Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 A comparison of the security arrangements...
 Summary of some Florida school...
 Some objectionable stereotypes...
 Music education in the elementary...
 Studies of blood volume under the...
 The present status of cortisone...
 The Everglades

Title: Research issue - Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    A comparison of the security arrangements of the League of Nations and the United Nations organization
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Summary of some Florida school laws and the individual
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Some objectionable stereotypes and themes in Negro drama
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Music education in the elementary and secondary schools
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Studies of blood volume under the influence of injected proteose and histamine
        Page 23
        Page 24
    The present status of cortisone as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of rhumatoid arthritis and rhumatic fever
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The Everglades
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text








Tallahassee .. Florida







Issued Quarterly and entered as second-class matter, June 24, 1947, at the
Post Office, Tallahassee, Florida, Under the Act of August 24, 1912

Volume 2 December, 1949 No. 4


A Comparison of The Security Arrangements of The League
of Nations and the United Nations Organization .---- -- F. A. Coles, Jr. 3

Summary of Some Florida School Laws and The Individual

Some Objectionable Stereotypes and Themes In Negro Drama

Music Education in the Elementary and Secondary Schools

Studies of Blood Volume Under the Influence of Injected
Proteose and Histamine .....---.----------....------.. HERBERT H. HARRIS 23

The Present Status of Cortisone as A Therapeutic Agent
In The Treatment of Rhumatoid Arthritis and Rhumatic
Fever .........----------.. ---..-... ...-... WALTER H. ELLIS 25

The Everglades ...--.--... .....--.------------..-- C. J. A. PADDYFOTE 29


A Comparison of The Security Arrangements of The

League of Nations and The United Nations Organization

Professor of Economics

A T THE end of World War I, most sion of acts of aggression or other
of the civilized world was con- breaches of the peace, and to bring
vinced of the futility of the war and about through peaceful means, and in
the necessity for an organization "to conformity with the principles of jus-
promote international cooperation, and rice and international law, adjustment
to achieve international peace and se- or settlement of international disputes
curity."' This ideal was to be achieved or situations which might lead to a
"by acceptance of obligations not to breach of the peace; to develop friend-
resort to war; by the prescription of ly relations among nations based on
open, just and honorable relations be- respect for the principle of equal rights
tween nations; by the firm establish- and self-determination of people, and
ment of the understanding of inter- to take other appropriate measures to
national law as the actual rule of strengthen universal peace; to achieve
conduct among governments; and by international cooperation in solving in-
the maintenance of justice and a scru- ternational problems of an economic,
pulous respect for all treaty obligations social, cultural or humanitarian charac-
in the dealing of organized peoples ter, and in promoting and encouraging
with one another." When the Cove- respect for human rights and for fun-
nant of this organization, the League damental freedoms for all without dis-
of Nations, first came into operation tinction as to race, sex, language, or
in 1920, twenty-three nations had religion; and to be a center for har-
signified their intention to do their monizing the actions of nations in
part in the promotion of international the attainment of these common ends."2
cooperation, etc. By 1935, the mem- Fifty-one nations through their dele-
bership had reached a maximum of fif- gates, this time signified their inten-
ty-nine. tions from the start to make this or-
World War II has ended and, again ganization, the United Nations Or-
men's efforts are bent toward the es- ganization, a workable one; since then,
tablishment and operation of an in- eight more nations have become mem-
ternational organization for the pur- bers.
pose of maintaining "international Will this latter attempt at inter-
peace and security, and to that end: national peace be more successful than
to take effective collective measures the one that preceded it? Were the
for the prevention and removal of causes contributing to the breakdown
threat to the peace, and for the supres- of the League of Nations inherent in
1Taken from the Covenant of the League 2Article I, Chapter I of the Charter of the
of Nations. UNO.



the framework of the League itself or sist of the following:
were they forces operating from with- (1) The United States, the League's chief
out? Will these same causes operate original sponsor, not only refused- to be-
again to wreck this second attempt at come a member, but failed for years to
ternatonal cooperation? participate officially in its non-political
international cooperation? activities.
In order to compare the security., (2) The ex-enemy states, especially Germany,
arrangements of the two organizations, were not admitted to membership until
selected examples of League behavior the middle twenties.
permit conclusions to be drawn, as (3) The Soviet Union did not join until 1934,
because it was convinced that the
to the reasons for failure where failures League was a bourgeois alliance to fur-
occured. The United Nations Organi- their capitalistic exploitation.
zation can then be considered in the (4) The League was without power of its
light of these causes for failure in an own to compel revision of the harsh and
effort to determine whether the same unwise provisions of the Versailles Treaty
with the maintenance of which the Ger-
causes are likely to destroy this second mans came to identify.
attempt to provide for the world a (5) The League powers, along with the Unit-
system that will assure the mainte- ed States and Russia, could not agree
nance of peace and security. upon any plan for controlling and re-
ducing national armaments which would
One need only study the ineffec- satisfy Germany's demand for "equality
tive actions of the League in the fol- of status."
lowing instances to determine the (6) The half-hearted support of Britain,
causes of failure of that organization France, and other professed supporters;
to achieve its stated purposes: the (7) The inability of League obligators to
to achieve its stated purpose he modify state sovereignty;
Vilna dispute between Poland and (8) The vague and contradictory concepts
Lithuania, in 1920; the dispute be- cerning the moral justification of war;
tween Bolivia and Paraguay over oil- (9) The lack of power in the League itself
h G n C in 1 J to compel its members to use their col-
rich Gran Chaco, in 1928; Japanese elective forces against aggression;
aggression in Manchuria, in 1931, and (10)The lack of definiteness in the coercive
the later Sino-Japanese war; the Italian articles of the Covenant caused, no doubt,
conquest of Ethiopia, in 1935; the by .the original principles to not at-
Spanish Civil War; and the remilitari- tempt any limitations of the international
zation of the Rhineland, by Hitler.3 anarchy beyond what was thought to
nation of the Rheland, by Hitler. be absolutely essential to maintenance of
.These selected occurrences prove peace because of fear of acceptance by
that it is necessary to look to weak- powers who might regard it as an in-
ness of the instrumentalities of the fringement of their rights;
League covenant, as well as outside (11)The League represented the first formal
cause for the League's failure to organization of nations, for peace on a
achieve the purposes of nternatonal world scale and, as a consequence,- it
achieve the purposes of international was not acceptable to some and it was
peace and security for which it was not believed in by others;
founded. What, then, are these causes? (12)The basis of the League was a voluntary
Many have been the answers to this association of sovereign states;
question; it is believed that a list of (13)Te cultural lag;
quesaon of (14) The unanimity rule; and
the more important ones would con- (14)Te unanimity rule; and
S(15)Faulty collaboration between the world
organization and a regional system or
3For a detailed analysis on these events, see arrangement.
Sharp, Walter R. and Kick, Grayson: "Con-
temporary International Politics," New York, Now to examine the United Nations
Farrar and Rinehart, 1940. Organization in the light of these

causes, in an effort to determine the ness to join in 1934. Just how far
chances of its success to give to a Russia is willing to go in the direction
bewildered world a lasting peace and of full cooperation is a matter of con-
security for all. cern when one considers her actions in
The first listed cause of failure for the UNO. Many explainerss" of the
the League is certainly not applicable League's failure have asserted that
to UNO; The United States is one of organization was sufficient and con-
the original sponsors of the present sys- elusive proof of the prospective failure
tem. The question of just how far of any world organization that did not
America is willing to go, in action and include Russia and the United States.
deeds, to back the moral position she We have the two nations in this lat-
has taken in world affairs has been est world system and it appears that
put squarely up to her on various that very fact, at times, has contri-
occasions since the war ended: Bri- buted to the uphill sledding that the
tain's unwillingness to carry out the UN experiences in trying to get some-
proposals for the Palestine problems thing accomplished. Just what are the
unless America assumed a full share basic obstacles that must be overcome
of the responsibility; the North Atlan- as regards the Soviet Union, before
tic Defense Pact; military aid to the United Nations can bring its ma-
Europe; and the European Recovery chinery into effectual operation to
Program. One problem, of several, meet and solve the many problems
poses itself, however: since we have confronting it? Can Russia and the
taken the lead in seeing that the Uni- United States (the two truly Great
ted Nations Organization works, what Powers remaining) reconcile their dif-
is to be the dividing line between the ferences to the extent that cooperation
U.N. and our diplomatic channels as in world affairs is realized? What does
regards the working out of our for- Russia (the nation that Churchill call-
eign policy? ed "a riddle wrapped in mystery in-
As regards the membership of ex- side an enigma") really want? Diffi-
enemy states, or any states not count- cult questions, but if they are capable
ed among the original members, an of translation in terms of Russia's
examination of the Covenant and the suspicion of other nations, her quest
UNO Charter shows that essentially for national security, and her desire
the same rule is applicable now as it for a larger share in the world's natur-
was in 1919. In each case a nation al resources, then some solution seems
desiring membership must have proven to be possible through the instrumen-
its intentions to live up to its inter- talities of the United Nations itself-
national obligations and its willingness through open, frank discussions mixed
to abide "by the rules," before it is with a spirit of compromise and do-
voted into membership, minated by a willingness to live up to
The Soviet Union, from the start, obligations and promises.
expressed its intentions to cooperate Unfortunately, as this is being
with this second attempt to foster written, four years since the end of
pacifism on a world scale-a direct organized conflict in Europe, only one
reversal of her attitudes of jeering treaty has been drawn up. It is im-
skepticism toward the League of Na- possible, therefore, to do anything of
tions before she expressed her willing- a comparative nature as regards peace


treaties resulting from the two wars. tent have the United Nations' position
A word here about the general back- and the prospects for permanent world
ground for peace treaties to be drawn peace been injured, if at all, by the
up in the future seems to be warrant- failures to agree on peace treaties?
ed, however. It would appear that at If the assumption, lately and often
least two conditions for drawing up made, that the nations of the world
of a "just treaty, which were not want peace (if for no other reason
available to the former of the Ver- than that they are in no position, for
sailles treaty, are at hand for the pre- the most part, to accept the alterna-
sent treaty-makers, these conditions tive-war) is correct, if the lesson we
being: (1) the all-too-clear lesson we have learned from the Versailles
should have learned from the im- Treaty is learned well enough, and if
practicability of the Versaillees treaty, clear, cool-headed logic (as opposed to
pervaded by a seemingly passionate a lust for revenge) is applied, there
desire to make the loser (Germany) is cause for an optimistic belief that
"pay" to the extent that not only was when the "world-at-peace" is handed
future war-making to be made im- over to the United Nations, the same
possible but future existence itself monster (the Versailles Treaty )
was threatened; and (2) the inability which helped to wreck the League of
of the peacemakers to get together so Nations, will not have its counterpart
far, as deplorable as it might appear, in this latest world system.
may well act as an advantage in that Although Article 11 of the UN
the passion for vengeances, which is Charter gives the General Assembly
present in varying degrees immediate- (a public forum at best since it has
ly after each and all wars, will, in no powers beyond discussion and
this case, have abated so that when the making of suggestions and recom-
the treaties are made they will not mendations, subject to the exceptions
be instruments of hate, revenge, and under Article 12, to members, Securi-
vindictiveness. Until the treaties are ty Council or both) the power to
made, the position of the whole struc- consider the principles governing
ture of the United Nations is weaken- disarmament and the regulation of
ed since the program at San Franscisco armament, the fifth listed cause of
called for the making of the peace the League's failure-the inability of
treaties by the great victorious powers, the League, the United States, and
after which they were to turn over Russia, to agree upon any plan for
the United Nations a world at peace, controlling and reducing national
Pertinent questions in this regard seem armaments, which would satisfy Ger-
important. If the Big Powers cannot many's demand for "equality of sta-
agree on the terms of the future peace tus"-is applicable to future German
treaties, what prospect is ahead for dependent upon the disposition and
their future agreement in the councils handling of German affairs that should
of the United Nations? Is the degree be inculcated in the peace treaty
of agreements (or disagreement) ob- which is drawn up for her. If, after
tainable so far in the making of peace the occupation armies have quit Ger-
treaties to be taken as a measure of man soil, her affairs are to be the
the future agreement obtainable in direct or indirect concern and respon-
the world organization? To what ex- sibility of the United Nations Organi-

zation under some kind of trustee ar- West; she has sought to push her in-
rangemrent, and then any future Ger- fluence through the Middle and Far
man demand for an "equality of sta- East to build up buffer states there,
tus" insofar as armament are concern- and she wants to be sure that she is
ed, would be inconsequential and completely surrounded by friendly na-
meaningless. The same, incidentally, tions; (2) Britian has always sought
is true of the future of Japan and to hold other strong nations back
other ex-enemy states, from her lifeline, and she has inter-
The half-hearted support given to ests in the Balkans and Eastern Eu-
the League by Britain, France and rope which she may not willingly re-
other professed supporters may best linquish; and (3) United States' policy
be translated thus: none of these pro- has historically relied on close ties with
fessed supporters would want to lend the British Empire, which Empire
their assistance to the League on any American policy has supported. There
issue if, giving that assistance, it meant seems to be no change of American
a relinquishment or weakening of their policy in this respect-not for the
power (political, economic or mili- immediate future anyway.
tary), or if it meant an impediment to It is true that these three countries
the acquisition of power. Thus it was do not constitute the entire UNO, but
a desire for power which stood in the it seems to be a truism of equal im-
way of full support and cooperation, port that to the degree that the Big
Has the air been cleared, in this res- Three can forget their differences, seek
pect, so that unreserved and unselfish a basis for agreement, and lend their
support to the United Nations Organi- full support to the United Nations, to
zation will be forthcoming? The an- that same degree will the death of
swer seems to rest primarily and for the United Nations from lack of sup-
the most part on the ability of the port be averted.
Eastern and Western interests to re- Numbers 7 and 8 in the list of
concile themselves. Is the Russian fear causes can be lumped together.
of a "western bloc," aligned against "Though League members pledged
her, strong enough to make her wary themselves not to resort to war, war
of entering into an agreement in was still an acknowledged right of
which the United States and the other sovereign states with little moral stig-
Western powers participate? On the ma attached to it. It was not until
other hand, is the Western fear of 1928 that war was formally renounc-
"Communist imperialism" of sufficient ed and outlawed by most nations
strength to dictate opposition to any- through the Briand-Kellogg Pact. Only
thing that Russia advocates? In short, in the present day are the instigators
is the unanimity among the Big Three, of aggressive war being called to ac-
which formed the basis of the UNO, count, not only as nations, but as in-
no longer possible and will this in- dividuals, as at Nuremberg. The seed
ability to get together mean the auto- planted by the League has blossomed
matic ineffectiveness of this world sys- into applied international law, and the
tem? This much seems certain: (1) United Nations will no longer have to
Russia is determined to establish a contend with those legal and moral
security zone in eastern Europe as pro- uncertainties which bedevilled the
section against future attack from the League and paralyzed action by its


members."4 Whether the optimistic incorporated, did not seem to plague
certainty with which the above quo- the conferees at San Franscisco as
station ends is absolutely warranted is was the case in 1919-probably be-
a point for considerable debate. It cause more nations were willing to
does seem altogether possible, however, combine their efforts toward the ac-
that the prosecution of war "crimi- complishment of world security in
nals" will make aggressors think twice 1945 than they were twenty-six years
before they resort to war in the exer- before.
cise of sovereign power. Insofar as There are many and varied opinions
the Charter of the UNO is concerned, as regards the acceptability of, and
no state loses its sovereignty by join- belief, in the United Nations. These
ing the Organization and, in addition, diverse opinions are, for the most part,
"the Organization is based on the not as much concerned with whether
principle of the sovereign equality of a world system is necessary as they
all its members." are with whether the present system
The lack of power in the League is strong enough to accomplish that
itself to compel its members to use ideal. Be that as it may, the novelty
their collective force against aggres- of a formal world organization for
sion seems adequately provided for by peace has worn off and there is much
the Articles 41 and 47 of the UNO to be learned, many pitfalls to be
Charter. The Articles provide for the avoided, if the experiences of the
employment of land, air, and sea forces League are heeded.
of Member-States, if the Security As for the twelfth cause, the UN,
Council deems such action necessary, like the League, is a voluntary asso-
to maintain international peace and n
to maintain international peace and cation of sovereign states. The rules
security-the application of such forces for entering both are essentially the
to be made by the Security Council i a
t e ae y the eriy il same, as has been noted; conspiciously
with the assistance of the Military absent from the Charter, however,
Staff Commission. "If the United Na-
are provisions for withdrawal.
tions lives up to its promises, it will are provisions for withdrawal.
be able to stop aggression in the be- The cultural lag mentioned as one
ginning, instead of having to depend of the causes for the League's failure
on the action of individual members, has reference to the inability of men's
each of whom is inclined to shift the minds to keep abreast with technolog-
burden to others."5 ical improvements. With every scien-
In answer to the lack of definiteness tific advance in the field of transpor-
of the coercive articles of the Cove- station and communication the world
nant, as being applicable in the case becomes that much more compact, and
of the UNO Charter, the coercive the necessity for an earnest effort to-
ward the peaceful living-together of
articles of the latter seem much more ward the peaceful living-together of
a heterogeneous group of individuals
definite. Likewise the fear of non- and nations becomes more mandatory.
acceptance on the part of the powers, No longer are the oceans wide enough,
if more definite coercion were to be the desert vast enough, the mountains
4raken from an. editorial entitled "Old high enough for any nation to consider
League to New" in the New York Times, April itself isolated from what happens in
14, 1946.
1Ibid. thb rest of the world. In addition, the


economic interdependence of nations tenance of international security (Art.
requires political and social adjust- 35), which condition was not provid-
ments. Even though the cultural lag ed for in the Covenant. Probably the
persists, the assumption can safely be most significant and important differ-
made that the gap is getting smaller ence in the two "mechanisms," how-
-more people are realizing, in 1949, ever, is the reliance on the regional
that there can be no isolationist nation arrangements as well as the encourage-
than ever before. ment given to them by the United
The unanimity rule, under the guise Nations' Charter which was not evi-
of veto power, still persists in this, the dent in the League's Covenant. This
second world system of peace. This is last feature, coupled with the ne-
unfortunate, to say the least, in view ccssary assumption that the nations of
of the fact that those nations who the world want peace, should result
"enjoy" veto power can not them- in much closer cooperation and col-
selves agree on certain basic issues. elaboration between the world organi-
The United Nations recognizes the zation and the regional organization
rc ia once compromise or settlement on
existence of regional arrangements or a i
systems (Articles 52-54 of the Char- method, as regards the different re-
ter), as long as such system and their gional grouping, is arrived at.
The above comparison leads to the
activities are consistent with the prin- The above comparison leads to the
ciples and purposes of the Organiza- irrefutable conclusion that the security
tion, as did the League (Article 18- arrangements provided for by the
2i of the Covenant). In addition, the United Nations Charter are vastly
Charter provides for supervisory con- superior to those provided by the Lea-
Charter provides for supervisory con-
trol, by the world system, by em- gue of Nations Covenant-if for no
powering the Security Council to in- other reason than the all-important
vestigate any dispute or situation one that the United Nations has power
which might threaten international (inherent in its machinery) to enforce
peace and security, even though such its decisions, which power the League
peace and security, even though such h n When t p t a
had not. When the peace treaties are
situation or dispute is the direct con- made, and hen te peace treatis for
cern of the regional arrangements (par. settlement of the clash between West-
4, Article 52 and Article 34), and settlement of the clash between West-
di, Arte 2 Co and Article 14), an ern and Eastern interests is established,
did the Cvenant articlee 1. A the enforcement powers of the United
significant difference, in this respect, Nations, in conjunction with the now
is that non-members, as well as mem- realized necessity and importance of
realized necessity and importance of
bers, may bring to the attention of firm economic, as well as political,
the Security Council, or to the Gene- foundation for a lasting peace, should
ral Assembly, any dispute or situat- result in international peace and se-
ion which might endanger the main- curity for all peoples.

Summary of Some Florida School Laws

and The Individual

Dean of Arts and Sciences

A LTHOUGH there are thousands of desirable standards and particularly to
people working in the public assist in the improvement of the teach-
school system, many of them never er and the administrator of education
take the time or trouble to acquaint of the state, a council has been organ-
themselves with the details of the law ized which is designated as the Florida
under which they work, and by which Teacher Education Advisory Coun-
they are governed as they function in cil. This council is composed of the
the educational program. This may be following:
due to the fact that many of us are 1. A representative from each institution of
satisfied with knowing the rules and higher learning in the state which offers
regulations in a general way, while courses for the preparation of teachers.
others of us who would like to know 2. One or more representatives from the State
Department of Education.
more specifically, are discouraged by 3. At least an equal number of persons con-
the volume of the laws themselves nected with the public schools of the state
and highly involved statements of the who shall be appointed by the Board on
parts in which we are interested. This recommendation by the State Superinten-
dent. (231.10)"'
latter objection motivated this paper. Te e e o te n e
It is the objective of this paper to The members of the council are
pick out of the general laws certain entitled to reimbursement for expenses
pertinent sections which definitely of attending meetings of the council.
touch the individual per se. In the Reimbursement shall be made by the
development of this paper wherever State Treasurer from funds appropri-
necessary, the number of the section ated for the tate Department of
of the School Law of 1936 is enclosed Education to be drawn by the State
in parentheses. Unless otherwise in- Comptroller on requisition approved
dicated, the basis of the discussion by the State Superintendent.
here is the Florida School Laws of The duties of the council shall be:
1946. If the section discussed has 1. To plan and conduct, in cooperation with
the State Department of Education and
be:n significantly amended, that fact institutions of higher learning, studies re-
has been appropriately indicated. lating to the selection, education, guidance
EDUCATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOL and placement of school personnel and
especially of instructional and adminis-
PERSONNEL trative personnel in the state.
The State Board prescribes mini- 2. To submit to the State Superintendent
mum standards including minimum and through him to the State Board, on or
curricula for the education of per- before January 1 of each year, a report
sonnel engaged in public school work *Documentation by Sadie Yates, senior
in the state. To aid in developing student in Business Administration.



summarizing the findings of studies in sive preparation for the training of
the program as are considered desirable. teachers. It approves both in-state
(231.10) and out-of-state institutions which
For convenience of operation, there train those who teach here. (231.11)
exists in the state a white Teacher The State Superintendent periodically
Education Advisory Council and a tate Supintendent iodicall
inspects the state institutions which
Negro Teacher Education Advisory are under the control of the State
Council. The Negro Council is com- Board of Control, and makes rec-
posed of the following perons:W ommendations to the presidents of
State Deoartment of Education: W. E.
Combs, Supervisor, Negro Secondary Schools, these institution in matters pertaining
State Department af Education to teacher-training. (231.12)
Mrs. Evelyn W. Sharpe, Supervisor, Negro CERTIFICATES
Elementary Schools (Acting), State Depart-
ment of Education. No person shall be employed to
Edward Waters College: Mrs. E. P. Jones, serve in an administrative or instruc-
Head Department Elementary Education, tional capacity as a regular or part-
Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla. time teacher in the public schools in
Florida Normal and Industrial College e state who does not hold a valid
Leslie H. Dawson, Dean, St. Augustine,ate who does not hold a va
Florida. certificate to teach in Florida, granted
Bethune-Cookman College: Richard V. or recognized by the Board. No coun-
Moore, President, Daytona Beach, Florida. ty shall employ such a person for ad-
Florida A & M College: Melvin O. Als-e or il
ton, Dean, Tallahassee, Florida.rative or structional service
Supervisors: Miss Edna Calhoun, Supervi- who does not hold a valid certificate
sor Negro Schools, Duval County, 605 Ocean unless previous residence in Florida
Street, Jacksonville, Florida. is not required as a prerequisite for any
Secondary Principals: Mrs. Frances Tucker, person holding a valid Florida certi-
Principal, George Washington Carver High
School, Miami, Florida. ficate to serve in an instructional or
Elementary Principals: Mrs. Verdelle Pic- administrative capacity in the schools
kens, Principal, Spencer Bibbs Elementary in Florida. The State Superintendent
School, Pensacola, Florida. will issue a certificate to any person
Secondary Classroom Teachers: Mrs. E. E. w i
Broughton, Teacher, Middleton High School, possessing the following qualifications
Tampa, Florida. for such a certificate:
Elementary Classroom Teachers: Mrs. Inez 1. Pays the required fee
L. Fort, Teacher, 61 N. Bryan Street, Orlan- 2. Makes application in writing on the form
do, Florida. prescribed by the State Superintendent
Librarians: Mrs. J. A. Long, Librarian, 3. Presents satisfactory evidence that he pos-
Central Academy, Palatka, Florida.1 sesses said qualifications
State Department of Education: Dr. Regina The following qualifications are
Goff, Supervisor of Negro Elementary n sary in
Schools, State Department of Educatioi, =ccsary in order to be eligible for
Tallahassee, Florida.2 a certificate to serve in an administra-
TRAINING OF TEACHERS tive capacity or instructional capacity:
1. Must be a citizen of the United States
The State of Florida makes exten- 2. Must meet academic and professional re-
quirements based on credentials certified
1Florida Education Directory, October 1949, by a standard Teacher-Training institution
p 15. of higher learning.
Since the Florida Educational Directory was
printed Dr. Goff was appointed to the position QUALIFICATION OF PERSONNEL
of Supervisor of Negro Elementary Schools to
replace Mrs. Sharpe. In order to teach in Florida, one


must have the following qualifica- III 2,550
tions: IV 1,600
V 1,400
1. Good moral character. VI 825
2. Hold a proper certificate or license NOTE: After July 1, 1951, rank VI will be
3. Be twenty years old (231.02) discontinued.
All persons employed to teach full
time, part time, or as a substitute Each person employed shall be C
must have a valid certificate. (231.14) Each person employed shall be en-
Each person applying for a certi- titled to receive a written contract
Each person applying for a certi-
ficate which would make him eligible (23 1.36) Each person employed shall
S o m h receive the salary prescribed by the
to serve in an administrative or in- salary prescred by the
structional capacity in the schools of salary schedule adopted by the county
Florida, in addition to meeting all other board in compliance with the require-
requiremnts and before receiving a ments of the general state law (231.-
certificate, shall file, along with his 37).
other credentials, a written statement EA NG h R
under oath that he will uphold the Teaching is more than many people
principles of the Constitution of the seem to realize. It includes certain
principles of the Constitution of the intangibles that are not included in
United States of America. (231.18). i s that are not included in
United States of America. (23118). ordinary textbooks, courses of study,
TRAINING RANKS (236.07)* curricula, etc. It must be made to in-
Teachers are ranked according to elude the whole child. His moral and
certificates held as follows: ethical side must be developed along
Rank I-Those holding certificates based on with his traditional educational side.
one year or more of approved graduate work In order to accomplish this objective,
beyond the masters degree.
Rank II-Those holding certificates based the law indicates that it is desired that
on a masters degree or one year of approved all children should have the following
graduate work beyond the bachelors level minimum knowledge and appreciation
or the equivalent of the bachelors level. in addition to whatever else may be
Rank III-Those holding certificates based
on an approved four year college degree or taught in the school:
the equivalent. 1. Essentials of U. S. Constitution
Rank IV-Those holding certificates based 2. Flag education including salute
on 3 to 3.9 years of college training or 3. Elementary principles of agriculture
the equivalent. 4. True effects of alcohol, and intoxicating
Rank V-Those holding certificates based liquors
on 2 to 2.9 years of college training or the 5. Kindness to animals
equivalent. 6. History of the State of Florida
Rank VI-Those holding certificates based 7. Conservation of natural resources
on less than 2 years of college training or their frequently overlooked respon-
the equivalent. Other frequently overlooked respon-
Those counties participating fully 1. Bible reading daily in presence of pupils
L;- the State Foundation Program may .but without sectarian comment
pay the following salaries per year ac- 2. Example for students in matters of morals,
S t truth, honesty, patriotism and Christian
cording to rank: virtue
Rank Salary
I 3,000 Provision is made whereby an em-
ployed individual may obtain tempo-
*Amendment of 1947 rary leave from his duties. Leaves are


classified as follows: five days, it shall be filled by a quali-
1. Sick leave (231.40): Teachers are entitled fled and certified teacher until the
to receive not more than five days sick next meeting of the County Board at
leave in any one year. Sick leave includes which time it will be filled in the same
personal illness or illness or death of father,
mother, brother, sister, husband, wife, or manner that regular positions are filled.
child. Sick leave shall be cumulative, but When a teacher is granted a leave, the
not more than 20 school days of leave may substitute shall be paid by the County
be claimed in any one year. Teachers may Eoaed. (213.47)
secure compensation for time on sick leave
provided proper written forms are exe- SUSPENSION OR DISMISSAL
cuted. For the following causes, teaching
2. Illness-in-the-line-of-duty leave (231.41): personnel may be suspended or dismiss-
Teachers may obtain, not to exceed 10 ed from their duties: immorality, mis-
school days leave, for injury received or conduct in office, incompetency, gross
illness contracted in the discharge of duty. ,
Under certain conditions compensation may insubordination, willful neglect of
be obtained provided proper written forms duty, drunkenness, conviction of any
are executed. crime involving moral turpitude. But,
3. Professional leave (231.39): A one year a teacher may not be suspended or
professional leave may be granted anyteacher
who has served in the county satisfactorily dismissed during the term for which
for three or more years. Partial compensa- she is employed without being given
tion may be authorized if the teacher has an opportunity for a public hearing
served in the county for seven or more on che charges, after at least a 10
years, days' written notice of the charges
4. Personal leave (231.43): Personal leaves and the time and place of the hear-
may be granted teachers under the regu-
lations adopted by the County Board. ing. When a teacher is suspended for
SUBSTITUTE TEACHERS such charges she will not be on salary,
however, if the charges are not sus-
When a teacher is absent five days stained, she will be entitled to all back
or less, a substitute teacher may be em- salary which would have been earned.
played at the rate of pay that shall not
exceed that which the regular teacher If the charges are sustained and the
would have received during the time employee is discharged, her contract
absent. When an absence extends over will be cancelled. (230.23)

Some Objectionable Stereotypes and

Themes In Negro Drama

1-ic]' of Drama Department

IN EVEN A cursory study of the hand, they have led audiences to expect
plays dealing with Negro life and a special dress, a mannerism, and a
character, one cannot help noticing standard reaction to situations which
the existence of many objectionable they have come to expect as right and
stereotypes and themes which have typical Any deviation on the part of
become fixtures. These are particularly the playwright is met with a mental
displeasing to Negro audiences, and resistance by the playgoer thereby
haxe caused the art of the drama to limiting his ability to enjoy the
develop very slowly in appreciation performance. The consequent failure
within the racial group, of the play causes all but the most
Just what are stereotypes? Stereo- daring of playwrights not to violate
types are character creations of a fixed this expectancy again.
pattern with physical and verbal man- A selected list of the principal ster-
nerism which are identified in the eotypes, with a brief reference to a
minds of the public with certain ra- play or motion picture in which they
cial or minority groups. Instead of are found, is as follows:
giving the impression of normal human Uncle Tom: This is an obsequious,
beings reacting to the problems of bowing and scraping type. There is
life in a more or less universal way, an exaggerated over doing of humility
these stereotypes act in a fixed and for the dominant race. This is one of
special way which is depicted as being the most hated of the stereotypes by
characteristic of a definite minority Negroes. This explains the protests
group. The shiftless Negro servant, which follow any revival of "Uncle
the dumb, drinking, red nosed Irish- Tom's Cabin," from which the symbol
man, the Shylock Jew, and the lazy, is taken. The soldier in Ransome Rid-
greasy Mexican, readily come to mind out's "Goin' Home," who did not have
as examples of these stereotypes, manhood enough to defend the viola-
In Negro drama, these stereotypes tion of his rented room and wife by a
of the race have had a hampering in- white captain of World War I, is also
fluence on both playwrights and au- an example.
xdiences. As for the playwrights, these The Mammy. This is a full bosomed,
fixtures of creation have prevented large, dark cook or nurse around the
them from creating real Negro charac- big house of southern plantation dra-
ters with universal and personal char- ma, the type-part played by Hattie
acteristics and appeal which would McDaniel in "Gone With the Wind,"
cause them to be recognized and appre- for example.
ciated as human beings. On the other The Black-faced Comedian or Clown.


This razor totin', crap shooting, happy and harmonica and his flow of poetic
go lucky, grinning clown grew out of dialect words. Ridgley Torrence's "Ri-
the minstrels. "The Jazz Singer," a der of Dreams," and Paul Green's
motion picture starring Al Jolson, the "The No Count Boy," are examples.
motion picture of "Amos and Andy" The Supersitious Male or Female. They
and many musical shows have includ- believe readily in the charms of the
ed this type. conjurer no matter how well educated
The Tragic Mulatto. A light-skinned they are. Emperor Jones and Gordelia,
colored girl who can pass for white, the sophisticated heroine of "Harlem"
Her tragic plight is she has no real by Thurman and Rapp are of that
affinity with Negroes because of her type.
white blood, and cannot associate with The Bad Nigger. This is a villianous
whites with honor and dignity because type who will stop at nothing from
of her Negro blood. Peola in "Imita- rape to murder of the dominant race.
tion of Life," the motion picture has The newly freed slave who pursues
become the symbol, the white girl until she jumps off
T '. Over-sexed female or vampire, mountain and kills herself in the mo-
She, too, is usually a mulatto. She is tion picture, "The Birth of a Nation,"
loose and sexy, going from one man and Bigger Thomas in "Native Son"
to another for a thrill or for money. are examples.
Lulu Belle in the play of that name Reconstruction drama and litera-
is the type. So are Anna Lucastra and ture furnished two other types: The
Scarlet Sister Mary. Contented Slave, one who was satisfied
The Sweet Man. This is a virile, good with his lot; and the wretched freed-
looking sex appealing Negro male. He, man, a juvenile type of grown man
like his female counter-part, the over- who longed for the protection of a
sexed female, goes from woman to kind master. Both types are found in
woman. He is a heart breaker such "Our Lan'" and "Set My People Free."
as Crown in "Porgy." These are the principal types of
Shiftless Negro Servant. This is a lazy, stereotypes that have evolved in the
good-for-nothing, but amiable type. literature of drama and fiction. There
Stephin Fetchit (Lincoln Perry), who are other minor ones. Their actions,
bills himself the laziest man in the psychology, and mannerism in play
world, appeared in many motion pic- after play and story after story are
tures with Will Rogers and others as the same. They have been used so often
this type. that large sections of the public have
The Dialect Speaking Preacher or El- come to look for them in typical situa-
'. T ; is e w-!1 meaning but comic tions instead of sincere, honest, and
preacher with his Bible and "God realistic character portrayal.
Trombone" sermon and his love for Turning from the stereotype to
liquor and women. He appeared in Paul themes, most of the plays portray
Green's "Roll Sweet Chariot," "Por- low and middle class life-their im-
gy," and in many vaudeville sketches, moralities, superstitions, miscegena-
The Happy-go-Lucky Male. This is tions and frustrations. Very rarely is
a variation of the "Sweet Man." In- there a portrayal of upper class Negro
stead of virility, he depends more on life. Many of the themes are painful
the charm of the music from his guitar and depressing, for they center around


injustices, brutality and lynching. into insanity and makes her attempt to
There is little if any of the catching stab her patient dark husband.
of the joyful or poetic life beyond From the foregoing, it is easy to
the color line. see why Negro audiences dislike so
Superstition and voodooism are es- called Negro plays. Most of those
pecially rampant. In one form or they have seen so far have had this
another they creep into all of the combination of racial stereotype in
plays. There is little difference in some form coupled with an objection-
reaction to them because of social or able theme. It can easily be seen that
intellectual position in life. The learned they are not made of the stuff that
and city bred react to them in the engenders enthusiasm.
same manner as the illiterate and the The question finally arises: what
rustics. The entire theme of "The can be done about the situation? Pro-
Emperor Jones" is woven around the tests against the performance of objec-
superstitions of Brutus Jones, the rul- tionable plays have been tried. The N.
er. Paul Green's "In Aunt Mahaley's A.A.C.P. and other groups have pro-
Kitchen," and Ridgley Torrence's tested against "St. Louis Woman" with
"Grannee Maumee" have similar the over-sexed female, even though it
themes. The characters Lulu Belle was written by two prominent colored
and Abraham have their share; and playwrights: Arna Bontemps and
Cordelia, the highly sophisticated city Countee Cullen.
flirt buys a love philter from a voodoo The various revivals of the recon-
doctor. struction hate depicting picture, "The
Problems growing out of being dark Birth of a Nation," are invariable met
in a white country form the subject with the same type of treatment from
matter of many of the plays. Two ex- both colored and white groups. Fur-
amples of this type of treatment will thermorc, every time there is a play or
suffice. One centers around illicit re- picture with objectionable characters
lationship with a white hero and a and themes there are protests.
heroine of color, in the southern states. But protests are not sufficient. At
This situation invariably brings on best they are negative. What is needed
trouble and disgrace to the heroine is a positive approach. This is a chal-
for customs, conventions and psychol- lenge to the Negro playwright for
ogy make it impossible for them to the last half of the century. For him,
marry. Lillian Smith's "Strange Fruit," there must be a conscious effort to
and Paul Green's "White Dresses" are portray Negro characters that are
examples, universal, representative and human.
When this problem of racial inter- Along with them must go themes
marriage is transferred to the North, of high value, universality, dignity,
or abroad, the couple is allowed to end power. With this new combina-
marry; but the color of different skins tion of real and representative charac-
is too high a hurdle for complete hap- ter creation and lofty and human
piness. In Belasco's production of "Lu- themes, the stereotypes will melt
lu Belle," the dusty heroine is strangled away into insignificance as the snow
on a richly decorated bed in a French before the light of the sun.
hotel. In O'Neill's "All God's' Chillum The encouraging fact about this is
Got Wings,"it drives the white heroine that Negro playwrights have shown


evidence of having caught the high have done so far, however, is another
spirit of this mission. Negro producing interesting story.
groups and associations have made NOTE: Material for this article was
real progress in learning the art of taken from a recently completed'
production and in developing an au- manuscript of a book by Mr. Ed-
dience which will be ready for the new rzonds, "The Negro in the Western
approach to Negro drama. What they W;;old Theatre."

Music Education In The Elementary and

Secondary Schools

Instructor of Music

M music is fundamental in the edu- Modern inventions have shortened
cation of every child. Great phi- the working day of man, thus giving
losephers and educators of all times him more leisure time. This is certainly
have recognized its importance. Aris- a challenge to music educators. Man
totle saw in music not only enjoyment, has always loved music. Even in primi-
relaxation, and recreation, but also a tive times he made rhythmic response
release from the tension of disturbed to music. The real purpose of music
emotional states and an incentive to education is not primarily to discover
the positive development of character, musical genius, but to minister to an
Plato believed that through music, intellectual and emotional need. There
rhythm and harmony find their way was a time when only children of fami-
into the innermost soul and become lies of favorable economic status were
a part of the personality. privileged to develop an aptitude for
Music merits support and encour- music. Today we find that music is a
agement in the school progress equal basic human need, and most communi-
to that given any other subject or area ties are demanding it for all children.
of experience. The development of music education
Today in all our schools children are has been one of the outstanding edu-
taught to sing beautiful songs with nationall developments of this genera-
taught to sing beautiful songs with
pleasing voice quality and to interpret
lthe reciprocal work of the poet and Miss Lilla Bell Pitts, professor of
composer in the creation of exquisite music education at Columbia Univer-
music. Thus the musical heritage of sity, gives her point of view in music
all ages and peoples becomes a part of education. She says,"Music isn't a body
the cultural treasure of every child by of knowledge to be acquired through
means of the phonograph and radio. In study; it is not a technique to be mas-
most schools, even the small rural tered through practice; nor is it an ag-
schools, provisions have been made for gregation of facts to be memorized.
students to participate in bands and To be sure, such factors may enter at
orchestras. Many times these organi- some time into a loving pursuit of this
nations are heard on the air and in pub- art, but music is the experience of the
lic concerts and compare very favor- race objectified in permanent form for
ably with professional organizations. the enhancement of life and for the
Music has become an integral part of elevation of human thought. It is to
child life in school, at home, and in the be loved for its beauty, sought for its
community. charm, lived with for its delightful



companionship, and served because it solace, and exaltation which music
inspires devotion." might provide throughout life.
In brief, elementary music education Music experience should be so or-
should help boys and girls: ganized that every child will have an
1. To develop a love for, and an appreciation opportunity to realize success. The
for music. music material given to children must
2. To sing, play or listen intelligently ac-
cording to their individual interest and be on their level of understanding.
ability. Children will find joy in material in
3. To develop their emotional natures, which they can succeed. It is therefore
4. To develop a desire for the worthy and the responsibility of the teacher to
beautiful in their lives, build gradually so that progressive
Since music should contribute to growth results. Children must grow
the realization of the major purposes constantly and know that they are
of all education, it is the function of growing. The speed of development is
the elementary schools to help each not so important as is the continuity
child: and the child's satisfaction in his ac-
1. To develop a sound body, normal mental ih i
attitudes and controlled emotional reactions. complishment. At no time should the
2. To understand social relationships andl child be permitted to know failure in
participate in them in ways conducive to his musical experience.
social progress. All music materials should be se-
3. To develop potentialities as completely as elected in terms of the maturity of in-
possible. cted in terms of the maturity of in
4. To cultivate habits of critical thinking. terest and ability of the group. The
5. To appreciate and wish to participate in early years of the elementary school
worthwhile activities. may provide that favorable mental set
6. To acquire command of the common toward music which will contribute
knowledge and skills essential to effective
living. to lifelong appreciation and desire for
Music contributes to the above ma- music. The study of technique must
jor purposes of all education only when follow, but only when the love of mu-
all music activities are evaluated in the sic has been firmly established by many
light of their effectiveness, namely the pleasurable excursions into the domain.
development of an integrated person- The child sees first that music is a
ality. All children are musical and all way that man has found to share his
of them should have an opportunity understanding of beauty. If children
for a musical experience. Through understand the spirit, teachers need
singing, instrumental music, and mu- have no concern about their mastery
sic appreciation, the elementary school of the letter.
is helping children to explore the field Different personalities react differ-
and to find those beautiful, permanent ently to music. Sometimes a child ex-
and satisfying values which will make presses a dislike for certain types of
life more intelligently and emotionally mt.sic, and occasionally of all music.
complete. We must beware of too early In either czse, the child's opinion de-
specialization which may deprive some serves respect, and he should not be
children of music before there has been forced into insincerity by the coercion
suIficient time for thorough explora- or by inrpositioa of adult standards.
tion. This may result not only in An cid hysrr:e provides all the reason
losing possible appreciative listeners to a teacher should never inquire for a
music, but also denying the enjoyment, child's likes and dislikes:

"I do not love you, Dr. Fell learning situation. In this connection
The reason why I cannot tell Dykema says:
But this, indeed, I know full well "The functional approach, based up-
I do not love you, Dr. Fell." on the conception that effective learn-
The teacher may, however, provide ing takes place only when there is in-
opportunity for many happy and suc- terest, welcomes vital opportunities to
cessful experiences for the child in relate music to other studies. It is be-
relation to music. Skillful teaching lived that in this heightened interest
will restore music appreciation which will be found so many and varied op-
may have been dulled by previous portunities for teaching music that
clumsy treatment. New attitudes can the needed technical development will
be mustered in a favorably and sym- eventually be forthcoming."
pathetic, environment. Appreciation Music should function in relation
can never be forced upon another per- to the entire curriculum to which it
sonality, but it can be induced by a has a dual function. It may enrich,
skillful teacher, broaden, and deepen social understand-
The music education program of the ing but it has a significant contribu-
elementary school should represent a tion to make to human development
balanced experience including vocal as an expressive art. Music has grown
and instrumental music with appreci- out of man's fundamental human need
ation in all its phases. Many children to express his struggles, his ideals, and
who are not equipped with a pleasing his dreams. A good example of this
voice find their most satisfying avenue in America is the Spiritual created
of music expression in instrumental by the American Negro. Through his
music. Other children who will never music the child can glimpse the etern-
be interested in being music producers al rhythm of man's striving toward
may become an intelligent audience the unattainable and come to realize
because of the opportunity for guided with the immortal Browning that
listening to beautiful music. "A man's reach must exceed his grasp
A well balanced music program Or what's heaven for?"
makes excellent provision for individ- All phases of music education may
ual variations in musical ability and in- be crcaiive either in the interpretive
terest. The elementary school choir, sense, or through original expression.
acapella choirs, and glee clubs provide Active participation in a musical ac-
special opportunity for the vocally tivity helps to recreate the composer's
gifted children. Orchestras and bands thought and emotions in the experi-
also take care of the needs of children ence of the learner and therefore, be-
of varying degrees of talent and in- comes creative for him.
terest. The wide range of music ma- The singing of rote songs, the read-
terial available also makes it possible ing of music, rhythmic response to
for teachers to adapt instruction to music, playing in the toy orchestra
the individual differences within a par- are all creative in the sense of the
ticular group of children, learner's interpretation. The types of
Music education should be ap- creation in the form of original ex-
proached through the child's esthetic pression are many. Songs, tunes, har-
experience, and facts about music monies, rhythms, chants, poems, danc-
should be acquired in a purposeful es, dramatizations, and pantomimes

may all express the understanding and knowledge of beautiful, permanent folk
appreciation of individuals or groups songs, and beautiful art songs written
of children of any of life's rich or viv- by reputable composers. Only selec-
id experiences, tions of real artistic worth deserve the
In the past, technical music has been attention of children.
imposed by the teacher. In the modern Music education requires the selec-
school, the child and the group recog- tion of materials in terms of logical or-
nize their own needs and acquire the ganization toward the accomplishment
necessary skills and techniques in the of definite goals. The standards need
process of satisfying them. never take the form of specific items
All skills in music should be devel- of subject matter to be learned, but
oped through worthy materials. More teachers must be sure that learning
important still, all the songs children do take place in meaningful relation-
sing, all the music they play, all the ships.
compositions to which they listen There is no activity carried on by
should be intrinsically worthwhile. If the school that brings more joy to the
children hear only good music, they participants and members of the com-
will choose it in preference to the unity alike, than the production of
cheap and transitory "latest hit." musical programs. Instrumental music
The period in which the school has is carrying over into the homes of the
the child within its influence is too community.
limited and too precious to spend any T a
part of it on material of less than the The aem of the school s broader
finicst quality. than the education of the children.
The teacher should be careful in the Schools may encourage the intelligent
selectin of operettas, for many are use of the radio so children and adults
written for the sole purpose of attract- alike may grow in knowledge and ap-
ing the dollar of the unwary teacher. prciation of the world's master-
Poor music, thoroughly learned to pro- pieces of music.
duce an acceptable performance, de- The vitality and effectiveness of
stroys the children's musical taste and, the music learned in and encouraged
secondly, the time taken for study and by the school may be judged by the
rehearsals might have been more prof- extent to which it functions to en-
itably spent in building the children's rich the child's out-of- school world.

Studies of Blood Volume Under The Influence

of Injected Proteose and Histamine

Instructor of Chemistry

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE allowed to pass in order to insure thor-
F IFTY GRAMS of Wittes's Peptone ough mixing of the dye in the circulation.
were extracted with 300cc. of hot Ten cubic centimeters of blood are then
were extracted with 300 of hot drawn from the vein of the opposite arm.
absolute alcohol to remove traces of This quantity is divided into five cubic
his:amnine. The Pauly reaction for centimeters portions and placed in cen-
hista mine was negative, trifuge tubes containing oxalate solution.
U' hrc normal unanesthetized dogs (') All four tubes are centrifuged for thirty
were used. They were given 0.4gm. minutes at a speed of 3000 revolutions
per minute. The supernatant plasma was
of protease per kilo body weight, re- pipetted off.
ceiving it into the jugular vein. (6) A standard solution is then made up as
When histamine was used two mgms. flows: 2cc of unstrained plasma (first
of it were injected into the jugular sample), 2cc of a 1:200 dilution of the
vein and 5cc. of blood were drawn original, 1.5 percent dye solution, 4.0cc
of physiological salt solution.
from the opposite side. Twenty min- This is placed in the colorimeter and
utes were allowed for the injected ma- matched with a sample of the second
trial to exert its maximum effects be- plasma sample (stained) diluted with
fore another 5cc. of blood were drawn. physiological salt solution in the pro-
portion of 2cc of the former to 6cc
Ar. hour and a half after the injection of the latter. f ormer to 6
a final 5cc. of blood were drawn under (7) The concentration of the unknown ex-
the influence of injected proteose and pressed in relation to that of the standard
histamine. is given by the colorimeter reading. Tak-
inng I5cc as the quantity of dye solu-
n studying the blood volume, we tion injected, the following is the formula
used a brilliant,vital red dye. The blood used:
volume was determined by a modifi- 15 x 200 x 5/6
cation of the method of Keith, Rown- colorimeter reading equals cc plasma volume
tree and Gerahty. The procedure is: 200x15 (cc dye injected) equal 3000
(1) A 1.5 per cent solution of vital red 5/6 equal oxalate dilution factor
is prepared by dissolving 375 mgm of The oxalate dilution factor is cal-
the dye in fresh triply distilled water. culated from the quality of the
(2) Ten cubic centimeters of blood are oxalate solution added and the quan-
drawn from the vein of the arm and
0.25cc of dye per kilogram of body tity of the second plasma sample. The
weight injected, total quantity of oxalated plasma in
(3) The blood which has been withdrawn the tube minus one, divided by the
is placed in each of two centrifuge former quantity gives the required
tubes each containing Icc of 1.5 per- figure.
cent solution of sodium oxalate.
(4) A period of from five to six minutes is In order to determine the volume
Experimental work for this paper was done of whole blood, one must know the
as part of a thesis at the University of Iowa proportion of plasma to red cells. This
Hospital, Iowa City, Ia. volume is obtained by means of the



hematocrit. If the plasma constitutes, ing ninety-three blood volume de-
say 55 per cent of the whole blood, terminations on three dogs to study
the total volume is then calculated by the effects of proteose and histamine
the formula: injection on the blood plasma. With
cc of plasma x 100 the onset of either proteose or hista-
5 equals vol of whole blood mine shock in the dog there was a rapid
The rate of disappearance of bril- loss of blood plasma for twenty min-
liant vital red from the blood of each utes-about one third-with a relative
dog in twenty minutes was determined increase in cell count. This condition
and used as a correction on the blood resulted either because of a loss of
volume determinations made on the fluid from the blood into the tissues
twenty minutes samples. This averaged or the release of corpuscles from
ten per cent. some reservoir in the blood. Direct
THE HEMATOCRIT METHOD measurements of the plasma volume
The hematocrit was determined by demonstrated that the first explana-
The hematocrit was determined by tion is the correct one. Ninety minutes
centrifuging the oxalate blood until ton s the c ct one. Ninety minutes
the readings of the packed cells and after theinjection of protease or his-
tamine, recovery of blood volume
the readings of the fluid level were and concentration were evident. No
constant. This usually required from striking differences in blood volume
twenty to thirty minutes. The per strkh g differences of blood volume
cent of cells were equal to the read- w d th injection of proteose as com-
ings of the packed cells divided byth histane were noticed.
the reading of the fluid level. The incidentally, it should be stated that
hematocrit was figured from the for- in amyloidosis brilliant vital red
mula rapidly disappears from the blood. The
Reading of packed cells rapid disappearance from the blood
Percent cells equalsReading of fluid level-.0 makes the above technique for the in-
The results of five earlier tests with section of this dye also usable for a
Wittes peptone (dog 1, 13kg.) showed valuable test for the diagnosis of amy-
hematocrit values that rose from lod disease. In ths condition ninety
an average of 42.8 per cent to 50.3 percent of the dye injected will
per cent in twenty minutes. Blood be gone from the blood in one hour
volumes were done in three tests and n coparson to the fifteen per cent
thac is ordinarily removed.
a loss of 27.3%, 27.8%, and 21.5% t s ordinarly remOG ed.
of the plasma volume found. In tests 1. KEITH, N. M., ROWNTREE, L. G. and
on dogs two and three plasma volume GERAHTY, J T. Arch. Internal Medicine
losses were 34.6% and 32% respec- 16:547. (1915)
tively. In five tests on dog three (7.1 2. FOSTER, D. P., and WHrIPLE, G. H., Ameri-
i e s e can Journal of Physiology. 58:407 (1921-
kg.) plasma volume losses were from 22)
26.6% to 42.3%/ of the initial values, 3. JOHNSON, C. W. and GIBsoN, R. B.,
high transudate concentration in pro- American Journal of Clinical Pathology.
tein (9.99 per cent in the second test) 4. Moo, V. (.Ach. Path. 24:642. (1937)
being noticed in three tests. Three 5. MooN, V. H. Annals of Surgery. 110:260.
tests with histamine showed plasma (1939)
volume losses of from 31.74% to 6. RACKEMANN, F. H., Clinical Allergy, 48,
41.74 per cent. 168. (1931).
7. BRAY, G. W., Recent Advances in Allergy.
.Thirty ALVAREZ, W. C., Physiological Review. Rev.
Thirty one tests were made involv- 4, 352 (1924).

The Present Status of Cortisone as A Therapeutic Agent
In The Treatment of Rhumatoid Arthritis and
Rhumatic Fever
Instructor of Chemistry

D URING THE past several months pound E occurs in an endocrine gland
there have been many confer- along with several related hormones,
ences between government agencies, the entire group being known as the
physicians, research chemists and man- harmones of the adrenal cortex, it was
ufacturing chemists. The prime objec- reasonable to assume that it too was
tive of which have been to study a harmone, wherein a harmone is de-
compound E or cortisone and its avail- fined as a chemical substance produced
ability. These conferences were called in a more or less distant organ which,
as a consequence of the recent re- carried by the blood or lymph to a
port (1) that cortisone was effective functionally associated organ, excites
in the treatment of rhumatoid arthri- the latter to activity. The function
tis. It also promised relief for those of the harmones of the adrenal cortex
afflicted with rhumatic fever. Unfor- has been demonstrated to the regu-
tunately, the American press capita- lation of the mineral and water metab-
lized upon the news value of these olism of the body. The relation be-
conferences and in so doing did not tween arthritis and the harmones of
emphasis the fact that the present the adrenal cortex is indicated when
results are inconclusive and that the it is remembered that arthritis is char-
purpose of the conferences was to co- acterized by a deposition of salt of
ordinate the available facilities in an uric acid in and around the joints, a
attempt to solve the problem of the malady being thought to be a mani-
acute shortage of the drug. Therefore, festation of a disturbance of the min-
the objective of this paper is to pre- eral and water metabolism. It was also
sent a clear picture of the facts which known that the reversibility of rhu-
are divorced from journalistic sensa- matoid arthritis was activated by preg-
tionalism. nancy and juandice. If arthritis is
In chemical parlance, cortisone is a result of some biochemical disturb-
known as 11-dehydro-17-hydroxycor- dance one would expect to find the
ticosterone, and was first isolated from hormone which regulates the cause
the adrenal cortex by Wintersteiner of the disturbance to be more prom-
(2) later by Kendall (3) and Reich- inent in those conditions which tend
stein (4). Wintersteiner called his pro- to alleviate the malady. In jaundice
duct compound F, Kendall identified and pregnancy, cortisone was found
his as compound E, which is the name to be the one which was common in
being presently used, and Reichstein both cases. This was further substan-
named his Compound Fa. tiated by the fact that procedures
By virtue of the fact that com- which stimulate the adrenal glands


offer temporary relief for arthritis. It tisone would cooperate with each
was several years, however, before other. As a result Winthrop-Stearns
sufficient quantities of compound E Inc. agreed to furnish Merck & Co.,
were available for clinical testing of the original manufacturers, with a
these hypotheses, further supply of desoxycholic acid.
When enough cortisone was avail- This was possible because the Sterling-
able for clinical testing it was found Winthrop Research Institute, the re-
that 100-200 mg. were required for search facility for Winthrop-Stearns
relief, and as a consequence, the con- Inc., had perfected a method of pro-
clusions as to the therapeutic effec- during desoxycholic acid from cholic
tiveness were drawn from the results acid, which occurs more abundantly in
of treatment of 14 cases of arthritis, the bile of cattle than desoxycholic
This number is hardly a representative acid. The amount of desoxycholic
sample, but it can be said that the drug that is to be turned over to Merck
holds promise as an effective agent. & Co. within the next twelve months
The starting material for the syn- represents the annual yield from the
thetic preparation of cortisone is des- bile of 20,000 cattle. If the same
oxycholic acid, obtained from the bile amount of desoxycholic acid was the
of cattle. The change from the acid natural occurring desoxycholic acid
to cortisone is a thirty-seven step pro- of the bile, the amount supplied to
cess and the amount of cortisone Merck would have to be the annual
obtained is never more than 0.05% yield from 1,000,000 cattle.Winthrop-
of the amount of desoxycholic acid Steam is presently expanding its fa-
used. The process is said to be one of cilities for the production of the acid.
the most involved and complex pro- Another line of attack was through
cesses of drug and chemical manu- the heart poison sarmentogenin which
facture. occurs in various species of Strophan.
The problem of the shortage of thus, and which from the standpoint
cortisone is very serious in that des- of structural organic chemistry is the
oxycholic acid itself is scarce. It was only compound occurring in the plant
estimated that only 1,000 g of cor- kingdom which possesses a structure
tisone could be made during the last similar to cortisone; in fact its struc-
months of 1949, and at the request ture is closer to cortisone than desox-
of the Research Corp. of New York ycholic acid, and its use as a starting
-a non-profit institution the pro- material in cortisone synsthesis would
ceeds of whose endowment are used eliminate seventeen of the thirty-seven
to finance fundamental chemical re- steps.
search-the National Academy of Sarmentogenin was first isolated by
Sciences appointed a special committee Tschesche and Bohle (6) and subse-
for the investigation of cortisone whose quently described by Mason and Hoehn
sole purpose was to direct the distri- (7) and more recently Reichstein
bution of the available supply to the found it to occur in great concen-
best qualified investigators (5). tration in the seeds of Strophanthus
The corporation was also instru- Sarmentosus.
mental in effecting an agreement S. sarmentosus grows very abun-
wherein the firms most active in the dantly in large sections of Africa, and
production and research phases of cor- was formerly used as an arrow poison

and is still used in tribal rituals. The cortisone. The main compound of
relation of sarmentogenin to cortisone this group is 17-hydroxydesoxycorti-
and the fact that S. sarmentosus has costerone (compound S) which was
been known to have been cultivated isolated by Reichstein several years
in the United States were the moti- ago (9). It was stated that this was
vating factors in the financing of an the first time substantial quantities
expedition to Africa by the U. S. of compound S had been known to
Public Health Service. The objectives be available, and that all three com-
of the expedition will be to search for pounds require soybean products as
the plant, collect the seeds, and to in- starting materials. The details of Jul-
vestigate the possibilities of large ian's work have not been released as
scale cultivation both in Africa and yet.
on this continent. Almost simultaneous with the recent
S. sarmentosus may one day pro- activity resulting from the discovery
vide an unlimited source of raw ma- of the possible effects of cortisone, at-
terial, but a compound occurring in tention was drawn to another com-
Dioscorea mexicana, or the wild yam, pound, ACTH adrenocorticotropicc
offers a more immediately available harmone), which is useful in the treat-
source. This compound, botogenin, ment of the same disease as cortisone.
was recently described by Marker (8) ATCH is also in an acute shortage
and though it may take several years since it is produced by a laborius ex-
to develop and perfect a method for traction of pig pituitary glands, the
its transformation to cortisone, it nev- yield being about one pound from
ertheless, is important as a starting 400,000 glands.
material. D. mexicana grows any- In conclusion it suffices to say that
where and is cultivated as a food in although it may be several years before
Mexico and other tropical areas, a person afflicted with arthritis can be
A third line of research came from treated with one of the newer anti-
the field of soybean chemistry. For arthritris remedies, he can relax in
several years Percy Julian, of Glidden the knowledge that the new slogan of
Paint Co; has been conducting re- research-cooperation, teamwork and
search on sex hormones, vitamins and the free exchange of results-will be
other natural products. His work on an impetus to a more rapid solution of
the sex hormones arose from an at- the problem and the subsequent relief
tempt to find uses for soybeans after of his misery.
the oil had been removed. In con- BIBLIOGRPHY
nection with this research his labora- 1. Proceedings of the staff meeting of the
tory has been doing fundamental work Mayo Clinic, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 140,
1274 (1949)
on adrenal hormones, and as a result, 2. Wintersteiner and Pfiffner, J. Biol Chem
modifications of some of the steps in 111, 599 (1938); 116, 1291 (1936)
the old cortisone synthesis were devel- 3. Mason, Myers and Kendall, Ibid 114, 613
oped. This new method eliminates (1936)
Mason, Hoehn and Kendall, lbid 124,
some of the more expensive reagents 4s, (1938)
required in the synthesis. 4. Reichstein, Hev Chim Acts 19, 1107
The Glidden Co. at the time an- (1936); 20, 91s (1937)
nounced the synthesis of three other S. Anon, Cbem and Eng News 27, 2366
6 Tschesche and Bohle, Bet. 69, 2497
compounds which they think may be 7. Mason and Hoehn, Am. Chm oc 60,
useful when used in conjunction with 2040 (1939)

The Everglades
Military Property Custodian

"To See Her is to know Her with One's soul.
And To Know Her Is To Love Her" If we cannot analyze the spiritual
O NE HEARING of the Everglades charm of the Everglades, it is possible
would picture that section of the at least to assemble and examine the
State of Florida to be an impenetrable physical elements which combine to
wilderness. It is the hope, however, make the Everglades what it is.
that the following description will The soil of the Everglades is porous.
change such a picture. It is composed of decayed vegetation.
The Everglades cover a vast expanse It will burn as easily as a piece of dry
of marsh land in South Central Flor- decayed wood.
ida. The main geographical feature of The Everglades are not in the trop-
this vast marsh acreage, is Lake Okee- ics, as Florida is still more than a hun-
chobee, with an area of 730 square dred miles north of the Tropic of Can-
miles. This is the second largest fresh cer. Tropical fruits, however, are
water lake within the confines of the grown in the Everglades, in goodly
United States of America. quantity. The more common fruits
At present over 200,000 acres of are: Guava, orange, grapefruit, lime,
that marsh land have been improved lemon, avacado or alligator pear, and
to such an extent, that certain sec- pineapple. Tropical flowers are grown
tions may be rightfully termed the in abundance.
beauty spots of Florida. The Botanical One who passes through the Ever-
Garden at the Elementary School at glades between Canal Point on the
Bryant, Florida, formerly known as Northeast, the first townsite, and
Azucar, Florida, will corroborate the Clewiston, a rapidly growing town
above statement. That Botanical Gar- on the Southwest, passes a profusion of
den was planned, laid out and superin- tropical plants and shrubs. Acres of
tended by the late F. E. Bryant, an Gardenias, Azaleas, and Crotons of
English realtor; and the pioneer in various species are to be seen in shady
the sugar cane industry in Florida. groves and in the yards of various
The charm of the Everglades can- hamlets.
not be explained on paper; once seen, At present, Belle Glade appears to
however, it lingers within its observer be the leading town in the Everglades;
as long as he lives. It is a composite but Clewiston in the Southwest bids
of an infinite variety of physical ele- fair, within the next ten years, to be
ments blended with an undefinable the largest town in the Everglades, and
something, for which there is no word one of the most important from a
in our language, something almost commercial point of view, in Florida.
spiritual in its power, to instill that The United States Migatory Hospi-
sense of general well-being that feeling tal, under the auspices of the War
that all's right with the world and Food Administration, is located one


and one-half miles south of Belle eleven miles, some of the largest Pack-
Glade. The location of this hospital ing Plants in the world are to be found.
is very picturesque. It reminds one of They employ a large number of the
the following quotation: laborers who seek employment in the
"In the valley of Minas Everglades. The largest single employ-
Distant secluded and still, ment agency in the Everglades is the
Lies the village of Grand Free." t C p
The building is a very modern one United States Sugar Corporation
story cement structure, finished in (U.S.S.C.). This Corporation carries
white. It reminds one of the following: approximately 5,000 employees on its
"And the gardens with their broad monthly pay-roll. The U.S.S.C. along
green walks, with independent farmers in the
Where soft the foot-steps fall; Glades, have approximately thirty
And o'er the antique dial stone thousand acres in sugar cane.
The creeping shadows pass, th U.s e t v ae.
And all around the noon day sun The U.S.S.C. operates ten villages
A drowsy radiance cast." with labor camps combined, e.g.,
The Hospital is supplied with an Byrant, Pelican Lake, and Runyan.
efficient staff of white and colored These three villages comprise the
nurses. It is divided into sections for Eastern Division. South Bay Shore,
white and for colored. Both sections Miami Locks, Ritta, Bear Beach, Town-
are equipped and cared for alike, site, and Benbow comprise the Western
The surgeon in charge is one of Division. The mill where the sugar
America's most outstanding surgeons, cane is transported to be manufac-
Captain Harris; his assistant is also an tured into sugar is located in Clew-
eminent medical practicioner, Lieuten- iston which is also the headquarters
ant Leviston. of the Corporation.
One mile southwest of the hospital This Corporation also operates a
is located a most beautifully laidout three million dollar starch factory.
village, Okeechobee Migatory Labor This factory is situated opposite the
Camp; commonly known in the Glades sugar mill on the same street. The
as "The Project." This housing pro- starch is manufactured from starch
ject for Colored only is also under the potatoes. The starch potatoes resemble
auspices of the War Food Administra- sweet potatoes. They differ only in
tion. It is capable of housing two sweetness. Many by-products from
thousand two hundred persons. The sugar cane pulp are manufactured by
negro high school for the Glades is the U.S.S.C.
located in this village. The Migatory Another industry in the Everglades,
Labor Camp for White is located one that is now in its experimental state,
mile northwest of Belle Glade. It is financed by a Northern Corporation,
also a well laid out village, but the and the U.S.S.C. is the ramine indus-
site is nothing to compare with that try. Ramie is a fibrous plant of the
of the Okeechobee Project. okra specie. After these plants are
The Everglade may now be regarded, grown, they are cut and gathered, and
without doubt, as the truck garden the trunks are manufactured into
of the United States. Truck Gardens cloth. The cloth from these fibers
of great magnitude are to be found in is of a creamy tan color, and is very
the Glades. Between the town of Pa- strong. Should this experiment prove
hokee and Belle Glade, a distance of successful and profitable, it will be a


great boom to southern industry and who live at the Okeeechobee Project,
to the Everglades in particular, enjoy the facilities furnished by the
The sugar cane plantations and the High School.
Truck Farms are irrigated from Lake Like other communities in the state,
Okeechobee. Canals are dug from the the Everglade, is not short of religious
lake into thz sugar cane fields and into guidance; nearly all religious denomi-
truck farms. At the head of each nations are represented. The A M A
main canal a pump house is built to supplies itinerant ministers, who visit
control the water from the lake into the different camps of the U.S.S.C.,
the canals and from the canals into regularly, and conduct religious
the lake. services.
The Everglades have a dry season and Transportation into and from the
a rainy season also. During the dry Glades is very convenient. The Glades
season the water in the canal gets Motor Company operates a bus line
rather low, thereby, causing the soil to Ft. Myers. Busses leave West Palm
in the fields to become dry, owing to Beach, for the Glades and Ft. Myers
its porousness. The pumps are then daily 7:45 and 11:00 A.M., and 2:00
put into action, and pump water from and 8:00 P.M. The same schedule is
the lake into the canals to bring the observed between Ft. Myers and West
water table up to the proper level. Palm Beach.
During the rainy season, when the A t a d
fields become flooded, the water is Although this article does not fully
pumped from the canals into the lake, describe this romantic section, it is
thus allowing the water in the fields hoped that its readers get a fair pic-
to seep freely into the canals. ture of the Everglades, from a physical
Recreation facilities for the em- psychological; economical, and socio-
ployees in the Glade, are furnished and logical point of view. The Everglades
managed by the U.S.S.C. employees are indeed a diamond in the rough.

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