Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Notes and Testimonies
 Back Cover


Toussaint L'Ouverture : Biography and Autobiography
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA01200013/00001
 Material Information
Title: Toussaint L'Ouverture : Biography and Autobiography
Physical Description: x, 372 p. : port., fold. map. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Beard, J. R. (John Relly), 1800-1876
Publisher: James Redpath (1863)
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1863
Subjects / Keywords: Caribbean
Spatial Coverage: Haiti -- Caribbean
Funding: Digitized with funding from the Digital Library of the Caribbean grant awarded by TICFIA.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Central Florida Libraries ( SOBEK page | external link )
Holding Location: University of Central Florida ( SOBEK page | external link )
Rights Management: All rights to images are held by the respective holding institution. This image is posted publicly for non-profit educational uses, excluding printed publication. For permission to reproduce images and/or for copyright information contact Special Collections & University Archives, University of Central Florida Libraries, Orlando, FL 32816 phone (407) 823-2576, email: speccoll@mail.ucf.edu
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05873411
aleph - 000187754
lc - F1923.T722
System ID: CA01200013:00001

Table of Contents
        Cover 1
        Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Introduction 1
        Introduction 2
        Introduction 3
        Introduction 4
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
        Table of Contents 3
        Table of Contents 4
        Book I
        Section 2
    Chapter I
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Chapter II
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Chapter III
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Chapter IV
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Chapter V
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    Chapter VI
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter VII
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Chapter VIII
        Page 69
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Chapter IX
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Chapter X
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
    Chapter XI
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Chapter XII
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Chapter XIII
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Chapter XIV
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Chapter I
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    Chapter II
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
    Chapter III
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Chapter IV
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
    Chapter V
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Chapter VI
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    Chapter VII
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
    Chapter I
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
    Chapter II
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
    Chapter III
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
    Chapter IV
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
    Chapter V
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
    Notes and Testimonies
        Page 329
        Page 330 (MULTIPLE)
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
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        Page 351
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        Page 354
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        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
    Back Cover
        Page 373
Full Text

William L. Bryant

West Indies
' i^'.'-^^^^.^^^ ^-%v^^

II ~





*. j .


;:i ',"- ..::..::. .f -.

u:. WASIMzxer o STREET.


Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1863,

In the Clerk's Offio of the Bistrict Ooart of Maachuettu.

e50. 0. BAUD A AVEST.


wabh. -a Biography

Uad m6 ten year'
-the Negro

~~I~'~biu aOE.
I nhthe foll(oing pages has both
.PWRIWMMuemC. --~sefforts
abomtiom of salreay in the
riiun-to sender the Present mo-
.ihpoemde of a memoir of Toire-
h;~E rh5Ndi'g some aid to the
pvolved in the extinc-
!Bjdo on wbich

Gde &eet that no do-
is aceemaible to the
labm Whioh existAin

.ct are found bialy
these the author so-

in Hayti,
MAI6.b"Affi Ad unjust.


Possibly tbiQ may be attributable to al o pen. The
Blacks have no authors; their cause, con, has not
yet been pleaded. In the authorities we possess on
ject, either French or mulatto interests. for the most part,
predominate. Specially predominant are mulatto interests
and prejudices, in the recently published Life of Toussaint
L'Otwerture, by SAINT REMT, a mulatto: this writer obvi-
ously values his caste more than his country or his kind."

With this work the editor has taken the liberty of making
a few verbal and other changes in the text of the opening
chapters; of erasing the two elaborated guesses as to Tous-
saint's Scriptural studies and readings in the Abbh Raynal's
philosophy; and of omitting the entire Book IV., which gave
a sketch of the history ..f Hayti from the death of Toussaint
to the reign of the late Emperor Soulouque. The alterations
in the first chapters referred chiefly to statements respecting
modern Hayti, with which the editor's travels and his official
relations to its.Government had made him more familiar than
the author. Book IV. was erased because it was deemed
an inadequate presentation of the history of an independent
negro nationality,-not unfair, indeed, nor essentially in-
accurate, but too meagre for publication in the United States
where its statements would nkcesearily be weighed in the
scales of party. It is hoped that a full and impartial history
of Hayti will, erelong, be presented to the American people;
until then, the sketches in the encyclopedias and the summary
of Mr. Elie in "The Guide," must suffice to indicate the
governmental changes that have occurred in the island.*
SThe few reference In the Notes t t this book (we may @ay nl passing)
will lose every appearance or bad taste or of egotism, when it Is stated
that It Is simply an unpretendlng collection of facts, to which no claim or
pride of azaborshJp can justly attach.

M Dr. Beard, no changes have
i i imply a uniform concurrence
to say, that, although
l ejy have found in Dr. Beard
sealous partisan.
4 Haytian history, the
white representing the
groes and the yel-
ot England and
easingg equally
at th4 1.*atbo hieubi-
of Hfayi, or to regard
ir of the revolution, or otherwise

l .:i qa ted chiet"
fl dibaow that to have. undertaken to
Siti" thae event narrated would have

ions of Dr. Beard, with one
4 mi itted, and others deemed more
for them.
Sde1u..saainU L'Ou-
wbhomepsrtiadn spirit
py'of the great

he says, was first
ti'l Gr6goire, bishop of Blois,
work entitled, The Litera-
the, journal La Prsse pub-
m..d at that time some persons
i kt.y., But, quite recently,
r. i, telot, member of

vi IN

the University of France, I was e to obtain from
General Deafourneaux a copy of these Memo b h he had
in his possession. Still later, after much rse ,
needed in discovering the original manuscript in the Genera
Archives of France. Eagerly, and with qcrupulousatutntion.
did I peruse the lengthy page-s, all written in the hand of tlh
First of the Blacks. The r-motlius i:..s:it.d in nie by this
examination will be be-ttrr uildcrsruod than they can be de-
scribed. The mind is thrown into an jalVyss f reflections Iy
the memory of s Ill'fty a renown beut under th- w:.ight (of Eo
much insibfrtune."
M. Saint Remy adds. that "f Toussaint's east of mind
may well he judged from the fact that his t<.n manu-
script is entirely at firht hand, without an erasure or an in-
This interesting paper i uniw GrIt .ulIlihi.d in the Engli-h
language, having been esprcssly tranr~late'l I;r ibii v...lumt.
Are the .XVprors fit tr Soldirrs? Ignorant of the
history of Hayti, which fbrcvcr settled the question. our jour-
nalista and public men for many long months disputed it, un-
til the gallant charges on Port Hullson and Fort Wagner put
an end to the humiliating ,l-b.alt.
*Are \egroes .i' for O(ll' rs. "? We are entering on
that debate now. The Lilfe of Tmisecaint may help to end it.
What Toussaint. Christolphe, D.-ss-ines dlid, plantation-
hands" and yet able warriors and statesmen, all of them, -
some Sambo, Wash, or Jtff, still tuiling in the rice-fields or
among the sugar-canvs, or ho.-ing his coticn-row in the S,;uthern
States, may be meditating t:-day and destined to begin to-


h iramummsors, the Spauiah colony
1 Al'A 1 y in tile West the baxia
?1114111prOpeity. 22
Patlea kat Huyti-IThe blacks, the

WIXOnvertare His promo-
Hi` bA Da, and begins to
Wbb f hisoppres.ed

and tbs negroes -
~ (lsnbso n~r. frm F~noe
-Tousnsant gain. In-

Wilwtbthe whites-The deospl-
intotheaurnm of Spain -

b 'sm Strlle fArec
of Ile Cae- mamme


viii co,

Toepabint becomes master of a central point Is nof d by offers
of negro emancipation, nor of bribes to himself- the Eng-
lish, who nvade the Island; adds L'Ouerture to his na
done the Spaniards, and seek freedom through French allan*

Toussaint defeats the Spanish partisans-- By extraordinary exertlons,
ralaes and dusipllnes troops, Ifrms armies, lays out campaign, exe-
cutes the most daring exploits, and drd'ieL the English, who evacuate
the laland-Toussaint is Commander-ir-chlej .

Toussaint L'Ouverture compnses sigit:iion, and brings back pros-
perlty- Is opposed by the Commilsioner, Hedouville, who flies to
France-Appual., In eLf-jusLidcation, to the Directory in aris 90

Civil war in the South between Tuussaint L'Ouverture and RIgaud-
Siege and capture or Jarmel .. .'

Toussaint endeavors to suppress the blnve-Iradc in Santo Domingo,
and thereby Incurs the dlspleasurL or nnume, the repreeiltatuiv of
France He oercomie HIt guud Ili.niparte, now Firlt Conrul,
sends C.ommis6iont rs to mIe ilanid Lou of the war in the South 112

Toussalni L'Ouerture inaugurutes a Leirer future -Publishes a gen-
eral amnesty Declares his task accomplished in putting an end to
ivil strife, and establishing peace on a sound hnase lakes poe-
session of epanitsh Haytl, and stops the slave-Irade,- Welcomes
back the old colonists Hesores agriculure-- Recalle property -
.Studles personal appearance on public ocrasions- Simplicty of his
lire and manners-- His audiences and receptions Is held in gen-
eral respect 121

Toussaint IOnverture takes measures for the perpetuation of the happy
condition of Haytt, specially by publishing the draft of a Constita-
tion in which he is named governor for life, and the great doctrine
of Freetrade is explicitly proclaimed. 1I


Peace of Amlens -Bonaparte contemplates the subjugation of Saint
Domlngo, and the restoration df sltsery-Excitement caused by
report to tut etlfet in the hslnd- Views of TomuMaint L'Ounerture
on the poln. .. 114


an ezpedtion against
In dSIm ledy to got iLd
Relres slavery and the
--XUalada Toussaint's

the island, mind yet
It etablobes him-
and at PFr-
Mountain atrong-

ha oberaraub
I PLerrot po~int. and

25b hea000 men In Ihreo
.. a... e- The plan i
~i~fft t aenal. Rochambeau

alw point of redlet
t~btlbral, egese the redoubt
Ip~~r~rta t he blacks 190

VIZ. 7
Pnwa peapota of Toossaint
-WUssOar Cbratophs and
o Bovernor.Geoerae -
imlveaal fres


OVtqa from inufIUoleBOY of food,
OW-imp bodies of hlaaks, and eape-

11t -of Toansint
veat id WFIrAn and con-
ba anMiilsonc .22


x Co

Lealere tries to rule by creating Jealousy and dlvila Ill-treat the
men of color Disarms the blacks-An Insurreedion and
gains head, until It wrests from the vFllent hands of
nearly all his possealon- Leclerc dies--Bonaparte resolve
send a new army to Saint Domingo 43
Rochambeac assumes the command His character- Voluptuous-
ness, tyranny, and cruelty Reeires large rrinfor.ecmenit Intll-
tutes a system of terror- The inurreciion betomre general and
Irreulitlble- The French are driven out of the island .7
Toussaint L'Ourerture, a prisoner In the Jura mountains, appeals In
vain to. the First C('n.ul. who bring about his death by starvation
-Outline of his career and character. (The end of Dr. Beard's
Biography) .. .276


Memoir of the Life of General Tonasalnt L'Ouverrure, written by
himself, In the Chateau de Joua, in a letter to Napoleon Buna-
paneo ........ .25


I. Proclamation by King Chrlatophe 331
U. Note by Harriet Mar ineau, including a description o a visit to
the Chateau de Joux, and the Sonnet on Tou..aint L'Ouver-
lure by Wordswortu 37
III. A visil to the Chr'itea-i di Joux by John Bigelow, containing
Lntere.ting d.louminiary evidence relative to Toussaint's im-
prisonmlnt therein 347
IV. The Poem on Touesiint L'Ouserture by John Greenleaf Whitter 3i8
V. Peroration of Wendell Phillipa's Oration on Toussaint L'Ouver-
ture .. ..... ..8


I. Outline Map of Colonial Hayti. .
II An authentle Portrait of Touasaint L'Ouverture ,
III. Autograph or Toussaint L'Onverture 1. 1





dmeh to thime,
gremt, benign, and lr-
ly the clearest evidence
r the light and the
e species. I am about to
Sa proof that the much-
race are capable of the
I am about to pre-
and dark men, in which
tage. Neither eulogy,
but the simple love of
t, hat I purpose to set
balv to conduct the
Sutaes,. re-
i"ind. tIke baes

and tyranny, the
1e omees of complicated
of Africa.
0t1k y Atlantic Ocean is sepa-
i. on mthe south, and the Gulf of
su aeession of island which, under
t di lands, seem to unite, in'a broken
rg~ t peninsulas of South and North
Miri~ w oh&, under dte general title of
i'Wtiin grops, the and the



most important are, Porto Rico on the east, on the west,
and St. Domingo between the two, with Jamaica the
western extremity of the latter. Situated between the se -
teench and twentieth degrees of north latitlude, and the Eixty-
eighth and seventy-fifth drerees of west luugitude, St. Domingoo
stretches from east to wgst about 390 miles, with an average
breadth, from north to south, of Il.'u miles, and comprie-i about
29,000 square miles, or 18,81H,,u.IJ square acrtr; Ining four
times as large as Jamaica, and nearly equal in cxtnt to Ire-
land. Its original name, and that by whii'h it is now generally
known, HIayti, which, in the Caribbean tongue, ignifies a
land of mountains, --is truly descriptive of its surface and gen-
eral appearance. From a central point, which, near the mid-
dle of the island, rises to the height of some 6,'ui") I:et above
the level of the sea, branches, having parallel range on the
north and on the south, run through the whole length of the
island, giving it somewhat the shape and aspect of a huge tor-
toise. The mountain ridges tIr the most part extend to the
sea, above which they stand in lofty precipices, farming numer-
ous headlands and promontories, or, retiring before the ocean,
give place to ample and commodious bays. Of these bays or
harbors, three deserve mention, not only for their extraordi-
nary natural capabilities, but for the frequency with which two
of them, at. least, will appear in these pages. On the north-
west oflHayti, is the Bay of Samana, with its deep recesses and
curving shore, terminating in Cape Samana on the north,
and Cape Raphael on the south. At the opposite end of the
country, is the magnificent harbor called the Bay Port-au-
Prince, enclosing the long and rocky isle GCnave,-on the
north of which is the Channel St. Marc, and on the south the
Channel Gonave. Important as is the part which this harbor
sustains in the history of the land, scar".ely, if at all, less impor-
tant is the bay which has Capo Franqois Ifr its west-trn point,
and Grange ir its eastern, comprising on the latter side the
minor but well sheltered Bay of Mancenille, and in the oIrmer
the large roadstead of Cape FrancoLi.


,ma. 15

esw break asunder and
Valleys, which are wa-
River Youna, having
of the island,
iit and the south,
Yaque, rising on
La Vega may be
le gthened
tMf lan-

T.i,~wetern sde of the
M a little south of the
wd^ indiadg Vourse. While
westt to east, innumerable
'pUthern direction, proceeding
.thbe.great trunk. Hayti is"
so in the Feat, where sev-
the country. The more
My yb, but the other parts

the .a ace is

intolerable, on
pJ q'ftn necessary to
co moderated by the
s1aieusion. Heavy rains
;~ic e are less fre-
The climate, how-
ch esiorm,
~ aZ ds, now
1 very inju-
4~i easily sup-


parted, and the inducements to the labors o li natry are nel-
ther numerous nor strong. Yet, in aus-picious '. of its
history, Hayti has been made abundantly productive.*
At the time when the hero and patriot whose career we have
to describe first appeared on the s.-tne, the Lland wa4 dis ided
between two European Power : the ea't was powsesoLed by the
Spaniards, the west and .ouri by the Freni.h. It is with the
latter portion that this history is mostly i.one rned.
Or the Spanish possessions, therefor., it may sutfice to direct
attention to two principal titles. The oldest Europi-an city is
Santo Domingo, which had the honor of giving a name to the
whole island. It was founded by Bartholomew, the brother of
Columbus, who is said to have so called it in honor of his father,
who bore that name. Santo Domingo stands in the south'ast-
ern part of the island, at the north of the River Ozama. San-
tiago holds a fine position in the plain of' that name, near the
northern end of' a line passing somewhere about the middle of
the island.
The French colony was divided into three Provincts,- that
of the North, that of the West, and that of the South. At the
beginning of the French Revolution of I 780, these provinces'
were transformed into three corresponding Deparnnihts. The
three Proviones, or Departments, were subljliiided into twelve
Districts, each bearing the name of its chief tity. Tht twelve
Districts were, in the north, the Cape, or Cap-Franqois, Fort,
Dauphin, Port-dl-Paix, Mole' Saint Nicholas; in tn-e west, Port-
au-Prince, Lengane, Saint Marc, Petit Goave; and in the south,
J&rtmie, Cape Tiburon, Cayes, and St. Louis. The District
of the Cape comprised the Cape, La Plaine-du-Nord, just above
the Cape, Limonade, between the two; Acul, west of the Cape,
and on the coast, Sainto Suzannr; with Morin, La Grande
Rivibre. Dondon, Marmelade, Limbe, Port Margot. Plainance,
and Borgne,--thirteen parishes. The Ditrict Fort Dauphin,

For more deLailed aeOnunut, by variouS author,, of the geography of
Haytl, its productiors. soil, minerals, climate, seasons, and temperaturoi
see Book I., chaps, 2-7, nldusive, or the Guide to Hayti.


risd Fort Dauphin
~i.Vje, e, Terrier Rouge,
of Port-do-PaiLx om-
n Rabel, and Gros-
ha. .M61e Saint Nich-
-two parishes.
n the northern
se Fed Port-au-
ye on the
o h twe' "es.
"d the

O The disttit of
and Goave, Baynet, Jao-
t'~e Fourteen parilhee
filDistrict Jdr6mie comprised
t,.wo parihes. Th* District
9lbran and Coteaux, two par-
Cmapz .id i and Torbeck, -
jnt .Louia comprised Saint
.and Acquin, -five par-

the diltriots under
the island.

*d i ian-

eo ieans thus de-
outlines of the ooun-
to within twenty miles
na cliffs which beetled
distance in the deep, -
tAtm of Samanm&-and
ftjr .loud-covered
qde, covered
of a human

18 THE L1rf

habitation, presented a picture of gloom and deur, calcu-
lated deeply to impress the mind; smIlh a picture a soli-
tude, unenlirened by single trar.e of civilization, is ever
produce. Where, we inquired of oirse-lve-s, are the people of
this country? Where itsultivatinn ? Are the ancient Indian
possessors of the soil all extinct, and their cruel .onqurors and
successors entombed with them in a common grave ? For hun-
dreds of miles, as we swept along it, shores, we saw no living
thing, but now and then a mariner in a solitary skit, or birds of
the land and ocean sailiug in the air, as if to show us that
nature had not wholly lost its animation, and sunk into the
sleep of death."
The interior of Hayti, however, la ks neither inhabitants nor
natural beauty. The mountains rise in bold and varv ing out,
line against the brilliant ,kie and in almnwrt everY part tbrm a
background o'f great and impr.s-ire ci:re:t. Broken b deep
ravines, and tapp:aring in bare atnd ru._',gd prt-cipice. they pre-
sent a continued variety ..I' LnpJ1 in|.) *o:l-i,,.t.; whi,:h sImr tim.i i
rise into the sublim-. Th,, vallwy4 anrd plains anr ri,.h at once
in verdure and beauty, while from lt-vated 'potl iou may enj,y
the sight of the great centres of ivilizati'.an, Cap-Franvais, Port-
de-Paix, Saint-Mare, Port-au-Prince, &'., busy. in the various
pursuits of city and commercial lit-.
The wealth of tlayti coms tf-r.m it- sodl. It is an essentially
agricultural country. C.-rCal prod]urct. are not cultivated ; but
maize or Indian corn gr.)w% theri,; and rice flotnurhe in tho
savannas. Th.- ii gro Inelei on the natural fruits of the island
chiefly, and obtains 6ih, bread.ltuf aind other merchandise
from the United States. Plantation tillag is the chief occupa-
tion. This culture embraces su-ar-cane (which iu manu'fa: turud
chiefly into yvrup and rum), coffee, cocoa, and cotton. In 1 .89,
the French portion of the island contained 793 sugar plantations,
8,117 coffee plantations, 781 cotton plantations, and 1Le2 estab-
lishments for making rum, beride other minor fa.'tories and
workshop;. In 1791, '..ry larc- capitals were emplonyed in
Brle Notices of HaytaJ," by John Caiiier. Lond,t IM2.


were sunk partly in
in the cultiva-
tapitar of above fifty
fifee, and twenty-one
4tmiployed a Capital
intdigo. The total
be learnt fm

JiRsu represents the -
M consequently a measure
Sdwiefeme in Saint Domingo.
ttt so 089; in otherworda,
of two years, punished for
G ilawmediate loss or nearly
Sis the tenure of ill-
of Hayti, its beasts
Ia 1789, the

i ,iprecios wood
| j||* tue and articles of

froam Hayti to France
-that i, about 827,000,-
riches of the chief
nii o leow a sum than
table k....
Ime a negroes

20 THE L

and animals employed in husbandry put in e same class.
Observe, too, the items. The value of the ne, old and
new, large and small," is.set down at 7;8,333,334 franrcS
the other animals are worth only 5,2211:,0t7 francs. We thus
learn, that three-lburths of the wealth of the planters consisted
in their slaves. Such was the stake which was at iu'ue in the
struggle for freedom of which we are about to speak.
The population of Hayri was,, in the year 18$24, accounted to
amount to 9:35.33.5 individuals.* This is not a large number
for so fertile a laud. But it hali ben quetiouncl whL-tliher more
than 7(ii.i,iO'in iwelt on the soil. Doubtles, the war' whith
have sue,-cssivelv agitated the country lbr more than half a
century have greatly thinned the population. There has. how-
ever, been a constant immigration into Ha.yti frmin ne;ihbnring
islands, and even from the continent of America. Of the total
number of inhabitants ju-t giren, there were, in 121,, -
In thi Kine-idom of H.-nry I (C'hristophe) 3r;',;21
IV thb: Republic, uolndr Pdtion .. i50,146
In the old Spanish Distri.r . lI8
This mass, viewed in regard to'origin, was di ided thus: -
Negroes . . . 81. ,eO
Men of mixed blood . 1','"
RedIndians. ..... .. b. .
Whites . .. 5
Foreigners . ..... 1..f""

The small number of whites was occasioned by th, strict
enforcement of the law which declared, No white man, what-
ever be his nationality, shall be permitted to laud on the Hay-
. tian territory, with the title of master or proprietor; nor shall
This census was purp'.wly falsified I made vrcry canrtul In.tulri.?s
reppectinp the porpnpltion of lnarti at aiffer nt p',rliodi, and crlncluideij that
at uo tim t .inc i it inip.-rJenac' hai lia t i, prop. r l rt rI Fr. [Iirt -lad
mOlet than from illn i t, icu~ s'.,n'' lnhhljib i l. u ci .-.Iu p. [ I:. ED.'

Ib r--

< repl estate or the)

ai d rh is the French;
a pr ikh. Neither is
-e dinarygraem-
but out othe

life, as
to of the

_a i wrb, theeu

Sno appear capable of
the purity.eaae,
Sbest French prose 'wi-

Iem Catodi. This form of
Wluwpi.t Governameu Prot-
*The religion of Bome exists
or wre the highest func-
Ltake much of i
anlw rell as

power in
'Af gaiiiked the
~," E" .that only by
eowapihsh their task and
Iiwii qedw~ational institutions
fm itKp "i different parts of the
li~~aitovedi faror and encour-
ih:~orriamenL of the day.*
4 om Is.iu.on
Ia wagatory to the
l DSto *effard. The
,i tbt the subject is
im of the Haytida

22 TLg

Colnmbus discovers Hayt Under his successors, the Spanlsh colony exthi
pate the native.--Th, B.jccantir ia.I In ith WtlVo the basla of the
French colony Its growth aud pr.n-prity.

W E ow- the Jdicoiery oft Hayti to Columbus. When, on
his first voyage, he had l tt the Leucayan lland.s, be. on
the fifth of December, 1492. :ame in sight or Hayti, which at
first he regarded as the continent. Having, under the sh:-iter
of a bay, cast anchor at the western extreruity of the island,
and named the spot Saint Ni:lholas, in honor -.1 the saint of
the day, he sent men to rexpl:,rt the i.ountry. These, on their
return, made to C,.lumbus a rvep.'rt, hi. hi was the more attrac-
tive, because they had Ibim-l i ;t rL: n>;w countryy rieemblances
to their native land. A similar impression having been made
on Columbus, especially by the s ngn which he heard in t-he air,
and by fishes which had been caught on the coast, he named
the island Espagnola, (Hispaniola,) or Lile Spoe. Forthwith,
on his arriaJl, Culumbus hbean to inrqire lbr go:ld; the answers
which he revicied indluted him to direct his course toward the
south. On his way, he tnti-r.,l a lprt wbi h hei caUt-d Valpa-
raiso, now Prt-kl:-Pais; and in this anti a -ec--ond visit occupied
and named ,other pots, taking p.r,-e-si,.n of the country on behalf
of his patrons. Ferdinand and Iabella, sovereigns of Spain.
The return of Columbus to Europe, after his firnt royage, was
accompanied by triumphs and marvels which directed the atten-
tion of the civilized world to the newly-discovered countries;
and, exciting ambition and cupidity, originated the movement
which precipitated Europeans on the Ameri,.an shores, and not
only occasional there oppression aud cruelty, but introduced
with Afrian blonl wore than Al'ican slavery, big with evils
the moat multilbrm aind th:. m,.ost terrible.

wu ocmpied by -if we
abitan. of the Carib-
and small in person,
lte abundance of na-
gamed their many
or in dances, en-
y was not
is said to
w- but a

i.a B-uperstition lent
ell. aue it included the
..llif hoe of the enchanter.
qlwbn, however, acknowl-
a iaeof all things, and enter-
I~lavoving rewards and pun-
, moral conditiq and gross

alive L s, alarmed, withdrew
beak, they became
.lta:ior deaignas
he desig-
the first edifice
he placed a
(eh the 27th of Octo-
i ~ ntrlement in ruins, and
0t faiirst for gold, had made
e.prted to contain min-
i te n the east of
t Isabella, arose
HSle e went forth
Eiltwhild the new


r- --

i ei

colony had serious difficulties to struggle with' rarely w
they saved from the devastation of a famine. T
injustice drove the natives into open assault, which it requ ,
the skill and bravery of Columbus to overcome. IHis recall to
Europe set all things in confusion. Iestrained in some degree;
by his moderation and humanity, the natives on his departure
rose against his brother and represeutative, Bartholomew; and,
receiving support from another of his officers, namely, Rolando
Ximenes, they aspired to recover the domunion of the island.
They failed in their uudertakiig, the rather that Bartholomew
knew how to gain obr himell the advantage of a judicious and
benevolent course. The love of a young Spaniard, named
Diaz, for the daughter of a native chiet, led Barthlomjew to
the mouth of the river Ozama. Finding the lcalhty very su-
perior, he built a citadel and founded a citr th.,re, whkth, under
the name of Santo Domingo, he made hi. headquarters, intend-
ing it to be the capital of the country. Meanwhile. Ximenes,
at Fort Isabella, carried on his opposition to the Government.
Columbus'a return to the island, in 14-, did not bring batk the
traitor to his duty. Meanwhile. in spain, a ttorm had broken
forth against Columbus, which occasioned his recall in 1499.
The discoverer of the New World was put in chains and
thrown into prison by his successor, Boiadillo With the de-
parture of Columbus, three pirit of the Spanih rule underwent
a total change. The natives, whom he and his brother had
treated as sul-ject., were by Bovadillo treated as slaves. Thou-
sands of their best men were sent to extra':t gold from the
mines, and when they rapidly perished in labors too severe for
them, the loss was constantly made up by newv supplies. In
1501, Bovadillo was recalled. His su cessor, Otando, was
equally unmercilid. On the death of Queen Isabella and
Columbus, the Haytiano lost the only persons who cared to
mitigate their lot. Then all consideration toward them disap-
peared. They were employed in the mnO t exhauntin- toil, they
were misused in every manner; .torn from the boonu of their
families, tey were driven into th<: remotest part of the island,


of litf In 1506, a
lires to thA mdventur-
unehristian and in-
in regard to those
were very pro-
S, ead no other
,~tve groaned
a native

hm e wareo no hands
not, and the Blave
lM-indbt r t proure tlabor-
ih"iu.aad of these victims
i .an kder the labofF
Ji 1 mred men left on the
I.'ad9 more in spite of the
'I rb:oble Las Csaa.
head of the few
.hirteen yeare

jitf*e popula.
or wu carried oq
wifld results; agriculture
Mltigh tardy steps; the col-
tlNd one every ide. The
l "teas of decay, fbr it
the Old World and
i.riohably shaken
having seized
alamity in-


pended. The reputed riches of the New World;,d the w
spaces of open sea which its discovery made kno'
thither maritime adventurers from the oats cfL Europ<-.
of degraded character and boundless daring, finding it dific
to procure a subsistenwe by piracy and outraband trade
their old eastern haunts, now, from the newly-awakened sphi
of maritime enterprise, fr-quented, it' not scoured, by the ve
sels of England, llAland, and France, hurried away with fr
hopes into the western ocean, and swarmed wherever plunde
seemed likely to reward their reckl:.s hardihood.
Of these, known in history as the bLuceanc-cr, a party to
possession (1630) of the isle of Tortuga, which lies off
northwest of Hayti. With this as a centre of operation, the
carried on ceaseless depredations against Hayti, the coars ol
which they disturbed and plundvrcd, putting an end to itM
trade, and occupying iLt capital. The court of Madrid, bei
roused in self-defence, .s.-nt a fl-r to Tjrtuga, -who, taking po,.
session of the island. destroyed whatever of the buccaneers they
could find; but the bU-cess ouly madl- the pirates more wary
and more enterpris;ng. When th.- dflct had quitted Tortuga,
they again, in 1038, made themselves masters there, and, aflet
fortifying the island and establishing a sort of constitution. made:
it a centre of piratial rc-.'ur,-c. and angr,.-i.,n., whencel they
at their pleasure sallied r'lhr to plurhl r and de-tr..v ahlip4 oufall
nations, wreaking their % Ine.-s.u .: I-nIflth on '-uh as caine frlom
Spain. In time, howine.r, thi.:-e ment at the hands of c('ilized nations.
A remnant of the buccaucers, of Fronm h extra-.tion, .effe.ted
a settlement on the southwestern Ahorre of Iayti, the possesson
of which they succes-fiully maintained against Spain, the then
recognized mistress of the island. In their new posses.siion they
applied to the tillage of the land ; but, bc-roming aware 1If the
ditliE ulty of maintaining their hold without as-i-tanei., the.y ap-
plied to France. TIr-ir claim wa. heard. In Ld1,, )Dageron
was sent to Hayti, with authority to take its government into
his haids, and accordingly effected there, in JlijJ5, a regularly


col;* eaony, which
dii3~~ only of four-
the same number
.A. ldabout the

at Pbrt
Calne to

T Spaniards
was nearly anni-
eaarL The nedr

i~~~~;iY;to France the
enterprise and ap-
Mmyaay to surpass the
vdmug and in
Apsab suces
I'M of the

0 Wholboe,
of the first

k~%opulene spread

Il htin 17190 there
.2 nhabitants, of
M.~~p len of


28 mB LuZ r


The diverse elements of the population of Hanii The blacks, the whites
the mulattoecs; immorality and aereitude.

T HE larg,- black population of Hayti was of African origin.
Stolen from their native land, they were transplanted inJ
the island to become beasts of burden. The slati--trade was
then at its height. Nations and individuals who stood at the
head of the civilized world, and pri..-dl thtmsit4-lir in the name,
of Christian, were not asham:l1 to trallic in the bodies and soula
of their fllow-m-.n. Threo hundrv4lr vitsels, empljyedl every
year in thit detestable trallic. ,pralad robbery, conflagration, and
carnage over the :,astsi and thl. lauds i(f A'riea. Eighty thou-,
sand menI, women, and children, torn Irom their hones, were
loaded with chains, and thrown into the holds of ships, a prey
to desolation and despair. In vain had the laws and usagje of
Africa, less unjust than thotse of Christian countries, Iorinidden
the sale of men born in slavery pe-rmilling the- uutrag,- only in
the case of per'-oNI taken in war,.:,r ,suh a- L-Il l i- thLir liberty
by death or .rinim. Cupidily ireattd ain e.r-,.-win. d Jemand;
tho price of luman ,i-,h r.,, in the nmark;[r, thei re-uire. suap-
ply Iollowed. The iAfrican prin':,., .iraitr. n with lth.- lo,.e of
lucre, disregarde-d th.- tetablihetbd liitation and Ibr thiir owu
bad purposes multiplied the caurLes whikh entailed the I,~.l of lib-
erty. Proceeding fntm a less to a gri-ater wrong, bhey under-
took wars espre.sly lur the purpose of gaining capti'ves for the
slave mart; and when still the demand went on increasing, they
became wholerale r...bbers of men, andl siz,.d a village. or
scoured a d;-tri, t. From trh coasts thel di'vatation -priad into
the interior. A regularly organized sy-tVm tamin iito opera-
tion, which constantly sent to the sea--horu thousands of inno-



death would have been
than one hundred
oeiblyy and cruelly car-

their arrival, these
ia freedom, and
ly large enough
were closed
t and air.

*as wwad off,
i ir-b labting the frame,
f w'hen it *aa found that
Suas deadly as bad air, and
#tjed to dance, and were in- *
riti of the tempest and the
r.-plague, things resumed their
eutragedd mothers and daugh-
tiimDI the young and in-
iaenoable disease, they
.v*ae, worthless and
aaofltK human

'Ohron o n the
|:b bl ~ady and deadly

i elte to twenty thousand
i.lM Meon the threshold of
aed on the breast of
ntie of their master,
to tol There the
sdiesff, the country,
AYianBge of his mas-

S 80 TH* E 2.t

ter,-all was strange. Taking their place anusp their
panions in misfortune, they beard them speak o w
they endured, and saw the,marks of the punishments t|i
received. Among the "old hands," few had reached advan-,
years; and of the new ones, many died of grief. The hig
spirit of the men was bowed down. For the two first years thM
women were not &tldom stru. k with stt'rility. In earlier time
the proprietors had not wantl: 1 humanity ; but ri,:hbs had cor
rupted their hearts now; and giinj tlImselvcs up to ease and
voluptucusriess, they thought of thi.ir slaes only a siour..es
income, whence lthe ultmost was to be drawn.
The evils consequent on slavery aro not lvss,.-n'd by the i1
coming of one or two stray rays of light. If" th'. slave- become
conscious of his condition, and aware of the injultit undl
which he suffers, if he obtains but a a'int idl'a of these things,
and if the master learns that a dr.sire fur lib-rty ha. arisen i
* the slave's mind, or that free m.n are asserting anti-slaver
doctrines, then a new element of evil is addLd tl) those which
before were only too powerLul. I..-pe on one :ide, and distrust
and fear on the other, create uneasiness and disturlan'e, whiie
may end in commotion, conoulsion, cruelty, and blood. In the
agitation of the public mind of the world, which preceded the
first French R-riv:lution, such t;':-.ling~- could not be excluded
from any community on earth. They Inr er.d the plantations
of llayti, and thpy ai.dil in preparing the t.-rrific struggle
which. through alarm, agitation, an.] alaughtt.r, issued in the
independence of tb.- i-land.
The white populati.in was made up of diverse, and in a means
ure conflicting elemenrs. There were first, the colonifts or plant-
ers. Of these, some lived in the colony, others lived in France
The former, either by themselves or by means of stewar-sl, 8su
perintended the plantations, and consumed the produce in sem
usual gratification ; the latter, deri ing immense revenues dia
rectly or indirectly from (heir colonial estates, squandered their
princely rtlun>-s in the pleasluret and vicies ut' the kIrs imoral
society of Paris. Pous'..is-.J 'of pul.nc.i, Ihes-c Ien g( neralljl

4AW* -tites as the
If debmed
,they could
iE mulity held the
handg, patly
I-eir infuence

at island-

of the
the black

iii uu and baleful be.

00-adv-Ute blmd arms a
do* Pon of the plant
Op, 41 n t eeuint, and
-mm the blood
:..*a Obief CRUMe



"-* OR M o alli
..o.an unequal

of the
-efilss, and

i --- .... *1

* 32 TE
When they arrived at the gate of a city, they 4f required t4
alight from their horse; they were disqualified for~itjg at
white man's table, for frequenting the same school, for o
ing the same place atchurch, for having the same name, for ben
interred in the same cemetery, for receiving the succession of hid
property. Thus the son was unable to take his food at his fa-
ther's board, kneel beside his father in his devotions, bear hi.
father's name, lie in his father's tomb, succeed to his father's
property, -to such an extent were the rights and affections of
nature reversed and confounded. The disqualification pursued!
its victims until during six consecutive generations the white
blood had become purified from its original stain.
Among the men of color existed every various shade. Some
had as fair a complexion as ordinary Europeans; with others
the hue was nearly as sable as that of the pure nepr blood.
The mulatto, offspring of a white man and a negrt-ss, Ibrmed
the first degree of color. The child ol' a white man by a!
mulatto woman was called a qioro'ri,,mn, the zeconrl degree
from a white father and a quarteroon mother was. born the male
tierceroon,-the third degree; the union of a white man within
a female tiereeroon produced the metif, the fourth degree of
color. The remaining varieties, if named, are barely distin-
Lamentable is it to think that the troubles we are about to
describe, and which might be designated the ir r .fr/-ie skin,
should have flowed from diversities so slligt, variable evanes-
cent, and every way so inconsiderable. It would almost seem.
as if human passions only needed an excuse, and as if the
slightest excuse would serve as a pretext and a cover for their1
riotous excesses.
On their side, the men of color, laboring under the sense o
their personal and social injuries, tolerated, if they did nol
encourage in themselves, low and vindictive passions. Their
pride of blood was the more intense the less they possessed of;
the coveted and privileged color. Hiughty anJd dIidainful,
toward the blacks, whom they despi.red, they were sc:ornfu

.. 3


wAd jealons and
~iAred. With blood
they podesesed
iai By
soeekL for
of the hue

~hitd ~wfhite
*aa farmer,
~b~4 latter. If
,.ppWA-;en4emds leeist of
*6 *a at te id of the

!a aHtd, rbeM
04 that 14DO
in lpleamm

hi slavery
Thirty slaves
&he sime day
fiwe~ remen,
men of

9~~s~ f tile
k n' .

.. -;.

84 a ura or


Family. birth, and educat on of Tousialnt L'Ouverture- His promotions
servitude His marriage- Read Raynal, and begins to think himae
the providentially-appointed liberator of his oppressed brethren.

N the midst of these conflicting passions and threatening d
I orders, there was a character quietly Ifrming, with was
do more than all others, first to gain the nastery of them, and
then to conduct them to issues of a favorable, nature. Thit
superior mind gathered its strength and matured its purpose!
in a class of Haytian society where leant of all ordinary me9
would have looked for it. Who could suppose that the liberate
of the slaves of Hayti, and the great type and pattern ol negrO
excellence, existed and toiled in one of the deipied gangs that
pined away on the plantations of the island ?
The appearance of a hero of negro blood was ardently to be
wished, as affording the best pro of o negro i apability. By
what other than a negro hand could it h: expected that the
blow would be struck which -oiould show to the world that
Afrirans could not only unjioy but :pain personal andl -.ocial free&
dom? To the more deep-:ightr.l. thte .progre-4 of elenta and
the inevitable tendencies of sroiety had darkly indli.ated the
coming of a negro liberator. The presentiment fuundl .ixpre-
sion in the works of the Abbe Raynal, who predirited that I
vindicator of negro wrongs would erelong arise out of the
bosom of the negro race. That prediction had its lulfilment in
Toussaint L'Ouverture.
Toussaint was a negro. We wish emphariinlly to mark the
fact that he was wholly without white blovd. I What.ver he
was, and whatever he did, he achieved all in virtue of qualities
Which in kind are common to the African race. Though of

p. Family tradition,
idulther is reported
ioroes, eminent for
who occupied a
in under-
!e the Arradas
to slave

... ...of

i ank. The
ibmw hisa Slaves to
1,mte the plantation
ifyou de Libertas,
is to the general
4i"giot overloading

bet beautitl. The
hitte, leaving five
t.e t fhis anm was

w Tousmaints
K tuo.a u ten- *

denies, and certainly intellectual aptitudes, p
parents to children. And the facts now narrated
show how it was that Toussaint wa9 not sunk in that
stagnation and moral depravity ot' whiih slavery is com
the parent.
The exact day and year oft Tunssaint's birth are not kno
It is said to have been the 20th or May, 1743.* What is
more importance is that he lived fifGy years of his life in slave
before he became prominent as the vindicator o' his brehr
rights. In that long space he had full time to become acquaint
with their sufferings as well as their capabilities, and to f4
such deliberate resolutions as, when the time for action caq
should not be likely to fail of effect. Yet does it seem a
period in a man's life for so great an undertaking; nor col
any one endowed with inferior powers have approached to I
accomplishment of the task.
Throughout his arduous and perilous career, Toussaint L'(
overture found great support himself and exerted great idn
enee over others, in virtue of his deep and pervading sense!
religion. We nmght almost declare that from that source
derived more power than from all others. The foundation
Lia religious sentiments was laid in his childhood.
There lived in the neighborhood of the Gaou-Guinou famj
a black esteemed for the purity and probity of his charact
and who was not devoid of knowledge. His name was Pies
Baptiste. He was acquainted with French, and had a smatt
ing of Latin, as well'as some notions ol' geometry. For I
education he was indebted to the goodness of one.of those m
sionaries, who, in preaching the morality of a divine religi
enlighten and enlarge the minds of their disciples. Pierre BI
tiste became the godfather of Toussaint, and therefore thought
his duty to communicate to him the instructions and impressio
he had received from his own religious tea,.her. C.',otinuing
speak his native African tongue, which was ueld in his family
*t is not Improbable that Toussaint was born on .11 SuantfJ Day, E
derived his name from that fact--ED.

*oli6 Church,
. With love
i6 61inwmoies
&utioafm Whis-


.aadd MW
L16is the Main,


pi~ix Ihat fo a
,ble'asordu of
Or" amiffiect,

pa' Un~a~iblbe in
: ..-PET-Wini his
d~iing for ar

-'U. -

istence. So delicate was his constitution that b
descriptive appellation of Farras-Biton, whit h might
dered in English by Little Lath. But with increase of ye
stripling hardened and strengthened his tramr by the sev
labors and the most violent exercises. At the age of twelve
surpassed all his equals in the plantation in bodily feats.
The duty of the young slaves was definite and uniform. '1
were intrusted with the care of the flocks and herds. As a
itary and moral occnpatinn, a shepherd's lilf pivr-s time l
opportunity for tranquil meditation. By nature Fatras-Bl
was given to thought. His reflective and taciturn disposid
found appropriate nutriment on the rich upland? and under
brilliant skies of the land of his birth. A.~erutomed to tl
much more than he spoke. he acquired not only -lf.l-control,
also the power of concentrated reflection and conc;e sped
which, late in life, was one of his mot marked and most I
viceable characteristics.
Pastoral occupations are favorable to an acquaintance i
vegetable products. Touseaint's lather, I;ke other UAricans, i
familiar with the healing virtues of many plants. These
old man explained to his son, whose knowledge expanded
the monotonous routine of his daily task. Thus did he obt
a rude familiarity with simples, of whir h he al'-rward mad
practical appliq ati-n. In thiq period, rwhn thI. youth was pl
ing into the man, and when, a- w-ith all thoughtful persons,1
mind becomes sensitively alive to things to come as well as
things present, Toussaint mayhave formed the tirit dim a
ception of the misery of sewritude, and the need of a liberal
At present he lived with his follow-sufl;-rers in those nan
low, and foul huts where regard to decency was impossible
heard the twang of the driver'swhip, and saw the blood stre
ing from the negro's body; he witnessed the Acparation of I
euts an] children, and was made aware, by t~luJ many prm
that in slav,-ry neither honme nor religion coull an.euniplish
purposes. Noit imposs:ibly, then, it was at this tim:, that he I
discerned the image of a distant duty rising beture his mia

**Yjahh ]son,
*Amtsh. and fbr a
%M4i4de d, do not
60.1ke conceivid
wrongs; but
SliFe. His

4 .ofbj
MU urmuring
Sh the best
~ds wer rme-
dw even stronger
*awmed his daily
S.o ooautantly
pro ispmo-

kis -*, real good
'I po'teling, and
i~awiWW, Well

th Inde

iht opted the

49 va arjl|

youth, who ever detained the most lively sense g
toward his benefactor.
Tousaint was now a happy man, considering his cond
as a slave,- the husband of a slave,- a very happy man.
position gave him privileges, and he had a heart to enjoy the
His leisure hours he employed in cultivating a garden, which
was allowed to call his own. In those pleasing engagements
was not without a companion. We went," he said to a traw
ler,-"we went to labor in the fields, my wife and I, hand
hand. Scarcely were we conscious of the- fatigues ol the d
Heaven always blessed our toil. Not only we bwam in abu
dance, but we had the pleasure of giving food to Mblaks w
needed it. On the Sabbath and on festival days we went
church,-my wife, my parents, and myself Returning to o
cottage, after a pleasant meal, we passed the remainder ofr n
day as a family, and we closed it by prayer, in whlih all to
part." Thus can religion convert a de ert into a garden, a4
make a slave's cabin the abode of the purest happiness a
Bent as Toussaint was on the improvement of his condition
he yet did not employ the personal property whikh ensued frM
his own and his wife's thritt, in purbhazing his liberty, and el
voting himself and family into the higher c:las of men cf coloi
His reasons for remaining a 4lare are not rccordld. lie ma
have Iflt no attractions tnwardt a ila-i wh..-*' siipriority wi
more nomiual than real. ie m.rA harn re-uil li ti remain in
class whose emancipation he hoped some day tu ai eve.
The virtues of his character procured Ibr Tou-saint univerq
respect. Ile was esteemed and loved even by the free blacWi
The great planters held him in consideration. His intellectOu
faculties ripened under the effects of his intercourse with fre
and white men. As he grew in mind, and became large 4
hbart, he was more and more puzzl,-i and dl;tre.,,.l with th
institution of slavery ; he could in no way understand how th
hue of the Ekin should put so great a ,s ial and personal di
tance between men whom God, he saw, had made essentiall
the same, and whom he knew to bo useful if not indiLpensal


kisn ia pum~-
khi wy seal

kflate foul-

-M -Aa

ho is law re-
b"11ni-g on
faftpmd re.
twoan =beman
#aom PrO~t-

42 T r T


Immediate causes of the rising or the blacks Disaenlons of the pla
era-Spread of anti-elavery opinions in Eurnpe -The outbreak of (
fBrt Frenuh Revolution Mulatto war--Nero Inurre.tion To
saint protects hie matter and mlaitr.'s, and their property.

W IILE Tousaint was pursuing a course of reading a
meditation which was to conduct him in its issue to gre
achievements, the volcano of insurre-tion andt mutual slaught
was preparing around him, the premonition of yhich he w
too sagacious not to discern. Hayti vwa prosperous. TI
masters daily grew more opulent on the produce of their pla
stations. The war of Am-ri, an indepnr,.riJ.ce made Ilayti in
a great commercial entrepot, and largely atugme-nt<-d its wealt
Could the actual condition or the colony have been maintain
its riches would have continued to in. rra.se,-andl, nith
riches, its voluptuousness. But already that ~ry wealth hi
sown the seeds of disorder. The larger planter' w.-re too op
lent and too-powecrtil to be at pea.e with ,-alit other. The
existed a rivalry between the two rhief e;tic-. the Cape ai
Port-au-Prinre. This rivalry wna male more intrens who
in 1787, the Supetrior C'ouucil li he Cape was .uppr.:,cd, a4
its power tran-fTrred to tire C'oun, il o rf Prt-au-Prin.:'-, mud
the general designation of the Superior Council of St. D
mingo." Dissensions ensued, in which the West and the Soul
soon took part. Appeal was made to Fran.e. The Govez
ment listened, but gave no remedy. Recourse was had to i
direct influence. Deputic" were sent to Paris. Thciir activi
*Chapter V.of the Enrleh edition, whir h trrni. of Tonw.aalnt's
sumrd Scrlpturnl srn.ll. -," the M.'adilt roJ, the tEpi 'ile ln Philolmon, F4
kindred velpi-,. is onillredl r irr-I.alnt I. ry inr Ilig nt re-nrd r .-n pi
sume Tou6,&eail's rcrlptural ilterprtatloD2 us "cll a, ilte author ED.4

" pwaristaft
4 KIae carried
*:jwtberamne of
ths te name~

r %Whougbm

RAWL In Eag-

4*efw them-

o pmakied, the
pdal and moral
aiimlim FraMI

.rhe an-arni

nouncement of these events in Hayti produced th gra
agitation. The existing discontents received fresh
The.planters hailed the revolution as a precursor of the i
pendence of the colony. The officer of the government e
courage the dream of a counter-revolution. The petils blant
intoxicated with enthusiastic sympathy, cheered and sustained
the Parisian mobs, anJ hoped to) pursue a similar course in ti
island. While the several clauses of the whites were thus di
traced, the mulattoes experienced the general excitement tI
more because they were watching their opportuuniy for self-li
eration. A4 to the negroe., they, in general, pursued thb
wonted round of toil, apparently, and, for the most part, really
indifferent to the social commotion. Certainly, among the ag
tated parties, no one thought of their emancipation. The fa
tions were intent only on their several interests. The colonial
wanted at least an increase oft their power. The men of col
sought to raise themselves to an equality with the colonists. i
these selfish views required a cor ring, the ieil was found in 4
claim of sameness of privileges for all free men. The bl
was too much despised to be thought of by the colonial ca
The first marked effort was made by the mulattoes, and
the first contest was contest for the attainment of mulatto
terests. A deputation of men of color was etut to Paris.
ger to promote the views of their ca'te, they presented six
lions of francs for the service of the State, and rffc red he f
of their property in mortgage of the national debt. Th
asked in return that they should in anl things be put on a f
ing of equality with thewhites, whom they alleged they equal
ip number, and with whom they partook all the territo
and commercial wealth of the colony. The President of
Assembly replied, that "No part of the Frr-nch nation sho
in vain claim rights at the hands of the re-prreentatives of
French people."
At the same time there took place in the A-sembly a
sion resperting the servitude of the blacks. The entire na


OaE issd med
Fit .kDomiuso;
;j Sahem, I
(of the

EE.y uibly

OftICr vhob dms+
ijW-'*%dm vim




the French Government, merely consenting to sub
crees for the royal sanction. By these and similar sa
tendency of which was to concentrate all power in the handle
a portion of the resident planters, two authorities were set
operation; for the usurpations of the General Assembly a1
polled the Governor and the Superior Council of Port
Prince, in union with the Provincial Assembly of the Nol
to take measures of self-delfnce, and to maintain their positi
A bitter contest ensued.
During the progress of these collisions, a new element
confusion intervened. Vincent Og4, a man oti color, son d
wealthy butcher at the Cape, whom the mulattoes had sent
Paris, as one of their deputies, landed at Cap Francois, 04
her 17th, 1790, under the name of Poissar, with the titled
lieulenant-colonel, and the order of the Lion, which he
purchased of the Prince of Limhourg; and, having visited
mother, who lived in handsome style at Dondon, marched
alliance with Chavanne, a man of his own caste, at the head|
two hundred men to La Grande Riviare, in the Departmen
the North. From the camp which he established there, he
to the President of the Assembly of that Department the fo
ing letter: -

GENTLEMEN: A prejudice, too long maintained, is a
to fall. I am charged with a commission doubtless very h
able to myself I require you to promulgate throughout
colony the instructions of the National Assembly of the 8t
March, which gires without distinction, to all free citizens,
right of admission to all otfices and functions. My ppe(
sions are just, and I hope you will pay due regard to them,
shall not call the plantations to rise; that means would be
worthy of me.
Learn to appreciate the merit of a man whcse intent'
pure. When I solicited from the National Assembly a d

EM )"

TSS ufxoEi,

irr hwmaetly
mixed blood,'
negross who
kh honaoable
Usm only on

Ebs. tbe..


rMs as.


t 20d

48 1"1 o

of color m co-legislators with themselves. New
place, new conflicts ensued. The passions every day
more fiercely; and while the mulattoes cherished bo
hopes, the whites, overflowing with indignation, put them
In open revolt against the mother country, denying its prei
tise 'and refusing the civir oath. In the midst of these t
ering disorders, the planters resident in France were invite
return, and assist in vindicating the civil independence of
island. Then was it that the mulattoes appealed to the sh1
Terrible was the result. The slaves awoke as i tifom an(
nous dream. Under one of their class, named Boukmg
man of Herculean strength, who knew not what danger 4
the negres on the night of August 21st, 1791l, arose in
terrific power of brute force. Gaining immediate success, t
rapidly increased in numbers, and grew hot with fury. '1
fell on the plantations, slaughtered their proprietors, and
stroyed the property. Such progTess did the insurred
make, that on the 2ith, the third of the habitations of
Northern Department were in ashes. In a week from its
meneement the storm had swept over the whole plain oi
North, from east to west, and from the mountains to their
Those rich houses, those superb factories, were in ruins. 0
flagration raged everywhere. The mountains, covered 1
smoke and burning fragments, horne upwards by the wi
looked like volcanoes. The atmosphere. as if on fire, rem
bled a furnace. Everywhere were sfen signs of devastatiol
demolished edifices, smouldering embers, scattered and bra
furniture, plate, and other precious artiiles overlooked by
marauders; the soil running with blood, dead bodies hbe
the one on the other, mangled and mutilated, a prey to V4
cious birds and beasts. In proceedings so horrible Touns
could take no part. Faithful to his owne-r, he, during a w[
month, protected the plantation, at the. head rf the negq
whom he greatly contributed to kiep in obelli,:nee, an.d
vented the insurgents from setting the fielk ofl sugar-cane
fire While all the whites were flying Jbr their lives, and j


i*s.. Th rn-
IICa-~p, ac~t
da, in or-
hBe owed

% n-was
WOO i"Md


50 TBim ULaN f.

Continued collision of the planters, the mulartues, and the negroes
planters willing to receive Euyli~h aid -The negroc espouse the
of Louis XVI.-- Arval of CommiMsioners from France-Negol
HRSumpliun or hostllltiei Tuusbalnr galns influenre.

T HE direful etlliien<-y with which the negroes had devast
the counnry indicated the pre-ernce amonrh them of a
superior to any they ':could pos '.s. That skill wa supplied
mulattoes, who organized the dcetro) iri band;, and dr
their movements. The bastard and degenerate race"
struck a deadly blow at their criminal part-nt..
During the progress :.f these furious e..tcese, a new Gen
Assembly of Planters opened its sesion?, und,-r the tile
"Colonial Assembly." Its tirt t wat wan act of rebelli
Refusing to apply to France Ibr aid, and having taken meao n
ofselt-defence, it sought protection Irom England. These a
the terms it employed in a lktter addrresd to the Governor,
Jamaica: -
"AT Cir-Fi:\N(.)I, Aulus|t 2U 170
"The General Assembly ,t' thbe Friuth part of St. Domial
deeply affected by the calamitie, which de:olatte Saint DI,:min
has resolved to send a deputation to your excellhn. n, in ord
to place before you a picture of the mi'fortun:s- which hi
fallen on this beautiful island; fire lay. waste our poiss.riia
the hands of our negroes in arm_ are- already d".,d with I
blood of our brethren. Very prumpirit a;itan,.e is n (-..i ar
save the wreck of our fortunt-s, -alr.-a.ly hall-l. tr-.,yed ; at
confined within the towns, wvi look Ibr ?our aid."

Without awaiting a reply, the General Assembly adopted I


hubuttted the

6 not win up
Itve huiidred

1b dut and

we have




52 rS LIFxOwn

els; we seek only liberty, -dear and precious objea
general, is our profession of faith; and this profei sion
maintain to the last drop of our bl.od. We do not lar-k po4
and cannons. Therefore, Liberty or Death I God grant
we may obtain freedom without the (tullion of blood! 11
all our desires will be accomplished; and believe it has cost i
feelings very much to base taken this course. Victory or de
for freedom 1"

This assumption of the part of Louis XVI. astounded I
perplexed the planters. The fact, however, was only too pl
By means of the Spaniards of Hasti, the counter-resolntioril
party in France gave secret support t.- the insurgents, if tl
did not also call them fourth; and, in order to impart feaeibi
and vigor to the movement, they gavo'o out that the king'si
had been put in danger by the white., b.i .ause hi: had resoll
to emancipate the bl~ikq. Strange renrsalb! While the
onists hoisted English colors, their elaves exhibited the wl
flag, with the words on one side, Lon, lirer' th1r I;rn: and, onl
other, The ancient sy-sem of g.orcrnment.
The insurrection proceeded; the negroes carried their ad
from place to pla.e, and, subduing all th-- open ncuntry, rA-dl
the colonists to the lt l~-nii\e. A. the :conte(.- went on, hori
multiplirld. The planters hung. on tror-s and e leg:-. the di
bodies ol thl-ir laelk iprisohi.rr.; lhe in-urg.ntsr tIrmni.d aro4
their camp an enclo'ure marked hyy he blirling healn of tM
who fell under their hands. The fury of the negr..s was ed
ulated by unworthy priests; but even religion was powed
when it endeavored to place a barrier against tumultunus j
sion. A priest was hung on the spot I'or ile crime of trying
protect innocent women from brutal violation.
The superior discipline at the oimmand of thlie t.loniqt, h4
es(.r, began to prevail. Their ntigries winr:. ,ic:hei:k.e;J and dril
back. Thelr bands wi:r. d;Ire.ted by thre-e ihi:li., JI.au-Fri
qois, Bias;ou, and .Jeann.nt.
Jean-Franqois belonged to a colonist of the name of Papil

msble to boar
Amme of com-
joined the
taie refuge


%,,. ."-..

54 THE ur oF :

Such were the men under whom Tounialnt now fou
self. No longer able to choose the moment fr commen
benevolent enterprise, he was hurried int, the eddying t
by the swelling streams of popular llnantlism. lis fidelity
his proprietors making him an olbi.- t of u-'piLinn andl a
for negro attack, he was. t ren in sel'-derinnc, '.,liged to fall i
the ranks of the ragin. iriurgrnti. Gene'rlly known as mil
for his intetlli-rI:ni, as lii- mod.rat;on, he was il,.- l.ss h kely,
be spar.-J; but dra.2, iti.. the rl.bellion ag-innt hiO bet4
feelings auud his juid-mii n, he was, r,'mr.l..i with diit.i
Withbhld, in ,-ouitelui nlni, from the mibrIar. i'.t -,r which
talents fitted h:m, hI' was commnndi,'l to >.n*i.l', his mf;edJi
skill in taking care of the wodmJn.-.'l. Qu;:tl andl usel'ully
played in an offi' e which was agrerk-alle to his l;I:rling, he, at
distance from the coutlict, turned hi;s n.tuirally ri.-:t rive mi
to the studyof the perisnal qualities o!' hi'- ij l;, and so
quired -an acquaintan.e with iheir weakrv!--.,. w-hi.h real
aided him in at length attaiuinig; sul.rrr,-Jt crnmmiand. That
he reached without di.srai ing hini.ll' by bloi'J or pilla.ge, i.
contest in which examples of' Itl rrna lei on his ?.ight.
was by nature- retiring and given to se.'lu..ion, lbut it Fran
Lafitte, whom lie had long known, and whon her now foa
among the in3urgens-:, he hli3] Onre. iOm[Pinion with whom us
larity of id..eas anl f-elin'. man-l: inter.uirse- both p|lewsant a
profitable. It Wmay wll hi. sluplpo-r-l that tlhe'' twto men, uni
in the bonls ni g'oJtri-. ni l pnillanthrupi, oilen dtlilored 1
gelther the horrible excesses. which they witne.ed, or of whl
they heard.
As, however, the insurrection passed on. and -peci
when deli-at made its conduct ditfieult, -the Icaders found
imperative to bring Ibrward all nmen of superior talinl. I
longer, thier'l.iire, was Toussaint permittedl to purue his md
ral oc:upatnons. Taken out of1 comparative privacy, he .
m:adle ai'le-,'.-ranip to Bia.,-ou.
A gritiL-qit,- sp':..c ta. 1',i1 ih1it n,.li r. armv,-.r rather those
gro ban.l. pi vi. '.h. e.. were ri.di. ulun Iy attired in

,po lumber-
pue. The
kageroua to
*s.ed, and
4j pointed
!hWoop, and

P. sn-

t...4 Can-
"un. any


56 TrE LIFrE

The whites, although they had gained adrantages
were scarcely less than the blacks agitated with mutual
eions. While they lost time and energy in dis,.ord, the me
color asumed a formidable position und-r one of their
named Beauvaia. The movement had an excuse in the cr9
ties which the colonists perp-tratedl at the Cape, where sao
teen mulattoes had been put to death without even the- forma
a trial, and where daily, Ifuitire slaves, ev. n the most Caithk
were, on seekii; an as.luml in th, ity, oIrtiwith hanged, a
having escaped the dJang.rs of being maaiicr e.I' nn their r
by some of tlie white s.outs who soured tht ne-i;lhborhood.
On evrry side tie grosijst injuiti.e pretailed; i rime was i
paid with crime; vengeiance fUAloweld ven-2:.an:e; the civilian
master degraded himself no less than thil neglic.ted slain
between the two stood the mulatto, the enemy of both, a
prepared to sacrifice either Iir hi- own ag:rnrarnliz0mnu-t.
The ease with which the mulitto Lbtray..J the rights of t
negro may be exemplificl in the icae :-1' a nuimbr of' m
denominated the Swiss. In the rank, r'L the meni ot' i.-.lor wi
three hundred slaves, who received the title of the Swi<
from the resemblance which their serrnie bore to that of i
Swiss under the Frrni:h mornarthy. L'ed by the mi-n of ed
in their warfare against the whiti;., th,:y were surrendered
the fIrmer at tLe demand o' the litter the wo:anent, fort
began to I'rown on the mulatto caljr C('lin-iting o-f men,
color as well as nrgr'i', they wcre thrown on the coast
Jamaica. Driven thi'nLe, they -ither prrihli-d in the oca
or on the inhospitable shores of their I[rth, pre -.nting in tbd
sufferings and destruction a proof of the inhumanity of t
whites and the perfidy of the mulaitoes.
Disorder continued to increase. It would Lie a t,.dious
well as painful task to recount the mialdeeds that were done I
all sides, at the Cape by the coloni ts, at La Grand.: Hin iire I
the negroes, and in the West by the wuilattote-. The leaders
the blacks began to fe-l that ti. hali ha n ianl a lhopelri- eaul
The libbraT:.u of the n gr.: %I..ulati n was not po.:ible in t

od lbek de-
sd tir neo-
iThwue were

own I#&


-a- ^"-- --

58 TH E ..

On the arrival of the deputies at La Grand Ri
army of the population came together. Every one had fo
dreamt of union. What was the ditpippointment IW
Raynal and Duplessy related the disdaifuili manner in whj
they had been treated, cries of vvxation arnd rage rent the a4
Biaseou, unable to restrain his passion, ordered all the whit
detained in the camp to be put to death. The- n,,.e.-iry pre
rations were made ; when T.-.uaint always humane-
intervened,calmed hi4 r hii and !aved the li;-sl' the intend
victims. Suli h is the as. n-ol-tniy of go:&xJne,-s. Such is tl
power of that rapid, animated, and ptiLturt- ,lu eloquent
which Toussaint possessed, and which, or 1 .:ry many loth
occasions, he employed tbr merciful result of' a similarr kii
We subjoin an instance. Bias.cu t.ne daY r.-.Xcied rmin tl
Cape a proclamation intended to win back thie .laves. T
insurgent chief det-ermineid to pulliih it. Cau-ing his sold,
to take their arms, he ordered the proil. lin.ti',n to b- red
aloud. Instantly there ar,-.e tih awful r% ...'f Drath to t|
whites." Tousiaint shuddered, rushed I;,rwarJd, again read
proclamation, with a commentary of his own. The re-ult,
that the desire for vengeance sank in those rule brteais, tai
stole down their cheeks, and the prisoners wr-er saved. Such
conquest i_ one ot the hibghet a,.hiev-emtinclts : humanity y.
cornfneretn' took pla'o. Thler" were pri.'i'nl, th',. c. ni-iionel
and Bullet a reprecentativte rc the Cl''.i:anl A-enal'ly. Jea
Francr.is, leading Biaa~cu at La Grandl Riner., hastened to X
Petite Anse, in the vicinity r-I' the Cap,-, to t:k, part in td
conference. lie was followed by a et.on;id.lrable troop of cal
airy. Full of confidence in the repreit'ntatives of the kiaj
he proceeded to alight from his horse, when Bullet, seizing tl
bridle, struck him with his riding-whip. Jean Franc.lis mig
have taken instant revenge; he simply withdrew to his 'oldieo
Whp was the great-r ? St. LUger saw th>e (.eil Ir- ts tl
brutal act might occasion, and, unatt.rnd.'l. arliani',ed tnwal
Jean Frani:oi4. This a t of .onnfil' nte resti.rn. a friimdly fed
ing. A peae':lul arranu.em'nnt was enterell into, involving tI

Mui required
the Cape.

60 u s oZIZ Or


France makes the mulartoes and negroes equal to the whires-The'l
Iatrlon of Louls XVI. throws the slaves into the arrn or Spain-
are afraid of the revolutionary republica-- rSrife of French p4
parties In Bayll -Conflagration of the Cape- Proclamation of i
for the negroes produces little ilrect-Trousiaint captures Dol
Commemoration of the fall of the Bastille DiapleAaure of the pi

SUCH was the condition of affairs when there was bi
to Hayti a decree of the Legislalive Assembly
among other things, declared that the tIen of color ai
negroes should be admitted to vole in all the parochial i
blies to be convened in order to ele. a new general ass
and municipal corporations. The decree was support
Commissioners, of whom Sonthonas was at the head. 1~
S however, impossible to give it immediate effect. The 4
proceeded. The mulattoei-, overcome, joined the col
against the blacks. The blacks, delb;ated, took shelter
mountains, and constantly renewNed their predatory wid
A fresh cause of complication added to the troubles d
island: Louis XVI. had been beheaded. Then the slave$
up all thoughts of peace. Naturally inclined to a moni
they renounced the revolutionary government, and passed
into the service of Charles IV., king of Spain. Jean Fr4
received the title of Lieutenant-Genural in that mo
army; Biasou became one of his brigadtr-'; and Tot
was honored with the same mark of confidence. A
bearing the effigy of Charles, was decreed to them.
this powerful protection, the insurgents became more Io
than ever.

nsue, to

tded to

I. autih.

p1. *

~ *" '

62 TM Ul E or .

and on every side presented th -bhocking tokens
slaughter, and conflagration. Truly did ith flames
French revolution Srt on tire t he world. The ,tri-t ofp
partisanship, which rdned in Paris, rwre trannplantu-il to
where they rageld with all the hl--it ,' a tnrpical clinate a
the animosil r of' a .:iil war. A- il' t, aid irn wearing dow
forces of the plint-rs, white m.'n, who i)hoild havre
grievances an 1 re-tored tranquillity' n-mei rom [le tie
country oulnlyv to all lIbrr rr.w rl-nmiti.:- and all.1 nw bran
tiU burning. Th.-*,- I.rEli-ioin,- am.,ing mru ou' witi;r- blood
far tl rI'-movo and ti 'trl.: thrl reil ofl' [pre-'i' a inl fear
whit h, under r-nturies t'f doJ)minatiin, thli.y 3 -..' regard
thei bla,.k. It. wva. nl-w lbuud t(ha th.- [Ilanta'r' nwmrn no
than men; -eri o-rdinary ma'rn, nme.n of law pa.-;in- ; int
elfish men; men who 1t.11 hen-r-ath th.. I:,la, k min'- w.,urd;
men wh, .aou)ld not keep their lhaundi ii r.m a. I orh. r; me
themselves d-strir ta.I r.h I rop, rry whi. hL h.-r- m ,-ri. prodt
These were pregnant a'nJ ala,.- rer.u I,.--ut. Y..-, the t
are on the road to freedom, anrd ti, wh-itLAe art- th. ;r guide
The Commii-on ratirr-d 'lorn tit 1Lurnih, .-irt into tlie t
boring Ihighland.-, wlh re: a .anill wan I:.rmn-l rt. piritLc
CapL. Iham hl.- irrulaui.,n oi' ina- in-ur.i' i.a II I in,;i no Id
anv tonfi, ih' thi ili whir--,. ill Co vli.nm ii i[ -a-p:,.te
anti-rrvi\-liuioin r; nmlpali .-. ;ia'l ..kinr_ iwnw 'li -JndJ
the ,aus o' rI -rpubkiLani-nm, he \., on lth. "-'1 ,.f June,
claimn:-I the f i'. :lonm ,if all sla'- whno should -Uro' 'll th,:li
fbr the sacred t iuie ':, th.I rarpubli.-. Pia:rrut, h%. ... mmm
fr Biassou. at Port Francois, not far lr.,'r the Cap':, wa
first to r,.spond to the proclamation; he, a ith hii- I,;id, ,
to place himself at the disposal of the C'wumii-iiin
While yet the conflagration was not -i.r.t;wi -lhul., I.j.-sil
and famine fell on the miserable inhabirttil- -.t t. p.- I'ra
A yet more dreadful enemy impended. Tin it r,,i iit andi
ges of the blacks alarmed the Commissin.rni-r tihel-ni s.li.
plexed as to the means of staying the I'X-r f thll dane




bewsg 1'.



04 TWr LIFE OF '

then no longer enrolled and under di-zLipine, hut scatr
the land, indulging in the intox,..atiin o'F r:cvent freedom. Be-
sides, he had taken a part; he was a collier ot' the king of
Spain, and had more to h:opel' Ir ti:.m hi- irietr(t in that quar-
ter than could be gaintd by rnuhing into the arms ot' the Ii':.ble
Toussaint iiha arlr-.idy male hi- appreitlices-ip in warfare.
With his superior knowledge and ability, and with hi- re.oliile
yet silent will, he had readily fought his way into a t:..remost
position, and won both confidence and distinction. The insur-t
gents held strong places in the mountains which ri:- to the
south of the Cape, in the neighborhood of La Grauh. Pi% ibre,.
Dondon, Marmelade, &c. Thither the Commissionri-r iirectod
their hostilities. The whole, district was subject to th.- insurrec-i
tion, except Marmelad'.. Thither Brandicourt, the go crn-
ment's commander, determined to retire. But ther:r wai in his
councils a traitor, Pacot, who was in corresponde-inte with the
enemy. Under his influence it had been resolved that the re-
treat should take place during the daytime. Intlrnir-I of the
arrangement, Touisaint laid his ambuscades. N.-xi m-rning,
the army began its march. Planel, lieutenant of gr.-naElrs,
commanded the advanced guard. As he proceed ed. he wai on-
countered with the cry, Who goes there ?" Franr e." was,
his reply. Then let your general come and speak to ours, -
no harm shall befall him," answered one of Toussainr'. oiltiers,
who, with a company of men, was posted there. Brandicourt,
who was in the centre of his forces, on learning thie toalusion
that had arisen, hastened to the spot, leaving the commandd tol
Pacot. Haling reconnoitred the enemy, he ordered an attack.
Forthwith, he was on all sides entreated to have an interview
with Toussaint, whose humanity, it was urged, was well known.
Besides, he had left behind a hundred invalids. hb.o much
better to recommend them to Toussaint's care I Brandlicourt(
yielded to the representations, went forward, an.l vwa. imme-
diately seized. He and his officers were disarmed, bound, and
conducted to Toussaint's camp. The blacks are beginning to

ih .. .aI L'OUVnTlUP.E. '

er an able leader t\ih. know Ijow to make them-
5 ted. But the Fren, h gp-nv.ral', -olli.rlr- ,rt 'o-od
s, armed, andJ r.al li.. r banld.. W\r;t.-" said
.to "Brandieourt, and -rmui.anIl %our lor:i-. tv
makingg the p.n, Branii'i.,,uurt in tr.ar ,nji. that, heing
ir, he lell Pal ot ito I.Allow tiil .Cr.,*- ali. h pr l rI. n:e
peem to dictate. No," adl'd T.)i.iainr, ...aring thli
*I must b.ai' frImn yuij an exp.rt.s i.ri.ler tu Pdacot, to
n his arm-." Tihe order was iout. On retuciving it,
Ad the command to hi, onFiv-r-, and added, Do what
i; for myvs-rh I ,urr. ud>er." Teil column yielded without
andivourt, being qnrt 'rto PI-rto Ri,.o, died there of
ab diffiulty tlit I I-r;ng mrvfir to the utterance of
ltion on m:rIYl\ w.arhklLI .,-1.h. Ila%'i': a d-'.-p aver-
par, I shrink from alny appru:oi. h t.. a u'l, !y l':,nything
1 therewith. But il m.r is .vr r..p.taFle, it is
h.en it is empljy.-d a; a mni.ar -1' lil',eratini thousands
wed. men from hopl.,'' h.,jnl.lJ.. In thl: haud (of
arms were th>: in -trunmei-nt *t' Ir., frdoim,- the. only in-
Sthat coull Ih.v bi--en uld,.e u,' olI. 4 N.r was it an
*t lesson whi i e hb lad to tea h, and did well teach,
Sto white men and to the world, that negnro blood did
.e its posse"jrs fi'r.m the highest renown which can
Voitary skill and a:-hieve.-ments. In the victory which
hi had so easiily gained over a Frenth ogneral of no
Wte, there appears great ability in military combina-
Sas extraordinary promptitude and determination.
qualbies whi. h make- a ureat soldier; and theie quali-
pl n eminent degree pore<4,-,d by Tu.,usainl.
~ ievement, DDndon I'eU into the hands -il the insur-
don was the entiree of' the country. Poswcssed of
Shad almost lre l passage into the Western Depart-
already the negro i;br .e were triumphant in the

Le ion of affairs, the Commissioners at the Cape not


unnaturally grew alarmed. Revolving the means at ,i
posal, they determined to celebrate theb fi.urth anni,-'-ary.l
the capture of the Bastille, in order t.. rl..iie' thb republican
enthusiasm, and thereby gain powe-r lor rrrirwrtd -(fl:rt, ag'"int:
the insurgents.
Is the reader qtruik with the inron,.i-ti'ei. of their i rnnduct?
Yes, these friendly ol' liberty are' -.*-king ariu against lilnbrty.'
Believing that th, fall of th. U.Datill, was. th. Id.11 ul tYrjnny i'.
France, thby dri'elberaltly lurn th, eventr to account ii. order to'
buttress up o[iprt-,ionu in Ilayti. Amid the 11 tiitie which
were dJr-i.neid o nail in the .ubitugation of tine r,?':'ltc"l n,'groe
theer words were spoken by the C('onmil.ni r P',lirrlt The
oppr-ssed were Africans whom king- and their -ati.llhtes ent
to purchase, at their own hearthl, of kins hoi, hald unt th,
right to sell them into perpetual slan-ry in Ameritc. The
oppressed were defendant. ofr the Ar 'i an; whih, -ven whei
they had reco-ered their lihb.rly, w,-r,- a',countrid unworthy o
the rights of man. The oppressors are all the kins who tra
in the life and liberty of men of all .uunri-s an..I all color
The oppressors are all the traitor. aurl brigajLdl wlhoi wish to
store royalty and 'lavery.."
This elffion u.f indlinalion a;ainzut kin aud thr.ir satel
lites" laL'k.-l I.IIn w oril. 11f rp ItI'lirni" bad bLen add-uil, th
dei:, riptio'n would I aiie lb t n iori ..,rr-, t. The itat -me-nt.
illuitrattid hF. li thi. tIrt thnt rlnthi.;na, ;:I.:'tb.r of the Co'mmi
rionvi-rt, ina 3 p ..-ih dl. h1 r..I on tll( i .' a-tn, I-'.at te-rizrd t
mnirgents as "a ma's 'i1' 'aLab uil and ibll,. rs, wh-i "ill neith
cultivate the land nor dio l'nd the iultivatori," and "hom it w
a primary duty to reduce and compel to resume their toils.
The treacherous favors offered to the blacks by the Co
sion had offended and alienated the culonisra. At thr town
Jdremie, in the extreme northwest ,' the South.rn D-partme
the pl'nttr had ernu Ibrmed an enanIapm,.-nt hostile to
ciril nu Lth rity. T .-v hail, m :.rl ': r, 'Iriv..u ir..m thl' towns
th-e 'jitri'.t thie m 'ni lt' i c.le r wh, h:ii tI kl.- ri'fu in
Ca'i -s, on the southern -idi ,' c th.,e ame tongnu:. 'if lir. So


proclaimed liberty fur all the slave., seut Andrew
his orders into execution, aind to restore the
teir homes. Advarn.ing fIrom Petit Trou (June
wng the plantation of Dearivaux. near J4remie,
himself stopped by an entretnhmc-nt defended by
id men and five pieces of' cannon. Consulting only
md the object of his mission, he hastened to attack
tion. At the head of' three columns he three times
the assault; three times was he driven back. After
Four hours and losing 'e eral brave officers, he
ind at the head of filly men protecltd himself in the
greatest perils. Retiring to Petit Trou, he received
.ts and enroTlledl .lave.. The last aLt made him a
httof hatrdl to thi- planters, who, diJrc'ardin b the
imiBned to etfrl.t his ile-triiction. Illaoig crossed
.to Les Cayci. he trk part it, a rcpe-titon of the
ich had ba:-n .-11.-'hratel at the (ape. Whites,
ilaulattois cx\laniel lolt ti.- ol' friend-hip and man-
ismon joy. In the nmii.Jt lo' .- cne whih promised
y, he was ifll-n upon hb B.indoll:t, crommander of
fthional Guard, anl L.iarly .- ,.ap,-d throuAh a shower
extraordinaryv t"y irjd! and actiity. This dis
tampt at a.a.isination .xt.it:ed general abhorrence,
hipalse and igor .to the negro cause .
hbo, next to Tc'ussaint, vias destined to play the
this intern:.- ine confli t, "as a mulatto, the son
Man and a black wo-man. Edlu.atell at Bordeaux,
gone through a pretty good course of instruction,
ltbe trade of a goldsmith, and ha ing served in Sa-
SiGuadeloupe, he tnttrcd the militia in Lt-s Ca.3es,
F ef. While puruing his business, which colonial
aded as too g.jol Ibr a mulatto, he was tailed into
'by the insure. tion. Rigaud had in his soul the
great man. In Ilindu,'tan be would have founded
ia In Hayti he srarce.ly rcse above a banditti thief;
wiD how to make himself formidable. Of a martial


aspect, his countenance was terrible in combat; ye*t,
excitement was over, it was mild and engaging. In the
ress of the war of liberation, he raised, organized, and c
handed a legion, called The Southern Laeion of EqualFty
which proved the finest and the moSt ct-fttive or the> troop
formed in Hayti. Aware, in his own experienr..e, of the valued
knowledge, he took pains to have hi, soldiers in'tru''.lte.. "If'
- to cite the words of a native of Hayti, it ;u the south d
the isle the traveller muket ev'n now (1N5I0) with aged Afrl
cans who pjssess the cl(-ments of clas;ieal instruction, he ma4
salute them; they are Rigaud's Irgionaries-. AJmirable q
good sense, they ha'e a lolly spirit, abo'vr the prejudices o|
color; with them, the white man, the mulatto, and th.- blacj
man, are sons of the same Father. I thank Ueaven that tl
epoch of my visit to the district allowed me to ahake bang
with these relks of the glory of my country, thro'e old ngro
whose excellence of heart and aptitude of mien Eurpe is igna
rant of, and whose descendants lie under the obligation of ju
tifying the hopes of the friends of equality." *

ie de Toiussalnt IOuverture, par Salnl-Bemy." Parls, 186E, p. 8,


i r
Smarter of a central post- Is not seduced by offLra of
jton, nor or bribes to himaelf- Repels the English, who
id; ad.L L'Ou rture to his name; abandons the Span-
e freedom through French alliance.

b conquest of Dondon, Tous.-int rushed on Mar-
which was commanded hby V-rnet, a mulatto of
distrustful mind. IIavin. under his orders a
of negroes rec-ntly vibrated, as well dis,:iplined
Slam of Toussaint, he, in his timidtl\, imrnortuned
u to send him succors. On the 20th of July,
Srote him these lines: We du not think you a
abi show not the courage of a republican. If you
i.trength enough it die rather than iield, say so
.c an easily fnd citizens whu make no atrount of
the honor )of their country is at stake."
boring of the ;lth, Tou-;aint havinZ Ihrmced con-
Splace, made an atla.k o:n Marmelade. By the
Oliton was olercone. Vr.rnCt joined his Ibrtunes
f Toussaint, who,: ni.L.:e he aellrwards married,
Wthe rank of general, di.d1 under the reign of the
g Christophe. MLeanni il>e the Likutenant-Colonel,
Swas advan-:ing fr.im Port-au-Prince against Saint
,the hope orf i:'rti,:ng a diisini.n in havur :f the
utachority. The. rpuihlican tron,|s tulT'rrd a com-
t. Desfournaux bim.-llf rmte itrd several wounds.
ed by the victory, Toussaiut advamncd anl cap-
ry. Thence he wrote to the inhabitants of Go-
Ion the western shore, to induce them to surreniler.

.? .. r. .


FWby both distrusted and destroyed. Constituted
Sin hostility. Bands of injured men seeking
Wild each other. Spanish royalty foi tered colonial
E. The forces of the country were exhausted in the
,l ever-recurring strit;:.. Without unity, and without
1 rar raged on every side, unilbrm only in the unirer-
h which it inflicted.
hinus complication was to be yet more complicated.
Sirw on the wasted shores of IIayti another brand.
M already seen the planters make overtures to Eng-
their dissatisraction with France, they renewed their
it. The Court of St. James instructed Williamson,
tf Jamaica, to lend the required assistaone. In this
A'proprietors Ift' La Grande Ante sent to the gor-
ity, which was a.rpl)tfrl. Among the points agreed
tlhe island should pas into the hands of Britain, and
uirentative should hare lill power to regulate and
jtland with a view to its restoration to tranquillity.
tnor of tbis artii.l.-, and tirjm the express words of
S'bbject of the coloni-rs was to turn the power of
S to account, in ordh.r to offert that in which they
bd failed, th, humiliation of the mulattoes and
Sof the lla. ks. With a view to the occupation
Mvernor William., in September, 1793, sent an
"hcnder Colon.-r Whittlo,.ke, which disembarked at
Itle 9th of the month, and on the 22d, the harbor
olas was put into the po-session of the English,
Nenee, held two important positions in Hayti, the
.tremity of the northern, the other near the ex-
southern tongue of its western end. While the
of the mulattoes tonod akl f, many' of the men
being soldiers, threw Ilh'-n.lvre int.) th.- arms of
d Saint Mar.., Laogane, L.: Graud Goare, and
Wf the south, adopted the conditions of La Grande

anore than the Cape and Port-au-Prince remained



72 THE LIFi 0

in the power of the Commissioner, an Engli;h eg U a
in the harbor of the last-mentionei city, and demand
surrender. This armament received an increase shortly ai
ward. As usual, dissension and tria.son rwere- at work amo
the forces of the authorities. With th-ir aid, the Engli
affected a landing and took up a po-tion. Th.- (C'onmissiol
er fled to Jacmel. There they l.arnedl lat a dIcr 'e hal bee'
passed against them by th.- National Convention in Pa
They submitted, and were rt,.eivrrld as prioner' on boh
L'Espdrance. During the interval, Port-au-Princ: h.'eame t
scene of new horrors. The emigrant Brun gr, at the head
a legion, took posiesion of the town. and s,.izing Fort-Jose
where the whites had taken refuge who could not find room
board the vessels in the harbor, he rauled thiem to eome fo
one by one, and, as they appeared, h- threw tlrmw headl
from the rampart into the fw ee, saying., RE-publi.an, I-
down the Tarpeian rock." Thus perihed two-andl-thirty
sons, and but for the orders of the Erglith gt-..ral nut a
would have been spared.
England had not invaded the French part of Hlayti wilho
having an understanding with Spain. Bi the convntion b
tween the two parties it was ap-re-d on that En-landi -bould 1
tablish its protection ovrr the We-t and the- Soulth, nl t
Spain -hiuldl extend ;ts dominion from thie E.Ct t) thI- xtrel
ity of the North. A:.ordlingly, while the Enlish iuhaded
West andl the South, th,- Spanihi invitul thle .crrole, of
North, who had letf the colony, to return and take pr c ioidon
their properties. On the I'aith of the promises m.-l.I to th
two hundred colonists quitted the United States andl nte.
their homes at Fort Dauphin. Shortly afntr, J,-an Fra
Cois. at the head of a hdily or ne;',rre, en':anmpl.d undlr r
walls of that [pla,:e. R -istance was not olT. rI.l, int thin ers
siln thl;t thi-y eanim only to se:oud, the op,.ratioun? ..t the Spa
iardi. Thit next da.y, alit-r the ce,-lebration ,t' ma-'. those bia
mingle with Spaniards, having Ibrmed themselves into ba
traversed the streets, and slaughtered every Frenchman t~


of the saints and .if king-i," to use the
they were encouraged to the burt:h-r.y by the
cre was gne-ral; only fiiort:-en persons

gaud, aided by Pition and other mulatto
the English, and], taking from them I.i.nano
ockaded them iu La Grande Anse. Finding
ble, Whitc-!oke endeavored to bribe Rigaud
then pmrvisional governor or the colony, into ac-
not suhmis.&on. The ibrmer simply rejected the
replied, Your I,-ing my mn,:my does not give
to put on me a personal iusult as an individual
faction ftr th,' injury yIu ha I n;, me."
ving the C('pP ind.Jt nilble, to:k lip hi.; po,.ition
which he t;,rrifi,.d, and unli-r itP nall- braved
of the English; while t. .y, on their .idt, o,ccu-
br of Saint Ni. holr:. co'muned.i all the ap-
city by sea.
mastt:r o1" n-arly all rh.- No'rth, prcedrl Port-
d, and cut otr he, i l.[,li' o,-''f pm' i-ii, n so that
* went the privatin; t'a sie.e'. -- For more titan
:te. Lavenux. und r dae Nilav 24th, L we have
to six oune(- of)I' brad a day, oufmlers as well as
the 13th of thi4 month, we have none whatever,
excepted. If' we had powder, we should have
; our misery is trul v great ; oti.ers and soldiers
greatest privations. We have in our magazines
nor shirts, nor clothe-, nor )oap[,. nrr tohat.co.
t the soldiers mount guard bare thtied. like the
e have not even a flint to eive the men. Not-
.e assured that we will noev r surrender, i in-
ever capitulate; I, ,arur,_d, ton, that after us
IB not find thl .-light.:;t tra,.e ,tf Pc'rt-de-Paix.
be wpade prisoners., wh'ln the hbal SLtall havo de-
ng here, and we have no longer anything to
PZ '

T4 -M IFE IM' or

defend, we will retire, and, flying from mountain to
we will fight ineemantly until aid comes roi-i France."
Bravery ahd determination worthy of a better cause! '
hope of aid from France prove-d lhIim.-ri, al, iyet the not
helped to keep the soldiers in th,- lini: of duty. Reliel, indeed
came to them, but it was from an iun,-xp.e tled quarter.
Miserably wa, this unfortunate ilantl torn asundler h Sp
iards, French. En'libh, mulattoes, and tbhe black ; h monar
ists, by re-piulican-, by scepti. ;. Iy Romanit.q, ly false fiie
and true fiienlds of ne2-ro emanLiparion. A lama.ntable ill
traction of the diversity of these risal intcr.re't wa3 pre3entedl
Saint Mare. The same day three ila's bhalan.. id and negathi
each other under the influence ('of political breeze,. Four c
odes symbolized four different tse t opinion.: here '
whites who wore the black cockade; there otht.r whites
wore the white cockade; while the mulatto).~ wure the
cockade; and some soldiers wore the tri-clr.orc.-l r:-kadde.
About this time may bhr dated the final thangr- which
name of Toussaint underwent by re,::it ing the addition'
L'Ouverture. L'Ouvcrture is a French wo ro, whi:h si'r
the opening. The surname is said to have h..n given as ind
tire of the opening which Touz.aiaht hat madie 1;..r himse
the ranks and the p;oi.es-.-'na *-.f three on.r It' this was
origin, the name- i- appropriate. Though noit Mlwa' -ui::ed
he rushed on his t;..b< lth an iimpt.l whih. uh.inemid down
position. With poetic liccnwe. Lamartine, in hi'. drama, ma
the designation-derived, a.'orling to him, from L'Aur
Day-break-to have been given to Toussaint by a monk,
thus intimated to him that he was to he the morning-star
new era in Havyi.

I'njour, un capacin, on de cea pa.rrei pIres,
ColporI urs de la fil, donl It- runle -.ontn t le rre-.j,
En rennt l -ile-r I'.ttl..r dr-.JIhnm l, -
S'arr.-ta deant mrin come un aurre Samrnl. .
Qurl ci- ton nnm I Tuunisini. Paurr. mnangeur d'ign
t 'et Itc- nm r!' ton corps; mals le num de ton Ame,


.dit-1. O mon p6re, et de quol
r qum Dien prepare et qul se lee en tol
Iolrs Ignorants, depuib eerie aenture,
Ie Oirompant oe nom m'appellent L'Ourerture.*

pIaniar.on has been given. According to Pamphile
STonssaint assumed the epithet, in order to an-
..s people that he was about to open the door to
better future. In this view his name became a token
at. That object he was too prudent to make known
ly period of his florts. Now, however, might he
Imnouncement without serious risk. The event juati-
$duct. That event would be aided forward by the
At.penirg was bibri, the neg'roi. Whenever they
*t, they were remirnd.rl of the opening; whenever
inced his name, tbh.y were encourlaged to advance
.pening. There was the door; they had only to be
ter in to the 'd'rn.d t, ml)ipl of freedom.
A:L'Ouverture had rn.turned to his mountain strong-
4ade, where he fixed his headquarters. From that
ptre, he survey- ed the whul..- island, which to a great
pw held under his domination. Already the shep-
become a potentate.. It was a time not only for
ir the endearmruta of home. From the time of his
slervicee o Spain, he had removed his wife from the

tky a Capuchin, one ,tf thnrr poor fathers,
Lirla of the Faith, of whom the blark are the brothers,
to visll the workshop -f Jremcl,
Before me like another somucl.
L y name?"" T rouralnt IPoor victllm of infamy,
Inme of thy b-. ; but the name of thy moul
roral daw ," fir hI. ".1. liather, air] **. what i"
Sday whkih 'r.d haitb prtparrd anrd ri.e. ill hee."
Imignorant t.la'k,. silea trh t adi --niurr,
opting mY tranr, liart caledl m- L'l.ucertlrc."
IPOnverturc," P'um Dramatique, par A. De Lamartine.

1A haint Dominique." Vol. I. p. W.3.

76 THM LUM rw

theatre of war. He himself conducted her to the
fitness of St. Miguel; and for seven months he had not
ble to pay her a visit. Kind-hearted as he was, how must:
l e been moved, when now, aftrr unuxpe, ted triumphs, i
d his wife and children in salfty. Hi entran'- into thi
place was an ovation. The lommandrr, in a truly Spania
fhion, ordered, among outi-r tokeni 1,l' rvjc.iting, Lull-tights,
6 -honor of the iktor. Tou-ziinl L'Otu'ertur,. hlad gained t
esteem as well as the cou:fildenure his 5ipani-b masters.
pressed with his re-peet fur religion, as ivwil as thLi gene
probity o' his character the Marquis Hrrmona, under wha
orders he was, exclaimed, on -eing him tak,' the (ommunio
No, God cannot, in this lower world, visit a purer s.aul." T
esteemed by the Spaniards, I'.ared by the Englibh, dreadel
the French, hated by the planters, and rever-int ed by the
groes, Toussaint L'Ouverture felt that a tri-is had come in
public life, which required the Lalmo-t :onideration and
soundest judgment. His achievements, his personal influe
and the condition of the conflicting parties, combined to a
him the opening door, if only he had wisdom and ctringth
take the right path. What was that path ? The colony
were all but deprived of' power Ior harm. The mulattor- h
no organization. The Engli:h hehl only a point or two of
country. From the < ol,,nirs andl the mi..n 4..1' ..loor little, v
little, was to e I: 'ar l. i or bL.,i' l. Thi. nI,:-rons Ld tl:arntt
secret of' their power. Thii ri:sult, il' rn. other satislac
result, had ensueil from the _odnfli.t. On them might T
saint L'Ouverture now pla.e great re-lian<.. I' they were n
already good soldiers, they bad performed great things,
gave promise of soon being able lbth to deserve and achie
independence. But was their emancipaion to be gai
through Spain ? Spain was powerful in Hayti; was its pow
likely to Londuce to the opening ? On the c.rntrary, Spain
opposed to emarn ipation. Hur powt.r, thi:u, was power adv
to the great objie.t of Toussaint L'Ouverture's lilt. What
fidelity to that object demand ? Before the question


other element or thought had to be weighed.
|yti was in a mi8erable condition. Should she be
.she was crushed, the alternative lay between the
of England, and the slave-dominion of Spain.
isrance was depressed, could she be crushed ? Her
tiiumphant in Europr, and a strong efTort to rescue
wrelony might reasonably be expected. The present
Wa such as to call for gratitude toward any efect-
i. The possible continuance of the depression gave
I the probability that, even in opposition to France,
i conjunction with France, the independence of the
F not the independence of the island -might be
WlLy, then, not seek the opening" in union with
-p disposition implied in the question was confirmed
|ideeree of the Frenc-h Lcgislature (Feb. 4, 1794),
ring Hayti an hnegral part ot France, confirmed
pSd the freedom of all the slav-s. This was a very
' act of the mother country, not a mere device of
Miioner; this was a dliberate and solemn recogni-
ory object of Tousaint's lis,. not a trick in war for
of frustrating that object. And this step was
ito some extent, the days of French republican
given place to days of strength, and when the
mlbcan France had begun to become a terror in
!.Hence, many things pointed to a coalition with
Sweaknes, her power, her liberality. Alliance,
seemed the natural course. Independence by
and eventually -if it might be without her,
introduction of no tbreign element into the
--no new language, no strange customs, and
rs. A Frenc.h colony would till remain
ch. Old usages would remain in honor; old
nd not be trampled on; old asso-iations would
ed or broken up. E;pe,:ially would religion
Sand unchanged. Hayti was a Catholic island,
a Catholic country. Toussaint L'Ouvcrture,

78 InH11 ISFE OF

too, was a sincere Catholic. Religious considerations,
powerful with him, seem to have received yperial attention, 4
had special weight in this juni ture. The ALbb de la Hale wi
his adviser. The same clergyman went between him and [
veaux. At length, a di-tinet offnr was made by thK Frenc
commander. Toussaint L'Ouverture at cepted lie ripe'irig.
In this important 'tep, he wa-, doubtliss, influri-niol I'. a co
sideration derived from hi ac.tuil p.:ition. Ho' was -urrnun
by violent men. He was, in some sort, under th. ctuntrol
violent men. C-rtainly, he was intinlatt:ly allihld wihi meni
(olor by whom, or with whom, negro rf-an.ipation could
be wrought out. Of these facts he, about thlii tme. was m
painfully aware. His superior in tinmmand, Jcan Franq
quarrelled with Biassou. Over the latter. Tou-.aint, as
former knew, possessed great inflnRnc' C'hosing t) implied
Tousaint in the quarrel, Jean Francqrini committed him
prison. By Biassou, he was delivered. Thi. hazard had be
great. He who could incarrcerate nmi'-ht Ina. A se. c.Ind
of the kind was not to be thought of; thlrt:Obre, the great,.
final step must be taken. lHaing adopted pret:autions for
safety of his family, he made his military arrangements
skill, and carried th-m into effi' t w-ith -lucrie'i. IHe then
claimed universal lib'-rty in nil the dihtri:t under his inluena
On the .thl of May, he pulled dwn thi Spanish and hoisted t
French fla, wherever he was in po-wr. Fright and confasi
prevailed among the Spaniardi. Joy agitated the bo'oms
the negroes. Nearly all the North returner(to their allegi
to France.


.bala tthe Spanish partisans-By extraordinary exertions,
d diselplines troops, forms armies, lays out campaigns, executed
L.darlug exploits, and defeats the EngUsh, who evacuate the
OcmaSint ia Command r-in-chitf.

IUNT L'OUVERTURE'S accession to the cause of
was followed by brilliant exploits. Rigaud suddenly
"imae, which had been surrendered to the English,
:*very inconsilderable lo-', carried the place, though it
,strongly fIrtified. Among the booty were twenty
bamds of powder, eiihtL nt which he sent to Laveaux,
,.his felloiw-combatants in Port-d.e-Pais, hailed the
Ir'Logane with louts of delight.
t now came int) collision wnth Jean Franqois, his
pander. lHe took from that Spanish ally all his
Wrove him weQtwanr into La Montaigne Noir. Hast-
Ole valley cof the Artibunitte, Toussaint attacked the
hi6 capturing several towns, fell on Saint Marc, the
IEnglish power. Sitting down to besiege the city,
|meion of two important posts. In one of these,
int, he raised a battery which riddled the place.
Siding the men to mount a gun, he crushed hiq left
Pwas compelled to res;ig the conduct of tho attack
PThe conse-qui-ne wai injurious BMeides, his Ibrces
gently provided with ammunition. lIe was forced
is partial tailur,- o:na.-ioti,:d perlidy in some of his
eb hei himself ni-arly ti;ll a victim. Thus, while
ntain an oprn warfare against Spain and England.
inguard against the treachery whi-.h those powers
mtin to set in motion among his own adherents.

. Sm r i Or

Retiring, as was bi enatom, to the mountain fast
which Marmelade may be considered as the centre, he coil
forces, and, on the 9th of Oct. 1794, quitted that place at
head of nearly five thousand men, and, after some minor seno
ceaes, carried San Miguel by storm. "
'This exploit raised him high in the estimation of the Frend.
commanders. Laveaux and Rigaud united in their eulogies
of the skill and prowess he had manifested. An interview toolv
place between Laveaux and Toussaint at Dondon. This wal
the first time they had seen each other. Tousaint presented
to the general-in-chiet his principal officers: D-ssalines, conl
mander of San Miguel, Dum.nil. commander of Plaisance, De~
rouleans, Clerveaux, Maurepas, &c., commanders of battalion
Tousnaint L'Ouverture had already become a great poweM4
Very considerable influence did he exert in this conference o
French authorities.
Raised to this eminence, and now seeing the opening"
clear outline before him, Toussaint was indefatigable. Su
was the rapidity of his movementisand at so many differ
places was he seen near the same moment, that he seemed,
pecially in the eyes of the ignorant negroes, as if hewas sup
rior to time and space. Specially was he found at every p
of imminent danger. His energy and his prowess made
the idol of his troops. They alo lau-ed him to be dreaded
his enemies. He was no longer a leader of in-urgprnt, but.
commander of an army. He gave over marauding expediti
to lay out and conduct a campaign.
His immediate aim was to drive the En2lish out of the isla
and for that purpose, to make himself master of the port
taint Marc. Coming down from the mountains with this viel
he found that the English commander, Brisbane, had advance
into the interior of the valley of the Artibonite, and, tak
Lea V4rettes, had compelled his troops to retire. One sm
position alone held out against Brishane. Toussaint determine
to make one of those efforts which he so well knew how
direct, and by which he sometimes etroettd at a blow vrygre


forward in the night, early in December, with
hundred cavalry, he, by ambuscade and sudden
e the enemy back in disgrace.
ALowever, he had not rsrength enough to hold the
he Artibonite, especially as Jean Franqois, with his
piMpathies, was impending over it in order to aeist the
Ade withdrew toward the North. Beftre he left La
aike for Gonant-s, which is in that direction, he gave
f the humanity by which he was actuated. In the
,a Petite RiviLre, there were children and wbmen,of
dor, who were destitute of the means of subsistence.
Sof Charity who had come hither from the quarters
b the Englihh, ministered to oithrs 'rC-n in their own
L*e tommaud It" L'Ouverture, bread was d. by day
pi:tese 6utfli.rtr, aud to the most wretched uf them
p was distributed.
g.with almost the speed of lightning to Marmolade,
'organizing a eullicient force to cli-ar the diitrictof
.Rivibrc and its heights, which lie above Saint
iB bands of Jean Francois. Setting in movement
, he quitted Dondon in the centre of the Iborce on
D December. In ijur ilay-., he took and destroyed
itpositions. That of Barmby, situated on a fright-
and deltnded by three pieces of cannon, besides
g8 carried by th mnere- rir e of resolute bravery.
i n been carried iunto eClit it, all points, the insurrec-
t have been sulprt''ed. It tJiled in one point; and
e to Jean Francois, who, passing through it
frea, surrounded Toussaint L'Ouverture. Dis-
brave man (uC a way through his enemies, and,
a cordon of great extent, returned to his
aon, on the 7th of January, 1;9.,.
of the We;t, which L'Ou'erture commanded, had
extremity La Granid Rivnire, in the centre of
tof the North, and for its western limit La Sa-
of the Artibonite, in the Department of the

82 :..Wm.Ura or

West, and, extending above ninety leagues, comp
lowing important posts: Saint Raphael, Saint Miguel,
"'.iwmelade, and Gonaives. This vast space of country
lat L'Ouverture defended for a long time against the Egli
*-e: Spanish, and against French emigrants, with troops ba
aimed, badly disciplined, and little accustnmed to military a
ewnres. This single fa t is evidence of his prodigious a.tid
and surpassing talent. He had, indeed, under lim, officers
activity. But genius was demanded in his ditlicult and per
position, and genius Tousaaint bimself alone possessed. Not
had he to survey and sustain the whole, but each particular
required his presence as well as his thoughts. At evLey thr
ened point must Toussaint himself be, and at ieery threaten
point Touasaint was. Constantly in motion, he and his b
seemed almost one compound being. In the midst of '
movements he had to satisfy the daily demands of a vol
S ota correspondence, which he always dictated with his own
Very needful, too, was it that he should do his utmost to
courage the cultivation of the lands, lest provisions should
his troops, or famine try the fidelity of the people. Nor
the maintenance of discipline in hands such as his an
office or a slight labor. lie accomplished the task, however,
a general course of consideration and mildness as well as
stern severity toward the disobt'lient.
Meanwhile, the king of Spain ce'le d to France all his
sessions and rights in Hayti. The I.i.--ion inflamd the hbo
of the English government, who, resolving to try a last eff
sent, under General Howe, an army of three thousand
together with a fleet under Admiral Parker.
Laveanx had fallen into peril. Instigated by jealousy,
gaud and Villate, another man of color, arrested General
veaux and threw him into prison. This attempt to set upt
mulatto domination was overcome by Toi -iaint. Grateful-
the service, Laveaux appointedr T>,us'aint hi-s second in
government of the island of Hayti, and, in the prod
which he thereupon issued, declared him to be that Sp


wUcms destiny it was to avenge the outrages
oEme; and whom he set forth as the vindica-
authorities, adding that in future nothing
d except in concert with him, and by his
meociation of Toussaint in the Government
the disposition of the blacks, who now began
'nifdence in their white superiors, and in con-
'in large numbers, prepared to obey.
* ving overcome his enemies in France, returned
head of a commission of which Roume was the
I member. The Commissioners found the colony
approaching to prosperity. Instead of profiting
le disposition- that prevailed, and the special
th which be was received, Sonthonax preferred
uaMions afresh. lie had Ibrmed the project of
of color under subiection b, the power of the
to effect his purpose, he, ostensibly to reward
nurture for the conduct he had pursued in the
.appointed that distinguished man general of
measures irritated Rigaud, the champion of
who saw, with extreme jealousy, the black chief
k superior to his own. Obeyed over almost
Rigaud was deaf to overtures made to him on the
oners, and in discontent withdrew to Ti-

LOuverture was not a man to lose time. Aware
ments the English had received, he hastened to
-in the West, and, having driven back Colonel
had invaded La Petite RiviAre, he pushed forward
Gonaires, whiih the English had set on fire,
near which they had effected a landing. The
on the point of advancing. when Toussaint ap-
himself at the head of the ravalry, he fall on
I Guildive, and, directing the charge in his own
ed them to reimbark in confusion, with the
their baggage, and their cannon. Tous-

mslp iZ Or

saint reeeiledu.,jiuiaim the conflict, but Brisbane
wounded. The victorious soldiers, having their muskets cr
ith laurels, were received in 4Gonanes in the midst of the
clamations of the people.
..' he influence of Toussaint L'Ouverture grew every
lmost at will, he drew the negroes round his banners,
reduced them into discipline.. He also detached from the E
lish colors bands which they had taken into their pay. Appi
ing himself to matters connected with the general admini
tion of he colony, he put on a firm Iboting the prosperity wh
bad begun to appear. He applied his power specially to
restoration of the culture of the so;I; wisely declaring, t
the liberty of the blacks could be con-olidated only by
prosperity of agriculture. This important averment, pread
among the black chiefs, awoke in them the desire to aqu
and to conserve property.
While the Englh had great diffiulty to straggle against
French arms in the West, they were vigorou-ly pressed by
fourneaux in the North. Four columns surrounded the heig
of Vallibre, where the enemy, with the aid of some det
ments, kept up what they called ** La Vendde of Saint
mingo." Henry Christophe, afterwards King of Hayti, po
fully contributed to the succ.-s of this expedition. In
South, Rigaud asum:-d the offensive. Having -trongly orti
Les Caves. he marched to attai.k Port-au-Prince. He
with a resistance so vigorous, so brave, and so well condu
that any but a very superior man must hav,. perished.
sally made by Colonel Markham, at the hcad of a thou
men, his outposts were carried, and his headquarters p
dered. The rout was becoming general, when Rigaud, th
urged to save his life by flight, leaped on bis horse, and, rally
fifty men, threw himself on the English occupied in pillage,
put many.of them to the sword. The plunder was recover
and Markham, forced to beat a retreat, ti-il pier:ed with b
L'Ouverture, not alow in sustaining the effbrts of Riga
down before Saint Marc with ten thousand men. Thrice:


town in vain. Alier prodigies of valor, he was
to derive no advantage from his erxertions, Tous-
mrinned to rrscue: ,Mreibalais u ouf the hands of the
b by whom it was held. At his roice, the population
.maass, and, with his assistance, made him ma.-ter of the

lthi was a most important post. Lying in the moun-
'the northeast torne'r of the Western Department, the
e called consisted of gorges, steeps, and narrow passes,
ude almost ever part of it a ThermopylaP. The vil-
.L Louis, also eaUnhd hy the name of the district, com-
t"imminse extent of level country. Favorable to
in in general, three :., ntry abounds in superior horses.
Seommander, poss-..tedl of lirebalairn there-fore, might
ty attack, and at hi; plha.aure sally ibrth to wage war
uny part of the island.
.lish, aware of the importance of this position, resolved
into their hands. Thryv succeeded in the bold under-

a was too heavy. to l[, rndiurud. L'Ouverture, as soon
unties permitted, made arrangements for the recovery
ia. He was not in time, however, to prevent the
from covering it with fortifi6ation_. The command
strict had bern intrutL-d to a French emigrant, the
:Bruges, who.-e lbren.- amounted to. two thousand Eng-
of the line, tb--id- a nltm.rcous militia. On the 24th
1797, Tou.saint L'Oivertur,., hy means of his lieu-
rney, inter:ceptedl the high roadl leading into the
Md, eneamping at Bl:-ck-haus du Gro, Figiler, re-
|tlembert, who na. adiarnn ing into ,Mirebalais with
d men and t%,. pIli,-, ol'artll-ry'. The next day,
irve the Englih I frtm all t l.-ir Jpo.,-;'inus, and, com-
iavestmeut of th- vnilagi, ordert-d, on the South, the
he forts. With suih unity of operation and such
f'-t assault was the attack made that the whole was


86 8 F o...

carried. Conflagration completed what the firearms I
dued. Toussaint L'Ouverture passed from eminence to
nence, and surveyed his troops victorious on all sides. A:
more pleasing sight to him was that which he had when he"
at liberty two hundred prisoners or all hues, who were s
ing under a degrading punishment, and who every moment
pected a horrible death from theo ames which were appra
ing the place of their detention.
Pursuing his advantages, L'Ouverture, in a campaign of f
teen days, totally defeated the English, and brought under
dience the entire province. Among his -,pils were ele
pieces of cannon, with their amniur&tion, and two hundred
owners. As his recompense, Toussaint L'Outrerture recei
from Sonthonax the appointment of cunmanlder-in-chiict' of
army of Saint Domingo, vacant by the departure of Lavea.
The conquering hero was installed at the Cape, in thr press
of the garrison, composed of black troops, and the remains
the white troops. These are the words which he employed
the occasion :-- Citizen Commi.ioneri, I accept the emine
rank to which you have just raised me, only in the hope of
surely succeeding in entirely extirpatiug the enemies of S
Domingo, of contributing to its speedy restoration to provperi
and of securing the happinrs, of its inhahitant.?. If to fu
the difficult taik which it ilupoe, it sudlil.rid 1i wi.h the go
of the island, and tto eir,.t it, in all that depln'iJ on me, I ho
that, with the aid of the Divine Being,. I shall 4ucccrd.
tyrants are cast down on the earth, they will no more def
the places where the standard of liberty and equality ought
float alone, and where the sacred rights of man ought to
Officers and soldiers, if there is a compensation in the seven
labors which I am about to enter on, I -hall lind it in the satii
faction of commanding brave soldiers. L.t tl he sired fire
liberty animite us, and let us nce-ir tak,- rL ) p.:, until we ha
prostrated the Ioe."
Lofty now was the position ofToussaint L'Ouverture. GI



F" .t ..,.... .. ... .*


SHi joy did not arise from his own personal ele-
true that he had created an army which could
troops, and expel them from even the strong-
tyet It is true that in his deeds and warlike achieve-
M ld equalled the great captains of ancient and modern
But he had not fought obr his own aggrandizement; he
adll with a vitw to an ultimate object. And now that
leaed within his reach. The emancipation of his race
Iaplished, theretbre did Toussaint rejoice. "The open-
simade; what remained to be done was detail. Alas I
w-the appearances, hut the appearances proved delu-
Ichievement ju.t set forth gave the final blow to the
longer could the English do more than maintain a
eeWnfilet with scarcely any hope of final success, what-
iMrary advantages they might gain. WThen all but
ram a foreign enemy, the French authorities began to
iMaong themselves. The particulars are too tedious to
ild. From the colony appeals were made to the Legis-
IPris. The Commi;ioner, Sonthonax, fearing impeach-
aIted to be sent bome as a deputy trom the colony.
f sincere, he seems afterwards to have vacillated.
ibowever, convinced that his absence would be con-
i ae restoration of harmony and the clfective prosecu-
bilities, took memnur-s that his request should not fail
%B*Bt Tou.saint, victorious and powerful in the colony,
ik~to fear the result of intrigues and] plots against him-
bii~nother country. As a pledge of his honor and a
ilidence, he sent his two sons to France for their
k On their part, the English, suffering greatly from
,'mnd making no promre; toward the subjugation of the
lloyed the utmost of their power to seduce the hostile
having with little satisfa.tiou to themselves attempted
1MMs mulatto interest, they maiJn the bold attempt of
Tousaint L'Ouverture hims-el Little knowing the
p~ithe man with whom they dealt, they offered, as the

88 T u a or 'L

price of his subserviency, the title of King of Hayti.
corruption of Toussaint on the occasion was the more rem
able and worthy, as General 11 Ilourille, iw-nt alcer the dep4
ure of Sonthonax as the repreienrati%,- ol' Frarjn... treated hl
with less consideration than was de erved by the ma in to w
that country owed the re'toratinn f its. colorny. Touwaint ha
indeed, become too powerful pewrhapi I.,r Frail e, certainly
its deputy. Ic doun ille. In hi. anxicr.t to lit-emn rra.o s himsd
of the black chief, that gen,-ral, by mi-anN ol Is %. retatiur trial
to induce him to ( mark fi:r the mrrh.-r :'cunrry, ii ounlrer
pleadl hii cause' anil maintain hi. intervt.li. rP'.intinf with h
handle to a sapli;n which crew near--" I will g.." .-; ail, l. wh
that branch ball form a vesrsl ,of ulti, ii-nt -ize to carry a1
During these unhappy divisions, the Englilbh had I.-rn losing
ground. Worn down and disipiriterl thL- at .l--nth began
take decided steps for th-e ervauation ft' the island. In
negotiations and measures whi h thi in Ilic. ,. the polemics al
distrusts of the French authoritie- di-'play d but to strong
their evil effects. Port-au-Prince, however, wa E surrende
by the English, who shortly aftlrwardJ tiund it prudent to pla
the MOl1e Saint-Nii.Ljl.a in the handol '... the Fren,.h. Dis
i-fied, with thI, st;plationll manln. I !, l I-,eJ,'uiuille. Tom.-.
repaired to Saint-Mar-, andl t ...k intr, isi : iwn hind~ thih settl
ment eo. th. tr,.m ri of '.*a itulati.-i. Nt i. i "holly with
hope *f nilnin'. .:,r-r to Enjiiili ciwi th'-ir mult orm)lidla
opponent, the Engyliih, i th,-ir r."pr,.-entative-. (,rncral
land, rendered the high'-tr honors to. Tr.uaii, L'Onvertu
The attempt met with decerv'd tilure. Tuin--aint r ould
through the covered designs of his oll tl;.e. ,I.- had no fai
that the freedom of hid race wovuldJ crnu.'- trIn E..irlih Jomin
tion andl he knew that their .-, uality teli,. the- I w had e
re.oim-nize d by Fran' e. Faithful to hi- rT..lt il.-a iandI
dc ign, he rnemainAl -upe-rior ro the I' l.lJiJi-lnt .rnt: .I Eng
wealth and adulation. .\ltr I.ndurie .. : mniary latigu.s a
acquiring 6o much glory, L'Ouverture retired into the inte
0 .1

F^ ..-YI... '-


Sand took up his abode on the estate called
was situated in the mountains. There he
If with the hope ol'some repose, and there, keep-
|.over the great centre. of social movement, he could
loent, like the eagle, descend to any part where his
gas required.


00 HEB rLE 01


'Ioussaint L'Ouvurtnre composes agitation, and brings back prosperity
Is opposed by the Commitiiouer, Utdluudlle, whi flies fo IFrancel
Appeals, In self-jusllliu tlon, lu the directorr ) in Pirls.

* AVING reaf.h-d the commanding position wbhi. he held
T,) Touaiut L'Ou'erture, with a true patriorti-m and a wii
benervolenre, applied himsell' to the ditficult taik of' healing(l
wounds of his country. The first task was to induce the pla$
ers to resume posFession of their estates, and re-, ommtmrne tN
tillage or the soil. This he effuctrd in part by pIrr.uasion,
part by gentle compulsion; numerous deta- hments of inland
Iraversing ibe cities, collected togerihr their scattered owner
and conducted them to the plantations. The rcnduc t of
troops employed in the -ernice was as worthy of noti" e as
obedience of the ngriculturist ; for. ,oberving the striktest
cipline, they -howed the greatpe;t rpf-tI.r to property, a
condut.ted thei.'m i-l%, tooard all with lb.t-i.min_ umld.-ration
milnoi.;s. The c.ontril over tht. r rude- nature. n hi, h this
p:.-ranc.' implivl wa; the result tl' the dicipline io.tituted
Tous.;aint, andl ul' thie lo\ and in, Il tar ahi-h his nanm inspire
Among hi; s'inal triumphs thii was, p.rhiap-, the nmot Sig
Not by .Ila,:ks only, but 1.y white. ;waI hii extraordinary I
obeyed. Obedier':esec ured To:uussaint' protection. Rega
of the color of the &kin, he received with avocr, and treated
confidence, and promoted with readine'q, all whom he had v
re'asns for belie-.ing sincerely bent on advancing the pu
gno'l Di.dainiug to gnvern by the rivalry of ilascJs, he
t, sI r'e the wh.le, by the nim-an and with the aidl of
Emigrant or crer.-, l, Iblak o(r white, men were treated by
men,-being placed in the posts Ibr which they were 11
whether military or ci'il. If there was a difference in his


dependents, that diffl'rence was not in favor of
I.- The injured, he rightly judged, had the f6rt claim
teation. Generally, however, his administration was
.-severely impartial.
bly need be added that he grew in universal e-tima-
tepected by men in general, his influence became
pand even the fear or distrust which waseecrellv nour-
shat him by some was an acknowledgment of his.
Under Toussaint's lenign sway, parties began to melt
Sheart-burnings to care. An unqualified amnesty,
proclaimed, tranquillized ntDn'. minds and reconciled
. existing state of things.
(dthe victoriou- pg.n:ral fbrgLt the All-powerful Arm
ite knew that h, ow,.ed his triumph, and by whose aid
kas equally a<,ured. he c uld i;ni-h thb work he had
id so far a'c:omprhli d.
Phe Governor il;japprotvcd of L'Ouverturc's policy.
a.onm a dilThrvn,.e of view, or Imm;r su-pec.iing Tous-
OmlbiLious de ign.I, I lIdouril,., though a professed
Scharacter;zt.dl Li a.lmhuiistatlou as *too, mild and
tsuls." Net:r having I. havtd rt ward the negro
Scordiality, hb norw Lonr-yed to Tousaint's ears
complaint and (.orert blame. Tous-aim was not
From a course whi,.h he had deliberately adopted
lt( be most eneiticial. Afraidl lid douville's power
rnpt that course, or abate its goo>, he issued procla-
troops- his b iifd ba -i if' reliance -in order to
in their obedien .c by tine trongest of ties, namely,
ties to which thrir susciepiible and impulsive
them pecularly -ensibl:,l. Thbi," said he, "is
we must all Ubllow in order to draw down upon
of the Lord. I hop. you will never depart from
you will punctually execute what follows: -
of regiments are required to see that the troops
morning and evening, as far as the service will

92 lXD LIf 0 I

At the earliest review, the Generals Commanding-I
will cause high mass to be celebrated, and a Tt Deum tO
sung, in all the places of their several district+, as an express
of gratitude to Heaven tor bai ing uIllchalaed to direct our li
campaigns; for having cau-, d the evacuation of the enemy
take place without elfuion of blo:iod; Ibr having protected t
return amongst us of many thousand mern .l' every oolor, wk
till then had been lst; and, finally, l;r having restored 4
the labors of agriculture more than twenty thousand hand
The Te Dewn will be announced by a salvo of twenty-t
pieces of cannon."
Under the effects of words so religious ard so just, the cred
of Hedouville was greatly lessened. In proportion as L'OuvTe
ture gained ascendency, he sank, until he retained among hi
supporters only those who were immediately an:und him, sue
as his officials, Frenchmen who were lobrignerrs in the coloEJ
and others who, from personal ronnectionm with the mothl
country, desired tomaintain its power in the hands of its agean
The contrast was made greater by the diver e course pursue
by the two in regard to the cultivators of the soil. WhaI
Hedouville unconditionally declare all the blar ki free, Tom
saint wisely prefixed to their actuald fret-dom a kind of apprel
ticeship Ibtr rfit cars, on condition ol their ree'eiting onc-lotbl
of the prodiu,.,. out o lwhii:h the mnirter were to defray th
cost of their sub4i-itenne. TheL plan .,f th Goe.rn.r, FpeciousA
designed to catch the popular lbri-z:-, would have issued 1
universal disorder. Insteal, of immediate emancipation, always!
pregnant with pre-ent and itture disasters. Tous.aint interpose
a period of preparation, and in so doing ea'ed the property a
the masters, as well as promoted the interests of the servant
So wise and moderate a use of his triumph and his power pro
ably saved Hayti from the terrors of a uni'er'sil co:nr ulsion, an
certainly raised him to a high position in th, rei-pect of' all in
partial and judi. iou- nm. i.
Wnerhe th.' aulor write, nalaf.c to thil venteuce, the concrmrent rvo
of history writes NEVLR. It la allu'la safe to do right.- Eo.


a wasre to what an extent he had lost the public
Ok measures tor provoking a movement contrary
i'mnoug the men oTf color. Rigaud he accordingly
PIMe seat of government. As a cover, he invited
iko to take part in the conference. But the agro
iPB-warv as he was bold ; and he may have heard that
~reviously otfierr of Iledourille's staff bad offere(l
hs person if only their master would put four brave
Wheir disposal.
.bg at Port-au-Prince, Tous"aint was informed that
a on his way to the Cap.-. The commander of that
several blar.k uvli. r.r- aivi~'l Tou:aint. to intercept
Ilhend Rigaid. I o.idi," he repli.e, easily do so;
,brbid. I ha'e nri:l :of Rigaul He is violent. I
idir earryinr o(in war; andl that war is neeet'.ary to me.
tto caste is supLri.:.r t:t miy iown. If I take Rigaud
,% they will, p-.rrhap., findl anrth.r -uperior to him. I
gaud; he gie3 up the bLridll when he gallops; he
iarm when he itrikeis. For me, I gallop also; but I
We to stop; and wlh.n I strike, I am felt, not seen.
ican conduIt iunurr-.tion- oiull by blodr and massa-
how how to put tL" p'. rpl. in movement; but when I
l'must be tranquil."
al feeling of Ilnilrin.-- -_Tread abroad. Fear began
t" A count,.r-r,%_,Aluti,'n ,.ri-med at hand. The blacks
"ly, especially tihr.-. who ihad co.mpromised themselves
palrt with the Enzli-h. The mulattoes were regarded
Ih. In Fort-Saint-D)anlphin, a regiment ran to arms,
4hat the whites ";ih.l I to rrture -lavery. A combat
i'ibetween the bla, k tronop and the white troops. The
Oi beaten, spread over the open country, which they
sides Then., ,,ii e mor.. -,.ntlapration SManuv untirt-,ar.' whit.-, tikL.-- by surprise on
W were -lalght, ri... 'Thu in-urg.intr marched to the
,aint hastenil to the seat of the insurrection. The
iW raging as in Ibrmer days. Suddenly their chief

94 TBn TJu or

appeared, and all was peaceful. Undertaking to be t
neat of their griefs, he led them to the Cape. The mom
arrived there, the alarm was given by the authorities, who
to have desired a renci-ntre. The troop? were aLemlled,,
thelfbrt proved nugatory. By little and little, the sol
deserted their posts when tho-y knew that Tous'aint wasI
hand. Hdduuille, thiling in hi; rcop ilc'itl, embark.'d to ref
to France. From on board the -hip he plnhlihed a proc4
tion, in which, b.-ing no longerr able to profit by the prejudi
of color, he ,,ought hi3 a,' ount by appealing to national j
ousie4, and diclarel that Tou-saint L'Ourerture was sold to1
The movement was at an end. The plottrr was on his
back to France, andi the regenerator of his country found
self in a freer field, and posiesserl of auinmente]i resources.
less single than pure in hi- aims, Toussaint L'Olvcrture ro"s
general regard and public confident.e, even hy the contrarial
which the Governor had thrown in hiq way. By the lailu
the recent plot, too, the mulatto interest, ronsidlered as h
to the interest of other classes, received a heavy blow.
As soon as General Hddouville ha'l set sail, the bla- ks w
not. only tranquil, but obrdi,.nt to the e.i:- ani the linger
their chi:.l: E' vry 1 one silently re iume-'d lis hallitudeI .
most perfl't calm siic.ee.dil. the mnor rag;.ig trnmpet. A
DePwm was thanked, and the nam, of Tounaunt L'Ouve
was mingled with the llalowedr Nanim in tLh. uttered grati
of thousands. Toussaiut was not ins,-n-ible to the homage,
he desired the complete arromplishment of hi< mission. B
had seen the edifice he had so carefully and painfully
put in danger with only too much facility. The mulatto
though 'akened, were still powerful. At their h-ad was
gaud. who had not, shown himself averse to the dcigns of:
caste. Tou'saint dradedi a collision. 'nPsibly he himself
a hindrau.ce to a peac-ltil a'dJ prrm.anent ittlnimont. E'n
taining no nmerrly per-onal obje.ts.. I gacve utteran'c to a.
sire to be relieved fI h weighty r'-ponaibilitil.. At a mo


Stroke, he might have set up a throne, and
ed a dynasty, he asked for his dismissal. The
a universal remonstrance. The civil and the
'ties, the white, black, and brown inhabitants,
and the laborers, all combined in laying before
"addreeoses, in which they entreated him to remain,
terms, their father and their benefactor."
Swags a court of appeal. Before that tribunal
would appear with singular advantage. Toussaint
ty of his means for obtaining a fair hearing;
to employ suLh as were at his command. Ac-
se ent Colonel Vincent. one of his secretaries, to
justify his condu t biefre the rrench Government,
hands lo the Direc.tory. Colonel Vincent was the
letter, of whiAh the allowingg contains the principal

L'Ouverture., Gcnral-in-Chief of the army of
to the Dire tory aro the Republic:-
DraBCTORa : When, in my last dispatches, I de-
Mequest my dismi-al, I did oi because, after having
the instances of opposition to the principles which
n has established, wbi. h your wisdom has main-
your energy has defended,-all the instances of
| say, manit-rted in conduct held by the agent,
during the hort spa:-e of time which he governed
I.-I foresaw ti:h unhappy event which for an instant
public tranquillity I had had so much trouble to
did so after having calculated the consequences
at which he held himself from me, and of which
Sproofs on several oi.asions, faring that my
ich he meditated, would be the reward of my long
Fidelity. and of m drvotednas,.
et at For-IDaiiphin realized my apprehensions as
for w-hi. h preparati.-.ns were made; and the
which the Agent put forth at the moment of his
justified my fears regarding the fate he intended

s Tmi LFE dOF

"The most outrageous injury which can be done toa
honor crowns the vexations with he has made me
By this perfidious act, he eau;es a vast numb-r of Frenc
to quit these lands, who had congratulated themselves on 1
happiness here, and who, faithful to their country, were I
pulled tosacrifice their interests, rat her than become accompl
in the crime ol indpndenec of' whit c I wa. re-garded as gj
he carries with him, especially, the principal authorities
(as he said on leaving) they may be the irrefragable proa
my duplicity, of my p'rfi'dy.
Doubtless, the tirst feIeing (of the Dirert ory, whom I res
on seeing them unanimously bear witness aeain-t ie, will b
invoke vengeance on my head; that of the French pe(
whom I love, to devote me to execration ; and that of the
mies of the blacks, whom I despise, to enr out for slavery i
when it shall be known that at the time whiih I was at cuse
wishing to sunder this island from France, my benelctrel
repeated the oath of fidelity to her, I ltak pleasure in belihe
that the government I own, and my fllUow-citizens, will Yj
me the justice I merit, and that the enemieri of my bred
will be reduced to silence.
"The Agent, in reality, surrounded him r-lf nnly with i
sons in th..* colony sunk in public opinion, ambitious and
triguing, who cares all the Ihctionz whL. h have torn this ut
tunate country. A hand ,f' yi~.jin. nn. -u, o'n un character.
no principles, who came W"ih him, then threw away the m
and manifested a spirit both anti-national ani in-ulLing to I
The laborers, who began to taste the swerts of repo$
the midst lo security, were surprised at the impure poundss w]
struck their ear and wounded their heart. I became the,
positary of their griefs, and I composed their minds by
during them of the good intentions of the Agent of a be
olent government; but they soon atrused me myself' oh "
tiality, having I-ecome certain that even at the t.Able o
General Agent they were denounced as unworthy the lii
they enjoy, and which they have derived from the equity


SAgent reproach me with having received em-
riolating the c..n titution, and breaking the law.
Shave been the reason ot' the continual blame
IWved from him in regard to conduct in which I
tg to reproach m)-e-ll with. 1 could not ascertain
persuaded that, from the moment I lost his confi-
itd expect no more good, I asked of you my dis-
ppy would it have been if it had reached me prior
Itare I le would then have learnt that ambition
imy master, and especially he would not have done
ry to publish that I desired to terminate my services
by a crime toowari which I was drawn by the men
Pwho were sold to the English.
~'r those may haie been of whom I was obliged to
10 assist me in my important occupations, and with-
,iven with all the nmani given by education which I
imeeived, I could not have performed my functions,
day prove that no one Iess than myself merits the
Id at my door by my adversaries, namely, that I
felf to be governed.
k be laid to my large that I directed toward the
hsts, that I emplky :ed r the advantage of the
hity, talent, and genius? And when my secreta-
i'onds too, shared unite to their mother country to
aent's doult of' their attachment to her, are the sole
i\of my secrt-ts, the sole confidantl of the projects
bld not confine within my own breast, why cast on
1jl never influence me the blame of the ridiculous
bigpnted to me, and which, never having entered my
-prove that I do not allow mysell' to be governed
~ais of others' If those passions had directed my
lid not have forI sen the event which has ju4t taken
talking like a blindly man on my political course, I
i asked you lbr my dismissal.
L"tstep which prunid.nce breed me to take, the only
iipuld dissipate the storm with which I was threat-
S 9

68 :aI rTf l or F-

ened, was very far rom restoring onfdenco in the
the people of Saint Domingo. The discontent of the la
had increased by the compulsion of an engagement for.
years. That seemed to them a step back to slavery. They
to mind the means proposed by Vaublane to establish his
tem in this colony, and they were surprised that when the
rectory had punished that conspirator. its Agent should pro
the same measures, should press ribe them, should exact
prompt and full execution. This dii.atisflaation, whikh was
tered, was soc n shared by the soldiers. By the dischai
more than three thousand mnn, effected after the evacuatri
the West by the English, I had proved how nere6rean I tho
it to cut down the armaments of the military. I was blag
in that operation, and I received the order not oi *.ut down
troop. Nevertheless, on the departure of the English, itL
declared that all the black orce-s ought to b.- dil.'anded ia
der to be sent back to agriculture, and that European sol|
only should be employed in the detlen.e of the coasts.
distrust entered the soldiers' hearts, and while. preriousl
part of them had taken the hoe without a murmur, they sho
aversion toward a measure which they regarded as an attack
liberty. .
Whatever were the grounds of di.tru.t with which I
surrounded, however faithful th- ,oujn.tsela I received on
parts from the most sincere i'ritnid uA' the prosperity of
Domingo, whatever I lars were infuted into my mind by,
crimes contemplated against my person, I did not heita
set out for the Cape, and even endeavored to give a p
my confidence in the highest authorities, by going unatt
except by an aide-de-camp and a cavalry officer; but, ha
arrived on the HEricourt plantation, I was mt by alarmin
morse. I learned that at Fort-Dauphin, the Iifth colonial
ment which contributed so much to the rt-toration of
to the p'uritli -aiun of La Grand, Rivibre (the Vend&e of
Doming".), ti, the expulsion of thi. English had become'
Vitim of the Eurupean troops, who lbrmerly had deliver