Front Cover
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Group Title: West Indian Literature Conference
Title: Horizons : 26th West Indian Literature Conference
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/CA00299029/00001
 Material Information
Title: Horizons : 26th West Indian Literature Conference
Series Title: West Indian Literature Conference
Physical Description: Archival
Creator: The College of The Bahamas
The College of The Bahamas ( Contributor )
Publication Date: 2007
Subject: College
Caribbean   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- Bahamas -- Nassau
Coordinates: 25.0661 x -77.339
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Bibliographic ID: CA00299029
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: The College of The Bahamas, Nassau
Holding Location: The College of The Bahamas, Nassau
Rights Management: Copyright 2007, The College of the Bahamas. All rights reserved.

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Full Text

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26th West Indian Literature Conference

March 8 10, 2007

The College of The Bahamas
Nassau, The Bahamas

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On behalf of The College community, I extend a
warm welcome to the delegates of the West Indian
Literature Conference. We honoured to receive a
cadre of presenters, which includes a number of the
L preeminent scholars of the literature of our region.
And how proud we are that several presenters are
linked to The College of The Bahamas in some
fashion-as alumni, faculty/former faculty, friends
or a combination of all. We are pleased that you are
affording several Bahamian writers the opportunity to
demonstrate their very real talents. We congratulate
the organizers for what we are certain will be an
event intellectually stimulating and rewarding in
opportunities for fellowship.

Your theme, "Horizons", is inspiring. It challenges us
to see a world of possibilities and promise, suggesting
that perceived borders do not limit the field of our
endeavours. Your work speaks to us at The College,
as it focuses on exploring, building and making known
the multiple identities of "West Indians", the reaching
for self-determination, the dispelling of myths and the
coming to terms with the sometimes unyielding reality
Message from the President of identities imposed from without.
of The College of The Bahamas The Bahamas, just thirty-four years old as a sovereign
nation, is in a period of great dynamism, exploring new
horizons of possibilities for development. The College
of The Bahamas, as the national tertiary institution,
is mandated not only to share this exploration, but
to assist in provisioning and navigating the voyage.
We have determined that this is best accomplished
by becoming the University of The Bahamas, a new
status that will be declared next year. Building a
national university is fundamentally about constructing
national identity, so we are being careful to cut the
fabric of the new entity to fit the heritage, the needs,
the aspirations and the very spirit of the people. I am
certain that your learned reflections on horizons and
identity will do much to inform our deliberations as
we pursue the voyage towards university status and a
deeper construct of nationhood.

We thank you for choosing The Bahamas and The
College of The Bahamas to host this conference. I laud
you for sustaining and growing this forum, which has
done so much to bring the genius of the peoples of the
Caribbean to the wider world.

Janyne M. Hodder

The Cottege of The Bahamas:: Nassau, The Bahamas


Message from the
Executive Vice President,
Academic Affairs

Over the years, The College of The Bahamas has
served as the Host for a number of prominent
Caribbean/West Indian Conferences: the SCL
(The Society of Caribbean Linguistics) twice; ACH
(the Association of Caribbean Historians; ACURIL
(Association of Caribbean University Research
Libraries). We therefore are greatly honoured to add
the West Indian Literature Conference to this number
and to have the privilege of hosting this prestigious
conference for the first time in the Bahamas.

First, I extend a very warm welcome to all of the
delegates and participants in this conference and a
special welcome to those delegates who are visiting
our shores for the first time. I also offer heartiest
congratulations to the University of The West Indies
(UWI), founder of this annual conference which has
been a feature on the higher education academic
agenda for a quarter of a century.

This conference has great significance for us at
The College of The Bahamas. Not only does it bring
together scholars from the Caribbean region and
beyond but it gives our Caribbean colleagues the
opportunity to interact first hand with Bahamian poets,
writers and artists. Our students will also benefit
from exposure to these outstanding scholars. This
conference is also happening at a very exciting time in
the history of The College at a time when we are on
the threshold of becoming a university.

The List of presenters and participants is impressive.
We are indeed honoured to have highly regarded
scholars such as Evelyn O'Callaghan (UWI, Barbados);
Sandra Pouchet Paquet [University of Miami) and
Carolyn Cooper [UWI, Mona) among the presenters.
We are also very delighted that Mark McWatt, winner
of the 2006 Commonwealth Award for Best First
Book, has accepted our invitation to deliver the plenary
address. Again, we are pleased that prize-winning
authors such as Fred D'Aguiar [Guyana) and Earl
Lovelace [Trinidad) are able to join us and will read
from their work.

The Bahamian voice will be heard throughout the
proceedings. Presenters from The College of The
Bahamas, Ms Krista Walkes, a young Bahamian
scholar and post-colonial scholar, Dr. Daphne Grace,
from our Northern Bahamas Campus are highly
commended for their contributions. We note with
interest the contribution of Dr. lan Bethel Bennett,
Bahamian Scholar at the University of Puerto Rico. We
also look forward to hearing the voices of Local literary
giants such as Patricia Glinton Meicholas, Marion
Bethel, lan Strachan, Lelawattee Manoo-Rahming
and Keith Russell. Finally, it is fitting that a Bahamian
Writers Round Table which is devoted to a discussion
of Bahamian literature will feature prominently on the
conference's agenda.

This conference promises to be a great event, one
that will be of benefit to many different constituencies
here in The Bahamas and in the wider region. I
offer warmest congratulations to the organizers, Dr.
Marjorie Brooks Jones, Dr. lan Strachan and the other
members of the team. This conference is another
tangible manifestation of our commitment to academic
excellence and intellectual rigour. As we move closer
to achieving our goal of becoming a university, it is my
hope that conferences such as this one will become a
more regular feature of our work.

Best wishes for a successful conference!

Rhonda Chipman-Johnson, Ph.D.

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

l It with great pleasure and excitement that the School
of English Studies welcomes the 26th Annual West
Indian Literature Conference to The Bahamas. This is
the first time that this wonderful gathering is taking
place at The College of The Bahamas and we are quite
honoured be this year's host.

The Horizon is a powerful symbol here in The
Bahamas. A symbol very often marshaled in the
service of Tourism, but also a symbol of imagination,
aspiration and destiny. We at The College Look to the
horizon today, seeing there, not new, 'undiscovered"
territories as Columbus did, but seeing instead, our
neighbours-Neighbours with whom we share a
Common history, a common geography, a common way
of Life.

S It is our hope that this conference will birth new
relationships between us as scholars, artists and
Message from the Chair of as institutions and that pathways will be opened to
The School of English Studies greater dialogue, collaboration and achievement.
This event is meaningful not only for the college
community but for the larger Bahamian society as
well that eagerly welcomes opportunities to hear
and partake in discourse that is not is not dominated
by church or local politics. So I wish to take this
opportunity to warn you that the conference sessions
may be a bit more diverse than is perhaps the norm.

So welcome and we hope your stay is fruitful and

lan Gregory Strachan

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas

March 8-10, 2007

Time Thursday March 8 Friday March 9 Time Saturday March 10

8:00-9:00 Registration Registration 8:00-9:00 Registration

9:00-10:30 Session 1 Round Table: 9:00-10:00 Plenary
Bahamian Writers: Mark McWatt
Christian Campbell
Patricia Glinton-
Angelique Nixon
Keith Russell

10:30-11:00 Break Break 10:00-10:30 Break

11:00-12:30 Sessions 2 and 3 Session 7 10:30-12:00 Sessions 11 and 12

12:30-2:00 Lunch/Readings Lunch/Readings 12:00-1:30 Lunch/Readings
Marion Bethel Lelawattee Manoo- Patricia Glinton-
and Rahming Meicholas
Mark McWatt and and
Fred D'Aguiar Earl Lovelace

2:00-3:30 Session 4 Session 8 1:30-2:00 Business Meeting

3:30-4:00 Break Break

4:00-5:30 Sessions 5 and 6 Sessions 9 and 10

7:30 Opening Reception Presenters' 7:00 Closing Reception
Government House Dinner & Readings President Hodder's
Keith Russell Residence
lan Strachan

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

26th West Indian Literature Conference

Culinary and Hospitality Management Institute [CHMI)
The College of The Bahamas
Bahamas Tourism Training Centre
Thompson Boulevard
Nassau, The Bahamas

Secretariat Foyer, CHMI

9.00 10.30 A.M. SESSION 1
CHMI Lecture Theatre

Session 1 Displacements and Disjunctions
Session Chair: Dr. Michael Herrick

"Naipaul's Legacy- 'Made in the West Indies' for Export".
Dr. Evelyn O'Callaghan, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill.

"'There is a sob in there somewhere':
The Prodigal as Testimony of an Aging Walcott".
Dr. Antonia MacDonald-Smythe, St. George's University, Grenada.

"Mapping Displacements: Caribbean Women Writers,
Diaspora and the Cartographic Imagination".
Dr. Norval Edwards, University of the West Indies, Mona.

10.30 A.M. 11.00 A.M. BREAK
UWI Dining Room

11.00 12.30 A.M. CONCURRENT SESSIONS 2 and 3

Session 2 Memory and Trauma
CHMI Lecture Theatre
Session Chair: Anne Lawlor

"Visions and Revisions: The Ghost of Memory in Wilson Harris".
Fred D'Aguiar, Virginia Tech

"Mapping Patriotic Pain: Edwidge Danticat's
The Dew Breaker and Breath, Eyes, Memory".
Dr Daphne Grace, The College of The Bahamas

"The Silent Scream".
Dr Jean-Antoine Dunne. University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


Session 3

12.30 2.00 P.M.

2.00 P.M. 3.30 P.M.

Session 4

UWI Dining Room




CHMI Lecture Theatre
Session Chair: Haldane Chase

Derek Walcott's The Prodigal: Politics of Figuration".
Dr. Sandra Pouchet Paquet, University of Miami.

"'Making life'; displacement land its antidote)
in the work of Lorna Goodison".
Dr. Anthea Morrison, University of the West Indies, Mona.

"Theorizing Caribbean Migrant Literature on the Horizon:
The Emigrants and Yardie".
Dr. Kezia Page, Colgate University, Maryland.

3.30 P.M. 4.00 P.M.

UWI Dining Room

4..00 5.30P.M.


8 26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

Diverse Geographies
CHMI Room 13
Session Chair: Audrey Ingram-Roberts

"The Caribbean Imagined and Realized:
Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Of Love and Other Demons"
Dr. Kathryn Morris, Ransom Everglades School, Florida.

"Narratives of Evolution and Geographies of
Dissolution in H. Orlando Patterson's
The Children of Sisyphus".
Krista Walkes, The College of The Bahamas

"'Imagining ourselves big as the world':
Mapping Diaspora in Dionne Brand's Land to Light On".
Tanya Shirley, University of the West Indies, Mona.

Session 5 Memory and Trauma
CHMI Lecture Theatre
Session Chair: Dr. Daphne Grace

"The Fuguing Fictions of Erna Brodber and Elizabeth Nunez:
Responses to Trauma in Louisana and
Beyond the Limbo Silence".
Carmen Maria Ruiz-Castanada, University of Miami

"Where the Water Meets the Sky:
Visible Horizons of Gendered Experience and
Blurred Junctions in Lakshmi Persaud's
Raise the Lanterns High".
Marsha Pearce, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

"Forgotten Memories: Depths of Resistance
in Feeding the Ghosts".
Brandi Kellett, University of Miami.

Session 6 Re-/Visions
CHMI Room 13
Session Chair: Chanti Seymour

"Revisioning Horizons: The Latino/a Diaspora and
Post-Sixties Literature".
Dr. Raphael Dalleo, Florida Atlantic University.

"The Narrative of the Scherife of Timbuctoo:
The Embedded Slave Narrative of Abu Bakr al-Sadika".
Nicole ALjoe, University of Utah.

"Language in Jamaican Dancehall Music".
LaKeisha Caples, Chicago State University


Under the Patronage of His Excellency
The Governor General
The Honourable A.D. Hanna

Refreshments Compliments of
The Bahamas Ministry of Tourism

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


IF 0

8.00 9.00 A.M.

Secretariat Foyer, CHMI

CHMI Lecture Theatre

9.00 10.30 A.M.

Chair: lan Strachan, The College of The Bahamas
Bahamian Writers: Christian Campbell,
Patricia GLinton-Meicholas and AngeLique Nixon

10.30 A.M. 11.00 A.M.

11.00 A.M. 12.30 A.M.

Session 7

12.30 2.00 P.M.

2.00 P.M. 3.30 P.M.

Session 8

UWI Dining Room

CHMI Lecture Theatre

Sub-/merged Voices
Session Chair: Dr. Rhonda Chipman-Johnson

"The Tourist and the Native: Rereading Myths of Conquest in
Lucy and Last Virgin in Paradise".
Dr. Carolyn Cooper, University of the West Indies, Mona.

"'Their hands in the stinking saltfish barrel...':
Representing the Portuguese in Caribbean Writing".
Dr. Denise deCaires Narain, University of Sussex

"Writing to an Arrival Home:
On Learning the Art of Shedding Skin"
Dr. Jennifer Rahim, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine

UWI Dining Room




Alternative Visions
CHMI Lecture Theatre
Session Chair: Mark Humes

"Horizons of Desire: Imagining Alternative Worlds
in Speculative Fiction".
Dr. Michael Bucknor, University of the West Indies, Mona.

"Space and Scapes as Metathetic Modes of Existence:
Interpreting Marlene Nourbese Philip's Creative Non-Fiction".
Dr. Patricia Saunders, University of Miami.

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


'"Duppy or Gunman?': Articulations of the Supernatural
in Caribbean Popular Culture".
Dr. Andrea Shaw, Nova Southeastern University

3.30 P.M. 4.00 P.M. BREAK
UWI Dining Room


Session 9 Hybridity / Identity
CHMI Lecture Theatre
Session Chair: Marie Sairsingh-Mills

"The Terror and the Time:
History, Re-Memory and Journey in Caribbean Literature".
Dr. Paula Morgan, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

"What Racial Hybridity? Sexual Politics of Mixed-Race
Identities in the Caribbean and the Performance of Blackness".
Angelique Nixon, University of Florida.

"A Way in the World: Poetics of Relation
beyond Essentialist Identities".
J. Vijay Maharaj, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

Session 10 The Anxiety of Influence/Consuming 'I's/Lands
CHMI Room 13
Session Chair: Dr Victoria Alien

"Consuming the Island:
The Caribbean Writer's English Landscape".
Joanna Johnson, University of Miami.

'"White Silence, Overthrown!':
Elizabeth Barrett Browning and 'A Curse for a Nation'".
Felipe Smith, Tulane University.

"Victorian Anxieties and the West Indian Self
in Wide Sargasso Sea".
Rhonda Harrison, Northern Caribbean University, Jamaica.

Compliments of
The Culinary and Hospitality Management Institute




The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas

I~~, Saudy1 ac

8.00 9.00 A.M.

9.00 10.00 A.M.

Secretariat Foyer, CHMI

CHMI Lecture Theatre


10.00 A.M. 10.30 A.M.

10.300 A.M. 12.00 A.M.

Session 11

Session 12


UWI Dining Room


Nation, Politics and Poetics
CHMI Lecture Theatre
Session Chair: Ivy Higgins

"Crossing Horizons between the Word and the World".
Dr. lan Bethel Bennett, University of Puerto Rico.

"Legitimate Resistance: the Crisis of
Jamaican Political Ideology and the Quest for
Resolution in Some Recent Jamaican Novels"
Kim Robinson-Walcott, University of the West Indies, Mona

Dis We Tings. Folk, Romance, Nation.
Christian Campbell, Duke University.

Gender Legends
CHMI Room 13
Session Chair: Dr Nicolette Bethel

"Women and the Process of Emasculation in Austin Clarke's
The Meeting Point and The Polished Hoe".
Shala Alert, University of the West Indies, Mona

"The Unsexed Woman; Representations of Nanny of
the Maroons in Selected Caribbean Texts".
Ronald Cummings, University of the West Indies, Mona.

"Bewitching Barbados: Tituba and the Caribbean Influence
on the Salem Witch Trials".
Brian Anderson, College of the Mainland, Texas.

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

12.00 1.300 P.M.

UWI Dining Room



Business Meeting
CHMI Room 13

Hosted by

1.30 P.M. 2.00 P.M.

7.00 P.M.

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


The Cotlege of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas

Naipul's Legacy:
"Made in the West Indies"- for Export

In 2007, Nobel laureate Sir V.S. Naipaul celebrates his
75th birthday, and the University of the West Indies, St.
Augustine campus will mark the occasion with a number
of special events, including a symposium entitled
"V.S. Naipaul: Created in the West Indies." This paper
proposes to revisit several of Naipaul's fictional works
which dealwith the displacement of those "made in (and
by] the West Indies." It has been argued that many of the
characters in the novels experience "outsider" status
at home in the Caribbean, with a colonially determined
outward directed consciousness that inevitably results in
migration (export) to the "Mother Country." I have argued
elsewhere that the literary configuration of the colonial
journey 'back' to the center has been predominantly
from a male perspective: one thinks of Naipaul, Sam
Selvon, Austin Clarke, Andrew Salkey, Caryl Phillips
and David Dabydeen. But more recently, women have
been writing the journey, its traumas and its pleasures,
and the complex issues of belonging and identity which
arise from any consideration of transculturation. In
this paper I want to compare Naipaul's construction of
alienation and trauma at home and the possibility of
fulfillment abroad, with that of Shani Mootoo. Mooto's
three fictional works, like Naipaul's, deal with those
who are constructed as outsiders at home and who
come to see the migrant condition as the only viable
alternative. Increasingly, texts which focus on the bi-
cultural positioning of characters have come to figure
in the corpus of West Indian literature and to complicate
easy notions of home and belonging.

Evelyn O'Callaghan
Department of Language, Linguistics and Literature
University of the West Indies
Cave Hill Campus
Box 64

Revisioning Horizons: The Latino/a Diaspora
and Post-Sixties Literature

David Scott's recent Conscripts of Modernity takes as
its starting point the notion that difference between
CLR James' original 1938 edition of The Black Jacobins
and his later 1960 revision of it comes from different
"horizons of expectation." In this presentation, I will
examine the shifting horizons of expectation in one
poet of the Caribbean diaspora, Pedro Pietri, to make
the case for a broader shift from a Sixties literature,
defined by its anticolonial vision, to a post-Sixties form
associated with postcolonialism. To do this, I will read
Pietri's "Puetro Rican Obituary," first performed in
1969, and "Spanglish National Anthem" from the early
90s to show how the poet redefines his relationship with
politics and the market.

Dr. Raphael Dalleo
Department of English
Florida Atlantic University
777 Glades Road
Boca Raton, FL 33431

6 26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

IZI- d-Pl~i.l

.-~L~PC~p~sr 5~L;~iP~i~lillll

The Narrative of the Scherife of Timbuctoo:
The Embedded Stave Narrative of
Abu Bakr al-Sadika

Unable, for the most part, to participate directly in the
literary discursive production of theirworld, slaves were
predominately written about. Thus, the image that we
have that has persisted throughout sanctioned history
is of the slave's silent and passive body. This paper
will examine the narrative of Abu Bakr al-Sadika also
known as Edward Donlan. After a chance meeting with
traveling Magistrate, Robert Madden asked Sadika to
write down a narrative of his history. Sadika's narrative,
which appears on page 126 of Madden's, A Narrative of
Twelvemonths Residence in the West Indies (1834) and
continues for four and a half pages. Sadika's narrative,
though physically bound to Madden's text, is written in
a very different voice. The difference is also partially
due to the fact that Sadika wrote the narrative in Arabic,
and then translated it into English while he read it
aloud to Madden. In a note Madden explains that "the
above was written in Arabic. The man speaks English
well and correctly for a negro, but does not read or
write it. I caused him to read the original and translate
it word by word; and from the little knowledge I have
of the spoken language, I can safely present you with
this version of it as a literal translation" (130). Yet,
despite the implied mediation of a doubly translated
text, the voice in Sadika's narrative is unique. Rather
than provide narration of his experiences as a slave-
the details of which he had discussed with Madden at
their first meeting-Sadika chooses instead to describe
his training as a scholar of the Koran, his home culture
in Africa, his capture and eventual enslavement,
and his understanding of the tenets of Islam. Unlike
other narratives, "Sadika's was not directly linked to
proselytizing sympathizers to wide political issues such
as the abolition of the slave trade or emancipation of
the slaves" (Handler 29). Although his narrative shares
certain features with abolitionist discourse-such as
drawing on the rhetoric of human rights-it foregrounds
its connections to other discourses, namely that of
Africa and Islam. Furthermore, in describing his travels,
Sadika presents an image of an urbane, cosmopolitan
Africa, one that challenges the prevailing image of
Africa as a collection of 'uncivilized' tribal villages. He
also details the social and political complexity of African
societies, documenting the dissolution of complex
societies engendered by the slave trade.

The immediacy of the narrative voice, its formal
structure as a first-person narrative, coupled with the
fact that it was completely and explicitly set off from the
wider narrative of Madden's text, would seem to make
its status as a slave narrative unquestionable. Yet,
according to John Sekora, its appearance in the 'white
envelope' of Madden's text, which itself is a composite
text in that it consisted of a collection of letters to
friends and parliament, would effectively disqualify it as
such. And indeed, few literary investigations of the slave
narrative genre address this narrative. However, as my
examination of the creolized Islamic elements makes
apparent, al-Sadika's provides a valuable portrait of an
aspect of the complexity of slave life, which would not
have received without its surrounding text.

Nicole N. ALjoe, PhD
Department of English
University of Utah
801.581.5360 [office)
801.585.5167 (fax)

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


Women and the Process of Emasculation in
Austin Clarke's The Meeting Point and
The Polished Hoe

In his discussion of representations of non-white
masculinity in the fiction of migrant male authors,
Daniel Coleman describes the postcolonial black man's
concept of masculinity as an enactment/performance
of the following roles: "provider of food and shelter...
controller of family finances... inseminator of women,
and... [violent] law enforcer" (1998). The black male,
however, with a history of slavery in his lineage, has
never been able to come into a full expression of
masculinity as he perceives it. Keith Nurse, on his part,
describes a hegemonic masculine ideal that demands
that a man be "white, heterosexual, married, middle-
aged, university educated and upper middle class"
[2004). Here again, the legacy of slavery and its lingering
hegemonic ideologies disqualify the black male, and
he can never aspire to a complete, perfect manhood.
He cannot imagine himself capable of Living the ideal,
and so his ability to perform according to prevailing
societal ascriptions for gender becomes flawed, and
he either becomes passive, relinquishing his agency to
the white man (in his seemingly superior performance
of masculinity) or to the woman, or he reacts with
promiscuity or violence in an attempt to re-masculate
himself, at least in the eyes of others. With this paper,
I intend to examine Austin Clarke's representation of
the ways in which the black male is emasculated by the
hegemonic system that prevails in Canada and in his
depiction of a post-emancipation Caribbean. I will also
Look at his portrayal of the female experience in relation
to the male's, and the role she plays, either intentionally
or inadvertently in his emasculation.

The Tourist and the Native:
Rereading Myths of Conquest
in Lucy and Last Virgin in Paradise

The deliberately generic "Pacific" play, Last Virgin in
Paradise, written byTeresia Teaiwa and Vilsoni Hereniko,
like Jamaica Kincaid's Caribbean diasporic novel,
Lucy, interrogates those seductive myths of discovery
and conquest embedded in the imperialist project of
travel writing. The homogenising construction of "the
islands" as exotic, feminised places, erotically disposed
to accommodate the passing fancies of the hedonistic
visitor, is undermined. Indeed, both texts subvert the
binary fictions of "centre" and "margin," "tourist" and
"native," "self" and "other," "male" and "female" that
are inscribed in the transnational project of tourism.
These revisionist narratives of islands propose an
alternative archaeology of desire: unlike the tourist
who longs to embrace the native, the native desperately
attempts to escape the trap of the exotic. Migration
becomes a necessary rite of passage, transforming the
native into the desired other, the tourist.

Dr Carolyn Cooper
University of the West Indies, Mona

ShaLa Alert
P.O. Box 41, Bull Bay P.O., St. Andrew, Jamaica, West

__ NO-

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


The Unsexed Woman: Representations of
Nanny of the Maroons in
Selected Caribbean Texts

In theirwork, Kamau Brathwaite and Jenny Sharpe note
- Nanny of the Maroons is almost invisible in Jamaica's
historical archives, appearing only three times in the
official record. The renderings of hertherefore constitute
a reconstructionn drawn from a variety of sources. This
paper attempts to trace some of the sites that have
informed this reconstructionn of Nanny in the popular
and in particular in the Literary imagination as well as to
examine the nature of this constructed identity.

H.T. Thomas in Untrodden Jamaica [1890] refers to
Nanny as an "unsexed woman" (36). While this marks
an attempt by Thomas to account for her prowess as a
warrior by linking it to an unsatisfied sexual appetite,
I redeploy the concept as a way of talking about a
transgendered sensibility that marks representations
of Nanny in contemporary Caribbean texts. In her
acknowledged military and political roles, Nanny exists
as a challenge to the traditional codified notions of
gender, fixed in terms of binaries.

However, not only is Nanny represented as between
but in several instances is also represented as beyond
gender. I explore the politics of this ungendering,
considering to what extent it is occasioned by inscribed
gender binaries complicated even more by Nanny's
canonization as a national symbol. In representations
of her as an "unsexed woman", I explore the Link
between gender constructions and questions of sexual
identity and consider to what extent this ungendering
is symbolic of the inability of nationalist discourse to
accommodate alternative sexual identities within its
range of representations.

Ronald Cummings
10 Vilma Avenue,
Kingston 20, Jamaica.

What Racial Hybridity? Sexual Politics of
Mixed-Race Identities in the Caribbean and
the Performance of Blackness

In the Caribbean, the history of race remains complex
given the array of reactions to racial mixing by different
colonial powers (meaning the development of racial
categories determined by blood and coded by Law).
Given the historical fetishization of "exotic" women
of color, I investigate how racial performance and
performativity operate in a mixed-race body, and most
specifically, how this works with the signification of
blackness. In this paper, I argue that race is used as
an ordering mechanism specifically through mixed-
race identities because they trouble and disturb racial
groupings, and consequently this creates an even more
rigid and complex social coding of race, which still
affects the intersections between race and class across
the Caribbean. To provide a context for the term "racial
mixing," I provide a brief history of mixed-raced identities
in the colonial/imperial context, with a focus on the
Caribbean, to reveal how race was used to categorize
people and legally code racial difference through
mixed-race. Furthermore, I trace this history to theorize
about the sexual politics of race and racial coding that
enacted and supported Western dichotomies in which
racial mixing had to be contained and normalized to
effectively control the colonies. Additionally, I analyze
the representations of racial mixing in Erna Brodber's
Myal and Michelle Cliff's No Telephone to Heaven. In
both novels, I argue that there is no space for racial
hybridity, hence the characters in spite of their mixed-
raced bodies must choose blackness. Furthermore, I
trouble these vexing questions about the embodiment
of blackness and racial mixing by sharing my personal
history and identity struggle as a mixed-race Caribbean
women who solely identifies as black.

Angelique V. Nixon, Ph.D.
Department of English
University of Florida,
4008 Turlington Hall
PO Box 117310, Gainesville FL 32611-7310
Email: angelnix(aenglish.uft.edu

bw -;a __ -

The College of The Bahamas:: Nassau, The Bahamas

The Fuguing Fictions of Erna Brodber and
Elizabeth Nunez: Responses to trauma in
Louisiana and Beyond the Limbo Silence

Recent work in the area of post colonial literature
has identified the colonial experience as a traumatic
experience of fragmentation and forgetting. Both Erna
Brodber and Elizabeth Nunez write texts that respond
to the traumatic experiences of living within the post
colonial world that is fragmented by class, color,
and gender. In this essay, I will argue that Brodber's
Louisiana and Nunez's Beyond the Limbo Silence
engage with the trauma of colonial experience and
seek to alleviate it and transcend it through the act of
writing non-traditional narratives that enact Edouard
GLissant's theory of Caribbeanness through different
representations of the fugue as polyphony and flight.

Brodber's text incorporates the fugue as a diasporic
spiritual community striving towards psychic wholeness
and a re-membering of the Lost voices of the past.
Through Louisiana/Ella Townsend Kohl's physical and
spiritual journey, Brodber recovers a forgotten history
of connection between the Caribbean and the United
States within the larger context of the African diaspora.
In contrast, Nunez's text represents the fugue literally
and spiritually through the flight of her protagonist Sara
Edgehill to a women's college in Wisconsin where she
tries to hide from the legacy of colonialism, and instead
encounters North American racism. Both Brodber and
Nunez create texts that challenge the understanding of
the Caribbean as insular and isolated, posing it instead
as a site for an alternate poetics of healing, which
opens new possibilities for thinking about the different
purposes of non-traditional narratives beyond the
horizon of Caribbean literature.

Forgotten Memories:
Depths of Resistance in Feeding the Ghosts

In the same way that the sea is resisted because of the
abuse and identity erasure it witnessed, and alluring as
a tangible starting point for Caribbean peoples, history
is also problematic. Fred D'Aguiar's interest in history
and identity inevitably leads him, like many great
Caribbean writers, to the sea, and specifically to the
slave ship. He describes this curiosity: "I have always
been interested in the in-betweenness of a slave ship
in the Atlantic for the slaves who have left home and
are bound for a strange place" (qtd. in Frias 422). In
Feeding the Ghosts, D'Aguiar explores how ship-bound
Africans are dominated by slavery even as they create
avenues of resistance through language, dance, and
spiritual awareness. Situating D'Aguiar among other
Caribbean writers concerned with the need to write
history exactly because such a task in unattainable,
this paper explores resistance and history-making in
Feeding the Ghosts. Looking specifically at the actions
and failures of D'Aguiar's heroine, I explore how these
modes of resistance ironically reveal the depth and
scope of oppression she suffers. Finally, I track how
D'Aguiar revises the history of the Middle Passage even
as he retells this story; to see this history in terms of
gender and power relationships, specifically through
a woman's struggle, is to offer a revision of Caribbean
history itself.

Brandi Bingham Kellett
University of Miami

Carmen Maria Ruiz-Castaneda
University of Miami
6000 SW 32 Street
Miami, Florida 33155

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26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

Where the Water Meets the Sky: Visible
Horizons of Gendered Experience and
Blurred Junctions in Lakshmi Persaud's
Raise the Lanterns High

There is a line at which the water and sky appear to meet
- a line called the horizon. In Lakshmi Persaud's "Raise
the Lanterns High," horizons abound at the meeting
point of concepts caught in tension, of understandings
which have been established as binary opposites:
man/woman, tradition/modernity, continuity/change,
freedom/subjugation and individuality/community.
Persaud presents visible horizons of or Limits on the
experiences of Indo-Caribbeanwomenwhowalkthe path
built by men;who are held in place by the "tigress's paw;"
who are constrained by tradition and a commitment to
community expectations. These experiences prove to be
mentally traumatic. Yet, memory knows no boundaries.
History becomes part of the present and the future and
the trauma experienced by Indo-Caribbean women
traverses time, place and culture and is shared in the
mindscape of all women. This paper oscillates between
the horizon as hard edge or boundary and the horizon
as blurred Line. It argues that by blurring the horizon, a
dialectic of Caribbean experience is achieved.

Marsha Pearce
mobile: 1-868-496-8918

"There is a sob in there somewhere."
The Prodigal as
Testimony of an Aging Walcott.

This paper engages with Derek Walcott's ongoing
anxieties about Locatedness. It explores these anxieties
within the context of growing old and proposes that in
The Prodigal, Walcott's most recent poetic creation,
home is constructed as the place to which the aged and
now exhausted wanderer returns after his 'untethered
pilgrimages.' The paper suggests that The Prodigal
while it comes to rest on a quiet appreciation for the
place of origin, simultaneously mourns the loss of
mobility that comes with age. In exploring the ways
in which the poet expresses his anxieties about the
encroachment of old age, the paper identifies the film
of sorrow that seems to so often overlay this long poem
as one that is generated by the associations of home as
the end of journeying. The paper argues further that
this most recent collection functions as a metaphoric
last will and testament: the return home that allows
the persona to put his ideological house in order, and
to make peace with the provincial Landscapes that had
once seemed to stifle his artist spirit. Finally, the paper
suggests that this poem, while it may represent a phase
which the seventy-something Walcott is going through
has a craftiness of style that is at once self-conscious
and self-indulgent, and at the same time self reflexive.
It establishes The Prodigal as a performance of a
persona who returns home from what he avows to be
his Last journey, even while his spirit anticipates further
wanderings and seeks new horizons.

Dr. Antonia MacDonald-Smythe
Department of Liberal Studies
School of Arts and Science
St. George's University
P.O. Box 7, St. George's
Grenada, West Indies

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas

Mapping Displacements:
Caribbean Women Writers, Diaspora, and
the Cartographic Imagination

This paper examines selected Caribbean literary
representations of diaspora and displacement in terms
of cartographic and geographical tropes. Imagined
cartographies are particularly central to literary and
cultural articulations of Caribbean subjectivity in the
contemporary contexts of migrancy and globalization.
These articulations conform to Toni Morrison's
description of her critical objectives in Playing in the
Dark: charting a "critical geography... to open as much
space for discovery, intellectual adventure, and close
exploration as did the original charting of the New
World without the mandate for conquest." In this
light, the paper argues that contemporary Caribbean
women'swriting reflects a non-hegemonic cartographic
imagination that radically remaps geography, history,
culture and identity. This radical remapping is most
evident in the work of Dionne Brand, Michelle Cliff,
and Nourbese Philip, writers who consistently produce
symbolic geographies informed by black corporeality,
unmoored hybridities, and spectral histories and

Norval [Nadi) Edwards
Department of Literatures in English
University of the West Indies, Mona
Kingston 7

"Their Hands in the stinking
salt-fish barrel...":
Representing the Portuguese
in Caribbean Writing

This paper explores the representation of Portuguese
subjects in a selection of Caribbean literary texts. In
the first section of VS Naipaul's, The Middle Passage,
Mr Mackay, the "coloured man" is cited as saying: Is
these Potogees who cause the trouble, you know they
have their hands in the stinking salt-fish barrel and
they are still the first to talk of nigger this and coolie
that. (p.16) Richard ALLsop also uses this citation as part
of his definition of the word, 'Portugee' in Dictionary
of Caribbean English Usage (p.450). This paper will
explore the implications of this definition of Portuguese
West Indians in the context of the particular historical
circumstances of this group of 'arrivants'. I will consider
the pervasiveness of The representation of the'Portugee'
as historically positioned between the dominant
white colonials and the majority African and Indian
populations of the region. I will offer detailed discussion
of literary constructions of Portuguese subjects before
reflecting on where if at all Portuguese West Indians
are(or might be) inscribed in the rhetoric of hybridity
which characterises many of the region's independence
mottos. The paper will also interrogate the discourse
of hybridity which is encapsulated in these mottos and
succinctly summarized in Lovelace's The Dragon Can't
Dance as "all o we is one") in relation to postcolonial
notions of the hybrid subject. I conclude by suggesting
that Caribbean and/or postcolonial discourses provide
us with a contradictory notion of hybridity, one which
requires that the components of this hybridity be
disaggregated and then reconstituted as 'the hybrid'.
If this is so, then seeking to address the presentation
of Portuguese West Indians as a separate group may
simply consolidate this problem.

Denise deCaires Narain

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

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Bewitching Barbados: Tituba and
the Caribbean Influence on
the Salem Witch Trials

Concrete details of the life and personal history of
Tituba, the slave who became the first person to confess
to witchcraft during the Salem Witch Trials, have long
eluded scholars. Recent historians such as Elaine
Breslaw have identified her origins as South American
Indian (Arawak) by way of Barbados, countering Salem
lore traditions that had identified her as a slave of
African or Carib descent. Yet Tituba's association with
the Caribbean lingers, and her formative years spent
in Barbados are tacitly assumed to be of eminent
importance in suggesting possibilities that her exposure
to Caribbean culture predisposed her to accusations of
witchcraft while influencing the content and texture of
her confessions and allowing those confessions to be
more palatable and convincing. This paper will examine
the long-standing tendency to associate Tituba with the
Caribbean while probing the more central question
of why her ethnicity has remained of such pressing
importance to historians and other scholars.

D. Brian Anderson
College of the Mainland

Horizons of Desire:
Imagining Alternative Worlds
in Caribbean Speculative Fiction

Even though it might be expected that there is an
obvious compatibility between speculative fiction with
its attention to alternative realities and the exploration
of alternative sexualities, the genre of speculative
fiction is not overrun by queer studies. The suitability of
the genre to articulate alternative worlds might also be
matched by real risks. Recently, two Caribbean writers
of speculative fiction- Jamaican Marion James in John
Crow's Devil and Guyanese Mark McWatt's "The Visitor"
in Suspended Sentences-have demonstrated both the
possibilities and limitations of using speculative fiction
to articulate issues of alternative desire. While both
Caribbean writers further the work of queer politics
in exploring the horizons for conceptions of desire in
Caribbean culture, they do not necessary escape the
boundaries of conventional thinking. What possibilities
can the genre of speculative fiction offer in advancing
the politics of alternative sexual expression in the
Caribbean? As a literature of ideas, fluid identities and
progressive ideologies creating unorthodox worlds
and futures different from the present, can speculative
fiction open up new vistas for alternative expressions
of desire? On the other hand, might the speculative,
magical and futuristic dimensions of otherness that
attend such fictional forms not already re-frame such
alternative expressions of sexuality and desire as
already outside the norm, beyond human expression
and exclusive of the present? Essentially, this paper
explores the ideological purchase of using speculative
fiction to map alternative horizons of desire.

Michael A. Bucknor
Department of Literatures in English
University of the West Indies

The College of The Bahamas:: Nassau, The Bahamas


"Duppy or Gunman?": Articulations of the
Supernatural in Caribbean Popular Culture

Magical realism and the use of supernatural motifs
resonate within post-colonial literature as a vibrant
form of discourse through which historical traumas
are often negotiated and both personal and communal
marginalization expressed. This metaphysical discourse
has concurrently taken place within Caribbean popular
culture. From the Mighty Sparrow's "Obeah Wedding"
to Ernie Smith's "Duppy or a Gunman," numerous
Caribbean songs make reference to the world of spirits
and the practice of magic. My paper will explore such
articulations of the supernatural in Caribbean popular

Andrea Elizabeth Shaw, Ph.D.
2265 SW 118th Ave.
Miramar. FL 33025
Nova Southeastern University

The Caribbean Imagined and Realized:
Gabriel Garcia Marquez's
Of Love and Other Demons

Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Del Amor Y Otros Demonios
(19951-Of Love and Other Demons (1996]-opens in a
slum called Gethsemane (the 18th century port Cart-
agena de Indias). His tale of a young girl, martyred to
the politics of the adults in the novel, is an allegory of
Europe's narrative of the 'New World'. In the opening
leaves of this text, Garcia Marquez reveals the begin-
nings of this story: On an ordinary day in his career as
a journalist in Cartagena, 1949, his editor sent him to a
demolition site, to see whether there might be a story
there. The historic convent called Santa Clara was to
be razed to make way for a five-star hotel. What he saw
there that day glows with his trademark 'magical' recol-
lection. He writes: "the stone shattered at the first blow
of the pickax, and a stream of Living hair the intense
color of copper spilled out of the crypt and 200 meters
long attached to the skull of a young girl." The story of
this day, together with his grandmother's legend about
a twelve-year-old marquise with hair that trailed behind
her like a bridal train who was venerated in the towns
along the Caribbean coast for her many miracles, and
the history of Cartagena de Indias form the basis for the
highly symbolic Caribbean novel.

This paper reads Garcia Marquez's novel as an explo-
ration of New World and Caribbean identity. Cartage-
na de Indias was the lynchpin port in Spain's empire,
symbolically represented here as 'Gethsemane'; Garcia
Marquez's setting narrates the historical foundations of
a modern Caribbean in which the incredible happens on
an ordinary day-the demolition of an historic convent
to create space for a five-star hotel. The symbolic char-
acters and setting and the bizarre perversions of human
love that weave together to form this novel illustrate,
through allegory, the author's political vision of the New
World since its encounter with Europe-a vision he ar-
ticulated in 1982 in his Nobel lecture, "The Solitude of
Latin America". The novel's marquise, named Sierva
Maria de Todos los Angeles, is a hyperbole of the hap-
less innocent misunderstood by all except two charac-
ters who possess incredible, unorthodox vision. Sierva's
story is the story of the New World. Finally, as it ex-
plores Garcia Marquez's novel, this paper re-opens the
important discussion of a literary geography of Carib-
bean Literature.

Dr Kathryn Morris
Ransom Everglades School, Florida

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

Crossing Horizons between
the word and the world

Considering the CARICOM Initiative to integrate the
Caribbean region under the CSME, the literary text
promises to become new beacon to understanding.
If the Literature of the Caribbean diaspora has done
anything within the sphere of West Indian literature it
has been to articulate the realities of migrants, exiles
and travellers in the various postcolonial centres. If we
read the new map of regional integration together with
the trajectories provided by writers such as Edwidge
Danticat and Myriam Chancy, we are provided with a
new way of seeing the region under a single horizon.
This singularity deconstructs, or attempts to, the
nationalisms and language blocs held to so strongly by
so many.

How can the word inform the transgression of borders in
the world of Caribbean integration? This work examines
interconnections between the local and the distant, the
other and the self as they relate to disjuncture and
disassociation as well as harmony and integration. It
uses the text as a vehicle of cultural 'transformation'.

lan Bethel Bennett
University of Puerto Rico

Consuming the Island: The Caribbean
Writer's English Landscape

Attention to the pastoral is often thought of as peculiarly
"English," particularly in Romantic and Georgian
Literature; however, I wish to argue the traditional
understanding and concept of the English Landscape
is one that is in fact intensified by Caribbean writing.
Indeed, perhaps the rural English landscape proves
a particularly fertile site of examination since the
Caribbean experience and understanding of identity
is often so inextricably linked with nature, where
writers can often tend to see history embedded in such

I propose to investigate this relationship by examining
the extent to which Caribbean authors adhere to the
pastoral, perhaps even the sentimental, and to what
extent that adherence creates a particular "Caribbean"
or postcolonial view, a view that is perhaps more
traditionally thought to be the domain of poets such
as Edward Thomas or William Wordsworth. Perhaps
the emphasis on the rural is even intensified by the
postcolonial condition? David Dabydeen comments that
V.S. Naipaul's B. Wordsworth is famously "doomed to
mimicry," but perhaps that mimicry in fact re-informs
the English Landscape. While the Caribbean writer's
representation of rural England might be subject to
what Homi Bhabha describes as "only the dream of
the deprived and the powerless", [137], the Caribbean
nonetheless makes its own mark on the English

Joanna Johnson
University of the West Indies

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The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


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The Silent Scream

This paper will explore the idea and articulation of
the silent scream in Caribbean Literature. It will begin
with the silencing of Antoinette in Wide Sargasso Sea
and move to Walcott's 'Star Apple Kingdom' where the
silent scream cracks the surface of history. Omeros
and The Prodigal seek to make this scream concrete
through sensuous means. The theoretical framework
for this paper will be the writings of Wilson Harris in
his exploration of the 'unconscious variables' of the
Caribbean psyche and creativity.

Jean Antoine-Dunne
Coordinator BA n Film
Lecturer in Literatures in English
The University of the West Indies, St Augustine

The Terror and the Time:
History, Re-Memory and Journey
in Caribbean Literature

A major icon of the harrowing history of the origins
of the Caribbean island states is the journey which
delivered the respective people groups to the region.
This paper explores the compulsive need of successive
generations of writers to disclose silenced, submerged
and shameful historical events. They fashion out
of this inheritance, myths of origin which testify to
trauma's generational transfer, its belatedness and its
intrusive memory, which in turn repeatedly imposes the
imperative to revision and to bear witness.

This paper analyses fictional representations of
journeys of slave traders, colonizers, slaves and
indentees. In the process, it examines the relationship
between narrative and history, rememory, testimony
and survival. It identifies the journey as a transitional,
liminal passage with its common burden of violation
and physical and psychic Loss, which nevertheless poses
a representational problematic in terms of envisioning
a jahaji bhai a brotherhood of the boat.

Paula Morgan
University of the West Indies, St Augustine


26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


Mapping Patriotic Pain: Edwidge Dandicat's
The Dew Breaker and
Breath, Eyes, Memory

In this paper I discuss the novels of Edwidge Dandicat
as a powerful record and preservation of not only the
culture but also of the dream of paradise that was Haiti:
the first black republic and model of inspiration for
writers from the Romantic poets to diverse Literatures
of slavery since the 1790's. Dandicat, a writer of the
Haitian diaspora, uses memory as the stepping stone
between cultures, and across time, as she explores
diasporic experiences of exile and freedom juxtaposed
with life in the terror of remaining at 'home'. Her works
also validate a female historiography, emphasising the
matriarchal tradition of Haitian storytellers, to produce
a heightened awareness of women's entanglement with
history, nation, and narrative.

In Dandicat's book of short stories The Dew Breaker
(2004] the Loss of the earthly paradise in terms of
geographical Location is mirrored in the shock of having
to revise memory. The expulsion from the homeland
is harrowing and a return equally traumatic. The
characters not only have to revisit trauma but to Live with
the consequences of their albeit unwilling participation
in the violence of historical process. They are stuck in
a precarious and painful vacuum, a state of hybridity
that does not offer the opportunity for new 'border-
crossings' that Homi Bhabha suggests.

This paper will analyse The Dew Breaker and Breath,
Eyes, Memory from the standpoint of recent trauma
theory, with the overall theme of the loss and regaining
of the self within overlapping paradigms of home/
exile, past/present, Language/silence, and culpability/
forgiveness. It will ask whether a reconciliation of these
opposites provides the possibility of establishing a 'new
horizon' of wholeness out of fragments, both textual
and experiential.

A Way in the World: Poetics of Relation
Beyond Essentialist Identities

This paper argues that Naipaul's A Way in the World
unsettles theories of mixedness that are endemic to
Caribbean cultural identity theories and delineates
a horizon of self-fashioning beyond essentialist
conceptions of identity. This paper explores how the
text does this: how it coerces a new way of 'seeing' by
enforcing the reader's recognition that cultural roots
can never be traced back to any pure origins because
they are infinitely dispersed, and how it interrogates
and critiques identitarian ideologies and discourses
including imperialism, nationalism and other
ethnocentrisms for making virtues out of historical
necessities. In the process, the paper illustrates
how horizon, reader and Caribbean subjectivities are
imagined and fashioned in a narrative whose very
structure re-creates the architectonics of the Caribbean
space from the fifteenth century to the present so that
not only are individual Caribbean subjectivities within
the paradigms of various ideologies and discourses that
obtained at different points during that time described
but a new kind of subjectivity is also prescribed.

J. Vijay Maharaj
English Language Foundation Programmes
Department of Liberal Arts
The University of the West Indies
St. Augustine

Daphne M. Grace
The College of The Bahamas

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The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas

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Space and Scapes as Metathetic Modes of
Existence:Interpreting Marlene NourbeSe
Philip's Creative Non-Fiction

NourbeSe Philip's metathetic representation of
displacement, one that changes spaces to scapes in her
writing, shows the extent to which language, meaning
and identity are linked visually and discursively. Philip's
She Tries Her Tongue, Her Silence Softly Breaks and
, "Dis Place The Space in Between," challenges the
structure and dispersion of discourses as well as
the traditional boundaries erected between poetry,
prose, and personal narrative as well as the human
and social sciences. This essay examines NourbeSe
Philip's poetry and prose as critical approaches very
much concerned with mode of existence black female
subjects. Imagining identities within discourses of
colonialism demands a critical approach that borrows
from contradictory spaces, regardless of their relational
proximity to the subject in process. This approach can
best be described as a form of bricolage that brings
together disciplines, histories, languages and identities
with the aim of exposing the intricate connectedness
of each to the other. The psychological, physical, and
emotional distances between the subject and place,
space and [Land)scapes in Caribbean literature has
traditionally been mediated by the "privilege" of exile.
Philip coins the term, "s/place," in order to represent
the interconnected nature of space and place throughout
her work, bringing physical, sexual and geographical
domains into dialogue with one another. This essay will
consider the following critical questions and Philip's
responses in herwriting: How does this s/place function
and how does it affect how black subjects, particularly
female subjects, experience their Selves? Can this
s/place provide what Belinda Edmonson succinctly
describes as a "theory of Caribbean female writing that
identifies an 'essential' Caribbean female subject?"

Patricia J. Saunders
University of Miami, Department of English
P.O. Box 248145 Coral Gables, Florida 33124-4632

"White Silence, Overthrown!": Elizabeth
Barrett Browning and "A Curse for a Nation"

In her sonnet "Hiram Powers' Greek Slave," Elizabeth
Barrett Browning envisions the figure of Powers'
statue, "The Greek Slave" as a "threshold" creature,
poised between the classical world of "Ideal Beauty"
and the horrors of slavery, a being incapable of existing
in "the House of Anguish." That "House" may have been
synonymous with the Wimpole Street address from
which Barrett Browning eloped with her poet husband
four years before the poem was written, but it may also
have been a euphemism for the Caribbean "Plantation"
writ large in the poet's imagination. As an humanitarian,
she cheered the emancipation of the slaves; as a dutiful
daughter, she fretted over the transformation of her
father from a prosperous aristocratic member of a
slaveholding family. But as a cousin of a number of
mulatto offspring of her Barrett and Moulton relatives,
she was painfully aware that there were Barretts who
could testify to the nature of the Montego Bay "House of
Anguish" from personal experience. In fact, according
to biographer Julia Markus, the "dark," diminutive poet
may have believed, and with very good reason, that she
herself was a descendent of slaves.

In this paper, I will focus on readings of three poems by
Barrett Browning, including the sonnet about Powers
statue, "The Runaway Slave at Pilgrim's Point," and "A
Curse for A Nation." I will examine Barrett Browning's
shifting subjectivities from white abolitionist to slave
mother, to discuss the metaphor of slavery in her
personalpsychologyand the importance of overthrowing
"white silence" about slavery..

Felipe Smith
Tulane University

2 8 26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

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Theorizing Caribbean Migrant Literature on
the Horizon: The Emigrants and Yardie

While Caribbean migrant literature is highly theorized,
contemporary creative representations scarcely dot the
literary landscape. In fact, Caribbean migrant literature
produced and situated in contemporary contexts is
almost non existent in high brow /canonical fiction;
however these representations are more common in
popular texts. In this paper, I read George Lamming's
The Emigrants (1956), a harbinger in Caribbean
migrant literature, to pose key questions about identity,
coloniality, and ontology. I pair The Emigrants with
Victor Headly's Yardie [1992], to suggest that both texts,
despite their varied historical, contextual, and canonical
backgrounds, are concerned with similar questions
of Caribbean migrancy. These questions include: how
do conditions of colonization and globalization inform
Caribbean migrant identities? How do the locations of
representation influence our reading of the relationship
between class and migration?

Kezia Page
Colgate University
8716 Bradford Road #4
Silver Spring, MD 20901

Legitimate resistance: the crisis of
Jamaican political ideology and the quest for
resolution in some recent Jamaican novels

In the four-plus decades since Jamaica was granted
independence, the country has struggled with different
ideologies in an effort to grapple with the socio-political
Legacies of colonialism in forging a new national path.
Ideology was at its height in the explosive seventies, but
the costs were dear; with the victory of capitalism over
socialism at the end of that decade, the disillusionment
of the population with politics and politicians, the failure
of structural adjustment, the stresses of globalization
and now, the disillusionment with the ideology of the
world's superpower, politicians and academics alike
seem to be acknowledging that there are many more
questions than answers in terms of resolving the
country's problems.

A number of novels by Jamaican writers have addressed
thisdilemma.The plightofthecountry'spoorasdescribed
in Orlando Patterson's classic The Children of Sisyphus
(1964] led to the democratic socialism of the seventies;
such works as Michelle Cliff's No Telephone to Heaven
(1987] reflect the searing social consciousness that was
born in that period, but also the violent consequences of
that birth; and the wounds from the political war of that
same period, as well as the pain of disillusionment, are
shown in more recent works such as Brian Meeks' Paint
the Town Red [2003] or Garfield Ellis's For Nothing at All
(2005]. Errol McDonald's Legitimate Resistance (2006)
proposes new solutions, suggesting new directions for
the future in a most disturbing way.

Kim Robinson-Walcott
Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and
Economic Studies
UWI, Mona
Postal address: PO Box 49, Red Hills PO, St Andrew,
Email: kimrob26Bdyahoo.com

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


Dis We Tings: Folk, Romance, Nation

This paper is drawn from my dissertation, "Romancing
"the Folk": Re-reading the Nation in Caribbean Poetics,"
which offers a critical genealogy and analysis of the
ongoing aesthetic and ethical crisis of representation
in Caribbean discourse by attending to the Caribbean
writer's preoccupation with "the folk." I examine the
ways in which Caribbean poets and critics in particular
have used folk culture to respond to the cultural
nationalist anxieties of "authenticity," alterity and
identity in the West Indies Federation, Black Nationalist
and Post-Independence moments. My contention is that
many Caribbean poets' poetics of the nation, both the
imagined pan-Caribbean nation and individual nation-
states such as St. Lucia and Jamaica, is a romance of
the folk. The cultural practice, indeed the strategy,
of romancing the folk is one that has to do with a
politically urgent project of translating, idealizing and
homogenizing folk discourse which seeks to at once
explore, call for and generate an autochthonous and
unified Caribbean aesthetic.

Surprisingly, there has not yet been a major critique of or
corrective scholarly treatise on "the folk" in Caribbean
discourse. My study makes this critique, analysing the
folk as, in David Nicholls' words, a "contested vision
of collectivity" as opposed to "an assumed category
of person." I examine official, popular and literary
discourse and focus particularly on the poetry of Derek
Walcott and Lorna Goodison in order to demonstrate
the ways in which the strategy of romancing the folk
can be both productive and politically progressive and
problematic in the re-inscription of colonial tropes and

Christian Campbell
Department of English
Duke University
P.O. Box CB-12675
Nassau, The Bahamas

Language in Jamaican Dancehall Music

The objective of this paper is to examine the language
in Jamaican dancehall culture. There are several major
issues that permeate throughout its music. These
issues affect: the relationship between men and women
and how people view and respond to sociaL, political,
and economic conditions. Closer examination of
dancehall dismisses misinterpretations, misreadings,
and misunderstandings from both internal and external
interrupters. This project, however, argues that
dancehall is an instrument of artistic expression and a
space for the dissemination and contestation of ideas,
interpretations, beliefs, and values.

Keyterms: Jamaican Dancehall Culture, Dancehall
Music, Dancehall Queen, Slackness
LaKeisha L. Caples
Graduate Student
Chicago State University
Topic-Dancehall Music

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


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-~~Ci~li-- ;1~~C ~ -.. ; CY '~~L;T~-~- .0- 2Wrr

Victorian Anxieties and the West Indian Self
in Wide Sargasso Sea

Although written more that half a century after the end
of the Victorian period, Wide Sargasso Sea embodies
some of the glaring anxieties which antagonized the
Victorians and their counterparts. However, and of
greater concern, it also indulges the readers in a
quagmire of anxieties and complexes imported into the
West Indies from the Metropole during the nineteenth
century. Consequently, Wide Sargasso Sea reveals the
impact of such importation on the Anglophone West
Indian psyche at that time and well into the twentieth

This paper is concerned with examining how the
dominant values of the Victorian Age, as embodied
in literature, have impacted and shaped this complex
novel. It is also particularly concerned with the clash
between Victorian sexual ethics and the post slavery
sexual ethics which characterized and dominated the
socio-political landscape of the West Indies in the
nineteenth century. Of interest, too, is the manner in
which these influences were distilled in the literature of
the twentieth century that emanated from West Indian

Wide Sargasso Sea epitomizes to a great extent, the
difficulties associated with an attempt to merge the
literary traditions of Britain with those then emerging
from the West Indies. By extension, it unwittingly reveals
the difficulty associated with identity in both places on
fictional and non-fictional Levels.

Rhonda Harrison
Department of English & Modern Languages
Northern Caribbean University
Manchester Rd., Mandeville P.O.
Manchester, Jamaica

Bryans River Rd.
P.O. Box 19, Milk River
Clarendon, Jamaica.

"'Imagining ourselves big as the world':
Mapping diaspora in Dionne Brand's
Land to Light On"

In reading Land to Light On through the prism of Brand's
A Map to the Door of No Return: Notes to Belonging
it becomes clear that she charts the cartography of
belonging from the diasporic subject's perspective.
In so doing, she confounds notions of "home" and
establishes the importance of memory, counter-
memory and the imagination in constructing identity;
an identity that is always formed in relation to place
even while deconstructing assumptions about place.

This paper will discuss her treatment of diaspora
mainly by examining the tropes of memory, heritage
and invention. Brand uses these tropes to suggest a
diasporic subjectivity that is routed/rooted in border
crossings and conflations and a rendering of the
female body as a suitable metaphor for re-examining
concepts of place and space. The body becomes the
site of contestations as well as the visible embodiment
of the markings of diaspora. Her poetry draws lines of
connections between history, memory and gender and
in the process also maps new invocations of diaspora.

Tanya Shirley
22 Bracknell Ave.
P.O. box 727
Kingston 8
Jamaica, W.I.
(876) 978-6728 (hi (876) 371-2264 [cell)

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


-I ~-- ---C"b~. ~ Ilbr~

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


NICOLE N. ALJOE is an assistant professor in the
Department of English at the University of Utah. She is
currently at work on a book project, "So Much Things to
Say: The Creole Testimony of West Indian Slaves" which
examines the slave narratives from the Anglophone
Caribbean. Dr. ALjoe received her PhD from Tufts

SHALA ALERT, a 28-year old Jamaican national, is an
M.Philstudent in the department of literatures in English
at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
Alert's main area of study and interest is, at this time,
postcolonial Literatures and the representations of
postcolonial society in the fiction of Caribbean, African,
African American and Latin American authors.

D. BRIAN ANDERSON teaches literature, composition,
and creative writing at the College of the Mainland in
Texas City, Texas. Besides Caribbean culture and the
Salem Witch Trials, he is interested in representations
of cannibalism in New World literature. His book Titanic
in Print and On Screen was released by McFarland in

PhD(NUI Dublin); Diploma European Human Rights Law
with distinction(NUI Dublin] Lecturer in Literatures in
English Coordinator BA in Film Faculty of Humanities
and Education The University of the West Indies St
Augustine Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

IAN BETHEL BENNET is an associate professor at the
University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras and editor of
Sargasso. At present, he is on leave pursuing a post
doc in Regional integration.

p C

MARION BETHEL was born and lives in Nassau, The
Bahamas. She read law at Cambridge University,
Cambridge, England and has worked as an attorney
since 1986. Her work has appeared in Junction, an
anthology of Bahamian prose and poetry, Lignum Vitae,
a journal of the Bahamas Writers' Association, From
The Shallow Seas, an anthology of Bahamian prose and
poetry published by Casa de Las Americas, Habana,
Cuba (1993), The Massachusetts Review, Autumn-
Winter (1994), The Caribbean Writer, Volume 8 [1994]
and Moving Beyond Boundaries, Volume 1, Pluto Press
(1995). Her work has been accepted for publication
in the following Literary journals: Callaloo, River City,
Poui, MaComere, The Hampden Sidney Poetry Review,
Thamyris. She edited a special section of The Caribbean
Writer Vol. 13, 1999 called Poetry from the Bahamas,
which was nominated for the Puschcart Prize.

Bethel has been a guest writer at several international
events including the Caribbean Women Writers and
Scholars Conference, Florida International University.
(1996), the Miami International Book Fair (1997), the
Caribbean Women Writers Series at Duke University,
North Carolina (2002) and the XVI International Poetry
Festival of Medellin in June 2006 in Colombia. In October
2006 she was a guest writer at the International Writers
Workshop at the Hong Kong Baptist University in Hong

Ms Bethel was awarded a James Michener Fellowship
by the Caribbean Writers Summer Institute, Department
of English, University of Miami, Florida (1991) and the
Casa de Las Americas Prize for a volume of poetry called
Guanahani, My Love which was published in 1995.
From September 1997 to August 1998 she was the Alice
Proskauer Poetry Fellow at the Mary Ingraham Bunting

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


Institute of Radcliffe College, Harvard University. She is
now completing a poetry manuscript and doing research
for a novel.

DR. MICHAEL A. BUCKNOR is Lecturer in the
Department of Literatures in English, University of the
West Indies, Mona Campus. He is a graduate of that
department and completed his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees
at the University of Western Ontario (Canada) on a
Commonwealth Scholarship. His research interests
include Caribbean/Canadian writing, diasporic writing,
body theory, masculinities, postcolonial Literatures and
theory and cultural studies. His most recent publication
is the 2005 co-edited Special Issue of the Journal of
West Indian Literature entitled, "Rooting and Routing
Caribbean-Canadian Writing," and he is currently
working on a book-length study entitled "Body-memory
Poetics: Materiality, Meta-textualityand Performance in
Caribbean/Canadian Writing. He is an editor of Journal
of West Indian Literature and Postcolonial Text.

CHRISTIAN CAMPBELL, of The Bahamas and Trinidad
and Tobago, is a poet, cultural critic and journalist. He
read English and taught at Balliol College, University of
Oxford as the 2002 Commonwealth Caribbean Rhodes
Scholar, and is nearing completion of a PhD in English
at Duke University His work has been published in
numerous journals and anthologies in the Caribbean,
the US and the UK, most recently Caribbean Beat, Sable,
The Arts Journal, Wasafiri, PN Review and Small Axe
and is forthcoming in the anthologies New Caribbean
Poetry (Carcanet), The Ringing Ear: Black Poets Lean
South (University of Georgia] and Erotique Caribbean. A
Cave Canem Graduate Fellow, his manuscript, Running
the Dusk, was named one of two honourable mention
finalists for the 2005 Cave Canem Poetry Prize by Sonia

CARMEN LUIZ CASTENEDA earned a B.A. English/
Honors, summa cum Laude, from Villanova University,
Villanova, PA and expects to be awarded an M.A.
English from University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL in
May 2007)

Honors Thesis: "Living History: A Cubana-Americana
Explores Exile Memories." This thesis presents a
collection of Cuban exile testimonies collected from
the Miami exile community and is prefaced by a critical
introduction which examines the socio- political and
Literary context of the narratives. Ms Casteneda's
presentations have included: "Fabrications" Festival
of the Goddesses Jakmel Art Gallery. Miami, Florida.
August 2006 [Five fabric collage pieces presented)
and "Reading from the Margins: Analyzing The
Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man and Invisible

Man through the perspective of the Caribbean." Poster
presentation. Research and Creativity Forum. University
of Miami April 2006.

RONALD CUMMINGS is a postgraduate student in the
Department of Literatures in English, University of the
West Indies, Mona Campus. He is currently completing
a thesis on representations of Maroonage in Queer
Caribbean fiction from the Anglophone Caribbean.

FRED D'AGUIAR earned a BA honours degree from the
University of Kent, England in1986. Since 2003, he has
held the post of Professor of English and Co-Director of
the Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing at the Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and State University.

D'Aguiar he brought out his first collection of poetry,
Mama Dot (1985) to critical acclaim. Along with Airy Hall
(1989), Mama Dot was of sufficient merit to capture the
Guyana Poetry Prize in 1989. D'Aguiar's first novel, The
Longest Memory (1994], won both the David Higham
Prize for Fiction and the Whitbread First Novel Award
and firmly cemented the author's literary reputation. It
was adapted for television and televised by Channel 4
in the UK. His long narrative poem 'Sweet Thames' was
broadcast as part of the BBC 'Worlds on Film' series in
1992. It also netted D'Aguiar the Commission for Racial
Equality Race in the Media Award. Other D'Aguiar novels
include Dear Future (1996), Feeding the Ghosts (1997)
and the fourth novel, Bethany Bettany was brought out
in 2003. His plays include High Life and A Jamaican
Airman Foresees His Death. Recent poetry includes
two long narrative poems, Bill of Rights (1998), and
Bloodlines, published in 2000.

RAPHAEL DALLEO is an Assistant Professor in the
Department of English at Florida Atlantic University.
His essays have appeared in Small Axe, The Journal of
West Indian Literature, Anthurium, and Latino Studies.
He is the coauthor of the book The Latino/a Canon and
the mergence of Post-Sixties Literature (forthcoming
from Palgrave Macmillan).

DENISE DE CAIRES NARAIN is a Senior Lecturer in
English at the University of Sussex. She has also taught
at the University of the West Indies and at the Open
University. She teaches courses on postcolonial writing
(with an emphasis on Caribbean writers) at UG and PG
levels. She has published widely on Caribbean women's
writing, including "Caribbean Women's Poetry: Making
Style" and a book on Olive Senior is due out this year.
She is currently working on a project on the figure of the
servant I postcolonial women's writing.

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


NORVAL (NADI) EDWARDS teaches in the Department
of Literatures at the University of the West Indies, Mona.
He is an associate editor of Small Axe: A Caribbean
Journal of Criticism.

to present the Sir Lynden Pindling Memorial Lecture
(2005), first winner of the Bahamas Cacique Award
for Writing (1995) and recipient of a Silver Jubilee of
Independence Medal for Literature (1998). She has
written numerous essays and articles on Bahamian
history, art and culture and has authored ten books,
including An Evening in Guanima, original short stories
based on traditional Bahamian folktale motifs (Guanima
Press, 1992), the novelA Shift in the Light, two volumes
of poetry, No Vacancy in Paradise and Robin's Song,
From the Void to the Wonderful, a history of the Roman
Catholic Church in The Bahamas and several works of
satire, including The 99-cent Breakfast. She co-wrote
Bahamian Art 1492 to 1992 [with Huggins and Smith),
the first comprehensive work on the subject.

Glinton-Meicholas' monograph on Bahamian folktales
is published in the Encuentros series of the IDB Cultural
Centre, Washington, DC [Talkin' OL' Story: A Brief Survey
of the Oral Tradition of The Bahamas, No. 38, July 2000].
She contributed the fine arts and collecting entry for The
Bahamas to the Macmillan 37 vol. Dictionary of Art and
her story, "The Gaulin Wife" is included in the Penguin
anthology Under the Storyteller's Spell (London 1988].
Her work for the medium of television includes six
historical documentaries for Bahamas National Trust's
"A Proud and Singular Heritage" series, which she
wrote and directed.

Glinton-Meicholas is currently Vice President
Communication at The College of The Bahamas.
President of Bahamas Association for Cultural Studies
[founded with lan Strachan in 1997), she also a member
of the Cultural Development Commission, the Boards
of Cable Bahamas Cares Foundation, Antiquities,
Monuments and Museums Corporation and Clifton
Heritage Authority. Patricia Glinton-Meicholas was
born at Port Howe, Cat Island, Bahamas.

DAPHNE GRACE has studied in both the UK and USA
and received her D.Phil in English Literature from the
University of Sussex, England. She has taught twentieth
century literature and postcolonial literature at Eastern
Mediterranean University (North Cyprus), the University
of Sussex, and is currently teaching in the School of
English Studies at the College of The Bahamas. Her
book, The Woman in the Muslin Mask: Veiling and Identity
in Postcolonial Literature was published by Pluto Press
in 2004. She has also published in the fields of women's

studies, globalization and ethics. Her recent research
interests have focused on third-world feminisms,
global citizenship, and consciousness studies in the
context of interdisciplinary approaches to literature.
She has published widely in the fields of Literature and
women's studies, and presented at many international
and national conferences. Her next book: Relocating
Consciousness: Diasporic Writing and the Dynamics of
Literary Experience is to be published by Rodopi Press
in the series 'Literature, the Arts, and Consciousness'
in Spring 2007.

RHONDA HARRISON was graduated from and is
currently a part of the Department of English & Modern
Languages at the Northern Caribbean University where
she teaches Freshman Composition as well as a variety
of literature courses. Her primary area of research lies
in examining nineteenth century West Indian and British

JOANNA JOHNSON is a lecturer in the English
department at the University of Miami. She completed
her MA in English in 2003 at the University of Miami,
where she concentrated on Caribbean Literature, and
was active in the Caribbean Literary Studies Group.
She is currently working on her PhD in Literature at the
University of Essex. Email: jsjohnsonfdmiami.edu

BRANDI KELLETT holds a Master of Arts degree in
English [2005) and was graduated from Wake Forest
University, Salem, North Carolina with a Bachelor of
Arts in English and Latin magna cum laude. At present
she is pursuing coursework for a Ph.D. in Caribbean
and American Literatures. University of Miami, Coral
Gables, FL

Ms Kellet presented "The Moisture of Christ's Passion
in the Theologies of Julian of Norwich and Margery
Kempe," at the 40th International Congress on
Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 5-8, 2005.
Her honours include "Graduate Student of the Year",
University of Miami, English Department, 2005 and
Who's Who Among Graduate Students, 2004-2005. She
was a member of Eta Sigma Phi Society at Wake Forest
and an Omicron Delta Kappa Honoree.

EARL LOVELACE Novelist, playwright and short-story
writer, Earl Lovelace was born in Toco, Trinidad in 1935
and grew up in Tobago. He worked for the Trinidad
Guardian, then for the Department of Forestry and
later as an agricultural assistant for the Department
of Agriculture, gaining an intimate knowledge of rural
Trinidad that has informed much of his fiction. He studied
in the United States at Howard University, Washington
(1966-7] and received his MA in English from Johns

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


Hopkins University in 1974. In 1980 he was awarded
a Guggenheim Fellowship and spent that year at the
University of Iowa. After teaching at a number of other
American universities, Lovelace returned to Trinidad in
1982, where he now lives and writes, teaching at the
University of the West Indies.

A collection of Lovelace's plays, Jestina's Calypso and
Other Plays, was published in 1984. His first novel, While
Gods Are Falling, was published in 1965 and won the
British Petroleum Independence Literary Award. It was
followed by The Schoolmaster (1968), about the impact
of the arrival of a new teacher in a remote community.
His third novel, The Dragon Can't Dance (1979], is
regarded by many critics as his best work. Other books
include The Wine ofAstonishment (1982) and Lovelace's
most recent novel, Salt, which was published in 1996 and
won the Commonwealth Writers Prize (Overall Winner,
Best Book) in 1997.

English at St. George's University. Her academic
research revolves around the writings of contemporary
Caribbean women novelists (including Maryse Conde,
Jamaica Kincaid and Michelle Cliff) and more recently,
St. Lucian literary studies. She has published articles
in Journal of West Indian Literature (JWIL), Callaloo and
MaComere; and is the author of Making Homes in the
West/Indies (Garland, 2002).

VIJAY MAHARAJ Is Coordinator English Language
Foundation Programmes Department of Liberal
Arts, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.

building services engineer, part-time Lecturer, artist,
fiction writer, essayist and published poet, was born
in Trinidad but lives in Nassau, Bahamas. She has
published poetry in several magazines and anthologies
in the Bahamas, and the Caribbean and London,
including University of the Virgin Island's annual
anthology "The Caribbean Writer." She won the David
Hough Literary Prize from The Caribbean Writer (2001]
and the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association 2001
Short Story Competition. Her first book of poetry, Curry
Flavour (2000] was published by Peepal Tree Press.

MARK MCWATT was born in Georgetown, Guyana
on the 29th September, 1947. His early years were
spent in several of the coastal towns and villages of
Guyana, as his father, a Government District Officer,
was transferred to a new district every two years or so.
Despite these peregrinations, McWatt won a coveted
Government scholarship to St Stanislaus College,

the Jesuit-run Catholic high school. He read English
Language and Literature at the University of Toronto,
graduating with honours in 1970. He went on to do the
M.A. in English the following year. He received his Ph.D.
from the University of Leeds (England] in 1975.

McWatt's first volume of poetry, Interiors (Dangaroo
Press), appeared in 1989, followed in 1994 by The
Language of ELdorado, which won the Guyana Prize
for poetry for that year. In 2005 Peepal Tree Press
published his first collection of short stories, entitled
Suspended Sentences and in the same year there
appeared the anthology The Oxford Book of Caribbean
Verse, edited by Stewart Brown and Mark McWatt. In
2006 Suspended Sentences won the regional (Canada
and the Caribbean] Commonwealth Writers' Prize for
Best First Book of fiction, the Overall Commonwealth
writers' Prize for Best First Book and the Casa de Las
Americas Prize in the category of Best Caribbean Book
Written in English or Creole. He is currently working on
a third collection of poems.

McWatt is a professor in West Indian Literature at the
University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados. His
academic research has been mostly in the field of West
Indian-especially Guyanese-Literature and he has
published extensively in this field. He was founding
editor [in 1986) of the Journal of West Indian Literature
(JWIL), a scholarly journal which, publishes research
on Caribbean Literature; he is still serving currently as
joint editor [with Victor Chang of the Mona campus in

McWatt and his wife Amparo, a Colombian national who
Lectures in Spanish, have two children.

PAULAMORGAN isa Lecturerin the Facultyof Humanities
and Education and an associate of The Centre for Gender
and Development Studies, The University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine. She currently coordinates the
graduate programme in Cultural Studies; her primary
focus of research, teaching and publication has been
gender issues in the literatures of the Caribbean and
the African Diaspora.

Dr. Morgan has authored Language Proficiency for
Tertiary Level (1998) and Writing About Literature with
Barbara Lalla (2005]. Her most recent book length
publications are Caribbean Literature in a Global
Context an edited collection with Funso Aiyejina (2006]
and Writing Rage: Violence in Caribbean Discourse -
with Valerie Youssef (2006].

KATHRYN MORRIS holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree
in English from the University of Miami (July 2002],

3 6 26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"

a Master of Arts in English from the University of
Vermont (1997) and a Bachelor of Arts in English from
Georgetown University, Washington, DC (1993).

ANGELIGUE V. NIXON was born and raised in Nassau,
Bahamas. She was graduated with a Bachelor of Science
degree in Accounting from Nova Southeastern University
in Fort Lauderdale, Florida and a Master of Arts degree in
English with a concentration in Multicultural Literature
from Florida Atlantic University. She is currently a
Ph.D. Candidate in English at the University of Florida,
specializing in Postcolonial Studies and Caribbean and
African Literatures. Her interests include Feminist
Postcolonial Theory, Black Cultural Studies, Race
and Identity Politics, and U.S. Multi-Ethnic Literature,
specifically African American and Native American
Literatures. Her first scholarly publication appeared
in the Spring 2006 issue of SAIL: Studies in American
Indian Literatures ("Poem and Tale as Double Helix in
Joy Harjo's A Map to the Next World"]. Her dissertation
in progress, titled "Consuming Identities: Crosscurrents
of Tourism and the Production of Literature and Culture
in the Caribbean", explores the narratives and counter-
narratives of tourism and neocolonialism in Caribbean
literature and culture.

Several of Nixon's poems have been published in
Julie Mango: International Online Journal of Creative
Expressions and in ProudFlesh: New Afrikan Journal
of Culture, Politics & Consciousness, and a few pieces
will soon appear in forthcoming collections, including
the journal WomanSpeak and the anthology Erotique
Caribbean. She is president of the Black Graduate
Student Organization at University of Florida, and she is
very active in a variety of community service projects.

EVELYN O'CALLAGHAN is Professor of West Indian
literature and Head of the Department of Language,
Linguistics and Literature at the Cave Hill [Barbados)
campus of the University of the West Indies. She has
published Woman Version: Theoretical Approaches to
West Indian Fiction by Women (London: Macmillan,
1993), The Earliest Patriots [Historical fiction] [London:
Karia Press, 1986) and other articles and chapters
on West Indian literature, particularly by women. Her
edition of a nineteenth century Caribbean novel, With
Silent Tread by Frieda Cassin, appeared in the Macmillan
Caribbean Classics series in 2002, and her latest book,
Women Writing the West Indies 1804-1939: A Hot Place,
Belonging to Us, was published by Routledge in 2003.
She is one of the editors of the Journal of West Indian
Literature, and serves on the advisory committees
of Anthurium, Les Carnets du Cerpac, journal of the
Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Pays du
Commonwealth [Research Center for Commonwealth

Studies] and the Journal of Postcolonial Writing, as well
as reader for Callaoo, Postoclonial Text, Ma Comere,
Ariel, Caribbean Quarterly and The Caribbean Writer.

KEZIA PAGE is an assistant professor of English at
Colgate University in Hamilton, NY. She works on
Caribbean migrant and diaspora Literature

MARSHA PEARCE holds a First Class Honours Bachelor
of Arts Degree in Visual Arts with a Minor in Linguistics
from the University of the West Indies (UWI) Trinidad.
She worked as a part-time Lecturer at the Centre for
Creative and Festival Arts, UWI for two years.

Pearce is currently engaged as a Research Assistant to
the Dean of the Faculty of Humanities and Education,
UWI, St Augustine. She is a postgraduate student at the
same institution, pursuing an M.Phil Degree in Cultural
Studies and is the 2006 recipient of the Rhodes Trust
Rex Nettleford Fellowship in Cultural Studies.

JENNIFER RAHIM is a Lecturer in Literature in the
Department of Liberal Arts at The University of the West
Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. She has
published essays on Caribbean literature, and is also a
poet and writer of short fiction. She is the author of two
volumes of poetry, Mothers Are Not The Only Linguists
(1992) and Between the Fence andthe Forest (2002). Her
forthcoming collections include Approaching Sabbaths:
Poems and Songster and Other Stories (Peepal Tree,

KATHRYN ROBERTS' academic qualifications include
Doctor of Philosophy in English, University of Miami,
CoralGables, Florida-July 2002; MAin English University
of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont-, May 1997 and BA,
English Georgetown University, Washington D.C., May

KIM ROBINSON-WALCOTT is editor of books and
monographs at the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social
and Economic Studies, University of the West Indies,
Mona. She isalso the editorof Jamaica Journal published
by the Institute of Jamaica. Her book Out of Order!
Anthony Winkler and White West Indian Writing was
published by the University of the West Indies Press in
2006. Her other publications include the children's book
Dale's Mango Tree (Kingston Publishers, 1992], which
she also illustrated. Her critical essays, short stories
and poems have appeared in a number of journals and

KEITHALTON RUSSELL, born Pineridge Grand Bahama,
Bahamas. Presently Lives in Freeport, Bahamas, with
wife, D.D., and sons Keith Jr., and Kyle. Publications:

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas


Passage of a Native Son (collection of short stories);
novels, The Disappearance of J D Sinclair, When Doves
Cry, and Hezekiah's Independence; one play, Let
Freedom Ring, performed in Freeport and New York.
Adjunct Lecturer, Schools of English Studies and Social
Science. Pastor, Fellowship Union Baptist Church.
B. A., Theology and Philosophy, M. Div., Theology and
Literature, D. Min., Theological Education.

PATRICIASAUNDERS ProfessorSaunders' research and
scholarship focus largely on the relationship between
sexual identity and national identity in Caribbean
literature and popular culture. Her work has appeared
in The Bucknell Review, Calabash, Plantation Society
in the Americas, The Journal of West Indian Literature
and Small Axe. Her first book, titled Alien/Nation and
Repatri(n)ation: Caribbean Literature and the Task of
Translating IdentitywiLL be published by Lexington Books
in 2007. She has also co-edited a collection of essays
entitled Music, Memory, Resistance: Calypso and the
Caribbean Literary Imagination which will be published
by lan Randle Publishers, also in 2007. Other works in
progress include a second book project entitled Fusion
and Con/Fusion: Gender, Sexuality, and Consumerism
in Caribbean Popular Culture.

TANYA SHIRLEY is a tutor, adjunct lecturer and M.Phil
student in the Department of Literatures in English,
University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. She
received her M.F.A. in creative writing from the University
of Maryland, College Park and her B.A. (Hons.) in English
from the University of the West Indies, Jamaica. Her
poetry has been published in several journals and will
appear in the forthcoming anthology, New Caribbean

FELIPE SMITH earned the Ph.D. from Louisiana State
University in 1988, aftercompleting his dissertation, "The
Dark Side of Paradise: Race and Ethnicity in the Novels
of F. Scott Fitzgerald." Smith is a tenured Associate
Professor at Tulane University, where he has taught
American literature, African-American Literature, and
literature and culture of the African diaspora. He was
one of the founders of the programme in African and
African Diaspora Studies, for which he currently serves
as Director. He is the recipient of awards and fellowships
from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the
Ford Foundation, and the Mellon Foundation.

His 1998 bookAmerican Body Politics: Race, Gender, and
Black Literary Renaissance, published by the University
of Georgia Press, addresses the cultural politics of the
racial and gender classification of American bodies as a
shaping influence in the development of writers such as
W.E.B. Du Bois, Charles W. Chesnutt, Pauline Hopkins,

and James Weldon Johnson around the turn of the last
century. He has also published essays on Toni Morrison,
Alice Walker, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and the Zulu Social
Aid and Pleasure Club. He is a founding member of
the coordinating committee for the Interrogating the
African Diaspora Seminar. He is currently working on
his second book, a manuscript that treats issues of race
and primitivism in modernist literature, The Dark Side
of the Modern: Race and the Jazz Age.

IAN GREGORY STRACHAN was born in Nassau in 1969.
He holds a PhD and MA in English from the University
of Pennsylvania and BA in English from Morehouse
College. He is currently Chair of the School of English
Studies at The College of The Bahamas.

Strachan has written several plays, including No
Seeds in Babylon [1991), which was performed at the
Edinburgh Festival Fringe and appears in Contemporary
Drama from the Caribbean (2001). In 1992, his play
Fatal Passage was performed as part of The Bahamas'
Quincentennial commemoration of Columbus' landfall.
In 1996, he founded Track Road Theatre, a non-profit

Strachan's otherworks include the semi-autobiographic
novel God's Angry Babies (1997) and Paradise and
Plantation: Tourism and Culture in the Anglophone
Caribbean (2002), a work of cultural studies, history
and Literary criticism. His collection of poems Silk
Cotton Soul appeared in 2007. He recently directed a
documentary on Bahamian ringplay games entitle Show
Me Your Motion. He is married to LaTasha Joseph and
they have two sons.

KRISTA E. WALKES is a former student of the College of
the Bahamas (COB), who graduated with an A.A. degree
in English Literature and a Teacher's Certificate in
Secondary Education in 1997. She went on to complete a
B.A. degree in English from Taylor University in Indiana.
She attained an M.A. in English with a specialization in
Caribbean literature from Rutgers, the State University
of New Jersey, in 2004 and is currently completing her
a doctoral dissertation through the same institution. In
2005 Walkes returned to COB as a Lecturer in the School
of English Studies, and in this capacity she is able to
share her research and keen interest in Bahamian
culture, particularly Bahamian music and oral Literature,
with her students.

26th West Indian Literature Conference :: "Horizons"


The School of English Studies, The College of The Bahamas
Co-chairs: Dr Marjorie Brooks-Jones (above, left) and Dr lan Strachan [above, right)

His Excellency Arthur D Hanna
Governor General of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Janyne M Hodder, President of The College of The Bahamas
Ministry of Tourism
Office of Communication, The College of The Bahamas

The College of The Bahamas :: Nassau, The Bahamas



The C:ollege of The Bahamas
Telephone 242.302.4300 Fax 242.326-7834
www.cob edu.bs E _:,i. cobfacob.edu.bs
Nassau, The Bahamas

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