
contact with like a pigment. This red stain
was astonishingly in evidence every where.


107







ioS


Pioncring in Cuba.


It \as to he seen upon the poles which sup-
portid the hut, O al of the turnitur upon
the clothing of the inmnatcs, and ev(ill upon
their persons. It looked like red paint, and
vidntly \\as aboit as hard to get o11. The
huge \\heels of the bullock carts seemed to be
painted with it, anrd the mIAhngany and cedar
log hauled out of the tinrest took on the color.
In a Wxalking trip to the city of Puerto Prin-
ripc I passed through ;a region about twenlty
miles from Ta Gloria where nearly all the
trees along the road were colored as .Venly
lire aoit tWO leet finr m the (frotn(d as if their
trunks Ihad been careflly Jpailntel red. My\I
companions and I pondered Over this matter
forr some timec and finally arrivedd lit the opinion
that wild hogs, or possible\ a Lrge drove of
domesticated swine, had rolled in the red dust
of the Iiifl\\ay and then rubbed up against
the lneifglhboring trees. 'he were colored
to about the height of a hog's back. This
seemfcd to be the oly resonable explanation,
and is undouhtedIy the true one. This region
\Vas close to the Culitas m.ountains, where the
Cuba) insurgents long had their capital and
kept their cattle to su)l)V the army in the field ;
it may be that thiey had also large droves of
hogs which rUO8md thrmgIl the near-l)v coun-
try.






The Cubans.


The CubIa home, iS I foudl them in the
rural districts around 1L; GMuria were not
ormnnrnted cith book, ;md picturee. ume-
tities., to be sie, there wt)uld he a fIv litho-
4 1rahlS tacked ill). wil(d I had reaSon to belii c
that the houses w rc not \w holly dcStitute of
hooks, but they \\ere never in e\idetnc. rTie
thin s that were alwa;vs in &vidnce \cre
children, chicken,, AIM (MY,, Auld ulten ptiq<
and goats. There \as i delocracy ahi uut the
domu.Stic economy of tl lollSYhold that must
laic been hially c lattcering to the chickcln ,
do ., j i S, et. lhey alway\ h\ ad a li the
right, and price ilegecs that the children or envn
the adults had. 1 h \ Sc!n i. t\\o-year-old
child 1 1A n a at eating contentedly out of the
s,;ne dish.
But if the children wer al1\\yS in \icdence,
their clothinr oftntimeS \\as not. Nothingf is
mtort common in Cuba than to sec youn, chil-
dren in unabashed nakedness. Ihcir nudity
is c(llplete, and their uncotnscioun111ss absolute.
In nature's g'arb they toddle dln ,om()f l o ( the
streets of the cities, and in the rural districts
they limay be seen in the same condition in and
around their humble holies. Naked babies
lie kicking in hammocks or more quietly in
their mothers' arms, and naked children run


I r x)



















































FRAN K
( One of the


1. O'R eisLLy.
E~a~r' C o/c/ss.)






The Cubans.


about at play. I once stopped it at shack to
get coffee, and while waiting in the open front
of the casa" fo r its preparation, was sur-
rounded by a bevy of bright little children
who had neglected to put on their clothes. At
last it seemed to occur to a pretty tour-year-
old girl that she was not properly attired for
company, so she sat down on the dirt floor
and pulled on a slipper' She appeared some-
v what disturbed at not being able to 1ind its
mate, and hunted quite a while for it, but
finally gave up the search and accepted the
situation, evidently concluding that a single
shoe vas clothing enoIgl in which to receive
even such distinguished guests as Ameri-
Canos." With the adult neinbers of the
family, also, this nakedness of the children
passes as a matter of course. The climate is
so mild that clothing is not demanded, but I
caught myself wondering if insects never
bite Cubans.
The Cubans are rather an abstemious peo-
ple. They care little for their food and are
not given to excessive drinking. Those in
the country around La Gloria lived chiefly on
pork, stewed beans, rice, and boniatos (sweet
potatoes). It is a mistaken idea that they do
not eat much meat ; they eat a great deal of


I1I1






112ering l n Cuba.


pt rk in all forms. 81nd Seem to be l q (I tIily lil
)f wild h( g aln( the domtestietd anima ,l. A\S


a latter of I act,


there is small dilltrenct


tWtiC'c the tWo.
I Vt practicall
tastes aIbol)t ts
the fItted pork
Cubanis keep a
pcrstonal observ
(.;it mtuch it.
smii l, but tht
apiece and the
doztn. Tlie C
the promince of


het
;; t


i,
it


but thi
, \Iil c


s
S


y)


I(oth
no t
tich
f Nv


;I
it
Ii
w


re razor 1
on them.
kc bht f as
England


back-,"
The
it does
linl U


* j t.


lhke
The


1 t 1


good deal of you
;tio I cannot
The henls ;idI
ormer sell ft
latter for shout
Cuban in the r
P'ucrto l'rinripe


ma i\
Ulb


he because
,und mutttn


it
;r


sIy t
the
r to


iit vsi

i: nt
e til


h[ii thv

tt doll; r
c'tnt ;i


SAery liile

h eatry .)i
4er t85 .t


The Cuhans mtk. uxcelltnt coffee of their
owvtin risinlg, which tey invariably drink mith-
out milk. Colfcc alone liorms the carly
breakfast, the stibs~ttial breakfast briln; at
ten o clock, and the dinner ( la comila ) at three
or lour o'clock. Thcrc is nothing eat after
this, but there may be coflee ill the eoeIilng.
In tact, the Ctbans are liable to drink codlee
at an y hour of the day, and they a] lways wind
up their two regular meals with it. ThIie v are
fond of sweets, particularly' a sort of preserved
orange (dukle naranja ). It may he that they


SI 2


trv hut troll






The Cubans.


113


eat fresh fruit. but when I d not know, for I
never saw a Cibatii eatin1(f an 1angeQ, a ha11-
ana, or a pineapple. Thwse thtv sold to us at
rather excessive prices. The Cubans nearly
al] drink, but Ntery little at a tin', and rarIv
get (11'1111k. ThiiIr fia)ritQ drinks ;ii Int,
rum, and brandy aguardientec). I n a holi-
day week in the city f Purto Principe, the
only twO men I sa15W intO\irited were Ameri-
Cans. One vwts a sldir. i.e )thor a ramp
fllllower.
The Cubans 40, tilt rural districts did Imt


appear to
to he a rt
in front
superstiti
croSses V
eight or
with a C
dry and
a roost


) he
ldc
(d t



ten
rocs
fila
(o )1


religious, ugh there w
wO)(.l crOss ftiNCl in tht
heir dwllinoisi. pIssibly
idea Of thus av rtiIn jevil.
ntilnh morn than ,"lend(


feet high.,
pieck liar
thrr h("atcn,
birds than


stri ppcd
the tolp.
and look
a r1 li i


Smaller deln crosses Were to
the little graveyaris that we occasi
uponl. 'These seldom contained
two or three graycs, which were u
any visible nme or inscription.
lages there were, of c uirse, lager
but the country I am writing o


:as apt

w ith a

r pl,c


lt its bark,
Th xcwre
d nure like
its cmbllem.
he fuundl in
)nallv Cam
mulre than
mnmarketl h\y
In the vil-
centcerics,
I watS very






Pioneering in Cuba,


sparsely settled, averaging scarcely
one or two families to the square mi
The natives appeared to iave
amusements. They hunted some th
the villages and cities had occasion
of rather a weird character. They
lights, too, I suppose, but these did
to be a feature of the country life
The rural Cuban spends nuclh of I


more thin
le.
v\1V few
at, and in
ail dances
had cock
not scenm
about us.
is time in


riding about the country otI his patient and
intelligent pony, buying supplies and dispos-
in1 of his small produce. When they till
their land is a miysterv, t'. they n cr seem
to be at work upon it. In fact, \ery little \v as
tilled at all in the region about La Gloria. It
w\as no uncommon thine to find a mal (Vwning
hundreds of acres, with less than one acre
under cultivation. This condition w\as usual v
explained by the statement that everything
had been killed out during the Ten Yea'rs'
War, and that the natives wre too poor to
again put their land under cultivation. This
was a half-truth, at least, but Cuban indiffer-
ence must have had something to do with it.
One of the La Gloria colonists once asked an
intelligent and good-appearing elderly Cuban
why he did not cultivate more of his land.
What is the use ?" was the reply. When


114






The Cubans.


I need m11ev I


sell them.
live dollars,
When I nee
nas.'" TIis
IIis natural
eCxactions of
his mind fre
provision for


pirk off sonic binanas 8n1d


I get Co
which

is the
indifler
Spanis
e frot
the Putt


r tham tw\enty or twe nty'-
lasts me I lonv time.
onMICy, I pick mowre bana-
OnInlon Coban Nicew.
once, romlbined xwith the
h government, has kept
any thou gt of making
re.


Th'le reader should er in


Fid 11(1
d the


that I
proVin


have
re of


Puerto Princip
tions thereof.
more thickly
provinces fine
to be found, f
live somewhat
but I believe
typical Cuban
trv districts of


e, and mJily of the rural por-
I ami well aware that in the
settled anti more prosperous
country, houses arc sometimes
Ind thc people generally may
ditlterently and perhaps better,
I ha\e taithlly pictured the
;is he exists to-(hy in the coun-
Puerto Principe, the fertile and


unfortunate province which has probably suW-
fered more from the ravages of war in the
last thirty years than any other province in
the island. It was colpltely despoiled dur-
ing the Tel Ycars' War, and has never re-
covered. Its deserted plantations are now
being reclaimed, largely by Anericans, and
ere long will blossom fPrth Nvith luscious fruits
and other valuable products.


115






i 16 Pioneering in Cuba.

The slight lcqiuaintance which I lmd with
the Cubans of the cities of Puerto Principe
and Nuevitas led me to the belief that they
did not dilier greatlv from the Imr intel-
ligent inhabitants of the country sections.
Among the half hlundred Cubans who worked
fior the company and occupied a camp at La
Gloria, wre manv from the cities of the
province, the others coming from small towns
and \iil(aes. Most of them had served in
the Cuban myI-the Aml v of Liberation,
as it \\was called. Though these imein had but
I.w comforts, they appeared to he happy
and contented t hey \tere almost invariably
peaceable and good-humored. The ;Aneri-
ca11s liked these C6-hi-ans "-as some of


the colonists
entire harm
to me when
the\ Western
them as l1
their primiti
called them
28th of Oct
island at a
w\hat is now


last
"Cu


persisted


i1y pre
we first
colonis
e India
Ve MM(
by the
other. I
point
Port L


in calling


;ciled. It wa arrived to hear some of
ts itdvertently speak of
ns," owiilw, f suppose, to
Itt of 1i1iVi1 Columbus
sime nam when. on the
402, he landed on the
not twenty miles from
a Gloria.,-hut within the


four hundred years the appellation of
ba" has become well known through-


them--and







The Cubans.


out the world. The Cuba
their own destiny, but I
they will steadily progress
civilization.


ns must work out
am stisied that
s in the scale of


E%


I1s









aaLt)o .)Il1 )1A0ox 1)(p 1 ) }sot! Ia,
-1 1A\ .14190 tIIs[q II. ); 0(( ) 01


n141( 1 1 I[88 8111 1 lL'Vn I~ .1I Jflfl-d Btal
Intlotj tt;)N .I.cI1111 o _t~n,,I I LII


FA I.?1..1Iv S1( I

SI'\ 1 [iO-18( )
-I \ u1Ln)I)'


.li 8; p:


4 111111

plAqual 't 1


pnA llgl'p)
qlux), .q I)
-Lptlo t qo


puI'u[ t l I'u se }no
pnt "I.)cnIl ~ sap.n 2


uo l)an .t[qHt.1a Nl*

uaa t I 48 1 bIo)s41
aql p)ue "lu.a a.uq[ e It
t. .1)s pI Iutp 'p')qsqq


Io ,8tIlja
in 'sI 114


p1)4q p11
A t.11?dI(}3
{pl a,u 1
AItst lnlog


Aul 4 1 g1[t14)1.1 Ijalp u 4}uo1I1I


alcdcllau d


a .iup.ifl1?t'
j)llatI()


I )I) t"



;)tq .t) do


.*)I1j I ) II llOj
)d 9!!1


-sseNf> 0 ) (1 A o 8?L


XL )Lt1,L(I\I I-


I







Steps of IProgiress.


fell
tied
der


upon Colonel hiu
to peilorin it.
oort resi Vnc(1


Eark\ was pronli
The post-office I
in hteadluartcrs
a tent h\ itself
mained until tht
moved inlto t I
stricted tIor it
the lirst the ollic
which steadilI
Wrote and recei


loud
and
this


ill their
inIt fr jLeq enc
falultindi n


sophical were
colony was It
The reel\d(
mail facilities
the letters wt
wooden ,b,
passed a ft
painted red
vaS placed
remember the
assenblld ci
home and c


C(


t r


rY, wim was Wtll tj
S >t11ie lIt 1 ils Liter.
tihe p ) stnii ;t crstlT ,


tcd to) the hlead
first W C nI )1d n
tent, 1)ut was <~
lnear at hland.
ill i 1iI,

leY \\ t ltll 1t4c

1n Clt trtl Iv
c did cotnsidra
inrcesedI. T1
\ (I 1ilan\ ltettc


lntl
of t1
\X wts


its o tlle
Smails. In
justified, but


ot the
snuil
In 41 1
IlIre
'A li)I
uildin
n11 .
bl Ibu
he co
rs. hiut


irrcgi

the


liali-
V1l
alnd


ollIc.
space
v(,d t(o
it le-
it w\\as
con1-
F roml]
sin s' .
lonists
\ wVter


iI ;sture,
phiIo-


lml O patient 1d felt that
CkyN to hat c Ipost-(tice at
xas slow in cit ) in but
idI a II yt I I m pro d. At
Or collected at the otllce
but before I yII wetks
egulatimn m ttllit) recent
and marked l. JMa
in front of tic tent. I -


shout that ent up from
lonists when this reminder
ivilization was brought in


the
first
.n a
had
utle,
ci e.l
well


the
of
on


1 19







Pioneering in Cuba.


horseback 6-omi the port by the mail carrier.
It seemed almost like having a glimpse of
the old home.
The regular sworn mail carrier bet\veen
Port La Gloria and the post-oflice was Senor
Ciriac(O Rnias, falmiliarly known as "' the old
senor" among the colonists, by whom he


was Iluch
gentlemn u
eraui of the
flict. I e
colonists h
panlion o
thenr host.
of land in
his fuamily


beloved


and
Tel
W is
ad,


( 1
1 I

one
and


.1Ie \'\8s i true-hearted
)rave soldier, lwing a vet-
ars' \War ,(and the later con-
of the best Fri(nds that the
waJs their guest an1d com-


1ma nyhi V ocCa.si(
Senor Rivas
the neighbors
in the Cuban


While scorning
for his services,
maitfold Ways.
wvas named by


to take
he ass
In the
the go


)ns.


and sometimes


(M ed
ood, 1
c(u p


u
at


payN from
istcd1 the

Vt) U I11 (11't
1v(, l111( rI


I Iarge tritct
t li(ed with
Lit Gloria.
indiv ideals
colonsts in
of l (o( he
as alcalde


(magistrate) of La Gloria and the country
for live miles around, but on the I nth day of
the following September he died at Nuevitas,
lamented alike by Cubans and Americans.
besides attending to his post-ollice duties,
Colonel Early represented large land in-
terests in the colony and gave much time to
work in connection therewith. IIe was one


120






Steps of Progress.


of the most enthusiastic of the colonists,
being (]elilhted with the countIrv and its
prospects. Fond of hunting and fishing, a
lover of birds, trees, and flowers, versatile ill
his tastes and acco)piishnlents, Colon l
Earky found Cuba much to his liking, and
complained of nothing save the b hell-hens,"
as he irreer ntly called the despised jcjilS
(sand lies). lIe \\as \etttIran of the Civil
War, and had bccen somelcthintg of a politician
in his Nebraska home.
Unlike the mini]]" CMI111s of our (4reat
west, La Gloria \\ais a moral and orderly


town m i


This \v;s largely


General V;a
liquor shoal
wasI riridly
there was pc
at fewv small
necessary v
consisted of
Asbury Par
peared to b1
early evelil


lived
Whe


i
n


n dcr
d he s
enforce

thefts.
At the b
M\r. (
k,.N. J
a daily'
]t. Ch


fl


n a tent at
(kirk i.s


little lantern and
called his 11ightly


\oort inSisted


old, a
dl. TI'
quirt,

)cginn
;cor ;

torll
Ict of


the ii
c II .


1)


t roi
trip


pe
,n


p.
hit


an(
lit

I I
)SC'
.f ti
I P
I' ei
he c


dotwi
don )\


r1SUIt


th;t Io


\xwas that


I no crime ,;avc
11 polioIl"' aS
the police farce
Matthiews of
oly (iuty- ap-
Ih camol) ill the
)lhc' Matthews
d of the camnp.
Wlt'd light hi,
thlr line," as he
the manin street


121


dllc to the facet that


roibtlIitionl AAhie 1



























I
r t


Tlr Fii:r \\ ~ EN ColN>Isis up L.A Glom. .

>Irs. gipOikr. Atr_. Ilaur. hys. !1l. e. )Ir,. 31anrL" n
lI Bot<,n Iir a'a. Mr L I ll.
Mrs. eti:Lnn. Ld rs 1 e ilrn.
3Irs n. aiih. lre. SrIE







Steps of Progress.


and back.
lighting the
minutes. M


T1he whole operation, including;
lantern, occupied about twentv
lr. Mlatthe\VS also plied the trade


of a barber, char ing twvcnty-five c ents liur a
Shave. It was Ii nailVly decided that if I ;nybody
Was robbill( the colonists, he \\ as the elan.
and the police fi>rce was abolished altogether.
Soon after 'Mr. Matthews and his wile re-
turned to their honme in Ashurv 111k. ThIy
Were N\Vll liked, and their (I JrturEC \\was
regretted. A little later there Wire s1e


(rally attributed
It the camnl. ani
e. \'ermont, was
IIc ) rkormcd
did co cry duty
;and the thefts so
Kezar wis in t
in the dayvtime
Sthe crection
property, ald I


to ii(c rO1)s
d JEuene
put oil ds
this duty
which de-
OI Ctal5td.

about the
ot tents,
perforing


manifold duties in the interest of the- company
and the colonists.
The first church service in La Gloria was
held on JanuaryV 14, Conducted hy the ReV.
A. E. Seddon of Atlanta, Ga .. a niister of
the Christian church, Who wV IS one of the
colonists who came on the inst irrmou//l.


actual
\wIto 1
Kezar.

faithful
evolved
Much
of the
ca P
taking


theIts.
urked
fo 11
watch
liv, as
upon
of the
comp
super
care


dilol
Barr
ma. -

he
him,
tinl
any
V isin
of


1^;






124 Pion

It was attended


colonists.
and a cu
remain at
in another
departure e
allotment
II arris of
but he ai
about this


ecring in Cuba.


by a large proportion of the


Mr. Seddon witS a go Iod preacher
Iltiv Ited man, bltt did not long
La 1(loria. becoming interested
r proposed colony, he took his
from La Gloria soon after the
of the land. Next the Rev. J. V.
\ernont preached for one Sunday,
Iso took an early departure. At
time the Venerable I r. WX'illin I1.


Gill of Asbury Park. N. J., joined the
and conducted church Strvic s tip
weeks. I[is health not being good.
forced to givc up regular preaching.


time the congrcoation vc as wcithou
ing ch.-rgy-man, hiut sermon, weer(
Sunday My sonic laymlan, and
school was retrularly held. Witl
came txvo ministers together, the
G. Stuart of London, Canada, al
W. A. Nicholas of IIuntington,
iui tenporary, but he preached one
the edification of a 1rood(-sized


t an olliciat-
read each
a Sabbath
i the spring
lev. Jame
1d the Rev.
West Vir-
time w;Is
Sunday to
audience .


When his leav e of absence expired he re-
turned to his far away home in Canada, but
before sailing he expressed himself as heingi
great]y pleased with La Gloria. and Ilade


colony,
r some
he was
For a






Steps of Progress.


known his intt
at some future
a large tract o
Mr. Stuart ha(
grove in Calif(
fruit would d
Gloria. IlIe
praise of the
ininister of tl
\Ir. Stuart in


preached
to West
his famil


V
N.


ntion
time.


to make
IlIe left


land c
d 1oth ave the

lin ly in
\w s III I I
C()tit rV
t 1 4apti
the Lat


several

to Cu


we
I o.
)i t


eks
the
o e


it his rFcSidence


ared andt
m Incr of
waS satist
I the soil
y nthusia
AIr. >

Gloria
lie the
pnrpo>.e ,
stabhlIlh ;t


cultiVatel.
an nrorge
icd that the
around La
tstic in his
\irholas., a
sucCeedel
ttlpit, and
n returned
)1 brim" 111
pwrmannt I( i


home. In June he hroIulht his \ife and
children to La Gloria and rtsntmtd his reli-
gious teaching. I I c has since prtachcd
regularly, and is held in higth respect hy the
colonists. MIrs. Nicholas is also \ery popular
in the coloig. lr. Nicholas is delIitetd with
Cuba, and is cinjoying gretly i mproVed
health. BesideS the preachil(g and Sunday-
school, weeklv prayer-meeti1Lgs, teachers'
meetings, and choir meetings have been held
in the colony from its earliest days.
The lirst organuizationt of the colonists, and
the itrce whxlich had most to do with shaping
the course of affairs in the e;irlv life of the
colony, was the La Gloria Pioneer A\ssocia-


t25
















































Ate


'I


DR. WI LLIAM P. PEIRCE,


"k
x t
a ..


x: v






Steps of Progress.


127


tion. At a 1mss mctingf in front of head-
(uarttrs tent on the I~th of Janutary, I)r.
W. P. Peirce of Iloopcston 111., w\as m1ade
temporary chairinm, and R. C. Hurduttt of
Dexter, K aIIsas, teinporarv secretary. James
I. Adams, I). EC. I)wvtl and R. C. hour-
dette were appointed a colltllllttet to drdft a


constitution and


uary 27 the
tion and hy-1
the flow\Ving
of six months
1). i. I.oWClI
secretary ; C
urer I lI.
Florence, X\


CWnunitt(ee rc
acws, hick w
olficcrs were
SI)r. \V. P.
vice-preside
)l. 'T'homas II
_N ccson. W<.j
M. Carson,


1

n


At a meeting Jat-
)orttd a constitl-
ere adopted, and
elected 10r a term
IPeir c, president ;
it ; R. G. Harrier,
Maginniss, trcas-
G. Spiker, J. A.
rnd leRev. W illiom


1. Gill, executive c board. The presidIent.
Vice-presideIt, stcretayV and treasurer were
members of the exccutie hoard CA-/ic/.
Dr. Peirce, the president, was one of the
ablest of the colonists, a man of Conse(llence
in his state, and possessed of 1oth mental
and financial resources. Genial, kindly. and(
humorous, he was mtuch liked by his fellow-
colonists, and made an admirable presidinV
officer for the association. Ile had entire faith
in the ultimate success of the colony, and did
much to advance its welfare. Mr. Lowell,





128


Pioneering in Cuba.


the vice-president, had lecn ;t siccssful
grovver in FIloridit and i leading citizen in
section of the state wlre he resided.


fruit
that
IlIe


was one of the first (d
La Gloria, coming in
list )hruou/h party a
stautial 111(1 practical
prop to the col, w \%
and inllu cutial. Mr.
was ia y0111n mant ironn
one" of the colonists
)drwoul/. I e was
and typcwritr, ind a
aid untirin intlustr\.


upon
presid


tli colonists to reach
with his wife bel rri1Ved. Ile s a t s b-
man, an1d a valuatble
hrein he \as popular
Iarner. the secretary,
i Phil dt elph iai nd w -as
who {iune on tie Iirst
an 8xprt stenog r\phrt-
mnt of, (food judgmneint
For a time he worked


shu11


ito t
to he


the (an)Ih t w a~st
cat's ( ) ice, v whcre


he
a


iithllI i1n(d tcli~ici int clerk ;11nl
Witll liked am.on his brother and
onists, Iil wls i mnn8rous t
positions as ncew org;anizations w
Colonel M~auinniss, the trcaslurer,
f'rom Philadelphia, and hats hccn
lauded to as the supritcndeit of
H is duties as treasurer of the assoc
not arduous, but h performed go
as chairman of the committee ot


tion. Tel} other mcblers


of


board \wre leading colonists,
and practical men.


the
and


secretary.
sister col-

e s als
FtS i ifili(l.

b)1Qr al-
hiiu ;d-1Ii
thc camp.
nation w \XrE
0d ser -ice
transporta-
cxccuti v
intcllige 't







Steps of Progress.


The eCeCntive board appointed the follow-
ing committees : Transportation, Col. Thomas
H. Maginniss (chairman), J. A. Florence,
S. L. Benhai, W. 1'. Hartzell, Thomas R.
(eer-the latter resigning. he was replaced
by James M. Adams; supplies, IE. B. New-
som (chr.), 1). E. L-owell, W. G. Spiker,
E. F. Rutherford, M. T. Ilolmian ; santation,
Dr. W. P. Peirce (chr.), G. A. Libby, m. '1.


Jones, WV. S.
manufactures, 1)
Yard, J. A. An
Gruver; history


Adams (
I. Gill, 1
affairs, (
Thomas
W. M.
religious
Mrs. D.
William
improveI


c




C


Dunbar,


.


I.
ers(
( )


Carl
)I, J
the


et( l
C.
Colo


hr.), A. E. Seddon,
A. C. Nell, F. X.
en. Paul Van der V)
1. Magimniss, Capt.
arson, J. F. Early;


I.
I.
m en


Lowell, 13.
Florence, P
Van der V
Broome,
Matthews.
La Gloria,


ser\Ivnce
Lowell,
Gill, Mrs
its, M. A


F.
'eter
'oort
MIrs.

an


,N

I.


Mrs.
Irs. t4.
M. A.
C. Ne


H1. Matthews ;
(chr.). W 1.
Kelly, XV. II.
nY, Jalles M.
Rev. William
l lovora ; legal
1rt (chr.), Col.
J((sIph Chace.
cedncation and


An
G
C.
fl'


Seibert, E. B. N
Larsen, I1. E.
, Jaies IPeirc(
J. A. Horn,
rs. Andrews did
d hence never


dre Vs
Spik
Nef;
(chr.)
ew sol
loshe
, Mrs
Mrs.
not re
served


( chr. ),
or, Mrs.
village
, 1). Et.
m, J. C.
r. '.. 11.
Clara
G. Ii.
maill InI
on the


129







130 Pioneering in Cuba.

committee on education and r ligious observ-
ance; Mrs. 1). E. Lowell acted as chairm an
and directed the work of the coNmittee with
zeal anld intelligence. As time went on,
ILIinmerouts other vacaIlcies occurred in the
Several conmittees, but these \ere filled and
the work was not retarded. \Iost of the
committee were more or less active ;nd(
accomplished as much as could rea[sonahbi
be expectd considering the lmny obstacles
encountered. It the net results accomplished
by the association at this early stage seem
small, it should be remembered that it was no
sligrht task to hold the colony together in the
face (if natural obstructions, irritating dltyvs,
and dishearteiiing disappointmetnts. All these
thi(s the colonists had to encounter, and the
Pioneer Association pertorlud a &freat work
in banding the settlers together, staying their
courage and preventing a stamupjd ill the
darkest hours, and in keeping things moving.
slowly though it may have been, in tih right
direction. Indeed, it is ih possible to conceive
what the colonists would havIe done at the
beginning without the cooperative aid afordd
by this organization. Practically the whole
cololy\ belonged to it during the first tew
mouths of its existence.







Steps of Progress.


The meetings wre hel every Saturday
night and1( were always' \\ll attended. Thy
were valued tnft oily for utilitarian purposes,
but as almost the sole aniusemient njoyecd by
the colonists during the wxek. These meet-
ings supplied the place of the theatre, the
lyceI[l, ;md social feisti.iti&s, and some of the
women wcre heard to say that thy looked
forward the wvholr v\ c k to this rc,;tlatr (;;th-
ering. Suljects of bsorbingintrrst al ayt.{s
cameo tip, the sphakilg Was tjuitt Lo4o)d and
n ertedious, a dIt t ltmor1I s an(1 \itty remarks


were vcery often
The lutierOUs at
keenly. Many
in the speaking,
variably food 1
sure of close
meat froin their
might disagree


i\\it\ys i
of t 1t
and th
matured.
attc1ntio
auditor
\\t Al


Cceling; which pcr adc
manifest at these ga
Cubansi would (oilen
once i Spaliar-d xas
a strange sight, one
the dim light of t\Xw


and tully
)ppealed to
(nlonists
r disrtissi


n

tl


d d
th.
att
in t
of
) 0r


appreciated.
the audilect
1rtItiCip;ted
ons Wer( in-


'lie speakers were
an(d (c 11cro 4s treat-
el Cn tron those who
ram. The brotherl
w colony v Was il v\a\s
ings. Soume of the
eud. 1a1d more than
he audience. It -was
these mu tiens. In
there lanterns, the


colonists would ) grhe ouped together under a
shelter tent, s ll sitting of n rude wor den


13







t32


Pioneering in Cuba.


benches and others standing. Those on the
outskirts were as often under the stars s1s
under the tent. Both the audience and the
surroundings were picturesque, albeit the
whole effect was suggestive of a primitive life
which few of the colonists had hefiore experi-
enced. flhe scene is one that is not likely
ever to be torgotten by those wv ho participated
in it.
In July, 1900, the Pioneer Association
elected new officers, as follows: President,
1.)E. Lowell ; vice-president, John Lath am
secretary, William M. Carson ; treasurer,
J. R. P. de les Derniers. By this time new
and more wieldy organizations had sprung
up which took much of the practical work
from the association, the latter becoming more
of a reminiscence than a potent force. It is
still, however, a factor in the social life of
La Gloria.












CHlAPTER X.


EvENTS IMPORTAT ANN) OTirIn\Vlst.

ON the last day of January I became pri-
vate secretary to President Van der Voort,
serving in that capacity until nv return to the
States nearly feur months later. This position
brought me into close and intimate contact
with all of the colonists, and to no small ex-
tent I shared their joys and woes. I was
made the recipient of their conlidences, and
was sometimes able, I believe, to make some-
what smoother the rather thorny paths tlicy
had to travel. When I was unable to do this,
it was never from lack of full sympathy with
their trials and hardships. I cannot he too
emphatic in saying that never in my life have
I met an aggregation of men and women who
were more honest, good-natured, patient, and
reasonable. To me, personally, they invari-
ably extended the kindest consideration, and
so, for that matter, did the ollicers of the com-
pany. The nucleus for the first American
colony in Cuba was beyond all question a
good and substantial one.































'V


K
"V


1


il11 Vtu&RIs (u N 1 IOUI,


w1


* y.


9 {a



tz .i:


(EN V


r





Important and Otherwise.


j13


About the middle of Feruiry Gen. Van
der Voort m1)\d into his ne\v Cuban house,
which had been constructed tlir him by Cuban
workmen in an open space ninetyor one hun-
dred yards back from the main street of the
camp. The house and most of the tents con-
stitutingl the camp were on the conilnyv's
reservation just north of the tiont line of the
town. As fast as the coloiists got their tOwINl
lots cleared they. in1 >d on to them, but their
places in the ieser%,ltitO tlml)p wterc olten
taken bY new-comfers.
The general's pahm house, nr shack, was
an ingenious andi inttrt'sting pirec of work.
The Cubans exercised all their m arvlous
skill in its construction, with hiihil creditable
results. When llcompleted it was \vwatr tight,
and cool, co)mforta1l c, and pi ctirtrese. The
house contained two ;ood-sized rooms, an
enclosed bedrool at the back and an open
apartment at the front used ( ir ai1 (dice and
reception-room. tntil a onxentional board
floor was laid iy an Alericaull )carpenter.
there was not a nail in the entire structure.
The upright poles, Cross pieces, the ridgepole,
and the rafters and cross ratiers, \ ere seC'Urely
fastened together with tough hark and vines,
while the roof was carefiilly thatched with





Pioneering in Cuba.


palm leaves. The latter were broad, fan-
shaped leaves, several feet across at the
widest part. Each had a stout stem two or
three feet long. The leaves were laid upon
the roof, beginning at the eaves, stems point-
ing to the ridgepole. The leaves were care-
fully lapped like shingles, and tightly lashed
by the stems to the rafters and cross rafters.
If a leak was discovered it was easy to close
it by binding on another leaf. The ILaves
used came from what is commonly known as
the dwarf or cabbage palm. Royal palm
bark was used along the ridgepole. The
back and sides of the house were of palm
leaves, as was the front of the rear room, a
door being cut through it. The front of the
outer apartment was entirely open. The
original floor was of wood cut from the royal
palm, the rough and heavy boards, or planks,
being fastened to cross logs by wooden pins.
Not proving entirely satisfactory, this floor,
after a short time, was replaced by a more
even one laid by a Yankee carpenter. This
was the only change made by General Van
der Voort in his Cuban house, with which he
was greatly delighted. When new the pre-
vailing color, inside and out. was a beautiful
green, which soon turned to a yellowish


136





Important and Otherwise. 137

brown. The change did not add to its beauty,
but it still remained comlortal and pictur-
esque. The cost of such a house in La Gloria
was about lifty d(llIars. Th(' generals house
was wonderfully cool, as I can testify frorn
personal experience, hai n ocLupied it daily
for three months.
Within a dozen yards of the g general's
house stood a historic lamhnark known as the
Lookout Tre," a (gigautic tree used by the
Cubans during the en Years' War and the
late insurrection to watch tinr Spanish gun-
boats that patroled the coast and tIDr filibusters
bringing arms and anunition. It was at
or very near Port La Gloria-known to the
Cubans as Viaro-that the ceelbrated Gussie
landed her arms and amunition for the
Cubans, just a ttr the interve Ition of the
United States. 1.p through the Lookout
rTree" grow what appear to he two small and
very straight trees, about three feet apart ;
actually, they ar the downward shooting
branclhes of a parasitic growth, taking root in
the ground. The Cubans haxe utilized these
for a ladder, cutting notches into them -and
fastening cross-pieces. or rungs, vtry securely
with barbed wire. (ne may climl high into
the big tree by this curious ladder. antd froin






Pioneering in (Cuba.


the to]) a goox View of the co
After our arrival the tree
brought into requisition in vv
boat from Nucv itas, and the
among the colonists often n
merely for the satisfaction of
teat, which was not such an e:
appear, since the ladder did
top 1y fifteen or t\venty feet.
A space of abol t half an
fr.nt of the hosit. General
had pI{ d and planted fir a


tables
later it


ast is obtained.
was soiiittiimies
watching fP)r the
good climbers
lade the' ascent
periforming the
.sy one as might
not reach to the


acre, chic
Van dcr
garden.


r


\w ere
good n


1an* or8It8ge and college trees,
out. lhtl \egetIables began t(
April, and the fruit trees and
hibitcd a thrifty grnwth from mi
Small palm trews were also set
path ]wading troml the house a
Ae to Ctntral avlnu. The
another and lar;;cr garden nnar
planted in the latter part of Ja
of its products werc rady fo


yI and
le pln


liv in
Voort
.oei-


a
nets


little
, ha-


etC., were set
coinrc un in
incapplcs cx-
(llnth to month.
out akmng the
cross the gair-
company h ad
1) v which was
nuary. tSoe
r the tab1e in


IarCII, and radishes even earlier. The soil
of these gardens was not of the richest, being
red and containing oxide of iron : but, for all
that, seeds came up imlarvel(is]y quick and


138


,s()\ I iln Februa
tumber of pincap






Important and Otherwise '


plants grew well. I have knoWn beans which
were planted Saturda\ morning to be up on
the followilfl Monday. The soil of practi-
cally all of the plantations and many of the
town lots is v Fy rich.
On February 21, the diay hetr. Washing-
ton's birthday, occurred the lirst birth in La
Gloria, a 1isty son bcing horn to Mr. and
Mrs. Olaf Olson. Mr. Olson wvas one of the
most prosperous and progressive of the colo-
nists, and his wife was a true pioneer. At the
time of the birth the Olsons were living in a
tent on their town lot on 1 arket street not
far from Central avenue, I)r. Peirce was the
ofliciating physiciai, and the infant developed
as rapidly in proportion, as plants in that
tropical clime. It proved to he a renarkahlv
healthy child. It \as promptlv named Olaf
El Gloria Olson, and oil the reqtiest of the
Pioneer Association, the conipany generously
ormade it a present of a town lot. Soon after
the birth of the child, Mr. Olson moved into a
house of his own construction.
The weather at this time was good and
the temperature very CiUimfortable. Ordinarilyv
the thermometer registered throughout the
day from 70 to 84 degrees of heat. Tile low-
est temperature for January was 55 ; the


139





Pioneering in Cuba.


highest, 910. The lowest for Februarv was
560 ; the highest, 91. The extremes of heat
are nearly as great in winter as in summer,
but there is much more variation. In summer
the temperature ordinarily runs from about
78 to 9O, but occasionally touches 940,
which is the highest I have ever known it to
be in La Gloria. Even at this figure the heat
is not oppressive. There is such a re freshing
breeze night and day in Cuba that one does
not stiffer from the heat either in summer or
winter. The climate is so line at all seasons
of the year, that to a New Englander it seems
absolutely perfect. The colonists worked
hard every day under the rays of the sun and
suffered no ill etlects. TIy came to the con-
clusion that getting acclimated was a cinch "
in comparison with enduring the changing
weather of the Northern states.
During the first week in Februarv the col-
onists, such of them as were not otherwise
employed, began the construction of a cor-
duroV road over the worst places on the trail
from La Gloria to the port. The work was
under the supervision of Colonel Ma aginniss,
and from twenty to thirty nen labored daily
for some tune. While not of a permanent
character, this work made the road more


140







Important and Otherwise.


passable for pedestrians
was of material aid in the


and animals.
hauling 1) of


visions ;1ind belated lm(baggUe. 1]v the end
of Iebruarv most of us had (rot our trunks.
The workers on the road werc (n(loy(ed by
the company., with the undrstading that
their wages 1,ShOl(1 he CEreditd iton their
land payments, or upon the purchase of nlew
land. This w as satisfactory to til colonists,
and maiv took advantage of the opportunity
to acquire more tow i lots. \1aiv other
tmploves of the conpainy also turned in their
time for the purchase of p1an station land or
town lots.
On the loth of IFehriiarv the first \\ll in
La Gloria was opened. It w as at the corner
of Market street and Florida avntiUit, and
wias (lug by a syldicate of colonists who lived
in that vicinity. Good eater was struck at
it depth of about twlvc feet. \iarvy people
used the water from this well, and a little
later it was made considerably deeper. ThIe
well was square, and the ground was so htrd
at this point that it was found to he unneces-
sary to stone it. Many other wells were dug
soon after, in all of which good water wvas
found fifteen or twenty feet below the surface
of the ground.


141

and
pro-






142


Pioneering in Cuba.


Early in Februarv, M. A. C. Neff, engi-
neer and architect, who had been in charge
of the town site survey, was transferred to
the work of preparing real estate mnaps and
books. Mr. Ne] was a fine draughtsman,
and his colored maps were a delight to the


eye One of his maps was
imient of town lots, aiothern
at Puerto Principe ill Co
recording of deeds, while
to the New York oflice o
kept for use in La Gloria
dte Mr. NeT for his part
of La Gloria. IIe was e
warding imI provementis ofe
he and his admlirable w\IIIe(


selves
please
Ill La


colonistS, and
lit anticipation
Gloria.


used


in the allot-


W\IS )I;Led on file
nnection witl the
others w ere sent
f the coimPl1y or
luch credit is
in the uphiliding
n thIIsiastic in fiir-
all kinds. Both
considered them-


looked iw ard
to a permlanwent


%\ith
home













CIIAPTER N1.


Sux-Ram.vLJN.' i': (r11K C )ItNISIS.

I WAs deeplyk impressed by the t1curae
and sclI-reliance of the cololists. Froim the
start they sllOW(d ai splendid ahility to tAke
care of theimselvts. One dIv early in Feh-
ruary a w\hite-le;irded old Fellow past stv.nty
tears of age, with1 blne xert ls On ad a he
veer his holder, appeared at thc door of
General Van der Voort's tent.
General, he said. if a ma1 (mns a lot,
has a ybody else a right to comne On to it and
pick fruit of aly kind
Not it the Omnlr IaIs a reX()lver and
bowie knife,"' laughingy replied Van dcr
Voort.
WelI," said the mn118, I jest thought I'd
ask v. A couple )' sellers ( Cthans ) came
on to my\- lot to-day wxhil I was at \\wrk there
and began to pick soi o' these 'ere gUavas.
I told 'mII to (it uit. but tlhey' did 1'17 uo.
Then I went for em with this hoe. One of
'emn drawxed his machete, but I did nt care for
that. I knew I could reach him with my hoe







Pioneering in Cuba.


before he could reach me with his knite.
Thy went off."
General Van der Voort laughed heartily,
and evidently was satisfied that the man with
the hoe was able to protect hinselt without
the aid of the La Gloria police force.
The old man's name, as I afterwards
learned, was Joseph B. \Vithee. Somle of
the colonists who had become intiimately


acquainted with hi
" grandpa," althour
1m1an1 iin the colony
one y'ars, and he
Maine. None of 1
come to Cuba with
children living in th
and single-handc(d
in La Gloria, but
obstacles or tearful
contrary, he was n
regularly every da


family called Mul
lie was not the oldest
His age was sevenity-


hlai
ils I
hir
e Pi
he 1
he


t
;t


t
c


led from the state of
amily or friends had
m, but he had (grown
ne Tree state. Alone
)egran his pioneer lit>
was not daunted by
the future. On the
inguine. Ile w worked
Hearing and planting


his plantation, and was one of the first of the
colonists to take up his residence onI his own
land. Ile soon had vegetables growing, and
had set out strawberry and pineapple plants,
besides a number of banana, orange, and
lemon trees. It was his boast that he had
the best spring of water in the colony, and it


144







Self-Reliance of the Colonists. 145

certainly was a very good one. Mr. Withee
declared that his health was much improved
since coming to Cuba, and that he felt ten or
fifteen years younger. Everybo(iv in the
colony could bear witness that he was re-
markably active and industrious. Once his
relatives in Maine, not Hearin; froin him,
became alarmed, and wrote to the company
asking if he were alive ad in La Gloria.
I went down to his plantation with the letter,
and asked him if he was alive. IIe thought
he was, and suspended work long enough to
snifTf at the idea that he was not able to take
care of himself.
Mr. Withee was wont to admit that before
he came to Cuba he had a weak hack, but
the only weakness we were ever able to
detect in him was an infirmity of temper
which foreboded pugnacious action. MIost
assuredly he had plenty of backbone, and his
persistent pugnacity vas Highly amusing.
He was always wanting to lick '" sone-
body, and I know not what ily fate will be
if we ever meet after he reads these lines,
although we were excellent friends in La
Gloria. I can imagine that my friend Withee
was brought up in one of those country school
" deestricts where every boy had to fight
I0






Pioneering in Cuba.


his
aIsst


way d
)ciates


step hy st
1and xhe


the big scholars
thrash the teach
snowdrift. If so,
was held in high
Withe ]had a
for his rights, and
the \war-path, as
slit (d a su rvevor
pIalh tree otn his p
which individual


to
er


I


resL

1 r
vii
he
oh

of


who prpetrtd the
ma1"u lond out, ne
in for it g od licki
\ CV \was entirtIy 1
injure the property


hody clsc, an
surv ey line.
11n Septembhe
i r t rhrevolution ry v

pierce indlign
Sults-faital to
his premises.
hived ()u the
a l4&rIge muIlb
free range.


d
It
r.


cut
wXas
that


sires
atiO(n,
scVe
A
oth1r
1er of
Th ll


ep to the respect {)f his
re it w;is the custom fi r
attempt each winter to
and thrm him tilt( a
\\ill warrant that Withc(-


r



t


pect.


cat idea ()1 standing
>r i loin; time he wat
con id lI to l ill
o had cut (OW 1n a sr
tatioii. I Ic did nt k
the sur c corps it
outragee" but if the
d lhief Kelly's JnL1
g. Of course, the
II Ie t ()f any iote]
of Ir. Withev or a
he tree rtilt tannin
somec Months attar t
the spirit n( Wih


up
s on
p llr-
mlal]
11M

old



t to



his
eC s


joined i ss1.ut xith his
and produced fat iIl re-
ral chickens that inrv mdd
neihhorin COlonist. xxho
sidc of the a\einue, kept
hens, and all' )xe(d them
developed a 111(1Bess Corl


wandering across the road, and ftt'ding in


146






Self-WRlianCe oF the Coionists. 147

\Vithce> \\tll-Stuclk(( 1(lden. Jinx dlidtl
know ithO?. The (hd iimn Sjulttrd v(lU-
ntitly. anId retnstrated with the o(ner-
hut the chickens continued to rum. Finally,


i ;it
his iu


t
i.


ro'Ss t' dead
a head. \n
th the r (Sul t
ickcns in La
1) ()M as \\w
ii tht Min l
1 1eard the
ver. Il It. vas


up his pOiltry .


his


lin
butler
hat ti
GlI
a h



told


,
t


it
retI


r1


anI pr(
t\ ae(d t
er'e A1(r"( t
rla. W ith
IIS(, to sh
(S. Thi]
tV {) the
g) home


TakinL the to dad chick,


he wnt to the Rural GWords and entered a
conlylant. Whilt' he wras dune, WIthee r("-
duced the poultry p i lation V L a Gloria b)
0n 110kill. The wVne r of th e hnt returned,
accrrt pait'd oy Rural GuardV. 'veral promh -
incnt Cubans, Mnd ia lewv olonists. Thcy hadl
conwt to take the dui ;1\:y 11r()11 W ithee.
Thhe old moan stood the wvhulc crowd (dl', and
told theml to keel) their feet clear of his place.
They obcyed the Order, hit told hint )c
must kill n0 mo(rr chicken under penalty
of arrest. Ile t(>hd them to keep) the chickens


Withe
r(wd c


antly a
mninu's
feat, \\i
1ess ch
was as
munks
the hei
(aintet II


ad (1
-n It


ntly
he




un
I)( )114



,(
1;1 1.
alI(


,, Iii('
Wild-



CIr of
and
I jp'n


a friendly
Sown after


one (d the detested hens







148


Pioneering in Cuba.


off his premises under penalty of their being
killed. The old man was left the master of
the situation, and the hens were restricted to
a pen.
Speaking of courage and1 self-confidence
reminds me of a remark of big Jack NIc-
Cauley. There was included in the con-
pany's property, about live miles from La
Gloria, a deserted plantation known as \Mer-
cedes. l po it was an old grove of orange
trees, which, in the spring of 1900, bore a
fine crop. For a long time everybody was
allowed to help himself at will, and Cubans,
colonists, and sLVtyors availed themselves
of the opportunity to lay in a supply of fruit.
At length, as the oranges grew riper, orders
were given that no one should take more
than he could eat on the spot, but the
oranges continued to disappear by the bag-
ful. Stalwart Jack McCauley was at that
tine employed about the camp by the com-
pany-, and it was decided to station him out
at Mercedes, with a view to stopping the
raids on the orange grove. Before leaving
to undertake this duty, Jack quietly re-
marked: I'll go out there and see if I 've
got any influence, and if not, I '11 create
some : Big Jack's influence proved to






Self-Reliance of the Colonists. 149

be ample, and the balance of the Olrange
crop was saved.
M\JcCauley's close friend and pardner "
was J. A. Messier, framiliarly known as" Al-
bany." Togcthr thev held a large tract of
plantation land. Albany \ worked as a
flagman in one of the surVrving parltics.
Once, when the moSquitoes in the wOodI
were more than ordinarily thick and fero-
cious, he made a complaint, a rare thlilg in
him or any other slr.veyor. Thy strround
vou," he said, and you can 't push them
awav because therc is 1( >where to push
them ' AIaVmy was thi leading hig
snake killer in the colony, and was an adept
at stretching and preparing their skins.
But perhaps his greatest distinCtio was I that
of being fMoor mnugr oI the first hall in
La Gloria, a notable event whic will be
described in a later chapter.
On the afternoon of FIebruarV 27, the colo-
nists who came on the third and last trip
of the )'hrmou//, about sixty in number,
reached La Gloria. Among them Xwere
Arnold 1\ollenhaur of N7ew York, a repre-
sentative of the company ; John A. Connell
of East Weymlouth, Ass., and S. W. Storm
of Nebraska. The party was brought up









ooh )


'f LL o: t I Y 1 ) 1I '


A t








Self-Reliance of the C(lonists. 51


'e-, and had(


I tiit
ia \LEF


The Rd I' l S'/wnr' WS 1
to hly lletWvccl lulC)it
aid\ Was t( IIh \C hW o
c(1) 10 /is/s Wilt) cai l ,e


C8IIC int ) c()llliSI( )I
ablolut that tim110, and(I
several \veeks. Iiiis
chitin (>f acclidellts al
gatve thl.. rlut1 l V t
vcry start. Thil lain'
\ery ui\uckv i a\. ll( IO


hut (ith vtt 11:1


W8it, u I it lur
\\ annm ac-


A( C 5 ii(1II
. /wr(, pro cd
d eas laid n1) 1
st ((1 ll tilt, 11 ( .


the li(elv -S/wUc \\as O Ut ill CtnH II s nit it
sail-) )t had t( } I lsed I)'t\VC n L t )i
and lui\ 511>.
,Ir. 1I()llculhaunr (did n1(1 w ri in i11;i
La Gloria at tills [lin.. hit e"st.iii>I t is
headIqltut rtrS at Nit k\ itas, taIkinll iI) the \\{)lk
that ha(1 h tilm ill Cile Ol )aIu. j) S. '-ni-
solt. Y0wilg Mr.. AI I II' cr 1)u c \ t(I h
tle right illal i tit rirJit })lac(. Ic \\ as
aCtiv an(d tIIiCiv~ tll il t lert; } ll l. V Is
dutieS, and \\iIs Vr\ mfcl IT1 b the cOin-
nists for iis "rcll.ulc l1aYl 1 aril(g akcO 1) 0 -
datin, i spirt, and au fEk and llpri Iit character.


IVOIII
fr/on


C
tilt


h(
u.


sit


[Ii


\i 0 18
it tilt'




C EC
l{[t at





Ch
.it til

Ill I tilt
\hll


sml lul stea e Ile
\- cO 11 PRS t I-1 alt' ln s
l n ht \ c( 11] I





Pioneering in Cuba.


The afTairs of the company and the colony
took a new start when he came to Cuba and
assumed charge of the disburseient of the
funds.
John A. Connell was a prosperous lsUiinss
man of East Wevmouth, Mass., and came to
La Gloria to make it his permanent home. le
was one of the most enthusiastic and progres-
sive of the colonists, and gave daily expression
to his liking for Cuba and his firm faith in the
future of La Gloria. He was a man of prop-
erty and of decided ability. PhYsicallY, he was
a giant, being six feet four inches tall, and
well proportioned. 1 e was fond of athletics
and was himself a good athlete. A man of
strong intelligence, he appeared to good ad-
vantage as a speaker. Mr. Connell built the
first fraine building in La Gloria, a modest
board structure with a roofing of tarred paper,
and occupied it as a general store. It was
situated on Central avenue in the company's
reserve. This was not, however, the first
store in La Gloria. Besides the company's
connissary, V. G. Spiker started a store in
a tent several months earlier. George E.
Morrison opened a store in a tent on Central
avenue just inside of the town line at about
the same time that Connell started, and did a


152





Self-Reliance of the Colonists.


good business until he returned o ti te States
several months later. Morrison had lived in
many places, including Chicago, Ill., and
Central America. In practical affairs he was
one of the most versatile men in the eoioimy.
S. W. Storm of Nebraska was a veteran
of the Civil War, and a good type of his
class. Cheerful and 1uovant, lively as a bov
he entered into the pioneer life vith a h(arty
relish, as, indeed, did all of the ianv old sol-
diers wO came to In Gloria. The renewal
of camp life under agreeable climatic condi-
tions seemed to be a great joy to them. Mr.
Storm was never known to comlplain of any-
thing, not even when he severely cut his fiot
while chopping. IIe rolvit with him to La
Gloria his voung son Guy, who was soon
placed in school.
The first school in La Gloria xw as started
and taught by Mrs. Whittle of Albany, N. Y.
It occupied a large shelter tent on the reserve,
near Central avenue. It was fitted up with a
board floor, wooden benches, tables, etc. The
school opened Febrtal' 6 with six scholars,
and though text-books were fex in number,
the pupils made good progress in their studies.
Mrs. Whittle was an attractive and cultivated
lady, and an inspiring and tactful teacher.


1:;3







Pi Ihoneeringr in Cuba.


lebi>re the middle,
sixteen schol;s, an
There ws also at t
school ,(I-r muen, inw

PII f I l i i
lessons in >vlnish.
school., w hich wern
el and Mr. \euhcr
1pri1.


d NlTarch the schot I had
d a little later twenty-One.
he s;une time anl e\ (ingil
vhiCl rIs. WhTluittlc tanlit
nt, and )I r. lax Neuber
prominent c(l{niSt, gavt
Tuition \as Irtee in otll
kept up until irs. \\lhit-
returntel to the States im


xa


t54













CI' [APTIER NII.

TIs FulIS-rHi'~ I \ Go01)1. A.


T B iirst
Iy incident
the Io i) \
tine of the
to _)(111 A.
crag ed athIl


h( lidayi in I ; Gl(ria
that t ill he Ion m"r(.i
t. TIhe credit I or tl
movUAement I (r such a
Connell, w hose arm
ctic >pmrt. 'Snnm oft


\\;S mrkcd
mnembered 1by
ho iuaugura-
day- belnn;gs
,Iri, 1th 1 Dv
N rcrt )I 11s


in thi, pI arIti) ilar.


were nut far behind him
Mr. Connell a1rran cd t 41
jumpin", \vwhlbarro amd
and water a cInflrtnce of
was decided to ask thn pr
pany to declare : rueral1
dcle( atcd to bring tht" r
eral \'an cer \ oori, w hn
the spirit of the 11 ti 1 and
Ie(JIe t. ;>cor lIn l' ;t


rogrmn



tsidcnt
hatlt-hn
tltter
ntrred
I 411
111 & Vt 'ii
I >rt Ii


oI running,
races, etc..
inttirestvd, it
I the comi-

be [ort" Gin-
ht ;1rilly into
rantrtd our
I u-r1claiuna-


titln was (Irawll t ) II ettIlII aIsit e ;turta\
atltern(cnr, lhga h(1liday thruun;h utt
tile itolony. ThJ first dnfi t wats copied in the
ele:;ant handt~riting of CI11 hief E inecr Klyv
duly si&tneti Iy Pre.sidnt \an der \oort and
attested bv his secretary, al tIthen colnspicu-






156 Pioneering in Cuba.

ously posted on the flag-stall which graced
Central avenue. Further preparations were
made f(nr the red-letter day, and a baseball
game added to the program. I found in my
trunk a baseball, which I had brought to Cuba,
I know not why, except, perhaps, with the
American idea that a baseball is always a
good companion. Simultaneously, the inde-
fatigable J. L. Ratekin-one time a soldier in
Col. 'William J. Bryan's Nebraska regiment
in the Spanish War-dragged out of his kit
a good baseball bat. WOINy Ratekin brought
this iat to Cuba I cannot say, but I half sus-
pect that he thought he might have to use it
in self-defence. I ain glad to be able to state,
however, that it was put only to peaceful and
legitimate uses, and killed nothing save in-
shoots and drops.''
Saturday-, March 24, was a remark ably fine
day even for sunny Cuba. A cloudless sky
of beautiful blue, a temperature of from So to
90 degrees, and a soft, refreshing breeze com-
bined to make it ideal \Veather for La Gloria's
initial holiday. I re me mber that several bicy-
cles were brought out and used on this day,
one or two by young women. The muddy
trails had dried up in most places, so that
wheels could be ridden for considerable dis-






First Holiday in La Gloria. 57

tances on the roads radiating from La Gloria.
The dry season as faiirly, on by Mareh 1,
and for some time thereafter mud was practi-
cally eliminated from our list of annoances.
At noon the several surnVeing parties
tramped in from their distant work in the
voods, and soon after the colonists began to
gather on Central avenue from headquarters
tent to Connells store. The \mOln proved
that they had not left all their finery in the
States, while nearly every child 1was in its best
bib and tucker. The men appeared in a
great variety of costumes, but most of them
had given more thought to comfort than to
elegance. It xx as at this time that the first
large group picture of the colonists was taken.
The opportunity was too good to lose. \Ve
were hastily grouped across Central avenue,
and three amateur photographers simnultane-
oUsly took shots at us. The resulting photo-
graph, though on a small scale, is a faithful
picture of about half the colonists in La Gloria
on March 24., 1900. One of the photogra-
phers was Lieut. Means of the Eighth U. S.
Cavalry, who had arrived in La Gloria
the day before in command of a pack train
consisting of about a dozen men and twenty
mules. The detachment came from the city























































..=
s f 'A


('(J( 'f 1.r E 'i r I (


1
i





First holiday in La Gloria. 1:;9

of ILerto Prinieip 8 l andwIts kniring the 'dll-
try h)r practice an(1 extrulsc. It innv (asily
1) inagiilld that \V& were l1(I to SQ(' 1hem.
an1d tit\ scente(d t'ltill\ :I t() s 11.
A (lI r earnest S()licitatiln tli\ r('11S(1)tt1l to
part iiatc in our Il)idla\ 'o(rs.


s hi' S1()rtS
S( fit' 1) )(l at


wdelt e)l
lltc 111()


a Soldier nmed T. 11
\innin a m IIaj rity d t
a tluiit little hI low, hit
as a credits took 1)t1 in

not distiinouisl thrt'seil
traction of the day was
hich Ib;an ahout the
coon. A diamtond had
Irgr It' 1 STfle ist ('a
an1d tlt grouniIt as r
hard. It was a natural


N\ ll. M iclro- were
in the cl(nitStS. but
rWAS >urrccdcl in
he C\Icuts. I Ic waS
hip atldttir lprocc t,
d tjti& arm(. A
iItt a lltns blut (idA
CS. The chief at-
thc baeAll ramw,
middle of tilt atter-
I i n laid oJt in a
"t ()f Cntrall avenue,
nliulaly Ic\cl anld
hasebatll field. and


with but little work was rady tior uS.. The
(rcatcr part oI thle colour\ prep1, umcl, and(
chljildren, gathered to see tit tirst texhihition
of the American national anme in La (loria.
A mong the spectators vN rc Prt, idctlt Van der
\oort and Chif Einginc.r Kt'Iy. There
\twert also i few S[lillar(is ;till( I111N \ CnblIl s
press( nt. F cw of the latter. probably, had





Pioneering in Cuba.


ever before seen a baseball gamne, although
the sport is a popular pastime among the
American soldiers encamped near Puerto
Principe. This latter fact accounts tir the
proficiency of the soldiers who came to La
Gloria. They formed one nine, and the other
was made up of colonists. Thie latter played
well, everything considered, but the superior
discipline and practice of Uncle Samu's loys
made them the winners in a close score. The
game Was umpired by M. T. Jones of Wil-
liamsport, Pennsvlvania, one of the colonists
who came on the first Jutrnoul and the ca-
pable assistant of Superintendent Maginniss
about the camp. The game ended an honr
or two before sundown and closed the outdoor
sports of a very successful and enjoyable ((y.
But there was one notable event on that
first holiday not down on the program, and
one which few of the colonists knew anything
about at the time and of which not many had
subsequent knowledge. As I wended my
way in the direction of my tent near General
Van der Voort's house, under the mellow rays
of the declining sun, three excited colonists
intercepted me. Tlly were Chief Engineer
Kelly, John A. Connell, and D. E. Lowell.
Drawing me aside from the thoroughfare,


16o







First IIolilay in La Goria.


thre\ Ihstil\


in t( )fl'dIJ


rl tJlat


a 18\~VV4 iv


I )rake, of I ucrto


thle nam111 of C. Iluio
PrinrCipc, h)ad( just cx)1lic 1


ial( tract, \ itlh tiht inte
ink the colonistS of thci
rilidell il III llorsclaCk Ofr
IOrtv-iiv 11114:5 a1\ \ 1I
\W8s an ciril\ V p>uiilr1(1
)IlIicr in th Spa11Ihll~l
claime(d to have cilarwc, I


ness atflirs. We
lc1Fore. iid k Ile
indiCIc tihelu I( (
Wril hint1 to) Ltl
\nierica ,. I1\ii15.
sissippi iust alter t
11) as 8 I I\vve I
Puerto P1rid ip.

5()nC\iut (IlSSi1)8it
entll clailled t htt


had
I) (1r


t


11I<
t it
1 ti
r I






I\
~1
lea
l


(ilorit.


co \\8 \
I rest
lie xwas
)ut v;
d. I le
his err


11
vi
;t


)I Gl (iAlCr (f tlle
(n ()I (iiS ( )5ss(sS-
8n(. They had
Pu erto rin cipe,

hoill 118(1 1011 11l
hlo haid I)cci anl
iiv an1(d 1.)rakc
par(, (f his n si-
rd from Drake
well that lac hadl



Cua rIm ll xI is-
)h Sn H 11 set
ira nt keeper in
x 11 all a1( of ;t
I epItcd to) hc
Ss SI11cc pcisist-
ld to Lat til()fla


WUS iot ett (ltSj)5dissss the colotIists, 11 in
realit\' \vS if inleir iliteest. T1is tNJpl;1ta-
tioi Callnot Ie lCctpt1, lIoW:Cvt-, (ccpt
upon the lbypotllcsis tlhat theC c)oloists were
bound to lose their lands under the contracts
which they held. This,as the event proved,
It


161






Pioneering in Cuba.


t


was a groundless fear ; their holdings were
perfectly secure.
In order to make the situation clear to the
reader a little explanation is necessary. The
Viaro tract, which was the one in l question,
included about two thirds of tie t( xxwn site
and a little over ten thousand acres of planta-
tion land adjoining. The greater part of this


land had been allotted to
deeds had then been given
had made a first payment .
was paying the balance
One of these instalments wV-
brake came to La Gloria
Cienfiente, who had owne
set up the claim that the con
Lieutenant Cieniuente was
reasonable length of time
had become suspicious that
to get it at all, and hence


but no


. The company
n the tract, and
in instalnents.
is overdue whe
with Lieutenant
d the laud, and
tract had lapsed.
willing to wait a
for his n'y, hut
he was not going
w as more or less


under the influence of Drake, who appears to
have been a self-appointed attorney for the
Spaniard. I rake had a great scheme,
which was to make a new contract directly
with the colonists, or newlv chosen represen-
tatives, at an advanced price tor the tract.
This advance was to be divided between
Cien tuente and himself, and DIrake's share


162,


colonists,






First Holiday in La Gloria.


would have amounted to $2;, ooo or $30,000.
Of course, in Drake's scheme, the only alter-
native fir the colonists was dispossession.
Yielding to the young lawyer's insinuating
representations, Lieutenant Cientiente had
agreed to the plan, but he was by no means
an aggressive factor in it. Mea nxvhile, the
company's ollcers in New York were con-
cluding arrangements to wake the overdue
payment, which was done a fe wVeeks later.
With but little hesitation, Lieutenant Cien-
fuente accepted the money from Messrs.
Park and Mollenhauer, and Drakes little
scheme collapsed like a toy balloon.
A part of the above facts only were known
to US when Messrs. Kelly, Connell, IL well.
and mn self had our hurried conference lite
in the afternoon of our first holiday. Mr.
Lowell was particularly excited, and seri-
ously disturbed by the apprehension that he
might have his land taken away from him.
It was quickly agreed that it was for the
mutual interest of Drake and the colony that
he should not be permitted to spend the night
in La Gloria. We wXetnt over to the house
of General Nan der Voort, and discussed the
situation with him. Ile mingled his indigna-
tion with ours, and dictated a peremptory


163






Pioneering in Cuba.


order that Drake 'should leave the camp at
once. I was coiiinissioned to delicerF the
message, aind le ssrs. Kel y, Connell, and
Lowell Volntieerel tO accompany me. After
a little search we tiund llrake near the old
senor's" shack. Ie seeleld to divine our
errand and camne Iorward to meet us, pale
and trembling, perhaps Ir(o1n .xciteent, pos-
sibly fromii tear. Indeed, we must have
looked somewhat formlidable if not hellig-
erent. We were all large men, and Kelly
was the Oly one of thi lIE \N1i( %vas not six
feet or more in height. I gave Drake the
paper from the general. Scarcely glancing
;at it, he said, apologectically, I i t a ()\w tone,
It's all a mistake, gentlemen, I meant no
harm to anyhodvy." We assured him that we
thought he would he saler elsewhere than in
La Gloria. I It did not stop to argue the mat-
ter, but turning went directIv to the shack and
saddled his horse. We had intended to give
him an hour ; he was out oF La Gloria in ten
minutes. I le was obliged to spend the night
in the dense woods
The treatment of Mr. Drake was not hos-
pitable, but the colonists looked upon him
as an interloper whose machinations might
bring upon them a great deal of trouble. I


164







First Holiday in La Gloria.


do not think he had any wish to injure the
colonists, but he certainly 11(1 a itClthilg
palm for the large stake wihic h he thoult he
saV Within his reach. I saw 11111 a week or
two later in Puerto Principe, and he was
amicable enough. It' still hylie\ed his
scheme would go throhiti, but it \ ;as not
long before his hopes were dashed. I le told
me he was heavily armed \lhen in La Gloria,
and could have dropped all four of us, but
that he had promised Lieutenant Cienfuente


not t
as it
of a


o make any-
turned out.
gentleman,


troub
Ir.
an1d


le. II
)rake
extend


sie, to me duriiig iy stay in
I lis resentment on accomit o
episode was, mainly directed
Van der Voort, and he cmph
that he lad alreal taken st
the general into court fior the
Lieutenant Cientfieinte re
Gloria as our special guest.
tained 1t the ollicers, table,
honor at the meeting of the 1
tion that evening, and every
to make hin feel at home. (
Monday he left for his homie
itpe in high good humor.


e surely did not,
htad the imi1nt)rs
ed man\ courte-


IPuerto I'ri
f the La (
tow ard Ge
ttic ally doc
teps to Slit
insult.
mauled i1
11811(( Ias
lit' \\ i1s
was the gu
'iouecr As
effort was
)n the ll
in Puerto


n ipe.
Gloria
nieral

unn

1 La
enter-
t st o -
Socia-
nade
M ing
Prin-


165












CIIAPTER XIII.


INDUSTRY OF THE COLONISTS.

THE opening of spring did not bring any
material change in weather that the colonists
could detect, save that the occasional rainfall
had ceased. The temperature for March was
about the same as for J annuary and Februarv,
the lowest recorded by the thermometer being
53 and the highest 920. The weather was
delightful and comfortable. It'here was more
blossoming of flowers in the woods and the
openings, and many a big tree became a ver-
itable flower garden, with great clusters of
pink orchids clinging to its huge trunk and
massive limbs. There were several trees thus
ornamented in close proximity to my tent.
The colonists were now progressing with
their work and displaying the greatest indus-
try. Considerable clearing had been done,
and sonic planting. Gardens were growing
well, and the colonists were eating potatoes,
beans, peas, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc., of their
own raising. Many thousands of pineapple
plants had been set out, and banana and






Industry of the Colonists.


orange trees were being put into the ground
as fast as they could be obtained. Maiv of
the colonists were employed more or less by
the Company ill one Capacity or another.
Some worked on the road, some about the
camp, a few in the gardens, and still others
in the cook-house. A number had been em-
ployed in the sury Corps almost IFOm the
time of their arrival, while others worked oll
and on," according to their convenience and
disposition. The work of the surveyors was
hard and exposing, and the fare usually poor
and meagre, but for all that the men generally
liked the employment and there was a con-
stant stream of applicants for vacant places.
In most cases the applicant knew what was
before him and hence could appreciate the
grim humor of Chief Kelly's unv arying form-
ula. After questioning the applicant to ascer-
tain if he really wanted to work, the chief
would say, facetiously : All you have to do
is to follow a painted pole and eat three meals
a dlay." Following a painted pole through
the mud, water, and underbrush of a Cuban
jungle, especially with an axe in one's hand
to wield constantly, is no sinecure, but the
men did not have to work very hard at their
meals :Myv admiration of the pluck and


167



r



4



.,aa a, :_* .s > ,yY: s.*p :' ,is y{ :^' 1 ", i-". ...+t '" '..ik


'b m ".;s" f .,.ten,



ry


Til ESUR CuR es (llarrr/ 2.1, 11)00.)






Industry of the Colonists.


patience of the boys on the survey corps
was unloundled, and, I believe i, Cully justified.
At their table the chief had designated an oIL-
cial kicker, and 11o one else was supposed to
utter a colplaint. and it wUs seldom that thwv
did. The discipline waS like that o an a1rm\.
When a maln was ordered to do a thin, two
courses lay open to hil -d ( it or qjuit. [su-
ally the orders were carried out.
One of the most c ;pahie and in dnstrious (d
the colonists was B. '. Seibert of Oahta,
Nebraska. I Ic was a manI11 of taste and r(line-
ient, and at the same time eminently practi-
cal. IIc %as tt \ eterall ol the Civil War and
a prominent citizen in the Western city wheice
he came. Hec had lived at unc time in Cali-
lorniia, and there had l;aincd special knowl-
edr4e of the cultivation of fruits, lovers, and
ornmental shruibery. A jew days after his
arrival iln La Gloria in Januiiry, \Ir. Seiert
Was placed in charge of the port. and at once
set to work to briiig; order out of chaos. Ile
took care of the l;tlrge amount of h;I' at(ac and
freight that had been dumped in the mud on
the shore, placiiig it tuder temporulrv shelter,
and a little later constructed an1 ample % ware-
house Connecting with the pier. lle removed
the bushes and debris from the beach, thor-






Pioneering in Cuba.


oughly drained the locality, leveled the ground,
cleared the accumulated sea-weed from the
sand of the shore, extended and improved the
pier, and put everything in first-class order,
until one of the roughest and most forbidding
of spots became positively attractive. I have
rarely seen so complete and pleasing a trans-
formation. The Port La Gloria of to-day is a
delighttil place, neat and well kept, swept by
balmy breezes from the sea, and commanding
an entrancing view across the vari-colored
waters of the beautiful bay to the island ot~
Gua jaba, with its picturesque m ountali1s, and
the other keys along the coast. There is good
sea-bathing here, and excellent fishing not
far away. A few miles down the coast the
mouth of the Maximo river is reached, where
one may shoot alligators to his heart's con-
tent, while along the shore of Guajaba Kev
the resplendent fhamingo may be brought
lown by a hunter who is clever enough to
get within range of the timid bird. Assistant
Chief Engineer Neville was a good flamingo
hunter, and we occasionally dined otff the big
bird at the officers' table.
One of the hardest workers in the colony
was Jason L. Ratekin, who came from Omaha,
Nebraska. lie was a man of marked indi-


d7o






Industry of the Colonists.


viduality, and though not overburdeled with
capital, was fertile in resources and full of
energy and determination. At first he per-
formed arduous work for the company in the
transportation of baggage and freight from
the port with the bullock team, and later wteint
into business for himself as a contractor for
the clearing and planting of laud. IIe was
enthusiastic and progressive. Among all the
colonists there was none more public-spirited,
and he demonstrated his kindness of heart on
many occasions. Once when the bullock
team was bringing in a sick woman and sev-
eral small children, and the rough and weari-
some journey was prolonged into the darkness
of the night, he distinguished him self by Car-
rying the ten-months-old baby nearly all the
way in his arms and by breaking into a con-
signment of condensed milk to save it from
starvation. Ratekin was a rough-looking el-
low, but a more generous and kindly nature
is seldom met with.
The first banquet in La Gloria Was held on
the evening of March 26, in honor of the iifty-
second birthday of Col. Thomas 1I. Magintliss,
superintendent of camp, who was about to
return to his wife and eleven children in Phil-
adelphia. M. T. Jones of Williamsport, Pa.,


171







Pioneering in Cuba.


\Vas master of ceremonies, and the occasion
was highly enjoyable. The banquet was
served in a tent restaurant oil Central avenue,
and the guests numbered about twe nty, sev-
eral of whom w ere ladies. The table pre-
sented a very attractive appearance, and the
menu included salads, sardines, salt beef,
smoked herrings, fresh fish, bread, cake and
/lme-o-nade. Among the after-dinner speak-
ers were Colonel Maginniss, (ienerail Van der
Voort, S. N. Ware of WyXOmil1g, Jesse B.
Kines, Rev. Dr. Gill, 1). E. Lowell, M. A.
C. Neil, II. O. Neville, John A. Connell, and
James ). Adams. The banquet was voted a
success by- all present.
On Sunday, April 1, Colonel Alaginniss and
about twenty of the colonists left La Gloria
lor Nuevitas preparatory to sailing for the
States. This was the largest number of colo-
nists that had departed at one timn. since mid-
witter, and their leaving canned soule depres-
sion throughout the colony. This was quick-
Iv over, however, and n\v arrivals s.)ofl made
up for the numerical loss. The Maginniss
party included 14. T. Jones of Pennsylvania
and II. E. Mosher of New York state. who
had been his assistants in the work of the camp,
and Mrs. Whittle of Albany, N. Y., and Max


172







Industry of the Colonists. 173

Neuber of Philadelphlia, Pt., \who 1md beeln
the teachers of the day and c\cnin schools.
Mr. Neuber and smuim of the others expressed
the intention of returning to ILa (Gl. ria later
in the y1ear.
The departure of the score of colonists at
this time was marked by a most melancholy
incident, which )gas spcdilv tt)lO(d by the
first death in La G(l-oria. Jolhn F. I! ax tild of
Providence, R. I ., a man past middle a;t,,
who had come to La Gloria on the First -(r-
won/ excursion, had been ill for s&tlral wccks
with a complications of ailments. Althoughll
he had the wNatchitul care antd runmpanionship
of a friend fr-oml the same city. Capt. Joseph
Chace, he beedne xery much dlepresstd
and sdly homesick. \\'hen the Ma;ii-fiss
party was made up to return to the States,


he believed
to accOmpafny
I (o) the effort.
flolilCedl hisi
and set out to
up and taken
he was overco


hims(
it all
Whe
ntenti
do so
down
ame by


I1 sutlici
td braced
i the day
)u of w\alk
but \w as

cXhaustio


'ntly
up
:irri \
inw t
yuic
n.
t, an


imtpro) ed
ondcrl-ully
cd, he an-
o the port,
kly picked
At the pier
d exhibited


much weakliess that it
place hims on board of
d crowded sail-boats.


\was dtecd unsafe
either of the small
It wv as feared he


so
to
an






174 Pioneering in Cuba.

would not survive the hardships and exposure
of the journey to Nuevitas. The decision to
leave him behind, although kindly meant, was
a great blow to him, and was believed by some
to have hastened his death, which took place
the next morning. Ilowever this may be, it
is improbable that he would have lived to
reach his home in the States. Iieart failure
was the final cause of his death. IIe had good
care at the port, but his extreme weakness
could not be overcome. Mr. Mayfield was a
q quiet, unobtrusive man, and was held in high
esteem throughout the colony. Ile was buried
in a pleasant spot in the company s reserve,
and his funeral was attended by almost the
entire colony and some of the Cubans. The
services were held out of doors in a beautifiil
glade, and were conducted by the Rev. Dr.
Gill. It was a most impressive scene. This
was the only death in La Gloria during the six
months succeeding the arrival of the first col-
onists. This low rate of mortality was the
more remarkable from the fact that a number
of invalids came or were brought into the col-
ony during the winter. One day there came
in from the port a wagon bringing a woman
who had been a paralytic for years, and her
sick husband, who had been unable to sit up






Industry of the Colonists.


for a long time. They w\re from Kansas,
and \Vere aCCOmpanied by groVwn children
anid friends. The colonists expected there
would very soon he two deaths in La Gloria.
but the sick man. who was a mere skeleton,
improved steadily and in a flw weeks was able
to walk about the callp, while his pa1rUlytiC
wiit a)s no worse and was considered by the
family to he sligrhtly better. Considering that
the invalids were living in tents \w ithout expert
care. the man's recovery NVaS hartlyl less than
Ivan clous.
On April 2, work on the corduro y road to
the port, which had been suspended, w as re-
sumed under the capable supervisioil of I). E.
Lowell. Mr. Lowell proved to he the chest
roadmaker who had taken a hand at the
game up to that time, and, considering the
little he had to do with, accomplished a great
deal. Ilis workmen wt re from among the
colonists and he rarely had more than ten or
twelve at a time, and usual\' less, but in five
or six weeks he had done much for the bet-
terment of the highway. No one realized
better than Mr. Lowe]l that this was only a
temporary road, but it was the chest to he had
at the time. Later in the year, a fine, per-
manent highway to the port was begun by


175







Pioneering in Cuba.


Chief Engineer I
La Gloria's g;rcat


Kelly, and Nwn completed


drawback


KellV's is a substantial,


roc k-hallastc t


two fct above


high-cater


mark.


It wNiII makc La Gloria


easV of access fiom the coaSt.


176


will 1e removed.


(radd


road,


twelve fcct wvIde, and


f4
k a'
r


y, +

ti

j t"
X11"", .' ,












CHAPTER NI\'.


Tr Fms-r BALi, IN LA GLOIuA.


MEANWILiiE, the sale
plantations and town lots
until on April 9, six moi
the surveyors began their
twelve thousand or fifteen
land had been allotted, be
and thirty-three city lots.
had been cleared, and pa


aiid aliotnittit of
steadily continued,
Sths from the (IIa
operations, about
thousand acres of
sides nine hundred
Many of the lots
ris of som of the


plantations. Qjjite an amount of planting, in
the aggregate, had been done.
The survey corps and the colonists agreed
that the semi-anniversary of the coming of the
surveyors to La Gloria should be marked by
a celebration, and the bold project of a grand
ball was set on toot. When I first heard of
it, I thought it was a joke, but when I saw a
long list of committees conspicuously posted
on Central avenue, and had been rtluested
by "Albany to announce the coming event
at the regular meeting of the Pioneer Asso-
ciation, I realized that the talk had been
serious and that Terpsichore had actually
12






Pioneering in Cuba.


gained a footing in La Gloria. I was au-
thorized to announce that the ball would be
in charge of a French dancing master, which
xvas the fact, for Floor Manager Messier
("Albany ") was a Frenchimin by birth.
The ball and the accompanying supper were
free to all, but the women of the colonyr had
been requested to contribute food-and most
nobly they responded-while the men, par-
ticulariy the surveyors, hiustled for fruit,
sugar, etc. It was a cheering sight when
big Jack McCauley drove in from Mercedes
with the mule team, bringing a whole barrel
of oranges. These were some of the oranges
which had been saved by Jack's influence."
It was no small task to make the necessary
preparations for the ball, and some of the
committees were kept very busy. I was on
the coinmittee on music, and learned to mv
dismay, a few hours before the ball was to
open, that Dan Goodman, the fiddler, had been
attacked by stage fright and had declared
that if he was to be the whole orchestra he
would hang up the fiddle and the bow."
I interviewed Dan,-who was just as good
a fellow as his name implies,-and found that
he was really suffering from Pensylvania
modesty. AccordinglV it devolved on me to


178







First Fall in La Gloria.


179


build up al
I succeeded
short time I
of Ed. Ford,


orchestra with Dan as a nucleus.
beyod my expectations. In a
had secured the musical ser ices
Mr. and Mrs Spiker, aid others.


The evening caime, and like Jerry R usk, they
"seen their duty and done it." And it ImIv
further be said that they dole it \ery
It was decided to h ld the hall ill a large
canvas-covered structure which ail tOrmerly
beetl used as a restaurant kitchen and store-
house. There wts only a dirt loor, and
hence the matter of a teinprarv iloorini
became a problem. I'ards were almost all
unkn wn\1 l - in La Gloria at that timle,
but a few were picked up alouit the camp,
and the Rev. Dr. Gill kindly It aned the Iloor-
ing of his tent linr the cvenin'r. E: en then,
only so much of the hailroom Ilo{.r vas
boarded as waUs actual]y usV d tfO dimcing. It
is not too much to say that the haliroomtl was


elaborately decorated.


fatsteined
a dozen


graceful
feet or


and
more


Iligh
beautift
in len


oi er ad
l palm It
gilh, and


were
aVes,
there


wxe-e green wreathes and initial letters flecked
with tohvv.rs and bright I red herries. N Men.
vomen. and children joined .'fnrts to make
the interior of the tent a shower of tropical
beauty-. The effect was most pleasing.






Pioneering in Cuba.


Such decorations in the Northern states would
doubtless have cost a large sum of money.
IIere they cost only a little time and labor.
I wish I could say that the ballroom was
brilliantly lighted, but the gas and electric
light plants were as yet uiplanted, and we
had to depend on kerosene lanterns sus-
pended from the roof. Ilowever, as most of
us had been using only candles for illumina-
tion, the lantern light seemed very good.
No one thought of complaining that it was
dark.
I shall not be able to describe the Grand
ball in all its wondrous details, but only to
make brief mention of a flew of the features
which particularly impressed me. I remem-
ber that as the people gathered together we
had great ditliculty in recognizing each other.
We had thought we were all well acquainted,
but that was before the men and women had
gone down into the bottom of their trunks
and fished out their good clothes. The trans-
formation, particularly in some of the men,
was paralyzing, and after we had identified
the individuals inside of the clothes, many of
us forgot our company manners and opened
our mouths wide in astonishment. Men who
had been accustomed to wear, seven days in


180






First Ball in La GhU ria.


each wcek, a careless outin( costume, or (1d,
cheap clothes of cotton or woolen material, or
mayhap nothing more than shirt mind1 ovet-
alls, had sUddenlV blossomed out in well-
fitting black suits, set of] by culls, hirh col-
lars, and silk ties. It was a dazzling sight
for La Gloria. The men had been vcry
ncglijgent of their dress ; scarcely one had
brought his valet with hime to Cuba : Ihere
may even have been a tc X dress suits at the


ball, and I
the womlel
be entirely
that they
well and s


x
c


will
Vere
safe,
were.
did


not nake
not in d'
ho\\eVe.r,
Tle wo
the mlen :;


oath that som
colle ( owls
I \\ill not s
mnen looked
all w\ere a r


to an American colon v.
Mr. J. A. Messier
manager ai master


tired in neat and convention
formed his duties gracetihl
grand march was led by
Voort and Mrs. Dan Goo
Chief Engineer Kelylv xvi
Senor Rivas. I do not lind
sions a dance order, and I
description of it nd I a
others present would have
But there was daincilg,


"IAlbany."),
ft ceremonies,


the
wv;


floor
Is at-


MI dress, and per-
IY :ild ell. The
General Van dcr
Ilia, fillow\ed by
th a daughter of
:anol myl lo)ss es-
Cilce can gi Ve 110
pprellend that the
no bette r snicCSS.
and a lot of it.


e of
to
wear

redlit


I1S






























I E


NT'


m






First Ball in La Gloria. 183

Furthermore, it was much (nov(d. both by
the participants and the spectat rs. About
the middle of the (v\c1ing some specialties
were introduced. Chief E~ngiiner Kelly per-
formed i1 clog dance succsshIlly, turning a
handspring at the end, and Architect Nel
executed an ectentri French dance with a
skill and activity that brought down the
house. There was also 'rood (chw dncip
by some of the younger men.
The hall NNsit, attended by nearly the entire
colony. This was made mnanifist when wNe
lined up tor supper, which \\ax strxed across
the street. The procession to the tables
numbered one hundred and torty persons by
actual count. The tables were set under
shelter tents, anrd \\ere beatilull decorated
and loaded with food. there \\ere meats,
fish, salads, puddings, cakes, and a wonder-
1li variety of pies, in w\lhich the gijaa was
Conspic11oLS. Coflee and fruits were also
much in c idence. N7e er ht'Inre had La
Gioria seen such a spread. On this o tasion
the womiien of the colony achiitevel a cell-
merited reputation for culinary skill and re-
sourcefilness. Except Ior at fw enthusiasts,
who went back to the ballroom 1or Imore
dancing, the Supper wound up the e\-enin's






Pioneering in Cuba.


festivities. The semi-anniversary had been
properly celebrated, and the first ball in La
Gloria had proved successful beyond antici-
pation. April 9, 1900, may be set down as
i red letter day in the history of the colony.
Speaking of the hall and its orchestra calls
to mind the music in the camp in the early
days of the colony. There was not much.
Occasionally a violin was heard ; and more
often, perhaps, a guitar or mandolin. But
the most persistent musician was a cornet
player, who fori a time was heard regularly
every night from one end of the camp. His
wind was good, but his repertoire small. Ile
knew "' home, Sweet Home from attic to
cellar, and his chief object in life seemed to
be to make others as familiar with it as him-
self. He played little else, and the melting
notes of John Ioward Pay ne's masterpiece
floated through the quiet cainp hour after
hour, night after night. Finally, the colo-
nists visited him and told him gently but
firmly that he must stop playing that piece so
much ; it was making them all homesick.
Not long after the cornet player disappeared.
I think there was no foul play. Probably he
had simply betaken himself to home, sweet
Home.


184






First Ball in La Gloria. 1 5

There were many good singers in camp.
Some of them met regularly once or twice a
week and sang gospel hymns. These Ormed
the choir at the Sunday services. There was
another group of vocalists, ei.llv excellent
in its way, which confined itself to rendering
popular songs. Some of the latter, wiho
dwelt and had their "sings near ily tent,
would have done credit to the vadev11ei
stage. They were known as the Kansas
crowd." It gave mc. a native ( f the Granite
state, great satisfaction to hear these Kansas
people singing with spirit and good expres-
sion My Old New IIampshire Homie." I
was pleased to regard it as a Western triute
to New Hampshire as the place of the ideal
home.












CHAPTER XV.


A WALINx Tawi, To PI iIT(o PIuNclht.

IT was on the dayv after the Grand Ball,
Tuesday, April 10, that a party of us started
01] a walking trip to the city of Puerto Principe,
iOrty-five miles away. My Companions, who,
like m self, were all colonists, were Jef l).
Franklin of Florida, David Murphy of New
Jersey, A. H1. Carpenter of \IMassachusetts,
and a %r. Crosby of Tennessee. Mr. Crosby
wts a man off middle age ; the rest of us \vere
younger, Carpenter being a mere youth of
perhaps eighteen. All were good walkers.
The start was made at about 8:3o in the
morning. The day was pleasant and balmy,
but not excessivelv warm. The trail was
now in good condition, and the walking;
would have been altogether agreeable had it
not been for the packs upon our shoulders.
We carried hanmocks, blankets, and such
food as bread, crackers, sardines, bacon, and
coffee. One of the party had a irving-pan
slung across his back. Our loads were not






187


A WalkingS Trip.


actually


heavy, but they sclcd


so alter \ve


had walked a t(.L\ miles.
Our Course ltav to the soutliwcst, thri-igli
the deserted planftation of erccdts, wv here
we stopped an hoN to eat (>ran4cs a1n( chat
with the colonists at work there. Resumin
our march, we soon passed an inhalited
Cuan shack near an abandoned sti r mill,
stopping a te minutes to l ls\ t a >mal
banana patch 11Cer the road. We had been
here before and knew the owner. A mile
further on we reached another occupied shlick,
and called to get a drink of agrua ( xx water .


We \werV
tiont of th
straight-ba
aln antique
rain wa ter


and had


hospital
le Casa
eked,
patt("r-
%\hich


Ib received in
(house) and Div
]rather-hotmed
. The a u 81f(r1.g
had been stored i


at Icast the


thr open
en heavy,
chairs of
niSlhcl V\\as
1 a cistirn,


v irtu of 1ein


There w ere at home an old
fleshy tiderly womtan, and t\\(
looking l iris, the ttpp.1ranc( it
Of whom indicated that she
This was about the onily shack
there were no young children
Wie tarried but a ew minutes.
inquiries about the road, as we


vv ct.


i a n a v cry
ra thir 1g (d-
nd dress ol, (mc
V"I(l S l 011Wlr
was 85 8 isitor.
\vc sa\ xvhre
t in evidencC.
after niaking
lid at almost


every house, we continued on our way.






Pioneering in Cuba.


For the next three or four miles we had a
good hard trail through the woods, but saw
neither habitation nor opening. Shortly after
noon We emerged from the woods into an
open space, where, on slightly elevated
ground, stood two shacks. We had been here
before and knew the man who occupied one
of them. There was no land under cultiva-
tion in sight, and the only fruit a custard
apple tree and a few mangoes. There were
a good many pigs roaming about, and the
shack we entered contained several small
children. Our Cuban friend seemed glad to
see us his wife brought us water to drink,
and we were invited to sit down. Our social
call would have been more satisfactory if we
had known more Spanish, or our host had
spoken English. We made but a brief stay,
and on departing asked the Cuban to point
out to us the road to Puerto Principe. Since
leaving the woods we had seen no road or
trail of any sort. ie took us around his
house and accompanied us for some distance,
finally pointing out an indistinct trail across
high savanna land which he said was the
right one. This path, which could hardly be
seen, was the "' road from the coast to the
third largest city in Cuba, olV about thirty


188







A Walking Trip. 189

miles away' Such are Cuhan roads. At
times vol can only guess whether yoL are inl
a road or out of it.
What lay before us wias now entirely unfa-
miliar. At about one o'clock we hated by
the side of the trail tur a midday rest and
lunch. We were a dozen miles iiom La
Gloria, and about 81l equtal distance from the
ciubitas mountains, through i h ijeh w were
to pass. All hour later we took up the march
again. We soon entered the woods and
found a smooth, firm trail Ovcr the red earth.
We passed through miles of timber, (d a fine,
stighIt growth. Ini the t hick w\\( b0l ut lexw
royal palms were seen, but in the ore open
country we saw some magnificent groves o{
them. During the afternoon we passed only
two or three shacks, but as ne approached
the Cubitas mountains the few habitations and
their surroUndings improved ii character.
The houses continued to he pahn-thatched,
but they Were more connodiouis and sur-
rounded by gardens in which were a few
orange and banana trees, and other fruits and
vegetables. Some of the places were quite
pretty. Occasionally we would see cleared
land that had once been cultivated, but no
growing crops of any amount. This part of






19o Pioneering in Cuba.

the country had been agriculturally dead
since the Ten Years' War. How the natives
live, I know not, but it is safe to say that they
do not live well. Ihev raise boniatos and
cassava, a little fruit, and keep a few pigs.
Often their chief supply of meat is derived
from the wild hogs which they shoot. And
yet these Cubans were living on some of the
best land in the world.
Late in the afternoon, after walking 1or a
mile or more along a good road bordered by
the ornamental but worthless jack-pineapple
plant, we came to a wide gateway opening
into an avenue lined with cocoanut palms and
leading up to a couple of well-made Cuban
shacks. The houses stood at the front of
quite a large garden of fruit trees. We called
at one of the shacks, which proved to be well
populated. An elderly man, large for a
Cuban and well-built, came forward to greet
us and was inclined to be sociable. Ilis shirt
appeared to be in the wash, but this fact did
not seem to embarrass him any ; he still had
his trousers. Of a younger man we bought
a few pounds of boniatos (sweet potatoes)
and after some urging persuaded him to go
out and get some green cocoanuts for us from
the trees. Ile sent his little boy of about







A XValking Trip.


1 )l


twelve years of age up the tree to hack otl a
hunch of the nuts with his mabete. We
drank the copious supply of milk with great
satisfaction ; there is m1 more refreshing drink
in all Cuba. As the boy had done all the
work, we designedly withhcld our sier until
he had come d(h)wn the tree :ind we cm(ld
place it in his hands. We wOnhlrcd if he
wold be allowed to keep it. Climbing the
smooth trunk of a cocoanut tree is no easy
task.
We camped tliat night among the trees by
the side of the road a quarter of a mile further
on. We had made tweity miles tor the lday,
and were now on high ground iear the base
of the Cubitas mnontains. The rise had ben
So very gradual that we had not noticed that
\we wxtre ascending. The trunks of all the
trees around its were stained for a short dis-
taiice from the ground With the red of the soil,
caused, as we believed, IW the Wild hots: rub-
bing up against them. Our supper of fried
boniatos and bacon was skilftlly cooked by
Jelt Franklin, who used the hollow trunk of a
royal palm, which had fallen and been split,
for an oven. For drink ie had cocoanut
milk. By the vigorous use of Dave Murphy's
machete we cleared awa y the underbrush so






Pioneering in Cuba.


that we could swing our hammocks among
the small trees. Franklin had no hammock,
but slept under a blanket on a rubber coat
spread on the ground. The night was com-
fortably warm and brilliantly clear. It was
delightful to lie in our hammocks and gaze up
through the trees at the beautitijl star-lit sky.
There were mosquitoes, of course, but they
did not trouble us much, and we all slept
well.
We were up early the next morning, a per-
fect day, and after eating a substantial break-
last proceeded on our journey. We felt little
exhaustion from the long walk of the preced-
ing day, but I was a sad cripple from sore
feet. I had on a pair of Cuban shoes which
were a little too short for me (although they
were No. 40) and my toes were fearfully
blistered and bruised. There was nothing to
do, however, but go forward as best I could,
so I limped painfully along behind my com-
panions, keenly conscious that Josh Billings
was a true philosopher when he said that
"tite boots made a man forget all his other
troubles.
A fraction of a mile beyond our camping
place we discovered a well-kept shack
ensconced in cosy grounds amid palms, fruit


192






A Walking Trip.


trees, and fhxveerig Sl riS. It \\ S Onte (I
the prettiest Scenes \Ve saW. \\*e CUll(d It I
Water, pOlitcI\' greeted the wulljll \V I) Servet
its Withl our lest pruunlllrittimni (10'' nm111


Sias, atl


plcasflltt
calme to) P
kiy pearl
to the rif
trai I to
along, tli
r1'"(] thait


d1, nllurnlulrlin;
\1ith s)lle rc
; spot. A iile
distinct lfrk ini
v Straillt Ue.
ht. While ve
ake, a llorsenl
le first pers) 11
a\- and tIlE


tfrets alt lcitvill(
mI t\\() furtiler I 1l
tle ro (d. Olle v
d, the other borei
\\crc dchatintg \Vll
an fOrtnnately ca
\ve hlad seenl mn
second sinlcc lenli


\Iercedes On the preCtding P)relntln. IIe
t(ld 1 Us to ( toy tlte right, an(1 We \\tre s8(nl
in the toxlthills o1 the mountains.
It WaS here that We tl(l(l U deSerte( shack
behind which was t clear-cd space in the
wOOds il Severil HCres. Oil this little plan-
tation grew lannIUlS, ct)Vc)ilOIts, riass;\ a, l)Oli-
atoS, and other vegetAbleS. As it was in the
Cubitas m1ountain:1 newr thlis shu(t thaut thle
Culban insurrectionlists hald Wllut tlle\ rapld
their independent civil ,OV.lernlent bvr Nile
time prior to the intervention mf the" Un'1ied
States, and secreted their cattle and raised
fruit and vegetables to supply kwd ilor the
Arny of Liberation." we guessed that this


lit

\1 c

.\
nil
icl

tme

n


I ji





194 Pioneering in Cuba.

might be one of the places then put under
cultivation. It certainyIv had had very little
recent care.
After journeying past some chalk-white
clitIs, which we examined with interest, we
entered the mountain pass which we supposed
would take is through the town or Village of
Cubitas, the one-time Cuban capital. The
way was somewhat rou(hi and 1lugg(ed, but
not very steep. Tie mountains Vere covered
with trees and we had no extended view in
any direction. All at once, at about 10: 30
a. mn., we suddenly and unexpectedly emerged
from the pass, when the shut-in forest view
changed to a broad and sweeping prospect
into the interior of Cuba. What we looked
down upon was an ninense savanna, stretch-
ing twenty miles to the front, and perhaps
more on either hand, broken in the distance
on all sides by hills and lofty mountains. It
was a beautiful sight, particularly for its who
had been shut in by the forest most of the
time for months. TlC Salvatiuna was dry, but
in places showed bright green stretches that
were restful to the eye. It was dotted with
thousands of small palm trees, which were
highly ornamental. We could not see Puerto
Principe, nor did we catch sight of it until






A Walking Trip.


within three miles of the city. There was no
town or village in sight. and not even a
shack, occupied or unoccupied. The view
embraced one vast plain, ifrlerly used for
grazing purposes, but now w holly neglected
and deserted. We did not then know that
we were to walk seventeen miles across this
savanna before seeinlg a sinle habitation of
anv sort.
We had seen nothing of the village of
Cubitas, and concluded that we had taken
the wrong pass. We were afterwaris told
that Cubitas consisted of a single shack which
had been used as a canteen. \tWhether the
Cuban government occupied this canteen, or
one of the caves which are said to exist in
these mountains, I cannot say. The revolu-
tionary government, being A:lWays a novable
affair, Was never easy to locate. It was,
however, secure front lharmii in these 1Im in-
tains. 'We noticed later that the Ilati\es
seemed to regard all the scattered houses
within a radius of half a domzn miles from
this part of the mountains as frmin Cubitas.
The post-office must have been upI a tree.
After a brief rest on the south slope of the
mountains, we resumed our march, a weari-
some one for all of 1s and exceedingly pain-


195






196 Pioneering in Cuba.

fil to me with my disabled feet. They
seemed even sorer after a halt. Mv ankles
were now very lame from unnaturally favor-
ing my pinched toes. The midday sun was
hot, and we sutlered a good deal fromi thirst.
There were no longer iny holes wN here We
could procure water. We had not seen a
stream of any sort in the last twenty miles.
I sta4gered alone as best I cMild, a straggler
behind my companions. A little after noon
we came stddenly upon two or three little
water holes directly in our path. It seemed
like an oasis in the desert. We could not
see where the water came Iromi1 nor \\lhre it
went, but it was clear and good, and "e were
duly thankful. We ate din ner here under :I
small palm tree, and enjoyed a siesta for an
hour.
In the afternoon we met only one person.
a Cuban produce pedler on horseback. Ile
treated those who cared for liquor out of a
big black bottle. That afternoon's tramp will
linger long in our memories. I thought we
should never get across that seemingly end-
less savanna. At last, when it was near six
o'clock, we reached an old deserted open
shack which stood on the plain not far from
the trail. Here we spent the night, cooking







A Walking Trip>.


olur sulgler and( procuinin11 it ncesir-h \
tOlirabl good \vfAtCr, fotwit hstitiuli ii
dirty SC11111 oil t1)p ()f it. We \\e \' N
1tiI nlets of Lucrto I rincipe, 81(1 ail
VC11C dIelighte(d thait (w\mingl \\ 11 a s(
Wil hi l Il ( had ( nu thear(d ill III((lT thlall t
111% ) tllS- tlti wxhistlc I f i t lu )lll(It\t'.
night v aHs somile\\hat (disturl)U( by\ riats, f
ani(d \os(1l8l it.os, hlilt \\ t \Te %vi t oi lir t nI
sleep a (rood part of it. The breeze Ut
the SAVAI)IU wS itutlvt ail(1 S(l)tliIl!.
tlt? o ntest \\nUtliW w wialke( t i.t(
timeC-scare(d rit\ ()f I'ucerto Prirncipe-tll;
the others walkc(d AndI hobbledl. If


\\ t~1
tlhe
ith in


MlildI


Our
lens,
I(t to


trost


the
it is.
pos-


C\ C-


the Co


Itskirts, our pi


i rpi\,
left to gt
Ca\'alr


to the c(1np1
\\O lilies (itst


tro
1it


140


Igi
lit


v (1liti idt frank
lhranciii (wVl to
III thr Eighth t'.
n}i the Ici''il nr.
i)i ilit' Cit\ N l R
A)y ,ind I g(>ing
lilt' t()\\ Ill scir l
ig \\;dk tilr<>ugli
\Tc(1 surccts hcin-cfe


(I

Mil,
pir


tie t\i
of t
t(


rm
cl


In
('F


p".
j).


(


t


Failroa(d trick, so(d
recti\ into tlhe leartt
a hotel. We 1had >t
narrlW aId rougl\ .
houn rd onc. 'llC r
wCFt t tough-lokin
wCre unlshavc1n iinl
clothes Were w> ri
will tid sa( du(1 (ist.


Ill
lin.
the
S.
thle
(i-
I ()t
ther

\\ 2

We
)ur


a81(1 fr \t d. ;1(I s5ilc(
Wc Wer htrit witlh the


197


sihle, Iln\ feet


were W()O'sr {}h31


indI C'arlut 10






198 Pioneering in Cuba.

packs upon 011 shoulders, and walked with
very pronounced limps. Everywhere we
were recognized as 'Americanos," although
it seemed to me we looked more like Italian
organ-grinders. To the day of my death I
shall never cease to be grateful to the people
of Puerto P-incipe for the admirable courtesy
and good manners exhibited to us. They
did not stone nor jeer us ; they did not even
openly stare at the odd spectacle we pre-
sented. Even the children did not laugh at
us, and the dogs kindly refrained from bark-
ing at our heels. At all times during our
stay of several days we were treated with
perfect courtesy and a respectful considera-
tion which our personal appearance scarcely
warranted and certainly did not invite. The
Spaniards and Cubans senm to associate even
the roughest dressed American with monty
and good-nature. The hum bler children
would gather about us, pleading, Ameri-
Canilo, gnim e it centavo while little tots
of four years would say in good English
and the sweetest of voices. Good-by, my
friend' It wvas the soldiers who had taught
them this. Their parents rarely spoke any
English whatever.
We staved at the Gran Hotel, said by some







A Walking Trip. 199

to he the best in the city. It wIs none to
good, but not had as Caibal hotels run. The
terms were moderate, fi .;o per dfay for two
meals and lodging. A third meal could not
be obtained tor love nor inoney. I bought
mine at street stands or in a t cut. Not a
word of English was spoken at this hotel.
I cannot describe Puerto Principe at any
length. It is an old Spanish city in architec-
ture and customs, and might vell have been
transplanted from me(int\al Spain. As a
matter of lact, it was mlV(ed Ihere centtuies
agO from the north CorSt of Cubat, ne;tr the
present site of Ntevitas, the chang.;(i bci
made to escape the incursions of piraitcs. It
has a population of about forty-seven thou-
satnd. aid is the third li rgest city in Cuba,
and the most populous inland townii. laiy
of the residents ar-c wealthyv and aristocratic,
and the people, generallv speaking, are fine
looking and xtLry w11 dressed. I se eral
times visited the chief plaza, which had
lately taken the new name of Agr~ionte,
and watched with interest th handsome
men and beautiful seloritas who promenaded
there. I was told that late in the afternoon
and early in the evenin the yong people of
the best fhimilits in the city walked in the










h I


V


~$


r t;









;S&IVi~~~I lI\ \, 14 [kt ti i\1JI,

?4tga/zb 11 A', Lb Vne.Ja.n


4


r


r


1


V


1








A Walking I rip.


plaza. They vere c
and most decorous
Wals vcry pretty w


tal


ertainly v elegantly dressed
in hthacior. T1 plait
ith its roy al janins and


flo\\er beds.


It w as flanked


1 v


one of t
in the ci
in recCI
C. IIug
laded to
After
Puerto
Minas,t


he sev era uncifnt CItI
tv. While in Puerto
)t ol unexIpected courts
o )rake, the Aneric;
in an earlier chater of
s1lp ndin t utimr d li
Principle, I took the
twenty miles to the east


holic ch rcItS
Pr tiJc I was
lies from Mr.
an is I)yer al-
this book.
htful days in
train to Las
wvard. There


preccdId
e board d
itnch z


and rode to Sc
at Senitdo. Si \
has a pi(lasant
frutit trees and
herries if row i1
Cuban shacks i
men11 and their
his li flenst, \w
il1 opelratiO, Un
on tic flat cars
extensive planti
either sidi of t
bill( utilized 1


nor 1anche' rrat su Il( es aAy. ilr tilN tItP L l i'chlz
residence here, snrroundled Ily
shrtlbs. W1e s<1v rife ,tr<1v-
it his 14rden. Core of
1 the \ icinity house his tork-
tunlilics. W e vv n11 all m er
ell-aIppointwd suII mill, then
ld in the carly afternoon rode
of- the cenle train through his
tion finr nine mniles, the laud onl
hr track for all this distance
or the girowvin of sugar rarne.


I joine
Ilme by
the pri


d Ilyl
twent
vate


cunm
v -tiu
cane


111U tL5
tr hurls.
train ot


w ho had
Here vv
lirrnathc


201







202 Pioneering in Cuba.

The end of the track left us about eighteen
miles from La Gloria. We set out to walk
home, but late in the afternoon the party
accidentallv divided and both divisions got
lost. Murphy and I spent an uncomfortable
night in the thick, damp woods, and taking
up the tramp early the next morning, found
ourselves, two or three hours later, at the
exact point near the end of Sanchez' planta-
tion where we had begun our walk the after-
noon before. We had walked about fifteen
miles and got back to Our starting point with-
out realizing that we had deviated from the
main trail. Stranger vet, the other division
of the party had done exactly the same thing,
but had reached this spot late the night before
and was now half way to La Gloria.
Milurphv and I made a new start, and after
getting oil the track once or twice, finally
reached the Maximo river, crossed it on a
tree, and got into La Gloria at 5 : 30 that
afternoon, nearly worn out and looking like
wild men. I had had nothing to eat for forty-
eight hours save two cookies, one cracker,
and half a sweet potato.















IN AM) ARovNv LA GojzI\.

A VERY good Book that f \\Otf f contains
an Apocrypha. This will baxe no Apocr\-
pha, but I will here relate an incident which
did not come under lm v personal ohservatitn.
but which "as told of by Iy ordinarily I vera-
ciols friend. Colonel Maginliss. At one
time during the winter, Colonel IMfginniss
and his assistants had for three (LIVS been
searching for a company horse that was lost,
when a man named Ramsden came to the
colonel's tent and reported that there waS a
horse hanging in the Woods not far aw y
The colonel and Mr. Jones wllt to the spot
and 1)n1nd a htrgi white horse, that had
weighed twelve hundred pounds, dead in the
thicket, hanging by the neck. No normal
inquest was held, but it Was the colonel's
theory that this American-born horse 'could
not live on Cuhan grass, and had deliberately
hanged himself. A somewhat similar case I
was personally cognizant of. A sick horse
waVs reported drowning in a shallow pond


CllAPTER NVI.







Pioneering in Cuba.


near the can
the scene on
colonists, and
was dragg(red
the ntidi and
Early the ne
that the horse
the pond and
case of alinia
none of the


p. Colonel Mag i1niss went to
a Cuban pony, with a dozen
after a hard strug 4Ic the horse
one hundred vards away Arom
water, m(d left on drv land.
xt morning it was discoo\Bred
had worked his way hack into
drowned himself. Was this a
I suicide? It uav be said thiat
colonists ever resorted to this


desperate expedient, even when the sugar
.gave out.
Colonel Maginniss was a iiaster hand in
sickness." An Eflisl woman who came to
tire colonyv was verv ill, and blood poisoning
set in. The colonel's experience as a iiinily
1m1 was now of service. lie had the \(omIan
removed to a large tent. attended her per-
sonally- and looked after the children, calling
four or five times daily, ;111(1 administering-
such remedies as he had. The woman re-
covered, and grateln1ly expressed the belief
that the colonel had saved her life.
Near the end of April there was a sudden
and surprising rise of water along Central
avenue between La Gloria and the port. One
afternoon Mr. Lowell and his men at work
upon the road noticed that the water was ris-


204







In and Around La Gloria. 2O

ing in the creeks and ditches along the way.
This was a surprising discOv(ry, in istluch as


there had heen no rail
water continued to rise
me(n left oilT wNork Litt
seIer; I feet higher th
Lt canms up steadily th
p)edcstrian)s to the I
toimnd tilt wvatcr e\ en
;titng and over it wch
Further down toward
ias hooded in Lplares
feet. A\ngI the it
w\cre several colonists
home to the Status,
enough, were oblige
(uoria through mud a
thev had talked in
although btwet 11 c
been for a ion tinte I
It was that morning
heard a peculiar rush


n e an account. The
Rapidly, and wh1en the
in the akicroon it w as
inn it hnad bteen at noon.
roug;h the night. so that
ort tiht nest miorning'
with t 'i nt'w road all
ere the creeks caine in.
Lthe part thtw sac 1o ii d xcpth fi oin mr tw ()
Ocstrians thtst morning
"ho wtere un their wa;y
and who, sinwularky
d to w tlrvk out of L
and water xry much as
s~ecerad months helore,
two pierimds thert, had
',ood dry-\ road.
that cNe, in the cantnp,
ing sound which we at


first mistook tor water swe.'ping throg h the
woods. On goina down the road to in vesti-
"'ate r,]h)V er MF lXi nd that the nois' was
the deatfninf chorus of millions of little frogs
-some contended that tley were tree toads-
which had wilm in with the 11ood or with the






Pioneering in Cuba.


rain which fell in the night. Never before
had I seen such a sight. The frogs were
everywhere, on logs, stumps, in the water,
and along the road ; bits of earth jutting out
of the water would be covered with them.
They were all of one color-as yellow as sul-
phur-and appeared to be very unhappy'. I
saw large stumps so covered with these tro(s,
or toads, as to become pnyraiids of yellow.
Whether frogs or toads, they seemed averse to
getting wet and were all seeking dry places.
I saw a snake about two l(et long, who
had filled himself up with them from head to
tail, floating lazily on the surface of the water.
No less than live of the vellowbacks had
climbed up on his head and neck, and he had
only energy enough left to clasp his jaws
loosely upon one of them and then let go.
The snake seemed nearly dead from over-
eating. The frogs disappeared in a day or
two as suddenly as they had come.
At the time of this small-sized flood, a party
of surveyors were camped upon the savanna
near Central avenue and about a mile from
the port. Their camp was high enough to
escape the water, but they were pretty well
surrounded by it. One of the mnen, finding
deep water running in the road, went a-fish-


2o6






In and Around Ia Gloria. 207

ing there and boasted that he had caught fish
in Central avenue: The water snoi subsided,
and the generally IacccpJtel explanation ( the
sudden flood was that it had been caused l)v
the overflow of the Maximo, and that there


had been eavy\


rains, or a Cl)ldhurst, twel e


or titteen miles awVa.
April was a wearm l
all .incomrt hablC o1ne.
ture recorded was 67 ;
weather was dclightti
tireshI and fri rant; ho
everywhere ; and tihe
incomparable bee coul
industrious. So, too,
The' work of the latter
the first of May, or, at
them. As an example
is wortiv of mention.
from British Columbia
on the first ); mor/tA.
he was5 soifl&\bat distiu
ot getting( his deed. but
put his apprehensions
his allotment of a fi\
dulged in no more V
waitcd1 for no further oh
morning shouldered hi


onth, but Vy n) nleans
Thlt lowest templera-
the higlwot, The
i; the breezes were
wVers here )lossoming
h iltv bees of this
nry were happy and
were thie colonists.
tas well advanced by
least, that of some (if
of industry, I). icl-rt
Mr. icfr-rt hailed
and rank. to La Gloria
On the vOy;aw down
rled Ocr the qilostion
on0c in La Gloria, he
behind him, scoured
c-acre plata~tion, mn-
aill test ionigs and
eL elopmnts, but each
s axe and attacked the














w '11' N


I ). Il 01'S, I.N 1< \IPIIP PA! II.






In and Around La Gloria.


trees on his land. I e kept u1) the battle for
iimonths, rarely missing a dy's work. ThIe
result was that by May I, Mr, SieCert, alone
and unaided, had cleared his five acres of
timber land, burned it over, and \a\ rrady
for planting. Other colonists worked hard
and eflectually in the forest, but this was the
best single-handed pertoriaince that came
under my notIce.
Another enterprising and highilv intelligent
colonist was )Max Neiber of Philadelphia,
who has been before alluded to as one of the
teachers in the eVe1nin school. Mr. Neuber
pushed the work upon his land, doing much
of it himself. Early and late his friends
would find him chopping, digging, and plant-
ing. When he left for the States in April he
had five boxes packed with the products Of
his plantation, such as lemons, liines, pota-
toes, and specimens of mahogany and other
valuable woods.
A group of industrious workers, most of
whom had earlier been attached to the survey
corps, were in May located and well settled
in a place which they called Mountain Vew.
This was a partially open tract four or five
miles west of La Gloria and about a mile
from Mercedes. Ilere the ytiung men pitched
'4


:2x0






Pioneering in Cuba.


their tents and swung their hammocks, conti-
dently claiming that they had the best spot in
all the country round. From here the Cubi-
tas mountains could be plainlly seen ; hence
the Mane of Mountain View A person Hoi-
lowing the rough trail from La Gloria to
Mercedes might have seen on a tree at the
left, shortlv before reaching the latter place,
a shingle bearing the inscription, Change
Cars for Mountain View." If he should
choose to take the narrow, rough, and
crooked trail to the left through the woods,
he would ere long come out into the open and
probably see Smith Everett, fornerlv of Len-
awee county, lichigan, Iyin'g in his ham-
mock watching his banana trees grow.
I have before mentioned tire irregularity
and infrequency of the mails. The remedV
was slow in coming. The chief cause of the
irregularity was The Sangjai, which, though
designed to be an aid to navigation, was often
a great hindrance to it. The Sangjai was a
very narrow and very shallow channel, partly
natural and partly artificial, through what
had once been the Sabinal peninsula. The
artificial and dillicult part of the channel
known as The Sang jai was about half way
between La Gloria and Nuevitas. It had to


210







In and Around La Glori


be used in 1l11m\i1I


a. 21 1

" inside "


water coul
went our
Sangjal a
Contained
tide and le
high. It
best, and
went this
help push
had to 1hl
Sangjai.


's. Thi
mail ini
t one poi
only a t
Iss than t
\v s a hat
m any a
vav had
the 1o)1


pushed
If the wi


S\


nt

wy o

rd
pa.
to
t h


or
nds


as the rItte over vhi h


Inr ll


ftelt wL
Mace t


g'et out
esides !


pole(
p erm11i


sa ill(I t.
shalllowv t
J1 watcr
ll tic' !id
pct throll
on CratI
aml wvalk
lo ats a
through
tttcd the SI


to reiCh this agtg ra\;atiIng Ciha nlli l at itl' 1-irIht
timl(, there wa~s no great dlay : hiut othcr-
wIse, the boat wouli h held utip for ten or
twelve hours. This wIs altnyetlher unpleas-
ant, especially as the mosquitoes ;11nl jejiies
Claimed The Sangjai (pronilicCd Sangli,
or Co()rrtptly, Shanlghij fi11r their own. TIe
mail, like evervthinr else, had to await the
wili of the waters, or, perhalps I should say
the Convniienicc of the moon. The Sangjai
played a very important part i1 the carlv his-
tory of La Gloria.


The
hat it
t lmw
l' wAas


y\hie h
, and
1\way s
The
ilboat


th1c short or











CHAPTER XVII.


THE COLONY AT TI'lI END OF TIlE FI'sT
YEAR.

M pen must glide rapidly over the \ven1ts
of the summer and early fall. The sawmill,
which had been so long delayed and so often
promised as to become a standing joke in
the colony, finally reached La Gloria from
Nuevitas, via the port, on May 3o. Nothing
was more needed ; its non-arrival had de-
layed both building operations and the clear-
ing of land. A few weeks later the mill was
in operation, to the great joy of the colonists.
In June the construction of a pole tramway
from La Gloria to a point on the bay between
the port and the Palota landing was begun.
This was completed on August 14, and trans-
portation operations were at once inaugurated.
The new landing place was named Newport.
On July 16 the building of a substantial and
permanent highway from La Gloria to the
port was commenced under the supervision of
Chief Engineer Kelly, and before October i
the work was well advanced. The chosen
route was along Central avenue.







At the End ()f the First Year. 2 13


The colonists cclcbrated tilt- Fourt
with au appropriate cntcrtaincnt.


colony Xvitnssd(
f at youth namne
thrown by it VOU
er's jury dcid
WaLs accidental.


dents of La Gloria.


ed by
'. II. I
.Mr. I
and had
time.
perform
of his


the death
wortht,
iosworth


n1 t
IIt:


beS
was


U trat dX in
d liui cne II
ng, SpanisI Ib
d that younlttho
lioth ll(ys V
nTh Iifth olr
ofa iat ii
Ia veteran of
was seventy -


n m
an et


(d an rat
years td


Gloria, surviXcd him. T
the coloIv tIhrouh 111
lent. TIhre ywas but
\\-athir jias delight i
tion.. Th t(Ilmpraltur(
from1 ah(it 78 to (KO

Si Thr cXonists c (n'

Iia1 the wint r. It \X;It


ruj)ed he
ntcrpriring


(1(111l ol W
cnfccbl d
u a meid(


suntntrr w
little rain




bKyI n (7t i
Ordinarily
and neve c
c tir belic\

ci herIMW(


h nf-
(n


tiht


l. 1
V In




ath
In 1~t

;th I)
(4 u


JItilv

kill-
by a

cad'
r("si-
e as
mnist,
Cis it
years


mnist,


Wrk Ior a
IhysI al
nlit 0, 1 it
II Ii II of
as c. c'l-
antd th (
(Ixpwcta-
y rtatI tIud

c that thic

not(d that


Cuba as a -()ml all-the-y(ar-round conuntry.
The end of the first y(ar of the cotlty-
reckOInin'1 r1m b1ll Octohcr 9, $oX, hen the


the
inr o
stone
corOnl
death


stark
?MIr.
War
old,

and
Iman


1.


I


condition.














1k


Scixv."N \;r:N \ GRANIF


S 1' N







At the End of the I first Year. 2 1


sIurVCVOrs began opctrations-
ress toward .xtensiIvt colonizatio
Gloria alone, hut also In the
couintryv. The Cuban Coloniza;ti(
organized with Dr. W. I'. Pi rc
ton, Ill., as presiditt and tr
W. G. Spiker of Clxe lan], O
president and gentiral manyatcr,
two excellent tracts of land.


tr, not in La
urrounding
n (_ onpatiy,
of Iloop -

i S :ts \aice
h1(1 $1K'&IrI((
fnO\\l US


Laguna Grande and Rincon Grmnde, to the
eastward of the La Gloria property. ThS
are being slhdi idcd and sold to colonists in
small holdings. In the Rinon Grul tract.
on the bay- tront, the city of Culhnthia is
beini laid out, aild doubtl]ss wxill soon be
settled by thrity and procgrssivt coloists
from the U sited States. It is ci aimid that
this is the exact spot where Columnbus landed
in I.1 and it certainly dot itS answer will the
list(oriClal (l('scriptioni ;)tler ({)lonis had
purchased the Canihsi trCt SnShtlhtst of ha
Gloria and adjoining the Cariad property,
and I 1on. Peter E. Park was said to have
secured an option on the Pilota tract. It i
understood thalt this' t\o tracts arc to hie
diVititd up and sold to colonists. The Carm-
dad tract, adjoining La Gloria on the South,
had passed into the hands of Mr. 0. N.


l
1






216 Pioneering in Cuba.

Lulbert of New York, and still other tracts
in the neighborhood were being negotiated jor
by Americans. Judgfingf from the progress
of this first year in colonization, there x\ill
soon he more Aiiericans ili this region than
Cubans.
The nearest Cuban village to La Gloria
is Guanaja (pronounced Wan-ai-ha) twelve
miles to the northwest, and six or stven miles
from )VMcreedes. lIeire the Ten Years' War
Guanja w\\as a port of some illportance. asd
the villages is said to haVe mll)braced one hiui-
dred and eighty houses. But the town iand
surroundigttV country stfl'ered severely in the
lon1 war, and somewhat in the later conflict.
Now Gualija consists of one rildt wooden
buildillg, used a a store, and a dozen shacks
stretched aloini the hay front close to the
water, with a lev scatteied palm houses
fIurther back from the shore. The situation
is rather picturesque, coninanding a beatutiful
60\I across the brilliait-hticd water to Cy
Romano, and the surrounding country is
pleasant and might be mladr highly produc-
tiVe. Thw La Gloria colonists somectimles pat-
lron1ized the Guantja store. and 0und the pro-
prietor accomnodatin'Ig andi reasonable in his
prices. In the coiutry het\en La Gloria







At the End of the Ili


and Guanaja xve would
ofthe u the A Gard, in
They werc fine-lOtoking
Iectedl by the Amnerican


tl
rIup S
IIu I


rst Year. 2 17

mtti lenmb rs
1)I 1 v( or tibrcc.
tcc l.ubians. c-


mliriII


from among; the N-st W- the latte
Gomez, Garcia, and Maco) 11
country and pr srvt the ptacc
quently visited us at l (;Lnrii,
favtrablc imprcSSion.
TCh La Gloria voh]uy at tilt
first Fear had Stvert l nt\ly 6YI rmn
tin1s ill a ilourishi ii con1iti nlt l


ilrnml nt

patrol the

antI madet 7

close t' i I
ccd trgaiza-
Pro'mine1tnt


: inOing thes C wa11s tht' I.,
pOrtatiOll C mlla8.t\,
te(i tlhe p c tranl ;1 \ '
werc: J. C. I0l, ,In
Iirst \ice-pr.sidt)1 t :11l
A. 1errom, ccmld v
Custer N01', chict, ("11"
secretary \;7 Wiim ia G

0. luth fOrld, 1). \\ .
W. 1. Carson, j. A. \
La Glorria Ctdln T l
'anizttl to ca.Stwt an
line t the h;y, sa
J. C. Kell y, lprcsident
precsidecnt ad cencral


IGloria CuluucylTran -
ItL O\'lIt 8(1 (l cr-
to 1tIe 'it Its (Ii jr
4i10nt: I). K kLw) ll,
!I 4)J)ral I i a ticr: W .
icl-pr itdl nt : I A,
Fn.r: I. G. Barncr,
ill gr;t urr I 1I. W .
and Jloh1n Lx l a n l.,:.
Clil-tun, K. II. F rd,
lc".icr, llirecturs. Th'e (
cphonlr C<,mplany-,
d 01prrtc a tchcllhnc
Iliie rcll as Iulllows:
; F. l. Kezar, vice-
malna cr : J. 12. I'. do







Pioneering in Cuba.


les Derniers, secretary ; S. M. Van der Voort,
chief engineer and director ; J. A. Connell,
director. The La Gloria Colonv Cemetery
Association had the following olicers J. C.
Kelly, AI. A. C. Neff, 1). E. Lowell, trus-
tees ; J. C. Kelly, president ; II. W. 0. Mar-
arty, vice-president: E. L. Ellis, treasurer ;
A. H. Chambers, secretary ; Rev. W. A.
Nicholas, general mnaaer ; F. iE. Kezar,
J. C. Francis, S. L. Benham, Mrs. W. A.
Nicholas, Mrs. John Lind, directors. Tihe
Cuban Land and Steamship Compav d)lated
ten acres of land for a cemetery. The La
Goria liorticultural Society- had about thirty
members, with ollicers as follows : I. W. 0.
Margary, president ; A. N. Prove. vice-pres-
ident ; It. G. Barner, secretary : Smith Ever-
ett, treasurer. The La Prima Literary Soci-
ety also had somethingr like thirty members,
and these olicers : 1. W. O. Mrary, chair-
man ; A. T. Provo, vice-chainrmni ; I I.
Ford, secretary ; Smith Everett, treasurer.
The two last named societies jointly pur-
chased a town lot, and propose to erect at
some future time a building or a hall, read-
ing-room, etc.
The colony's first anniversary foUnd im-
prOvements marching steadily, if not rapidly,


218







At the End oF thei First Year.


2[9


on. The sawimill, alrewadyv alluded it), was
busily- at work : Olsoi's shingle mill \\us CoIn-
pletedt; the two-story Irimie uildin' uI Cin-
tral avenue to be used a. r post-ollirt, d\\&i1-
ing, etc., was done, as were nuutmeitris other
wooden houses OCCupied as sttrs i)r resi-
dences ; there were half a dziln weIl-st IcK d
store, doin;; business, andl -wv cral restaur-
ants and hakeries. Mlaiiv luildinfs wrre ii
process of Constrnetion, anid much clcaring
and planting !oin On. COi{e fruit trees
wcre being; impoirtcd, as well as, catte, orates,
swine, and poultry. The colonists were sub-
sisting in part up)n vugetales and pineapples
of their own raisin;, and lo(>kin( ConfidentIV
forward to exporting products rid this chara-
ter in the near future.
Fruit ]growing was the most popuI indus-
try amfong4 the cO1{lists, bilt there \\rcn those
who wecrc iowking imt the subjects ()i sugar,
coiit'e, tOhaCCO, aCacao, ruhher, lunb)er, cattle
raisin., etc. The outlook for all suh enter-
prises seemrcd highly promiisinte. E rnt needs
of La Gloria arc a ianuin factory ;aid aU es-
tablishment rli tlht mnaclltaiture (1f ItIrnitlue :
these industries should Iloturish front the start.
The enthusiasm of the Colonists was utl-
hounded; they' were tilled and thrilled with







220 Pioneering in Cuba.

delih(ft over their newN home in the tropics.
The clinhate Witsi glorious, the air rcfreshin(f
and soothing, the Country picturesque and
healthful, the soil fertile and productive. Not
for a moment did they doubt that, after a few
short years of slight hardship and trilling dep-
rivations, a life of luxurious cotliort lay- before
them. A fortune or a competence seemed
certain to come to every man w WI) wmoudi work
and wait fir it, and in all in GSloria there
wAis hardy a person to le found wiho xotuli
willilv blot from his mciory his interesting
experiences whilee Ple iHmlp ; is C n










Pioneering in Cuba.


A NARRATIVE OF THE SETTLEMENT


OF LA


GLORIA, THE FIRST AMERICAN COLONY IN


CUBA, AND THE
THE PIONEERS.


EARLY EXPERIENCES OF


By JAMES M.


ADAMS,


one of the original Colonists,



In one volume. 16 mo., illustrated with scenes in La Gloria.


PRICE:


Bound in Cloth, $r.oo;


Bound in Paper, go Cents.




The book will be sent postpaid on receipt of
price by the author, at North Weare, N. H., or


by the Rumford Printing Co., Concord,


N. H3.


AGENTS WANTED.


Address the author.












Fortunes in Cuba


A SHORT ROAD TO A COMPETENCY
AND A LIFE AMID TROPICAL DE-
LIGHTS FOR THOSE WHO ARE
AWAKE TO THE PRESENT OPPOR-
TUNITY.






The Cuban Colonization Company


WNS and holds deeds for two large tracts of
the best land in Cuba, situated on the north
coast in the Province of Puerto Principe, the
most fertile and healthful portion of the island.
This region is being rapidly colonized by enter-
prising Americans, who own and are develop-
ing thousands of plantations in the immediate
vicinity of our holdings. We are selling this
valuable land in small tracts, from five to forty
acres each, at a low price, payable in monthly installments.
It has been practically demonstrated that this soil will pro-
duce abundantly all kinds of tropical fruits, sugar cane,
coffee, tobacco, cocoanuts, etc.


The purchaser of land from us will have no
taxes to pay for the first three years, and can have
a warranty deed as soon as his land is paid for.









A discount of 10 per cent, allowed from regular prices
when full payment is made at time of purchase.


An Insurance Policy.

In case of the death of anyt putchaser we will issue a
warranty deed to his or her estate without further payment.
REMEMBER -That a 10-acre Cran'e Grove in Cuba,
four years old, is worth ten thousand doLlars, and will net you
from three to six thousand dollars annual.
REMEMBER-That in Cuba you car have fruits ripening
every month in the year.
REMEMBER-That what you would pay for winter
clothing and fuel to keep you warm in the United States will
keep up a home in Cuba, where the winter months are per-
petual June.
REMEMBER That in our location are combined a de-
9
lightful and healthful climate, pure and al-undant water, and
a rich and productive soil.
Send for illustrated boo1:let an. learns, g:iIg isnIma-
tion concerning prices, etc.


CUBHN COIONILATION COJTPONY.

MAIN OFFICE,
ROOM 367, ARCADE, CLEVELAND, OHIO.

BRANCH OFFICE, -- -- HOOPESTON, ILL.

... OFFICERS ...

UR. RW. P. PIIRCI Pre-ieunt alnd T'rEaunr.
W. G. 5PIKhR, Vicr-I'residentanid ilcncral Mianager.
G. W. IIANC1T I'T, Assisant tuaagerr.
W. I'. PlIRC JR., Secretary.
JAM IS PCi:C}S, Assistant Secretary.



















































































4


- -:' . -. .: : +-. .....:.:4 ..: :, r.+s---.t-:-:r-:-;.-; : .:+ :: ._":-;-m--,- ':
9II~i~u.-......s.-a-........ ... s. ....i. . . ^S 3 ..1 .. ftt S "3 ^ XL5 .__ ., Y .a




















.s' ~ ^'x
3
r3 '

'yf(]





PAGE 1

33~ g *OW *W E # ER *v 1 7. MA two ; ~!: ;x 5 G iAMTJARD A I F u 1 Y i 4. J1 b i" W. 'xn #e '. # aS J 3t

PAGE 2

111h

PAGE 3

The William L. Bryant Foundation Florida a West Indies. oS South America West Indies Collection

PAGE 4

x

PAGE 6

.I\l> \ nxis -2

PAGE 7

PIONEERING IN CUBA A NARRATIVE LA GLORIA, OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE FIRST AMERICAN COLONY IN CUBA, AND THE EARLY EXPERIENCES OF THE PIONEERS JAMES M. ADAMS ONE OF THE ORIGINAL COLONISTS Illustrated CONCORD, N. H.: Ube 1uniforb Prezs 1901

PAGE 8

Copyright, 1901, by JAMES M. ADAMS

PAGE 9

TO My FELLOW COLONISTS WHOSE COURAGft, CHiRFIU LN1SS. AND KINDLY SPiRF WON MY ADMIRATION AND AFFlICTION THIS BOOK IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED

PAGE 11

PREFACE. My excuse for writing and publishing this book is a threefold one. For some time I have strongly felt that the true story of the La Gloria colony should be told, without bias and with an accurate, first-hand knowledge of all the facts. My close relations with the colony and the colonists, and an actual personal residence in La Gloria for nearly half a year, have made me entirely familiar with the conditions there, and I have endeavored to present them to the reader clearly, correctly, and honestly. Secondly, I have been imbued with the belief that many of the daily happenings in the colony, particularly those of the earlier months, are of sufficient general interest to justify their narration ; and if I am wrong in this, I am quite sure that these incidents, anecdotes, and recollections will find an attentive audience among the colonists and their friends. It is one of the author's chief regrets that the size and scope of this book does not admit of the mention by name of all of the colonists who were prominent and active in the life of the colony. Thirdly, while in La Gloria, in his capacity as a member of the Pioneer Association, the author had

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Preface. the honor to be the chairman of the committee on History of the Colony. This committee was not officially or outwardly active, but in a quiet way its members stored up history as fast as it was made. The author does not dignify the present work by the name of history, but prefers to call it a narrative of the first year of the colony. He believes, however, that it contains many facts and incidents which will be found useful material to draw upon when in later years a complete history of the first American colony in Cuba may be written. I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. V. K. Van De Venter, a professional photographer of Dundee, Michigan, for some of the best pictures in the book. The other photographs were taken, and in several cases kindly furnished gratuitously, by Robin H. Ford, John 11. Rising, L. E. Mayo, and W. G. Spiker. I am also under obligation to Mr. Spiker for the loan of the cut of the lake on the Laguna Grande tract, and to Dr. W. P. Peirce for the use of the cut of his pineapple garden in La Gloria. All of the pictures in the book are scenes in the province of Puerto Principe, and with two or three exceptions, in or around La Gloria. J. W ,. A. ;XPr//, (Vo/, A. H., icem~be'r, 1900. 6

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CONTENTS. CHAPTER 1. Ti-En ARItVAL OF THE COLONISTS IN NUEVITAS HARBOR. PAGE. A New Sight for Old Nuevitas -The Jarmou/t drops Anchor in the Harbor-The Vanguard of the First American Colony Planted in Cuba-The Beautiful Cuban Coast-Picturesque Appearance of Nuevitas--"Distance Lends Enchantment to the View" -Character of the Colonists--Gen. Paul Van der Voort-Nearly all the States Represented-" The Only Canuck on Board "--The Voyage from New York .......17 CHAPTER Ii. Tn JOURNEY TIpo PORT LA Gjimi A. An Irritating Delay-Ashore at Nuevitas-Midnight Row at the Pier-Convivial Colonists Clash With Cubans-Ex-Soldier Takes an Involuntary Bath--The Cuban Police-I Ion. Peter E. Park -The Start for La Gloria--Some intending Colonists Back Out-The Man With the Long, Red Face-"The Only Woman-The Fleet Anchors---omorrw, Four O'clock, Wind Right, Go! "-An Uncomfortable Night-Cuban Captain Falls Overboard--Port La Gloria Sighted 32

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8 Contents. CHAPTER III. A Toucii 'T'RAMPKTO LA GLORIA CITY. Arrival at the Port--A Discouraging Scene-Mud, Water, and Sand Flies-The Memorable Walk to La Gloria City "--An Awful Road-Battle With Water, Mud, Stumps, Roots, Logs, Briers and Branches--Lawyer Park Leads the Strange Procession-La Gloria at Last-The Royal Palm-Women in Masculine Garb-Col. Thos. H. Maginniss-First Night in La Gloria-The Survey Corps-Chief Engineer Kelly--Experiences of the Lowells and Spikers ....44 CHAPTER IV. FIRST DAYS IN THE NEW COLONY. Isolation of La Gloria-The Camp at Night-Strange Sounds in the Forest-The Colonists HappyTheir Excellent Health-Remarkable Cures Effected by the Climate-The Agreeable Temperature-Prolonged Rainy Season--The -Hotel" -The Log Foundation-A Favorite Joke-The Company's Spring-Small Variety of FoodMy First Supper in La Gloria-Eating Flamingo and Aged Goat--A Commissary With Nothing to Sell-A Fluctuating Population ...59 CHAPTER V. THE AL ..TM ENT OF THE LAND. The Character of the Contracts-The Question of Subdivision-Some of the Diffculties--Matter Placed in the Hands of a Committee of the Col-

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Contents. 9 onists-Fair and Feasible Plan Adopted-Gen. Van der Voort's Arrival in La Gloria--His Boat Nearly Wrecked--Delay in Getting BaggageColonists Get Their Land Promptly-The Town as Laid Out-Site Well Chosen-Woods Full of Colonists Hunting for Their Plantations -Different Kinds of Soil .......73 CHAPTER VI. THi SUGAR. RIOT. Population of Colony Slowly Increases-Arrival of Second Karuout/-Sensational and Ridiculous Reports-Consternation in Asbury ParkLaughing Over Newspaper Stories-Excitement Over Sugar-Mass lceting to Air the Grievance-An Unexpected Turn of Affairs-Cable From New York Brings Good News-Van der Voort Elected President of the Company--Sugar Orators Remain Silent-A Noisy Celebration 86 CHAPTER VII. Ai)VENTURES AND MISADVENTURES. The Women in the Camp-Mrs. Moller-Her Costume and Extraordinary Adventures-How She Entered La Gloria-Roosts in a Tree all Night -Builds the First House in La Gloria-lHer Famous Cow and Calf-Wonderful BloomersUbiquitous Mrs. Horn-Weighed 250, but Waded Into La Gloria-Not Rattled by a Brook Running Through Her Tent-A Pig Hunt and Its Results-Surveyors Lost in the W oods .............94

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10 Contfelts. CHAPTER VIII. THE, CUBANS. Good People to Get Along With "-Their Kindness and Courtesy -ILarmony and (G ;Od Feeling Between the Colonists and Cubans--Their Primitive Style of Living-The Red Soil and Its Stains-Rural Homfs-Prevalence of Children, Chickens, and Dogs-Little Girl Dresses for Company With Only a Slipper-lFood and Drink of the CubansFew Amusements--An Indifferent People-The Country Districts of the Prov since of Puerto Principe .........104 CHAPTER ix. STEj)s or P uxciss. Clearing and Planting-The Post-office--Col. John F. Early-The "-01 Senor"--La Gloria Police Force-Chief Matthews' Nightly 'Trip Down the Line---No Liquor Sold, and Practically no Crime Committed-Watchman Eugene Kezar-Religious Services and Ministers--La Goria Pioneer Association-Dr. W. P. Peirce-Mr. D. E. Lowell-Mr. R. (. BarnerImportant Work of the Association .....t 8 CHAPTER X. EVENTS IMPO ANT AND OTitR wISE. Worth of the Colonists-Gen. Van der Voort s New Cuban Hlouse--The Lookout Tree"-Its Part in the Cuban Wars-The General's GardenMarvelously Rapid Growth of Plants-First

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Contents. II Birth in La Gloria-OlafYEl Gloria Olson-Given a Town LotTemperature Figures-Perfection of Climate-The Mlaginniss Corduroy RoadFirst Well Dug-Architect M. A. C. Neff -.133 CHAPTER XI. SELF-REIANCE OF TiE COLOiN1STS. The Man With the Hoe-" Grandpa" Withee Able to Take Care of Himself-Not Dead, but Very Much Alive--A Pugnacious Old Man-Mr. Withee Shoots Chickens and Defies the Authorities-Big Jack McCauley and H is Influence" "Albany and the Mosquitoes-Arrival of Third I ainou// -Arnold Mollenhauer-John A. Connell-S. W. Storm-The First School and Its Teacher..... ......143 C-APTER Nil. Tit FIRsT H[OLAI.)AX IN LA GLORIA. Craving for Athletic Sports-Half Holiday Formally Proclaimed-A Beautiful Day-The Colonists Photographed--Lieut. Evans and His Soldiers of the Eighth U. S. Cavalry-Successful Sports -Baseball Game--An Event not Down on the Program-Excited Colonists-Lawyer C. H1ugo Drake of Puerto Principe-His Scheme-Ordered Out of CampA Night in the WoodsLieutenant Cienfuente ........r.55 CHAPTER XlIi. INDIUSTRY OF THE COLONISTS. Pink Orchids on the Trees-Vegetables Raised and Fruit Trees Set Out-The Various Eimploy-

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12 Contents. ments-Working on the Survey Corps-Chief Kelly's Facetious Formula-An Official Kicker -B. F. Seibert-Improvements at the PortFish, Alligators, and Flamingo-J. L. Ratekin -First Banquet in La Gloria-Departure of Maginniss Party-First Death in the ColonyOnly One Death in Six Months-Lowell's Corduroy Road and Kelly's Permanent Highway .166 CHAPTER XIV. Tm. FimST BALL N LA GLORIA. A Semi-Anniversary-Town Lots and Plantations Allotted in First Six Months-A Grand BallFrench Dancing Master in Charge--Dan Goodman's Pennsylvania M odesty-Organizing an Orchestra at Short Notice-The BallroomRev. Dr. GCill Lends His Tent Floor-Elaborate Decorations-A Transformation Scene-Some Taking Specialties--A Fine Supper-Music in Camp-An Aggravating Cornet Player-Singers in the Colony. ..........177 CHAPTER XV. A WxArKl iN Tn>i To PLAETO P1INcIE. Five Good Walkers-A Halt at Mercedes-Sparsely Settled Country--Cuban Trails-A Night in the Woods-A Cripple From Sore Feet-A Pretty Country Place-The Cubitas Mountains -Hunting for the Late Cuban Capital-A Broad and Beautiful View-Seventeen Miles Without a House -Night on the Plain-The City of Puerto Principe-Politeness of Its Peo-

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Contents. 13 ple-The Journey Home-Sanchez' Sugar Plantation-Lost in the Forest-La Gloria Once M ore .............186 CHAPTER XVI. IN AND AROUND LA GLORIA. Horses That May Have Committed Suicide-Colonel Maginniss ''A Master Hand in Sickness "-Sudden and Surprising Rise of Water -A Deluge of Frogs-A Greedy Snake-Catching Fish in Central Avenue-D. Siefert's Industry-Max Neuber-Mountain View-A Facetious Signboard-'Ihe Sangjai-An Aggravating and Uncertain Channel. ..... ....203 CHAPTER XVII. TE COLONY AT TIE END OF THE FIRST YEAn. The Saw Mill-The Pole Tramway to the Bay-A Tragedy in the Colony-Death of Mr. Bosworth -The Summer Season-The Country Around La Gloria-The Cuban Colonization CompanyGuanaja-The Rural Guard-Organizations in La Gloria--The March of ImprovementsConstruction of Wooden Buildings-Colonists Delighted With Their New Home in the Tropics 21 2

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. PAGE. James At. Adams Frontispiece. Map of Cuba City of Nuevitas, Cuba Gen. Paul Van der Voort An Involuntarv Bath Port La Gloria Author on Road to La Gloria Col. Thomas H. Laginniss The Hotel" The Spring Robert C. Beausejour La Gloria, Cuba, Looking North First House in La Gloria Frank J. O'Reilly First Wormen Colonists of La Gloria Dr. William P. Peirce Gen. Van der Voort's Cuban IHouse La Gloria, Cuba, Looking South Group of Colonists The Survey Corps .H Interior Gen. Van der Voort's House Agramonte Plaza, Puerto Principe, Cuba Dr. Peirce's; Pineapple Patch Scene on Laguna Grande 16 20 _'6 42 46 48 64 68 82 88 97 I10 122 126 134 150 S-8 168 182 200 208 214

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s P PPt4 e d T} Ma mn SSArv w0D Vr ms, lr ( MAP OF CUBA.

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PIONEERING IN CUBA. CHAPTER I. ARRIvA>L OF THE COLONISTS IN NUEVITAS HARBOR. Jus'r after noon on January 4, 1900, the ancient city of Nuevitas, Cuba, lazily basking in the midday sunshine, witnessed a sight which had not been paralleled in the four hundred years of its existence. A steamer was dropping anchor in the placid water of the harbor a mile off shore, and her decks were thronged with a crowd of more than two hundred eager and active Americans. They w ore no uniforms, nor did they carry either guns or swords ; and yet they had come on an errand of conquest. They had fared forth from their native land to attack the formidable forests and to subdue the untamed soil of the province of Puerto Principe-a task which required scarcely less courage and resolution than a feat of arms might have demanded in that locality two years before. Well aware

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Pioneering in Cuba. that there was a hard fight before them, they were yet sanguine of success and eager to begin active operations. It was the vanguard of the first American colony planted in Cuba. The vessel that lay at anchor in the beautiful land-locked harbor of Nuevitas was the screw steamer iarmouth, a steel ship which, if not as fast and elegant as the ocean greyhounds that cross the Atlantic, was large and fine enough to have easily commanded the unbounded admiration and amazement of Christopher Columbus had he beheld her when he landed from the San/a J/arzlz on the coast of Cuba near this point more than four centuries ago. Great changes have been wrought since the days of Columbus in the manner of craft that sail the seas, but less progress has been made by the city of Nuevitas in those four hundred long years. The )'2rrmo/,uth, substantial if not handsome, and safe if not swift, had brought the colonists to this port without mishap, thus redeeming one of the many promises of the Cuban Land and Steamship Company. Since early morning the vessel had been slowly steaming along the palm-fringed coast of the Pearl of the Antilles," daybreak having revealed the fact that the boat was too far to the eastward, and 18s

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The Arrival at Nuevitas. 19 late in the forenoon we entered the picturesque bay of Nuevitas, took on a swarthy Cuban pilot, and, gliding quietly past straggling palm-thatched native shacks and tiny greenclad isles, came to anchor in plain view of the city that Velasquez founded in 1514. We had passed two or three small circular forts, any one of which would have been demolished by a single well-directed shot from a thirteen-inch gun. rTyhese defenses were unoccupied, and there was naught else to threaten the established peace. The day was beautiful, freshened by a soft and balmy breeze, with the delightful temperature of 75 degrees. Far back in the interior, through the wonderfully transparent Cuban atmosphere, one could see the light blue peaks of lofty mountains, standing singly instead of in groups, as if each were the monarch of a small principality. Their outlines, as seen at this distance, were graceful and symmetrical, rather than rugged and overpowering like some of their brother chieftains of the North. Near at hand the listless city of Nuevitas extended from the water's edge backward up the hillside of a long, green ridge, the low, red-tiled houses clinging to what seemed precarious positions along the rough, water-

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(IT\ nf Nt TvlIAS. Photo grafh by V. A, Van De Venter, jan. 31, 1900.

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The Arrival at Nuevitas. 21 worn streets that gashed the side of the hill. To the right a green-covered promontory projected far into the bay, dotted with occasional native shacks and planted in part with sisal hemp. The colonists on shipboard, ignorant of the appearance of this tropical product, at first took the hemp for pineapple plants, but soon learned their mistake from one who had been in the tropics before. Viewed from the harbor, Nuevitas looks pretty and picturesque, but once on shore the illusion vanishes. Mud meets you at the threshold and sticks to you like a brother. The streets, for the most part, are nothing more than rain-furrowed lanes, filled with large, projecting stones and gullies of no little depth. Sticky, yellow mud is everywhere, and once acquired is as hard to get rid of as the rheumatism. The houses, in general, are little better than hovels, and the gardens around them are neglected and forlorn. When a spot more attractive than the others is found, Nature is entitled to all the credit. The shops are poor and mean, and not over well supplied with merchandise. The natives, while kindly disposed toward the "Americanos," are, for the most part, unattractive in The few public buildings dress and person.

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22 Pioneering in Cuba. are ugly and there is not a pleasant street in the town. And yet when seen from the harbor the city looks pretty, mainly on account of its red-tiled houses, grassy hillside slopes, and waving cocoanut palms. The author of the ancient saying that "1 distance lends enchantinent to the view," might well have gathered his inspiration at Nuevitas. If the inhabitants of Nuevitas have the quality of curiosity, they clearly did not have it with them at the time of our arrival. Although it is said on good authority, that the city had never before had more than twelve or fifteen visitors at one time, save soldiers or sailors, the natives betrayed no excitement and little interest in the advent of two hundred American civilians. With the exception of a handful of boatmen and a few fruit venders, not a person came to the piers to gaze at the new arrivals, and in the town the people scarcely gave themselves the trouble to look out of their open dwellings and shops at the colonists. This may have been inherent courtesy-for the Cuban is nothing if not courteous-but to us it seemed more like indifference. The Cubans are certainly an indifferent people, and at this port they appeared to have no object or interest in life.

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The Arrival at Nuevitas. They dxelt in drowsy content, smoking their cigarettes, and doing their little buying and selling ini a leisurely and heedless manner. The most of them pick up a precarious living with but little labor. These easy-going habits impress the close observer as being more the result of indifference than downright indolence, for when the occasion demands it the Cuban often exhibits surprising activity and industry. I Ie does not, however, work for the fun of it, and it never occurs to him that it is necessary to lay up anything for the proverbial rainy day." Accustomed to the fairest skies in the world, he never anticipates cloudy weather. It is quite possible that if we had been a rraved in brilliant uniforms, resplendent of gold lace, brass buttons, and all the accompanying trappings, we should have aroused more interest, for the Cuban loves color, pageant, and martial show, but as a matter of fact, nothing could have been plainer and uglier than the dress of most of the colonists. To the superficial observer, there was nothing about the invaders to hold attention, but to me, who had closely studied my companions and fellow-colonists for nearly a week, they were full of interest and inspiration. 23

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Pioneering in Cuba. They were, to be sure, a motley crowd, representing many states and territories, and several grades of social standing, but they were obviously courageous, enterprising, and of good character. In point of intelligence and manifest honesty and energy they averaged high-much higher than one would expect of the pioneers in a project of this sort. They were not reckless and unscrupulous adventurers, nor vet rolling stones who sought an indolent life of ease, but seriousminded and industrious home-seekers. They had counted the cost, and resolved to go forward and achieve success, expecting obstacles, but not anticipating defeat. A thoughtful person could not fail to be impressed by the serious and resolute manner in which these voyagers entered upon the work of establishing a new home for themselves in a tropical country. Since the days when the Pilgrim Fathers landed upon the bleak shores of New England, I doubt if a better aggregation of men had entered upon an enterprise of this character. The colonists sailed from New York on the Yarmouth on Saturday, December 30, 1899, a stinging cold day. It was the first excursion run by the Cuban Land and Steamship 24

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The Arrival at Nuevitas. 25 Company, whose offices at 32 Broadway had for several days been crowded with men from all parts of the country eager to form a part of the first expedition to establish an American colony at La Gloria, on the north coast of Cuba, about forty miles west of Nuevitas. Every passenger on board the Thrmou/h was supposed to have purchased or contracted for land at La Gloria, and practically all had done so. The steamer was commanded by Capt. E. O. Smith, a popular and efficient officer, and carried besides her complement of crew and waiters, two hundred and eleven passengers, all men with one exception, Mrs. Crandall, the wife of an employe of the company. The colonists represented all sections of the country, from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida. No less than thirty states sent their delegations, two territories, Canada, Prince Edward's Island, and British Columbia. All came to New York to make up this memorable excursion. The genial and stalwart Gen. Paul Van der Voort of Nebraska, who was commander-in-chief of the national G. A. R. in 1882-'83, had led on a party of over twenty from the West, several of them his own neighbors in Omaha. The others were from different parts of

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GEN. 1\U \. \VAN I)ER V)ORT,

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The Arrival at Nuevitas. 27 Nebraska, Kansas, and Iowa. General Van der Voort was the assistant manager of the company, and a little later became its president. He went to Cuba in the double capacity of an officer of the company, to take charge of its business there, and a colonist to make La Gloria his permanent residence. Honest, affable, and humorous, a magnetic and convincing speaker, with a sunny nature singularly free from affectation and ardently loyal to his friends, General Van der Voort was a natural leader of men, well fitted to head a colonizing expedition. One of his sons had been in La Gloria for some time working as a surveyor in the employ of the company. General Van der Voort's party, however, formed but a small fraction of the Western representation. Ittwelve men came from Illinois, six from Michigan, five from Minnesota, four from Wisconsin, four from Indiana, four from Oklahoma-men who were "' boomers in the rush for land in that territory-two from Missouri, two from Washington state, one from Wyoming, one from South Dakota, and one from California. Ohio men, usually so much in evidence, were hard to find, only one man on board ac-

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28 Pioneering in Cuba. knowledging that he hailed from that state. The South was not so largely represented as the West, but there were two men from Maryland, two from Virginia, two from Georgia, one from Florida, one from West Virginia, and one from Washington, D. C. New York state led the entire list with fiftyone. Pennsylvania and Massachusetts came next with twenty-one each. From New Jersey there were fifteen. Among the New England states, New Hampshire and Connecticut followed Massachusetts, with five each. Rhode Island contributed four, Maine two, and Vermont two. Two of the colonists hailed from British Columbia, one from Prince Edward's Island, and one from Toronto, Canada. The latter, a tall, goodlooking Englishman by the name of Rutherford, cheerfully announced himself as "the only Canuck on board." Those who were fortunate enough to become intimately acquainted with this clear-headed and wholehearted gentleman were easily convinced that while he might call himself a Canuck and become a Cuban by emigration, he would remain to the end of his days an Englishman, and a very good specimen of his race. If Rutherford had not taken part

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The Arrival at Nuevitas. in the sugar riot "-but storv." that's "1 another The colonists represented even more occupations than states. There were four physicians, one clergyman, one lawyer, one editor, one patent office employee, small merchants, clerks, bookkeepers, locomotive engineers, carpenters, and other skilled mechanics, besides many farmers. number of specialists. There were also a The embrio colony included several veterans of the Spanish war, some of whom had been in Cuba before. G. A. R. buttons were surprisinglynumerous. The men, generally speaking, appeared to be eminently practical and thoroughly wide awake. They looked able to take hold of a business enterprise and push it through to success, regardless of obstacles. Several of the colonists showed their thrift by taking poultry with them, while an old gentleman from Minnesota had brought along two colonies of Italian honey bees. old man explained Another his presence by jocularly declaring that he was going down to Cuba to search for the footprints of Columbus. Accents representing all sections of the country were harmoniously and curiously mii and the spirit of fraternity was marked. ngled, The 29

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30 Pioneering in Cuba. one colored man in the party, an intelligent representative of his race, had as good standing as anybody. The voyage down was uneventful. It occupied four days and a half, and for thirtysix hours, in the neighborhood of Cape Hatteras, very rough water was encountered. But few on board had ever known such a sea, and sickness was universal. The discomfort was great, partly owing to the crowded condition of the boat. Alany a hardy colonist sighed for his Western ranch or his comfortable house in the East. The superior attractions of Cuba were forgotten for the moment, and there was intense longing for the land that had been left behind. It is a fact hard to believe that several on board had never before seen the ocean, to say nothing of sailing upon its turbulent bosom. With the return of a smooth sea a marvelous change came over the voyagers, and all began to look eagerly forward to a sight of the famed Pearl of the Antilles." We were now sailing a calm tropical sea, with the fairest of skies above us and a mild and genial temperature that was a great delight after the severe cold of the Northern winter. The salubrious weather continued through the

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at Nuevitas. 3' remaining forty-eight hours of the voyage, and the colonists resumed their interrupted intercourse, having but a single subject in their eager discussions-always the prospects of the colony or something bearing on their pioneer enterprise. being talked out tranquil harbor of The topic was when we Nuevitas. glided far from into the a 4\ The Arrival

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CHAPTER II. TIiIF: JouiNx4Y TO PORT LA GLORIA. TI Newly arrived colonists found the Spanish word banana" still in high favor at Nuevitas, though it was difficult to fix the responsibility for the irritating delays. The Cubans and the officers of the company alike came in for a good deal of straight-fromi-theshoulder Yankee criticism. Sonie of this was deserved, but not all. The company's officers had been handicapped in many ways, and for this and perhaps other reasons, had not pushed things along as rapidly and successtnlly as the colonists had been led to expect. It was learned that the town of La Gloria was as vet only a town in name, the foundation of its first building, the hotel, having just been laid. The lumber for the structure lay on the docks at Nuevitas. The company's portable sawmill machinery was rusting in tne open air at the same place-, If the colonists marveled at this, their wonder disappeared when, a little later, they tramped and waded the four miles of so-called road"

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The Journey to Port La Gloria. 3 that lay between Port La Gloria and La Gloria city." Nothing daunted by these discouraging signs and the many unfavorable reports, the most of the colonists determined to push ahead. Arriving at Nuevitas Thursday noon, January 4, the passengers of the iTrmou/ were not allowed to leave the vessel that day or evening. Many were desirous of exploring the ancient city of Nuevitas, but the most frequent and anxious inquiry was. "1 When shall we be taken to La Gloria ?" It was a hard question to answer, and no one in authority attempted to do so. There were several' causes contributing to the delay, one of which was the customs inspection. and another the question of transportation. Communication between Nuevitas and La Gloria was neither easy nor regular. The overland route was the nearest, about forty miles, but could only be utilized by a person on foot or horseback. At the time of our arrival this way was. entirely impracticable by any mode of travel., The inside or shallow water route was about forty-eight miles long, and the outside ordeep water course, sixty miles. The officers. of the company decided upon the latter as the most feasible, and set out to procure lighters '4

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34 Pioneering in Cuba. to convey the colonists and their baggage. This was no easy matter, as the business had to be done with Cubans, and Cubans are never in any hurry about coming to terms. Friday morning the passengers of the )rmoulh were permitted to go ashore and wake up the inhabitants of the sleepy city, each person paying some thrifty Cuban twentv-five cents for transportation thither in a sailboat. The Cuban boatmen coined money during our three days' stay in Nuevitas harbor. So also did the fruit lenders, who came out to the stealner in small boats and sold us pineapples, tiny fig bananas, and green oranges at exorbitant prices. The fruit looked iniferior, but the flavor \ as good. Most of it grew without care, and in a semi-wild condition. The colonists were eager to sample anvy fruit of the country, as most of them were intending to iake fruit growing their business. The 'Americanos" succeeded in waking up Nuevitas in some degree, and at night a few of them set out to "paint the town red." Only a few, however; the great majoritv behaved remarkably well. The day was spent in quietly inspecting the city and its surroundings. Many of the visitors bought needed supplies at the small stores.

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The Journey to Port La Gloria. -5 Saturday was passed in the same way as Friday, the oiiiv incident of note being a small-sized disturbance which took place at the pier near midnight. Three belated Americans, who had done more than look upon the "r aguardiente," got into a quarrel with a Cuban boatman in regard to their return to the 2I;roulh. The Americans were mainly at fault, the boatman was obstinate, and a war of words was soon followed by blows. The boat an was getting the worst of the scrinmage when several of the Cuban police swooped down upon the party. Two of the Americans drew revolvers, but they were quickly disarmed and overcome, one of the trio, who wore the uni1rm of the United States army, which he had latelv quitted, falling over into the harbor in the scuflle. rThis sudden and unexpected ducking ended the eight : the -Americanos" compromised with the boatman, and were allowed to return to the )-eri//outh. These intending colonists did not remain long at La Gloria, although one of the three purposes to return. The conduct of the Cuban police upon this occasion, and upon all others which came under my notice, was entirely creditable. They dress neatly, are sober and inoffensive in

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Pioneering manner, and appear to perform their duties conscientiously and well. While we lay in Nuevitas harbor we received several visits from Gen. A. L. Bresler and the Hon. Peter E. Park, president and resident manager, respectively, of the Cuban Land and Steamship Company, both of whom had been stopping in the 'city for some time. The had acquired the Cuban dress and, to some extent, Cuban habits. Mr. Park decided to accompany the colonists to La Gloria, and to share with them all the hardships that they might encounter on the journey. It was no new thing for Mr. Park, to make the trip. He had made it along the coast in a small sailboat ; he had made it in quicker time in a steam and he had sometimes gone overland on horseback, struggling through mud and water and tangled vines, swimming swollen rivers and creeks, and fighting swarms of aggressive mosquitoes in the dense woods. He knew exactly what was before him; colonists did not. General Bresler, to say, had never been at La Gloria. It was on Sunday afternoon, at a little past one o'clock, that the colonists finally got away from Nuevitas and made the start for La slowly launch, the strange in Cuba. 36

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The Journey to Port La Gloria. 7 Gloria. The fleet consisted of three small schooners loaded with light baggage, a little freight, and nearly two hundred passengers. Two of the boats were Nuevitas lighters, with Cuban captains and crew, while the third was a schooner from Lake Worth, Florida, carrying about twenty colonists from that state. This boat, known as the Em/ly B., had arrived at Nuevitas a day or two before the ]armouh. Among her passengers were four or five women. The heavy baggage of the lnzrmout colonists was loaded upon yet another lighter, which was to follow later. The colonists embarked upon the sailing craft from the decks of the 2 irmoult,, leaving behind a score or more of their number whose backbone had collapsed or who for some other reason had decided to return home immediately. It is, I believe, a veritable fact that more than one of the intending colonists went back on the same boat without so much as setting foot on the soil of Cuba. Probably examples of the "' chocolate 6clair" backbone are to be found everywhere. One of the returning voyagers was a tall, thin man of middle age, wearing a long, red, sorrowful face. It had been apparent from the very start that his was an aggravated case of

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Pioneering in Cuba. home-sickness. Ile had shown unmistakable evidence of it before the )aermouth had even left North river, and he did not improve as the vessel approached the coast of Cuba. IHe rarely spoke to anybody, and could be seen hour after hour kneeling in a most dejected attitude upon a cushioned seat in the main saloon, gazing mournfully out of the window at the stern across the broad waters. I us was about the most striking example of sustained melancholy that ever came under my observation, and could not seem other than ridiculous in that company. When we slowly moved away from the J2armoulh, I was not surprised to see this man standing silently upon the steamer's deck. The look of unillumined dejection was still upon his face. A man whose face does not light up under the subtle charm of the Cuban atmosphere is, indeed, a hopeless case, and ought not to travel beyond the limits of the county wherein lies his home. There were others who remained behind on the Jirrmoulh for better reasons. Mr. and Mrs. Crandall returned to New York because the company's sawmill, which he was to operate, had not been taken to La Gloria and was not likely to be for some time to come. Mrs. Crandall was the only woman passenger on 38

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The Journey to Port La Gloria. the voyage down and had been fearfully seasick all the way. Orders had been given that no women or children should be taken on this first excursion, but an exception was made in the case of Mrs. Crandall because she was the wife of an employee of' the company. The departing colonists waved their good-bys to the Jarmoulh, and the little fleet was towed out to the entrance of Nuevitas harbor, about ten miles, when the schooners came to anchor and the tugboat returned to the city. Although it was but little past three o'clock and the weather fine, the passengers learned to their dismay that the boats had anchored for the night. The furrowed-faced old captain would take no chances with the open sea at night and so would proceed no farther. Tomorrow-four o'clock-wind right-go '" he said, with a dramatic gesture and what seemed to the colonists an unnecessarily explosive emphasis on the last word. The boats were anchored in the narrow entrance to the harbor, where the smoothrunning tide closely resembled a river. On one bank, one hundred yards away, were an old stone fort and a few Cuban shacks. Some of the passengers were desirous of going ashore to see the fort and the houses, but 39

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Pioneering in Cuba. neither entreaties nor bribes could force the old Cuban captain to allow the use of his small boats. The Cubans are fond of waiting and cannot appreciate American restlessness. So we were obliged to sit quietly and gaze wistfully at the green-clad shore. As night came on, it was found that loaves of bread and large chunks of salt beef constituted the larder. It was poor fare, but the colonists accepted the situation cheerfully and broke bread and ate as much of the greasy meat as they could. It was a radiant evening, with soft, caressing breezes and a starlit sky of incomparable beauty. Many of the voyagers saw the famed Southern Cross for the first time and gazed at it long in silent contemplation, overcome by that delicious feeling of dreamy content which takes possession of one in the tropics. On one of the boats, religious services were held, conducted by a Georgia clergyman, the Rev. A. E. Seddon of Atlanta, one of the most enthusiastic and uncomplaining of the colonists. The singing of hymns was joined in by many of the eighty-seven passengers on the boat, and prayers were offered by no less than four individuals. It was a singularly impressive scene, not altogether unlike what took place on board the Mayflowccenturies before. 40

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The Journey to Iort La The peaceful evening was allowed by a night of great discomfort. The passengers were crowded together, and many slept, or attempted to sleep, on boxes, barrels, or the lumber which formed a part of the cargo of the schooner. I slept, at intervals, on the lumber designed for the hotel at La Gloria. Often had I slept in hotels, but this was my first experience in sleeping on one. Some of the passengers on the schooners sat up all night in preference to lying upon boxes and lumber. We were not, however, without entertainment during that long, wearisome night. We had a philosopher among us, in the person of quaint old Benjamin Franklinof Griffin's Corners, New York-who talked earnestly and eloquently upon his appalling experiences in Confederate military prisons many years before. The handful of soldiers of the Spanish war were modestly silent in the presence of this gaunt old veteran of the great civil strife. Judge Groesbeck, of Washington, D. C., quoted poetry and told anecdotes and stories, while the Rev. Mr. Seddon, Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopeston, Ill., and others, contributed their share to the conversation. As we became drowsy, we could again, some one of our comGloria. 41 hear, now and

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Pioneering in Cuba. an imitation of the Cuban To-morrow--our o'clock-w'ind right -go Early in the morning, captain set sail, and as true to his word, the the wind was right 4 ti I' AN INVOLUNTARY BATH. good progress was made. One of the diverting incidents of the morning was the fall of the captain overboard. In the Crowded condition of the boat, he lost his footing and went over backward into the water. He scrambled back again in a hurry, with a look of deep panions captain: giv ing 42 k".*' 44 'R

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The Journey to Port La Gloria. 43 disgust upon his rather repulsive face, but the inconsiderate A mericanos greeted him with a roar of laughter. One enterprising amateur photographer secured a snapshot of him as he emerged dripping from his involuntary bath. A little later one of the Cubans caught a handsome dolphin, about two feet and a half long. The crew cooked it and served it up at ten cents a plate. As our schooner, drawing five feet of water, entered the inlet about fifteen miles from the port of La Gloria, she dragged roughly over the rocky bottom for some distance and came perilously near suffering misfortune. The other schooners came in collision at about this time and a panic ensued. No serious damage resulted, however. It was between twelve and one o'clock that afternoon that the port of La Gloria was sighted.

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CHAPTER III. A TOUGH TRAMP TO LA GLORm CIrY. As the fleet of schooners drew near La Gloria port, a row of small tents was discerned close to the shore. Elsewhere there was a heavy growth of bushes to the water's edge-the mangroves and similar vegetation fairly growing out into the sea. Between and around the tents was a wretched slough of sticky, oozy mud nearly a foot deep, with streams of surface water flowing over it in places into the bay. The colonists were filled with excitement and mingled emotions as they approached the shore, but their hearts sank When they surveyed this discouraging scene. They landed on the rude pier, and after much difficulty succeeded in depositing their light baggage in tents reserved for the purpose. Narrow boards laid down to walk on were covered with slippery mud, and some lost their footing and went over headforemost into the slough. One jaunty, well-dressed young man from New Jersey, who had found the trip vastly entertaining up to this point,

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A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 45 was so disgusted at suffering a flop-over into the mire that he turned immediately back and returned to his home in Atlantic City. And so the sifting process went on among the intending colonists. The conditions at the port at that time were certainly most unpleasant. Mud and water were on every hand, and sand flies were as thick as swarms of bees, and nearly as ferocious ; they allowed no one any peace. The company had considerately provided coffee and bread for the landing immigrants," and something of the sort was certainly needed to fortify them for what was to follow. Lunch over, such of the colonists as had not decided to turn back started for the "r city of La Gloria, four miles inland. We found that the electric cars were not running, that the 'bus line was not in operation, and that we could not take a carriage to the hotel ; nor was there a volante, a wagon, a bullock cart, a horse, mule, or pony in evidence. Neither was there a balloon or any other kind of airship. We learned further that a rowboat could be used only a portion of the way. Under the circumstances, we decided to walk. The road, if such it may be called, led 4

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A a lPn1 Lb G( 2. Plit/ogra/ by I. Al fan De Vnter, jan. 2s, 1900. R"

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A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 47 throtigh al1 open savanil, With occasional belts of timber. There had been heavy rains just before our arrival, and the trail was one of the most wretched ever followed by a human being. Foi about a quarter of a mile there was an apology for a corduroy road, but the logs composing it were so irreg 111ar and uneven in size, and had been so disarranged by surface water and so nearly covered with debris that it all seemed to have been placed there to obstruct travel rather than to facilitate it. After the corduroy, the trail was a disheartening mixture of water, mud, stumps, roots, logs, briers, and branches. Now we would be wading through shallow water and deep mud that almost pulled our shoes off; then splashing through water and tall, coarse grass ; and again, carefully threading our precarious wav among ugly stumps, logs, and fallen limbs, in water above our knees. At times the traveler found himself almost afloat in the forest. He was lucky, indeed, if he did not fall down, a misfortune which was little less than a tragedy. Before leaving the port we had been advised to remove our stockings and roll our trousers above our knees. Few of us had on anything better than ordinary shoes, and the

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48 Pioneering in Cuba. sensation of tramping through the mud and water with these was far from pleasant. Many had rubber boots or leggings in their trunks, but the trunks were still at Nuevitas. AU41l(R )N R)A T) LA G I A. ('fn. 8, 19(30.) Notwithstanding the bad road, one hundred and sixty stout-hearted colonists set out for La Gloria between 1:30 and 3 o'clock. Tie straggled along for miles, 11 men and young men, and even lame men ; some with valises,

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A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 49 some with bundles, and many with overcoats. In the lead was Peter E. Park, the Detroit lawyer who for months had been acting as5 the Cuban manager for the conpanV. IIis stalwart tornm v as encased in a suit ofwhite duck, and he wore a broad, slouch hat and high, leather boots. I1c looked quite picturesque as he strode through the mud and water, apparently trying to impress the colonists with the idea that the poor road \ as nothing to justify making a fuss. Inwardly, no doubt, he wX as some what sensitive oil th subject of the road ; justly or unjustly, the colonists blamed him for its condition. It was hot and hard work, this four-mile walk under a tropical si, but the men bore it with a good deal of patience. I started with a pair of rubbers on, but was compelled to allandon them before (rettillg far, leaving a large amount of rich. Cuban soil in and on them. The scene which presented itself wvas unique and interesting. All sorts of costumines were worn, including some young fellows ill soldiers' uniforms, and there was no little variety in the luggage carried. Some staggered under very heavy loads. Oite a number of cameras and kodaks were to be seen. The trail led through a rich savanna, soil 4

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Pioneering in Cuba. which is undoubtedly adapted to the raising of sugar cane, rice, and cocoanuts. Many palmetto and palm trees lined the way. One could not well view the scenery without stopping, for fear of losing one's footing. Thorns were troublesome and easily penetrated the wet shoes of the weary travelers. The cotonists all agreed that this road was the freest from dust of any they had ever trod. At last, after two hours of toil and discomfort, we came in sight of dry land and the camp. We had crossed two small creeks and seen a few unoccupied native shacks. No part of the land had been cultivated. Many of us had seen for the first time close at hand the majestic royal palm, which is deservedly the most distinguished tree in the island. It is a tree without branches, crowned at the top of a perfectly straight shaft with a bunch of long, graceful, dark green leaves. The royal palm rises to a height of sixty, seventy, and even eighty feet, its symmetrical shape and whitish color giving it the appearance of a marble column. It bears no fruit, and affords little shade, but it is highly ornamental and forms a striking feature of the landscape. The tree often lives to be two hundred years old ; it has twenty leaves, one of which is shed about 50

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A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 51 once a month. It has been stated that the seeds from a single tree will support one good-sized hog. As we approached our destination we passed two buxom women sitting on a huge stump. They were clad in shirt waists, belted trousers and leggings, and wore broad hats of a masculine type. We silently wondered if this was the prevailing fashion among the women of La Gloria, but soon found that it was not. Even the pair that we had first seen came out a few days later skirts and feminine headgear. I in dainty ndeed, we found La Gloria, in some respects, more civilized than we had anticipated. It was late in the afternoon of Monday, January 8, 1900, that the one hundred and sixty members of the first excursion to establish the first American colony in Cuba, reached the camp which occupied the site of La Gloria city of to-day. We found about a dozen tents, and as many more native shacks occupied by Cubans who were at work for the company. The Cubans numbered about fifty, and the American employes nearly as many more. There were also a few Florida and other settlers who had reached the spot early. Altogether, the population just before

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144 (o I H"' 'S I. > \ I N m. r.z M3 r /a r
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A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 53 our arrival was about one hundred, seven or eight of whom were women. The white city grew rapidly after we appeared on the scene. The company had tents, which we were obliged to put up for ourselves, and it was several hours before we had opportunity to even partially dry our wet feet and shoes. All that evening little groups of barefooted men could be seen gathered around camp-fires, drying themselves and their clothing. The distribution, location, and erection of the tents was placed in charge of Col. Tho ias H. Maginuiss of Philadelphia, Pa., an ex-officer of the United States regular army and a veteran of the Civil War, who had come down among the colonists on the ) armouf. Colonel Maginniss was a handsome man of great stature, youthful in appearance, mentally alert and physically active, with very prepossessing manners. Although a little past fifty years of age, he looked to be hardly more than forty. He was a favorite from the start, and aside from being a picturesque personality, soon became an influential power among the colonists. So efficiently did he perform his duties in supervising the erection of the tent city, that a little later he was regularly given the position of superintendent of

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Pioneering in Cuba. camp, in the employ of the conpany. He held this post until his return to the States, early in April. Our first night in La Gloria was not one of sybaritic pleasure. We were able to secure sonie poor cots and one thin blanket apiece. This was insufficient, for the nights, or rather the early mornings, were quite cold. Some of the men were obliged to sit up all night to gather warmth from fires. The rotten cloth on the cots went to pieces, in most cases, before the night was over, and, altogether, sleep was at a premium. Many of the tents were crowded ; in mine were eight persons, representing nearly as many states. FortunatelV, the insects gave us very little trouble. The population of the camp that first night must have been nearly three hundred, and the next day it increased to quite that number. While the colonists did not arrive at La Gloria in any considerable numbers until January, 19oo, the preliminary operations began there on October 9, 1899, when Chief Engineer J. C. Kelly landed with a survey corps from Texas. It was a splendid corps of bright, hardy, plucky, indefatigable men, skilful in their work and under discipline as ,54

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A Tough Tramp to La G!oria. rigid as that of an army. from Eagle Lake, Texas Chief Kelly was in which state he had become well known through the performance of a great deal of important work. le was an exceedingly capable engineer, a strict but just disciplinarian, a good financier, and at all times highly popular with his men, whose devotion to him was as striking as that often shown by soldiers to their colonel or their general. Mr. Kelly was an interesting talker, and an athlete and amateur impersonator of no mean pretensions. With him he brought, as assistant chief, Mr. H. O. Neville. a well-educated, versatile, and agreeable young man. Among the others in the Texas party were Sam M. Van der Voort, son of the general, and I. G. Wirtz, both of whom later became instrument men. S. H. Packer, also of Texas, was one of the corps. From New York came F. Kimble and J. A. Messier, the latter familiarly known as Albany," and from Havana, B. B. Lindsley, all three serving later as instrument men more or less of the time. All the men above mentioned were efficient surveyors and good fellows, each something of a character" in his way. Among other early arrivals, most of whom were attached to the survey corps, were O. V. 55

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56 Pioneering in Cuba. Ie Long of Havana, II. L. Starker of Chicago, David Porter of Detroit, Richard Head of Florida, J. A. McCauley of New York, Will Corlett, and Jack Griffith. The experiences of the members of the survey corps at La Gloria had been a continued story of hardship, privation, and exposure. They came in before the rainy season had ended, pushing their toilsome way through tangled vines and thorny thickets, wading through mud and water, and often being compelled to swim swollen creeks. Much of the time they patiently worked knee deep or waist deep in water, covered with swarms of mosquitoes or other pestiferous insects. Often they had little to eat save cornmeal mush and boniatos (sweet potatoes) ; but for all this, they were seldom ill and rarely made a complaint. Sleeping in their wet clothes, which would not dry in the dampness of the night, they were up early each morning ready for another day's attack upon the jungle. The fact that they were not more often sick is the best testimonial to the healthfulness of the climate of northeastern Cuba that has come under my notice. It speaks volumes, especially when it is known that a little later men from the

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A Tough Tramp to La Gloria. 57 Northern states, and even British Columbia, worked on the survey corps under similar conditions and with like immunity from serious illness. Occasionally, to be sure, they would be poisoned from standing too long in water or coming in contact with the giao tree, or shrub, but this affliction, v while severe, was never fatal. The good work faithfully and uncomplainingly performed by the survey corps in and around La Gloria, under such trying circumstances, is worthv of as much praise and admiration as a successful military campaign. It required courage, skill, and patient endurance to move upon and tame this tropical forest on the north coast of Cuba. A handful of colonists followed the survey corps into La Gloria at intervals, the first ladies coming in December. These were Mrs. D. E. Lowell and Mrs. W. G. Spiker they came with their husbands. Mr. Lowell had been a prosperous orange and pineapple grower in Florida until the great freeze came, and Mr. Spiker was a successful photographer in Ohio before leaving his state to find him a new home in the tropics. The Lowells and Spikers were intelligent and cultivated people who had been accustomed to a good style of

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Pioneering in Cuba. living, but who were now ready to undertake a rough, pioneer life in the strong hope of a bright future. The party landed at Palota, northwest of La Gloria, and came in with horses and wagon of their own, following the roughest kind of trail for the larger part of nine miles. It was a hard and perilous trip; only with the greatest difficulty could the horses draw the load through the heavy mud and over the deeply gullied road. More than once the team seemed hopelessly stuck, but was extricated after a time and the toilsome journey continued. At last the bedraggled party reached La Gloria, and the first women colonists set foot on the soil of the future Cuban-American city. When the 1lrrmout/ colonists arrived, the Lowells and Spikers had been living at La Gloria for several weeks ; they were well and happy, and pleased with the climate and the country.

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CHAPTER IV. FIRST DA\ys iN TilE NEw COLONY. THE first few days after our arrival we led a strange and what seemed to many of us an unreal life. Shut into a small open space by a great forest, with no elevation high enough for us to see even so much of the outside world as hills, mountains, or the sea, it almost seemed as if we had dropped ofW of the earth to some unknown planet. Day after day passed without our seeing the horizon, or hearing a locomotive or steamboat whistle. We had no houses, only tents, and there was not a wooden building of any sort within a dozen miles. At night the camp was dimly lighted by flickering fires and the starry sky, and through the semi-darkness came the hollow, indistinct voices of men discussing the outlook for the future. T]'here were always some who talked the larger part of the night, and others who invariably rose at three o'clock in the morning ; this was two hours before light. In the deep forest at night were heard strange sounds, but high

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Pioneering in Cuba. above them all, every night and the whole of the night, the harsh, complaining note of a certain bird who seemed to be eternally unreconciled to the departure of day. I think it was a bird, but it may have been the wail of a lost soul. It was lonesome there in the xxilds of Cuba in those early days of the new colony, and doubtless there was some homesickness, but the reader should not gain the impression that the pioneers were downcast and unhappy. On the contrary, they were delighted with the climate and the country, despite the difliculties encountered in entering it and the deprivations which had to be put up with. From the first, the colonists, generally speaking, were more than cheerful ; they were happy and contented. Buoyant in spirits, eager to explore and acquire information concerning the surrounding country, they enjoyed the pioneer life with the keenest relish. Tihey laughed at the hardships and privations, made friends with each other and with the Cubans, and tramped the woods and trails with reckless disregard of mud and water and thorny underbrush. The men were astonished to find themselves in such excellent health ; the more they exposed 60

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First Days in the New Colony. themselves, the more they seemed to thrive, until nearly every mall inl the coloyiv was ready to sly that he was better physically and mnentallv than when he left home. It was the same with the women, whose iiproved health, entire cheerluliu
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62 Pioneering in Cuba. with kidney ailments and rheumatism reported themselves improved, and there was not wanting evidence that persons with consumptive tendencies and other weaknesses would find the air salubrious and a residence in this part of the island beneficial. The temperature at this time was delightful, a close approach to perfection, the thermometer ranging from 700 to 840 at noon, and rarely falling below 6oc at any time of day. It still rained frequently, an unusual and remarkable prolongation of the rainy season, which ordinarily ends in November, but the water fell in brief showers and left the rest of the day bright and clear. Indeed, it was not until February that the rain ceased altogether and the dry season fairly began. The Cubans declared that they had never known the wet season to continue so late. The long continued rains were held responsible, perhaps justly so, for many of the inconveniences and drawbacks which the colonists encountered. The company stoutly declared that to these unusual meteorological conditions was due the failure to build the road to the port which had been promised, and that the absence of the road prevented the transportation of the lumber for the con-

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Firs struction was true t Days in the New Colony. 63 of the hotel. This latter assertion beyond all question. The "4 hotel xvas a subject of much comment and immodcrate mirth. and imposing It existed on paper in spacious elegance ; it was a splendid structure of the imagination. But let it not be thought for one moment that the hotel was wholly a myth. Not so ; the situation would not have been half so funny if it had been. There stood the foundation for the immense building squarely across Central avenue, about a quarter of a mile back from the front line of the town. A large space had been cleared in the forest, and the centre of this opening was the hotel consisted of large log site. The foundation s of hard wood, sawed about four feet long and stood upright. Th]ey were set in cement on stone that was sunk slightly below the surface of the ground. How many of these logs there were I cannot say, but there was a small army of them, aligned across Central avenue and extending far to either side. Under the dim light of the stars they looked like a regiment dwarfs advancing to attack the camp. of Workmen were putting the finishing touches on this foundation when we arrived, but the work was soon discontinued altogether, leav-

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Ii 1 T Pzotograpl by 1". IC. I ian Pe V enar, 'n, 1 (

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First Days in the New Colony. 65 ing the wooden army to serve as an outpost of slowly advancing civilization. Of course, we always directed new arrivals to the hotel as soon as they came in over the Sroal from the port After a while we became so fond of the hotel joke that I think we should have been sorry to see the building completed. The bad road to the port also cut off all chance of getting the sawmill up to La Gloria, and it daily became more evident that we should continue to dwell in tents for some time to come. We were destitute enough during those first days in the colony. Our trunks had not come, and did not for several weeks, and many of us were without change of clothing or even a towel. We washed in a small creek which ran through the Cuban camp, wiping our hands and faces on handkerchiefs. This and other creeks served us well for drinking water, and theme was also an excellent spring on the company's reserve north of the town. Very little freight could be brought up from the port, and hence it was that we were not over-well supplied with provisions. There was usually enough in quantity, but the quality was poor and there was a painful lack of variety. The 5

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Pioneering in Cuba. engineer corps' cook house was hastily enlarged into a public restaurant upon our arrival, and did the best it could to feed the hungry colonists. Some of the latter boarded themselves from the start-purchasing what supplies they could get at the commissaryand perhaps had a shade the best of it. I shall never forget my first supper in La Gloria. It was at the company's restaurant. We were crowded together on long, movable benches, under a shelter tent. Before us were rough board tables innocent of cloth. The jejines (gnats or sand flies) swarmed about us, disputing our food and drink and even the air we breathed. The food was not served in courses; it came on all at once, and the all consisted of cold bread without butter, macaroni, and tea without milk. There wvere not even toothpicks or glasses of water. Amid the struggling humanity, and regardless of the inhumanity of the jejines (pronounced by the Cubans haheens "), my gentlemanly friend from Medfield, Mass., sat at my right and calmly ate his supper with evident relish. Ile was fond of macaroni and tea. Alas' I was not. At home he had been an employee in an insane asylum. I, ilas had not enjoyed 66

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First Days in the New Colony. the advantages of such wholesome discipline. Of that supper I remeInlber three things most distinctly-the jejines, my friend's fondness for macaroni and tea, and the saintly patience and good-humor of our waiter, Al Noyes. It was not long before there was an improvement in the fare, although no great variety was obtainable. We usually had, however, the best there was in camp. The staples were salt beef, bacon, beans, and sweet potatoes or yams, and we sometimes had fresh pork (usually wild hog), fried plantains, and thin, bottled honey. We often had oatmeal or corn meal mush, and occasionally we rejoiced in a cook whose culinary talent comprehended the ability to nake fritters. The bread was apt to be good, and we had Cuban coffee three times a day. We had no butter, and only condensed milk. It was considerably later. when I ate at the chief engineer's table, that we feasted on flamingo and increased our muscular development by struggling with old goat. If it had been Chattey's goat, no oli would have complained, but unfortunately it was not. Chattey was our cook, and he kept several goats, one of which had a pernicious habit of hanging around the dining tent. One day, 67

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T1 SpRiNG. Photograph by V. K. Van De Venter, 'an. 23, 1000,

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First Days in the New Colony. just before dinner, he was discovered sitting on a pie in the middle of the table, greedily eating soup out of a large dish. Chattey's goat was a British goat, and had no respect for the Constitution of the United States or the table etiquette which obtained in the first American colony in Cuba. The soup was dripping from Billy's whiskers, which he had not even taken the trouble to wipe. It is certain that British goats have no table manners. But I am getting ahead of my story. The condition of the road to the port was so bad for some time after our arrival that it was barely possible to get up sufficient provisions to supply the daily needs of the camp, to say nothing of other freight. We were in need of almost everything to furnish our tents or to begin agricultural operations. There was, to be sure, the comnmissary," where the company had confidently assured us in its advertising literature every necessary article from a plough to a knitting needle would be on sale "' at the most reasonable prices." As a matter of fact, the commissary was almost as bare as the famous cupboard of old Mother Hubbard, and of the commodities that were stored there, very few seemed to be fir sale After several ineffectual 69 to the colonists.

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70 Pioneering in Cuba. attempts to get what I wanted, I entered the commissary tent one day to make a test case. Of Mr. Richardson, the man in charge, I blandly inquired : Can I get a tin pail? No," with a gentle shake of the head. Can I get any kind of a pail? No," with another shake. Can I get a tin pan or a wash basin ?" No," with a shake. Can I get a tin dish or an earthen dish or a wooden dish " No," with more shakes. Can I buy a till Clup or an earthen mu No," with a vigorous shake. Can I buy a knife, lork, or spoon?" No, no," with two quick shakes. Can I buy a piece of cloth of any kind? No, sir," stiffly. Can I buy an empty box ?" No, sir, yon can't-need 'em all ourselves." Is there anything that you have got to sell?" I inquired meekly. Well, there is some mosquito netting over there." I had mosquito netting-but mosquito netting did not make a very good drinking

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First Days in the New Colony. 7 utensil. I left the commissary without inquiring for a plough or a knitting needle. The population of La Gloria fluctuated greatly during the first week after our advent. Our arrival and the additions of the following day had brought the total population of the camp up to at least three hundred. The Wet and muddy trails, and the backwardness of all i mprovenents, increased enormously the feeling of distrust among the colonists, and some began to loudly question the security of titles. This alarm, which ultimately proved to be entirely unfounded, kept the camp in a ferment for a day or two. Oceans of discussion were indulged in, Mr. Park was closely and warmly questioned, and there was a general feeling of uneasiness and unrest. The result was that when the last half of the week had begun, La Gloria had suffered a loss of nearly one hundred of its population. Discouraged and disgusted men made their way back to the coast, hoping to get transportation to Nuevitas, and thence back to their respective homes. There was a delay at Port La Gloria, and a few remained there until they had made up their minds to return to the camp. The others went on to Nuevitas, but were unable

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Pioneering in Cuba. to secure transportation at once to the States. The consequence was that nearly or quite one half eventually returned to La Gloria, straggling in from time to time. As the week drew to a close the town quieted down, the restless spirits having departed. Those of us who remained either had faith in the ultimate success of the project, or were at least disposed to give the enterprise a fair trial. We were not easily stampeded ; and we placed some reliance on Senator Park's positive assurance that the deeds would be all right. We saw, of course, that the company's affairs had been badly managed, and that promised improvements had not as vet materialized, but, on the other hand, we had learned from personal observation that the land was good, the timber valuable, the drinking water pure and abundant, and the climate delightiul beyond description. The most of those who returned to the States with harrowing tales either never got as far as La Gloria at all, or else spent less than forty-eight hours in the camp. The majority of the colonists cheerfully stuck by the colony, and laughed at the untruthful and exaggerated newspaper stories as they were sent down to us from the frozen North. 72

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CHAPTER V. 'ifHE ALLOTMENT OF TiE LAND. THE chief of the immediate problems which confronted the colonists and the oflicers of the company was the allotment of the land. The company had purchased it, or secured options on it, in large tracts, some of these tracts containing over ten thousand acres each. The colonists had contracted for it in small holdings, varying from a town lot, 25 x 100 feet in size, to a forty-acre tract of plantation land. No more than forty acres were sold to any one on a single contract. The contracts which could be made were, respectively, as follows : Town lots, three sizes, 25 x 100 feet, 50 x Too, and 50 x I50; plantation land, 2 acres, 5 acres, 10 acres, 20 acres, and 40 acres. The purchaser paid in full or on monthly instalments, as he preferred, being allowed a discount of ten per cent. for cash. According to the terms of the contracts, he did not purchase the land at all, but bought stock in a cooperative company and the land was a gift to him. However,

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74 Pioneering in Cuba. the cooperative company feature xvas alway s in the background in the mind of the colonist, andl he felt that he was buying the land and almost invariably so termed the transaction. It was the land he had his eye on, and his present anxiety was to have a good piece promptly allotted to him. At the company's headquarters in New York, no plan of subdivision had been formulated further than a general promise in advertising circulars to allot the land in the order of the numbers of the contracts. At first glance, this seemed both fair and feasible, but once on the ground at La Gloria, some very formidable difliculties loomed up. Of the four or five thousand persons who had invested up to that time less than three hundred were at La Gloria, and there was not in Cuba even a list of the people who had made contracts with the co mpanv. to sav nothing of their respective holdings and the status of their payments. No such list could be obtained from New York under several weeks or perhaps months, and when obtained would be of little value for the reason that there could not possibly be land enough surveyed by that time to allot one half of the thousands of investors. Surveying in this dense tropical forest was neces-

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The Allotment of the Land. 75 sarily slow work, and progress had been impeded by the long-continued rains. It was manifestly impossible to make a general allotment of the land at once, and yet it was essential that the colonists who had actually arrived on the spot should be given their tracts promptly and permitted to go to work upon them. Ti life of the colony seemed to hinge on action of this sort. Ctrite early the company had stated that the subdivisin would be made about January 1, and when General Van der Voort arrived in New York in the latter part of December, he assured the colonists who were preparing to sail with him to Cuba that they shoulI have their land by January 15. This promise was carried out to the letter, and was the only rational course of action that could be pursued under the existing circumstances. It undoubtedly saved the colony at what was a critical stage. During the voyage down, the colonists on board the 1lirmouth were greatly exercised over the method of allotment that is to say, many of them were, while others declared that they would be satisfied if they only got their land promptly. General Van der Voort gave the subject much anxious consideration, seeking to devise a plan which

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Pioneering in Cuba. should be at once just and practical. le finally decided that the fairest and best thing to do was to place the matter in the hands of a committee of the colonists, giving them the power to prescribe the method of allotment within certain limitations, subject to the approval of the colonists on the ground. described this as the town-meeting principle, and his decision gave entire satisfaction to the pioneers. General Van der Voort arrived in La Gloria ThursdaY, January II, having remained behind at Nuevitas to see the baggage of the colonists through the custom house. This accomplished, he took passage for La Gloria on board the lighter carrying the trunks, etc. smooth one. T The voyage was not a he boat came near being wrecked in the rough sea, and suffered the loss of its rudder. Finally an anchorage was effected about a dozen miles from the La Gloria shore, and General Van der Voort and others were taken off in a small boat. The trunks and other baggage were not landed until nearly a week later, and it was several weeks before much of the luggage reached La Gloria city. The contents of many of the trunks suffered serious damage general The 76

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The Allotment of the Land. 77 from water and mould, although in some cases the things came through entirely uninjured. General Van der Voort rode from Port La Gloria to the camp on horseback, a hard trip, for the road had not improved. The mud and water and debris made it a slow and exhausting journey. Ile assumed charge of the company's business ill the colony at once. Arrangements were Inade for a prompt allotment of the and, and a committee of nine colonists, with Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopestoll, Ill., as chairman, was chosen to devise a plan of distribution. After several prolonged sessions, the committee unani mously reported a scheme by \vhicll those present should select their land from the official map in the order of the priority of their purchases. After these, the investors having authorized representatives on the ground, the latter holding powers of attorney, were to have their chance. In this second class, also, priority of purchase governed the order of selection. The report further provided that the investor should be allowed a second choice if he found his land to be unsatisfactory. This plan, which I believed then and believe now was the best that could have been devised, was adopted by the colonists with but a single dissenting vote.

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Pioneering in Cuba. On Saturday, January 13, the allotment began, in what was known as headquarters tent. The committee which had formulated the plan of distribution was in charge, assisted by Chief Engineer Kelly, Architect Neff, and others. The town lots were given out first, and by night nearly all who were entitled to make selections in these classes had been served. The town lot distribution xvas completed Monday morning, the 15th. The town was one mile square, and had been laid out and surveyed under the supervision of I'. A. Custer Neil', civil engineer and architect. It was traversed and counter-traversed by streets and avenues, appropriately named. These were as yet, for the most part, only surveyors' paths cut through the forest, but they were much used as thoroughfares to reach town lots and the plantation lands beyond. They were rough roads, filled with mud, water, stumps, stubble, and roots, but with the advent of the dry season they became more easily passable. The highway running through the centre of the town to and from the coast was known as Central avenue, and the road passing through the centre at right angles was called Dewey street. Around the intersecting point, the exact centre of the town, 78

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The Allotment of the Land. space had been reserved for a large plaza. Central avenue and Dewey street were each designed to be one hundred feet wide, and were naturally the paths most used by the colonists. The former actually extended from the rear line of the town northward to the bay, ive miles away,while the latter continued from the side lines of the town out into the plantation lands to the east and west. The town site was well chosen. It has a fair elevation above the sea, a firm, hard soil, with steadily rising ground. The front line of the town is about twenty feet above tidewater; the centre about one hundred feet, and the rear line nearly or quite two hundred feet. Around the town was a belt of land a quarter of a mile wvide reserved by the company ; then came the plantations on every side. When the committee finished the allotment of town lots on the morning of January ij, it was found that nearly five hundred lots had been taken up out of a total in all classes of about three thousand six hundred. The colonists had not been slow in selecting corner lots, and the lots on Central avenue and those facing the plaza on all sides were early preempted. The colonists had faith that a real city would rise on the chosen site. When the 79

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Pioneering in Cuba. demand for town lots had been satisfied, the committee began at once to give out the plantation land. The choice was necessarily restricted to about eight or ten thousand acres to the west, southwest, and northwest of the town, which was all that had been surveyed up to that time. When this condition was discovered by the colonists, the unsurveyed land to the north, south, and east began, naturally enough, to appear far more desirable in the eyes of the investors than that which had been surveyed to the westward, and some refused to make a selection at all, preferring delay to a restricted choice. The great majority, however, mindul that they were privileged to change if the land was not satisfactory, went ahead and made their selections. As a matter of fact, the surveyed tract to the westward was probably as good as any, all of the land held by the company being rich and highly productive. The first man to choose his plantation was Dr. W. P. Peirce of Hoopeston, Ill., who, it so chanced, was chairman of the committee on allotment. Dr. Peirce's contract was No. 2, and it was dated in January, 1899. But few contracts were made before April of that year. Contract No. i was not on the ground, 8o

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The Allotment of the Land. and no one present knew who was the holder. The allotment was well conducted, and went on quite rapidly. It was eagerly watched by a large group of interested spectators, inpatiently awaiting their turn. Some tried to extract inside information from the surveyors, who were supposed to know the relative value of every square foot of the land, but the majority either made their choice blindly, with knowledge of nothing save the proximity of the tract to the town, or trusted to the meagre information they had acquired regarding the character of the land in different localities during their tramps in the few days since their arrival. It was a strange scene. Men of all ages and occupations, coming from nearly every one of the United States, and several other countries, strangers until a few days before, were crowded together in a large tent, each anxious to do the best possible for himself, and yet in few instances discourteous to his neighbor. It Was a good-natured, well-behaved crowd, and there was no friction in the proceedings. The colonists were satisfied that the plan of allotment was a fair one ; there was no complaint about anything except the restricted choice. Monday night saw the 6 81

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t .. ,. : % .. a 1. ?. @:.. 4 yFu p 4 h.:. jr+ 4 { y q v y a k

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The Allotment of the Land. allotment well advanced, and Tuesday it was finished. Everybody then on the ground who wished to make a selection for himself or those whom he represented had been accommodated, and the committee's duties were at an end. Nearly seven thousand acres of plantation land had been allotted. As soon as they had selected their land from the map the colonists scurried out into the surrounding country to find it. The woods were full of men hunting their plantations. It was no easy matter to find theme, since there was nothing to go by but the numbered stakes of the surveyors. These were anything but plain guides to the uninitiated, and even the more understanding were sometimes baffled by reason of indistinct figures or missing stakes. The result was that many viewed other people's land for their own, while some, conscious of their helplessness, gave up the search for the time being. The majority, however, found their land with no more difficulty than was inevitable in a long tramp through the rough and muddy paths of a jungle. The mosquitoes kept us company, and the parrots scolded us from overhead, but there were no wild beasts or venomous snakes to be dreaded. 83 Probably there are no

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84 Pioneering in Cuba. tropical forests in the world so safe as those of Cuba ; one may sleep in them night after night without fear of death or disease. This is true, at least, of the country within a radius of forty miles from La Gloria, as I can testify from personal experience and observation. In most cases the colonists were pleased with their land when they found it, and the changes were comparatively few. A little of the lowest land was more or less under water, but even this was rarely given up, the holders discovering that it was very rich, and realizing that it would be all right in the dry season, and that it could be drained for the wet. Some experienced men from Florida showed a decided preference for this land, and later it developed that their judgment was good. This lowest land was of black soil; that slightly higher was apt to be yellow, and the highest red or chocolate. All these different colored soils were embraced in the allotment which had been made, and they all represented good land. The colonists could never agree as to which was the best. Undoubtedly some were superior for certain purposes to others, but all appeared to be fertile and gave promise of being very productive. The black and yellow soils were almost entirely free

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The Allotment of the Land. from stone, while the red and chocolate some, but sel The colonists i h their town n once on their doing enough to set to work with lots, and plantation o anV harm. energy cleara tew began work Is. The colony w at gas sooni at hi)15 hive of induillstrl NT had

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CHAPTER VI. Tc SucAR Rior. ArrE It the middle of January and the beginning of the allotment of the land, the population of La Gloria began to pick up somewhat. Colonists who had been lingering at Nuevitas, and some new ones who had come down front the States by the Munson line, would straggle in from time to time. People were coming and going almost every day, but the balance was in favor of the colony and the population slowly but surely increased. Among the new arrivals were quite a number of women and children. About Januarv 20 the advance guard of the colonists who had Cone on the second excursion of the )armouih made its appearance. On this trip the Jarmou/h brought about sixty passengers, the majority of whom finally got up to La Gloria. More would have come if Nuevitas at that time had not been a hotbed of misrepresentation regarding conditions in the new colony. All the unfavorable features were grossly and ridiculously exaggerated,

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The Sugar Riot. while stories of starvation, sickness, and death were poured into the ears of new arrivals until nany an intending colonist became convinced that it would be taking his life in his hand for him to make even the briefest visit to La Gloria. Such is the tendencv of human nature to exaggerate, and to build a big sensation out of a small nucleus. People who had never seen La Gloria were the ones whose representations seemed to be most credited in the States and by the new arrivals therefrom. I saw a letter received by one of the company 's officials at La Gloria from a woman in Asbury Park, N. J., who was nearly crazed by a est son, who was then had heard frequently who had been in La G corps for several month written very favorably said, but she had lately inan who had returned had told a terrible st danger in the colony. showed clearly that sh counts of her son and man who had brought b why\ she credited the ety for her yo the colonY. ungShe from her oldest son, jloria with the survey s, and he had always of the place, so she seen an Asburv Park from Nuevitas and he ory of suffering and Tl he woman's letter e discredited the acaccepted those of the rack a harrowing tale. story of i man who 87

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000 :,z DuvN \L)/O f 7 [ y/ V / I '/)it/)\ ri ^

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The Sugar Riot. 89 never got further than Nuevitas in preference to that of her own son, who had been at La Gloria for months, I never could understand, especially as the latter was an intelligent and apparently perlectly reliable young man. 1)oubtless inortflIs are predisposed to beli ex fle worst. I looked up the woman's Youngest son, and found him w ell and happy, and ready to join with his brother in speaking favorablV of La Gloria. Meanwhile, we were living contentedly in La Gloria, enjoying excellent health and suffering no serious discomfort, and laughing in uproarious glee over the sensational articles which appeared in nany of the nVspapers o0 the States. With no little surprise we learned from the great newspapers of the United States that we were narooned in a Cuban swamp,' sull'erina from malaria and starvation." and "1 dvinig of yellow fever and smallpox." As a matter of fact, at that time there had not been a single death or one case of serious sickness. Te health of the colouists remained good through the winter, the spring, and even the following suninner. Indeed, the colonists had but few grievances, so fexv that they would sometimes manufacture them out of trifles. Of such ""as

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Pioneering in Cuba. the sugar riot .with its laughable and harmonious ending. One day in the latter part of January. when the arrival of provisions was barely keeping pace with the arrival of colonists, a small invoice of sugar was brought into La Gloria over the bad road front the port. Scarcely had it been unloaded at the commissary when the head of the engineer corps took possession of about half of it for the surveyors and the boarders at their table, and gave orders that the other hal should be turned over to the Cuban workmen of the company. The carrying out of this order aroused great indignation among the colonists who were boarding themselves and had run out of sugar, as most of them had. T1his action of the amateur sugar trust caused certain of the colonists to sour. so to speak, on all of the officers and chief employes of the company, for the time 1eing, at least, and mutterings, "'not loud but deep," were heard all about the camp. Not that there was danger of a sanguinary conflict, but a war of words seemed imminent. The era of good feeling -was threatened. A day or two later, on the evening of Saturday, January 27, a iieeting of the colonists was held preparatory to the organization 9o

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The Sugar Riot. of a pioneer association, and it was arranged among some of the leading spirits in the sugar agitation that at the close of this session the saccharine grievanCe should 1e publicly aired. The gathering was held larolnd a camp-tire in the open air, in front of headquarters tent. The regularly called meeting adjourned early, w ith a feeling of excited expectancy in the air. Something was about to happen. The officers of the company on the ground, it Was understood, weere to be raked over the coals for favoring the Cubans and thus perpetrating an outrage on the colonists. The colonists whose tempers had been kept sweet hy a sufliciencv of sugar lingered around in the pleasant anticipation of witnessing an opera hoc/Ii. But it was the unexpected that happened. Just as the sugar orators were preparing to orate, a man with nimddV boots pushed through the crowd and entered headquarters tent. A moment later the stalwart form of Colonel M aginniss emerged fr-on the tent, and in his hand he bore a slip of paper. It was a cablegram from New York, which had just been brought in from Nuevitas, announcing the election of General Van der Voort as president of the Cuban Land and Steamship 91i

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IiOt1CCri-1 10 III ( i a. read t tO the inlstant, alld Whcn the cro\d, thIr thlen the ;Ilr There ha(d net er G_"ncral 'an der ctolunists had fu lt do8Ition to t0( c upon his elect ion l comlpany;IS the" be suco-'s of the ent di strullstful eof the pmny : the dhwice spired thema with, dece. It w\S the was the beSt thing dispatch had been c was silence f-or ;un war the been Com01nt inconiinn that it happened. Ile II wa it tiI I and ;ill prat cab the a Cn 1 \ as the right Ultn in the riuht i ) ill hA (iluria to stagy and reckon as a C')1{)liSt ;i 14uIg thI (m1. h* sa1 r a}. itators \or\tot that their 1not been swe ctened for I(orty-iht joiin Il hc tily in th. Ch rinFi .I who had "cime to s(o i renlti y. so to sprak. It wIs voted to l ilram to the NcV \ork office aln the deep satisfaction aothe colon choice made fur pr'Sident. G n der Voort responded to calls and excellent speech. c d ; r h coffee hours, I fact, ned to send a nlotnlll'ists il cncEraI 1 ade O)2

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The Sugar Riot. 93f A little later in the evening there was a big demOstration in 1h1nor 1 Of the signrjtiint event. More than thitllii else it resembled a Fourth of Jtuly CeltblratiOn. ]Illnflr) were lighted 1and salutes tired, and the air of La Gloria resml Ided with cheers. Tlh Cubals Clame vcr \lIromi their Cliipl, and ;dtcr the Anericans had got through, started in for a celibration of their oXwn. Thjis \was partly because of their fldness 6r General Van der Voort and partly on account )I their childish love of noise and displaV. The colonists becalne coInvinced that night that if the Cubans (v\r become Anericani citizens thcv will be equal to all of the Fourth t Jtily requirements. The noise they made douhl discounted that made bV the colonists. Th cheered ai(d shouted and Bired salutes hy the hundred. iThy marched up and dow i the main street, singing and lajghingr and bling conch shells. hey freed Cubit oer again, and had t rattling good tile in doing it. It seemed as if the racket would nevir end, but about midnight they went jabbering back to their camp. It was the noisiest night in the history of La Gloria. Bit the sugar riot" was averted, ;Ind never took place.

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ClIAPTER VII. An\ExT UR ES AND MISADVENTURES. mONG thle dozenW the most striking IIgu Danish widow, who states, IPennsVlv ania, say exactly wheni sh but she was one of the arrive, and achieved t ing the first house in of sex, it was not elis Mrs. Moller upon a Slight of figure, with I cut hair, she vor a b UFs, a VVry short ski while her helt Iairv and k person her to sonlew She where comp, living wOImen re \ as c'111 fr4o I iclie\ e reach earliest in the camp, Mls. Moller, a ml one of the ,. I cannot d La Gloria, of her sex to he distinction of buildthe bcity.Speaking v to determine that of casual ac(ujtintanCe. )ronzed face and clos.oV's cap, house, trousrt, andt ruber boots, briStled with revolvers I Iivcs. She w a., a quiet, imllpert urbable 1, how over, and it wV\as diflicult to get relate her adkveutures, which had been hat extraordinarily. first came into La Gloria from Palota, she landed fromt
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Adventures and Misadventures. her baggage, she started out ahwdt and alone, and attempted to make her wiy along the muddy and ditIhcult trail nine miles to ixa Gloria. It W;s a hard road to travel, with scarcely a habitation alone the way. Late in the alternoon she reached an inhabited shark, and the Culais invited her to spend the night. Althouigt wIearv, she (IClined the invitation, ;ilnd pressed on. I arkness soon overtook her, but through the dense wood exceedingly rough, and among stumps, roots, a Every few steps she Ill becoming exhausted, she spend the night in the She had no shelter whatc of making a lire. She night, not being abk t only company heoli the morning she toutnd she h at last taken still she kep s. The trail .he stumbled a nd muddy gtu down, and fii was heart vcer, sat in1 go td lo. struck a Cuban trail, by a natk e horseman t on Wits don" llics. nalky compelled to of the forest. and no mncam" I the woods all to sleep, her uitoes. In til st her way, but and was ov er.Ile kindly gVAve her a place in tiont of him on his pony, and thus she entered the youthful city of La Gloria. Nor ~as this Mrs. 74oller's last adventure. She had an extraordinary faculty for getting 95

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Pioneering in Cuba. into trouble. Iler trunk, which she had abandoned at iU1Iota, was"; killed by some one, probably a wandering Cuban, and she spent much time in traveling about the country seeking to get the authorities to hunt up the ofieinlcr and recover the stolen gr)o(ds. On one occasion she started in the early evening to \\alk into La Gloria trio) the port. WIen she had dot about half Way darkness came on and she lost the indistinct trail across the savanna. Not daring to fo further, she roosted in a tree all night. Iicr idea in taking to the tree \\as that the mosquitoes would be less numerous at such an elevation, but she did not escape them altogether. Nothing serious happened and she ttirined up in camp all right the next morning. Mrs. Mol1er had no better luck when she rode than when she walked. At one tine, while driving from Las :Minas to Nievitas in a wagon wvith another colonist, the team w\ent over an embankment in the darkness and was so bad1v damaged that she and her companion were obliged to walk into Nuevitas, twelve or fifteen miles distant, along the railroad track. The journey was neither easy nor pleasant. But Mrs. 'Moller had both pluck and enterprise. She it was who built the first house in go

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and rl isadventures. 9Ia Gloria, (. low r8hin I'' up in the \Omls on &C1)tral Uvn (ll. part of Jainary and a Cuthban to It wlS put up in the latter She mployed ;in Arricatn construct cred with t r4 y a+1 L .Y NI t.. (rr 1<\ superv ised when it was done planted sunt trees, pineapples, etc., around he house, and lowers, banana it. here alone for some time before she near neighbors. She lived had ally Mrs. Moller also enjoyed FI1R>T lon' of t Adventures It, anld Ihad it ;t catn\
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Pioneering in Cuba. the distinction of owning the first cow, the first calf, and the first goat in La Gloria. As these animals roamed at large much of the time and were noisy, disorderly beasts, they were any-thing but popular ill the colony. They were so destructive e to planted things, that the threats to plant the cow and her unhappy offspring were numerous and oftrepeated, and the subject was discussed in more than one meeting of the Pioneer Association. It was said that Mrs. Moller had come to La Gloria with the idea of starting a dairy business, and it was further reported that she had taken the first prize for dairy butter at the World's Fair in Chicago. But the dairy did not materialize, and La Gloria long went butterless. It was a standing wonder with is that the Rural Guards did not disarm Mrs. Moller. They fretquenty met her as she traveled about the country, and must have seen that she carried deadly weapons. They did not relieve her of them, however, but the American authorities at La Gloria finally forbade her to wear her revolvers about the camp. It must not be thought that Mrs. Moller always dressed as I have described her. On state occasions, such as Sunday services and 98

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Adventures and Misadventures. the regular Saturday night meetings of the Pioneer Association, she doffed her blue blouse and rubber boots, and came out with a jacket and the most innaculate starched and stiff bloomers, gorgeous in light and bright colors. At such times she was a wonder to behold. Mrs. Moller spoke broken English, and was not greatly given to talking except when she had business on hand. But if Mrs. Moller was the most striking figure in camp, the most ubiquitous and irre-pressible person was Irs. Horn of South Bend, Indiana. She was one of the earliest arrivals in La Gloria, coming in with two sons and a daughter, but without her husband. Mrs. IJorn was a loud-voiced, goodnatured woman, who would have tipped the scales at about two hundred and fifty poundIs, provided there had been ainy scales in La Glori a to be tipped. She reached La Gloria before the ) arnion/I colonists, but how is something of a mystery. It is known, however, that she waded in through miles of mud and water, and was nothing daunted by the experience. Never for a moment did she think of turning back, and when she had pitched her tent, she announced in a high, shrill voice that penetrated the entire camp, 99

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100 Pioneering ini Cuba. that she whits in the coloiiy to stay. She had livct in South Viend, Indl., anti thought she could stand anlythtin' that mtighlt come to her in La G1Orin. iIrs. IJorl claimed to be a le to (IO anytthin;; andi go anywvhcrc that it Iman could, andt lO one \aS inclined to dispute the ;sscrtiOn. She had the temperament which nevtr gets Srattlcd,and wh len she woke up one might and ti1u1d at brook lomr inches drop ad i oot \idc runnini throu gh her tent slit w:as not in the least disconcerted. In the morinii shi used it to wash her dishes in. She continued to make use of it until it dried up a day or twI later. One of Mlis. I forns distiictiois was that she was the first wtmin;ii to take a sea bath at Port La Gloria, walkinga the round trip of eight miles to do so. She was both a good walker and a good swimmer. She was delighted with La Gloria and Cuba. Iier sns wAere near lV man-grown. and( her daughter was about twelve years of age. It was one of the diversios of the camp to hear Mrs. Ilorn call Edna at a distance of a quarter of a mile or more. Mrs. Itorn may unhesitatingly be set down as a good colonist. Though at times too voluble, perhaps, she was energetic, patient, kind-hearted, and generous.

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Adventures and Misadventures. 101 When the colonists \w1 came (in the );rm/1 //h first -rrived in La Gloria miaiy i f them vwerc ca;;r tier hunting and tishin ,lbnt th( sport of hunting Old hMols v crysmn reccivAd ia sethack. An H'nglishman 1)y the namne of Curtis and two or three others went Milt to hunt for big ;ramc. .After a rwugh and Nvcary tramp td 1may m alils. thcy suddenly caml in sight of a \whOI drO of hors. Ih\ y had travcled so filr withmut seeing any (vanr, that they culd scarcely hlhcvc their cycs, but they R(O\VUred thiemseSl\s and( blaZCd awy\X. Tjh result was that th.y trudged into camp smile hours later trituphantly shoulderinn the cirtCasses of three young pigs. The triumph of the hiters was shortlied, howvctxr. ThO next imrnin an indiignant C ( yc and was ]n st shot his could 1otA eight dol The1 next camiip wxitI of him. and the im Curtis, cl tiban a kcc arch pigs. he lairs day h a i This r()de int() counp wIth I ire i n cd(( ( 1(n his ImI achi'te. of the '.Americanos" IIr sMon frond them niMliliied until he wV 11 in Mood American nu the samel Cuban rodr T ad pig on his h)rs in' vw as larger than the ot n his Ilie vh and paid into Front her"'. an waint'd seVrnten dollars for it. a/, did not know whether they

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102 Pioneering in Cuba. shot the animal or not, but they paid the "'hombre" twelve dollars. The following day the Cuban again appeared bringing another deceased porker. This was a full grown hog, and its owner fixed its value at twenty dollars. Again he got his money, and the carcass as well. Ilow much longer the Cuban would have continued to bring in dead pigs, had he lnot been made to understand that he would get no more ioney, cannot be stated. TO this (lay, Curtis and his friends do not know whether they actually killed all those pigs. What they are sure of is that there is small dit lerence in the appearance of wild hogs and those which the Cubans domesticate. And this is why the hunting of wild hogs became an unpopular sport in La Gloria. The colony had its Mild excitements now nid again. One evening there was Ion g coitintel tiring of guns and blowing of conch shells in that corner of the camp where the surveyors had their tents. Inquiring the cause, we learned that three surveyors were lost in the woods and that the noise was being made to iiiform them of the location of the camp. The men, who had come to Cuba as colonists, had separated

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Adventures and Misadventures. 103 from the surveying party just before dark and attempted to make a short cut back to the camp. They had been at work in a low, wet section two or three miles northwest of the town, and their progress hmexward was necessarily slow. Thev had not proceeded far when it became perfectly (Lark and it was borne in upon them that cutt lots in a Cuban forest 'was quite matter from doing it in some of They were obliged to suspend hold up Ifor the night. Although in;g across a different the States. travel and they could faintly hear camp they \ through the without food an axe with to keep there tempted to hard bed an the reports 'ere unable thick wood or anythi ng thn, they c n fr-oml the sl dI eel the upon Imtllner not conducive to sleep, finally succumbed. W of the guns in the to make their way in Is. The men were for shelter. I aving hopped don a tree, wet round, and atits brLllches. The oHls mosquitoes were but the tired telloVws hen they awoke in the morning, one of them found that slipped down and was lying with his the water. Not long after daylig[ came into camp wet, tired, and hung Vals no uncommon thing for surveyors lost, but nothing serious ever resulted. 1he had legs in t they ry. It to get

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CHAPTER \iII. Till;: CIA\Ns. I \aI often asked, al\\ githl the Cihan, (muiry mti-ght he made as w ith the Apaches, o (fone man said, decidecdly, Cuba, but f cmuld never Ice had ncver secen a Cu Wec got alwwg with t Ilo did X)I (rct (ery rnch as iutu huow we~ (got along ith the Modocs: and -I think I might like stand those Cubtls. ball, I b)cieve. he Cubans very well indeed, much better than with nexpericnc \IInCe of iII the c with Puerto Mates. the inh Principle people on the face of the with" than the Cubans. anlost without exceptioi kind, hospitable, and somietimi s sc1cud as if thcY \(Iuld not do Cor Us power. They appeared and fair tr.atient, and t( the s58me to us. Thos J tbit th cart 1. C hon the tha to Ne c some of our d~g ing IrOml Otur tnts of the proere are no better Ih to get along Wec found them, ourtcous, social, est. Indeed, it ere was nothing t lay within their appreciate kind eager to return canmo in contact classes, with w ere mtainly ofi the humlbler

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Tllt Cubans. bit \vw sa\\ nothing; hi her in the sodia and ransidcerate. seemed to like the nists certainly re After a residence c them, Iln. Peter declare d that there v the Cuban. as iI an cV(er fallen in with, cas n l.a GIria coe I can eatsily oonlc Cubans would1( exhih to indicate that I scale x ere less fri Thle CbIans e Lnlericmns, ald the colprO(iated the Iuccjlin :. nearly it ycar alnmi(; E. Paruk cnmph atita is as little mijealiness in class 1 people hr lad mnd manyv other Amncrioed this sentimient. ite that under abuse the saner err d1ia-reeable qualities, but spirit does not undt Self-contrOl is not a the Cuban, and he i 1tl)(up 1 his enemlyi in tetrliest opportunity. treatmulent, he is yau feieids we tilund tl colony at La Gloria. are ; .eSy-I people, and they disp to forci lers hto s r 'r such clrculistances? marked characteristic of apt to rcevellge himself aniy way he can at the But with kind and just friend, and very good ese Cubans--we of the X mong themselk-s they tpo.d-natured, talkative lay these salme qualities Approach them rig;htly-. Rude they\ never are, but they sometime a childish sullenness Iwhen ottlendCd. in their likes amt dislikes, they often es show Strong exhibit th( sc undlym mlit lt)5 and doanger'Ous vvhat pc()ple od

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6 ioneering in Cuba. no little devotion to those whom thev esteem or respect, and I believe them to he quite as reliable and trustworthy as the average among the inhabitants of the tropics. I have heard it said that the Cubans of some of the other provinces do not compare favorably with those of Puerto Principe, which may be true ; vet I cannot help thinking that the race as a whole has been much maligned. Under a strong, just government I believe they would prove to 1e excellent citizens, but I do not expect that they will soon develop much administrative ability. Some writers and travelers have ilone the Cubans justice, but many obviously have not. The soldiers of the United States arm y have an unconcealed dislike for them, which the Cubans, naturally enough, ardently reciprocate. Perhaps the soldiers expect too much homage froum ia people upon whom they feel they conferred the priceless boon of liberty. At all events, in many cases Where there has been bad blood between the two, it is easy to believe that the soldiers were the most to blane, fP r the Cubans as we met them were anything but aggressive. Many a Yankee could take lessons of them in the noble art of minding one's own business. m06

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The Cubans. So much hir the character of the Cubans. Less can be said for their style of living, which in the rural districts and some parts of the cities is primitive to the verge of squalor. In the country around La Gloria it was no uncommnon thing to find a Cuban who omned htindlreds or thousands of acres of laud-most of it uncultivated, to be sure-living ini a small, palm-thatched hut with no other floor than the hard red soil. The house would be furnished in the scantiest way a rd11(le wooden table, a few chairs, and perhaps a rough bench or two. Often there would he no beds other than hammocks, 11o stoves, and sometimes not even a fireplace of ally description. The meals, such as thev were, would be cooked in the open front of the shack over a fire usually built on the ground. Occasionally the enclosed room which formed the rear of the shack would halve an uneven loard floor, but thur were never any carpets or rugs, or even a mattiing of any sort. Of course there was no paint or varnish, and very little color about the place save the brown of the dry thatch on the roof and the brick-red grime fromi the soil which colored, or discolored, everything it came in contact with like a pigment. This red stain was astonishingly in evidence every where. 107

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ioS Pioncring in Cuba. It \as to he seen upon the poles which supportid the hut, O al of the turnitur upon the clothing of the inmnatcs, and ev(ill upon their persons. It looked like red paint, and vidntly \\as aboit as hard to get o11. The huge \\heels of the bullock carts seemed to be painted with it, anrd the mIAhngany and cedar log hauled out of the tinrest took on the color. In a Wxalking trip to the city of Puerto Prinripc I passed through ;a region about twenlty miles from Ta Gloria where nearly all the trees along the road were colored as .Venly lire aoit tWO leet finr m the (frotn(d as if their trunks Ihad been careflly Jpailntel red. My\I companions and I pondered Over this matter forr some timec and finally arrivedd lit the opinion that wild hogs, or possible\ a Lrge drove of domesticated swine, had rolled in the red dust of the Iiifl\\ay and then rubbed up against the lneifglhboring trees. 'he were colored to about the height of a hog's back. This seemfcd to be the oly resonable explanation, and is undouhtedIy the true one. This region \Vas close to the Culitas m.ountains, where the Cuba) insurgents long had their capital and kept their cattle to su)l)V the army in the field ; it may be that thiey had also large droves of hogs which rUO8md thrmgIl the near-l)v country.

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The Cubans. The CubIa home, iS I foudl them in the rural districts around 1L; GMuria were not ormnnrnted cith book, ;md picturee. umetities., to be sie, there wt)uld he a fIv litho4 1rahlS tacked ill). wil(d I had reaSon to belii c that the houses w rc not \w holly dcStitute of hooks, but they \\ere never in e\idetnc. rTie thin s that were alwa;vs in &vidnce \cre children, chicken,, AIM (MY,, Auld ulten ptiq< and goats. There \as i delocracy ahi uut the domu.Stic economy of tl lollSYhold that must laic been hially c lattcering to the chickcln do ., j i S, et. lhey alway\ h\ ad a li the right, and price ilegecs that the children or envn the adults had. 1 h \ Sc!n i. t\\o-year-old child 1 1A n a at eating contentedly out of the s,;ne dish. But if the children wer al1\\yS in \icdence, their clothinr oftntimeS \\as not. Nothingf is mtort common in Cuba than to sec youn, children in unabashed nakedness. Ihcir nudity is c(llplete, and their uncotnscioun111ss absolute. In nature's g'arb they toddle dln ,om()f l o ( the streets of the cities, and in the rural districts they limay be seen in the same condition in and around their humble holies. Naked babies lie kicking in hammocks or more quietly in their mothers' arms, and naked children run I r x)

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FRAN K ( One of the 1. O'R eisLLy. E~a~r' C o/c/ss.)

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The Cubans. about at play. I once stopped it at shack to get coffee, and while waiting in the open front of the casa" fo r its preparation, was surrounded by a bevy of bright little children who had neglected to put on their clothes. At last it seemed to occur to a pretty tour-yearold girl that she was not properly attired for company, so she sat down on the dirt floor and pulled on a slipper' She appeared somev what disturbed at not being able to 1ind its mate, and hunted quite a while for it, but finally gave up the search and accepted the situation, evidently concluding that a single shoe vas clothing enoIgl in which to receive even such distinguished guests as AmeriCanos." With the adult neinbers of the family, also, this nakedness of the children passes as a matter of course. The climate is so mild that clothing is not demanded, but I caught myself wondering if insects never bite Cubans. The Cubans are rather an abstemious people. They care little for their food and are not given to excessive drinking. Those in the country around La Gloria lived chiefly on pork, stewed beans, rice, and boniatos (sweet potatoes). It is a mistaken idea that they do not eat much meat ; they eat a great deal of I1I1

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112ering l n Cuba. pt rk in all forms. 81nd Seem to be l q (I tIily lil )f wild h( g aln( the domtestietd anima ,l. A\S a latter of I act, there is small dilltrenct tWtiC'c the tWo. I Vt practicall tastes aIbol)t ts the fItted pork Cubanis keep a pcrstonal observ (.;it mtuch it. smii l, but tht apiece and the doztn. Tlie C the promince of het ;; t i, it but thi \Iil c s S y) I(oth no t tich f Nv ;I it Ii w re razor 1 on them. kc bht f as England back-," The it does linl U j t.
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The Cubans. 113 eat fresh fruit. but when I d not know, for I never saw a Cibatii eatin1(f an 1angeQ, a ha11ana, or a pineapple. Thwse thtv sold to us at rather excessive prices. The Cubans nearly al] drink, but Ntery little at a tin', and rarIv get (11'1111k. ThiiIr fia)ritQ drinks ;ii Int, rum, and brandy aguardientec). I n a holiday week in the city f Purto Principe, the only twO men I sa15W intO\irited were AmeriCans. One vwts a sldir. i.e )thor a ramp fllllower. The Cubans 40, tilt rural districts did Imt appear to to he a rt in front superstiti croSses V eight or with a C dry and a roost ) he ldc (d t ten rocs fila (o )1 religious, ugh there w wO)(.l crOss ftiNCl in tht heir dwllinoisi. pIssibly idea Of thus av rtiIn jevil. ntilnh morn than ,"lend( feet high., pieck liar thrr h("atcn, birds than stri ppcd the tolp. and look a r1 li i Smaller deln crosses Were to the little graveyaris that we occasi uponl. 'These seldom contained two or three graycs, which were u any visible nme or inscription. lages there were, of c uirse, lager but the country I am writing o :as apt w ith a r pl,c lt its bark, Th xcwre d nure like its cmbllem. he fuundl in )nallv Cam mulre than mnmarketl h\y In the vilcentcerics, I watS very

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Pioneering in Cuba, sparsely settled, averaging scarcely one or two families to the square mi The natives appeared to iave amusements. They hunted some th the villages and cities had occasion of rather a weird character. They lights, too, I suppose, but these did to be a feature of the country life The rural Cuban spends nuclh of I more thin le. v\1V few at, and in ail dances had cock not scenm about us. is time in riding about the country otI his patient and intelligent pony, buying supplies and disposin1 of his small produce. When they till their land is a miysterv, t'. they n cr seem to be at work upon it. In fact, \ery little \v as tilled at all in the region about La Gloria. It w\as no uncommon thine to find a mal (Vwning hundreds of acres, with less than one acre under cultivation. This condition w\as usual v explained by the statement that everything had been killed out during the Ten Yea'rs' War, and that the natives wre too poor to again put their land under cultivation. This was a half-truth, at least, but Cuban indifference must have had something to do with it. One of the La Gloria colonists once asked an intelligent and good-appearing elderly Cuban why he did not cultivate more of his land. What is the use ?" was the reply. When 114

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The Cubans. I need m11ev I sell them. live dollars, When I nee nas.'" TIis IIis natural eCxactions of his mind fre provision for pirk off sonic binanas 8n1d I get Co which is the indifler Spanis e frot the Putt r tham tw\enty or twe nty'lasts me I lonv time. onMICy, I pick mowre bana.OnInlon Coban Nicew. once, romlbined xwith the h government, has kept any thou gt of making re. Th'le reader should er in Fid 11(1 d the that I proVin have re of Puerto Princip tions thereof. more thickly provinces fine to be found, f live somewhat but I believe typical Cuban trv districts of e, and mJily of the rural porI ami well aware that in the settled anti more prosperous country, houses arc sometimes Ind thc people generally may ditlterently and perhaps better, I ha\e taithlly pictured the ;is he exists to-(hy in the counPuerto Principe, the fertile and unfortunate province which has probably suWfered more from the ravages of war in the last thirty years than any other province in the island. It was colpltely despoiled during the Tel Ycars' War, and has never recovered. Its deserted plantations are now being reclaimed, largely by Anericans, and ere long will blossom fPrth Nvith luscious fruits and other valuable products. 115

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i 16 Pioneering in Cuba. The slight lcqiuaintance which I lmd with the Cubans of the cities of Puerto Principe and Nuevitas led me to the belief that they did not dilier greatlv from the Imr intelligent inhabitants of the country sections. Among the half hlundred Cubans who worked fior the company and occupied a camp at La Gloria, wre manv from the cities of the province, the others coming from small towns and \iil(aes. Most of them had served in the Cuban myI-the Aml v of Liberation, as it \\was called. Though these imein had but I.w comforts, they appeared to he happy and contented t hey \tere almost invariably peaceable and good-humored. The ;Anerica11s liked these C6-hi-ans "-as some of the colonists entire harm to me when the\ Western them as l1 their primiti called them 28th of Oct island at a w\hat is now last "Cu persisted i1y pre we first colonis e India Ve MM( by the other. I point Port L in calling ;ciled. It wa
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The Cubans. out the world. The Cuba their own destiny, but I they will steadily progress civilization. ns must work out am stisied that s in the scale of E% I1s

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aaLt)o .)Il1 )1A0ox 1)(p 1 ) }sot! Ia, -1 1A\ .14190 tIIs[q II. ); 0(( ) 01 n141( 1 1 I[88 8111 1 lL'Vn I~ .1I Jflfl-d Btal Intlotj tt;)N .I.cI1111 o _t~n,,I I LII FA I.?1..1Iv S1( I SI'\ 1 [iO-18( ) -I \ u1Ln)I)' .li 8; p: 4 111111 plAqual 't 1 pnA llgl'p) qlux), .q I) -Lptlo t qo puI'u[ t l I'u se }no pnt "I.)cnIl ~ sap.n 2 uo l)an .t[qHt.1a Nl* uaa t I 48 1 bIo)s41 aql p)ue "lu.a a.uq[ e It t. .1)s pI Iutp 'p')qsqq Io ,8tIlja in 'sI 114 p1)4q p11 A t.11?dI(}3 {pl a,u 1 AItst lnlog Aul .4 1 g1[t14)1.1 Ijalp u 4}uo1I1I alcdcllau d a .iup.ifl1?t' j)llatI() I )I) t" ;)tq .t) do .*)I1j I ) II llOj )d 9!!1 -sseNf> 0 ) (1 A o 8?L XL )Lt1,L(I\I II

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Steps of IProgiress. fell tied der upon Colonel hiu to peilorin it. oort resi Vnc(1 Eark\ was pronli The post-office I in hteadluartcrs a tent h\ itself mained until tht moved inlto t I stricted tIor it the lirst the ollic which steadilI Wrote and recei loud and this ill their inIt fr jLeq enc falultindi n sophical were colony was It The reel\d( mail facilities the letters wt wooden ,b, passed a ft painted red vaS placed remember the assenblld ci home and c C( t r rY, wim was Wtll tj S >t11ie lIt 1 ils Liter. tihe p ) stnii ;t crstlT tcd to) the hlead first W C nI )1d n tent, 1)ut was <~ lnear at hland. ill i 1iI, leY \\ t ltll 1t4c 1n Clt trtl Iv c did cotnsidra inrcesedI. T1 \ (I 1ilan\ ltettc lntl of t1 \X wts its o tlle Smails. In justified, but ot the snuil In 41 1 IlIre 'A li)I uildin n11 bl Ibu he co rs. hiut irrcgi the lialiV1l alnd ollIc. space v(,d t(o it leit w\\as con1F roml] sin s' lonists \ wVter iI
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Pioneering in Cuba. horseback 6-omi the port by the mail carrier. It seemed almost like having a glimpse of the old home. The regular sworn mail carrier bet\veen Port La Gloria and the post-oflice was Senor Ciriac(O Rnias, falmiliarly known as "' the old senor" among the colonists, by whom he was Iluch gentlemn u eraui of the flict. I e colonists h panlion o thenr host. of land in his fuamily beloved and Tel W is ad, ( 1 1 I one and .1Ie \'\8s i true-hearted )rave soldier, lwing a vetars' \War ,(and the later conof the best Fri(nds that the waJs their guest an1d com1ma nyhi V ocCa.si( Senor Rivas the neighbors in the Cuban While scorning for his services, maitfold Ways. wvas named by to take he ass In the the go )ns. and sometimes (M ed ood, 1 c(u p u at payN from istcd1 the Vt) U I11 (11't 1v(, l111( rI I Iarge tritct t li(ed with Lit Gloria. indiv ideals colonsts in of l (o( he as alcalde (magistrate) of La Gloria and the country for live miles around, but on the I nth day of the following September he died at Nuevitas, lamented alike by Cubans and Americans. besides attending to his post-ollice duties, Colonel Early represented large land interests in the colony and gave much time to work in connection therewith. IIe was one 120

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Steps of Progress. of the most enthusiastic of the colonists, being (]elilhted with the countIrv and its prospects. Fond of hunting and fishing, a lover of birds, trees, and flowers, versatile ill his tastes and acco)piishnlents, Colon l Earky found Cuba much to his liking, and complained of nothing save the b hell-hens," as he irreer ntly called the despised jcjilS (sand lies). lIe \\as .\etttIran of the Civil War, and had bccen somelcthintg of a politician in his Nebraska home. Unlike the mini]]" CMI111s of our (4reat west, La Gloria \\ais a moral and orderly town m i This \v;s largely General V;a liquor shoal wasI riridly there was pc at fewv small necessary v consisted of Asbury Par peared to b1 early evelil lived Whe i n n dcr d he s enforce thefts. At the b M\r. ( k,.N. J a daily' ]t. Ch fl n a tent at (kirk i.s little lantern and called his 11ightly \oort inSisted old, a dl. TI' quirt, )cginn ;cor ; torll Ict of the ii c II 1) t roi trip pe ,n p. hit an( lit I I )SC' .f ti I P I' ei he c dotwi don )\ r1SUIt th;t Io \xwas that I no crime ,;avc 11 polioIl"' aS the police farce Matthiews of oly (iutyapIh camol) ill the )lhc' Matthews d of the camnp. Wlt'd light hi, thlr line," as he the manin street 121 dllc to the facet that roibtlIitionl AAhie 1

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I r t Tlr Fii:r \\ ~ EN ColN>Isis up L.A Glom. >Irs. gipOikr. Atr_. Ilaur. hys. !1l. e. )Ir,. 31anrL" n lI Bot<,n .Iir a'a. Mr .L I ll. Mrs. eti:Lnn. Ld rs 1 e ilrn. 3Irs n. aiih. lre. SrIE

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Steps of Progress. and back. lighting the minutes. M T1he whole operation, including; lantern, occupied about twentv lr. Mlatthe\VS also plied the trade of a barber, char ing twvcnty-five c ents liur a Shave. It was Ii nailVly decided that if I ;nybody Was robbill( the colonists, he \\ as the elan. and the police fi>rce was abolished altogether. Soon after 'Mr. Matthews and his wile returned to their honme in Ashurv 111k. ThIy Were N\Vll liked, and their (I JrturEC \\was regretted. A little later there Wire s1e (rally attributed It the camnl. ani e. \'ermont, was IIc ) rkormcd did co cry duty ;and the thefts so Kezar wis in t in the dayvtime Sthe crection property, ald I to ii(c rO1)s d JEuene put oil ds this duty which deOI Ctal5td. about the ot tents, perforing manifold duties in the interest of thecompany and the colonists. The first church service in La Gloria was held on JanuaryV 14, Conducted hy the ReV. A. E. Seddon of Atlanta, Ga .. a niister of the Christian church, Who wV IS one of the colonists who came on the inst irrmou//l. actual \wIto 1 Kezar. faithful evolved Much of the ca P taking theIts. urked fo 11 watch liv, as upon of the comp super care dilol Barr ma. he him, tinl any V isin of 1^;

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124 Pion It was attended colonists. and a cu remain at in another departure e allotment II arris of but he ai about this ecring in Cuba. by a large proportion of the Mr. Seddon witS a go Iod preacher Iltiv Ited man, bltt did not long La 1(loria. becoming interested r proposed colony, he took his from La Gloria soon after the of the land. Next the Rev. J. V. \ernont preached for one Sunday, Iso took an early departure. At time the Venerable I r. WX'illin I1. Gill of Asbury Park. N. J., joined the and conducted church Strvic s tip weeks. I[is health not being good. forced to givc up regular preaching. time the congrcoation vc as wcithou ing ch.-rgy-man, hiut sermon, weer( Sunday My sonic laymlan, and school was retrularly held. Witl came txvo ministers together, the G. Stuart of London, Canada, al W. A. Nicholas of IIuntington, iui
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Steps of Progress. known his intt at some future a large tract o Mr. Stuart ha( grove in Calif( fruit would d Gloria. IlIe praise of the ininister of tl \Ir. Stuart in preached to West his famil V N. ntion time. to make IlIe left land c d 1oth ave the lin ly in \w s III I I C()tit rV t 1 4apti the Lat several to Cu we I o. )i t eks the o e it his rFcSidence ared andt m Incr of waS satist I the soil y nthusia AIr. > Gloria .lie the pnrpo>.e stabhlIlh ;t cultiVatel. an nrorge icd that the around La tstic in his \irholas., a sucCeedel ttlpit, and n returned )1 brim" 111 pwrmannt I( i home. In June he hroIulht his \ife and children to La Gloria and rtsntmtd his religious teaching. I I c has since prtachcd regularly, and is held in higth respect hy the colonists. MIrs. Nicholas is also \ery popular in the coloig. lr. Nicholas is delIitetd with Cuba, and is cinjoying gretly i mproVed health. BesideS the preachil(g and Sundayschool, weeklv prayer-meeti1Lgs, teachers' meetings, and choir meetings have been held in the colony from its earliest days. The lirst organuizationt of the colonists, and the itrce whxlich had most to do with shaping the course of affairs in the e;irlv life of the colony, was the La Gloria Pioneer A\ssociat25

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Ate 'I DR. WI LLIAM P. PEIRCE, "k x t a .. x: v

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Steps of Progress. 127 tion. At a 1mss mctingf in front of head(uarttrs tent on the I~th of Janutary, I)r. W. P. Peirce of Iloopcston 111., w\as m1ade temporary chairinm, and R. C. Hurduttt of Dexter, K aIIsas, teinporarv secretary. James I. Adams, I). EC. I)wvtl and R. C. hourdette were appointed a colltllllttet to drdft a constitution and uary 27 the tion and hy-1 the flow\Ving of six months 1). i. I.oWClI secretary ; C urer I .lI. Florence, X\ CWnunitt(ee rc acws, hick w olficcrs were SI)r. \V. P. vice-preside )l. 'T'homas II _N ccson. W<.j M. Carson, 1 n At a meeting Jat)orttd a constitlere adopted, and elected 10r a term IPeir c, president ; it ; R. G. Harrier, Maginniss, trcasG. Spiker, J. A. rnd leRev. W illiom 1. Gill, executive c board. The presidIent. Vice-presideIt, stcretayV .and treasurer were members of the exccutie hoard CA-/ic/. Dr. Peirce, the president, was one of the ablest of the colonists, a man of Conse(llence in his state, and possessed of 1oth mental and financial resources. Genial, kindly. and( humorous, he was mtuch liked by his fellowcolonists, and made an admirable presidinV officer for the association. Ile had entire faith in the ultimate success of the colony, and did much to advance its welfare. Mr. Lowell,

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128 Pioneering in Cuba. the vice-president, had lecn ;t siccssful grovver in FIloridit and i leading citizen in section of the state wlre he resided. fruit that IlIe was one of the first (d La Gloria, coming in list )hruou/h party a stautial 111(1 practical prop to the col, w \% and inllu cutial. Mr. was ia y0111n mant ironn one" of the colonists )drwoul/. I e was and typcwritr, ind a aid untirin intlustr\. upon presid tli colonists to reach with his wife bel
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Steps of Progress. The eCeCntive board appointed the following committees : Transportation, Col. Thomas H. Maginniss (chairman), J. A. Florence, S. L. Benhai, W. 1'. Hartzell, Thomas R. (eer-the latter resigning. he was replaced by James M. Adams; supplies, IE. B. Newsom (chr.), 1). E. L-owell, W. G. Spiker, E. F. Rutherford, M. T. Ilolmian ; santation, Dr. W. P. Peirce (chr.), G. A. Libby, m. '1. Jones, WV. S. manufactures, 1) Yard, J. A. An Gruver; history Adams ( I. Gill, 1 affairs, ( Thomas W. M. religious Mrs. D. William improveI c C Dunbar, I. ers( ( ) Carl )I, J the et( l C. Colo hr.), A. E. Seddon, A. C. Nell, F. X. en. Paul Van der V) 1. Magimniss, Capt. arson, J. F. Early; I. I. m en Lowell, 13. Florence, P Van der V Broome, Matthews. La Gloria, ser\Ivnce Lowell, Gill, Mrs its, M. A F. 'eter 'oort MIrs. an ,N I. Mrs. Irs. t4. M. A. C. Ne H1. Matthews ; (chr.). W .1. Kelly, XV. II. nY, Jalles M. Rev. William l lovora ; legal 1rt (chr.), Col. J((sIph Chace. cedncation and An G C. fl' Seibert, E. B. N Larsen, I1. E. Jaies IPeirc( J. A. Horn, rs. Andrews did d hence never dre Vs Spik Nef; (chr.) ew sol loshe Mrs Mrs. not re served ( chr. ), or, Mrs. village 1). Et. m, J. C. r. '.. 11. Clara G. Ii. maill InI on the 129

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130 Pioneering in Cuba. committee on education and r ligious observance; Mrs. 1). E. Lowell acted as chairm an and directed the work of the coNmittee with zeal anld intelligence. As time went on, ILIinmerouts other vacaIlcies occurred in the Several conmittees, but these \ere filled and the work was not retarded. \Iost of the committee were more or less active ;nd( accomplished as much as could rea[sonahbi be expectd considering the lmny obstacles encountered. It the net results accomplished by the association at this early stage seem small, it should be remembered that it was no sligrht task to hold the colony together in the face (if natural obstructions, irritating dltyvs, and dishearteiiing disappointmetnts. All these thi(s the colonists had to encounter, and the Pioneer Association pertorlud a &freat work in banding the settlers together, staying their courage and preventing a stamupjd ill the darkest hours, and in keeping things moving. slowly though it may have been, in tih right direction. Indeed, it is ih possible to conceive what the colonists would havIe done at the beginning without the cooperative aid afordd by this organization. Practically the whole cololy\ belonged to it during the first tew mouths of its existence.

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Steps of Progress. The meetings wre hel every Saturday night and1( were always' \\ll attended. Thy were valued tnft oily for utilitarian purposes, but as almost the sole aniusemient njoyecd by the colonists during the wxek. These meetings supplied the place of the theatre, the lyceI[l, ;md social feisti.iti&s, and some of the women wcre heard to say that thy looked forward the wvholr v\ c k to this rc,;tlatr (;;thering. Suljects of bsorbingintrrst al ayt.{s cameo tip, the sphakilg Was tjuitt Lo4o)d and n ertedious, a dIt t ltmor1I s an(1 \itty remarks were vcery often The lutierOUs at keenly. Many in the speaking, variably food 1 sure of close meat froin their might disagree i\\it\ys i of t 1t and th matured. attc1ntio auditor \\t Al Cceling; which pcr adc manifest at these ga Cubansi would (oilen once i Spaliar-d xas a strange sight, one the dim light of t\Xw and tully )ppealed to (nlonists r disrtissi n tl d d th. att in t of ) 0r appreciated. the audilect 1rtItiCip;ted ons Wer( in'lie speakers were an(d (c 11cro 4s treatel Cn tron those who ram. The brotherl w colony v Was il v\a\s ings. Soume of the eud. 1a1d more than he audience. It -was these mu tiens. In there lanterns, the colonists would ) grhe ouped together under a shelter tent, s ll sitting of n rude wor den 13

PAGE 138

t32 Pioneering in Cuba. benches and others standing. Those on the outskirts were as often under the stars s1s under the tent. Both the audience and the surroundings were picturesque, albeit the whole effect was suggestive of a primitive life which few of the colonists had hefiore experienced. flhe scene is one that is not likely ever to be torgotten by those wv ho participated in it. In July, 1900, the Pioneer Association elected new officers, as follows: President, 1.)E. Lowell ; vice-president, John Lath am secretary, William M. Carson ; treasurer, J. R. P. de les Derniers. By this time new and more wieldy organizations had sprung up which took much of the practical work from the association, the latter becoming more of a reminiscence than a potent force. It is still, however, a factor in the social life of La Gloria.

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CHlAPTER X. EvENTS IMPORTAT ANN) OTirIn\Vlst. ON the last day of January I became private secretary to President Van der Voort, serving in that capacity until nv return to the States nearly feur months later. This position brought me into close and intimate contact with all of the colonists, and to no small extent I shared their joys and woes. I was made the recipient of their conlidences, and was sometimes able, I believe, to make somewhat smoother the rather thorny paths tlicy had to travel. When I was unable to do this, it was never from lack of full sympathy with their trials and hardships. I cannot he too emphatic in saying that never in my life have I met an aggregation of men and women who were more honest, good-natured, patient, and reasonable. To me, personally, they invariably extended the kindest consideration, and so, for that matter, did the ollicers of the company. The nucleus for the first American colony in Cuba was beyond all question a good and substantial one.

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'V K "V 1 il11 Vtu&RIs (u N 1 IOUI, w1 y. 9 {a tz .i: (EN V r

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Important and Otherwise. j13 About the middle of Feruiry Gen. Van der Voort m1)\d into his ne\v Cuban house, which had been constructed tlir him by Cuban workmen in an open space ninetyor one hundred yards back from the main street of the camp. The house and most of the tents constitutingl the camp were on the conilnyv's reservation just north of the tiont line of the town. As fast as the coloiists got their tOwINl lots cleared they. in1 >d on to them, but their places in the ieser%,ltitO tlml)p wterc olten taken bY new-comfers. The general's pahm house, nr shack, was an ingenious andi inttrt'sting pirec of work. The Cubans exercised all their m arvlous skill in its construction, with hiihil creditable results. When llcompleted it was \vwatr tight, and cool, co)mforta1l c, and pi ctirtrese. The house contained two ;ood-sized rooms, an enclosed bedrool at the back and an open apartment at the front used ( ir ai1 (dice and reception-room. tntil a onxentional board floor was laid iy an Alericaull )carpenter. there was not a nail in the entire structure. The upright poles, Cross pieces, the ridgepole, and the rafters and cross ratiers, \ ere seC'Urely fastened together with tough hark and vines, while the roof was carefiilly thatched with

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Pioneering in Cuba. palm leaves. The latter were broad, fanshaped leaves, several feet across at the widest part. Each had a stout stem two or three feet long. The leaves were laid upon the roof, beginning at the eaves, stems pointing to the ridgepole. The leaves were carefully lapped like shingles, and tightly lashed by the stems to the rafters and cross rafters. If a leak was discovered it was easy to close it by binding on another leaf. The ILaves used came from what is commonly known as the dwarf or cabbage palm. Royal palm bark was used along the ridgepole. The back and sides of the house were of palm leaves, as was the front of the rear room, a door being cut through it. The front of the outer apartment was entirely open. The original floor was of wood cut from the royal palm, the rough and heavy boards, or planks, being fastened to cross logs by wooden pins. Not proving entirely satisfactory, this floor, after a short time, was replaced by a more even one laid by a Yankee carpenter. This was the only change made by General Van der Voort in his Cuban house, with which he was greatly delighted. When new the prevailing color, inside and out. was a beautiful green, which soon turned to a yellowish 136

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Important and Otherwise. 137 brown. The change did not add to its beauty, but it still remained comlortal and picturesque. The cost of such a house in La Gloria was about lifty d(llIars. Th(' generals house was wonderfully cool, as I can testify frorn personal experience, hai n ocLupied it daily for three months. Within a dozen yards of the g general's house stood a historic lamhnark known as the Lookout Tre," a (gigautic tree used by the Cubans during the en Years' War and the late insurrection to watch tinr Spanish gunboats that patroled the coast and tIDr filibusters bringing arms and anunition. It was at or very near Port La Gloria-known to the Cubans as Viaro-that the ceelbrated Gussie landed her arms and amunition for the Cubans, just a ttr the interve Ition of the United States. 1.p through the Lookout rTree" grow what appear to he two small and very straight trees, about three feet apart ; actually, they ar the downward shooting branclhes of a parasitic growth, taking root in the ground. The Cubans haxe utilized these for a ladder, cutting notches into them -and fastening cross-pieces. or rungs, vtry securely with barbed wire. (ne may climl high into the big tree by this curious ladder. antd froin

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Pioneering in (Cuba. the to]) a goox View of the co After our arrival the tree brought into requisition in vv boat from Nucv itas, and the among the colonists often n merely for the satisfaction of teat, which was not such an e: appear, since the ladder did top 1y fifteen or t\venty feet. A space of abol t half an fr.nt of the hosit. General had pI{ d and planted fir a tables later it ast is obtained. was soiiittiimies watching fP)r the good climbers lade the' ascent periforming the .sy one as might not reach to the acre, chic Van dcr garden. r \w ere good n 1an* or8It8ge and college trees, out. lhtl \egetIables began t( April, and the fruit trees and hibitcd a thrifty grnwth from mi Small palm trews were also set path ]wading troml the house a Ae to Ctntral avlnu. The another and lar;;cr garden nnar planted in the latter part of Ja of its products werc rady fo yI and le pln liv in Voort .oeia nets little haetC., were set coinrc un in incapplcs cx(llnth to month. out akmng the cross the gaircompany h ad 1) v which was nuary. tSoe r the tab1e in IarCII, and radishes even earlier. The soil of these gardens was not of the richest, being red and containing oxide of iron : but, for all that, seeds came up imlarvel(is]y quick and 138 ,s()\ I iln Februa tumber of pincap

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Important and Otherwise plants grew well. I have knoWn beans which were planted Saturda\ morning to be up on the followilfl Monday. The soil of practically all of the plantations and many of the town lots is v Fy rich. On February 21, the diay hetr. Washington's birthday, occurred the lirst birth in La Gloria, a 1isty son bcing horn to Mr. and Mrs. Olaf Olson. Mr. Olson wvas one of the most prosperous and progressive of the colonists, and his wife was a true pioneer. At the time of the birth the Olsons were living in a tent on their town lot on 1 arket street not far from Central avenue, I)r. Peirce was the ofliciating physiciai, and the infant developed as rapidly in proportion, as plants in that tropical clime. It proved to he a renarkahlv healthy child. It \as promptlv named Olaf El Gloria Olson, and oil the reqtiest of the Pioneer Association, the conipany generously ormade it a present of a town lot. Soon after the birth of the child, Mr. Olson moved into a house of his own construction. The weather at this time was good and the temperature very CiUimfortable. Ordinarilyv the thermometer registered throughout the day from 70 to 84 degrees of heat. Tile lowest temperature for January was 55 ; the 139

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Pioneering in Cuba. highest, 910. The lowest for Februarv was 560 ; the highest, 91. The extremes of heat are nearly as great in winter as in summer, but there is much more variation. In summer the temperature ordinarily runs from about 78 to 9O, but occasionally touches 940, which is the highest I have ever known it to be in La Gloria. Even at this figure the heat is not oppressive. There is such a re freshing breeze night and day in Cuba that one does not stiffer from the heat either in summer or winter. The climate is so line at all seasons of the year, that to a New Englander it seems absolutely perfect. The colonists worked hard every day under the rays of the sun and suffered no ill etlects. TIy came to the conclusion that getting acclimated was a cinch in comparison with enduring the changing weather of the Northern states. During the first week in Februarv the colonists, such of them as were not otherwise employed, began the construction of a corduroV road over the worst places on the trail from La Gloria to the port. The work was under the supervision of Colonel Ma aginniss, and from twenty to thirty nen labored daily for some tune. While not of a permanent character, this work made the road more 140

PAGE 147

Important and Otherwise. passable for pedestrians was of material aid in the and animals. hauling 1) of visions ;1ind belated lm(baggUe. 1]v the end of Iebruarv most of us had (rot our trunks. The workers on the road werc (n(loy(ed by the company., with the undrstading that their wages 1,ShOl(1 he CEreditd iton their land payments, or upon the purchase of nlew land. This w as satisfactory to til colonists, and maiv took advantage of the opportunity to acquire more tow i lots. \1aiv other tmploves of the conpainy also turned in their time for the purchase of p1an station land or town lots. On the loth of IFehriiarv the first \\ll in La Gloria was opened. It w as at the corner of Market street and Florida avntiUit, and wias (lug by a syldicate of colonists who lived in that vicinity. Good eater was struck at it depth of about twlvc feet. \iarvy people used the water from this well, and a little later it was made considerably deeper. ThIe well was square, and the ground was so htrd at this point that it was found to he unnecessary to stone it. Many other wells were dug soon after, in all of which good water wvas found fifteen or twenty feet below the surface of the ground. 141 and pro-

PAGE 148

142 Pioneering in Cuba. Early in Februarv, M. A. C. Neff, engineer and architect, who had been in charge of the town site survey, was transferred to the work of preparing real estate mnaps and books. Mr. Ne] was a fine draughtsman, and his colored maps were a delight to the eye .One of his maps was imient of town lots, aiothern at Puerto Principe ill Co recording of deeds, while to the New York oflice o kept for use in La Gloria dte Mr. NeT for his part of La Gloria. IIe was e warding imI provementis ofe he and his admlirable w\IIIe( selves please Ill La colonistS, and lit anticipation Gloria. used in the allotW\IS )I;Led on file nnection witl the others w ere sent f the coimPl1y or .luch credit is in the uphiliding n thIIsiastic in fiirall kinds. Both considered themlooked iw ard to a permlanwent %\ith home

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CIIAPTER N1. Sux-Ram.vLJN.' i': (r11K C )ItNISIS. I WAs deeplyk impressed by the t1curae and sclI-reliance of the cololists. Froim the start they sllOW(d ai splendid ahility to tAke care of theimselvts. One dIv early in Fehruary a w\hite-le;irded old Fellow past stv.nty tears of age, with1 blne xert ls On ad a he veer his holder, appeared at thc door of General Van der Voort's tent. General, he said. if a ma1 (mns a lot, has a ybody else a right to comne On to it and pick fruit of aly kind Not it the Omnlr IaIs a reX()lver and bowie knife,"' laughingy replied Van dcr Voort. WelI," said the mn118, I jest thought I'd ask v. A couple )' sellers ( Cthans ) came on to my\lot to-day wxhil I was at \\wrk there and began to pick soi o' these 'ere gUavas. I told 'mII to (it uit. but tlhey' did 1'17 uo. Then I went for em with this hoe. One of 'emn drawxed his machete, but I did nt care for that. I knew I could reach him with my hoe

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Pioneering in Cuba. before he could reach me with his knite. Thy went off." General Van der Voort laughed heartily, and evidently was satisfied that the man with the hoe was able to protect hinselt without the aid of the La Gloria police force. The old man's name, as I afterwards learned, was Joseph B. \Vithee. Somle of the colonists who had become intiimately acquainted with hi grandpa," althour 1m1an1 iin the colony one y'ars, and he Maine. None of 1 come to Cuba with children living in th and single-handc(d in La Gloria, but obstacles or tearful contrary, he was n regularly every da family called Mul lie was not the oldest His age was sevenityhlai ils I hir e Pi he 1 he t ;t t c led from the state of amily or friends had m, but he had (grown ne Tree state. Alone )egran his pioneer lit> was not daunted by the future. On the inguine. Ile w worked Hearing and planting his plantation, and was one of the first of the colonists to take up his residence onI his own land. Ile soon had vegetables growing, and had set out strawberry and pineapple plants, besides a number of banana, orange, and lemon trees. It was his boast that he had the best spring of water in the colony, and it 144

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Self-Reliance of the Colonists. 145 certainly was a very good one. Mr. Withee declared that his health was much improved since coming to Cuba, and that he felt ten or fifteen years younger. Everybo(iv in the colony could bear witness that he was remarkably active and industrious. Once his relatives in Maine, not Hearin; froin him, became alarmed, and wrote to the company asking if he were alive ad in La Gloria. I went down to his plantation with the letter, and asked him if he was alive. IIe thought he was, and suspended work long enough to snifTf at the idea that he was not able to take care of himself. Mr. Withee was wont to admit that before he came to Cuba he had a weak hack, but the only weakness we were ever able to detect in him was an infirmity of temper which foreboded pugnacious action. MIost assuredly he had plenty of backbone, and his persistent pugnacity vas Highly amusing. He was always wanting to lick '" sonebody, and I know not what ily fate will be if we ever meet after he reads these lines, although we were excellent friends in La Gloria. I can imagine that my friend Withee was brought up in one of those country school deestricts where every boy had to fight I0

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Pioneering in Cuba. his aIsst way d )ciates step hy st 1and xhe the big scholars thrash the teach snowdrift. If so, was held in high Withe ]had a for his rights, and the \war-path, as slit (d a su rvevor pIalh tree otn his p which individual to er I resL 1 r vii he oh of who prpetrtd the ma1"u lond out, ne in for it g od licki \ CV \was entirtIy 1 injure the property hody clsc, an surv ey line. 11n Septembhe i r t rhrevolution ry v pierce indlign Sults-faital to his premises. hived ()u the a l4&rIge muIlb free range. d It r. cut wXas that sires atiO(n, scVe A oth1r 1er of Th ll ep to the respect {)f his re it w;is the custom fi r attempt each winter to and thrm him tilt( a \\ill warrant that Withc(r t pect. cat idea ()1 standing >r i loin; time he wat con id lI to l ill o had cut (OW 1n a sr tatioii. I Ic did nt k the sur c corps it outragee" but if the d lhief Kelly's JnL1 g. Of course, the II Ie t ()f any iote] of Ir. Withev or a he tree rtilt tannin somec Months attar t the spirit n( Wih up s on p llrmlal] 11M old t to his eC s joined i ss1.ut xith his and produced fat iIl reral chickens that inrv mdd neihhorin COlonist. xxho sidc of the a\einue, kept hens, and all' )xe(d them developed a 111(1Bess Corl wandering across the road, and ftt'ding in 146

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Self-WRlianCe oF the Coionists. 147 \Vithce> \\tll-Stuclk(( 1(lden. Jinx dlidtl know ithO?. The (hd iimn Sjulttrd v(lUntitly. anId retnstrated with the o(nerhut the chickens continued to rum. Finally, i ;it his iu t i. ro'Ss t' dead a head. \n th the r (Sul t ickcns in La 1) ()M as \\w ii tht Min l 1 1eard the ver. Il It. vas up his pOiltry his lin butler hat ti GlI a h told t it retI r1 anI pr( t\ ae(d t er'e A1(r"( t rla. W ith IIS(, to sh (S. Thi] tV {) the g) home TakinL the to dad chick, he wnt to the Rural GWords and entered a conlylant. Whilt' he wras dune, WIthee r("duced the poultry p i lation V L a Gloria b) 0n 110kill. The wVne r of th e hnt returned, accrrt pait'd oy Rural GuardV. 'veral promh incnt Cubans, Mnd ia lewv olonists. Thcy hadl conwt to take the dui ;1\:y 11r()11 W ithee. Thhe old moan stood the wvhulc crowd (dl', and told theml to keel) their feet clear of his place. They obcyed the Order, hit told hint )c must kill n0 mo(rr chicken under penalty of arrest. Ile t(>hd them to keep) the chickens Withe r(wd c antly a mninu's feat, \\i 1ess ch was as munks the hei (aintet II ad (1 -n It ntly he un I)( )114 ,( 1;1 1. alI( ,, Iii(' WildCIr of and I jp'n a friendly Sown after one (d the detested hens

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148 Pioneering in Cuba. off his premises under penalty of their being killed. The old man was left the master of the situation, and the hens were restricted to a pen. Speaking of courage and1 self-confidence reminds me of a remark of big Jack NIcCauley. There was included in the conpany's property, about live miles from La Gloria, a deserted plantation known as \Mercedes. l po it was an old grove of orange trees, which, in the spring of 1900, bore a fine crop. For a long time everybody was allowed to help himself at will, and Cubans, colonists, and sLVtyors availed themselves of the opportunity to lay in a supply of fruit. At length, as the oranges grew riper, orders were given that no one should take more than he could eat on the spot, but the oranges continued to disappear by the bagful. Stalwart Jack McCauley was at that tine employed about the camp by the company-, and it was decided to station him out at Mercedes, with a view to stopping the raids on the orange grove. Before leaving to undertake this duty, Jack quietly remarked: I'll go out there and see if I 've got any influence, and if not, I '11 create some : Big Jack's influence proved to

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Self-Reliance of the Colonists. 149 be ample, and the balance of the Olrange crop was saved. M\JcCauley's close friend and pardner was J. A. Messier, framiliarly known as" Albany." Togcthr thev held a large tract of plantation land. Albany \ worked as a flagman in one of the surVrving parltics. Once, when the moSquitoes in the wOodI were more than ordinarily thick and ferocious, he made a complaint, a rare thlilg in him or any other slr.veyor. Thy strround vou," he said, and you can 't push them awav because therc is 1( >where to push them ' AIaVmy was thi leading hig snake killer in the colony, and was an adept at stretching and preparing their skins. But perhaps his greatest distinCtio was I that of being fMoor mnugr oI the first hall in La Gloria, a notable event whic will be described in a later chapter. On the afternoon of FIebruarV 27, the colonists who came on the third and last trip of the )'hrmou//, about sixty in number, reached La Gloria. Among them Xwere Arnold 1\ollenhaur of N7ew York, a representative of the company ; John A. Connell of East Weymlouth, Ass., and S. W. Storm of Nebraska. The party was brought up

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ooh ) 'f LL o: t I Y 1 ) 1I A t

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Self-Reliance of the C(lonists. 51 'e-, and had( I tiit ia \LEF The Rd I' l S'/wnr' WS 1 to hly lletWvccl lulC)it aid\ Was t( IIh \C hW o c(1) 10 /is/s Wilt) cai l ,e C8IIC int ) c()llliSI( )I ablolut that tim110, and(I several \veeks. Iiiis chitin (>f acclidellts al gatve thl.. rlut1 l V t vcry start. Thil lain' \ery ui\uckv i a\. ll( IO hut (ith vtt 11:1 W8it, u I it lur \\ annm acA( C 5 ii(1II ./wr(, pro cd d eas laid n1) 1 st ((1 ll tilt, 11 ( the li(elv -S/wUc \\as O Ut ill CtnH II s nit it sail-) )t had t( } I lsed I)'t\VC n L t )i and lui\ 511>. ,Ir. 1I()llculhaunr (did n1(1 w ri in i11;i La Gloria at tills [lin.. hit e"st.iii>I t is headIqltut rtrS at Nit k\ itas, taIkinll iI) the \\{)lk that ha(1 h tilm ill Cile Ol )aIu. j) S. '-nisolt. Y0wilg Mr.. AI I II' cr 1)u c \ t(I h tle right illal i tit rirJit })lac(. Ic \\ as aCtiv an(d tIIiCiv~ tll il t lert; } ll l. V Is dutieS, and \\iIs Vr\ mfcl IT1 b the cOinnists for iis "rcll.ulc l1aYl 1 aril(g akcO 1) 0 datin, i spirt, and au fEk and llpri Iit character. IVOIII fr/on C tilt h( u. sit [Ii \i 0 18 it tilt' C EC l{[t at Ch .it til Ill I tilt \hll sml lul stea e Ile \cO 11 PRS t I-1 alt' ln s l n ht \ c( 11] I

PAGE 158

Pioneering in Cuba. The afTairs of the company and the colony took a new start when he came to Cuba and assumed charge of the disburseient of the funds. John A. Connell was a prosperous lsUiinss man of East Wevmouth, Mass., and came to La Gloria to make it his permanent home. le was one of the most enthusiastic and progressive of the colonists, and gave daily expression to his liking for Cuba and his firm faith in the future of La Gloria. He was a man of property and of decided ability. PhYsicallY, he was a giant, being six feet four inches tall, and well proportioned. 1 e was fond of athletics and was himself a good athlete. A man of strong intelligence, he appeared to good advantage as a speaker. Mr. Connell built the first fraine building in La Gloria, a modest board structure with a roofing of tarred paper, and occupied it as a general store. It was situated on Central avenue in the company's reserve. This was not, however, the first store in La Gloria. Besides the company's connissary, V. G. Spiker started a store in a tent several months earlier. George E. Morrison opened a store in a tent on Central avenue just inside of the town line at about the same time that Connell started, and did a 152

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Self-Reliance of the Colonists. good business until he returned o ti te States several months later. Morrison had lived in many places, including Chicago, Ill., and Central America. In practical affairs he was one of the most versatile men in the eoioimy. S. W. Storm of Nebraska was a veteran of the Civil War, and a good type of his class. Cheerful and 1uovant, lively as a bov he entered into the pioneer life vith a h(arty relish, as, indeed, did all of the ianv old soldiers wO came to In Gloria. The renewal of camp life under agreeable climatic conditions seemed to be a great joy to them. Mr. Storm was never known to comlplain of anything, not even when he severely cut his fiot while chopping. IIe rolvit with him to La Gloria his voung son Guy, who was soon placed in school. The first school in La Gloria xw as started and taught by Mrs. Whittle of Albany, N. Y. It occupied a large shelter tent on the reserve, near Central avenue. It was fitted up with a board floor, wooden benches, tables, etc. The school opened Febrtal' 6 with six scholars, and though text-books were fex in number, the pupils made good progress in their studies. Mrs. Whittle was an attractive and cultivated lady, and an inspiring and tactful teacher. 1:;3

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Pi Ihoneeringr in Cuba. lebi>re the middle, sixteen schol;s, an There ws also at t school ,(I-r muen, inw PII f I l i i lessons in >vlnish. school., w hich wern el and Mr. \euhcr 1pri1. d NlTarch the schot I had d a little later twenty-One. he s;une time anl e\ (ingil vhiCl rIs. WhTluittlc tanlit nt, and )I r. lax Neuber prominent c(l{niSt, gavt Tuition \as Irtee in otll kept up until irs. \\lhitreturntel to the States im xa t54

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CI' [APTIER NII. TIs FulIS-rHi'~ I \ Go01)1. A. T B iirst Iy incident the Io i) \ tine of the to _)(111 A. crag ed athIl h( lidayi in I ; Gl(ria that t ill he Ion m"r(.i t. TIhe credit I or tl movUAement I (r such a Connell, w hose arm ctic >pmrt. 'Snnm oft \\;S mrkcd mnembered 1by ho iuauguradaybelnn;gs ,Iri, 1th 1 Dv N rcrt )I 11s in thi, pI arIti) ilar. were nut far behind him Mr. Connell a1rran cd t 41 jumpin", \vwhlbarro amd and water a cInflrtnce of was decided to ask thn pr pany to declare : rueral1 dcle( atcd to bring tht" r eral \'an cer \ oori, w hn the spirit of the 11 ti 1 and Ie(JIe t. ;>cor lIn l' .;t rogrmn tsidcnt hatlt-hn tltter ntrred I 411 111 & Vt 'ii I >rt Ii oI running, races, etc.. inttirestvd, it I the comibe [ort" Ginht ;1rilly into rantrtd our I u-r1claiunatitln was (Irawll t ) II ettIlII aIsit e ;turta\ atltern(cnr, lhga h(1liday thruun;h utt tile itolony. ThJ first dnfi t wats copied in the ele:;ant handt~riting of CI11 hief E inecr Klyv duly si&tneti Iy Pre.sidnt \an der \oort and attested bv his secretary, al tIthen colnspicu-

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156 Pioneering in Cuba. ously posted on the flag-stall which graced Central avenue. Further preparations were made f(nr the red-letter day, and a baseball game added to the program. I found in my trunk a baseball, which I had brought to Cuba, I know not why, except, perhaps, with the American idea that a baseball is always a good companion. Simultaneously, the indefatigable J. L. Ratekin-one time a soldier in Col. 'William J. Bryan's Nebraska regiment in the Spanish War-dragged out of his kit a good baseball bat. WOINy Ratekin brought this iat to Cuba I cannot say, but I half suspect that he thought he might have to use it in self-defence. I ain glad to be able to state, however, that it was put only to peaceful and legitimate uses, and killed nothing save inshoots and drops.'' Saturday-, March 24, was a remark ably fine day even for sunny Cuba. A cloudless sky of beautiful blue, a temperature of from So to 90 degrees, and a soft, refreshing breeze combined to make it ideal \Veather for La Gloria's initial holiday. I re me mber that several bicycles were brought out and used on this day, one or two by young women. The muddy trails had dried up in most places, so that wheels could be ridden for considerable dis-

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First Holiday in La Gloria. 57 tances on the roads radiating from La Gloria. The dry season as faiirly, on by Mareh 1, and for some time thereafter mud was practically eliminated from our list of annoances. At noon the several surnVeing parties tramped in from their distant work in the voods, and soon after the colonists began to gather on Central avenue from headquarters tent to Connells store. The \mOln proved that they had not left all their finery in the States, while nearly every child 1was in its best bib and tucker. The men appeared in a great variety of costumes, but most of them had given more thought to comfort than to elegance. It xx as at this time that the first large group picture of the colonists was taken. The opportunity was too good to lose. \Ve were hastily grouped across Central avenue, and three amateur photographers simnultaneoUsly took shots at us. The resulting photograph, though on a small scale, is a faithful picture of about half the colonists in La Gloria on March 24., 1900. One of the photographers was Lieut. Means of the Eighth U. S. Cavalry, who had arrived in La Gloria the day before in command of a pack train consisting of about a dozen men and twenty mules. The detachment came from the city

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..= s f 'A ('(J( 'f 1.r E 'i r I ( 1 i

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First holiday in La Gloria. 1:;9 of ILerto Prinieip 8 l andwIts kniring the 'dlltry h)r practice an(1 extrulsc. It innv (asily 1) inagiilld that \V& were l1(I to SQ(' 1hem. an1d tit\ scente(d t'ltill\ :I t() s 11. A (lI r earnest S()licitatiln tli\ r('11S(1)tt1l to part iiatc in our Il)idla\ 'o(rs. s hi' S1()rtS S( fit' 1) )(l at wdelt e)l lltc 111() a Soldier nmed T. 11 \innin a m IIaj rity d t a tluiit little hI low, hit as a credits took 1)t1 in not distiinouisl thrt'seil traction of the day was hich Ib;an ahout the coon. A diamtond had Irgr It' 1 STfle ist ('a an1d tlt grouniIt as r hard. It was a natural N\ ll. M iclrowere in the cl(nitStS. but rWAS >urrccdcl in he C\Icuts. I Ic waS hip atldttir lprocc t, d tjti& arm(. A iItt a lltns blut (idA CS. The chief atthc baeAll ramw, middle of tilt atterI i n laid oJt in a "t ()f Cntrall avenue, nliulaly Ic\cl anld hasebatll field. and with but little work was rady tior uS.. The (rcatcr part oI thle colour\ .prep1, umcl, and( chljildren, gathered to see tit tirst texhihition of the American national anme in La (loria. A mong the spectators vN rc Prt, idctlt Van der \oort and Chif Einginc.r Kt'Iy. There \twert also i few S[lillar(is ;till( I111N \ CnblIl s press( nt. F cw of the latter. probably, had

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Pioneering in Cuba. ever before seen a baseball gamne, although the sport is a popular pastime among the American soldiers encamped near Puerto Principe. This latter fact accounts tir the proficiency of the soldiers who came to La Gloria. They formed one nine, and the other was made up of colonists. Thie latter played well, everything considered, but the superior discipline and practice of Uncle Samu's loys made them the winners in a close score. The game Was umpired by M. T. Jones of Williamsport, Pennsvlvania, one of the colonists who came on the first Jutrnoul and the capable assistant of Superintendent Maginniss about the camp. The game ended an honr or two before sundown and closed the outdoor sports of a very successful and enjoyable ((y. But there was one notable event on that first holiday not down on the program, and one which few of the colonists knew anything about at the time and of which not many had subsequent knowledge. As I wended my way in the direction of my tent near General Van der Voort's house, under the mellow rays of the declining sun, three excited colonists intercepted me. Tlly were Chief Engineer Kelly, John A. Connell, and D. E. Lowell. Drawing me aside from the thoroughfare, 16o

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First IIolilay in La Goria. thre\ Ihstil\ in t( )fl'dIJ rl tJlat a 18\~VV4 iv I )rake, of I ucrto thle nam111 of C. Iluio PrinrCipc, h)ad( just cx)1lic 1 ial( tract, \ itlh tiht inte ink the colonistS of thci rilidell il III llorsclaCk Ofr IOrtv-iiv 11114:5 a1\ \ .1I \W8s an ciril\ V p>uiilr1(1 )IlIicr in th Spa11Ihll~l claime(d to have cilarwc, I ness atflirs. We lc1Fore. iid k Ile indiCIc tihelu I( ( Wril hint1 to) Ltl \nierica ,. I1\ii15. sissippi iust alter t 11) as 8 I I\vve I Puerto P1rid ip. 5()nC\iut (IlSSi1)8it entll clailled t htt had I) (1r t 11I< t it 1 ti r I I\ ~1 lea l (ilorit. co \\8 \ I rest lie xwas )ut v; d. I le his err 11 vi ;t
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Pioneering in Cuba. t was a groundless fear ; their holdings were perfectly secure. In order to make the situation clear to the reader a little explanation is necessary. The Viaro tract, which was the one in l question, included about two thirds of tie t( xxwn site and a little over ten thousand acres of plantation land adjoining. The greater part of this land had been allotted to deeds had then been given had made a first payment was paying the balance One of these instalments wVbrake came to La Gloria Cienfiente, who had owne set up the claim that the con Lieutenant Cieniuente was reasonable length of time had become suspicious that to get it at all, and hence but no .The company n the tract, and in instalnents. is overdue whe with Lieutenant d the laud, and tract had lapsed. willing to wait a for his n'y, hut he was not going w as more or less under the influence of Drake, who appears to have been a self-appointed attorney for the Spaniard. I rake had a great scheme, which was to make a new contract directly with the colonists, or newlv chosen representatives, at an advanced price tor the tract. This advance was to be divided between Cien tuente and himself, and DIrake's share 162, colonists,

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First Holiday in La Gloria. would have amounted to $2;, ooo or $30,000. Of course, in Drake's scheme, the only alternative fir the colonists was dispossession. Yielding to the young lawyer's insinuating representations, Lieutenant Cientiente had agreed to the plan, but he was by no means an aggressive factor in it. Mea nxvhile, the company's ollcers in New York were concluding arrangements to wake the overdue payment, which was done a fe wVeeks later. With but little hesitation, Lieutenant Cienfuente accepted the money from Messrs. Park and Mollenhauer, and Drakes little scheme collapsed like a toy balloon. A part of the above facts only were known to US when Messrs. Kelly, Connell, IL well. and mn self had our hurried conference lite in the afternoon of our first holiday. Mr. Lowell was particularly excited, and seriously disturbed by the apprehension that he might have his land taken away from him. It was quickly agreed that it was for the mutual interest of Drake and the colony that he should not be permitted to spend the night in La Gloria. We wXetnt over to the house of General Nan der Voort, and discussed the situation with him. Ile mingled his indignation with ours, and dictated a peremptory 163

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Pioneering in Cuba. order that Drake 'should leave the camp at once. I was coiiinissioned to delicerF the message, aind le ssrs. Kel y, Connell, and Lowell Volntieerel tO accompany me. After a little search we tiund llrake near the old senor's" shack. Ie seeleld to divine our errand and camne Iorward to meet us, pale and trembling, perhaps Ir(o1n .xciteent, possibly fromii tear. Indeed, we must have looked somewhat formlidable if not helligerent. We were all large men, and Kelly was the Oly one of thi lIE \N1i( %vas not six feet or more in height. I gave Drake the paper from the general. Scarcely glancing ;at it, he said, apologectically, I i t a ()\w tone, It's all a mistake, gentlemen, I meant no harm to anyhodvy." We assured him that we thought he would he saler elsewhere than in La Gloria. I It did not stop to argue the matter, but turning went directIv to the shack and saddled his horse. We had intended to give him an hour ; he was out oF La Gloria in ten minutes. I le was obliged to spend the night in the dense woods The treatment of Mr. Drake was not hospitable, but the colonists looked upon him as an interloper whose machinations might bring upon them a great deal of trouble. I 164

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First Holiday in La Gloria. do not think he had any wish to injure the colonists, but he certainly 11(1 a itClthilg palm for the large stake wihic h he thoult he saV Within his reach. I saw 11111 a week or two later in Puerto Principe, and he was amicable enough. It' still hylie\ed his scheme would go throhiti, but it \ ;as not long before his hopes were dashed. I le told me he was heavily armed \lhen in La Gloria, and could have dropped all four of us, but that he had promised Lieutenant Cienfuente not t as it of a o make anyturned out. gentleman, troub Ir. an1d le. II )rake extend sie, to me duriiig iy stay in I lis resentment on accomit o episode was, mainly directed Van der Voort, and he cmph that he lad alreal taken st the general into court fior the Lieutenant Cientfieinte re Gloria as our special guest. tained 1t the ollicers, table, honor at the meeting of the 1 tion that evening, and every to make hin feel at home. ( Monday he left for his homie itpe in high good humor. e surely did not, htad the imi1nt)rs ed man\ courteIPuerto I'ri f the La ( tow ard Ge ttic ally doc teps to Slit insult. mauled i1 11811(( Ias lit' \\ i1s was the gu 'iouecr As effort was )n the ll in Puerto n ipe. Gloria nieral unn 1 La entert st o Socianade M ing Prin165

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CIIAPTER XIII. INDUSTRY OF THE COLONISTS. THE opening of spring did not bring any material change in weather that the colonists could detect, save that the occasional rainfall had ceased. The temperature for March was about the same as for J annuary and Februarv, the lowest recorded by the thermometer being 53 and the highest 920. The weather was delightful and comfortable. It'here was more blossoming of flowers in the woods and the openings, and many a big tree became a veritable flower garden, with great clusters of pink orchids clinging to its huge trunk and massive limbs. There were several trees thus ornamented in close proximity to my tent. The colonists were now progressing with their work and displaying the greatest industry. Considerable clearing had been done, and sonic planting. Gardens were growing well, and the colonists were eating potatoes, beans, peas, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc., of their own raising. Many thousands of pineapple plants had been set out, and banana and

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Industry of the Colonists. orange trees were being put into the ground as fast as they could be obtained. Maiv of the colonists were employed more or less by the Company ill one Capacity or another. Some worked on the road, some about the camp, a few in the gardens, and still others in the cook-house. A number had been employed in the sury Corps almost IFOm the time of their arrival, while others worked oll and on," according to their convenience and disposition. The work of the surveyors was hard and exposing, and the fare usually poor and meagre, but for all that the men generally liked the employment and there was a constant stream of applicants for vacant places. In most cases the applicant knew what was before him and hence could appreciate the grim humor of Chief Kelly's unv arying formula. After questioning the applicant to ascertain if he really wanted to work, the chief would say, facetiously : All you have to do is to follow a painted pole and eat three meals a dlay." Following a painted pole through the mud, water, and underbrush of a Cuban jungle, especially with an axe in one's hand to wield constantly, is no sinecure, but the men did not have to work very hard at their meals :Myv admiration of the pluck and 167

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r 4 .,aa a, :_* .s > ,yY: s.*p :' ,is y{ :^' 1 ", i-". ...+t '" '..ik 'b m ".;s" f .,.ten, ry Til ESUR CuR es (llarrr/ 2.1, 11)00.)

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Industry of the Colonists. patience of the boys on the survey corps was unloundled, and, I believe i, Cully justified. At their table the chief had designated an oILcial kicker, and 11o one else was supposed to utter a colplaint. and it wUs seldom that thwv did. The discipline waS like that o an a1rm\. When a maln was ordered to do a thin, two courses lay open to hil -d ( it or qjuit. [sually the orders were carried out. One of the most c ;pahie and in dnstrious (d the colonists was B. '. Seibert of Oahta, Nebraska. I Ic was a manI11 of taste and r(lineient, and at the same time eminently practical. IIc %as tt \ eterall ol the Civil War and a prominent citizen in the Western city wheice he came. Hec had lived at unc time in Calilorniia, and there had l;aincd special knowledr4e of the cultivation of fruits, lovers, and ornmental shruibery. A jew days after his arrival iln La Gloria in Januiiry, \Ir. Seiert Was placed in charge of the port. and at once set to work to briiig; order out of chaos. Ile took care of the l;tlrge amount of h;I' at(ac and freight that had been dumped in the mud on the shore, placiiig it tuder temporulrv shelter, and a little later constructed an1 ample % warehouse Connecting with the pier. lle removed the bushes and debris from the beach, thor-

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Pioneering in Cuba. oughly drained the locality, leveled the ground, cleared the accumulated sea-weed from the sand of the shore, extended and improved the pier, and put everything in first-class order, until one of the roughest and most forbidding of spots became positively attractive. I have rarely seen so complete and pleasing a transformation. The Port La Gloria of to-day is a delighttil place, neat and well kept, swept by balmy breezes from the sea, and commanding an entrancing view across the vari-colored waters of the beautiful bay to the island ot~ Gua jaba, with its picturesque m ountali1s, and the other keys along the coast. There is good sea-bathing here, and excellent fishing not far away. A few miles down the coast the mouth of the Maximo river is reached, where one may shoot alligators to his heart's content, while along the shore of Guajaba Kev the resplendent fhamingo may be brought lown by a hunter who is clever enough to get within range of the timid bird. Assistant Chief Engineer Neville was a good flamingo hunter, and we occasionally dined otff the big bird at the officers' table. One of the hardest workers in the colony was Jason L. Ratekin, who came from Omaha, Nebraska. lie was a man of marked indid7o

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Industry of the Colonists. viduality, and though not overburdeled with capital, was fertile in resources and full of energy and determination. At first he performed arduous work for the company in the transportation of baggage and freight from the port with the bullock team, and later wteint into business for himself as a contractor for the clearing and planting of laud. IIe was enthusiastic and progressive. Among all the colonists there was none more public-spirited, and he demonstrated his kindness of heart on many occasions. Once when the bullock team was bringing in a sick woman and several small children, and the rough and wearisome journey was prolonged into the darkness of the night, he distinguished him self by Carrying the ten-months-old baby nearly all the way in his arms and by breaking into a consignment of condensed milk to save it from starvation. Ratekin was a rough-looking ellow, but a more generous and kindly nature is seldom met with. The first banquet in La Gloria Was held on the evening of March 26, in honor of the iiftysecond birthday of Col. Thomas 1I. Magintliss, superintendent of camp, who was about to return to his wife and eleven children in Philadelphia. M. T. Jones of Williamsport, Pa., 171

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Pioneering in Cuba. \Vas master of ceremonies, and the occasion was highly enjoyable. The banquet was served in a tent restaurant oil Central avenue, and the guests numbered about twe nty, several of whom w ere ladies. The table presented a very attractive appearance, and the menu included salads, sardines, salt beef, smoked herrings, fresh fish, bread, cake and /lme-o-nade. Among the after-dinner speakers were Colonel Maginniss, (ienerail Van der Voort, S. N. Ware of WyXOmil1g, Jesse B. Kines, Rev. Dr. Gill, 1). E. Lowell, M. A. C. Neil, II. O. Neville, John A. Connell, and James ). Adams. The banquet was voted a success byall present. On Sunday, April 1, Colonel Alaginniss and about twenty of the colonists left La Gloria lor Nuevitas preparatory to sailing for the States. This was the largest number of colonists that had departed at one timn. since midwitter, and their leaving canned soule depression throughout the colony. This was quickIv over, however, and n\v arrivals s.)ofl made up for the numerical loss. The Maginniss party included 14. T. Jones of Pennsylvania and II. E. Mosher of New York state. who had been his assistants in the work of the camp, and Mrs. Whittle of Albany, N. Y., and Max 172

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Industry of the Colonists. 173 Neuber of Philadelphlia, Pt., \who 1md beeln the teachers of the day and c\cnin schools. Mr. Neuber and smuim of the others expressed the intention of returning to ILa (Gl. ria later in the y1ear. The departure of the score of colonists at this time was marked by a most melancholy incident, which )gas spcdilv tt)lO(d by the first death in La G(l-oria. Jolhn F. I! ax tild of Providence, R. I ., a man past middle a;t,, who had come to La Gloria on the First -(rwon/ excursion, had been ill for s&tlral wccks with a complications of ailments. Althoughll he had the wNatchitul care antd runmpanionship of a friend fr-oml the same city. Capt. Joseph Chace, he beedne xery much dlepresstd and sdly homesick. \\'hen the Ma;ii-fiss party was made up to return to the States, he believed to accOmpafny I (o) the effort. flolilCedl hisi and set out to up and taken he was overco hims( it all Whe ntenti do so down ame by I1 sutlici td braced i the day )u of w\alk but \w as cXhaustio 'ntly up :irri \ inw t yuic n. t, an imtpro) ed ondcrl-ully cd, he ano the port, kly picked At the pier d exhibited much weakliess that it place hims on board of d crowded sail-boats. \was dtecd unsafe either of the small It wv as feared he so to an

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174 Pioneering in Cuba. would not survive the hardships and exposure of the journey to Nuevitas. The decision to leave him behind, although kindly meant, was a great blow to him, and was believed by some to have hastened his death, which took place the next morning. Ilowever this may be, it is improbable that he would have lived to reach his home in the States. Iieart failure was the final cause of his death. IIe had good care at the port, but his extreme weakness could not be overcome. Mr. Mayfield was a q quiet, unobtrusive man, and was held in high esteem throughout the colony. Ile was buried in a pleasant spot in the company s reserve, and his funeral was attended by almost the entire colony and some of the Cubans. The services were held out of doors in a beautifiil glade, and were conducted by the Rev. Dr. Gill. It was a most impressive scene. This was the only death in La Gloria during the six months succeeding the arrival of the first colonists. This low rate of mortality was the more remarkable from the fact that a number of invalids came or were brought into the colony during the winter. One day there came in from the port a wagon bringing a woman who had been a paralytic for years, and her sick husband, who had been unable to sit up

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Industry of the Colonists. for a long time. They w\re from Kansas, and \Vere aCCOmpanied by groVwn children anid friends. The colonists expected there would very soon he two deaths in La Gloria. but the sick man. who was a mere skeleton, improved steadily and in a flw weeks was able to walk about the callp, while his pa1rUlytiC wiit a)s no worse and was considered by the family to he sligrhtly better. Considering that the invalids were living in tents \w ithout expert care. the man's recovery NVaS hartlyl less than Ivan clous. On April 2, work on the corduro y road to the port, which had been suspended, w as resumed under the capable supervisioil of I). E. Lowell. Mr. Lowell proved to he the chest roadmaker who had taken a hand at the game up to that time, and, considering the little he had to do with, accomplished a great deal. Ilis workmen wt re from among the colonists and he rarely had more than ten or twelve at a time, and usual\' less, but in five or six weeks he had done much for the betterment of the highway. No one realized better than Mr. Lowe]l that this was only a temporary road, but it was the chest to he had at the time. Later in the year, a fine, permanent highway to the port was begun by 175

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Pioneering in Cuba. Chief Engineer I La Gloria's g;rcat Kelly, and Nwn completed drawback KellV's is a substantial, roc k-hallastc t two fct above high-cater mark. It wNiII makc La Gloria easV of access fiom the coaSt. 176 will 1e removed. (radd road, twelve fcct wvIde, and f4 k a' r y, + ti j t" X11"", .'

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CHAPTER NI\'. Tr -Fms-r BALi, IN LA GLOIuA. MEANWILiiE, the sale plantations and town lots until on April 9, six moi the surveyors began their twelve thousand or fifteen land had been allotted, be and thirty-three city lots. had been cleared, and pa aiid aliotnittit of steadily continued, Sths from the (IIa operations, about thousand acres of sides nine hundred Many of the lots ris of som of the plantations. Qjjite an amount of planting, in the aggregate, had been done. The survey corps and the colonists agreed that the semi-anniversary of the coming of the surveyors to La Gloria should be marked by a celebration, and the bold project of a grand ball was set on toot. When I first heard of it, I thought it was a joke, but when I saw a long list of committees conspicuously posted on Central avenue, and had been rtluested by "Albany to announce the coming event at the regular meeting of the Pioneer Association, I realized that the talk had been serious and that Terpsichore had actually 12

PAGE 184

Pioneering in Cuba. gained a footing in La Gloria. I was authorized to announce that the ball would be in charge of a French dancing master, which xvas the fact, for Floor Manager Messier ("Albany ") was a Frenchimin by birth. The ball and the accompanying supper were free to all, but the women of the colonyr had been requested to contribute food-and most nobly they responded-while the men, particulariy the surveyors, hiustled for fruit, sugar, etc. It was a cheering sight when big Jack McCauley drove in from Mercedes with the mule team, bringing a whole barrel of oranges. These were some of the oranges which had been saved by Jack's influence." It was no small task to make the necessary preparations for the ball, and some of the committees were kept very busy. I was on the coinmittee on music, and learned to mv dismay, a few hours before the ball was to open, that Dan Goodman, the fiddler, had been attacked by stage fright and had declared that if he was to be the whole orchestra he would hang up the fiddle and the bow." I interviewed Dan,-who was just as good a fellow as his name implies,-and found that he was really suffering from Pensylvania modesty. AccordinglV it devolved on me to 178

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First Fall in La Gloria. 179 build up al I succeeded short time I of Ed. Ford, orchestra with Dan as a nucleus. beyod my expectations. In a had secured the musical ser ices Mr. and Mrs Spiker, aid others. The evening caime, and like Jerry R usk, they "seen their duty and done it." And it ImIv further be said that they dole it \ery It was decided to h ld the hall ill a large canvas-covered structure which ail tOrmerly beetl used as a restaurant kitchen and storehouse. There wts only a dirt loor, and hence the matter of a teinprarv iloorini became a problem. I'ards were almost all unkn wn\1 l --in La Gloria at that timle, but a few were picked up alouit the camp, and the Rev. Dr. Gill kindly It aned the Ilooring of his tent linr the cvenin'r. E: en then, only so much of the hailroom Ilo{.r vas boarded as waUs actual]y usV d tfO dimcing. It is not too much to say that the haliroomtl was elaborately decorated. fatsteined a dozen graceful feet or and more Iligh beautift in len oi er ad l palm It gilh, and were aVes, there wxe-e green wreathes and initial letters flecked with tohvv.rs and bright I red herries. N Men. vomen. and children joined .'fnrts to make the interior of the tent a shower of tropical beauty-. The effect was most pleasing.

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Pioneering in Cuba. Such decorations in the Northern states would doubtless have cost a large sum of money. IIere they cost only a little time and labor. I wish I could say that the ballroom was brilliantly lighted, but the gas and electric light plants were as yet uiplanted, and we had to depend on kerosene lanterns suspended from the roof. Ilowever, as most of us had been using only candles for illumination, the lantern light seemed very good. No one thought of complaining that it was dark. I shall not be able to describe the Grand ball in all its wondrous details, but only to make brief mention of a flew of the features which particularly impressed me. I remember that as the people gathered together we had great ditliculty in recognizing each other. We had thought we were all well acquainted, but that was before the men and women had gone down into the bottom of their trunks and fished out their good clothes. The transformation, particularly in some of the men, was paralyzing, and after we had identified the individuals inside of the clothes, many of us forgot our company manners and opened our mouths wide in astonishment. Men who had been accustomed to wear, seven days in 180

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First Ball in La GhU ria. each wcek, a careless outin( costume, or (1d, cheap clothes of cotton or woolen material, or mayhap nothing more than shirt mind1 ovetalls, had sUddenlV blossomed out in wellfitting black suits, set of] by culls, hirh collars, and silk ties. It was a dazzling sight for La Gloria. The men had been vcry ncglijgent of their dress ; scarcely one had brought his valet with hime to Cuba : Ihere may even have been a tc X dress suits at the ball, and I the womlel be entirely that they well and s x c will Vere safe, were. did not nake not in d' ho\\eVe.r, Tle wo the mlen :; oath that som colle ( owls I \\ill not s mnen looked all w\ere a r to an American colon v. Mr. J. A. Messier manager ai master tired in neat and convention formed his duties gracetihl grand march was led by Voort and Mrs. Dan Goo Chief Engineer Kelylv xvi Senor Rivas. I do not lind sions a dance order, and I description of it .nd I a others present would have But there was daincilg, "IAlbany."), ft ceremonies, the wv; floor Is atMI dress, and perIY :ild ell. The General Van dcr Ilia, fillow\ed by th a daughter of :anol myl lo)ss esCilce can gi Ve 110 pprellend that the no bette r snicCSS. and a lot of it. e of to wear redlit I1S

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I E NT' m

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First Ball in La Gloria. 183 Furthermore, it was much (nov(d. both by the participants and the spectat rs. About the middle of the (v\c1ing some specialties were introduced. Chief E~ngiiner Kelly performed i1 clog dance succsshIlly, turning a handspring at the end, and Architect Nel executed an ectentri French dance with a skill and activity that brought down the house. There was also 'rood (chw dncip by some of the younger men. The hall NNsit, attended by nearly the entire colony. This was made mnanifist when wNe lined up tor supper, which \\ax strxed across the street. The procession to the tables numbered one hundred and torty persons by actual count. The tables were set under shelter tents, anrd \\ere beatilull decorated and loaded with food. there \\ere meats, fish, salads, puddings, cakes, and a wonder1li variety of pies, in w\lhich the gijaa was Conspic11oLS. Coflee and fruits were also much in c idence. N7e er ht'Inre had La Gioria seen such a spread. On this o tasion the womiien of the colony achiitevel a cellmerited reputation for culinary skill and resourcefilness. Except Ior at fw enthusiasts, who went back to the ballroom 1or Imore dancing, the Supper wound up the e\-enin's

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Pioneering in Cuba. festivities. The semi-anniversary had been properly celebrated, and the first ball in La Gloria had proved successful beyond anticipation. April 9, 1900, may be set down as i red letter day in the history of the colony. Speaking of the hall and its orchestra calls to mind the music in the camp in the early days of the colony. There was not much. Occasionally a violin was heard ; and more often, perhaps, a guitar or mandolin. But the most persistent musician was a cornet player, who fori a time was heard regularly every night from one end of the camp. His wind was good, but his repertoire small. Ile knew "' home, Sweet Home from attic to cellar, and his chief object in life seemed to be to make others as familiar with it as himself. He played little else, and the melting notes of John Ioward Pay ne's masterpiece floated through the quiet cainp hour after hour, night after night. Finally, the colonists visited him and told him gently but firmly that he must stop playing that piece so much ; it was making them all homesick. Not long after the cornet player disappeared. I think there was no foul play. Probably he had simply betaken himself to home, sweet Home. 184

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First Ball in La Gloria. 1 5 There were many good singers in camp. Some of them met regularly once or twice a week and sang gospel hymns. These Ormed the choir at the Sunday services. There was another group of vocalists, ei.llv excellent in its way, which confined itself to rendering popular songs. Some of the latter, wiho dwelt and had their "sings near ily tent, would have done credit to the vadev11ei stage. They were known as the Kansas crowd." It gave mc. a native ( f the Granite state, great satisfaction to hear these Kansas people singing with spirit and good expression My Old New IIampshire Homie." I was pleased to regard it as a Western triute to New Hampshire as the place of the ideal home.

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CHAPTER XV. A WALINx Tawi, To PI iIT(o PIuNclht. IT was on the dayv after the Grand Ball, Tuesday, April 10, that a party of us started 01] a walking trip to the city of Puerto Principe, iOrty-five miles away. My Companions, who, like m self, were all colonists, were Jef l). Franklin of Florida, David Murphy of New Jersey, A. H1. Carpenter of \IMassachusetts, and a %r. Crosby of Tennessee. Mr. Crosby wts a man off middle age ; the rest of us \vere younger, Carpenter being a mere youth of perhaps eighteen. All were good walkers. The start was made at about 8:3o in the morning. The day was pleasant and balmy, but not excessivelv warm. The trail was now in good condition, and the walking; would have been altogether agreeable had it not been for the packs upon our shoulders. We carried hanmocks, blankets, and such food as bread, crackers, sardines, bacon, and coffee. One of the party had a irving-pan slung across his back. Our loads were not

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187 A WalkingS Trip. actually heavy, but they sclcd so alter \ve had walked a t(.L\ miles. Our Course ltav to the soutliwcst, thri-igli the deserted planftation of erccdts, wv here we stopped an hoN to eat (>ran4cs a1n( chat with the colonists at work there. Resumin our march, we soon passed an inhalited Cuan shack near an abandoned sti r mill, stopping a te minutes to l ls\ t a >mal banana patch 11Cer the road. We had been here before and knew the owner. A mile further on we reached another occupied shlick, and called to get a drink of agrua ( xx water We \werV tiont of th straight-ba aln antique rain wa ter and had hospital le Casa eked, patt("r%\hich Ib received in (house) and Div ]rather-hotmed .The a u 81f(r1.g had been stored i at Icast the thr open en heavy, chairs of niSlhcl V\\as 1 a cistirn, v irtu of 1ein There w ere at home an old fleshy tiderly womtan, and t\\( looking l iris, the ttpp.1ranc( it Of whom indicated that she This was about the onily shack there were no young children Wie tarried but a ew minutes. inquiries about the road, as we vv ct. i a n .a v cry ra thir 1g (dnd dress ol, (mc V"I(l S l 011Wlr was 85 8 isitor. \vc sa\ xvhre t in evidencC. after niaking lid at almost every house, we continued on our way.

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Pioneering in Cuba. For the next three or four miles we had a good hard trail through the woods, but saw neither habitation nor opening. Shortly after noon We emerged from the woods into an open space, where, on slightly elevated ground, stood two shacks. We had been here before and knew the man who occupied one of them. There was no land under cultivation in sight, and the only fruit a custard apple tree and a few mangoes. There were a good many pigs roaming about, and the shack we .entered contained several small children. Our Cuban friend seemed glad to see us his wife brought us water to drink, and we were invited to sit down. Our social call would have been more satisfactory if we had known more Spanish, or our host had spoken English. We made but a brief stay, and on departing asked the Cuban to point out to us the road to Puerto Principe. Since leaving the woods we had seen no road or trail of any sort. ie took us around his house and accompanied us for some distance, finally pointing out an indistinct trail across high savanna land which he said was the right one. This path, which could hardly be seen, was the "' road from the coast to the third largest city in Cuba, olV about thirty 188

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A Walking Trip. 189 miles away' Such are Cuhan roads. At times vol can only guess whether yoL are inl a road or out of it. What lay before us wias now entirely unfamiliar. At about one o'clock we hated by the side of the trail tur a midday rest and lunch. We were a dozen miles iiom La Gloria, and about 81l equtal distance from the ciubitas mountains, through i h ijeh w were to pass. All hour later we took up the march again. We soon entered the woods and found a smooth, firm trail Ovcr the red earth. We passed through miles of timber, (d a fine, stighIt growth. Ini the t hick w\\( b0l ut lexw royal palms were seen, but in the ore open country we saw some magnificent groves o{ them. During the afternoon we passed only two or three shacks, but as ne approached the Cubitas mountains the few habitations and their surroUndings improved ii character. The houses continued to he pahn-thatched, but they Were more connodiouis and surrounded by gardens in which were a few orange and banana trees, and other fruits and vegetables. Some of the places were quite pretty. Occasionally we would see cleared land that had once been cultivated, but no growing crops of any amount. This part of

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19o Pioneering in Cuba. the country had been agriculturally dead since the Ten Years' War. How the natives live, I know not, but it is safe to say that they do not live well. Ihev raise boniatos and cassava, a little fruit, and keep a few pigs. Often their chief supply of meat is derived from the wild hogs which they shoot. And yet these Cubans were living on some of the best land in the world. Late in the afternoon, after walking 1or a mile or more along a good road bordered by the ornamental but worthless jack-pineapple plant, we came to a wide gateway opening into an avenue lined with cocoanut palms and leading up to a couple of well-made Cuban shacks. The houses stood at the front of quite a large garden of fruit trees. We called at one of the shacks, which proved to be well populated. An elderly man, large for a Cuban and well-built, came forward to greet us and was inclined to be sociable. Ilis shirt appeared to be in the wash, but this fact did not seem to embarrass him any ; he still had his trousers. Of a younger man we bought a few pounds of boniatos (sweet potatoes) and after some urging persuaded him to go out and get some green cocoanuts for us from the trees. Ile sent his little boy of about

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A XValking Trip. 1 )l twelve years of age up the tree to hack otl a hunch of the nuts with his mabete. We drank the copious supply of milk with great satisfaction ; there is m1 more refreshing drink in all Cuba. As the boy had done all the work, we designedly withhcld our sier until he had come d(h)wn the tree :ind we cm(ld place it in his hands. We wOnhlrcd if he wold be allowed to keep it. Climbing the smooth trunk of a cocoanut tree is no easy task. We camped tliat night among the trees by the side of the road a quarter of a mile further on. We had made tweity miles tor the lday, and were now on high ground iear the base of the Cubitas mnontains. The rise had ben So very gradual that we had not noticed that \we wxtre ascending. The trunks of all the trees around its were stained for a short distaiice from the ground With the red of the soil, caused, as we believed, IW the Wild hots: rubbing up against them. Our supper of fried boniatos and bacon was skilftlly cooked by Jelt Franklin, who used the hollow trunk of a royal palm, which had fallen and been split, for an oven. For drink ie had cocoanut milk. By the vigorous use of Dave Murphy's machete we cleared awa y the underbrush so

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Pioneering in Cuba. that we could swing our hammocks among the small trees. Franklin had no hammock, but slept under a blanket on a rubber coat spread on the ground. The night was comfortably warm and brilliantly clear. It was delightful to lie in our hammocks and gaze up through the trees at the beautitijl star-lit sky. There were mosquitoes, of course, but they did not trouble us much, and we all slept well. We were up early the next morning, a perfect day, and after eating a substantial breaklast proceeded on our journey. We felt little exhaustion from the long walk of the preceding day, but I was a sad cripple from sore feet. I had on a pair of Cuban shoes which were a little too short for me (although they were No. 40) and my toes were fearfully blistered and bruised. There was nothing to do, however, but go forward as best I could, so I limped painfully along behind my companions, keenly conscious that Josh Billings was a true philosopher when he said that "tite boots made a man forget all his other troubles. A fraction of a mile beyond our camping place we discovered a well-kept shack ensconced in cosy grounds amid palms, fruit 192

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A Walking Trip. trees, and fhxveerig Sl riS. It \\ S Onte (I the prettiest Scenes \Ve saW. \\*e CUll(d It I Water, pOlitcI\' greeted the wulljll \V I) Servet its Withl our lest pruunlllrittimni (10'' nm111 Sias, atl plcasflltt calme to) P kiy pearl to the rif trai I to along, tli r1'"(] thait d1, nllurnlulrlin; \1ith s)lle rc ; spot. A iile distinct lfrk ini v Straillt Ue. ht. While ve ake, a llorsenl le first pers) 11 a\and tIlE tfrets alt lcitvill( mI t\\() furtiler I 1l tle ro (d. Olle v d, the other borei \\crc dchatintg \Vll an fOrtnnately ca \ve hlad seenl mn second sinlcc lenli \Iercedes On the preCtding P)relntln. IIe t(ld 1 Us to ( toy tlte right, an(1 We \\tre s8(nl in the toxlthills o1 the mountains. It WaS here that We tl(l(l U deSerte( shack behind which was t clear-cd space in the wOOds il Severil HCres. Oil this little plantation grew lannIUlS, ct)Vc)ilOIts, riass;\ a, l)OliatoS, and other vegetAbleS. As it was in the Cubitas m1ountain:1 newr thlis shu(t thaut thle Culban insurrectionlists hald Wllut tlle\ rapld their independent civil ,OV.lernlent bvr Nile time prior to the intervention mf the" Un'1ied States, and secreted their cattle and raised fruit and vegetables to supply kwd ilor the Arny of Liberation." we guessed that this lit \1 c .\ nil icl tme n I ji

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194 Pioneering in Cuba. might be one of the places then put under cultivation. It certainyIv had had very little recent care. After journeying past some chalk-white clitIs, which we examined with interest, we entered the mountain pass which we supposed would take is through the town or Village of Cubitas, the one-time Cuban capital. The way was somewhat rou(hi and 1lugg(ed, but not very steep. Tie mountains Vere covered with trees and we had no extended view in any direction. All at once, at about 10: 30 a. mn., we suddenly and unexpectedly emerged from the pass, when the shut-in forest view changed to a broad and sweeping prospect into the interior of Cuba. What we looked down upon was an ninense savanna, stretching twenty miles to the front, and perhaps more on either hand, broken in the distance on all sides by hills and lofty mountains. It was a beautiful sight, particularly for its who had been shut in by the forest most of the time for months. TlC Salvatiuna was dry, but in places showed bright green stretches that were restful to the eye. It was dotted with thousands of small palm trees, which were highly ornamental. We could not see Puerto Principe, nor did we catch sight of it until

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A Walking Trip. within three miles of the city. There was no town or village in sight. and not even a shack, occupied or unoccupied. The view embraced one vast plain, ifrlerly used for grazing purposes, but now w holly neglected and deserted. We did not then know that we were to walk seventeen miles across this savanna before seeinlg a sinle habitation of anv sort. We had seen nothing of the village of Cubitas, and concluded that we had taken the wrong pass. We were afterwaris told that Cubitas consisted of a single shack which had been used as a canteen. \tWhether the Cuban government occupied this canteen, or one of the caves which are said to exist in these mountains, I cannot say. The revolutionary government, being A:lWays a novable affair, Was never easy to locate. It was, however, secure front lharmii in these 1Im intains. 'We noticed later that the Ilati\es seemed to regard all the scattered houses within a radius of half a domzn miles from this part of the mountains as frmin Cubitas. The post-office must have been upI a tree. After a brief rest on the south slope of the mountains, we resumed our march, a wearisome one for all of 1s and exceedingly pain195

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196 Pioneering in Cuba. fil to me with my disabled feet. They seemed even sorer after a halt. Mv ankles were now very lame from unnaturally favoring my pinched toes. The midday sun was hot, and we sutlered a good deal fromi thirst. There were no longer iny holes wN here We could procure water. We had not seen a stream of any sort in the last twenty miles. I sta4gered alone as best I cMild, a straggler behind my companions. A little after noon we came stddenly upon two or three little water holes directly in our path. It seemed like an oasis in the desert. We could not see where the water came Iromi1 nor \\lhre it went, but it was clear and good, and "e were duly thankful. We ate din ner here under :I small palm tree, and enjoyed a siesta for an hour. In the afternoon we met only one person. a Cuban produce pedler on horseback. Ile treated those who cared for liquor out of a big black bottle. That afternoon's tramp will linger long in our memories. I thought we should never get across that seemingly endless savanna. At last, when it was near six o'clock, we reached an old deserted open shack which stood on the plain not far from the trail. Here we spent the night, cooking

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A Walking Trip>. olur sulgler and( procuinin11 it ncesir-h \ tOlirabl good \vfAtCr, fotwit hstitiuli ii dirty SC11111 oil t1)p ()f it. We \\e \' N 1tiI nlets of Lucrto I rincipe, 81(1 ail VC11C dIelighte(d thait (w\mingl \\ 11 a s( Wil hi l Il ( had ( nu thear(d ill III((lT thlall t 111% ) tllStlti wxhistlc I f i t lu )lll(It\t'. night v aHs somile\\hat (disturl)U( by\ riats, f ani(d \os(1l8l it.os, hlilt \\ t \Te %vi t oi lir t nI sleep a (rood part of it. The breeze Ut the SAVAI)IU wS itutlvt ail(1 S(l)tliIl!. tlt? o ntest \\nUtliW w wialke( t i.t( timeC-scare(d rit\ ()f I'ucerto Prirncipe-tll; the others walkc(d AndI hobbledl. If \\ t~1 tlhe ith in MlildI Our lens, I(t to trost the it is. posC\ Cthe Co Itskirts, our pi i rpi\, left to gt Ca\'alr to the c(1np1 \\O lilies (itst tro 1it 140 Igi lit v (1liti idt frank lhranciii (wVl to III thr Eighth t'. n}i the Ici''il nr. i)i ilit' Cit\ N l R A)y ,ind I g(>ing lilt' t()\\ Ill scir l ig \\;dk tilr<>ugli \Tc(1 surccts hcin-cfe (I Mil, pir tie t\i of t t( rm cl In ('F p". j). ( t Failroa(d trick, so(d recti\ into tlhe leartt a hotel. We 1had >t narrlW aId rougl\ houn rd onc. 'llC r wCFt t tough-lokin wCre unlshavc1n iinl clothes Were w> ri will tid sa( du(1 (ist. Ill lin. the S. thle (iI ()t ther \\ 2 We )ur a81(1 fr \t d. ;1(I s5ilc( Wc Wer htrit witlh the 197 sihle, Iln\ feet were W()O'sr {}h31 indI C'arlut 10

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198 Pioneering in Cuba. packs upon 011 shoulders, and walked with very pronounced limps. Everywhere we were recognized as 'Americanos," although it seemed to me we looked more like Italian organ-grinders. To the day of my death I shall never cease to be grateful to the people of Puerto P-incipe for the admirable courtesy and good manners exhibited to us. They did not stone nor jeer us ; they did not even openly stare at the odd spectacle we presented. Even the children did not laugh at us, and the dogs kindly refrained from barking at our heels. At all times during our stay of several days we were treated with perfect courtesy and a respectful consideration which our personal appearance scarcely warranted and certainly did not invite. The Spaniards and Cubans senm to associate even the roughest dressed American with monty and good-nature. The hum bler children would gather about us, pleading, AmeriCanilo, gnim e it centavo .while little tots of four years would say in good English and the sweetest of voices. Good-by, my friend' It wvas the soldiers who had taught them this. Their parents rarely spoke any English whatever. We staved at the Gran Hotel, said by some

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A Walking Trip. 199 to he the best in the city. It wIs none to good, but not had as Caibal hotels run. The terms were moderate, fi .;o per dfay for two meals and lodging. A third meal could not be obtained tor love nor inoney. I bought mine at street stands or in a t cut. Not a word of English was spoken at this hotel. I cannot describe Puerto Principe at any length. It is an old Spanish city in architecture and customs, and might vell have been transplanted from me(int\al Spain. As a matter of lact, it was mlV(ed Ihere centtuies agO from the north CorSt of Cubat, ne;tr the present site of Ntevitas, the chang.;(i bci made to escape the incursions of piraitcs. It has a population of about forty-seven thousatnd. aid is the third li rgest city in Cuba, and the most populous inland townii. laiy of the residents ar-c wealthyv and aristocratic, and the people, generallv speaking, are fine looking and xtLry w11 dressed. I se eral times visited the chief plaza, which had lately taken the new name of Agr~ionte, and watched with interest th handsome men and beautiful seloritas who promenaded there. I was told that late in the afternoon and early in the evenin the yong people of the best fhimilits in the city walked in the

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h I V ~$ r t; ;S&IVi~~~I lI\ \, 14 [kt ti i\1JI, ?4tga/zb 11 A', Lb Vne.Ja.n 4 r r 1 V 1

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A Walking I rip. plaza. They vere c and most decorous Wals vcry pretty w tal ertainly v elegantly dressed in hthacior. T1 plait ith its roy al janins and flo\\er beds. It w as flanked 1 v one of t in the ci in recCI C. IIug laded to After Puerto Minas,t he sev era uncifnt CItI tv. While in Puerto )t ol unexIpected courts o )rake, the Aneric; in an earlier chater of s1lp ndin t utimr d li Principle, I took the twenty miles to the east holic ch rcItS Pr tiJc I was lies from Mr. an is I)yer althis book. htful days in train to Las wvard. There preccdId e board d itnch z and rode to Sc at Senitdo. Si \ has a pi(lasant frutit trees and herries if row i1 Cuban shacks i men11 and their his li flenst, \w il1 opelratiO, Un on tic flat cars extensive planti either sidi of t bill( utilized 1 nor 1anche' rrat su
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202 Pioneering in Cuba. The end of the track left us about eighteen miles from La Gloria. We set out to walk home, but late in the afternoon the party accidentallv divided and both divisions got lost. Murphy and I spent an uncomfortable night in the thick, damp woods, and taking up the tramp early the next morning, found ourselves, two or three hours later, at the exact point near the end of Sanchez' plantation where we had begun our walk the afternoon before. We had walked about fifteen miles and got back to Our starting point without realizing that we had deviated from the main trail. Stranger vet, the other division of the party had done exactly the same thing, but had reached this spot late the night before and was now half way to La Gloria. Milurphv and I made a new start, and after getting oil the track once or twice, finally reached the Maximo river, crossed it on a tree, and got into La Gloria at 5 : 30 that afternoon, nearly worn out and looking like wild men. I had had nothing to eat for fortyeight hours save two cookies, one cracker, and half a sweet potato.

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IN AM) ARovNv LA GojzI\. A VERY good Book that f \\Otf f contains an Apocrypha. This will baxe no Apocr\pha, but I will here relate an incident which did not come under lm v personal ohservatitn. but which "as told of by Iy ordinarily I veraciols friend. Colonel Maginliss. At one time during the winter, Colonel IMfginniss and his assistants had for three (LIVS been searching for a company horse that was lost, when a man named Ramsden came to the colonel's tent and reported that there waS a horse hanging in the Woods not far aw y The colonel and Mr. Jones wllt to the spot and 1)n1nd a htrgi white horse, that had weighed twelve hundred pounds, dead in the thicket, hanging by the neck. No normal inquest was held, but it Was the colonel's theory that this American-born horse 'could not live on Cuhan grass, and had deliberately hanged himself. A somewhat similar case I was personally cognizant of. A sick horse waVs reported drowning in a shallow pond CllAPTER NVI.

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Pioneering in Cuba. near the can the scene on colonists, and was dragg(red the ntidi and Early the ne that the horse the pond and case of alinia none of the p. Colonel Mag i1niss went to a Cuban pony, with a dozen after a hard strug 4Ic the horse one hundred vards away Arom water, m(d left on drv land. xt morning it was discoo\Bred had worked his way hack into drowned himself. Was this a I suicide? It uav be said thiat colonists ever resorted to this desperate expedient, even when the sugar .gave out. Colonel Maginniss was a iiaster hand in sickness." An Eflisl woman who came to tire colonyv was verv ill, and blood poisoning set in. The colonel's experience as a iiinily 1m1 was now of service. lie had the \(omIan removed to a large tent. attended her personallyand looked after the children, calling four or five times daily, ;111(1 administeringsuch remedies as he had. The woman recovered, and grateln1ly expressed the belief that the colonel had saved her life. Near the end of April there was a sudden and surprising rise of water along Central avenue between La Gloria and the port. One afternoon Mr. Lowell and his men at work upon the road noticed that the water was ris204

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In and Around La Gloria. 2O ing in the creeks and ditches along the way. This was a surprising discOv(ry, in istluch as there had heen no rail water continued to rise me(n left oilT wNork Litt seIer; I feet higher th Lt canms up steadily th p)edcstrian)s to the I toimnd tilt wvatcr e\ en ;titng and over it wch Further down toward ias hooded in Lplares feet. A\ngI the it w\cre several colonists home to the Status, enough, were oblige (uoria through mud a thev had talked in although btwet 11 c been for a ion tinte I It was that morning heard a peculiar rush n e an account. The Rapidly, and wh1en the in the akicroon it w as inn it hnad bteen at noon. roug;h the night. so that ort tiht nest miorning' with t 'i nt'w road all ere the creeks caine in. Lthe part thtw sac
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Pioneering in Cuba. rain which fell in the night. Never before had I seen such a sight. The frogs were everywhere, on logs, stumps, in the water, and along the road ; bits of earth jutting out of the water would be covered with them. They were all of one color-as yellow as sulphur-and appeared to be very unhappy'. I saw large stumps so covered with these tro(s, or toads, as to become pnyraiids of yellow. Whether frogs or toads, they seemed averse to getting wet and were all seeking dry places. I saw a snake about two l(et long, who had filled himself up with them from head to tail, floating lazily on the surface of the water. No less than live of the vellowbacks had climbed up on his head and neck, and he had only energy enough left to clasp his jaws loosely upon one of them and then let go. The snake seemed nearly dead from overeating. The frogs disappeared in a day or two as suddenly as they had come. At the time of this small-sized flood, a party of surveyors were camped upon the savanna near Central avenue and about a mile from the port. Their camp was high enough to escape the water, but they were pretty well surrounded by it. One of the mnen, finding deep water running in the road, went a-fish2o6

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In and Around Ia Gloria. 207 ing there and boasted that he had caught fish in Central avenue: The water snoi subsided, and the generally IacccpJtel explanation ( the sudden flood was that it had been caused l)v the overflow of the Maximo, and that there had been eavy\ rains, or a Cl)ldhurst, twel e or titteen miles awVa. April was a wearm l all .incomrt hablC o1ne. ture recorded was 67 ; weather was dclightti tireshI and fri rant; ho everywhere ; and tihe incomparable bee coul industrious. So, too, The' work of the latter the first of May, or, at them. As an example is wortiv of mention. from British Columbia on the first ); mor/tA. he was5 soifl&\bat distiu ot getting( his deed. but put his apprehensions his allotment of a fi\ dulged in no more V waitcd1 for no further oh morning shouldered hi onth, but Vy n) nleans Thlt lowest templerathe higlwot, The i; the breezes were wVers here )lossoming h iltv bees of this nry were happy and were thie colonists. tas well advanced by least, that of some (if of industry, I). icl-rt Mr. icfr-rt hailed and rank. to La Gloria On the vOy;aw down rled Ocr the qilostion on0c in La Gloria, he behind him, scoured c-acre plata~tion, mnaill test ionigs and eL elopmnts, but each s axe and attacked the

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w '11' N I ). Il 01'S, I.N 1< \IPIIP PA! II.

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In and Around La Gloria. trees on his land. I e kept u1) the battle for iimonths, rarely missing a dy's work. ThIe result was that by May I, Mr, SieCert, alone and unaided, had cleared his five acres of timber land, burned it over, and \a\ rrady for planting. Other colonists worked hard and eflectually in the forest, but this was the best single-handed pertoriaince that came under my notIce. Another enterprising and highilv intelligent colonist was )Max Neiber of Philadelphia, who has been before alluded to as one of the teachers in the eVe1nin school. Mr. Neuber pushed the work upon his land, doing much of it himself. Early and late his friends would find him chopping, digging, and planting. When he left for the States in April he had five boxes packed with the products Of his plantation, such as lemons, liines, potatoes, and specimens of mahogany and other valuable woods. A group of industrious workers, most of whom had earlier been attached to the survey corps, were in May located and well settled in a place which they called Mountain Vew. This was a partially open tract four or five miles west of La Gloria and about a mile from Mercedes. Ilere the ytiung men pitched '4 :2x0

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Pioneering in Cuba. their tents and swung their hammocks, contidently claiming that they had the best spot in all the country round. From here the Cubitas mountains could be plainlly seen ; hence the Mane of Mountain View .A person Hoilowing the rough trail from La Gloria to Mercedes might have seen on a tree at the left, shortlv before reaching the latter place, a shingle bearing the inscription, Change Cars for Mountain View." If he should choose to take the narrow, rough, and crooked trail to the left through the woods, he would ere long come out into the open and probably see Smith Everett, fornerlv of Lenawee county, lichigan, Iyin'g in his hammock watching his banana trees grow. I have before mentioned tire irregularity and infrequency of the mails. The remedV was slow in coming. The chief cause of the irregularity was The Sangjai, which, though designed to be an aid to navigation, was often a great hindrance to it. The Sangjai was a very narrow and very shallow channel, partly natural and partly artificial, through what had once been the Sabinal peninsula. The artificial and dillicult part of the channel known as The Sang jai was about half way between La Gloria and Nuevitas. It had to 210

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In and Around La Glori be used in 1l11m\i1I a. 21 1 inside water coul went our Sangjal a Contained tide and le high. It best, and went this help push had to 1hl Sangjai. 's. Thi mail ini t one poi only a t Iss than t \v s a hat m any a vav had the 1o)1 pushed If the wi S\ nt wy o rd pa. to t h or nds as the rItte over vhi h Inr ll ftelt wL Mace t g'et out esides pole( p erm11i sa ill(I t. shalllowv t J1 watcr ll tic' !id pct throll on CratI aml wvalk lo ats a through tttcd the SI to reiCh this agtg ra\;atiIng Ciha nlli l at itl' 1-irIht timl(, there wa~s no great dlay : hiut othcrwIse, the boat wouli h held utip for ten or twelve hours. This wIs altnyetlher unpleasant, especially as the mosquitoes ;11nl jejiies Claimed The Sangjai (pronilicCd Sangli, or Co()rrtptly, Shanlghij fi11r their own. TIe mail, like evervthinr else, had to await the wili of the waters, or, perhalps I should say the Convniienicc of the moon. The Sangjai played a very important part i1 the carlv history of La Gloria. The hat it t lmw l' wAas y\hie h and 1\way s The ilboat th1c short or

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CHAPTER XVII. THE COLONY AT TI'lI END OF TIlE FI'sT YEAR. M pen must glide rapidly over the \ven1ts of the summer and early fall. The sawmill, which had been so long delayed and so often promised as to become a standing joke in the colony, finally reached La Gloria from Nuevitas, via the port, on May 3o. Nothing was more needed ; its non-arrival had delayed both building operations and the clearing of land. A few weeks later the mill was in operation, to the great joy of the colonists. In June the construction of a pole tramway from La Gloria to a point on the bay between the port and the Palota landing was begun. This was completed on August 14, and transportation operations were at once inaugurated. The new landing place was named Newport. On July 16 the building of a substantial and permanent highway from La Gloria to the port was commenced under the supervision of Chief Engineer Kelly, and before October i the work was well advanced. The chosen route was along Central avenue.

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At the End ()f the First Year. 2 13 The colonists cclcbrated tiltFourt with au appropriate cntcrtaincnt. colony Xvitnssd( f at youth namne thrown by it VOU er's jury dcid WaLs accidental. dents of La Gloria. ed by '. II. I .Mr. I and had time. perform of his the death wortht, iosworth n1 t IIt: beS was U trat dX in d liui cne II ng, SpanisI Ib d that younlttho lioth ll(ys V nTh Iifth olr ofa iat ii Ia veteran of was seventy n m an et (d an rat years td Gloria, surviXcd him. T the coloIv tIhrouh 111 lent. TIhre ywas but \\-athir jias delight i tion.. Th t(Ilmpraltur( from1 ah(it 78 to (KO Si .Thr cXonists c (n' Iia1 the wint r. It \X;It ruj)ed he ntcrpriring (1(111l ol W cnfccbl d u a meid( suntntrr w little rain bKyI n (7t i Ordinarily and neve c c tir belic\ ci herIMW( h nf(n tiht l. 1 V In ath In 1~t ;th I) (4 u JItilv killby a cad' r("sie as mnist, Cis it years mnist, Wrk Ior a IhysI al nlit 0, 1 it II Ii II of as c. c'lantd th ( (Ixpwctay rtatI tIud c that thic not(d that Cuba as a -()ml all-the-y(ar-round conuntry. The end of the first y(ar of the cotltyreckOInin'1 r1m b1ll Octohcr 9, $oX, hen the the inr o stone corOnl death stark ?MIr. War old, and Iman 1. I condition.

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1k Scixv."N \;r:N \ GRANIF S 1' N

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At the End of the I first Year. 2 1 sIurVCVOrs began opctrationsress toward .xtensiIvt colonizatio Gloria alone, hut also In the couintryv. The Cuban Coloniza;ti( organized with Dr. W. I'. Pi rc ton, Ill., as presiditt and tr W. G. Spiker of Clxe lan], O president and gentiral manyatcr, two excellent tracts of land. tr, not in La urrounding n (_ onpatiy, of Iloop i S :ts \aice h1(1 $1K'&IrI(( fnO\\l US Laguna Grande and Rincon Grmnde, to the eastward of the La Gloria property. ThS are being slhdi idcd and sold to colonists in small holdings. In the Rinon Grul tract. on the baytront, the city of Culhnthia is beini laid out, aild doubtl]ss wxill soon be settled by thrity and procgrssivt coloists from the U sited States. It is ci aimid that this is the exact spot where Columnbus landed in I.1 and it certainly dot itS answer will the list(oriClal (l('scriptioni .;)tler ({)lonis had purchased the Canihsi trCt SnShtlhtst of ha Gloria and adjoining the Cariad property, and I 1on. Peter E. Park was said to have secured an option on the Pilota tract. It i understood thalt this' t\o tracts arc to hie diVititd up and sold to colonists. The Carmdad tract, adjoining La Gloria on the South, had passed into the hands of Mr. 0. N. l 1

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216 Pioneering in Cuba. Lulbert of New York, and still other tracts in the neighborhood were being negotiated jor by Americans. Judgfingf from the progress of this first year in colonization, there x\ill soon he more Aiiericans ili this region than Cubans. The nearest Cuban village to La Gloria is Guanaja (pronounced Wan-ai-ha) twelve miles to the northwest, and six or stven miles from )VMcreedes. lIeire the Ten Years' War Guanja w\\as a port of some illportance. asd the villages is said to haVe mll)braced one hiuidred and eighty houses. But the town iand surroundigttV country stfl'ered severely in the lon1 war, and somewhat in the later conflict. Now Gualija consists of one rildt wooden buildillg, used a a store, and a dozen shacks stretched aloini the hay front close to the water, with a lev scatteied palm houses fIurther back from the shore. The situation is rather picturesque, coninanding a beatutiful 60\I across the brilliait-hticd water to Cy Romano, and the surrounding country is pleasant and might be mladr highly productiVe. Thw La Gloria colonists somectimles patlron1ized the Guantja store. and 0und the proprietor accomnodatin'Ig andi reasonable in his prices. In the coiutry het\en La Gloria

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At the End of the Ili and Guanaja xve would ofthe u the A Gard, in They werc fine-lOtoking Iectedl by the Amnerican tl rIup S IIu I rst Year. 2 17 mtti lenmb rs 1)I 1 v( or tibrcc. tcc l.ubians. cmliriII from among; the N-st Wthe latte Gomez, Garcia, and Maco) 11 country and pr srvt the ptacc quently visited us at l (;Lnrii, favtrablc imprcSSion. TCh La Gloria voh]uy at tilt first Fear had Stvert l nt\ly 6YI rmn tin1s ill a ilourishi ii con1iti nlt l ilrnml nt patrol the antI madet 7 close t' i I ccd trgaizaPro'mine1tnt : inOing thes C wa11s tht' I., pOrtatiOll C mlla8.t\, te(i tlhe p c tranl ;1 \ werc: J. C. I0l, ,In Iirst \ice-pr.sidt)1 t :11l A. 1errom, ccmld v Custer N01', chict, ("11" secretary \;7 Wiim ia .G 0. luth fOrld, 1). \\ W. 1. Carson, j. A. \ La Glorria Ctdln T l 'anizttl to ca.Stwt an line t the h;y, sa J. C. Kell y, lprcsident precsidecnt ad cencral IGloria CuluucylTran ItL O\'lIt 8(1 (l crto 1tIe 'it .Its (Ii jr 4i10nt: I). K .kLw) ll, !I 4)J)ral I i a ticr: W icl-pr itdl nt : I .A, Fn.r: I. G. Barncr, ill gr;t urr I 1I. W and Jloh1n Lx l a n l.,:. Clil-tun, K. II. F rd, lc".icr, llirecturs. Th'e ( cphonlr C<,mplany-, d 01prrtc a tchcllhnc Iliie rcll as Iulllows: ; F. l. Kezar, vicemalna cr : J. 12. I'. do

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Pioneering in Cuba. les Derniers, secretary ; S. M. Van der Voort, chief engineer and director ; J. A. Connell, director. The La Gloria Colonv Cemetery Association had the following olicers J. C. Kelly, AI. A. C. Neff, 1). E. Lowell, trustees ; J. C. Kelly, president ; II. W. 0. Mararty, vice-president: E. L. Ellis, treasurer ; A. H. Chambers, secretary ; Rev. W. A. Nicholas, general mnaaer ; F. iE. Kezar, J. C. Francis, S. L. Benham, Mrs. W. A. Nicholas, Mrs. John Lind, directors. Tihe Cuban Land and Steamship Compav d)lated ten acres of land for a cemetery. The La Goria liorticultural Societyhad about thirty members, with ollicers as follows : I. W. 0. Margary, president ; A. N. Prove. vice-president ; It. G. Barner, secretary : Smith Everett, treasurer. The La Prima Literary Society also had somethingr like thirty members, and these olicers : 1. W. O. Mrary, chairman ; A. T. Provo, vice-chainrmni ; .I I. Ford, secretary ; Smith Everett, treasurer. The two last named societies jointly purchased a town lot, and propose to erect at some future time a building or a hall, reading-room, etc. The colony's first anniversary foUnd imprOvements marching steadily, if not rapidly, 218

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At the End oF thei First Year. 2[9 on. The sawimill, alrewadyv alluded it), was busilyat work : Olsoi's shingle mill \\us CoInpletedt; the two-story Irimie uildin' uI Cintral avenue to be used a. r post-ollirt, d\\&i1ing, etc., was done, as were nuutmeitris other wooden houses OCCupied as sttrs i)r residences ; there were half a dziln weIl-st IcK d store, doin;; business, andl -wv cral restaurants and hakeries. Mlaiiv luildinfs wrre ii process of Constrnetion, anid much clcaring and planting !oin On. COi{e fruit trees wcre being; impoirtcd, as well as, catte, orates, swine, and poultry. The colonists were subsisting in part up)n vugetales and pineapples of their own raisin;, and lo(>kin( ConfidentIV forward to exporting products rid this charater in the near future. Fruit ]growing was the most popuI industry amfong4 the cO1{lists, bilt there \\rcn those who wecrc iowking imt the subjects ()i sugar, coiit'e, tOhaCCO, aCacao, ruhher, lunb)er, cattle raisin., etc. The outlook for all suh enterprises seemrcd highly promiisinte. E rnt needs of La Gloria arc a ianuin factory ;aid aU establishment rli tlht mnaclltaiture (1f ItIrnitlue : these industries should Iloturish front the start. The enthusiasm of the Colonists was utlhounded; they' were tilled and thrilled with

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220 Pioneering in Cuba. delih(ft over their newN home in the tropics. The clinhate Witsi glorious, the air rcfreshin(f and soothing, the Country picturesque and healthful, the soil fertile and productive. Not for a moment did they doubt that, after a few short years of slight hardship and trilling deprivations, a life of luxurious cotliort laybefore them. A fortune or a competence seemed certain to come to every man w WI) wmoudi work and wait fir it, and in all in GSloria there wAis hardy a person to le found wiho xotuli willilv blot from his mciory his interesting experiences whilee Ple iHmlp ; is C n

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Pioneering in Cuba. A NARRATIVE OF THE SETTLEMENT OF LA GLORIA, THE FIRST AMERICAN COLONY IN CUBA, AND THE THE PIONEERS. EARLY EXPERIENCES OF By JAMES M. ADAMS, one of the original Colonists, In one volume. 16 mo., illustrated with scenes in La Gloria. PRICE: Bound in Cloth, $r.oo; Bound in Paper, go Cents. The book will be sent postpaid on receipt of price by the author, at North Weare, N. H., or by the Rumford Printing Co., Concord, N. H3. AGENTS WANTED. Address the author.

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Fortunes in Cuba A SHORT ROAD TO A COMPETENCY AND A LIFE AMID TROPICAL DELIGHTS FOR THOSE WHO ARE AWAKE TO THE PRESENT OPPORTUNITY. The Cuban Colonization Company WNS and holds deeds for two large tracts of the best land in Cuba, situated on the north coast in the Province of Puerto Principe, the most fertile and healthful portion of the island. This region is being rapidly colonized by enterprising Americans, who own and are developing thousands of plantations in the immediate vicinity of our holdings. We are selling this valuable land in small tracts, from five to forty acres each, at a low price, payable in monthly installments. It has been practically demonstrated that this soil will produce abundantly all kinds of tropical fruits, sugar cane, coffee, tobacco, cocoanuts, etc. The purchaser of land from us will have no taxes to pay for the first three years, and can have a warranty deed as soon as his land is paid for.

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A discount of 10 per cent, allowed from regular prices when full payment is made at time of purchase. An Insurance Policy. In case of the death of anyt putchaser we will issue a warranty deed to his or her estate without further payment. REMEMBER -That a 10-acre Cran'e Grove in Cuba, four years old, is worth ten thousand doLlars, and will net you from three to six thousand dollars annual. REMEMBER-That in Cuba you car have fruits ripening every month in the year. REMEMBER-That what you would pay for winter clothing and fuel to keep you warm in the United States will keep up a home in Cuba, where the winter months are perpetual June. REMEMBER That in our location are combined a de9 lightful and healthful climate, pure and al-undant water, and a rich and productive soil. Send for illustrated boo1:let an. learns, g:iIg isnImation concerning prices, etc. CUBHN COIONILATION COJTPONY. MAIN OFFICE, ROOM 367, ARCADE, CLEVELAND, OHIO. BRANCH OFFICE, --HOOPESTON, ILL. ... OFFICERS ... UR. RW. P. PIIRCI Pre-ieunt alnd T'rEaunr. W. G. 5PIKhR, Vicr-I'residentanid ilcncral Mianager. G. W. IIANC1T I'T, Assisant tuaagerr. W. I'. PlIRC JR., Secretary. JAM IS PCi:C}S, Assistant Secretary.

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