Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Back Matter
 Back Matter


A guide to Hayti
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01200014/00001
 Material Information
Title: A guide to Hayti
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Redpath, James ( editor )
Publisher: Thayer & Eldridge
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1860
Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean
Spatial Coverage: Haiti -- Caribbean
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Source Institution: University of Central Florida Libraries ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: University of Central Florida ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights to images are held by the respective holding institution. This image is posted publicly for non-profit educational uses, excluding printed publication. For permission to reproduce images and/or for copyright information contact Special Collections & University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries, Orlando, FL 32816 phone (407) 823-2576, email: speccoll@mail.ucf.edu
Resource Identifier: F1921.R32
System ID: CA01200014:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Dedication 1
        Dedication 2
        Dedication 3
        Dedication 4
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Introduction 1
        Introduction 2
        Introduction 3
        Introduction 4
        Book First
        Section 2
        Chapter I
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Chapter II
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Chapter III
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
        Chapter IV
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Chapter V
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Chapter VI
            Page 53
            Page 54
            Page 55
        Chapter VII
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Chapter I
            Page 63
            Page 64
        Chapter II
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
            Page 83
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
            Page 92
        Chapter III
            Page 93
            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
        Chapter IV
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
        Chapter V
            Page 100
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
        Chapter VI
            Page 104
            Page 105
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Page 119
            Page 120
        Chapter VII
            Page 121
            Page 122
            Page 123
            Page 124
            Page 125
            Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Chapter I
            Page 129
            Page 130
            Page 131
            Page 132
            Page 133
            Page 134
            Page 135
            Page 136
            Page 137
        Chapter II
            Page 138
            Page 139
            Page 140
            Page 141
            Page 142
            Page 143
        Chapter III
            Page 144
            Page 145
            Page 146
            Page 147
            Page 148
            Page 149
            Page 150
        Chapter IV
            Page 151
            Page 152
            Page 153
            Page 154
            Page 155
            Page 156
            Page 157
            Page 158
        Chapter V
            Page 159
            Page 160
            Page 161
            Page 162
            Page 163
        Chapter VI
            Page 164
            Page 165
            Page 166
            Page 167
        Chapter VII
            Page 168
            Page 169
            Page 170
        Chapter VIII
            Page 171
            Page 172
            Page 173
            Page 174
            Page 175
            Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Back Matter
        Page 13
    Back Matter
        Page 14
Full Text
L r -1

a -f--" -.--




114 &



- ----I ~

William L. Bryant
Jo r^id= ---

West Indies'.
West Indies










Entered, according to Act of Congress, In the year 180, by


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachustts.

erssatlmo no rims T
020. C. RAND & ATRT.
















N coeequence of the fllre of the publisher of the First Edition of
this Volume, no copes will be finished to the Trade until the Govern-
aent contract is killed, when the work will be supplied by the Editor, or
by Agents authorized by him, to the general public. Each Emigrant will
be supplied with a copy free.
A copy, also, will be sent to every "responsible Editor," Governor, Mayor,
and Member of Congress or Parliament, in the United States and the




S 1
* 8
. 6
. 7-8
S 9-11
* 12

Nook fast t qut4 e of fa it gatrU.
L--History of Hayti, by Auguste Elie .
IL.-Geography of Hayti, by B. Ardouin. .
HL.-The Animal Kingdom, by the Editor .
IV. -The Vegetable Kingdom, by the Editor .
V.- The Mineral Kingdom, by Dr. W. G. Smith
VI.- Soil of Hayti, by W. S. Courtney .
VII.- Climate, Seasons, and Temperature, by Dr. W. G. Smith,

Naook stconb- Cte tngblic anb emigration,
S-Editorial Introduction ..
I.- Constitution of the Republic of Hayti, with the Legisla-
tive Modifications in full .. .
III.-Letter of A. Jean Simon, Secretary of State, to James
Bedpath .
IV.-Call for Emigration, by F. E. Dubois, Secretary of State,
V.-Letter of Gen. Fs. Jn. Joseph, Secretary of State, to
Rev. Wm. P. Newman .






8 Contents.

VI.-Vacant Lands: Report of the Secretary of the Interior P
to His Excellency the President of Hayti, on Emigra-
tion and the Vacant Lands, with the Decree of the
President in relation thereto 104-120
VIL-Laws on Emigration, with the Legislative Proceedings
thereon 121-126

goo8k tirb-gogi tod"tes anb 6ssa1s.
L--The People of Hayti, their Character, Origin, Language,
Industry, and Numbers 129-137
IL--Religion and Education : Notes on the Catholic Church,
Protestantism, Religious Toleration, and Education 188-143
m.-Notes on Navigation and Commerce 144-150
IV.-Political Notes: Territorial Divisions, Revenue and
Debts, Army, Navy, Laws, Currency, Weights and
Measures, Rights of Whites, and the Haytan Em-
blems .. 161-158
V.-Diseases of Hayti and their Remedies, by Dr. W. G.
Smith 19-168
VI.-The Seaports of Haytt 14-167
VI.-How to go, and what to take to Hayti 168-170
VI.L-A Parting Word ... 171-1f5


THERE is only one country in the Western World where the Black
and the man of color are undisputed lords; where the White is in-
debted for the liberty to live to the race which with us is enslaved; where
neither laws, nor prejudices, nor historical memories, press cruelly on
persons of African descent; where the people whom America degrades
and drives from her are rulers, judges, and generals; men of extended
commercial relations, authors, artists, and legislators; where the insolent
question, so often asked with us, "What would become of the Negro
if Slavery were abolished ? is answered by the fact of an independent
Nationality of immovable stability, and a Government inspired with the
spirit of progress. The name of this country is HAYTI. To Americans
t presents an important and interesting study in whatever light regarded,
-whther viewed, as the publicists of Europe regard the Union, as a new
political experiment; or historically, as the home of a coming race, to be
composed, like the English, by the mingling of various bloods; or philo-
sophically, for the purpose of learning lessons for our own national
guidance and instruction from the sanguinary chronicles of its wars of
Independence. Bat it is to the friend of the Black, and, above all, to
the enslaved and persecuted races in America, that Hayti presents the
most important problem; to both it has a higher than a merely specula-
tire interest; for to the philanthropist it suggests the thought of a duty
to be performed, and to the proscribed it offers a home and a distinctive
First interested in Hayti by the rare eloquence of Wendell Phillips,
I sailed for Cape Haytian in January, 1859, for the purpose
of describing the country and its people. During my voyage to the
Island, a Revolution was successfully accomplished; an Emperor was
banished, and a President installed. A new historical era had opened.


I remained in thp Island two months, travelling on foot from Cape Hay.
tian to Gonaives; in an open boat from that town to Port-au-Prince, and
on horseback from the capital to Jacmel. I occupied myself exclusively
in gathering information, -geographical, political, and historical. I re-
turned to Boston in April; but, finding that my Notes were incomplete,
and in many instances contradictory, and desirous of correcting my first
impressions by more extended studies, I again sailed for Hayti in June,
-disembarking at Gonaives; from which, in July, I made a pedestrian
tour to the American colored settlement at L'Arcahaie. From that fertile
district, I sailed to Port-an-Prince, where I resided until my departure in
My third visit was made in July of this year, for the purpose of explor-
ing Tortuga and the other insular dependencies of Hayti.
In the mean time,among other patriotic projects of progress, material
and moral, which the Government of President Gefrard had devised, was
the plan of inviting an immigration into Haytiof all the enlightened and
industrious men of African descent, in the States and the Provinces of
North America. As an Abolitionist and a Republican, I felt a
double interest in this project, -for not only will it be an agency of
strengthening a colored Nation, by developing its resources, introducing
new inventions, and bringing to it also moral sources of power, and thus
demonstrating the capacity of the race for self-government, but it will
carry out the programme of the ablest intellects of the Republican Party,
-of surrounding the Southern States with a cordon of free labor, within
which, like a scorpion girded by fire, Slavery must inevitably die.
There is no country in the world better adapted for the culture of cotton,
sugar, rice, and other Southern staples, than Hayti. All that it needs is
laborers, intelligent and industrious, to devote themselves to the work.
Thus, with the lever of an enlightened immigration in Hayti, the colored
men of America could greatly aid in overturning the system of chattel
Slavery in the South.
Brought into correspondence with the Government of Hayti, I uag-
gested a number of guarantees to immigrants that should be officially an-
nounced; all of them, and many others subsequently asked for, (which
will be found in the following pages) were immediately and publicly
conceded. It will be found, also, that, in its desire for an enlightened
immigration, the Government has transcended, not the demands only,
but the expectations of the friends and representatives of the colored
people in America. Requested to indicate the measures that should be
employed to inform the class of immigrants invited of the nature of the
country, the offers and intentions of the Government, and all the facts
which men, seeking a new home, are naturally desirous of learning, I


suggested, among other measures, the publication of a Guide Book. the
establishment of a corresponding office in the Stni.s, and the ap.r-iint-
mont of Agents to visit the various localiries in tho Union and Canada
In which there are settlements of men of African descent. This pro-
gramme was adopted, and I was asked to take charge of irt exerurion.
I accepted the position, and prepared this book The experience that I
gained In the Kansas work had taught me that it is neither po-sii.le
nor desirable to put into a Guide Book-for I once attemprt:d to do so
-all that intending emigrants will ask. Hence, in this volume, tho
reader will find the essential facts only; for further information, he must
apply, personally or by letter, to the office in Boston, where ccnritH
copies of the Governmental guarantees, the journals of Ilayri, bo.ks if
reference, maps, specimens of the or-s, and of the sraple cultures of the
Island, will be found.
All that section of this volume entitled "Official Part," is atohorize'.
by the Government of Hayti, haring heen submitted to the Mlinit~r of
Exterior elatlons, and other menimbrs of the Cabinet of Prcii.l.-nt
0eftard. The original Doc nmentr bear the Seals of the respe ti'e I)e-
paunents from which they emanated, or to which they werc sutrmiitt.,
fbr conlfrmaion. For the rest, I have given my authorities, or rite from
my personal knowledge.
The Island of Hayri, originally divided between the French and
Spanish, but reunited under Prceident Buyer, in 1822, r.-urr-nl to) its
colonial political divisions in 1843. from cnuse w'hi'h it would be ecrnterng
Into the domain of politics to enumerate. Since that lime Ihe )Domini-
can Republic has held a large portion of the ancient Eait-rn or Spani;h
Part, and the Governments of Hayti the Western, or old Frnuch Part,
with considerable annexations. As both Parts are n,.arly similarr in
their natural features, while writing in detail respecting Hayti, I have, at
the same time, inserted a general geographical view of both of these
The translations are by various hands; all of them are extremely
literal. The Map accompanying the Geffrard Edition is the most ac-
carase hitherto published.
No. 8 Washington Building, Boston.



On a bald peak Northern
Stands the Pine-tree lonely:
Sleeping,-his white mantle
Ice and snow-flakes only.


Dreaming that a Palm-tree,
Morning land adorning,
Lonely, on heights sultry,
Silently is mourning.



On the hills of Hayti,
Wave the Palm-trees gladly:
Never in their slumbers
Sigh the Pine-trees sadly.

Verdant are their branches,
Never winter-blighted;
Married,-see the loving
Pines and Palms united.


Iook fitst



gistort of apti.*

Swas the 6th of December, 1492, that Christopher Colum-
bus discovered the Island of Hayti. For this Caribbee
name, the great navigator substituted that of Hispaniola, in
honor of Spain, his adopted country.
It was the first land in America on which Europeans were to
settle, and it was the first where the peaceful aborigines who
inhabited it were to fall beneath the devouring activity of their
new masters. The five caciques, who divided the authority,
were subdued, some by the flattering manners of the Spaniards,
and the rest by the force of their arms.
The brevity of this sketch forbids us to relate the many
changes of the long drama which transformed this happy and
populous island into a blood-stained desert. We refer those
who are curious to learn this lamentable story, to the Life of
Columbus, by Washington Irving. Suffice it to say, that the
conquerors, having found quantities of gold in the country,
abandoned themselves with eagerness to the research of this
metal; and the aborigines, men little accustomed to labor,
forced by their masters to the fatiguing work of the mines, quickly
The discovery of the richer mines of Mexico caused those of

Tranlated from the original sketch of Mr. Auguste Elie, of Port-au-
Prince, which wau written expressly for this volume.

16 History of Hayti.

Hayti to be abandoned, their working having become difficult
on account of an insufficient population.
Another cause of decay was being developed at the same
time. This was the war sustained by the Dutch, English, and
French against the Spanish navigators, who designed to exclude
every other flag from these new seas. These adventurers, who
sailed in light vessels, and who afterwards became celebrated
under the name of Buccaneers, settled at several points, and I
especially at Tortuga, a small island situated on the northern
coast of Hayti. From thence, they spread by degrees over the
mainland, where they founded, under the protection of Cardi-
nal Richelieu, the French colony of St. Domingo.
The Spaniards, from the commencement of their settlement,
introduced slaves of African origin into Santo Domingo, the
name of the capital, which, instead of Hispaniola, was sooq ap-
plied to the whole island. The two oppressed races lived in the
same tortures; but when, three centuries later, came the hour
of deliverance, the public law of the new nationality recognized
their common right to the exclusive property of the soil.
Under the Spanish dominion, the colony remained stationary.
Three hundred years of possession had only produced a popula-
tion varying from 100,000 to 150,000 souls.
The French had much greater success. In 1789, the por-
tion which they possessed numbered a population of about
600,000, and five sixths of this population, compelled to labor
in merciless bondage, had brought the property of the masters
to the highest degree of prosperity.
The French Revolution now added another danger to that
which had already shown itself in partial revolts amongst the
slaves. The white colonists, and the free men of color* formed
antagonistic parties, who discussed their privileges in presence
of the trembling slave. The logical conclusion of such a state

In Hayti, the phrase "men of color" is used exclusively to designate
persons of mixed blood, black being applied and confined to those of pure
African descent.

' History of Hayti. 17

il .was necessarily the assertion of more general rights;
:a .idthe insurrection of the slaves soon swept away all the insti-
flp.u of tie pat. Slavery disappeared forever from the face
i eib bmtrua stand a decree of the National Convention legalized
ajmIvesal liberty which had already become triumphant.
Crie.l:Wonista, from the commencement of the crisis, bad par-
tialy pronunced in favor of deserting the cause of the bMther
.: Aew of the principal insurgent chiefs, especially Tt'u-saint
Louverture, soon began to think of independence. Their hatred
qf pmat which they held in abhorrence prevented their alliance
with any of the now parties. They passed from one flag to
th very opposite one. Other, like Rigaud, dev,,ted them-
Mivrs.to republican France; but the majority of them fought
iwposaly against the English, at that time the supporters of
6i slaveholders. In vain did Spain and England maintain
tha cam of the old regibre. The newly freed, si:uonled by the
energy of Sonthonax. uIemier of the Convent;ln, triumphed in
the cause of liberty. In order to batffl tlhe digns of
independence entertained by Toussaint Lourerture, and to
establish the former state of things, Napoleon. First Consul,
sent to St. Domingo an army composed of the soldiers of the
Pyramids, lareng), and Hlohenlinden. One hundred and fifty
millions of francs, and twenty thousand men of his host troops
were swallowed up in this expedition. one of the most torri-
ble lesson ever read to this great man. The only gain accruing
to him from this enterprise was the capture of Toussaint Louver-
tire, (who was taken by treachery,) and the shame of the death
of this celebrated chief, wlh perished of misc-ry and could in the
Castle of Joux.
At the head of the valiant soldiers who had been lighting fI.r
ten years for their hberty, the most distinguished chiref were
Deeaalines, Pftion, and Christophe. This time. it was no longer
against servitude only that they unfurled their banner, it was

18 History of Hayti.

in thbename of a higher principle, -that of National Indepen-
The capitulation of the Cape, signed on the 28th of Novem-
ber, 1803, by General Rochambeau, was followed shortly after
by the proclamation of independence. This act, which is the
starting-point of Haytian nationality, was signed at Gonaives on
the 1st of January, 1804.
By the treaty of Bale, Spain had abandoned to France the
Spanish part of St. Domingo. Toussaint Louverture, in his
capacity of governor-general, had gone to take possession of
the country, and, was there even at the time of the arrival of
the French expedition. In the name of this right, in 1804, the
Empire of Hayti was created, comprising the entire mainland,
and the adjacent islands. Dessalines, named Emperor, sought
to occupy Santo Domingo; but in this enterprise he failed, being
baffled by the resistance of the inhabitants of the Eastern Part,
who were supported by General Ferrand, commanding, in the
name of France, a small remnant of the expedition of Napo-
The Constitution of 1804 was liberal. Its decrees have no
longer any other than an historical interest. Nevertheless,
one of its articles has survived its wreck, that, namely, on which
is based the exceptional nationality of Hayti. It recognizes the
right of property in the country to belong exclusively to men
of the African or Indian races, and has been maintained in
every subsequent Constitution.
Dessalines, on his accession as Emperor, was placed in a very
embarrassing position, in a country entirely disorganized, and in
which compulsory labor had always existed, even under Tons-
saint. In order to continue the traditions received from the
past, he believed that, armed with dictatorial power, it was his
duty to crush every obstacle that opposed his course. His
cruelty arrayed against him his ancient companions in arms.
Powerful enmities arose against him on all sides, and he was
assassinated near Port-au-Prince, on his return from a journey

History ot Hayti. 19

to the Cape. This time a more liberal compact was adopted, in
imitation of the Constitution of the United States. Chrietopho
was called to the presidency of the Republic of Ilayti, lu
the form of the new government being contrary to his wibets,
he refused to accept its conditions, and began a fratricidal war,
which lasted till his death.
Having failed in his attempt to seize Port-au-Prince, he with-
drew to the Cape, which Ibecame the capital of the State of
Hnyti, and on the 2-1 of June. 1 11, he (clu-Il himself to be
crowned King. Endowed with talent for organizati-,n lunt of a
nature both despotic anIl cruel, he was uns uicusiful in firiunling
anything durable, fir his artificial creations were unsuppi'rte.i
by the aspirations of a free picopli. lia attempts again-t the
Republic, les poIwerful than his own State, failed on accrunt of
the secret support that P(tion found amongst the subjects 4f the
King. At length, being unable, in consequence of an attack
of paralysis, to mount his horse, when on the point of starting
to repress a sedition, he blew out his brains on the bth of Octo-
ber, 1220. in his palace of Sans S-ueci.
After the refusal of the pr-siideney ly Christophe in 1,1'',
Petion was namneli in his stran. An alle statesman and a
sincere republican, he had, during the whole course of lii; life,
to struggle against men infinitely inferior to him in talent.
Betrayed by his companions in arms, little understood even I'y
men of note, he overcame by his address all the obstacle which
appeared ready to crush him. His war against ('Christiphe was
his principal difficulty, lbut the seeession of the Department of
the South, which was, for a time, erected into an independent
State under Rigaud, added, also, greatly to his embarrassments.
This famous chief of the first wars of the Revolution, compro-
mised his past glory in lending himself, at Cayes, to a division
which might have proved fatal to the Republic.
After having reannexed the South, at the death of Rigaud,
and repulsed an attack he sustained from Christophe, Pktion
put into execution an idea which he had long before conceived.

20 History of Hayti.

He had understood, with his great sagacity, that, in order to
settle the new society, it was necessary to attach to the soil, by
ties of a nature agreeable to the existing institutions, those men
who, for twenty years, as soldiers and civil officers, had served
their country with devotion. He gave them, gratuitously, large
quantities of land, and nearly all the territorial grants are dated
from his time.
One of the objects of Pktion's attention was the Revision of
the Constitution. In Hayti, the same fault had been committed
as at Philadelphia; in presence of the Executive there had been
created a Senate, invested with all the legislative power, as well
as with some executive privileges. But with men less enlight-
ened and less disciplined, the inconveniences of the system
were still more disastrous. Profiting by acquired experience,
PEtion demanded the Revision of the Constitution of 1806,
and this was done at Grand Goave, with all the legal forms, in
the year 1816. This act, in its principal outline, was the result
of an amalgamation of the American Constitution with the
Constitution of the Year 8 of the French Republic.
PMtion died shortly after, worn out by twenty-five years
of continual struggles. Plstcrity has been more just towards
him than his contemporaries, and has placed him with reason at
the head of the statesmen of his country.
General Boyer succeeded to the Presidency. He had the
glory of repressing in the South the insurrection of a partisan
chief, whom Potion had never succeeded in subduing; of unit-
ing, at the death of Christophe, the north of the Island to the
Republic, and of effecting the annexation of the old Spanish
Part to his dominions. Under his government of twenty-five
years, the administration was put upon a better footing in all
its branches, and the independence of the country recognized
by the principal European Powers. But from the date of his
treaty with France, in 1825, his vigor and activity were seen to
diminish.* A kind of general languor spread over the Govern-
Mr. Elle here refers to the Treaty, by which President Boyer agreed to pay

History of Hayti.

ment and the country, and this long peace nas in no way
utilized to the interest of the future. B.,yer introduced
paper money into the country. If he did not. make a wrong
use of this financial expedient, he was none the less its inventor;
and the rate of the Spanish dollar fell sixty per cent. during
his administration.
He was overthrown by a revolution set on foot by men of
abilities much inferior to his own. He fell, struck down by a
reaction of public opinion against him, provoked by an excess
of vanity which blinded him to the fact that, though a man be
superior in intellect to others, such superiority must he mani-
Lested in his actions. He believed that the power at his com-
mand would be .-lffeicent to crush the pretensions of the oppo-
sition; but he was deceived.
He died in exile, which he bore with dignity, avoiding every
step that might have been produ active of agitation in his country.
And the comparisons which have been made between his gov-
ernmient and those that have succeeded it, have been wholly to
his advantage.
Under the Provisional Government that succeeded him, a
Constitution, resembling still more those of the United States
than the preceding ones, was voted in due form. Unly one of
its articles was put into execution, viz: that which treated of
the nomination of the President. General Herard Riv6re, the
leader of the last revolution, and a man of no note, sank, after
a few months, overwhelmed by the reprobation of the public.
This period is signalized by two important facts: the separation
of the old Spanish Part from the Republic, and the insurrection
of the mountaineers of the South. Fortunately the nomination
of Guerier to the Presidency happened in time to extricate the
country from the perilous position in which it was placed. Be-
fore this respected name, all parties laid down their arms. He
France one hundred and fifty millions of francs, for the recognition of Hay-
tian Independence, and as an indemnity for the losses of the colonial propre-
tors. This treaty first created a national debt, and was very unpopular with
the people.- E.

22 History of Hayti.

took no further steps towards regaining possession of the old
Spanish Part than the placing a corps of observation on the
frontier, and the rest of the country was pacified.
Guerier died at the expiration of a year, after having restored
to the country that tranquillity which had been disturbed during
the last two years. His name is always mentioned, to this day,
with expressions of national gratitude.
He was succeeded in power by General Pierrot, the brother-
in-law of Christopho, a man utterly insignificant, and under
whom the whole of the administration fell into great disorder.
A military insurrection overthrew him, and called to the Presi-
dency General Rich6, a distinguished soldier.
The administration of Rich6 was short, but active and vigor-
ous. A reform in several branches of the general administra-
tion was undertaken, and it is probable that if his early death
had not arrested his progress he would have completely re-
organized the public service. Having been one of Christophe's
generals, he introduced into his government a severity which
sometimes bordered on tyranny, but which was always in con-
formity with the principles of a strict discipline. Jealous of his
power, like all the men of his school, he was pitiless towards
the insurgents of the South, who reappeared at his accession.
The Constitution of 1844 had fallen during the events which
separated the Spanish Part from the Republic, and threw, for a
moment, (May, 1844,) the country into a state of complete
anarchy. Guerier, possessing Dictatorial power, created a
council of state invested with legislative powers and intrusted
with the nomination of the President in case of vacancy. Pierrot
governed the Republic in the same forms. On his accession to
power, Riche adopted the Constitution of 1816, and instituted a
senate which was to draw up a new fundamental pact. This
was the origin of the constitutional law, which, with the excep-
tion of a few modifications introduced in 1859, still rules the
country. It bears date the 15th November, 1846.
RichA died at the expiration of a year. General Faustin

History of Hayti. 23

Soulouque was elected by the Senate in his stead. He suc-
eeded to power with the reputation of being a virtuous man,
straightforward and well-disposed; but all parties soon dis-
covered how greatly they had been deceived in him. Egotism
and superstition were the springs of his actions, and the pro-
longation of his power tended to a complete diorganization of
all administrative and social order. The revenue was publicly
and unblushingly plundered, and the country was considered
by the whole world as fast receding toward barbarism. Under
the name of Faustin I., he caused himself to be crowned Em-
peror of Hayti ; he had a court, a nobility, and al the ridiculous
pageantry of the old monarchies. His cruelty rendered him
odious, and his disrespect of individual rights made him utterly
regardless of the feelings of persons of every class. The con-
auls of foreign Powers took toward his government a contemptu-
ous attitude, which aided greatly in bringing it into disrepute.
This despotic power, which seemed so solid, fell at length,
without resistance, by the breath of a man of courage,-the Pres-
ident of to-day. Accumulated hatred and ardent revenge
clamored for the death of the Emperor, but thu Government
had the merit of protecting his eirbarkatio:n. He withdrew to
Jamaica, to fall again into the obscurity from which, flr the
happiness of mankind, he should never have issued.
The present Government, which has held for nearly two
years the reins of administration, has above all applied itself
to the healing of the wounds inflicted on the country by ten
years of a fatal reign. It has touched on all question- of
general interest, has succeeded in solving some, and is engag-'l
in studying others. It understands that industry and agricul-'
ture are the first wants of a people settled on one .it' the"
richest soils in thu world, and it goes forward with moderation,
but with firmness, in the road ,fT continuous improvement.
It has granted to the inhabitants of the Eastern Part a truce
of five years, resolved to avoid a war which it is notfor its in-

24 History of Hayti.
torest to recommence; for it has enough to do to reorganize the
interior and develop the resources it posse-ses. By persevering
in these wise designs, it already occupies an honorable position
among the Republics of the New World.

Srograpclj of jgati.*

THE Island of Hayti, situated between 170 55' and 200
North latitude, and between the 68th and 75th degrees of
West longitude from the meridian of Greenwich, is about 338
miles in length from East to West, whilst its breadth, from North
to South, varies from 145 miles to 17; and its circumference,
without including the bays, measures 848 miles. Its surface,
exclusive of the adjacent islands, is estimated at 30,528 square
miles. t
The Island is situated at the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico,
in the Atlantic Ocean. Itself one of the four great Antilles, it
holds the next rank after Cuba, which is situated at a distance
of 53 ldes to the North-West. To the West South-West is
situated Jamaica, at a distance of 109 miles; and 48 miles
East South-East is the Island of Porto Rico. To the North,
stret,:h Turk's Island and other headlands. To the South,
Columbia is found at about 605 miles, and at a less distance
are stuated the Windward Islands. It may be said, therefore,
thar, I1 all the West India Islands, IIayti is the most advan-
tagLu.u-ly situated with reference to the intercourse she may
mauinaLn with the surrounding isles and with Columbia, besides

*Tresailsted from" La Gdographie de 1'Isle d'Hati, par B. Ardonin: Port-
u- 'riL i rdimprimbe par T. ouchereau, 1856." This s the volume in use in
the Ecluoil ofthe Repubiic.
tl iht i to cny: Iayti is about the size of Ireland.-ED.

26 Geography of Hayti.

which, her communications with Europe and the United States
only enhance this geographical position.
The adjacent islands belonging to Hayti are Gonave,
Caimites, Ile-.-Vaches, BWate, Alta Vela, Saone, St. Catha-
rine, Mona, Monica, and La Tortue or Tortuga. We shall
treat of each separately.
Hayti presents the appearance of a vast territory composed of
mountains and plains.
From the conformation of the surface of the Island," says
M. de St. MWry, "which alternates in mountains and plains,
arises a great variation in its climate and temperature. This is
specially produced by the situation of the Island in the region
of the trade winds, since the prevailing East wind, to the
influence of which St. Domingo offers the whole of its length,
makes for itself between the mountain chains many currents
of air which refresh and temper these same mountains,-an
advantage of which the plains do not partake, inasmuch as the
mountains sometimes arrest the course of the wind, or change
its direction. Moreover, a host of local circumstances, such as
the elevation of the land, the quantity, more or less consider-
able, of water which irrigates the plains, the scarcity or abund-
ance of forests, have a sensible influence on the character of the
If a powerful cause did not counterbalance the action of a
scorching sun under the torrid zone, a sun which darts down its
rays almost perpendicularly, during about three months of the
year, upon St. Domingo, the temperature of this Island would
be insupportable for man, or at least for such as were not
designed by nature. expressly as inhabitants of this climate.
But this cause does exist in the wind of which we have just
spoken, and whose salutary effects weaken those of the sun.
To the protecting influence of the wind must be added the
nearly equal length of the days and nights, and the abundant
rains which produce constantly in the air a humidity at all times
desirable, and which, bathing profusely the surface of the

Geography of Hayti. 27

Island, occasion, through the evap.[,ration entised ly the heat
itself, a kind of cooling effect.
"Thus, by an immutalile order, the contemplation of which
earaptures the philosopher, nature has rirdainle that ,-vrrthing
should aid in maintaining a Hart of equililriumn in tlh, clilnate if
St. Domini. 0
The two seasons (summer and winter) arc mni'r manrk-'l:
in the mountains than in the plains, and in general the annioq-
Sheric changes nre morre rquent in the former. lere it is
tat the temperature is mildihst, anl here are nev,-r flt i.ithr.lr
the sultrry bat or tho.e wink whi'hli, when theyv I, nm, vi,..l,.t,
are more apt to dry the air than to ref'r(.'h mid run,.w it.
In fact, reQid.en,.e in the mountains is nmore plea.'int than
in the plains. country y life seemit here to have a nimre simple
character, and t, Ihe more ind-eplendent -f' all th,-,: re-traint-s
which etiquette inipo,,'- as a law u[pon the t.'wnis. :inl0 c.:'
upon the neighti.lring country. It is eurldnim that the thi Ihrm'nme-
tor rises shrove lx -rr '2ti Il'rr,,.s_. whilst in th'e plain" it r,.-lnhes
the mean rate ut thu towns, and :ronr l.uently mark..s a. high :i
30 degreea.t The nights here are -rimetiuc-es .o c--i.il th.lt the
use of a llankit is ilni-n t a ne'.',:--ity. Ther nre er.n emne
mountains in St. D"u-ing, where, at certain sea-ron-, fire is a
real enjoyment in the evening. This i. not on account of' any
extreme cold. since :o th thermometer never sinks li:iw-r than
about 12 or 14 derees; but the contrast of thie te'mpl.r.atuire to
that of the day is ~ a:.m-Iely rllt that the w.jrdi ii l.I and heat
are not to he unrilir-tui,,l in the ennae si,-n-. as in a i:.,1il: hImiate."
Like thb io.th.r We -t India Ilarni-. UJ:ytii is bullett II: t he
tempests whi,:h hapipn s.. ouirtn in thi-n pjrt iof Am,-ri;.:., :inl
which still I..-r the nam:e g;i i :n to thl:-m hy the Indiani. ulnt
it is the South part of the I-land, in- Inding tlie :ciiuntry lying
between Cape Euglatid and Iron Pouit. which suff-rs um :ro

IR. aumit ,. ,iur, I1.:. 7T 2 rr 7 II ,:rti F ti cu.h ,bct.
1 E. 1u.l l, '.I :rq .. :r, i. --. .alrili i I. I
SELquul tu d ta, dai iai, Faiibrnw [.

28 Geography of Hayti.

frequently than niy ither place troin this destructive scourge.
Nevertheles., M. de St. Mrcry h s sad. upon this subject:
" The niin who refrs everything to himself, and who is
expo-erl to the numberless evils which hurricanes may occasinn,
cannot easily discern their utility. But the philosoplher, whom
observation has convincedl of the alui:.al'le order that governs
the universe, tales for granted that they are useful, though he
may not understand how andr rather than blaspiheme against a
cause :o disastrous in appearance, ho is willing to believe that
these extraordinary movements of nature are necessary crises,
in harm'nyv with tb.h principles whose workings secure the pre-
servati'n of the clole, and that without them, perhaps, the
Antills would have been uninhabitable, on account of the
incrdille number of insects which cover the earth or flutter in
the air."
Whiatev-er may Le the dangers of hurricanes. they cannot I.e
compared in this respect to the earthquake. This dreadful
phenomenon destroyed, in 1564, the town of Conception de la
Vega, and has been felt more recently at Port-au-Prince, which
was overthrown in 1770. Since this last epoch, shocks have
taken place every year, but with much less intenseness. They
are generally preceded by a deep noise, called in Hayti goufre,
which is often heard without the shock being felt, and which is
produced by a cause unknown as yet, but which appears to
exist in the neighborhood of the lakes of Xaragua and Azuei,
between Neybe and Port-au-Prince.
Several of these reach to a considerable elevation above the
level of the sea. The principal range is that of Cibao, which
forms a considerable group, almost in the centre of the Island,
and from which diverge several chains in different directions.
It rises to at least 7,673 feet perpendicular height, and is
situated in the department of the North-East.
The Selle, the Mixique, and the Bahoruco or Maniel form
the same chain which, after stretching from West to East,

Geography of Hayti. 29

terminated in the South at the Point of Beate. The Srlle, rising
to the same height na the rage of the Cihao. is situated about
South East from Port-au-Prince, in the department :of the West.
The Hotte cmprises the chain which commences at the
Platons, in the arrondissement oif Cayes, crmssea that of Grande
Anse in the direction of East andl West, and ends at Calp-&-
Fnux, near Tiburon. Its height is also 7.673 English feet
above the level of the sea.
The Munlte Chrisli fnrms a chain which commences at
Grange Point and enlds at the Peninsula oif Samana.
The mountains ,;ire and of C;ihos Ibein near Marmelade,
and terminate in the arronXlnoiement of St. Jean.
Los Mnrtrs form the chain which terminates at Cape
Engsao, in the department of the South-East.
These lat-namedl mountains, together with others less con-
sideralle, rise to an average height of aLo-ut 2,41.1.1 feet.
"The number of m.iuntaina." says I1 de St. MI,. ry, "and
their height, notwithitan.ling the vast extent of the several
plains, give to the Iland. when seen at a distance, a moun-
tainous appearance, and is thb: rcas n why it is far horn giving
the favorable ,ipini)n it dIts:rves. But the oh.srver who con-
templates the mountain chains with all their branches, which
stretch their sinuous ramifications over the entire surface of the
Island, sees in this the cause of its fertility, -the immense
reservoir where are accumulated the waters which numlerless
rivers afterwards distribute on all sides ; a means destined by
nature to temper the effects of a burning un. to arr-'t thO fury
of the winlil, to vary the temperature, and even to multiply the
resources and combinations of human industry ; in short, the
soil destined to Iear for centuries the hounteous forests whillh,
since the creation, perhap-i received the fcrtilizinZ wator~ which
the clouds set-rete within their ho.om. and] which. by heir pro-
tective pi-.ition, are -nvaul fronm the tou h of rman, whole L:'nius
is nut alw.iv- i-I'-\ltie.

30 Geography of Hayti.
To these philosophic considerations, we may add the equally
important observation which is naturally impressed upon the
mind on viewing the mountains of Hayti, that these wild soli-
tudes have been, and will ever be, the bulwarks of liberty and
national independence.
The most extensive plain in the Island, according to the
same author, is that of Vega Real, situated in the depart-
ment of the North-East. It extends over the arrondissements
of Vega, San Yago, and Monte Christo. Its length is about
194 miles. It is remarkable for its fertility, and is watered by
numerous rivers. Its principal production consists in tobacco,
which is of excellent quality. Sugarcanes, cocoa, etc., are cul-
tivated, and cattle are raised there, but its small population,
scattered over so vast an extent of territory, is able to draw
from this fruitful land only a small portion of these valued
products. The river Grand Yaque, which discharges itself
into the bays of Ionte Christi, Mancenilla, and the Youna,
which empties itself into the beautiful bay of Samana, will
greatly facilitate the raising of these products, and will give to
this superb plain a real importance when it possesses a larger
and more active population.
From the left hand of the Ozama to the Cape Engaso, there
stretches an extent of land about 145 miles long, measuring
4096 square miles, of which more than 3,500 are plains; this is
also watered by several rivers. The produce raised comprises
sugar, coffee, tobacco, mahogany, honed cattle, and other
animals. Its soil is very fertile.
,The plain of Azua, which includes the space between the
river Neybe and the bay of Caldera, covers a surface of 879
square miles. It has a soil of astonishing fertility, notwith-
standing the drought which usually prevails. Here very fine
sugar is made, and the rearing of cattle and the cutting of
mahogany form also branches of industry, as throughout the
whole of the Eastern part of the Island.

Geography of Hayti. l

f. The plain of Neybe measures 469 square miles, and yields
th same kind of produce as that. of Azua.
:: The lowlands, situated at the foot of the Baf,,irnco, to the
Sut and West, comprise an extent of surface measuring 820
squan miles. They would offer the same advantages if
The plains of St. Jean, of Banica, and of Hinche, called
the valleys of St. Thomas and GcI'ac, cover a surface of 1172
square miles. The eartle raised in these rich pasture lands
fbrm the principal branch of industry for the inhabitants of
these parts, who havo much inrjrcan d since 1'22. All the
ether products of the country are also easily olitained.
The plains of the North, starting from the river of J.ass r.*
a far as the limits of Port Margot. may be estimated as coverin;,
all together. a superfl:;,; s of 1055 square miles. The sugar-
eane is here advantag-ously cultivated.
The plain of C(" de .Sac, near Port-au-Prince. measures 2i.
miles from East to West, while its breadth, from North to
South, varies from 6 miles to 10. It. was not until 1724
that the sugarcane was here planted. The usual arility .-f thii
plain forced the inhabitants to resort to the irrigatic-n of tlii.i
precious plant in 1730 ; and the effects of this powerful natural
agent were such that before the Revolution, about fifty aillin
pounds of this article were produced. This immense rc.-ult is
no longer obtained.
The plain of Conai'res may be estimated at 141 sa.nare
miles in extent. It yields principally a cotton which is hiijlly
That of the Artibonite, which is watered lby the riv,'r of ,i'
name, and by many other smaller ones. appears to havr I.i:. n
formed ly depo-its from these river-, -ince. at a di:ptb 9:f :,11
feet, there have been :found dliflrent bed-., in whlkh h-,ave I.e:.-n
discovered leaves and branches 'of trees. hS-ar and tl wnn ire
grown here. Its surface is Bupi.'sed to cover aLbot 21.,3 rlu.are

32 Geography of Hayti.
That of Arcahaie, situated like an amphith-atre along the
seaboard, extends about 12 miles from East to West, by alout
1800 feet in its greatest breadth, from North to South. The
sugar here produced is of excellent quality, though the
quantity is small.
The plain of L&ogane measures about 17 miles in its great-
est length from East to West, and scarcely 7 miles in breadth
from North to South. It yields sugar of great beauty.
Finally, that of Cayes offers a surface of about 117 square
miles. Here, as in the plain of Cul de Sac, the different
streams are usefully employed in watering the sugarcane,-
a production which offers such considerable reward to the
laborious workmen.
Few countries are as well watered as Hayti. This advan-
tage is owing, as we have already seen, to the mountains
which feed the numerous rivers that nature has spread over
all this fortunate Island. But the departments of the East
are much more favored, in this respect, than the others, and
other rivers are also much more considerable.
The longest river is the Artibonite, which the Indians called
Ha'ibonico. Its entire length is 145 miles. It flows in a
straight line from the Cibao, where it rises. Before it reaches
this sea, its volume is increased by a multitude of other
rivers, such as the Guayamuco, the Rio Canas, the Fer-a-
Cheval, etc. It frequently inundates the plain which bears
its name, and by this means produces the same effect as the
Nile in Egypt.
The other principal rivers are the Tuna and the great
Yaque, in the department of the North-East; the Ozama, the
Isabela, the Miacoris, the Soco, the Quiabon, the Romana,
the Jayna, the little Yaque, and the Nfyba, in the depart-
ment of the South-East; the rivers of Cayes, ('Careol/n,
,1Jremi, and Nippes, in the department of the South; those
of Ja mel, Ldogane, and Cul de Sac, in the department of

Geography of Hayti. 33

the West; and the Massarre, the (ranmi: Riviirr, and the
Tsoi-Rivieres, in the department of the North.
The number of mineral springs which exist over all the
surface of Hayti is anotherr of its many riches.
The principal one i4 that of Port-i-Piment. in the department
of the Artibonite, formerly called Eam.r de B.oy'ies, I waters of
Boynes.) but which at present might he more properly lyl.ed
Eaux de C(apoi.r, I waters of Capoix.) in order to m:ke
amends for the iii.u-t.:e. c-mmitted towarTir their discoverer, -
an injustice against which M de St. MIry has J loIudly
exclaimed. attributing to flattery the denomination these %atdrrs
obtained. Before the Revolution, considuralil establihbuenrts
were here male. lut they do not now exist. It w..ullI I.e
highly desiralble to see them again established, and under the
direction of a skilful physician, whi might superintend thu
treatment of the sick persons who have ofltn reet.urse to these
springs. Many diseases which the I:acnlty have pror:noineed
incurable, have here niet with a complete cure. Seven springs
are here giiupied together in the minieo -.t.
The saimer pr.'lrtieor have been di.-coverd in the springss of
Bani;r, situatepl 6fve mile distant from the town. and in the
same department. There are four in this place, which is
equally deprived of suitable e-tablishments.
Other minor springs exist in the communes of Dalmarie,
Irois, Tiburon, Jaemel, Mirebalais, etc.
The largest is the Etang Sale, (salt lake,) called, also,
the lake of Xaragua and Henriquille, because the Cacique
Henri, with his followers, took refuge here upon a small island
situated in the centre of the lake, and measuring 5 miles in
length by 21 in breadth. This Island is peopled with wild
goats. The Etang Sal, situated in the department of the
West, is about 22 miles long and 8j broad; and is about 53
miles in circumference. It is deep, and swarms with alliga-

34 Geography of Hayti.
tors. The water is clear, but bitter salt, and has a disagreeable
odor, and ebbs and flows like the sea.
About five miles North-West from this lake is found
another, running in the same direction, but measuring only 12
miles long, and in breadth varying from 2i to 7 miles. It
is called the Etang Saumatre, on account of the acrid taste of
its waters, or Laguna de Azuei. This lake also has its tides.
To the South of the Etang Sale, at 2} miles' distance,
lies the Etang Doux, (sweet lake,) named also Laguna Ieotea,
(the lake of turtles,) which is nearly 5 miles long by 1l
miles broad. This lake has no communication with the
other two, and its extent depends upon the rains and the floods
which maintain it. It abounds in turtle, good fish, and sea-
The lake of Miragoane, in the department of the South, is 7
miles long by 12,000 feet broad. Its circuit, counting
the indentations, is supposed to measure 17 miles. Its depth
averages 180 feet. Its waters flow into the sea at the Acul
du Carnage, near the town of Miragolne, and are used by the
inhabitants. This lake is crossed by a wooden bridge, with
stone abutments, on the road from Petit-Go&ve to Miragfne.
The intention was formerly entertained of constructing a canal
between the Acul du Petit-Goeve and this lake for the
transport of provisions and produce.
The project was also formed of digging a canal between the
Etang Saumatre and the embarcadere dufossi, near the town
of Port-au-Prince. This canal would thus have traversed the
plain of Cul de Sac in all its length, and would have served to
convey the immense quantity of sugar here made. In 1822,
government caused to be built upon this lake, and upon the
Etang Sale, a barge and lights, in order to facilitate the com-
munications of the capital with the department of the South-
East, and to spare travellers a painful journey by a road cut
through the rocks on the north bank of the Etang Saumatre.
But the force of habit prevents people profiting by these

Geography of Hayti. 35

fhilities. It is true that the service of thebe ioats is much
neglected by the sailors appointed to them. and that a great
and often inEuruImuntable dificully prev-ils almost always in
these lakes; this is the vi;:en'-e with which the East andl West
winds blow between the mountains that surround the Jikes.
This difficulty might he removed by the e-tal-lihment of
teamboats, which would possess the twoiold advantage of
failitating intercourse and of helping in the conveyance
of battle from Neybe and Azua to the plain of the Cul-de-
Bao. But these amehorations can only lbe the work of time;
they will no doubt come with the increa-t of tihl population,
which serves in all countries to develop industry.

The largest and tho mno-t beautiful bay of Hayti is that
dt Samara. It is 8ituati:d between capes ISamana anol
lphbil. Christopher (,lumnibus called it Baie des Flkches. I bay
f arrows,) because he found on its shores large numbers of
Idiana armed with arrows. The distance between its two
streme eapes is 17 miles. It has an average breadth of 12
mile, and is about 50 miles in depth. The most powerful
Iquadrons could find in it a sure asylum; but the channel by
which it is entered is difficult and narrow. A vessel must
pea under the cannon of the fort Carao, built since 1l2'2.
The extent of this magnificent hay, its position on the windward
aide of the Island. together with the immense quantity of wood
found in the peninsula, it for naval purposes, and the mines
of iron and colpplr concealed within its hb-.om.-all tlihes
advantages tend t,- make the point the mn.ot iunp.,rtanrt i' all in a
maritime point of view. Whale-ti-li-ryv mihilt here I. carried on.
The other bays. who, imp. -rtan:e an'd ,xtent differ miore or
less. are thote o:f .AlAd, St. '/,tnos, .-... Hiqacy, Ny/ie,
lacmnel, ljet, Fitmadi/. l, /'. .'t. L, is,, Ca, (tiles,
.Baradrts, Aliru vne, P'tit-I,,.,6,r. APrt-on-Prinre. S't.
Marc.Gonuawes. I ee, .A. ul du an,rVd. Carir'ol, Fort Liberti,
Mawnenille, Monte Chriii. and the Baie Ecossiise.

36 Geography of Hayti.
The coasts of the Island present the following promontories,
The former Cape Franaais, Cape Cabron, Cape Samana, in
the department of the North-East; the capes Raphael, Engafio,
Espada, in the department of the South-East; the Faux Cape,
Capes Mongon, Jacmel, Bainet, and St. Marc, in the depart-
ment of the West; Cape Tiburon, Cap-a-Foux, and Cape
Dalmarie, in the department of the South; and Cap-a-Foux and
Cape St. Nicolas in the department of the Artibonite.
Hayti contains three : that of Samana, which is the most
important; that of Mole St. Nicolas, and that of Bara-
dares. The first is 36 miles long from East to West, with a
breadth which varies from 12 miles to 5. It is covered
almost entirely with mountains, and is watered by more than
twenty rivers. The second extends, in a straight line, a dis-
tance of 19,200 feet by 7,800 in breadth. That of Bara-
dares, called more frequently Bec du Marsouin, is 5 miles
long South-West and North-East, by a breadth which varies
from 2,250 to 9,000 feet. It abounds in fine wood, suitable
for building, and, at the commencement of the year, fishermen
here assemble for the great fisheries, which supply salted fish
for home consumption, similar to that found on the shores of
Gonave. The Bee du Marsouin is 180 33' 40" latitude
North, and 730 35' 5" longitude West, at the eastern point.
Gonave. This Island, situated at the entrance of the
small gulf which fills up the space between Cape St.
Nicolas and Cape Dalmarie, is 35 miles in length, and
81 in its greatest breadth. It is the largest of all the islands
which border on Hayti and are under its dependence. There
is at the centre of the Gonave a lake of considerable size,
and the springs found here appear to be infiltrations. The
air is healthy. It contains wood fit for building purposes.

Geography of Hayti. 37

At the time of the murder of the court of the Queen
SAnacouna. many Indians took relfue here. Thu.y namer I it
SGianabo or G'ulanvat.rx. which hlis I'een ic.rrupt..-l t.:. It'inare.
The eastern point. of this Ial-nd is 1S 42-' ."'' North latitude,
and 7-2" 53' 11" Wvrit lonuitud ; the w,:.-stern point, 1S" .'-'
40" latitude, and 73Th 24' 11" liingitu.de.
La Tortnu, [ Tortirga,] itunatedl at a short distance frorm the
Northern coast., opp..site Polrt tie Pis, is 22 miles l"n2 ahin
18,000 feet in aver.gei breadth. Its sup:-rtir.ices is of: 11,734
earreaus, (3 acres make a carreanu.) Thii is the sp-..t where
the Buccaneer.- fijst .ettldl in 11:30; anlI in li;i4. it w,.
abandoned fulr the eetal.lihhments which had hl-en made ,in the
main land. This Ilrand al.o aili:unds in eryv fine tinther ; here
is found a kind of red erab. highly prized by amateurs, wlo do
not appear to dread its effects, although the manunhineil tree is
known to grow at. La Tortue. The centre of this -indil vi in
latitude 20i' 4'.
La Sudne. This I-land. ituatedi to the windward of Santo
Domingo, quite near the Bay of Higuey, is aihbout 19 miles
long from East to West. anl 5 broad from North to S..uth. and
nearly G2 ules in iin ir:umlfrence. It is very Ifrtile ; thI. In-
diana called it Ad.nanioy. A carique livnd hen.-, wh.: waS
sovereign of the I.-land arnd independent of tho'.u who reigned
in Hayti.. Tht Spaniards had this aceique devoured Lby a dog;
this alreionlius a t brought on a war between them and the In-
diana, in whieh tli latitr were all sacrificell. After the riprpe-
tration of th,-.e >:rueltCie. sugari:ane wa.s griwn tih.re by ilie
Africans, whlim the Spaniards h.d intrn...dii.,- ; liut frlii a
remote peru.d, it h.i- n.,t li: n inhal.hit.-J.
S:. Cat/l rir,,e. This I.ln.], so .:allle after the narie i:.f its
proprietor, (a lIJ, I i4 situate-d the t reward of thi- Sa:6ii,
opposite the River Riomeani. Its Axesitt is ,niall. iut it is
covered with alundane tif ganu ; it wa-. 1'inierlyv cultivated.
La Biute is situated at a di-ante of' abL.ut 15,ii000 flet to

38 Geography of Hayri.
the S. W. of the point of B4ate or BahoLi .. It i (G nirl,
in length from East to West, and scarcely 5 mil,.- in av\ra.g
breadth. Formerly it contained plantation,; anrl .atil.- p I ti : it
abounds in game. Christopher Columbus landt.-l li,:re in 1.:." 4.
A few years ago it was used as a place of refuge I-y tl o pirates
who infested that Caribbean Sea. Its centre is in lattlude. 17
51' and longitude 710 40' 38".
Alta-Vela, thus named by Columbus in 1491, is 5 miles
S. S. W. of La Biate. It is 90,000 feet in its gr.-at.-:
length, and as much in its broadest part. It contains excellent
L'ile-- Vaches. This Island is situated about 7 miles
S. S. E. of the town of Cayes, and measures Iu miles in
length, and rather more than 21 in breadth. It derives its
name, which it received from the Buccaneers. frrnn, the largo
number of cows found there. It has often been upedl by pirates
as a harbor of refuge. The East Point is lj5 3' latitude, and
730 29' 58" longitude, antu the Northwesterly Point I 6O'
10" latitude, and 730 47' 43" longitude.
The Caimites. These are small islands, the largest of
which covers a surface of about two square leagues; they are
situated to the N. W. of the Peninsula of Baradbres, opposite
Corail and Pestel. They yield very fine timber.
Mona and Monica are two small islands, situated to the East
of Sa6ne, between Hayti and Porto Rico. Mona is fully two
leagues from East to West, and rather more from North to
South. It has two harbors capable of holding moderate-sized ves-
sels, and everything necessary to cultivation and cattle rearing.
In 1512 it was given to Bartholomew Columbus by the king of
Spain. It was then highly cultivated and yielded a large
revenue to its proprietors. But it appears to have been de-
serted long ago.
MAonica is smaller than the preceding island.


Stle animal Einghbm.

H AYTI, when discovered, contained very few animals, and
of these one species only remains, the agouti, a rare and
inoffensive creature about the size of a rabbit.
All of our domestic animals are abundant. The horses are
small, but of great endurance; resembling, in both of these
respec.ts. our Indian ponies. Thty are never shod. They are
of the Andalusian breed, spirited, swift, require little care, and
have a fine gait. Those belonging to the lower class are lean,
shaggy. and never groomed. From $700 to $1,000, Haytian,
is the average price for a good horse in the country; but in
the towus they ask much higher; sometimes, but rarely, very
fine bhrs.-. sell at from $4,000 to $5,000. Emigrants should
bring out their own harness, as the IIaytians generally use
ropes only, made out of the bark of the cocoa-tree and other
vegetables substances. If the emigrant buys saddles, he should
remember that they must be fit for ponies, not large horses.
Asses and mules, which are the chief carriers in the country, are
very common and cheap. Asses, from $100 to $400, Haytian;
mules from $500 to $2,000, Haytian. Hogs are lean, and
active; their flesh is said to be good; it is never cured, but
sometimes dried in the sun; the race requires to be crossed with
fatter breeds. Wild hogs abound in certain districts. Oxen,
also, are small, and lean; they are much used in the interior

40 The Animal Kingdom.

for Irawiin ; ihlirr fl.-h. in consequ,..uice i.fl' p',r ,.-erd arnl Iad
s]a.,i'glihiii g, i- .fti-n dry and tough, as e'nl'are'l with Anieri-
can b-:ef. Emigrants should ring yotkes with them ; as the
" halitan- of Hayti use rope,. tied to the h,brns or t,. a
straight stick,-the usual method or the Wet. Indli:.s,- which
re'luires ten osen to do what one er.'uld easily perform. T'lo
cows give gorl milk ; but very little cheeo and Ilutter is madre.
The-~e are imported Irom the States. Emigrants ;h.bull stop this
traei liy I r;ng;ngh churns with them. Calves are rarely kdll'Ad.
If r,:ui.-, an .'rdlor from the police officers to kill h.'f-iattl,
shi-.-l1. 'r hgs. This law prevents theft. Sheepl flourish, and
thl.-ir tfl-lh is e-llc;iouti whib.- properly slaughtered. They are
n.-%. r hl-'irel, although their wool, when they are yonng. is .of
flue Iii;ity. In co-n.er'luence of this negligent. a lu.-rative
cilumnu:r' e i? lo t; the creature suffers; and thu fine wooli gives
pla.'-i to, rn lIon. ., ar-e hair, as soon as the animal attains its full
gr',wtlh. tats prosper, and their milk is generally used, and
tlr].ir flrh c-aten. At. Furcy,* about 20 miles from Purt-au-
Priuee.- whe I there are forests of pine tree. and other woaris
arl \egp-t.lrhl o-f the temperate zones,-a friend of lth editor
ri.y,:ritly Inm, ha-ed a goat for a Spanish dollar. Dogs and cats
w:,u:.l.l -'n l.i:-nnme extin't, if nrot kept up by the introdu1-tion
ofl' flr;:-in Ir:.els. Itats and mice are found ; bures andl rab-
bits are rare. It is proilalhl.' that emigrants uight profitably
introduce various breeds *.f the different domestic animals with
advantage to themselves and the country.
All kinds of poultry known in the States are common in
Hayti; the flesh of the turkey is particularly delicious. As
it costs nothing in thee country to keep poultry, and as they
n,1 only do not injure any of the staples, but destroy the mis-
chievous cockroach and other obnoxious insects, it would be

. At this place the Government have established a model farm. The their
mometerthere o'i.r- iri.i .* I I ibrenheit) at earlymorning; 78 noon; 610in
the evening, in ;n l uit nii il tu 'July and August.

: Tic A.nimal Kin-ldom. 1.1

well for the clniii r..n'. t ...l -li.l -i .1 ,il ; a .it '.'.i .i.. i ;irl
Ire numerotlu LiU t i ing.*r- a': r'.!i i. Alii.Iti tlin' nortr o: -iililn
of the lfatheredl erc:ltion in I.llyi, ae h. '-'.,n pi.irrorS. parril'.1uit,
nightingales, m- .kring.l.,irsl. burumii;n.;rd., tr.p.l'-li d-ls, musi-
cians, swallow., turtle dI:r., v- i,,..ll] p..-li; r.., p..-lic.a s, king-
fihers, flanilgi:,c. ca:rdinals, i:nrtri.l:;. i, wil. :. -. wild
pigeons, wild .1, *luls, rtilins, ijb:i: l -. n;i -., nm.ui-'.t'war l.ird,,
cral .-aters, ulii aig ts, r -i.r.'s, iai t-., -.r.'s, wih o ,ii-, Ibriwn
owls, collier, anil hawk-s.
Fish al.aiun in tli rirv rr an' lil',.-" :.1'l a:l..n,' thi :. ,-, i-- of
Hayti. There ik a great variety of :...-!.l. Lit i-i f0-r tc- n-
sumptio:n. lij.rk_ Ifriuent the hailt. .r. Aiir.riz thie i. iro
common fi-h ant. in.lllrts. gray aid reiI I.- r'l.i-, -.-r'l uL -. ,iII-
phini. earl,-. il'n;ti,,.. pliko, d.oraTnlk '. i o i Ii- mi u -h1. ii' -,
gailih, p:rlo i->:-;, Ibrillk, eelq, bull- .1- .-*-s ""-, trum ,-lil,
Bworn l-ti-!., I lu'.y --i.-. h, nl-flish, iirraui/II, rI I',,,, ,. ij i(, ,
cayetur, bar.'.r'in t sard/, swdhittlar, pli't.* ',, .i'..l1.u i',;.
C nimmon truili, M,..,ri-hI cralj. pill'.-> al-, l,..,-Ii .adl

along the co ,at, ,.hling' t,. ti. ian. l t.l, i4 :-.! i ilt ai -i ,l
largo grveU- inl every part or th :. -h.r.'. 'hi .in I' -ii.ll
size, a l .ar. .- i.1 t''. .r '.it' allatvor. Th:-v' i.ti r .i. '..ii iis.i
of -hell-fi-h. in., in:lu, ng ,: .rh:s. p-rrn.h .. ,..,ll-,, lnii-
gan. l.i0 .,1 .**i-i.irl. in1 -. ili r,.. L,..li .*--lii*!l, i <'',,, r'. ,ris.'r,
S tw,', jill pil'd.'IAre. Tlh:r- ji- re njan.n r,.o>l' r h-,..h.r rIf
ex lui-i.ltu I l l v i..,y 1,e 1.ailn r. .1, a- :,1-'. l"'.I. i .i -|',n ....

Insects are plentiful in all tropical climates, and Hayti
forms no exception to the rule. We can notice a very few
only. Among the poisonous insects are the scorpion, centipedes,
and three kind of spiders. The bite of none of them is mortal,
or even dangerous, if the ordinary remedy is taken in due time.
The bite of these insects causes inflammation; the remedy is

The Animal Kinrg.dom.

alkali, in fluid form, applied to the. wo:ui,.l, andl ib-1 lrT ',i lii
solved in water to be drunk. \VWII I.le., a;-r nunerol. .nd
their wax and honey are sometimes. ,-xlirt,?,l. BIfore u-ins the
honey, however, the emigrants .:h-ild tir-t learn frmni the. nativrs
how to distinguish that which is mal fromrn the poion,'us iplanr.
There is a great variety of butrcrflice. The fircflii. are es-
ceedingly brilliant. Cockroachie, ants, caterpiillars, gra.s.
hoppers, mosquitoes, wasps, Iocusts uirlbth. andl-fles. fl, a.
bugs, lice, weevils, chiques, and tick, and otbcr ni'memnrlr of
the same family, will also be found in every part of the Island.
Mosquitoes are as noisy, but not so annoying as their American
compatriots. Cockroaches and ants are the greatest pests to
housekeepers; they eat clothing and books with an extraordinary
Of the reptiles, the lizard is the most common; there is every
variety of them, but all of them are innoxious. Alligators
and caymans are occasionally seen in the rivers. Frogs and
toads arc numerous. Turtles are counted by the million. The
serpent family is rarely met with; there are but very few snakes,
and they are not venomous. The most beautiful of the native
snakes is the iagdalena.


1: 1) J begetable Lingbom.

AN inhabitant of the temperate zones can hardly conceive
1 how rich Hayti is in every species of vegetable wealth.
She has every tree and fruit and flower of the tropics in her
plains; and there is nothing that grows in the States or in
Canada, that cannot be successfully cultivated on her high-
land3. Land alike of the pine and the palm, of the bread-fruit
and thll strawberry, of the gigantic cactus and the lowly violet,
for richness of verdure and variety of vegetable products, Hayti
is not excelled perhaps not equalled -by any other country
in the world. Folio volumes have been written on her flora;
but the briefest notes must suffice us here.
Coltt.n grows with extraordinary facility, requiring no cul-
ture whatever. It is of a fine and silky quality. It does
not grow on bushes, but trees, which produce two crops an-
nually and last several years. Its culture might be made
exi.'cingly profitable, as no country is better adapted for its
Citff', flourishes on the highlands. The principal crop is
gatrhr..l in December and January; but in May there is a
second crop called "grapillage." If properly cultivated,-
one plant for every ten feet, or 1,225 bushes per carreau,-reck-
oning four pounds from each tree annually, (the minimum
result,) every carreau would thus produce 4,900 pounds of

44 The Vegetable Kingdom.
coffee. This crop, sold at the annual average rate of 125
gourdes per 100 lbs., would produce a revenue of 6,125 gourdes,
or 47T1 per annum. As the Republic will give five carreaux
of land to each family of emigrants, the revenue thus placed
within the reach of every industrious man, of African descent,
after a residence of two or three years, may easily be estimated
by them.
Sugarcane is a native of the plains, where the traveller often
sees, with astonishment, gigantic specimens of it, varying from
18 to 24 feet in height. Mr. Devimcux, a planter of Port-
au-Prince, three years ago, exhibited a cane five inches in
diameter. Once planted, this staple requires no further care,
excepting to be cut down when it reaches maturity. As soon
as cut, it begins to sprout again; and for at least ten years no
replanting is necessary. A carreau of land, planted with cane,
will produce, on an average, 9,000 lbs. of raw sugar.
Cocoa grows in the valleys, on trees, and requires little at-
tention. It is a profitable and important article of export.
Rice, of good quality, is cultivated with success, but hitherto
on a limited scale.
Tobacco, with similar advantages of production, is treated
with a similar neglect. Hayti, in times past, has produced
tobacco equal in quality to that of Cuba; and it is to be hoped
that she will soon again enter into competition with her slave-
holding neighbor in this culture.
Indian corn grows everywhere, and brings good prices in the
markets. Emigrants would do well in introducing the seeds of
the finest varieties.
Ginger is produced in great abundance, and might be made
an important export.
Indigo grows everywhere spontaneously, and was largely ex-
ported in the time of the French. It gives two crops a year.
No produce, for an equal volume, returns so great a profit.
Without intrenching on the other staples, the Republic could
furnish two millions of dollars' worth of indigo per annum.

The. Vegetable Kingdom. 45

Manion is exceeding productive; anil, rightly cultivated,
mould yield an inimuense revenue. It is ies:ily ra:ied, (.even 1*a
the mountains, liut it flourishes bcst on the plains. Caasava
bread is manufactured from its ro.:t ; but a inure lucrative use
of it would be to make starch.
The Palmi-Christi, (from the berries of which castqr-4oil is
drawn,) pepper and pimentum, need rather m.,re i.are to gather
than to plant; for immense quantities are annuaUy lost f..r the
want of hands to collect their produ,:ts.
Oranges, citrons, mangoes, bananas, plantains, pineapplh-,
sad other fruits must suffer the same fate, until a line of l-te.m-
ships is started hb:tween the Repullic and the United Status,-
a measure which is in contemplation by the Governmeont of
Arrowroot could be cultivated with great profit and succe's;
but at present it is ahnomt entirely neglected.
We have said that everything that grows in the States :ind
the Canadas can be raied in Hayti; but not necessarily in
every part of it.
Clover, cabbages, and statoes, for example, do not flouri-h
in the plains, althoughh they are abundantly proiductive in the
highlands. The plains bear the fruits and trees of the tropics;
while the mountains yield coffee and all the productions ot the
temperate zntsi. Among the vegetables andi fruits that are
used for home (onsunption only, are plantains, bananas, cioct:L-
nuts, sweet potatoes, Iri~h potatoes, yams. artichokes, egg-plants,
mangoes, orang;!s, asparagus, bread-fruit, vegetable-butter,
(laurus prrs,.a, in Creole, aeocate,) vre.,t:ble-.op, (sipiii-
dus sapp.,nari,. ) apple, e pin-a.Jles stran terries., hlali.' :rri;s,
mulberries. pea.b es, gr:qpe-, carrots, cabl'ages, radthhes, pulilr-
kins, beets, onions. ,:celery, inut, parsley. and turnips.
Sugar refineries onn:e more rei-stabli-hed, a large trade would
necessarily arise in presened fruiLs for exportation. The high

46 The Vegetable Kingdom.
price paid for white sugar at present prevents this branch of
commerce from flourishing. Oranges, lemons, figi, guiaas,
apricots of the Antilles, (class xiii. Polyandrie moirnogrie,
LIN.,) pineapples of every variety, pomegranates, shalddJck.,
mangoes, rose-apples, custard-apples, cachimants, ca imites,
(Chrysophyllum caimit, LEN.,) papaws, sapodillas, datc,,
advocates, and the other luscious fruits of the tropics, -all of
which are to be found in Hayti,-would furnish unfailiug and
abundant sources of wealth in this department of indu.-try.
Another lucrative commerce, awaiting developnl,-nt, is that
of extracting perfumes from flowers. Thousands of fragyv-
panni, jasmines, vervaines,-all the innumerable flowers of the
tropics,-now literally waste their sweet perfumes- on the
desert air, for the want of a proper knowledge of the methods
of saving them. There are no fine essences and perfumes sold
in the civilized world that could not be manufactured in Hayti.
It is asserted by scientific men, that the flora of Hayti -only
partly explored by Tussac, Descourtilz, and others-contains
still many secrets which, if known, would render invaluab',
aid to the medical art. For, medicinal plants abound evc y-
where; and everything that is brought, for pharmaceutic p. -
poses, from Africa and South America, is to be found on this
Island. Our space permits only a verbal enumeration of some
of the principal medicinal plants. There are:
Aloes, balsam copaiva, wild-cinnamon tree, tannin, mint,
sage, wild sage, quinquina, all the kinds of acacias, ricinoides,
cascarillas, vanilla, myrth, absinth, valiriane, milisse, rosemary,
camphor-tree, cloves, nutmegs, shrub trefoil, quassias, jesuits-
powder, gentian century, menyanthes, indian arbro-boot, wood-
sorrel, swallow apple, false sycamore, purstane, jerusalem oak,
fern-polypody, cactus grandiflorus, divaricatus, flagelliformis,
laurel-tree, cinomorium, coccineum, ipecacuanha, euphorbia myr-
tifolia, ticassia, tamarin royoo, rhubarb, senna, hop-bryony, jalap,
marchantia chenopoda, dodder, negro conhayc, costs, indian cane,

SThe Vegetable Kingdom. 47

long-rooted birthwort, cuete, winter-cherry, yellow-iris, passion-
flower,wall-pellitory, cookia-wampi, sapindus saponaria, sesamum
oriental, jujube-tree, sebesten, gerard, pittes, squil, venus-hair,
peresky lautana camera, black nightshade, vitis labnisca, inga,
gomphrcena globosa, euphoria punicea, monbin, couroupita guya-
nensis, spanish-plum, begonia litida, theophrasta americana
minat., laurus camphora, capparis cynophallophora, misseltoe,
locust-tree, peruvian balsam-tree, lime-tree, croton corylifolium,
monarda coccinea, passiflora footida, pitton, solanum quitcense,
argemona mexicana, purslane, hibiscus trilobus, semson, loran-
thus americanus, vervain, lecythis grandiflora, pharus lappula-
ceus sida americana, isora, elais guineensis, cedrela odorata,
boar-tree, fagara guianensis, spetted navel estail, cactus fimbri-
atus, euphorbium, areca, piper aromaticum, piper discolor,
uvaria arom. zeylanioa, cubebs-shrub, mustard, fustic-wood,
myristica sebifera, urtica baccifera, crotalaria sagittalis, steechas
amer. lato serratogne folio, iron wood, epidendrum obtusifol.,
epidendrum candatum, cordia collococca, cassia alata, vateirca
guian., maple-leaved liquidamber, ballot odorata, sago-tree,
palma humilis cocc5Fra latifolia mayor, holly, india-rubber tree,
jugians, fraxinifolia, 'irolia variegata, smilax salsaparilla, guy-
acum, Chinese smilax, sassafras-tree, lobea syphilitica, ovieda
spinosa, toluifera balsamum, copaiba-tree office croton origani-
fol., cissus sisyoides, heliotropium indicum, hemp agrimony,
aspalatus ebenus, pistia stratiotes fol. obcord., cinchona nitida,
caryota urens, cactus monoliformis, cactus nobilis, cactus coch-
enillefer, cactus triangul., bread-nuts, artocarpus incisa, indian
arrowroot, theyreat bean, cinnamon-tree; panax quiquefol.,
tubera candida, henbane, white water-lily, laurus persea, ,:iAvy-
ris, welted frajeles, common feverfew, hypoxis scorzonera,
broad-leaved-egyptian privet, nymphma lotus, nelumbo indica,
All tropical countries produce poisonous plants; but as they
are easily recognized they seldom injure. Emigrants should

48 The Vegetable Kingdom.

eat no fruits until they know what thiby are. In Ilayti, there
are three kinds of fruits, all po:is,,nous, of the m.an. inulla-t rue,
which'somewhat resemble the citron, and thereby dei.eive chil-
dren. Bit, as the tree is always destroyed as soon an it i. dis-
covered, it is extremely rare. The chief po-ji.onous plants of
Hayti are : -
Poisoned hog-meat, (aristoloehia arboiescens,) snjakl-nut,
gouarA, cestrum nocturnum, tree arum. (three diffu-rnt kinl.,)
taefoil-leaved dragon, cissus caustica, dolikhos ol-htuirlfoiu, dlIi-
chos minimus, thorn-apple, deadly nightshade, goat.-rue,
amaryllis punicea, black nightshade, milky dogbane, and
Comparatively- considering its extent and fertility-un-
peopled, Hayti has vast tracts of forest lands, many of which
have never been exploited for sixty years, and abound there-
fore in every variety of wood for building, cabinet-making, ship-
architecture, dyeing, and tanning. The chief woods exploited
are mahogany and logwood; and these, too, are taken from the
most easily accessible places only, and without any aid from the
appliances of modern art. The coasts, the banks of the Arti-
bonite and other rivers furnish all the woods at present exported,
but the exhaustless forests elsewhere, which it would not be
S difficult to work, remain still in their primitive condition. For
house-building the Island furnishes magnificent pines, and a
species of an oak (Bignonia guercus) as firm as that of Eu-
rope, and impervious to worms. For frame and joint work,
anacardium occidentale furnishes a good white wood; and for
pile-work, there is the acacia mimom. tenuifolia, which lasts for a
century. For ship-building, the oak, iron-woods, auzuba fructu
glutinosa and the acomas, (which furnish masts 60 feet long
and 18 inches in diameter,) as well as the pines, already men-
tioned, and other hard woods. For cabinet-making, mahogany
of every variety, (the best in all the world,) ebony, lancewood,
ferolia variegato, red and yellow satinwood, abound and are

The Vegetable Kingdom. 49

o pable of receiving a high polish; as also. are the zanthlosylum
cariboum, which is likewise a dye-wood, tho erithalis fruticosa,
which preserves its fine odor, orange-wo:d, roie-waod, guyacum,
lanrus, sassafras, and different kinls of thl walnut. Among
the dye-woods are, Iogwuod, in quantities inexhaustible, fustic,
and satin-wood, (yellow;) Brazilwood, (carmine;) nmynhus
eotenifolia, (yellow and brown ;) laurus sasafra. (yellow ;)
coloooba uvifera, (red;) Braziliastrum americanum, (brownish
red;) malphigia urens, (red and black ;) morus tinctoria,
(yellow;) and the roots of laurus jasmini folio, a sort of iron-
wood, which give a violet dye. There are hundreds of others
which it is impossible to enumerate. For tanning purposes
there are many trees whose bark is invaluable, such as the
gpava, corossol, anna squamosa, cupana americana, malphigia
qpeots, and innumerable hosts of others. For paper manu-
faturing, now that there is so great a demand for materials,
ayti might export an inexhaustible supply of aloes, perfoliata,
and other plants which serve to make good common paper. Of
resinous woods there is a great variety.


(11)e ilineral Kingbom.*

T HE existence of immense mineral riches in the Island of
Hayti is too well substantiated to require any argument to
prove it. Its possessions of metallic ores were the first that
stimulated European cupidity soon after the discovery of the
Western World. Several of these mines, in the Eastern sec-
tion of the Island, have been imperfectly worked in times past,
but the age was not then sufficiently advanced in scientific
knowledge, to have been acquainted with the means and appli-
ances necessary for their successful exploration. In Hayti,
proper, the mineral wealth of the country has been yet still
more neglected. Their exploration has hitherto been discounte-
nanced. Until very recently, these mineral resources, from
political motives, were little referred to; or it was imagined by
all the governments that have preceded the present one, that by
allowing their exploration, it would tend to prostrate and annul
the agricultural spirit and industry of the people. We have no
opinion to offer for or against the soundness of this idea; we
only affirm that this is not the principle of the present adminis-
tration of Hayti, which invites laborers of the African race to
come over and participate in the exploration and the riches to
be obtained from these mines, which henceforth are no longer
This chapter is contributed by Dr. Smith, of Port-au-Prince. It is not a

The Mineral Kingdom. 5t

Few countries are more highly favored in the variety and
ilue of metallic ornt, and ni.'no can boa-t. otf so general or
SMtaral distribution or them, as Hayti. On tllt prei~ent occa-
d li, little more is rejuir.- than a summary note of certain
bPown localities in thee parts i.f the country. In the North
Bt. Michel, the parL-he oif Leminade, Drondon, r'laiiauce. and
Port de Paix, are mineral districts; the neighbolrhoo-d of
Jamel; the Mlirebalai', Laseahol.as, and Banica, in thie W\ts
and East Northieat, are among the mn'-t interesting mineral
emotions of the RpcIublic. TIhe South has al-o its p<:rti..n i.f
this species of natural wealth. Ir,,n is ererywirir p'r'-fu-,ly
distributed under the firm of the Percrxili,-,-lh.ematirur, the
earburet, pyrites, or thil.. ulphuret. Dettachei pi;es o:f mag-
netio iron are often met with. The country albiun.,ing every-
where in woid. smelting establishments and IFunderies wo-uld
quickly realize thel hoLpes f the mir t ean iinie : nd aml.iti-'is.
Extensive mine< of c'ial ( Lignite ) are alb'ut beiiig utilized liy
the Government ; those alre(dly known art? I-.at.l. 'no at a
short distance from tile town of ASux 'avy.'. at ** 'aiuil-Prin."
and the other, in thi North.-a-tern srec: ti of the Replublic, in
the vicinity r.f the Artibonite R ivcr. Thlj.r are other natural
depots of thi- invalu:al.e uniui:-rl, situalted in oiher part', but
the above one4. in extent. appear to he inexhaustible, and are
still more valuable from the facility of transport offered 1by their
Gold quartz andl copper, antimony andl silver, the jaspc-r and
* marble, tale, j.:t, and the aga:te, are ani'.n th, pro:vidcntial
donations that are monr-t ablundantly andl g-Riira.lly ditffur-.l in
and about the nimont:in raniA-s of H-:yti C('ippir i s:-:-.n
under different f Irmn and in differi.lt [pla.r.. The n,,-rt :iul-
men are the I-lu.? and green pyrites. mixed often with the sul-
phuret of iron, at iL-the-r times separate. The rid. Ilur-, and
green oxyd. or lualacthit,, under the liliwpipe w;ll yield fr-mn
85 to 45 p-.r i'-nt. of i:o[ppcr. Iut thi-e are not the rii he-t in
Hayti. Salin.s are- nunim-rus. Rock, or gem talt, is a


52 The Mineral Kingdom.
natural production. Sulphur and salthptre are to be procured
by a little manipulationvnd industry, an'. in thet, to terminate,
it may be said, without fear of contradiictin, tllat Hayti. up to
this time, has been known only as an agricultural State, and
remains yet to be known in reference to its great and varied
mineral advantages.



W S. COURTNEY, Esq., in a recent volume on The
Gold Fields of St. Domingo," written with the object
of inducing a white emigration to the Dominican Republic,-
a purpose which it is impossible to accomplish peacefully,
-describes accurately the nature of the soil of the Eastern
part; and, as what he says of it applies equally to Hayti, I
herewith transcribe and subjoin it: The soil of the Island of
St. Domingo is. constituted of the debris of the mountains and
hills and the decayed vegetation of past ages. When we reflect
that these prodigious mountains differ remarkably and essentially
in their geological constituents, and that the contrast is truly
st.i :ng, sometimes between mountains and even hills in jux-
tapo4.:t:., it will appear how endless would be the task of
speaking definitelyand particularly of all the various kinds of
soil that are to be found on the Island. The soil of the valleys,
slopes, and plains, partaking of the characteristics of the hills
and mountains on, beneath, beside, and betwixt which they are
found, varies as they vary. In one place we find a rich vege-
table mould ; in another, a mixture of this mould with pebbles
and sand ; in another, a light, loose, spongy loam; in another, a
loose marl; in another, a clayey marl; in another, a soil formed
of dissolved or pulverized coral and shells; and in another, of
pure clay or sand. It differs, also, in color and depth as much
as it differs in constitution and quality. Sometimes it is yellow,

54 Soil.
though still retaining its productive qualities; sometimes it is
Yed, sometimes of a bluish cast, sometimes of a dark, muddy,
or lava color; but most generally it is black, and its depth
varies from ten feet to six inches. In the valleys and slopes,
in and on the mountains, and on the savannahs and plains, it is
generally a rich, black loam, varying in depth from three to ten
feet. In the lowlands, on some of the coasts, it is a salt meadow
or quagmire, without any solid bottom, except where the roots
of the mangrove ramify and interlace so as to retain the vege-
table portion of it carried there by the streams, while further
back it is formed into a solid earth, bearing abundance of
marine-figs, flags, sea-rushes, and tall grass. The deepest and
richest soil is found in the valleys, at and near the mouths of
the principal rivers, and is made up of the alluvial deposits
brought down by these streams. So variable are the nature
and characteristics of the soil, that it often radically changes in
passing from one side of a valley to another, or crossing a stream,
and sometimes differs essentially on the opposite banks of the
rivers; and often, in passing along the road, it will be observed
to change in the course of a few rods, or even feet. In the
larger valleys and plains, especially some distance from the
mountains, it is more uniform; and more uniform on the South
side of the Island than in the interior and on the North side.
.... On some of the mountains and their elevated slopes the
soil is good, and the grass and other similar undergrowth grow
dense and rank to their very tops, while the elevated portions of
others sustain only broken and ragged forests of pitch pine, in-
terspersed with palm and many hard and durable woods.
Others of these mountains are again bald and sterile on their
tops and around their summits, peering up through the green
and heavy foliage below like naked cones. An analysis of the
soil, at different places, attests the fact that it is highly impreg-
nated with the minerals peculiar to the mountains, which prob-
ably accounts for its variety in color in different localities. It
has been found to contain iron, sulphur, copper, antimony,

Soil. 55

mercury, gold, cobalt, manganese, salt, and other minerals in
various combinations and conditions at different points. The
gold is of course found pure and diffused in the soil almost all
over the Island, in some places being only very slightly trace-
able, and in others palpably so. In regard to the productive-
nees of the soil. suffi:e it to say that, notwithstanding its
diversity and variety, it is prolific beyond anything found in
the Ancill.s. and not excelled by that of the Italian peninsula
or Sicily, to which it Iears a strong resemblance. The sugar-
oane grows the year riund, and so fast and thick, that by the
time the laborer has cut over and exhausted a ten-acre field, it
is ready again to cut where he began. The corn, which is cul-
tivated nw by simply making a hole in the ground and drop-
ping in the seed, with no further care or labor, grows-to the
height of from eight to fifteen feet, bearing three to five ears to
the stalk. The tobacco, which is cultivated with as little scien-
tific skill anl care, spreads out the broadest and sappiest leaves
found anywhere in the Antilles. Other crops indigenous to the
clmate prow with equal rapidity and strength. It is said that
in some diLtri't:r the m,.lon, the pumpkin, and the squash ripen
in rix ceeks from the seell. [At Port-au-Prince radishes ripen
in three weeks from the time of planting the seed. J. R.] ..
Such a thing as a 'ertil;ier, an article of such extended traffic
and so necessary to the agriculturist here, is not known nor
thought of there, nor will it, I apprehend, ever be required.
The fertility and strength of the soil, containing all the ele-
mentary constituents required to produce and mature the various
vegetable growths, could not be exhausted even without any
* return to it for generations. Besides, the mountains themselves
are the great fertilizers of St. Domingo, and will remain so
until they are devoured by the tooth of time and sink away
in distant ages. The debris of these mountains, together with
the decaying vegetation on their sides and tops, brought down
by frequent rains, supply the soil in the valleys, plains, and
savannahs, with abundant and incessant recruits. Its fecundity
is a marvel to the husbandman of these latitudes


Climate, Seasons, anb Cemperature.

FROM the geographical position of Hayti, and its proximity
to Cuba and Jamaica, a non-resident might infer that the
climate and atmospheric range of temperature which prevail in
either one of the Antilles were common to all, and strictly alike
and similar in reference to this Island.
This is not exactly the case. Its peculiar situation in re-
spect to the other Antilles and to the influence of the trade
winds, and many other natural circumstances besides, operating
pr:'pit;ously, have given to Hayti much advantage in these
respects over her sister isles of the same group. We affirm,
from experience, that the climate of Hayti is more healthful,
that the range of temperature is less ardent, than in the neigh-
boring islands; that the reasons as to why this should be so
appear too various, too multiplied, to admit our specifying any
one in particular. The fact, however, cannot be contested; so
that, whether from the altitude of its several chains of moun-
tains, the one out-topping the other, and on the lofty heads of
which the surcharged clouds are condensed or dissolved into
rain; the extent and fertility of its plains and valleys, every-
where most liberally intersected by rivers, streams, mountain
torrents settled into placid rills, which, under the solar influence,
undergo constant evaporation, that refreshes and tempers the air;
whether these combined, together with its topography, its physi-
cal configuration, and its ever-green, exuberant forests, which

Climate, Seasons, and Temperature. 57

m everywhere spread out, and which reach up to the very tops
of the mountains, the foliaceous undulations of which exercise
prpetually a cooling influence on the surrounding torrid atmos-
phere; whether there be other causes or reasons beside these,
we do not assert; but we think it rational to conclude that
all -these circumstances, operating incessantly, are the real
agencies that modify and soften the climate of Hayti. and have
rendered its temperature milder, less sultry, and more saluhrious
than it is found to be in Cuba or Jamaica during parallel
A country blessed with all these natural advantages must
enjoy also great variety of climate and varied degrees of tem-
perature, as regards a residence in the plains and a more or less
proximity to the seaboard, or a graduated approach to the more
elevated parts, upwards, towards the higher mountain ranze.
SIts capacity to produce every kind of vegetable substance that
man contribute to the comfort of its inhabitants and to the pros-
parity of the state, must be equal to the fecundity and diversity
of its soil.
Hayti, rich in all the variety of tropical production, is well
adapted, in its elevated situations, to the growth of most all
those grains and plants that thrive in other latitudes and cooler
regions. The peach, the apple, strawberries, the raspberry,
the cauliflower, potatoes, the carrot, the beetrave, the broccoli,
parsnip, and the asparagus, and other like legume and esculents.
have all been long ago naturalized in this country, and they
flourish as vigorously as in Europe or America.
Besides the multitude of floral families, species, and their
Varieties common to the tropics, the rose, the violet, the pink,
(l'illet,) geraniums, diversify and decorate our alpine valleys,
which are likewise carpeted spontaneously with the clover and
the daisy, while the oak, the common fir, and exalted pine-tree,
(pinus sylvestris,) are multiplied into forests whose extent are
estimated by the leagues of country they cover, and which are

58 Climate, Seasons, and Temperature.

only within a few leagues' distance from several points on the
Four seasons are distinctly sketched, but three only annually
can be said to be well marked, persistent, and immutable in
these parts, that is to say, the Western, the Northern, and the
Southern Departments or sections of the Island, which all
who immigrate are destined to inhabit. These comprehend two
wet or rainy seasons and one dry season, which, in relation to
each Department and particular localities, vary as to the time
when they commence, but occur most always about the period of
the equinoxes and solstices. In the Western Department,
Port-au-Prince, the seat of government, is located. There, the
rainy season is in February, March, and April. During these
months more or less rain falls irregularly through the day. The
latter part of May, June, and July, to about the middle of
August, with certain rare exceptions, comprehends the dry sea-
son, and is the hottest part of the year. The rainy period
returns towards the end of August, and continues through
September to about the middle of October, and is then suc-
ceeded by what is called by the European resident, the cool,
delicious season.
Thermometer, hottest season, from 10 A. m. to 4 P. M., in the
shade, maximum, 980 Fahrenheit; same time, in the sun, 1200
to 1210. Out of town, in the plains, several degrees lower.
At Grand-fond, situated E. S. E., distant but three or four
hours' ride from the capital, in July, the thermometer at
6 A.. will mark 590 to 600, and from 12 m. to 2 P. M., 720 to
780 maximum. From the end of October during the rest of
the year, and up to the following month of April, the thermo-
metrical range, in the shade, from 10 A. M. to 3 P. M., is 850 to
900 maximum; in the sun, 1100 to 1150 Fahrenheit.
The Northern Department, with Cape Haytian as its prin-
cipal town, has two seasons, strictly speaking. December,
January, March, and April, are rainy months. What is de-
nominated the dry season commences in May and is prolonged

Climate, Seasons, and Temperature. 59

through August and September. The highest range of tem-
perature is in August, when the North wind is not dominant.
Thermometer, in the shade, from 11 A. M. to 2 r. M., 850 to
92'. In tho plains it is never so high as in the town at the
same period of the year. On the more elevated parts, as in
Lemonade, etc., for example, the thermometrical range is seldom
over 72: t.:, '> maximum.
The S'utrhern Department, principal town Aux-Cayes, is
usually under the influence of rains during the months of May,
June, and July. August and September mark the dry season
in that s-ciiun of the island. From November to March the
air is c.,.I anl salubrious at Aux-Cayes, and still more so in
the pl:in- and rural districts, where the temperature is always
several degrees less than it is in situations near the seacoast.
The thermonietrical range is referred to that of Port-au-Prince
and thu West.
The reader of this imperfect exposition of the climate, sea-
sons, and temperature of Hayti will be convinced at once of the
caLues of the extraordinary fertility of its soil, and will perceive
the alvantar--s which must result from industry and agricul-
tural enterprise properly conducted in such a country.
W. G. SmIaT, of Port-au-Prince.





Editorial 3ntrobuction.

INSTRUCTED by the Government to publish in full all its
laws and other documents in relation to emigration, I here-
with subjoin them without abridgment; although, necessarily,
there are occasional repetitions of facts and of guarantees in
them, made in reply to similar questions, or in reviewing the
action that has been taken with a view of carrying out the
grand and generous project of the Chief of the Republic and
his enlightened counsellors, that of making Hayti to the
black race what England is and has been to the proscribed and
persecuted classes of Europe, a safe place of refuge, not only,
but a free and a powerful fatherland.
I prefix a translation of the Constitution of 1846, which
Soulouque abolished, but the Republic revived, with certain
Modifications rendered necessary by the altered circumstances
of the times. The Modifications, also, are appended. It will
repay a careful study to the general reader; to the emigrant it
will be invaluable for reference.
The documents are arranged in the order of their dates, and
it will be observed that the terms become more liberal as these
One word of explanation is rendered necessary in view of
the editor's appointment as the General Agent of Emigration
in America, and the passage of the Homestead Bill in Hayti.
No emigrants will be entitled to a free passage, or have

Editorial Introduction.

the right of drawing $15.00 from the treasury on their arri-
val in the Island, unless furnished with the certificate of the
Bureau of Boston. Those, also, who accept a free farm,
"will be expected to pay their passages; but if unable, for the
moment, to do so, the necessary means will be provided for
them, and abundant time be allowed them, after their arrival in
the Island, to refund the advance. In order to prevent an
emigration to Hayti of persons who would leave this country
for the country's good, it will also be demanded from applicants
for a homestead, that, if from the Northern States or the
Canadas, they shall produce the certificate of the Bureau of
Boston. Of course, this rule will not be enforced in the case
of emigrants from that barbarous and blood-stained section of
the Union where black men are enslaved, and white men who
sympathize with them so often suffer death at the hands of the
mob, -even, as recently in Texas, the fearful torture of the
It is not the design of the Bureau of Boston to send emi-
grants, except in peculiar cases, by transient vessels; but to
charter ships expressly adapted for the purpose of conveying
them comfortably and speedily. In these vessels, those who
desire to pay their own expenses will be accommodated at the
lowest rates, both as regards board and passage money; while
the others will receive equal consideration and attention. All
emigrants, unless special provision be made for large companies,
will sail from the port of Boston.


constitutionn of agyti.*

THE Haytian people proclaims, in presence of the Supreme
Being, the present Constitution of the Republic of Hayti,
in order to consecrate for ever its rights, its civil and political
guarantees, its sovereignty, and its national independence.

ARTICLE 1. The Island of Hayti and the adjacent Islands
which are dependent thereon, form the territory of the Re-
2. The Territory of the Republic is divided into depart-
nients. Their limits will be established by law.
3. Each department is subdivided into arrondissements, each
an ond1issement into communes. The number and boundaries of
rner subdivisions shall also be defined by law.
4. The Republic of Hayti is one and indivisible, essentially
If,.,. sovereign, and independent.
I" Territory is inviolable, and cannot be alienated by any

Commonly called the Constitution of 1846, or the Constitution of ch
Commonly called the Constitution of 1845, or the Constitution of Rich4.

Constitution of Hayti.

Of the Haytians.
5. Are Haytians, all individuals born in Hayti and descended
from Africans and Indians, and all those born in foreign coun-
tries of Haytian parents.
Are also Haytians, all those who, up to the present time,
have been recognized as such.
6. All Africans or Indians and their descendants, are able
to become Haytians.
The law settles the formalities of naturalization.
7. No white man, whatever be his nationality, shall be per-
mitted to land on the Haytian territory, with the title of master
or proprietor, nor shall he be able, in future, to acquire there
either real estate or the rights of a iHaytian.

Of Civil and Political Rights.
8. No slave can be held on the Territory of the Republic;
slavery is forever abolished.
9. All debts contracted through traffic in men, are annulled
10. The right of asylum is sacred and inviolable in the Re-
public, except in the exceptional cases foreseen by law.
11. The union of civil with political rights constitutes the
quality of citizen.
The exercise of civil rights is independent of the exercise of
12. The exercise of civil rights is regulated by law.
13. Every citizen, above the age of 21 years, exercises
political rights, if he has, besides, the other necessary con-
ditions determined by the Constitution.

Constitution of Hayti. 67

Novertheless, naturalized Haytians are nrot .dmnitt..d to th;s
exercise, till afler one year's residence in the Republic.
14. The exercise of pellitical ritrhts is tf.rfNlitd ;
(1.) By naturalization in a foreign co.utry ;
(2 ) By forsaking the country in a moment rf imminent
i3.) By accepting, without authorization, public funct;i.na rr
pensions contfnrref d by a foreign government ;
(4. ) BVy srving, without Hluthorizati.nu, either in the aj;mv 'or
the navy .,f a tlore lgn power;
(5.i By all settlement male in a foreign e.untry w;thiut,
intention of returning.
Commercial establishments can never he considered as having
been made without intention of returning.
(6.) By peremptory and final condemnation to perpetual
punishment, at the same time both corporal and ignoniniou-.
15. The i-scrcise of political rights is suspended.
(1.) By the cinlition of hired servants;
(2.) By the .:.ndition oif simple or frautliilont bankrupt;
(3. I By the eonlition 'rf juili;e;l interlict. -'" areu.:rit;, n, or
of contuitma ;
(4.) In Ionsequence of a judicial sentence, carrying with it
the u,-lpen'sion of civil rights;
(5. ) In .on-requ:enve of a jud-nment. deereed for a refusal
to Ferve in tht National Guard.
The s-spepnon i.a-is with the causes which oria'ionn d it.
1i. Th, exe'ise ,. political rights can only Ihe? torteitAl ,ir
suspeninld, in the :a..-,- menti,,ned in the prece-ling' arti,:. -.
17. The law reg ulatel the case. in whikh political riCht. ii.iy
be recovered, al:o tho mean 1t, Ibe In.ile uie of l al thie cmil.
tions to be fulfillil t1 attAin thi ...IJ 'i.i

iO. P .,aans are i 'qu .
IS. All Haytians are equal lheltre tihu lia.

68 Constitution of Hayti.

They are all equally eligible to the civil and military setr
19. There exist in the State no distinction of orderF, no dis-
tinction of birth, no hereditary powers.
20. Individual liberty is guaranteed. No one can he
arrested or detained, except in the cases determined I1y law,
and according to the manner by it established.
21. In order to the execution of an act. which decree the
arrest gf any person, it must. lit, set fourth formally the motive
of the arrest, and the law in s-eseution of which it i- decre:d ;
2d, emanate from a functionary to whom the law has formally
given this power ; 3d, Ie notilled to the person arrested, and a
copy left him.
All arrests that the law has not prescribed, or made without
the required forms, all violence or rigor employed in the execu-
tion of a mandate, are arbitrary acts which every one has a
right to resist.
22. No one can be forced to appear before any other judges
than those that the Constitution or the law assigns him.
23. The house of every person, resident on Haytian Terri-
tory, is an inviolable asylum.
No domiciliary visit, no seizure of papers can take place, ex-
cept by virtue of the law and in the forms prescribed.
24. No law can have a retroactive effect.
25. No punishment can be instituted except by law, nor im-
posed, except in the oases determined by law.
26. The Constitution guarantees the inviolability of property.
27. The Constitution also guarantees the alienation of the
national domains, as also the grants of land made by the
Government, either as a national gratuity or otherwise.
28. No one can be deprived of his property, except on
account of public utility, in the cases and manner established
by law, and in consideration of a just and previous indemnity.
29. The punishment of confiscation cannot be established.
30. Every citizen owes his services to the country for the

Constitution of Hayti. 69

tenance of liberty, equality, and prperryl, nlwi.-.her thle
summon him to defn.d them.
i1, The punishment of death shall bo confined to certain
which the law .hall determine.
82. Every man has the right :.f expressin" hii opinion.Q on
subject; he may write, print, and publish his th,'ughts.
N control before publication can be exercised upon any
g whatever.
The abuse of this right is defined and repressed by Iaw,
bout, however, affecting the liberty of the press.
iS. All kinds of worship are equally Ifre.
Very one has the right of professing his reigin and of
sing freely his worship, provided he do.es not disturb the
aj order.
S84. The establishment of a church or chapel, and the public
|iircme of worship, may be regulated by law.
S85. The miniters of the Catholic, Apro;tlie, and Roman
'ligion, professed by the majority of Uaytians, will receive a
:ipend fixed by law. They shall be especially protected.
Everument determines the territorial extent of the parishes to
'whih they mini.ter.
86. Instruction is free, and schools will gradually be estab-
lished to meet the wants of the people.
87. Trial by jury is established in all criminal matters.
From its decision there is no appeal.
88. The Haytians have the right of association ; this right
cannott be submitted to any precautionary measure; the right
belonging to the public authorities, of watching and pro-i. outing
any association which may propose ends contrary to public
order, is nevertheless maintained.
89. The right of petition is exercised personally. by one or
several individuals, never in the name of a body.
Petitions can be addressed either to the executive or to either
of the two legislative chambers.
40. The secrecy of letters is inviolable.

70 Constitution of Hayti.
The law determines who are the agents resp.on-il.,l .lir tr
violation of the secrecy of letters confided to the po.t.
41. The use of languages used in Hayti, is opltional ; it can
be regulated only by law, and only for the acits of public
authority, and for judicial matters.
42. Public debts contracted either at home or alroad, are
guaranteed. The Constitution places them under the safeguard
and loyalty of the nation.

43. National sovereignty resides in the total number of
the citizens.
44. The exercise of this sovereignty is delegated to three
Those three powers are: the legislative, the executive, and
the judicial.
45. Each power is independent of the other two in its
attributes, which it exercises separately. None of them can
delegate its authority or overstep the boundaries assigned to it.
Each of the three powers is responsible for its own acts.
46. The legislative authority is exercised collectively by the
chief of the executive and by two representative chambers, the
chamber of deputies and the senate.
47. The executive authority is delegated to one citizen, who
assumes the title of-President of Hayti.
48. The judicial authority is exercised by a court of appeal,
and other civil tribunals.
49. Each public functionary is personally responsible for his
own acts.
A law will be passed to regulate the mode of proceeding
against public functionaries for misconduct during their

Constitution of Hayti. 71


Of the C'hianiber (t' R prszPtaWenvcs.
..0. The chamber of deputies is composed ,f riprecntatives
Sfm the arroudissements of the Repullic.
The numbx.r of thu rcprclntativei shlall he fixed I.y liw.
Each arrndissement shall have at lea..t two. rr-pre:.>nt:tivei.
51. Lntil the law shall have fiied the lunumber of rcl.'rtenta-
tives to be elected by the arrindisiemi nts. this number is
Mttled as follows:
Fire Ihr the arrondiCsenment of Port-au-Princv, t/,r;, t Ir each
of the arnondissrements which hare chilf towus uf ildpartmiiints,
and for those of Jaemcl'and Jrnimie, and two f.r e',.-h of the
other arrondissementi o(f the lIepuhlil-.
62. The representatives are elected as f'llwsa:
Every five yiars, from theI 10lth to "IIl .T.Jinimry. the
primary aiseml.lies of the communism meet, in c,'rfI.rniilv vhb
the electoral law. alnd nanim eai.h three ek-lctor-.
53. From the 1st to 10th February, the electors uf Lhe com-
munes of each arrondissement meet in the chief town, and form
an electoral college.
The college names, by ballot, and by absolute majority of
votes, the number of representatives to be supplied by the
It names as many substitutes as representatives.
54. These substitutes, by order of nomination, succeed the
representatives of the arrondissement in case of death, resigna-
tion, forfeiture, or in the case provided by the article 60.
55. The half at least of the representatives and substitutes
shall be chosen among -the citizens who have their political
domicile in the arrondissement.

72 Constitution of Hayti.

56. To be elected representative or substitute, it is necessary
to be -
(1.) Above the age of 25 years.
(2.) In the enjoyment of civil and political rights.
(3.) Possessed of real estate in Hayti.
57. The naturalized Haytian must, besides the conditions
prescribed in the preceding article, prove a residence of three
years in the Republic in order to obtain election as representa-
tive 6r substitute.
58. The functions of representative are incompatible with
those of the administration of the finances.
A representative who exercises at the same time another
function paid by the State, cannot draw two salaries during the
session; he must choose between the two.
59. The judges, etc. of the civil courts, and the public
officers attached to these courts, cannot*be elected as representa-
tives within the jurisdiction of the court to which they belong.
The members of the court of appeal, and the public officers
attached to this tribunal, cannot be elected representatives with-
in the jurisdiction of the civil court of Port-au-Prince.
The commanders of arrondissements and their assistants, the
commanders of communes and their adjutants, cannot be elected
representatives within the extent of their arrondissement.
60. Any representative who accepts, during his term of
service, an office paid by the State, other than that occupied by
h:m before his election, ceases thenceforth to be a member of
the chamber.
61. The representatives are elected for five years.
The re-election is general.
They are indefinitely eligible to re-election.
62. During the whole time of the legislative session, every
representative will receive from the public treasury a salary of
two hundred gourdes a month.
lie is besides allowed one gourde per league, for travelling
expenses, from his commune to the seat of government.

Constitution of Hayti. 73

Or" the S'ifte.
..63. The Senate is i'ompr.n.d of thirty-isx mrnimlbjrs. They
are elected fir nine' yvers.
S 64. The Senat.,rs are -lecti-d 1-Y til? chandler of repririnta-
i ves on the propocitio:n of the PrI ident -f- II:lyti, a. t .ll...n- :
At the se,.ion which jpre.'e-les th, time n? t'l thl, ren-:wal 0f' tihe
Senators, the Pre-il.-nt of Hayvti niaki- a g,'n-.ral li-t ft tlhree
candidates Ior (ea.h Senator to I.e .lh-cted. whi.:h h- f..rwr:injr to
the Chamber. Three candidates are taken I'riu arn'.ng-t the
whole of the citizens..
65. The Chamber of RIt:lresrntativer clect.i, fri.m the e(anll;-
dates proposed on the general list, a number of Senators equal
to that of tLh:- Senators to be replaced.
This election is made by ballot, and hy al'-olute majority of
66. The Chamber of Re.preientatives f-,rwardtl to the Senate
Report declaring the nomination of the Sna.itors, anti at the
same time informs the Presilent of Havti .,f this nomination.
67. The Senate make known their nomination to the eil.ttid
Senators, and invites theru to appear and take the .a.th. This
formality fiai-hed, the Senate reports it to the Preiidlenrt of
In case .of death, resignation, forfeiitue. etc., the SDna:te likle-
wise informu. the Pre-ident of Ilayti and tihe resentatives of th d-.i to.. tilled up.
68. In no eane ctanl the sitting reprb.-,citativesb he inrti-lul in
the lists addrel-ss,. to the L'hamiii'r ly the P'.L.i ut I.f IIyti.
69. In order t, be ele,.:tl S.-nat,,r, it is n,:' ..-ary t1. IIe -
(1.) AL,,ve 3ii1 years .,'f age.
(2.) In the -nuj'ynjent of i'-il and p.liti:al rights
(3.) Pusss.-set' of real e.ttate in Hayti.
70. Tihe- naturalized Haytiat iunrt, lifeides the conditions pre-

74 Constitltion ot' Havti.
scribed in the preceding article, prove a residence. :f t;.ur ye~
in the Republic, in order to obtain election as Sen.atr.
71. The functions of Senator are incompatible wth all itber
public functions, except those of Secretary of Statr,. and of
Agents of the Republic abroad.
Nevertheless, a soldier may be appointed Senat r ; r lit it he
accept the office, he ceases to exercise every military tiii.tion,
and must choose between the emolument of Senator and li t of
his rank.
72. Any Senator who accepts, during his term of service,
the office of Secretary of State, ceases thencefrth to be a
member of the Senate, unless, offered again as cianiIl.ir.iL- y the
executive, he be re-elected by the Chamber of lciprer-nitltives.
73. Every Senator receives from the public tre:a-itry a .-:lary
of two hundred gourdes a month.
74. The sessions of the Senate are permanent. They mniy,
however, be adjourned at any time except during the kl I-lative
75. On the adjournment of the Senate, a permanent com-
mittee shall be left in its place. This committee Abhll \be in:lIle
to pass any resolution except for the convocation tif the S-nlate.

Of the Exercise of Legislative Powr, r.
76. The seat of the legislative power is the 'a ;hIol o: the
Each Chamber has its own place of meeting.
77. The Chamber of Representatives meets iev-ry year ':on
the first Monday in April.
The opening of its session may be made by the President of
Hayti in person.
78. The legislative session lasts three months. In case of
need, it can be prolonged to four, either by the legislative body
or by the executive.
79. In the interval of the sessions, and in case of emergency,

.! Constitution of Hayti. 75

the executive can cituvoke the Chiamlberi t1.1 any ex-trajI.linary
It gives t-hem a rejas,,n f.r thi, nim:aure hy a rnii:'a2.
It can also, as thu iase may require, conv:okei the Senate
alone, during its aldjirniuiient.
80. The I're.ilel!ut if nyti can alto prorIigue the legislative
session, provided it takes place at another periu:.d, in the -amine year.
81. Thl'( Chamber of Ri:.presentatives can be d;--ol'.l Iy the
President I.f II.i i, 1 ut. in thi? c:- ,' he is l.iu in ti: coi:uv.:ke a
new on" within a delay o:f three montlhs at the ulinr-t : aun then
the eleetil'in uist t ke pil..e c.l'lriing to the re-uirceimeut- of
Articles 5[2 and] !t.
'2. Thj. Le-.i..lative I'hniamers represent the entire nation.
83. The C'hanImber (of Representatives verifiie the coimisL-
aions of iti meinmliers anl decides all contro:vcrei,'- whi-bh may
arise on the suljecT-t.
The SenatI' lktwisu examines an 1l:.:.i.,le whether the rlc-
tion of tLho Scnatdrs ha- taken pl a:ce in e.t'.alrmity t' the C.,ii-
84. The nimmlbers of each Chamter take indi4idaslly the
oath to inaint.in ther righlt.i if the peoIli, ani t'l be tfithful to
the Conntitution.
85. The sittings of the Chambers are public; nevertheless,
each forms itself into a secret committee whenever it thinks,
SThe deliheration which arises in a secret committee is made
public, if thith ('h:ublr so dc.ides'.
f6. No one can be at the same time a m-nimber of both
Cha mlpr".
,7. Thif Leri-lature makes laws on all cl.ijecta of publio
int'.:re t.
The iniilativr'e helo'' t to each of the two, Chamnil,:r and tm
the Esecuti\.v Nevrtheleso, every law relating to public re-
cr-ir ii and .'l r ..in'ie- imn-t fir-t ih v.-toi I.y the Chamber of Rep-
rtU: ld l*

76 Constitution of Hayti.
88. The authoritative interpretation of the laws is given in
the ordinary form of laws.
89. Neither of the two Chambers can pass any resolution,
unless an absolute majority of its members be assembled.
90. Every resolution is passed by the absolute majority of
votes, except in cases defined by the Constitution.
91. The votes are taken by the Senators rising or remaining
seated. In case of doubt, the roll is called, and the votes are
then recorded by Yes or No.
92.- Each Chamber has the right of inquiry into all things
appertaining to it.
93. No project of law can be adopted by one of the Cham-
bers, until each separate article of it has been passed.
94. Each Chamber has the right to amend and divide the
articles and amendments proposed.
An amendment voted by one Chamber can be included in the
articles of the law, only when it shall have been adopted by the
other Chamber.
The organs of the Executive have the power to propose
amendments to projects under discussion by virtue of the initia-
tive possessed by the Chambers.
95. Every law passed by the two Chambers is immediately
forwarded to the E',.- i which has the right to object thereto.
When objections are made, the law is sent back to the Cham-
ber in which it was first voted, and the objections notified. If
they are approved, the law is amended by the two Chambers,
and promulgated by the Executive.
96. If the Executive makes objections to a law adopted by
the two Chambers, and if these objections are not approved by
these Chambers, or by one of them, the Executive has a right to
refuse its sanction to the law.
Nevertheless, if a dissolution of the Chamber of Representa-
tives should happen thereon, and if the same law were again
voted by the two Chambers, the Executive would be bound to
promulgate it.

Constitution of Hayti. 77

97. The approval of objections, and the amendments to which
they may give rise, are passed by the absolute majority, in
conformity with the Article 90.
98. The right of objection must be exercised within the fol-
lowing delay, namely :-
(1.) Within eight days, for laws of emergency, without the
objection being in any case grounded on the emergency.
(2.) Within fifteen days for other laws.
But, if the session be closed before the. expiration of this
latter delay, the law remains adjourned.
99. If, within the delay prescribed by the preceding article,
the Executive make no objection, the law must be immediately
100. A project of law, rejected by one of the Chambers, or
by the Executive, cannot be reproduced in the same session.
101. The laws and other acts of the legislative body are
rendered official by means of a bulletin printed and numbered,
entitled bulletin of laws.
102. The law dates from the day of its promulgation.
103. The Chambers correspond with the President of Hayti,
in all matters concerning the administration of public affairs;
but. they cannot, in any case, call him to their bar, to account
for any act of his administration.
104. The Chambers correspond likewise with the Secretaries of
State, and with each other in the cases prescribed by the Con-
105. To the Senate alone appertains the right of naming the
President of Hayti. This nomination is made by election by
ballot, and by a majority of two thirds of the members present
in the assembly.
106. In case the office of President of Hayti should be-
come vacant, during the adjournment of the Senate, its perma-
nent committee shall summon it to meet without delay.

78 Constitution of Hayti.
107. The Senate has the right of approving or rejecting
treaties of peace, alliance, neutrality, commerce, and other in-
ternational conventions agreed to by the Executive.
Nevertheless, all treaties stipulating sums chargeable to the
Republic, must be likewise submitted to the sanction of the
Chamber of Representatives.
108. The Senate gives or refuses its approbation to projects
of declaration of war submitted to it by the Executive.
It can, under serious circumstances, and upon the proposal
of the Executive, authorize the momentary removal of the seat j
of government to another place than the capital.
109. No one can present petitions in person to the Cham-
Each Chamber has the right to refer to the Secretaries of
State the petitions addressed to it. The Secretaries of State
may be invited to explain their contents, if the Chamber think
fit, and if the Secretaries of State, being called upon, do not
consider such publicity likely to compromise the interest of the
110. The members of the legislative body cannot be excluded
from the Chamber to which they belong, or at any time called
to account, accused, or tried, for opinions or votes pronounced
by them in the exercise of their functions.
111. No member of the Chamber of Representatives can be
arrested, during the session, or within the six weeks which shall
precede or follow it.
Within the same delay, no member of the Chamber of Rep-
resentatives can be prosecuted or arrested for matters criminal,
correctional, or of police, (except in case of notorious criminal
offence,) until the Chamber shall have permitted his prosecu-
112. No Senator is liable to apprehension during his con-
tinuance in office.
A Senator cannot be prosecuted or arrested for matters crimi-
nal, correctional, or of police, while in office, (except in case

Constitution of Hayti. 79

of notorious criminal offence,) until the authorization of the
Senate be obtained.
113. If a member of the legislative body be apprehended,
(in a case of notorious criminal offence,) the opinion of the
Chamber to which he belongs is taken without delay.
114. In criminal cases, inducing punishment both corporal
and ignominious, every member of the legislative body is placed
under accusation by the Chamber to which he belongs.
115. The Senate forms itself into a high court of justice to
decide on accusations made against members of the legislative
body, against Secretaries of State, or any other great public
4fho form of procedure before the high court of justice, will
be determined by a law.
116. Each Chamber, by its by-laws, settles its own disci-
pline, and defines the manner according to which it discharges
its duties and exercises its privileges.


Of the President of flayti.

117. The President of Hayti is elected for life.
118. In order to be elected President of Hayti, it is neces-
sary -
(1.) To be born in Hayti.
(2.) To have attained the age of 35 years.
(3 ) To be possessed of real estate in Hayti.
119. In case of vacancy through the death, resignation, or
forfeiture of the President of Hayti, the Secretaries of State,
assembled in council, exercise, on their own responsibility, the
executive power.
If the President happen to be unable to exercise his func-

80 Constitution of Hayti.

tions, the Council of Secretaries of State is charged with the
executive authority so long as the hindrance shall last.
120. Before entering on his duties, the President of Hayti
takes before the Senate the following oath:
I swear to the nation to discharge faithfully the duties of
President of Hayti; to maintain with all my might the Con-
stitution and the laws of the Haytian people; to enforce the
respect due to the national independence and the integrity of
the territory."
121. The President causes to be attached to the laws and
other acts of the legislative body, the seal of the Republic, and
sees that they be promulgated after the delays fixed by Articles
95, 96, 98, and 99. f
122. The promulgation of the laws, and other acts of the
legislative body, is in these terms:
"In the name of the Republic,
The President of Hayti directs that the above (law or act)
of the legislative body be stamped with the seal of the Repub-
lic, published, and executed."
123. The President causes to be enacted the laws or other
acts of the legislative body promulgated by him.
He makes all the regulations, decrees, and proclamations
necessary to this effect.
124. The President names and dismisses the Secretaries of
He names and dismisses, also, the agents representing the
Republic to foreign powers and governments.
125. He names all civil and military functionaries, and fixes
their places of residence, if not already done so by law.
He dismisses removable functionaries.
126. The President of Hayti commands and directs the
forces by land and sea, and confers rank in the army, according
to the law.
127. IIe makes treaties of peace, alliance, neutrality, com-
merce, and other international conventions, with the sanction of

Constitution of Hayti. 81

the Senate, and that of the Chamber'of Representatives in the
cases fixed by the Constitution.
He proposes to the Senate declarations of war when cirnum-
stances appear to demand it. If the Senate approve these pro-
jects, the President of Hayti declares war.
128. The President of Hayti provides, according to law, for
the exterior and interior security of the State.
Every measure taken by the President is previously discussed
in the council of Secretaries of State.
129. The President of Hayti has the right to pardon and to
commute sentences. The exercise of this right shall be fixed by
He can also exercise the right of amnesty, but for political
offences only.
130. No act of the President can have effect unless counter-
signed by one Secretary of State, who, by this alone, makes
himself responsible.
131. At the opening of each session, the President, through
the Secretaries of State, presents to the Senate and the Chamber
of Representatives the general situation of the Republic, as well
exterior as interior.
132. The President of Hayti receives from the public
treasury an annual salary of forty thousand gourdes.
He resides at the national palace of the capital.
Of the Secretaries of State.
133. There are four Secretaries of State, whose departments
are fixed by the decree calling them to office.
The attributes of each department are determined by law.
134. The Secretaries of State compose a council under the
presidency of the President of Hayti, or of one of their number
delegated to that office by the President.
Every deliberation is recorded on a register, and signed by
the members of the council.

82 Constitution of Hayti.

135. They have right of entrance in both the Chambers to
support projects of laws and objections from the Executive, or to
make any other communication from Government.
136. The Chambers can require the presence of the Secreta-
ries of State, and can summon them to answer for every act of
their administration.
The Secretaries of State thus summoned, are bound to enter
into explanations, unless they consider such a course liable to
compromise the interest of the State.
137. The Secretaries of State are respectively responsible, as
much for the acts of the President which they countersign, as
for those of their department, as also for the non-execution of
the laws.
In no case can the verbal or written order of the President,
received by a Secretary of State, relieve this latter from respon-
138. The Chamber of Representatives has the right of accus-
ing the Secretaries of State. If the accusation is admitted by
two thirds of the votes, they are cited before the Senate, which
then forms itself into a high court of justice.
139. Each Secretary of State enjoys an annual salary of five
thousand gourdes.
Travelling expenses are allowed them by law.

Of the Institutions of Arrondissements and Communes.
140. A council for each arrondissement, and a council for
each commune, are hereby established.
These institutions are regulated by law.

141. Litigations which have for their object some civil right
are exclusively within the jurisdiction of the tribunals.

Constitution of Hayti. 83

142. Litigation which have for their object political rights
are within the jurisdiction of the tribunals, save the exceptions
established by law.
143. No tribunal, nor other court for the settlement of dis-
putes, can be established but by virtue of a law.
No extraordinary commission or tribunal can be created
under any denomination whatsoever.
144. There is, for all the Republic, a Court of Appeal, the
organization and attributes of which are determined by law.
The Court of Appeal has its sittings in the capital.
145. The law determines, likewise, the organization and
attributes of the other tribunals.
146. The judges cannot be dismissed except for offence of
bribery legally tried, nor suspended except on account of an
approved accusation.
Nevertheless, the justices of the peace are liable to be dis-
147. Every judge may be called upon to urge his claims to
superannuation, if he be in the conditions stipulated by law on
the matter.
148. No one can be named judge or judicial officer unless
he have attained the age of thirty years for the Court of Appeal,
and of twenty-five years for the other tribunals.
149. The President of Hayti appoints and dismisses the judi-
cial officers attached to the Court of Appeal and the other tri-
150. The functions of judge are incompatible with any other
public function, except those of representative.
Incompatibility, by reason of relationship, is settled by law.
151. The salaries of the members of the judicial body are
fixed by law.
152. Tribunals of commerce can be established. The law
regulates their organization, their attributes, and the time of ser-
vice for their members.
153. Special laws regulate the organization of the military

84 Coqstitution of Hayti.
tribunals, their attributes, the rights and obligations of the mem-
bers of these tribunals, and their length of service.
-154. The sittings of the tribunals are public, unless such
publicity endangers public-order and good morals; in this case,
the tribunal declare this by a decree.
155. The law regulates the mode of proceeding against the
judges, in case of crimes or offences by them committed, either
in the exercise of their functions or otherwise.


156. Every citizen above the age of twenty-one years has the
right of vote in the primary assemblies, if he be moreover a
landed proprietor, if he have the cultivation of a farm, or if he
practise a profession, fill a public office, or follow any business
defined by the electoral laws.
157. To be a member of the electoral colleges, it is neces-
sary to be twenty-five years of age, and be, besides, in one of
the other positions mentioned in the preceding article.
158. The primary assemblies have the right of meeting, by
virtue of Article 52 of the Constitution, or on the convocation
of the President of Hayti, in the case mentioned in Article 81.
Their object is to appoint electors.
159. The electoral colleges meet likewise in their own right,
by virtue of Article 53 of the Constitution, or on the convoca-
tion of the President of Hayti, in the case laid down in Article
Their object is to name the representatives and their substi-
160. The meeting of two thirds of the electors of an arron-
dissement constitute an electoral college, and all elections are
decided by the absolute majority of the votes of the members
present and by ballot.

Constitution of Hayti. 85

161. The primary assemblies and the electoral colleges can
have no other object but the elections respectively assigned to
them by the Constitution.
They are bound to dissolve when this is accomplished.

162. No tax for the benefit of the State can be established,
but by law.
Taxes for the use of communes and arrondissements are
established by special laws.
163. No privileges can be granted in the matter of taxes.
No exception or abatement of taxes can be established, except
by a law.
164. Except in cases formally excepted by law, no contribu-
tion can be levied from the citizens, unless as a tax for the use
of the State, of the arrondissement, or of the commune.
165. No pension, no gratuity, chargeable to the public treas-
ury, can be granted, except in accordance with a law.
166. The budget of each Secretary of State is divided into
chapters. No sum allowed for one chapter can be carried to the
credit of another, and employed for other expenses, without a
167. Every year, the Chambers decree, 1st. The account of
receipts and expenses during the year or preceding years, for
each department separate; 2d. The general budget of the State
containing details of the receipts, and the funds assigned for the
year to each Secretary of State.
Nevertheless, no motion, no amendment, can be introduced
into the budget, to the end of reducing or augmenting the sala-
ries of the public functionaries, and the pay of the soldiers,
already paid by special laws.
168. The Chamber of Accounts is composed of a certain
number of members fixed by law.

86 Constitution of Hayti.

They are named by the President of Hayti, and hold office
at his will. The organization and attributes of the Chamber
of Accounts, are fixed by law.
169. The law settles the standard, the weight, the value, the
stamp, the effigy, and the denomination of the currencies.

170. The public force is raised to defend the State against
exterior enemies, and to insure at home the maintenance of
order and the execution of the laws.
171. The army is essentially obedient, -no armed body can
172. The army is placed on peace or war footing, as occasion
No one can receive soldier's pay unless he serve in the army.
173. The mode of recruiting for the army is fixed by law.
It regulates, likewise, the promotion, the rights and obliga-
tions of the soldiers.
174. No privileged corps can ever be created; but the Presi-
dent of Hayti has a special guard, subject to the same military
rules as the other corps of the army.
175. The national guard is organized by law.
It can be mobilized, entirely or in part, only in the case men-
tioned in the law or its organization.
176. Soldiers cannot be deprived of their rank, honors, and
pensions, but in the manner fixed by law.

177. The national colors are blue and red, placed
The arms of the Republic are the Palm-tree, crowned with
the cap of Liberty, and ornamented with a trophy of arms, with
the motto, l'unionfait laforce, (union is strength.)

Constitution of Hayti. 87

178. The town of Port-au-Prince is the capital of the
Repulli', and the seat of government.
179. No oath can be administered except by virtue of the
law. Tie form thereof is fixed by law.
I 'I. Every foreigner who happens to be on the territory of
the fIpublic, enjoys the protection given to persons and goods,
save tho exceptions established by law.
I I. The law establishes a uniform system of weights and

1,2. The national holidays are, that of the Independence,
th.: -.t January; that of Alexander Petion, the 2d April;
tbat it. Agriculture, the 1st May; that of Philip Guerrier, the
30th June.
Thli I.gal festivals are fixed by law.
1. 3. No law, no decree, or regulation of public administra-
tion i, I.nding, until published in the form prescribed by law.
1 1. No place, no part of the Territory, can be declared in
a siat of:,r siege, except in case of civil troubles, or of invasion
impl.llndig, or effected, on the part of a foreign force.
Tbh. declaration is to be made by the President of Iayti,
anld miit, be countersigned by all the Secretaries of State.
I '5. The Constitution cannot be suspended, either in whole
or in part.
186. If experience demonstrate the inconvenience of some
of the measures of the Constitution, the proposal of a revision
of these measures can be made in the usual form of the laws.
187. If the Executive and the two Chambers agree upon the
changes proposed in one session, the discussion of them shall
be deferred to the session of the following year. And if, in
this second session, the two Chambers again agree with the
Executive upon the proposed changes, the new decrees adopted

88 Constitution of Hayti.

shall be published in the usual form cf the laws, as articles of
the Constitution.
188. No motion of revision can be carried out, no change in
the Constitution can be adopted by the two Chambers, unless
on a majority of two thirds of the votes.

189. The existing members of the Senate are maintained in
office, as follows: -
One third for three years; one third for six years; one third
for nine years.
This decree shall be executed by the Senate, by the drawing
of lots at a public sitting.
190. In future, every Senator shall be elected by the Chamber
of Representatives, for nine years, in accordance with Article
63 of the Constitution.
191. The formation of the Chamber of Representatiros shall
take place, for the first time only, as follows:-
The President of Hayti shall forward to the Senate a general
list of three candidates for each Representative, and each sub-
stitute to be elected for each arrondissement.
The Senate shall elect, from among the candidates named in
the general list, the numbers of Representatives and substitutes
fixed by Articles 51 and 53 of the Constitution.
192. In the session of 1847, there shall be proposed to the
legislature : -
(1.) A law regulating the mode of proceeding against pub-
lic functionaries, for misdeeds committed by them during their
(2.) A law regulating the form of proceeding before the
high court of justice.
(3.) A law regulating the exercise of the right of pardon
and of commutation of sentences.

Constitution of Hayti. 89

(4.) A law regulating the retirement of judges.
(5 i A law fixing tho attributes of the Sieretaries of State.
1'J3. The present Constitution shall be lpullished and exe-
cuted throu-hout all the extent of the Republic
The codes of laws. civil, commercial, peinal, and of criminal
prosecution, together with all other laws thereto relating, are
mainta;n.ed in ifrce until they he legally repealed.
All iomeaures of laws, dIcrees, re-.:,lutionq, regulatio:ni, and
other act~, which iae contrary to the pre~:ent Con-titutiLon, are
hereby annulled.
Given at the National H.lu-e of Port-au-Prinrc, the 14th
day of Nu.ivembler, 146, in the -13d year of the Indepndlnco
of Bayti.

The legislative body, availing itself of the -' initiative con-
ferredl by Article .7 of the Constitution.
Seeing the decree of the Committee of Gonaives, dated the
23d December, 1858, which revives, with modifications, the
Constitution of 1846,
Considering the importance of making these modifications
without delay, has passed unanimously the following laws: -
ABTIOic 1. The Articles 62, 71, 73, 111, 132, 133, 139,
167, and 182, are modified in the following manner:
ART. 62. During the legislative sesion, each Representative
receives from the public treasury, a monthly salary, the amount
of which will be fixed by law.
Another law shall likewise fix the amount to be allowed to
each Representative for travelling expenses, from his commune
to the seat of government.
ART. 71. The duties of Senator cannot be discharged by any
one who may have other public duties devolving upon him.

90 Constitution of Hayti.

Nevertheless, a soldier may be elected Senator, but thence-
forth he ceases to exercise any military duty.
ART. 73. Each Senator receives from the public treasury a
salary, the amount of which is fixed by law.
ART. 111. No Representative f the people can be imprisoned
during the time that he holds his commission.
Nevertheless, if a Representative discharge any public duty
after the session, he can be prosecuted for acts of which he may
be guilty, and that before the ordinary tribunals.
AnT. 132. The President of Hayti receives from the public
treasury a salary, the amount of which is fixed by law.
He resides at the National Palace at the capital.
ART. 133. There will be from four to seven Secretaries of
State, as the President of Hayti may judge necessary. Their
departments will be fixed by the decree containing their nomi-
The duties of each department are determined by law.
ART. 139. Each Secretary of State will receive an annual
salary, the amount of which will be fixed by law.
The amount of travelling expenses to be allowed to the
Secretaries of State shall likewise be determined.
ART. 167. Each year the Chambers pass : 1. The account of
receipts and expenses, accompanied by vouchers of the preced-
ing year for each department separately; 2. The general budget
of the State, containing the statement of income, and the
moneys proposed to be allotted for the year to each Secretary of
State, for the business of- his department.
Nevertheless, no proposal, no amendment can be introduced
into the budget to the end of reducing, or augmenting the
salaries of the public functionaries, and the pay of the soldiers,
already fixed by law.
ART. 182. The National holidays are: that of the Inde-
pendence of Hayti, the 1st January; that of T. T. Dessalines,
the 2d January; that of Alexander Pition, the 2d April; that
of Agriculture, the 1st May; that of Philip Guerrier, the

Constitution of Hayti. 91

30th June; that of the Restoration of the Republic, the 22d
AnT. 2. The Articles 189, 190, and 191, of the same Con-
stitution, are suppressed; the Article 192, which by this deci-
sion becomes 189, is modified as follows :-
ART. 189. In the session of 1860, if not before, there shall
be proposed to the legislative body :
(1.) A law regulating the mode of proceeding against pub-
lic functionaries for acts of their administration.
(2 ) A law regulating the form of procedure before the high
court of justice.
(3.) A law regulating the exercise of the right of pardon
and the commutation of sentences.
(4.) A law regulating the retirement of the judges.
AnT. 3. The Article 193, which now takes the No. 190,
shall be drawn up as follows:
ART. 190. The present law shall be published and executed
throughout the whole extent of the Republic.
The codes of civil, commercial, and penal laws, those of
criminal prosecution, and all laws relating thereto, are main-
tained in force until legally repealed.
All the provisions of laws, decrees, resolutions, regulations,
and other acts which are contrary to the present Constitution are
hereby annulled.
Given at the National House, at Port-au-Prince, the 14th
day of July, 1859, in the 50th year of the Independence.

The President of the Senate..... HILAIRE JEAN-PIERRE.
The Secretaries ............. S. TOUssAINT, B. INGINAC.
Given at the Chamber of Representatives, at Port-au-Prince,
the 15th of July, 1859, year 56th of Independence.

The President of the Chamber.. PANAYOTY.
The Secretaries.............. J. THiaBAn B. GuILLranE.

92 Constitution of Hayti.

The President of Hayti ordains that the law subjoined, of
the Legislative Corps, be sealed with the seal of the Republic,
published, and executed.
Given at the National Palace of Port-au-Prince the 18th of
July, 1856, year 56th of Independence.
The Secretary of State, President of the Council........ J. PAUL.
The Secretary of State, of Justice, and of Worships,
charged with the portfolio of the Interior, and of
Agriculture.... ............................. F. E. Dunsos.
The Secretary of State, of War, and of the Marine.... T. DiJOIE.
The Secretary of State of the General Police.......... JH. LAMOTHE.
The Secretary of State of Finances, and of Commerce.. VX. PL.SANCE.


getter ato tl)e bitor.

In behalf of certain blacks, and persons of color in the United States
and the Canadas, who are desirous of emipgratinp to Hayti, I respectfully
ask replies to the following questions:
I. Would Emigrants be subject to military duty? If so, for how long,
and what manner of duty ?
II. Would you grant such Emigrants perfect liberty to leave the
country whenever they desired to do so?
III. Would they be required, directly or indirectly, to support the
Roman Catholic Religion if they are not members of the Catholic
IV. How long ere they would be invested with all the rights, civil and
political, of native-born Haytians ?
V. Do you guarantee to such Emigrants as efficient governmental
protection as is given to the native Haytians?
VI. Is the Government willing that such Emigrants should settle in
neighborhoods ? Is the Government prepared to sell such tracts, on easy
terms, to be paid in instalments, or within a reasonable number of years,
and what other facilities and encouragements will the Government give
to introduce such an emigration, and such settlements of communities?
I ask your particular attention to this head, as, unless it is satisfactorily
answered, it will be impossible to induce an emigration of wealthy and
intelligent men from America.
VII. Provided such settlements were formed, what educational facili.
ties would be extended them ?

I have the honor to be, &c.,


94 Letter to the Editor.
Sir: I have the privilege of transmitting to you the replies
to the questions contained in your letter of the 4th instant, to
His Excellency the President of Hayti, relative to emigration.
It is chiefly to the development of Agriculture in Hayti, that
the Government wishes to make this enterprise subservient.
To that end it is disposed to accord special favors to persons
of that profession who shall decide to emigrate. To agricultur-
ists, and to those who shall come here with the intention of
devoting themselves to cultivation, it will accord the following
First, It will pay their passage at the rate of fifteen piastres
(Spanish or American dollars) for each able-bodied man or
woman; and at that of eight piastres for children of twelve and
under, and old persons beyond sixty years.
Second, It will board and lodge them for eight days, while
they are seeking other accommodations.
It may be proper to explain here the usage respecting con-
tracts which are ordinarily formed between agriculturists and
proprietors in the country. The proprietors advance the lands
and works, (usines,) the agriculturists undertake the cultivation
and improvements; the produce is equally divided between the
proprietor and agriculturist. The emigrants may each make
contracts if they see fit. The. emigrants will find land to buy
from private individuals. They may also obtain it from the
Government, and at a reasonable price, on easy terms of pay-
ment, if the State possesses land in the districts where the emi-
grants shall establish themselves.
The Government will extend to them the same protection as
to Haytians themselves. For the rest, shortly after their arrival
in the country, they can have the same civil and political rights
as the Haytians; for, according to the civil code of Hayti,
every person descended from African or Indian blood, can,

Letter to the Editor.

certain formalities fulfilled, become a Haytian after a residence
of one year in the country. The religious belief of the emi-
grants, to whatever Christian sect they may belong, shall always
be respected. They shall freely exercise their worship. There
shall never be occasion to call them to defend the Roman
Catholic religion, whether they believe it or not.
A recent law fixes the term of obligatory military service for
every Haytian at nine years. The citizens required for this
service are designated by lot. The Government, as an evidence
of its good intentions in favor of emigration, has resolved to
exempt the emigrants from military service. But this exemp-
tion shall not extend to their children when they shall have
attained the prescribed age of drawing lots.
The emigrants shall make a part of the National Guard,
(militia.) The National Guard meets only on the first Sunday
of each month, and has no exercises to make on that day. In
case of extraordinary events, a more active service may be
exacted of it. But then it will be a duty to fulfil for the guar-
anty of the general interests, and consequently of their own.
The emigrants will be permitted to settle together, in each
locality, as much as it shall be a practicable thing; but they
shall not, therefore, cease to be subject to the laws and author-
ities of the Republic.
The present Government, which is devoting itself seriously
to spreading light, has founded, and will continue to found,
numerous primary schools. In these institutions instruction is
given cheaply, and even gratuitously, to certain children.
The children of the emigrants shall enjoy in this respect the
same advantages as those of Haytians.
Our laws deprive no one of the privilege of leaving the
country if they please; nevertheless, the Haytian who abandons
his country in the moment of imminent danger loses forever
the quality of citizen. The emigrants who do not wish to
remain in Hayti are free to re-embark; yet those whose intro-


96 Letter to the Editor.

duction into the country shall be at Government expense, can
leave only after a residence of three years.
This, sir, is the communication that I have been charged to
make to you. Accept the assurance of my distinguished con-
The Secretary of State of Foreign Relations:

(lall for QEmigration.

M EN of our race dispersed m the United States! Your fate,
your social position, instead of ameliorating, daily becomes
worse. The chains of those who are slaves are riveted; and
prejudice, more implacable, perhaps, than servitude, pursues
and crushes down the free. Everything is contested with us in
that country in which, nevertheless, they boast of liberty; they
have invented a new slavery for the free, who believed that they
had now no masters; it is this humiliating patronage which is
revolting to your hearts. Philanthropy, in spite of its noble
efforts, seems more powerless than ever to lead your cause to
victory. Contempt and hatred increase against you, and the
people of the United States desire to eject you from its bosom.
Come, then, to us! the doors of Hayti are open to you. By
a happy coincidence, which Providence seems to have brought
about in your behalf, Hayti has risen from the long debasement
in which a tyrannical government had held her; liberty is re-
stored there. Come and join us; come and bring to us a con-
tingent of power, of light, of labor; come, and together with
us, advance our own common country in prosperity. We will
come by this means to the aid of the philanthropists who make
such generous efforts to break the chains of those of our breth-
ren who are still in slavery.
Our institutions are liberal. The government is mild and