Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 The black college in an age of...
 Blacks in Florida and standardized...
 The black college and humanistic...
 The black college: recruitment...
 A proposal for improving the education...
 Ferment in black colleges and universities:...
 Standardized test scores as the...
 Teacher sensitivity: an important...
 Some observations on the black...
 Philosophical tendencies in the...
 The black colleges: the role they...
 The black institution in an age...
 Recism - its institutionalized...
 The changing profile of the black...
 The black college: a continual...
 Shema II: an Afro-American process...
 Back Cover

Title: Black College in an Age of Ferment : a collection of essays
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000120/00001
 Material Information
Title: Black College in an Age of Ferment : a collection of essays
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Hudson, James ( Editor )
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000120
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAB2417

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
        Inside front cover
    Title Page
        Title page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The black college in an age of ferment: an overview
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Blacks in Florida and standardized testing
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    The black college and humanistic endeavors
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    The black college: recruitment and growth in the nineteen seventies
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    A proposal for improving the education of women in black colleges and universities
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Ferment in black colleges and universities: a variety of perspectives
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Standardized test scores as the major criterion for entrance to state and supported universities in Florida
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Teacher sensitivity: an important dimension of student learning
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Some observations on the black college in an age of ferment
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Philosophical tendencies in the black educational experience
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    The black colleges: the role they have played and can play
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    The black institution in an age of ferment
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
    Recism - its institutionalized nature, psycho-socio aspects and implications for predominantly black colleges
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    The changing profile of the black colleges and universities - with reference mainly to the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    The black college: a continual progression of 'Community-family guided education' - a process toward Afro-American continuity
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Shema II: an Afro-American process of education
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Inside back cover
    Back Cover
        Back cover
Full Text


The Black College

in an

Age of Ferment

A Collection of Essays

Edited by
James Hudson





The Black College

in an

Age of Ferment

A Collection of Essays

James Hudson

Florida A&M University


The central idea of the essays included in this collection was born in the
fellowship of several faculty members of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical
University during the Fall Quarter of 1971-72. The feeling of a growing crisis
affecting the total life of the Black College in the United States caused the group
almost intuitively to articulate its thinking and feeling in the theme: The Black
College in An Age of Ferment. Some of the papers in this volume were presented
in a symposium during the 1972 Founders' Observance. The writing fellowship
was subsequently extended to include a number of guest contributors to whom
we are greatly indebted. Eventually the number of participants reached fifteen.
Each thinker throughout the writing period felt free to particularize his or her in-
terest within the general scope of the selected theme. All of us realized that the
literature on the Black College represents many points of view and a diversity of
conceptualizations and evaluations. In any case, the total group came up with a
collection of essays which was presented to President B. L. Perry, Jr., on March
8, 1974, at the Founders' Convocation of Florida A&M University.
Those who shared in the responsibilities of writing are extremely grateful to
all who assisted them along the way. It is only concern for brevity that restrains
the desire to name each helper. However, there are compelling reasons for men-
tioning a few. Mrs. Bernice A. Reeves and Mrs. Emma L. Blake of our English
Department assisted by offering critical comments on form and content. Among
those who took specific parts in the symposium we mention the following staff
and former staff members: Dr. J. C. Awkard, Jr., Dr. Jerry M. Chance, Mrs. L. B.
Clarke, Dr. W. E. Combs, Dr. C. L. Coultas, Dr. Robert F. Flakes, Dr. Herbert W.
Jones, Dr. Howard E. Lewis, Dr. Paul B. Mohr, Sr., Dr. L. W. Neyland, Dr.
Frederick J. Parrot, Mr. George F. Rosselot, Dr. Gertrude L. Simmons, Dr.
Charles J. Stanley, Jr., Mr. Hansel E. Tookes, and Dr. Ralph W. Turner. Student
commentators were Messrs. Reginald Henry, Early Johnson, Alphonso N.
McLean, Ricky Richardson, Christopher White, and Miss Jacqueline Yizar. As
Director of University Research, Dr. W. H. Castine was most helpful in his
observations and in speeding up the completion of the project. Secretaries here
and there have been kind to all of the writers in this volume. Particularly do we
express here our sincere appreciation to President B. L. Perry, Jr., who en-
couraged our efforts and gave us extremely valuable assistance in the final stage
of putting the whole thing together.

Whatever the outcome of this joint effort, the writers accept the burdens of
their errors and limitations. Hopefully, each contributor has communicated his
or her perception of events. The reader, we know, will make his own judgement
of our comprehension of the basic problems and hopes of the Black College in
these times of ferment.
James Hudson
Tallahassee, Florida
March, 1974

Table of Contents

The Black College in An Age of Ferment An Overview
Charles J. Stanley.............................. .. ............ 1
Blacks in Florida and Standardized Testing
A A Abraham ...................................................... ................... 5
The Black College and Humanistic Endeavors
Louise Blackwell............................................... 17
The Black College: Recruitment and Growth in the Nineteen Seventies
O llie M Bowm an............................................................................ 22
A Proposalfor Improving the Education of Women in Black Colleges
and Universities
Edna L. Boykin .......................................................... 26
Ferment in Black Colleges and Universities: A Variety of Perspectives
Leander L. Boykin..................... .... ......... ............. 41
Standardized Test Scores as the Major Criterion for Entrance
to State Supported Universities in Florida
R obert E B urney ................................................ ........................... 61
Teacher Sensitivity An Important Dimension of Student Learning
Theodore B. Cooper........................................................ 68
Some Observations on the Black College in An Age of Ferment
S. Randolph Edm onds ........................................... ........................ 70
Philosophical Tendencies in the Black Educational Experience
Jam es H udson ...................................................... .......................... 76
The Black Colleges: The Role They Have Played and Can Play
Benjamin E. Mays ........................................ ......................... 80
The Black Institution in an Age of Ferment
O scar A M oore........................................................ ..................... 84
Racism Its Institutionalized Nature, Psycho-Socio Aspects
and Implications for Predominantly Black Colleges
W H S h irley.............................................................. .................... 87
The Changing Profile of the Black Colleges and Universities,
With Reference Mainly to the Florida A&M University
M S T hom as.............................................................. .................... 94
The Black College: A Continual Progression of "Community-Family Guided
Education" A Process Toward Afro-American Continuity
Thomasyne Lightfoote Wilson ....................... ......................105


This collection of essays was conscientiously and appropriately addressed to
an assessment of the Black college in America's total scheme of higher education
today. They were prepared after a long period of fermentation of the crucially
related economic and social issues. They reflect an intensive study of the
historical struggles which the Black college has undergone along with many im-
pressive instances of its progress and achievements.
While a ceaseless and aggressive agitation for a status change on the part of
the Black college continues, an accordant shape for such change seems lacking.
It is our hope that the cumulative impact of these faculty writings may serve to
stimulate a fuller awareness among the policy-makers of the true worth and
potential of the Black college with the resultant desire on their parts to chart for
it the very best course and provide the adequate resources that may yield the
greatest dividends both in terhsof responsiveness to the immediate needs of our
many Black students and, ultimately, in terms of a more competent citizenry.

Benjamin L. Perry, Jr.

The Black College
in an Age of Ferment
An Overview
by Charles J. Stanley
Professor of Education
Florida A&M University

The thesis of The Black College in an Age of Ferment: A Collection of Essays
is: Black colleges have a unique, indispensable and enduring role in assuring
access to higher education for Black and oiher disadvantaged youths.
Collectively, the authors of these essays possess deep and impressively
varied personal and professional experiences with the struggles, developments
and achievements of Black colleges. Among them are fhose who have served not
only as academic instructors, but also as department chairmen, student per-
sonnel workers, deans, chaplains, athletic and drama coaches, and president.
They can speak with the authority of first hand knowledge on all the major areas
where there is currently ferment respecting the status and relevance of Black
colleges: academic and student affairs, administration and organization as well as
the colleges' relations to their various publics.
In his extensively researched article, Ferment in Black Colleges and Uni-
versities: A Variety of Perspectives, Leander L. Boykin documents the scope of fer-
ment under several broad headings: legal, campus governance and management,
Black cultural nationalism, academic programs and curricular innovations,
cooperative programs between white and Black colleges, and the ever-increasing
volume of both scholarly and popular literature on the condition and the
prospects of Black colleges. Though the complexity of his presentation frustrates
a reader's effort to present a succinct summary of Boykin's article, some of the
flavor of his findings can be discerned from his comments following his discus-
sion that thirty-seven new presidents have been appointed to Black colleges and
universities since 1968. His comment is as follows:
BH l w ether the change is resulingi in improved cominm nicalion between administration
andi faculll, and bl ete ulla an lid students; wh eller steps are being taken to insure
mIIprm elll conditions that will resull itn belter laciil lll morale: wh et her the nte presidents
represent a 'new breed" in terinl of changing the traditional 1ma11nner of administering
Black colleges remains to 1ie seen.
The uniqueness of the contribution that Black colleges are making to
American society is emphasized by both Benjamin E. Mays in his The Black
Colleges: The Role They Have Played and Can Play and Louise Blackwell in her

The Black College and Humanistic Endeavors. Mays sees the Black college's role in
motivating Black youth as unequaled by predominantly white institutions. He
If the only schools available to Negroes had been white and if all the teaches had been
white, I believe that story would be a sad one. Even the dedicated white teacher cmuot
say as much to the Black student as a Black teacher equally dedicated and able. A white
scientist at Tuskegee could hardly have meant as much to a Black student as George
Washington Carver ... So in evaluating the role Black colleges have played in American
life, one must make central the role the Black colleges have played in motivating Black
students to aim high and aspire nobly.
Blackwell sees Black colleges as repositories of humanistic and moral
wisdom which Blacks uniquely forged during a long struggle against white op-
pression. This experience, painful though it was, enabled Blacks to "study and
meditate upon the nature and condition of man." Blackwell sees the preservation
of Black institutions as crucial to the continued well being of Blacks. She affirms:
"It is in their institutions that members of the Black community have been able
to maintain and nourish their wisdom-a wisdom that might well be the salva-
tion of America if it gains ascendancy in this century."
If the Mays and Blackwell essays are viewed primarily as proposing a
rationale for Black colleges, the two following may be viewed as proposals for the
practical implementation of that rationale. The title of W. H. Shirley's essay,
Racism: Its Institutionalized Nature, Psycho-Socio Aspects and Implications for
Predominantly Black Colleges, indicates its focus. Shirley sees racism as the basic
and pervasive evil of American life which Black colleges must strive toeradicate
by fundamental curricular change: abolition of the "slave syndrome," develop-
ment of Black studies, inculcation of the spirit mission to the deprived, enhance-
ment of motivation for literacy, and provision of effective Black identity models.
Probably most explicit in spelling out how approach to a distinctively Black
oriented college curriculum may be constituted is the article by Thomasyne
Lightfoote Wilson, The Black College: A Continual Progression of "Community-
Family Guided Education" A Process Toward Afro-American Continuity.
Wilson wants the Black college curriculum to be reconstructed for Afro-
Americans in Black terms so as to maintain Black cultural continuity. She wants
to erase the distinction between the teacher and the taught because "All learners
must teach, and all teachers must be learners." Education would not be confined
to formal training within college walls but would involve interaction among
college teachers and students with community agents and all persons identifying
with the community through the organizational base of community-family guid-
ed education. The essential thrust of Wilson's orientation to curriculum change
in the Black college is conveyed through her statement: ". .the mutually
responsible relations required in Black self-socioculturalization suggest that
Black college and university students cannot separate themselves from Black
communities and hope to be fully educated."
Edna L. Boykin, in her article, A Proposal for Improving the Education of
Women in Black Colleges and Universities, focuses attention on still another
dimension that the Black college should explore. She advocates that Black
colleges should offer women studies "defined as those in which the coveragof

women only, or topics on or about women, forms the integral part of the con-
tent." This definition explicitly excludes "traditional offerings in home
economics and continuing education for women." Black college women especial-
ly need to learn about the contribution of Black women to American life because
few opportunities of learning about them exist otherwise. Specifically, Boykin
urges that Black colleges grant Black women faculty "full equality in all aspects
of academic life-employment, promotion, tenure, authority and leadership."
In addition to vocational and career training, Boykin suggests that Black colleges
should provide enlarged opportunities for Black women to develop their per-
sonalities and extend and enrich their cultural acquirements.
The question of the proper use of standardized tests in the evaluation of
Black students continues to be vexing. Robert E. Burney in Standardized Test
Scores as the Major Criterionfor Entrance to State Supported Universities in Florida
and A. A. Abraham in Blacks in Florida and Standardized Testing discuss the
issues involved. Abraham seems to express the orthodox position that standar-
dized tests do reveal facets about students' abilities, Black as well as white, which
are quite useful for academic guidance. Abraham observes: "despite the
strong feelings of many Blacks to the contrary, standardized tests appear to
possess more validity for their purposes than many Blacks are willing to admit."
Burney seems to side with those against the use of standardized tests as
criteria for entrance to state supported universities. He cites the basis of standar-
dized tests as evidenced in the correlation between social class and test scores. He
is especially impressed with the success of such programs as Horizons Unlimited
which admit students whose test scores would militate against their normal ad-
mission. He quotes Earl Gordon, director of the Horizons Unlimited Program at
Florida State University as saying: "Students admitted to FSU who failed to meet
the University's standardized test score requirements are represented on the
deans' lists in about the same proportion as those who came in the regular route."

As the Black college becomes more self-consciously aware of its uniqueness
and identity, it discovers that its once captive clientele, the Black youth, are not
automatically seeking admission to Black colleges. Oscar.Moore in The Black In-
stitution in an Age of Ferment and Ollie M. Bowman in The Black College: Recruit-
ment and Growth in the Nineteen Seventies discuss aspects of this problem. Moore
points to the phenomenon of scholastically able Black students being urged to
by-pass the Black college. Even low achievers or late bloomers are now the
beneficiaries of grants or scholarships offered by predominantly white in-
stitutions. Moore deplores the trend and as one with a keen interest in athletics
points to the success of many Black professional athletes as evidence of the
motivation, discipline and skill which Black college coaches developed in their

Bowman speaks from the point of view of a director of admission with
responsibility for recruitment. Successful recruitment is probably the key to the
ultimate survival of the Black college. The magnitude of the problem has been
well stated by Thomas, also author of an essay in this volume. Thomas reports:

The enrollment of Blacks in higher education in recent years has overwhelmingly
favored the predominantly white institutions. According to the U.S. Census Reports, the
Black enrollment in these institutions rose from 114,000 in 1964 to 378,000 in 1970
while that in predominantly Black schools rose only from 120,000 to 155,000 between
1964 and 1968, then dropped off sharply to 144,000 in 1970.

M. S. Thomas in The Changing Profile of the Black Colleges and Universities
- With Reference Mainly to Florida A &M University, from which the proceeding
quotation was taken, presents a panorama of the changing circumstance of Black
colleges during the past two decades. He doubts there is any one best way to in-
sure the survival of currently existing Black colleges. With respect to FAMU's
survival he believes that its salvation lies in continuing "to provide higher
educational opportunities for those who have no other access to it as well as for
those of good academic potential."
"The path not taken" could well be the theme of S. Randolph Edmonds'
Some Observations on the Black College in an Age of Ferment. Drawing upon his
personal acquaintances with several outstanding and inspiring Black teachers,
Edmonds demonstrates in some detail the many opportunities for greater
educational effectiveness which Black colleges have neglected or un-
deremphasized with respect to vocations, research on race and Black culture and
esthetics. Edmonds is fully cognizant of the value of the kind of abstract thinking
required as preparatory to placing a man on the moon, but wonders "why is it
that we can see the students with a juke-box level of appreciation in music spend
four years in college with a first class music department and graduate with the
same low level of appreciation?"
Though James Hudson's Philosophical Tendencies in the Black Educational
Experience is the last essay in this collection to be referred to, for many readers, it
might be the most helpful one to read first. Hudson provides both a retrospective
and prospective view of the philosophical tendencies with which Black colleges
have contended. He feels that the Black community suffered as a result of the
either/or dichotomy between the educational views of Booker T. Washington
and W. E. B. DuBois. Contemporarily Black thought, Hudson feels, is developing
a new phenomenology of Black existence or Black self-consciousness. Hudson
concludes with these thoughtful sentences:
It will not be easy for Black colleges to survive the turbulence of these days. If they do, it
will be necessary for them to examine continuously the philosophical foundations of
their existence, and to apply the lessons gained to a more efficient operation and wiser
governance of these schools.

Blacks in Florida


Standardized Testing

by A. A. Abraham
Instructional and Research Specialist
Test Service Bureau
Florida A&M University

People have always been interested in and tried to understand why human
beings perceive, feel, and act the way they do. The primitive explanation usually
attributed man's mysterious behavior to demons in the individual or super-
natural forces in human life. The modern day psychologist, however, sees man as
an organism. More precisely, he sees man as an individual composed of a group of
organs working together to carry on life's activities. Like other natural
phenomena, this concept is based on the belief that man's behavior can be
recognized, identified, classified, understood, explained, and, to an almost un-
believable extent, conditioned in desired and/or undesired ways under given cir-
Man lives in a physical-social environment. As a result, the interaction
between him and his environment must take some form of adjustment. Adjust-
ment may represent attempts at overcoming obstacles to the satisfaction of one's
biological, social, and psychological needs. Thus, human living, whether
relatively simple or complex, is a constant process of adjustment, even though it
may take diverse forms.
When man, therefore, adjusts, he may choose either one or any com-
binations of at least four broad options open to him. First, he may acquire the
necessary skill. Second, he can change his environment. Third, he may change his
response to the environment. Fourth, he can modify his needs. But whatever
form adjustment takes, it inevitably involves a complex relationship between any
one or a dynamic combination of his capacity, his needs, the opportunity the en-
vironment provides him for satisfying his needs, and his willingness to make the
most of his abilities and opportunities.
It is normally the school's responsibility to prepare youngsters for effective
role playing in the society in which they live. Basically, human beings are
characterized by a high degree of variability, which, over a period of time, tends

to persist and increase with education. The societal roles the individual is ex-
pected to play are extremely specialized and diversified. The problems of human
development and learning are so complex, and the optimum conditions of life are
so varied that the chances of finding a universally superior curriculum are
minimal. Thus, for educational purposes, these phenomena have complicated
the process of screening and selecting suitable applicants on all levels of educa-
tion. In recent years, however, one of the main approaches to this problem has
been the increasing use of results from standardized tests.
This study will address itself to certain historical developments, issues,
selected performance, and alternatives growing out of the use of standardized
tests in the education of blacks as well as other groups in Florida.
Separate but Equal
Until very recently all southerners in public education found themselves in
separate but allegedly equal school systems. The obviously raw neglect and gross
handicaps suffered by schools for blacks are much too well known by all to
catalog at length for this purpose. It is sufficient to say that the schools for whites
and blacks, instead of being "separate but equal" as called for by law until 1954,
were in truth and fact "separate and unequal" in the most grotesque and bizarre
ways and on just about every significantly crucial point affecting the educational
lives of Negro students. Yet limited reference should be made to a few critical
practices and conditions inasmuch as it is thought they, whether advertently or
inadvertently imposed, had the ultimate effect of generally producing qualitative
and quantitative differences between the achievement of school tasks by white
and black students.
Whatever education Negroes received during slavery was usually obtained
in the "clandestine school." After emancipation, they were left pretty much to
the goodwill of northern white churches and philanthropy along with their own
wits and limited means to provide some kind of education for black children.
Besides, that "watchdog" of educational standards, the Southern Association of
Colleges and Schools, was not founded until 1895. Even then, it did not take note
of the presence of any schools for blacks until 1928. At that time a group of Negro
educators petitioned the Association for help in developing and standardizing
schools for blacks. It, however, initially denied full membership to Negro
colleges, but granted Class "A" to one college and Class "B" status to several
others in 1932 on an "Affiliated" basis.'
Later on black high schools were admitted to the Association. The vast ma-
jority of those schools, however, were unable to meet the regular standards for
approval. Meanwhile, there was growing doubt about the legality and quality of
the unaccredited schools for Negroes. Florida, nevertheless, initiated an ap-
propriate system for internal accreditation of those schools not approved by the
Southern Association. As a result, the letter of the doctrine of separate but equal
was met when a school was accredited by either the Association or the State

'Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Black Colleges in the South From Tragedy to
Promise, Atlanta, Georgia, 1971, p.5.

Department of Education. Thus, diplomas from either category of schools were
good for admission to the state universities inasmuch as the diploma was the
primary screening device then. This was a tricky and an insidious scheme which
kept almost all black children confined to poorly supported and educationally in-
adequate public schools until the late Fifties.
At the same time, some intriguing action was being taken in curriculum
development in Negro schools during the critical decades of the Thirties through
the Fifties. It is alleged that there was severe pressure from county and state
educational officials for black schools to develop more relevant here and now -
programs for black children. The motives may or may not have been ulterior, but
Negro schools proceeded to eliminate almost all foreign languages, higher forms
of English, specialized mathematics and sciences from the curriculum. With
these subjects abandoned, apparently the schools began placing undue emphasis
on low level applied arts, extracurricular activities, and adjustment. As a matter
of fact, there were so few black students taking specialized and advanced subjects
in the early Sixties that the State Department of Education did not even bother
to include them in a very important survey by HEW.2
In a related study on the provision of critical resources, the author conclud-
ed, if the state persisted, as it had in the past, in distributing certain finances for
instructional materials in favor of white over black schools, that the achieve-
ment gap between the two groups logically would be widened rather than narrow-
ed in the future.3

What Tests Profess to Measure
Any discussion of performance on standardized tests raises certain
questions regarding the extent to which tests do what they profess to do. Of all of
the characteristics of a good test, validity appears to be the most important one,
and the only one mentioned here inasmuch as it normally assumes the presence
of the other desirable traits. But a discussion of the validity of tests raises yet
more basic questions regarding the nature of school ability along with the nature
of school tasks and the cognitive (not excluding noncognitive and psychomotor)
structures needed for coping with the curriculum.
There is no monolithic view of the precise nature of school ability. Yet in
the writings of such eminent authors as Binet, Terman, Spearman, Thorndike,
Thurstone, and Otis, there is wide agreement that it certainly includes abstract,
numerical, mechanical, social, and artistic aptitudes. Increasingly, these ap-
titudes are now viewed as school developed abilities. Success in school tasks,
therefore, requires development and use of psychomotor, noncognitive and
cognitive skills.
Many authorities consider cognitive skills as being of central importance in
school work. They view school as a verbal and quantitative world, placing in-
2Edith S. Greer and Richard M. Harbeck, What High School Pupils Study, U. S. Department of
Health, Education and Welfare, Bulletin 1962, No. 10, OE-33025, p. 15.
3A. A. Abraham, They Came to College, Florida A&M University, April 1964, p. 38 f. (Note: There
will be several other references to the 1964 volume of this series. They will simply be indicated by
specific citations in parentheses immediately following the notation).

creasing emphasis on these skills, especially verbal, at each successive level of
the graded school system. Some linguists even argue that the basic vocabulary of
the typical individual is about complete by the time he finishes high school or is
eighteen, the names of people, places, and things being the primary additions
afterward. Thus, from the very beginning, the child who fails to acquire the
apperceptive mass demanded almost absolutely by school tasks, as we know them
now, is very likely to fall behind at an accelerated pace from that point-on. As a
result, he is likely to make successively lower grades and test scores, while ex-
hibiting varying degrees of personal and educational maladjustment.
One other consideration in discussing what tests measure is the nature of
knowledge itself. There are obviously no definitive boundaries to subject matter.
Yet the phenomenon of central tendency in subject matter does operate to
differentiate it, despite overlap, into the four broad areas of English, social
sciences, natural sciences, and mathematics. Further still, knowledge in each of
these areas is taxonomized, by some, on at least four broad levels of mastery:
recognition, simple recall, interpretation, and application.
The primary emphasis in most current school tests appears to be the assess-
ment of the novel use the examinee is able to make of important information not
directly or obviously mentioned in problem situations. As one group of authors
puts it, at each level of maturity, youngsters must develop and acquire the com-
parable capacity and skills needed to make a transition from the object, to
recognition of a picture of the object, to recall of the absent object, and to
recognition of a symbol which stands for the absent object-written or oral
word, a mathematics symbol and/or code of any kind.4 The central emphasis in
instruction and evaluation, therefore, should be placed on the applicatory level
of mastery, the highest level at which knowledge and skills may exist.

Selected Performance

Standardized tests have their well known limitations. But to date they have
proven to be more useful than other biographical data for assessing the intellec-
tual development and educational progress of large groups of students over long
periods of time. Therefore, Florida initiated its twelfth grade battery (aptitude.
English, social sciences, natural sciences. and mathematics) iin 193 5.
By the time the black schools came into the program in 1948 the while
schools were no longer finding diagnostic value in the achievtmenlnt tests for
curricular development. Therefore, at the suggestion of white public school
teachers, the Universitv of Florida (which administers thc program) changed
from the lower to the higher form of each of the achievement tests in the

4Helen K. Mackintosh, Lillian Bore. andi Gertrlrude \. I.i b s. Fdcating) Di.sadrantaged Children
I nder Si. S. I)D p.iartnll.i t of Health. Edui' lion..Inl \ ll.rd l r (i Illl (dr t 1111ilitealo .i. \ i-i I).
C.. 905. p. 0.

battery.s Yet according to a study by the author, "Deficiency Profiles in Selected
Subject Matter Areas," the faculties in the respective areas agreed that the vast
majority of the Florida freshmen entering the University possessed-and still
do-almost academically fatal deficiencies on the lower level of each subject
matter area (pp. 48-51).
Another change which obviously had severely negative effect on the
development of quality education in the Negro schools occurred at the time they
joined the statewide testing program. In a meeting at the University of South
Florida December 1, 1971, according to the original director of the program,
several important white and black state officials wanted the results reported in
separate percentile norms to preclude embarrassing blacks since black students
were expected to do poorly on the tests. This decision may have left whites and
blacks satisfied and happy. The Negroes, however, had lost a golden chance to
find out how good or bad their schools were because separate percentile norms
have a way of hiding a multitude of developmental and achievement deficiencies,
problems and needs.
To illustrate this thesis, it is thought that the typical white student will
make a score on a standardized test which is at least one or two standard
deviations higher than the score made by his black matchee. This creates a
problem for separate percentile norms inasmuch as the highest score made in
each group sets the 99th (or 100th) percentile for each group. Conversely, the
lowest score sets the first (or zero) percentile for each group. For example, if the
highest score made on a test by a white student is 85, that score becomes the 99th
(or 100th) percentile. If the highest score made by his black matchee is 70, that
score too becomes the 99th (or 100th) percentile. On the other end of the scale, if
the lowest score made by a white student is 20 and that of a Negro student is 10,
each of these scores will become the first (or zero) percentile in separate norms.
Then, in the light of the 1954 school integration decision, and, as if an-
ticipating the 1964 Civil Rights Act, in June 1961, the Board of Control (now the
Board of Regents) passed a regulation on uniform admissions to all state uni-
versities in Florida. Common norms (combining scores for white and black ex-
aminees) were used for this purpose. When norms were developed, among other
things, they revealed that not a single one of the more than 100 Negro high
schools appeared to be as good as or better than any of the top ninety-odd per
cent of the more than 300 white schools in the program. However, in Spring
1957, one state educational official pointed out to this author that Negro schools
were doing many good things which standardized tests simply did not measure.
Another outcome is that less than ten per cent of the black high school
seniors now (ideally, 40 per cent should) make a score of 300 or more, out of a

SFor example, on the English test in use in 1948, the lower level form measured proficiency in
mechanics: spelling, capitalization, punctuation, vocabulary, parts of speech, etc. The form for the
higher level merely assumed the mastery of mechanics by measuring proficiency in expression: dic-
tion, organization, sentence structure, style, interpretation, etc. Similar, distinctive qualitative
differences existed between the forms for the lower and higher levels for each of the other tests, no
doubt, accounting, to a great extent, for why blacks have tended to do so poorly on the subject matter
tests in the battery.

possible 495 on the battery. The 300 is the minimum score required for un-
restricted admission to any of the universities in the system. Consequently, the
vast majority of the freshmen at FAMU must enter in the special admissions
category6 inasmuch as the battery does not appear to measure the good things
they have been learning previously in all black high schools.
In 1957, the Test Service Bureau published the first of four preliminary
studies dealing with the interaction of freshmen with the level of difficulty of
their curriculum at Florida A&M University.7 Along with copies of the study,
the director wrote a cover letter to all black public school principals, all super-
visors, county superintendents, State Department of Education and other im-
portant state officials. The letter pointed out:

The nature and level of the academic achievement of Florida's freshmen entering FAMU
tend to reflect distinctively these glaring educational needs: more systematic and
rigorous scholastic work, beginning in the early years and designed specifically to
develop school aptitudes; greater respect for and emphasis on acquisition, mastery, and
application of factual information; and greater capacity (stamina) for maintaining
higher levels of mental activity over longer periods of time.

The aforesaid needs suggest that our students cannot profitably afford to lose a single day
or hour of effective schooling, if they are to be prepared to face up realistically to the ever-
increasing demands of further training and/or the requirements of the workaday world.
This challenge implies an early beginning and a relentless pursuit of these objectives.

But even before the above study, white parents were already concerned with
certain aspects of the school achievement of their children. The Board of
Regents (Board of Control then) passed its first "tough" regulations on selective
admissions in 1956. White parents asked officials what their children could do to
prepare for meeting the new challenges of tests. They were advised that college
bound high school students should be encouraged to take all of the so-called hard
subjects they could get: English, social studies, natural sciences, and
mathematics. The reason for this advice was that admissions would be based
primarily on test scores, which in turn, would be based on better than average
achievement in the former subject areas in high school.
The advice of the Board proved to be much more than simple rhetoric in its
application to Negroes. The author made an analysis of the patterns of high
school courses taken by 2,082 Florida freshmen entering the University from
September 1956 to September 1959, inclusive. It was found that only a small
percentage of the sample had taken the course combinations the authors of the
respective tests claimed students should have if they hoped to do reasonably well
on the battery. Periodic checks of high school transcripts since then, suggest that
black youngsters are still not taking the necessary prerequisites for a demanding
curriculum. According to the appropriate authorities, almost one hundred per
cent of the Florida freshmen entering the University of Florida and Florida State

6A. A. Abraham, and Gertrude L. Simmons. "'The Educational Outlook for Nonwhite- in
Florida," The Journal of Negro Education, vol. xxxv, Fall 1966, p. 373.
:A. A. Abraham. They Came to College. Florida \&\1 I niNer-ity. August 1957. p. 22.

University usually take the pre-college curriculum in high school ; therefore,are
well prepared for college.
Based on the above and many other obviously crippling educational
deficiencies, the writer reasoned: "One conclusion was that in the light of their
apparently shoddy preparation, the question was not why Negro students
previously had done so poorly on the battery, but how they managed to do so well
on it" (p. 38). One of America's eminent anthropologists shared this viewpoint
in his recent presidential address to the American Anthropological Association
when he said:
I am sonmelirnes surprised to hear it stated that if \egroes weregiv en an equal opportuni-
ty. ,their IQ would be Ili same a, tihe wAhiles.. If orni looks at lire degree of social dis-
crimination against l \lN ror( s anll their lack oi eduiration.ll. i alalso takes into account llt
tremendous overlapping between observed IQs of bht ol. (oi (ant make art ,upall gooil
case ihia. given a comparable chance to Ihial of 'lih whiit. their Q. n ight it higher."

Problems and Issues

Some tangible evidences of critical neglect of the education of Negroes have
been cited. Yet probably the greatest impediments of all were nontangible and
not directly documented. In a recent study of the problems of education for non-
whites in Florida, two of FAMU's professors found several negati\c atlinldes
critically affecting the lack of equal educational opportunities for nonwhites. Ac-
cording to the authors:

The first oinl i llihat Florida easil\ l has lthe grandeur ol" inlnilions for m \.('ellh til .mid
equitable s'hIool sltrm for all of its outh.s. Bul except for isolated iwnstaiines if s.ellns to
lack tlit desirt. organization, f at ilies,. and program, nii-,dI ed to aci hiei't I it oljec',ti t- for
nonwhilt'. i The' scond |po>tl l is lhal lhl apparTni indiIffrvn nonwhile i. perhap, dute io at lcast t 'rve Ifactor: ( ) I lack of awarvne.s toilh e part ol'a
greal Iaii ln. livens. Ihacher stid ntsl. par' In s andi oil ,ials. ol l th I aI'Ill tslain-, f lthe
schools for no hitle,'s: (2) lack of publuhi inltrvrl ini ad'quath 'alhu tion for nonvhlites:
and (3) inadequate support, educational sr% icts. anld lead rship atl ithe sal. county,.
and 'co inllllll it\ l\,els.."

The problem of the validity of standardized tests is a volatile issue with
blacks. It should be stated, how -ver, that one of the purposes of tests in selec-
tion, evaluation, and prediction is to differentiate between persons who have
good versus poor chances for suctc -s in a carefully defined activity. Yet despite
the -trolg eIrliii'ng- ,I iitoii\ i .,'k- I, the conltrarv. standardizci It t-; appear to
possess more validity for their purposes than many blacks seem willing to admit.
Two examples will be cited in this connection. The performance of Negro
high school seniors on the admissions' battery predicts that the vast majority of
them are very much likely to experience textr ree ilifliculty in a typical college
curriculum. This forecast certainly holds trllu at lloriida \XKM l university. In a

(" ilred i in ichl ard l\. .( I. H1. I I ) K I .5.. lh I, \Il.1rI lan (:ImlipaIm \
p. 122.
"\li I\. h r.luliin and (er ir. i u i lmI 1. h. l, a (11 ... for Nloh.till I I. .
lorl a." A17c,./jourrd o, lgro F- ti ,. \oI. 3,-,. n,. 1. Vl"dl Ila,. I .Co)

recent study of the problems of admission, progression, and retention, the
author found again that fewer than 20 out of every 100 freshmen entering the
University in September will appear on the commencement program in June
twelve quarters later.10
The second example concerns admission to graduate school. From their
founding until 1962, the predominantly white universities in Florida based ad-
mission mostly on biographical factors and more recently the Graduate Record
Examinations. In 1962, the racial factor was eliminated froi the admissions' for-
mula. Not being able to see whether the examinee was white or colored, hear his
"ghetto language or southern accent," tell whether he wore tweeds or rags, the
GRE began certifying blacks for immediate admission to previously all-white un-
iversities. As a result, within just four years, Ira Robinson, a FAMUan and dean
of the School of Pharmacy, was the first black to receive a doctorate degree from
a previously all-white university in Florida. And many others have graduated
since at all levels in numerous disciplines throughout the system.
Another facet of the same problem is bias in tests. In and of themselves,
however, test results mean nothing. They normally have more meaning when
they are used to compare the relative standing of two or more students on the
same instrument in a common activity. Of course, this comparative use makes
several pertinent assumptions. One is that the instrument has been validated by
proper procedures. A second is that al' examinees have been tested under iden-
tical conditions and have had equal opportunity to acquire the knowledge and
skills being measured. Another assumpti )n is that all examinees possess equal
enthusiasm, motivation, and need for achievement.
But, things being what they are, all of the above conditions are seldom
met-even minimally for blacks in most instances. This gross deficiency,
therefore, introduces bias in tests. A test is thought to be biased if it leans always
or usually toward a particular structure of belief, cognition, system, style, or
group. Thus, by definition, all standardized intelligence, aptitude, and achieve-
ment tests possess cultural bias. Yet bias is by no means a static phenomenon as
indicated in the table which follows:

10A. A. Abraham. "The Gi I actionn Pattern of Typical Students at Florida A& \I nii mr-it'" Test
Service Bureau, November 1)- nimeographed.


In favor of





Large schools
Accredited schools*
Wealthy counties
Non-native Floridians
Northern children
Professional families' children
College preparatory curriculum

Girls (verbal)
Boys (quantitative)
Northern Negroes
Northern whites
Northern blacks (native)
Those from college prone families

Those high in verbal aptitude
Children of university faculty

*By the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
**This is probably becoming less true each year now.

The first six dichotomies of bias in the above table were pointed up in a
study of the twelfth grade battery in Florida by Abraham (55 pp.). The other
biases were drawn from the general measurement, psychological, and
sociological literature. It is obvious that bias is a dynamic factor operating in
different degrees of intensity against almost all groups under certain conditions,
in certain places, at certain times. Due to certain artifacts of the American
culture, however, bias usually operates with greater authenticity and devasta
tion against blacks than whites under comparable conditions.
According to the contention of blacks, the solution to test bias is culturally
fair (free) tests. Of course, this is not a new idea. It means to reduce individual
and/or group differences to zero on competitive tests. In America, extensi% e ef-
fort to develop culturally fair tests has been made by many including, Cattell,"
Goodenough,12 Eells and Davis.'3Davis is an eminent black scholar at the Uni-

"R. B. Cattell, "A Culture-Free Intelligeire ITest.'" Journal of Fducational Psychology, \ol. :.,
191,0, pp. 161-179.
"Florence L. (oodeniough, measurement of Intelligence b I)rauings. H orld Book Comnpani,
New York. 1926.
3"Kenneth Eeils, Alli ,oi n 1I) avi, e al.. Intelligence rnd ( .'i url I/'i. ...... 4 Study of Cultural
Learning and Problem-Solving, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IlI., 1951.

1. Rural
2. Small schools
3. Unaccredited schools
4. Poor counties
5. Native Floridians**
6. Blacks
7. Southern children
8. Skilled labor families' children
9. General or vocational educational
10. Boys (verbal)
11. Girls (quantitative)
12. Southern Negroes
13. Southern whites
14. Southern whites (native)
15. Those from non-college prone
16. Those low in verbal aptitude
17. Children of non-university facul-
ty families

versity of Chicago. Recently numerous techniques have been made to :illow for
bias in tests by using such devices as the bonus, a status character tic factor,
separate norms, moderator variables, weightings, coaching, and tr.nning or ap-
prenticeship. But to date, with the exception of the last practice, these results too
have been quite inconclusive.'4
Some research results have also been reported from Australia, Canada, and
South Africa."1 All of the efforts in these countries have been largely in vain in-
asmuch as it does not appear to be readily possible to divorce quality of thinking
from familiarity with content.
These are some of the critical conditions, issues, and problems usually
associated with the performance of Florida's blacks in school tasks and on stan-
dardized tests. What reasonable alternatives, then, appear to be open to them?

Suggested Action

It has already been pointed out that in the coping process, the individual has
one or more of these options open to him: Acquiring the necessary knowledge,
skills, and values; changing his educational goals; changing his vocational goals;
or opting out on himself and society. As of now, the first option seems the most
logical and reasonable for blacks. Therefore, the suggestions below address this
Not enough, but much is already known about the nature of school ap-
titudes, the organization of knowledge, the taxonomy of knowledge, and the
nature of standardized tests. Therefore, to cope with the demands of school tasks
and standardized tests, these summary approaches are suggested for blacks:

1. They hoIuld become more aware ol'theapparent validity of the structures of knowledge as
we now know them in the American graded school syslteim.
2. The-y must develop greater willingness to use more I ill and continuously all of their in-
dividual and environmental resource, to fs, ter their Ion pi personal, social. academic and
% ocational development.
3. Up to now, it appears that entirely too many Negro youngsters have emphasized personal
and social development at the terrible sacrifice of technological and academic develop-
ment. As difficult as it may seem, this approach to education must he turned around if they
are to survive in the open marketplaces in an increasingly complex and competitive socie-
L Recognizing the operational bias. in tess as we tno, know Ict.i, blacks should do all thel
c.an to a i\oid II.os circumistance. s which seein clearly to iniitate against t norimati\e perf(r-
nlance tin school task, and therefore oi sandil ardiled It-Iss.

S.lhn1 T. HI [iII. ,Iand I ei r lb t (;Gar.r I-,,,, :e li/t. ,i w \,llhhs,,n \l\ I' living CompU.I \.
RHe.ad.I MlassIa'l huis.l s. |1%i 7. 'pp". .'.- Iil.
I '..ironm e E. I). ,I roppl. .,11 (,rI e H Il.nr I. I .. 1;,t. ,,/, Gip/ i /, mllo 'Iadr n lged G'(; roup,.
Te'lI Serw\ Ilil"Ih'l \,, 37.. Th, el'- h ,lh l, r1 I .1. ,,,ri .t], .11. \. \ ,r k. \1Ia\ IN )7. Se al s .lam es.I.
Kirpatrick, Robert B. Ewen. et. al., Testing and Fair Employment. New \ ork t university Press, New
York, I 68. pp. 1415.

5. To the extent they hold that current tests are biased against them, as a long-range strategy,
blacks must provide more leadership in defining the criteria of success and prediction
while developing tests to achieve these goals more satisfactorily for them in school and the
workaday world.
6. Contemporary America is characterized by confrontation and challenge in all sectors of
life, including education. Thus, there are professional, circuit riding "brothers" who ad-
vise black youngsters to declare a moratorium on taking "whitey's" tests, or to demand
culture fair tests. Blacks should beware of even those who bring gifts. These "pushers" too
might be agents of a new type of conspiracy and yet another betrayal of blacks. Thus, each,
in his own way, should evaluate seriously the awful consequences to himself personally of
such action. Check it out. Many of these "brothers" hold doctorate degrees from some of
the most prestigious universities in America. It appears too that many of these "brothers"
who have children send them to some of the most prestigious prep schools and colleges in
the country.


This study has probed the performance of blacks in Florida in school tasks
and on standardized tests. It has highlighted critical issues on schools for blacks,
the pro and con of tests, the performance of public school students on tests, and
suggested action. The sources of information were test data from the University
of Florida, a number of curricular studies by FAMU's Test Service Bureau, the
general literature, and the first-hand experience of the author and that of several
of his associates who, in addition to having worked in the system, have observed
and studied many of the problems and educational processes in Florida for a
number of years. Therefore, whatever statistical validity the observations lack is
more than offset by the validity of the black experience on the part of most
Negroes who have observed, participated in, and/or survived the public schools
with at least minimum competency and sanity.


It is popular to talk about the gap between the school achievement of white
and black students in Florida. The differential, favoring whites, is usually con-
siderable and alarming. However, any serious and fair effort to understand the
problem readily prompts one to wonder if, under the proper conditions, the out-
comes may not have been entirely different. From the historical facts, it is ob-
vious that most blacks in the public schools of Florida simply have been
programmed for mediocre to inferior school achievement. It is high time to
reverse this situation, now programming them for excellence in achievement in
school, job, and life tasks.
One implication of the adamant demand for "culture fair" tests for blacks is
that blacks feel they, as have other groups in America, cannot master the tasks of
school and the workaday world. Because of this fear, they feel they need tests,

"Arthur R. Jensen. "How Miuch (Ca ; e Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement." H.ARI ARD
EDIUCATIONAL REH IEWf, WAinter, 1969, pp. 1-123.
"William Shockley, "Dvsgenics, Geneticity. Raceology: aChallcnge to the I ntlllectual Respon-
sibility of Educators," Phi Delta Kappan. .anuarv 1972, pp. 297-307.

schools, and jobs calibrated to their so-called unique learning styles, which styles
are yet unknown and unproven, despite Jensen16 and Shockley17 who argue that
the low achievement of blacks is due largely to flawed genetic factors.
Finally, young blacks should not lose sight of their real enemy. If they do,
their energies will be used up in counter-productive activities which can only
worsen their already tragic predicament. It is very much true they, as a group,
are severely handicapped by standardized tests as tests are now used. But to im-
prove the tests or to eliminate them would not solve the basic problem of insuf-
ficient knowledge and inadequate preparation by many blacks. Thus, their
generally unsatisfactory test performance is simply and clearly symptomatic of a
pervasive pathological and morbid ailment in the American society which
deprives them of equal educational, economic, employment, social and political
opportunities. It is this ailment-the real enemy-which must be changed for the
better if blacks are to improve significantly their achievement status. Otherwise,
to reject assessment instruments which register the consequences of such
deprivation is merely a modern v version of "killing the messenger who brings bad

The Black College

Humanistic Endeavors

by Louise Blackwell
Associate Professor of English
Florida A&M University

In our age of fermenting change, at a point when we cannot predict whether
the products of this fermentation will be of the highest quality, our black in-
stitutions of higher learning might easily be described as outposts of wisdom.
This word "wisdom" is at the heart of what I wish to say on the subject, "The
Black College and Humanistic Endeavors", for by Humanistic Endeavors, I
mean to include all those activities, studies, experiences, and insights that con-
tribute to the moral wisdom of man. Herein lies the sad tale of those white law-
makers who legislated the black college into being for purposes of segregation
and other whites who looked upon these institutions as blessed retreats for
blacks who might otherwise matriculate at white colleges.
When, as occasionally happens today, those same politicians, social
reformers, women's liberationists, and student rebels permit themselves to enter
the realm of the black college, with open minds and honest intentions, they find
that the black people of America know all about their problems. Black students
and professors see nothing new in the problems that whites are experiencing,
because the Negro population has been struggling with the same oppressions for
300 years. Thus they are the fountains of wisdom, as many newly aware whites
have learned when they have been willing to come and listen. Black students and
professors have long since postulated the humanistic paths that American socie-
ty might travel, and the marvel is, considering the frustrations of their efforts to
espouse them, that they still believe in the future and the possibility of a
humanized society. Only the nature of the black institutions, including the
colleges, have enabled them to study and meditate upon the nature and condition
of man and to enunciate their conclusions through literature, art, music, drama,
and through living example. It is in their institutions that members of the black
community have been able to maintain and nourish their wisdom-a wisdom
that might well be the salvation of America if it gains ascendency in this century.

While there have been many arguments for the dissolution of the
traditionally black colleges, including those put forth several years ago by two
Harvard professors, the essential arguments for maintaining these colleges must
be based upon humanistic considerations. The bald fact is that when you destroy
a people's institutions, you destroy the people.
After all, it was humanistic considerations growing out of America's plurali-
ty of cultural, ethnic, and religious communities that were responsible for the
founding of Notre Dame, Brandeis, Southern Methodist, and hundreds of other
colleges in this country. If Sanford University in Birmingham is to be continued
and rewarded, then why not Miles College? Both institutions are
denominational. If the Harvard professors want to argue that Notre Dame,
Brandeis, and Sanford are religious, not racial, institutions, then they must deal
with the fact that a majority of the black colleges were founded and are supported
to a great extent by religious denominations. The additional fact is, however, that
they are much more than religious institutions; they provide a humanistic haven
for a large and visible segment of the population of the United States. The fact
that Notre Dame has been supported by the wealthy dominant white class, while
Miles College has been supported, largely, by poor black tenant farmers in
Alabama, does not offer sufficient justification for the elimination of Miles
College. And the fact that Miles College has received and educated, and con-
tinues to receive and educate, the sons and daughters of those same tenant
farmers, when they have no other entree to a decent life in this age of ferment is
ignored. Still, it is not the narrowness of opportunity for black students alone
that justifies the existence of Miles and other colleges.
Many of the students who go to Miles College, as to other predominantly
black colleges, would be eligible to go to Notre Dame, or some other "socially
acceptable" denominational college, or to the University of Alabama or some
other "socially acceptable" state university. So why do these black students
choose to attend Miles College, a denominational institution, or Florida A&M
University, a traditionally black university? This question leads to another: why
should the State of Florida continue to support Florida A&M University when it
is located in the same city with Florida State University, with its wide social ap-
proval and its disproportionate political support? The answer to both questions
has to derive from human considerations, not dollar considerations.
As a matter of fact, the answer to the two questions posed above indicates
that the black college is the only "true" college in America. Here we might quote
Mark Van Doren: "The ancient obligation of the college is to express, and to that
extent to be, a living principle." Since the true college is the repository of the
past, a place where the student can evaluate the present and, project the future
against his knowledge of the past, the black student naturally needs and wants to
go where his past is available to him. If, as has been the case according to the
curricula of most black colleges until recently, it appears that the past that is
taught has more to do with white America than with the Negro people,
appearances have been deceiving. As far as curriculum is concerned, black
colleges have had to conform to the regulations of accrediting boards, state re-
quirements for teacher certification, requirements for entry into graduate

schools, etc. If their students were to move on, with any degree of success, into a
society dominated by the white power structure, the curriculum had to conform.
As evidenced by the large number of educated black professional people who
have reached the top, it must be admitted that the black colleges met the re-
quirements unusually well.
The curriculum, then, is the surface design of the true college. The black
student goes to his college to find his past, to immerse himself in the black
culture, to experience an affinity with his environment that he cannot have in
most white dominated colleges. If the black past has not always been evident in
the curriculum, it has been made available to the student through the experience
and living example of his professors. It has also been made available to him
through the dusty stacks of the libraries, libraries that are the prime repositories
of the books, manuscripts, and music of Negro leaders for 300 years. It is here
that one finds the volumes of Negro magazines, newspapers, photographs, and
records that were issued in small numbers and ignored by the large, white-
dominated libraries, bothpublic and private. It is in this milieu that the black stu-
dent becomes aware of the achievements of his ancestors. It is here, in the
familiar cultural setting and in the warmth of his relationships with his
classmates, that the black student discovers himself, his own talent, his own
creativity, his own source of strength for his future life in what is still essentially
a hostile American society.
It is in the true college that the black student is enabled to develop a
philosophy that serves him in times of stress, in times of discouragement and
defeat, and in times of high success so that he can look with tolerance, patience,
and compassion upon his fellow human beings, both black and white, who con-
tinue to struggle. It is in the true college that the student is enabled to overcome
the dehumanization that the dominant race has inflicted upon him and itself.
What is now needed is for a few more of the deprived whites to come to the true
college for help in overcoming their self-inflicted dehumanization. The small
black college is not just a center for the teaching of THE HUMANITIES; it is a
center for experiencing humanism.
In other words, the predominantly black college, regardless of what other
courses of instruction may be pursued, is necessarily a center of humanistic
studies for modern living. This is true because of the unique experience of the
black minority in the United States.
In testimony before the Select Subcommittee on Education of the U. S.
House of Representatives last year, Professor Gerald F. Else of the University of
Michigan made the following statement:

Our republic was founded on aspirations and principles of humanistic origin. We have
begun to forget those principles, and we are forgetting them at our peril. Our most deeply
troubhng problems-'student revoll', the generation gap, thie black rebellion, even the
environmental crisis-all have humanistic factors and aspects that cannot be treated
simply by pouring in money or drugs or gadgets, but onlv b\ recovering a humanistic
view of man. Our real, deepest crisis is in the soul of our society, and it is a humanistic

During the same hearing, President Elizabeth J. McCormack of Manhattan-
ville College made the following statement:
The humanities, through a perennial study and understanding of man himself-and not
simply of his inventions and tools.-offer a fresh, ageless avenue...(to) support the
education necessary for responsible action, particularly concerning the nation's
domestic problems which are basically those of 'humanization.'
And even in the Government's authorization to the National Endowment
on the Humanities, permission is granted to support "the study and application
of the humanities to the human environment." The black college, whatever else
it may espouse, is a ready resource for "the study and application of the
humanities to the human environment." Recalling Dr. B. L. Perry's inaugural
address, in which he called for the establishment of an Institute for Promotion of
Human Understanding, I would like to suggest that, to a great extent, the black
college is an Institute of Human Understanding. The beginnings are present, the
structure, the means, the possibilities, the wisdom. That is not to say that we can
let matters rest. We must take up the challenge laid down by President Perry, a
man whose wisdom I appreciate more each day. I quote him:
The crisis in the world today is due largely to the lack of human understanding. Since the
younger generation seems bent on taking a major role in shaping the world of tomorrow,
our institutions must take daring efforts to probe the depths of human understanding.
*This proposed institute would favor innovations in society and provide the leadership
which would make our present social institutions flexible, adaptive, self-renewing and
more responsive to the human predicament. This program, different in nature from
science, would emphasize sympathetic understanding and produce valuations that play a
decisive role in human progress.
Out of this program, students would become aware that the real conquerors of the world
have not been the generals but the thinkers-not Hitler, Mussolini, Genghis Khan, Alex-
ander the Great or Napoleon, but Plato, Socrates, John Locke, David Hume, Confucius,
Buddha, Jesus Christ, Frederic Douglas, W. E. B. DeBois, Malcolm X, and Martin Luther
King. From these programs should come leaders who cannot only explore the heavens,
but who can transmit the knowledge gained to the improvement of the communities on
We ought to and I believe we will, in this small university and other small
black colleges around the country, use the accumulated wisdom of black
Americans to infuse society with a deeper and more meaningful understanding of
the human condition. It is the small college that fosters a sense of "community"
among its students and professors, and it is largely within such a community of
interests that thinking takes place, that appreciation of the past and projection of
the future can be nourished and stimulated. Surely it is the sense of community
that is missing from the sprawling, multiversities of this country that causes un-
happiness for large numbers of students. Humanistic considerations are receding
into the ivory towers of a few people in the multiversities, as evidenced by the
pronouncements of the Harvard professors on the closing of black colleges; the
small college is, today, the home of humanistic studies and experience. We ought
never to apologize for or default the black colleges in the realm of humanistic
What we badly need to do is to continue to strengthen our library holdings
in the form of manuscripts, records, and paintings, from the past to make every

effort to enlarge our holdings of contemporary materials. As I see it, we are in the
midst of a Black Renaissance in America, and we ought to make every effort to
keep each other and the world aware of it. While the Harlem Renaissance of the
1920s served and continues to serve as a source of interest and inspiration, it was
small and unsophisticated by comparison to the productivity of the last ten
years. We must not live through a Renaissance without making the most of it.
The books, the poems, the music, the paintings, the drama, all of these we must
use to make the Institute for Human Understanding effective and successful.

The Black College:
Recruitment and Growth
in the Nineteen Seventies

by Ollie M. Bowman
Dean of Admissions and Registrar
Hampton Institute

It is that time of year now that the formidable task of starting off the second
semester is over, that we turn our sights to September and begin the process all
over again. It goes without saying that even though student fees account for less
than 50 per cent of the annual college budget, these fees are cranked into the
budget picture in a very real and positive manner.
Consequently the budget is the biggest question in the minds of many direc-
tors of admission. Often they are told to admit X number of students so that the
college can meet a budget of X number of dollars. If this is true, then we must
also assume that in order to get these students personnel are needed to perform
three vital functions: recruitment, admissions, and office staff support. A strong
total admissions office will require adequate budget for each of the three areas of
activity, to weaken one is to weaken the other two. However, not more than 12
per cent of the total fees expected to be realized from new students should be
spent to secure this income.'
Once budgetary considerations are established, one's attention should then
be turned to the task of getting the students recruited. A well planned program of
admissions is the foundation of any successful admission program (see table 1);
recruitment is the proper implementation of that plan; and staff support is the
assurance of results from planning and recruiting. Therefore, recruitment can be
looked upon as the "proof of the pudding."

'Kelly, T. 1970. Manual for the Effective Admissions Office, Consultants for Educational
Resources and Research, Inc., Washington, D. C.

Table 1: A proposed admissions calendar2

Procedure Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug

Prepare admissions plan xxxx
Coordinate admissions and
financial aid plan xxxx xxxx
Arrange high school and
two-year college visits x xxx
Conduct visitations xxxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx
Receive and process
applications xxxx x xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxxx xx

Notify applicants of
admit/reject decisions xxxxx xxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx

Receive applicant responses
and deposits xxxxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxxx xxx xxx xx

Activity and more activity in recruitment will not necessarily result in riore
students, nor will more admissions counselors. But the right activity at the right
time and place by the right people will. Again planning and organization are the
keys to success.
Enrollments in higher educational institutions in the United States have
doubled in the past eight years and multiplied three times in the past fifteen
years. The percentage of high school graduates going on to colleges or uni-
versities has increased approximately 23 per cent in the past nineteen years, ris-
ing from approximately 43 per cent to 66 per cent. The enrollment in private
colleges is predicted to increase by nine per cent by 1987 to 2, 279,938 students.3
A recent report by the Ford Foundation4 of 51 private, senior traditionally
black institutions revealed that in 1963 their combined enrollments was 28,589
students. The enrollment has declined 0.5 per cent, but 1970 showed an upswing
of 0.2 per cent over the 1969 figure. Those colleges/universities that showed an
increase in enrollment are shown in table 2.

2A Student Records Manual. 1970. National Association of College and University Business Of-
ficers, Washington, D. C.
3Thompson, R. R. 1970. Projections of Enrollments Public and Private Colleges and Universities,
AACRAO, Washington, D. C.
4Ford Foundation

Table 2: Enrollment data of 23 selected Black Colleges/Universities

n Total Enrollment Percent
1968 1970 change
Arkansas Baptist College 350 360 12.0
Benedict College 1,255 1,340 12.2
Bethune-Cookman College 962 1,165 21.1
Clark College 992 1,046 5.4
Dillard University 944 968 2.5
Fisk University 1,213 1,270 4.7
Hampton Institute 2,670 2,678 0.3
Howard University 8,519 9,406 10.4
Interdenominational Theo. 135 167 23.4
Jarvis-Christian College 551 689 25.0
Knoxville College 964 1,130 35.0
Lincoln University 988 1,130 3.4
Meharry Medical College 432 531 22.9
Miles College 1,026 1,134 10.5
Morris Brown College 1,372 1,456 6.1
Paine College 670 689 2.8
Rust College 616 724 17.5
St. Augustine's College 1,040 1,117 7.4
Shaw University 1,094 1,155 5.6
Texas College 479 534 11.5
Tougaloo College 715 694 2.9
Virginia Union University 1,213 1,418 16.9
Xavier University 1,362 1,481 4.4

It is only fair to at least show those colleges/universities involved in this
study that did not show an increase in enrollment. They were: Allen, Atlanta,
Johnson C. Smith, and Wilberforce Universities; Barber-Scotia, Bennett,
Bishop, Claflin, Edward Waters, Florida Memorial, Huston-Tillotson, Lane,
LeMoyne-Owen, Livingston, Mississippi Industrial, Morehouse, Morris,
Oakwood, Paul Quinn, Philander Smith, St. Paul's, Spelman, Stillman,
Talladega, and Virginia Seminary Colleges; and Tuskegee Institute.
These data raise several questions, among them are: Why did some
colleges gain and others lose enrollment? Is enrollment directly related to office
organization, planning, recruiting activities? Do those colleges that had an in-
crease have open admissions policies? Are they offering programs in compen-
satory education? How is financial assistance related to their enrollment pic-
tures? At this point the author is reminded of a statement by Norris5 to the effect
that the survival of Negro colleges as noble academic institutions of higher

SNorris, E. 1970. Admissions in Predominantly Negro Colleges: A View from the Inside. College
and University 44.

education is dependent in large measure upon their ability to admit, enroll and
retain Negro students of above average academic ability. Are these increases in
enrollment reflected in an increased retention proportion?
We are all painfully aware of the problems caused by insufficient funds,
programs and staffs when we compete against the larger white institutions for the
more gifted students. So, what is our course of action? Whatever we do, there are
some things we can do that do not cost money. One problem that must be com-
batted was reported by Norris.5 This problem is that many academically talented
Negro high school graduates do not consider attending Negro colleges-they
follow the pattern laid down by superior Negro high school athletes, and the es-
tablished tradition of whites-that of attending the most prestigious institution
that ability, scholarship and money can afford.
Another problem might be now that integration is a fact of life we can no
longer rest on our laurels, records, Blackness, or what have you, believing that
we have a "captive audience." We have no assurance that just because we are the
oldest, the biggest, the best, or Black, students will break our doors down seeking
We must, if we plan to survive, improve our admissions systems. We must
be articulate with the philosophy and objectives of the institutions that we
represent.The recruitment of talented students must be viewed as a team opera-
tion. The admissions office must, of course, assume principal responsibility for
the enrollment objectives pertaining to freshmen, transfer, and special students.
However, the number of students who ultimately enroll is dependent not just
upon the activities of the admissions office but other offices as well, notably
financial aid, the registrar's and the business offices. To be most effective in
achieving its enrollment objectives, an institution must develop and execute
carefully considered and coordinated programs for recruiting, admissions, finan-
cial aid, and registration. The effect of these programs can be enhanced by
procedures which facilitate efficient and effective responses to applicants and
students from all offices concerned, as well as prompt and accurate status repor-
ting to the administration so that program adjustments may be made, if
necessary, to achieve enrollment objectives. Therefore, the team approach does
not stop with planning but continues on into the implementation process.
We must be ALIVE and on FIRE so that our institutions can be instruments
for inducting Black students into the "Main Stream."

A Proposal for Improving
the Education of Women

in Black Colleges and Universities

by Edna L. Boykin'
Assistant Professor of Education
Florida A&M University

Although much has been written concerning women's rights and the "New
American Feminism," not since the publication of Jeanne Noble's book The
Negro Woman's College Education, does it appear that an attempt has been made
to identify the kinds of educational experiences considered most important if
black women are to:

1. end their acquiescence to common place historical and sociological stereotypes and
2. challenge the status quo and gain a new vision of the role and place for educated black women in
American society and international affairs;
3. abandon the traditional occupational function of teaching and prepare to compete successfully for
the jobs now opening to all women; and
4. continue their quest for self-realization, self-fulfillment, self-actualization, and self-liberation.
While the obvious answer to the question, Do black women need a different
kind of education?, is that education for black women should be identical to that
provided for all other women as well as men, it must be assumed, as Noble observ-
ed in her 1956 investigation, "that educational experiences should be intimately
related to the personal needs of people...that women are one major class of
human beings, and black women as a subclass, have distinguishing needs." It is
this recognition which gives rise to this proposal for improving the education of
women students in black colleges and universities.
When a comprehensive review of the pervasive impact of the Women's
Liberation Movement is made upon the occupational, political and social status
of women, together with an analysis of what appears to be going on in black
colleges and universities, there are, in the opinion of the author several things
which black colleges and universities should do to improve the education of

'The author gratefully acknowledges her indebtedness to Dr. L. L. Boykin, Professor of Educa-
tion, Florida A&M University, for encouragement and assistance in the preparation of this article.

black women students, and to enhance the possibility that the kinds of learning
needed to achieve the above stated goals will be provided. An attempt is made in
this article to discuss six things which the author believes to be important.

The amount of current interest in women growing out of the Women's Liberation
Movement indicates that black colleges and universities should give serious considera-
tion to developing and offering "women studies courses."
For purposes of this discussion, Women's courses are defined as those in
which the coverage of women only, or topics on and about women, form the in-
tegral part of the subject matter content; courses which explore the nature, con-
tributions, and non-traditional roles, interests and needs of women through
historical, literary, biological and psychological means. Excluded from this
definition are traditional curriculum offerings in home economics and con-
tinuing education for women.
Like the Civil Rights and Black Power movements before it, the Women's
Liberation Movement has resulted in the organization of such women's courses
on a number of campuses. According to The Chronicle of Higher Education,
(November 30, 1970), 55 colleges and universities were offering one or more
courses that could be classified as "women's studies."
According to Lora H. Robinson, Research Associate at the ERIC
Clearinghouse on Higher Education, a series of anthologies of women's studies
courses provides an indication of their numbers and growth. In September,
1970, the first anthology contained 17 syllabi. The December, 1970, anthology
contained 65 course designs along with reading lists for these courses. By Oc-
tober, 1971, a list of over 700 courses representing 178 institutions had been
compiled. By June, 1972, the Modern Language Association's Clearinghouse on
Women's Studies, the group primarily responsible for continuing efforts at iden-
tifying women's courses, reported 160 additional courses. Further, they estimate
that the courses actually identified comprise only half the actual courses in ex-
Courses specifically for women have been developed at the University of
Oregon and the University of California at Los Angeles, among others.
Some women's courses were started because of discontent with women's
status as it is reflected today in the content of college courses. Feminists note the
virtual absence of women in history, literature, art and other fields as taught. Or
women are treated as peripheral, an appendix to the topic, or as exceptions to the
norm. References to women in textbooks, card catalogs, and indexes reveal a
scholarly tradition in which women are virtually invisible.
Even though at present, women's courses are not an established curricular
feature, and there is still too much debate, and too many issues still unresolved to
accurately chart the future of women's courses and women's studies, black
colleges and universities would do well to organize women's studies courses as a
means of improving the education of women students and making their offerings
more relevant.

From The Chronicle of Higher Education and other sources it is reported that
San Diego State College had the first full-fledged women's studies program. Its
organizers hoped that eventually it would develop into a women's studies center,
including course offerings, research, a child-care facility, and a community
center. Cornell has now established a female studies program that coordinates six
courses being offered or planned by different departments of the university.
Also a number of women's colleges are already offering women's studies
courses, including Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Douglas, Goucher, and Radcliffe
Colleges and the College of St. Catherine in Minnesota.
The call for women's studies has grown out of a feeling on the part of many
women faculty members and students that women were being largely ignored by
most of the academic disciplines and that too much of the study of women is be-
ing done by men.
Proponents of women's studies say that the current status of women in
modern knowledge reflects a viewpoint which takes male supremacy for granted,
thereby devaluing women's contributions. In addition, they assert that women
have internalized these negative views of women's activities to the point where
women have poor self-images and resultant lowered aspirations. Thus, one of the
purposes of women's courses is to restore women's self-esteem and to instill a
sense of identity.
Other purposes suggested for women's studies and courses ranged from the
simple filling in of gaps of knowledge to the instigation of political and social
change. For example, Trecker (1971) states that in addition to providing "new
information about women, their history, and their accomplishments," women's
courses challenge cultural assumptions by providing alternative ways of looking
at women.
There is just as much justification for offering "Women's Studies" as
"Black Studies" and/or Afro-American Studies in black colleges and uni-
versities, for historically black institutions of higher education have enrolled
more female than male students.
So far women generally have not adopted the militant tactics used by black
students to win approval of black studies programs, but some women who have
faced strong resistance are talking about such tactics as sit-ins and protest
The emergence of women as leaders in all areas of national and international af-
fairs has created the need for black colleges and universities to improve the education
of women students by providing opportunity for them to engage in the study of women
in history.
Frank H. Tucker describes one such approach to what is suggested here in
the Winter, 1972, issue of Improving College and University Teaching.
Using a biographic approach, the course being offered at Colorado College
focuses upon the lives and contributions of twenty women who are studied in
terms of the environments in which they lived and the context of their ef-

The twenty personages selected lived at periods which ranged from the Pre-
Christian Era to the present day. The twenty included seven from Asia or Africa,
six from Europe before 1800, three from modern Europe, and four Americans.
The persons analyzed were:
Cleopatra, Egypt, 69-30 B.C.
Empress Wu, China, reign 684-704 A.D.
Lady Murasake, Japan, c. 978-1031 A.D.
Heloise (of Aberlard fame), France, 1101-1164?
Eleanor of Aquitania, France and England, 1122-1204
Joan of Arc, France, 1412-1431
St. Teresa of Avila, Spain, 1515-1582
Elizabeth I, England, 1533-1603
Catharine the Great, Russia, 1729-1796
Queen Victoria, England, 1819-1901
Empress Alexandra, Russia, 1872-1918
Dowager Empress Tzu Hsi, China, 1834-1908
Marie Curie, Poland and France, 1867-1934
Eleanor Roosevelt, U.S.A., 1884-1962
Frances Perkins, U.S.A., 1882-1965
Recent Figures, still living:
Chiang Ching (wife of Mao Tse-tung), China
Mme. Chiang Kai-sheck, China
Golda Meir, Israel
Margaret Chase Smith, U.S.A.
In discussing each of these women, the following questions were considered
in each case: Was she homogeneous with her time, place and contemporaries?
Did she act in behalf of the established order and principles, or did she innovate
remarkably? What were her notable accomplishments? What did she contribute
to civilization or to the quality of life?
Such an approach might well be used in black colleges and universities to ac-
quaint women students with the contributions of great women of history.

Black colleges and universities should seek to develop greater awareness and ap-
preciation of the contributions of black women to the American life and culture in
order to provide more positive occupational, political, and educational image-builders
for black women students.
Few opportunities appear to exist in black colleges and universities for black
women students to learn about the contributions of black women to American
life and culture. Most women students hear, to be sure, quite a bit about Marian
Anderson, Mary McCleod Bethune, Mahalia Jackson and perhaps a few others.
But what about the significant contributions of black women in business, in law,
in politics, and all other aspects past and present, to American life and culture?

One source has identified four hundred notable women whose contributions
as rulers, authors, singers, reformers, philosophers, painters, physicians, at-
torneys, educators, dancers, sculptors, politicians, revolutionists,
anthropologists, actresses, scientists, psychologists, and so on are worthy of
serious study. This list includes only the following notable black women per-

Sojourner Truth Abolitionist
Harriet Tubman Abolitionist
Mary McCleod Bethune Educator
Marian Anderson Alternate U.N. Delegate/Singer
Althea Gibson Tennis Champion
Leontyne Price Singer
Mahalia Jackson Singer
Coretta Scott King Lecturer, Writer, Singer

Those who compiled the list are either unaware of the contributions of hun-
dreds of other black women or they are victims of the general assumption that
few, if any significant contributions have been made by blacks to American life
and culture.
Failure to include enough information about black women is one of the dis-
turbing facts growing out of a review of such studies as those of Foster and
Wilson, Haremann and West, and the American Association of University
In her book, Women Builders, Sadie Iola Daniel, a black author discusses the
lives and contributions of:
Lucy Craft Laney
Maggie Lena Walker
Janie Porter Barrett
Nannie Helen Burroughs
Charlotte Hawkins Brown
Jane Edna Hunter
She stated that, "there were thousands about whom she could not write the
full story and that she had included in her book only a few towering personages
who have stood like beacons for the masses pointing them to higher things." In
addition to those discussed fully in her book, she called attention to the follow-
ing: Judia C. Jackson, principal of the Teacher Training and Industrial Institute,
Athens, Georgia; Estelle Ancrum Forster, principal of the Ancrum School of
Music, Boston, Massachusetts; and Cecilia Cabaniss Saunders, executive
secretary of the Young Women's Christian Association in New York City, whose
successful administration had brought to the support of YWCA work benefac-
tors who had so financed it that from a meager beginning it has developed into
one of the most magnificent plants of its kind in the United States. To the class
engaged in teaching Negro women how to meet the demands of the changing
status of the American home she mentioned Sue W. Brown, chairman of the
trustee board of the Iowa Federation Home in Iowa City, and Willa Gertrude
Brown, head resident of the Phillis Wheatley House of Minneapolis.

In addition she observed that, should a survey be made of the foremost
Negro women of today, (1931) one would find them representing the fields of
music, art, literature, professional life, education, business, and social service.
Honor would thus be accorded Sadie Mossell-Alexander, Marian Anderson, Mae
Belcher, Otelia Cromwell, Eva B. Dykes, Jessie R. Fauset, Meta Warrick Fuller,
Angelina Grimke, Hazel Harrison, Georgia Douglass-Johnson, Nella Larsen, Jennie
Porter, Georgiana R. Simpson, Lucy D. Slowe, and Mary Church Terrell.
If, as Emerson says, "an institution is but the lengthened shadow of a great
personality," then Haines Normal and Industrial Institute, the Independent
Order of Saint Luke, the Virginia Home School for Delinquent Girls, Bethune-
Cookman College, the National Training School for Women and Girls, Palmer
Memorial Institute, and the Phillis Wheatley Association are the full-bodied,
sublimated shadows of Lucy Laney, Maggie L. Walker, Janie Porter Barrett,
Mary McCleod Bethune, Nannie Burroughs, Charlotte Hawkins Brown, and Jane
Hunter. These women were true builders not only of their own particular work
but of their communities, race, and nation. They take their places in history as
wise women approaching across the waste sands of illiteracy, inefficiency, and
lack of understanding, bearing gifts to a new born race.
Ebony Magazine included in its list of "The 100 Most Influential Black
Americans," the following women; (May, 1972): Lillian Benbow, National Presi-
dent, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority; Shirley Chisholm, U. S. Representative from
the state of New York; Angela Davis, Educator and Political Activist; Mattelia
Grays, National President, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority; Patricia R. Harris,
former Howard University Law School Dean, former Ambassador to Luxem-
bourg, Educator and Attorney; Dorothy Height, President, National Council of
Negro Women; Coretta S. King, Speaker, Singer, Civil Rights Activist; Elizabeth
Koontz, Director, Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor; Constance B.
Motley, Judge, U. S. District of New York, and Barbara Watson,Administrator,
U. S. State Department.
To the above listed women the author would add the following:

Elizabeth Carter
Julia Pitt Coleman
Fanny Jackson Coppin
Addie N. Dickinson
Dorothy H. Greene
Maude C. Hare
Anna P. Malone
Lucy H. Moten
Florence Randolph
Charlotte Ray
Margaret J. Washington
Julia Dericorte
Virginia Randolph
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Bessie Smith
Daisy Bates

Education and YWCA Work
Music (piano)
Education, Club Work
Protest Leader & Author
Blues Singer
Civil Rights Activist

Gwendolyn Brooks
Rosa Parks
Ella Fitzgerald
Dorothy Maynor
Fannie L. Haymer
Diana Ross
Aretha Franklin
Zora Neale Hurston
Ethel Waters
Lena Horne
Louise Beavers
Hattie McDaniels
Barbara Jordan
Juanita Stout
Leontyne Price
Cicely Tyson
Sarah Vaughn
Gloria Lynn
Billie Holiday
Pearl Bailey
Yvonne Brathwaite Burke
Willa B. Player

Civil Rights Activist
Civil Rights Activist
Recording Star, Performer and Actress
Recording Star and Performer
U. S. Representative (Texas)
Opera Singer
Singer, Entertainer
Singer, Entertainer
Singer, Entertainer
Singer, Entertainer
U. S. Representative (California)

Perhaps the most realistic, dramatic and positive way black colleges and uni-
versities can improve the education of women students is to grant women faculty full
equality in all aspects of the academic life-employment, promotion, and tenure, es-
pecially in positions of responsibility, authority and leadership.
A recent study conducted by the American Association of University
Women (AAUW) shows that about one-half of all institutions of higher learning
in the United States and over two-thirds of all large public colleges and uni-
versities have some regulations or policies interfering with the employment of
more than one member of a family on the faculty or research staff or in the ad-
ministration. Some of these institutions have their doors tightly locked to the
employment of a second family member. Others, whose policies are less extreme,
may not permit the employment of a husband and wife in the same department,
may not allow both to hold full-time positions, may refuse to hire both on a per-
manent basis, may be unwilling to promote both, and so on.
In reporting on her continuing studies of faculty in Minnesota Colleges and
Universities, Ruth Eckert suggests that "women are actually more disadvan-
taged now than they were in the mid-1950s, whether this is judged by percentage
on college staffs, academic rank, or scholarly preparation and productivity." Her
studies and others do seem to show that women give more time to teaching and
gain more satisfaction from it than men. This may be because teaching is the role
assigned to them. If research were something the dominantly male professoriate

regarded as secondary, if the rewards for research were less than for teaching, we
might well have a satisfied female professoriate heavily engaged in research.
Kenneth E. Eble, writing in The Chronicle of Higher Education (January 17,
1972), p. 6, states that as a group women teachers are paid less, carry out less
desirable teaching assignments, occupy the lower-ranks, are first to be laid off in
hard times and rarely move into important administrative positions.
In a study recently conducted by the writer, it was found that no women
were presidents: three were Vice Presidents for Academic Affairs or Deans;five
were Vice Presidents for Administration or Business Managers; 36 were Direc-
tors of Admissions or Registrars and one Acting Registrar; six were Vice
Presidents for Student Affairs or Dean of Students and two Acting; 48 were
Directors of Libraries or Librarians; five were Directors of Public Relations;
seven were Financial Aid Oficers; eight were Directors of Placement; two were
Directors of Development; one was Director of Institutional Studies.
Among the institutions reporting no women administrators are the follow-

Alabama State University
Selma University
Morehouse College
Kentucky State College
Alcorn A&M University
Lincoln University
Bishop College
Texas Southern University
Hampton Institute
West Virginia State
Bluefield State College

Daniel Payne College
Savannah State College
Southern University and A&M
College (Main Campus and
New Orleans)
Rust College
Elizabeth City State University
Langston University
Fisk University
Wiley College

Among those which appear to be making some progress in granting fuller
recognition of equal opportunities to women are:

Stillman College
Arkansas A&M Normal College
Shorter College
Clark College
Paine College
Dillard University
Coppin State College
Southern University and A&M
College (Shreveport)
Florida A&M University
Mississippi Valley State College
Utica Junior College
Bennett College
Livingstone College
Wilberforce University
Voorhees College

Talladega College
Philander Smith College
Federal City College
Morris Brown College
Spelman College
Grambling College
Xavier University of L. A.
Mary Holmes College
Mississippi Industrial College

Tougaloo College
Barber-Scotia College
Fayetteville State University
Winston-Salem State University
Claflin College
Knoxville College

Lane College LeMoyne-Owen College
Morristown College Tennessee State University
Jarvis Christian College Paul Quinn College

Women students need desperately to find in their teachers and counselors
persons who are all of a piece, who do care, who have similar concerns, who are
growing toward integrity. They need to see this in women faculty members so
that they can believe it is possible for them to achieve similarly in a fragmented
world. They also need to be able to conceptualize a future and to see themselves
as a viable reality. Black colleges and universities by granting full recognition
and equality to women faculty members can contribute positively to the meeting
of this need.

Black colleges and universities must rethink the whole question and face the
problem of career planning if they are to educate and prepare women students for new
societal demands and life roles.
The fact that historically and traditionally black women have gone into
teaching provides a broad insight into the peculiar position of the educated black
woman in American society.
Whether black colleges and universities should continue to educate so
many of their female students for teaching and other educational careers is open
to serious question. And since marriage and child rearing are significant aspects
of the female role, and must be considered in relation to both occupational
careers and post-graduate study, black colleges and universities need to
reevaluate their programs to determine whether the kind, quality, content and
direction of the education which is being offered female students does in actuali-
ty prepare them for new emerging feminine roles in American Society.
Secretary of Labor, James P. Hodgson, in issuing "Revised Order No. 4",
published in the Federal Register, December 4, 1971, declared that the govern-
ment finds women and minorities underutilized in the following areas: officials
and managers, professionals, technicians, salesworkers ((except for women,
some retail over-the-counter sales), and craftsmen, with minorities underutiliz-
ed in office and clerical jobs as well.
Sonia Pressman, a senior lawyer for the Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission, told a meeting of labor relations officials in Boston, April 29, 1970:
"What we have seen in the past five years is nothing short of a revolution-a
revolution in the legal rights of women to equality on the job and a revolution in
the expectations of women with regard to such equality." However, she added:
"There has not yet been a corresponding revolution in the employment status of
women in the jobs they hold and the salaries they earn.
The following statistical profile of women in our society presents an even
more compelling reason why black colleges and universities should give serious
consideration to the guidance, counseling, career planning and education of
women students.

Number of Percent of
Total Number Women Women

U. S. Senate 100 2 .020
House of Representatives 435 11 2.500
U. S. Ambassadors 101 2 .020
Presidents of four-year
colleges and universities* 1,477 155 .110
Elementary school teachers 901,819 770,328 .850
Secondary school teachers 607,462 284,429 .470
Federal Judges 422 3 .007
Lawyers 285,933 6,488 2.600
Physicians 261,176 15,968 .060
Students granted degrees in
Bachelor's and first professional 401,113 145,514 .360
Master's 78,940 24,481 .310
Doctor's 10,575 1,112 .110

*(Note: All but 15 are heads of Catholic women's colleges.)

(Women represent 51% of the U. S. population-92,907,000 out of 183,642,-

As for winning elective office, women have actually backslid. Only 11
women-six Democrats and five Republicans-were among the 535 members of
Congress in 1970, eight fewer than in 1961-62 when their numbers reached an
all-time high of 19. In the entire 54 year period since Rep. Jeanette Rankin (R.-
Mont.) became the first woman to be elected to Congress in 1916, only 75 women
have served in the federal legislature. Only 10 of them have been senators. One
of these, Senator Margaret Chase Smith (R.-Maine) was defeated in the last elec-
Fifty-one years after winning the right to vote, 53 percent of the population
was represented by no woman governor, only one senator, and eleven members
of the House of Representatives. Fewer than 200 state legislators (less than 4
per cent) were women. Only 31 women hold state elective positions outside the
legislatures, a drop from 41 a decade earlier. Five are secretaries of state, 11 are
state treasurers, two are state supreme court justices.
The first Negro woman to serve in Congress, Shirley Chisholm of Brooklyn,
New York, recently said, "in the political world I have been far oftener [Sic] dis-
criminated against because I am black."
Little wonder then that the emphasis of the women's liberation movement
has shifted from the drive for equality to a determined pursuit of political power.
The education of women in black colleges and universities should include
preparation for full participation in both civic and political affairs.

Even in areas of education in which women predominate, they rarely rise
to the top. The NEA Research Division has discovered in an intensive study of
professional women in public schools that women account for 67 per cent of all
the nation's classroom teachers, but the percentage drops drastically with each
step up the educational pyramid.
In 1971, the NEA found only 414 female principals in 13,763 senior high
schools, only 26 per cent of all central office administrators were women, 21 per
cent of elementary principals, and 3.5 per cent of junior high principals were
women. At the peak, only .6 per cent, or 90 of 14,379 superintendents, and 2.9
per cent of assistant superintendents in U. S. public school systems were women.
Assuming that black colleges and universities will continue for some time in
the future to over-emphasize teacher training as an avenue of employment for
female students, every effort should be put forth to encourage and to prepare
them for the higher positions of responsibility and leadership.

Black colleges and universities need to provide more cultural, enrichment and
personality development experiences for women students.
The life span of the average woman has been extended 34 years since 1850
and 25 years since the turn of the century.
Women now marry at a younger age than preceding generations. Moreover,
they not only have their children earlier, but largely because of our rapid ur-
banization, they mature and become less home-oriented at an earlier age. The
cumulative result is that in their forties they experience a rude awakening to the
fact that they want something more than their husbands, their children and their
homes. More and more there develops an awareness of a deeper and more basic
personal need.
It is at this period in their lives that women have to be able to face with
courage the fact that the pieces they have put together so painfully in rearing
their children and maintaining their marriages can be destroyed or dispersed,
and that they have to start rebuilding the structure of their own lives and the
lives of their families.
All too often they begin to realize that the kind of education they have
received scarcely sheds light on their dilemmas or is of value as a guide for their
judgment. They discover that they have not been educated as women, but rather
as the competitors of men and that they have been denied the opportunity to
grasp, intellectually as well as emotionally, the essential role of women to be es-
thetically, artistically and spiritually creative.
While on the one hand, I do not agree fully with Betty Friedan who argues
in her book, The Feminine Mystique, that "American women are being hoodwink-
ed by an elaborate 'mystique' which seeks to persuade them that marriage and a
career are incompatible and that domesticity offers them the best chance for
fulfillment," there is much validity to her position that "The whole concept of
women's education should be regeared from four-year college to a life plan under
which a woman could continue her education without conflict with her
marriage, her husband and her children."

What is needed, particularly in black colleges and universities, is a restruc-
turing of the education for women students not only in terms of preparation for
new career opportunities and life-time interests and goals, but, in addition,
drastic steps should be taken to "educate" and "re-educate" women students in
the appreciation and enjoyment of the more enriching and cultural things of
life-art, music, literature, painting and sculpture. There should be a return to
the art of being feminine in dress, in manners, and in personality. Especially
should greater emphasis be placed upon etiquette and acquisition of the social
graces. Finally, it should be recognized that material things do not represent all
that life has to offer, and that things spiritual do have a significant place and role
in the life of the truly educated woman.

One of the striking anomalies of our time is that in a period of un-
precedented affluence the educated woman has been experiencing an ever-
increasing restlessness. Throughout America, educated women are discontent.
They are challenging not only what they consider to be overt and covert dis-
crimination against them, but in some cases the very concepts of "male" and
"female" on which the social structure has been organized are being attacked.
Many social developments and convergent circumstances within recent
decades have stimulated the broadening out-look and aspirations of the educated
Among the more tangible contributions to their restlessness are the effects
of technology upon the domestic life pattern, especially mechanization of the
home and the lessening of household burdens; advances in the science of food
preparation; nutrition and in health; and the proliferation of new freedoms and
unlimited opportunities for pursuing exciting careers.
It is a mistake to judge the strength of the new rise of feminism by the
relatively small number of women who physically storm male sanctuaries or
shout obscenities at male reporters. They are only the outer edge of mountingim-
patience among women against the secondary role which society has assigned to
their sex.
Like the Black Panther Party in its relationship to the entire black popula-
tion, the few militant women have awakened deepening buried feelings within
large numbers of other women who never before consciously thought of
themselves beyond being sexual playthings of the male to an affirmation of their
role as human beings, with capacity for leadership and contribution in varied
ways. Women now realize that they need an identity of their own.
In pioneer America the home was central to the economy so that woman's
role was integral to the building of a new nation. With the advent of industrializa-
tion, the growth of cities, and the establishment of professions outside the home,
women began to play a less conspicuous part.
As late as the nineteen-fifties the role of women expressed itself in an almost
universal return to domesticity and the rearing of large families, satisfactions
which had been denied them during the war years. But in the sixties this out-

reaching for a more comprehensive meaningful role in life crystalized into a
deep-rooted feeling that women had indeed as a group been the victims of dis-
crimination, and that, without question had been denied access to careers for
which temperamentally, culturally, emotionally, and intellectually they were
eminently suited-law, medicine, college and university professorships, for ex-
Mrs. Elizabeth Duncan Koontz, former director of the Women's Bureau in
the Department of Labor, has belittled the theory that the sexes have to be "high-
ly distinct in their roles, polarized in their interests and abilities." She joined the
new feminists in criticizing the education system, the news media, the adver-
tising trade, and child-rearing dicta as conditioning women to accept a second-
rung status, limited in range of activity.
All told, the women's rights movement appears to be moving ahead, es-
pecially on the job front. The struggle for women's rights in the United States has
made substantial progress in many areas. In fact, the proportion of women in the
work force has approximately doubled during the last 75 years. But despite this
apparent progress, American women comprise only seven per cent of the
nation's physicians, four per cent of its architects, three per cent of its lawyers,
two per cent of its dentists and fewer than one per cent of its engineers.
While a detailed analysis of the circumstances responsible for this state of
affairs is beyond the scope of this article, and while the existence of such a situa-
tion cannot be attributed to any single cause, in the academic market place, I
think the point that needs stressing is that the ferment resulting from the
Women's Liberation Movement is bringing about considerable changes.
Among undergraduate and graduate women, small but vocal women's libera-
tion groups have been organized. Their demands range from the admission of
women to all-male karate classes to the adoption of "Women's Studies." They
argue that if their institution can provide draft counseling for its men, it can
provide abortion counseling for its women.
The militancy of Women's Liberation and the fear of losing large govern-
ment grants brought about some changes. Among the more interesting
developments are the following:
William A. Sievert reports in The Chronicle of Higher Education, "NCAA
Concerned about Legality of Its Exclusion of Women," (January 17, 1972), p. 1,
that in the 66th year, the National Collegiate Athletic Association has discovered
that its efforts to coordinate the nation's "schoolboy" sports may have overlook-
ed someone who does not wish to be overlooked-the "schoolgirl."
Evidence of the change now taking place is the admission of women to such
notable all-male institutions as Princeton, Yale, and Harvard. Further evidence
of the change is recent appointments to Military Academies and to high positions
in government and industry.
Not all organizations, associations, individuals appear ready to accept the
invasion into previously all-male areas for example:
Phi Delta Kappa, the international education society, voted at its biennial
meeting in Champaign, Illinois, to continue to bar women from membership.
The Harvard University Chapter resigned in protest after the fraternity refused

to seat Harvard alternate and delegate Virginia Barcus at the meeting. The
Chronicle of Higher Education, January 17, 1972, p. 6.
The strongest opponent today is organized labor, a frequent target of
feminists who regard it as just another male-dominated institution controlling
the lives of women. Women compose 20 per cent of the total membership of
labor unions, but occupy virtually none of the leadership positions. Even unions
with large female memberships, like those in the clothing trades, have always
been headed by men.
Black colleges and universities should acquaint women students with the
literature and facts regarding the Women's Liberation Movement and try, in ap-
propriate courses and through other experiences, to provide a greater awareness
of the female potential for leadership and political power.
Within the last two years there has been a steady outpouring of books and
articles on women and their role. Morton Hunt wrote Her Infinite Variety: The
American Woman as Lover, Mate and Rival; Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine
Mystique. Esquire, The Saturday Evening Post, McCall's, Redbook, Harper's, and
The New York Times Magazine Section are suggestive of the popular periodicals
which have addressed themselves to the subject.
Although it is impossible to give a detailed listing of the many references
relating to the Movement, among the more significant writings that should be
read by all female students are those listed in the bibliography.


"A Whole New Vision For The Educated Woman," The American Association of
University Women Journal, Volume 63, No. 2, January 1970
Austin, Helen S. and Bayer, Alan E., "Sex Discrimination in Academe,"
Educational Record, Volume 53, No. 2, Spring 1972
Beasley, Ronald, "Monticello College," Improving College and University
Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Cohen, Audrey C., "A College for Human Services," Improving College and Uni-
versity Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Cronkhite, Bernice Brown, "New Patterns in Women's Education," Improving
College and University Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Dawson, Madge, "The Higher Education of Women in Australia," Improving
College and University Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Eddy, Edward D., "What's the Use of Educating Women," Saturday Review,
Volume 46, No. 20, May 18, 1963
Eurich, Nell, "Querelle Des Femmes," Saturday Review, Volume 46, No. 20,
May 18, 1963
Fichter, Joseph H., "Talented Negro Women," Graduates of Predominantly
Negro Colleges, Class of 1964, U. S. Department of Labor and National
Science Foundation
Friedan, Betty, The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton Publishing Company,
Friedan, Betty, "A GI Bill for Women?", Saturday Review, Volume 46, No. 20,
May 18, 1963

Gifford, Beverly, "Breaking the Sex Barrier in School Administration," The Ohio
Schools, Volume 46, No. 15, November 26, 1971
Hilton, Helen LeBaron, "Liberated Women," Journal of Home Economics,
Volume 64, No. 4, April 1972
Hovland, C. Warren, "Coeducation for Today and Tomorrow," Improving
College and University Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Howe, Florence and Trecker, Janice Law, "Educating Women: No More Sugar
and Spice," Saturday Review, Volume 54, No. 42, October 16, 1971
Larson, Joan, "Women in a 'Bastion of Male Supremacy'," The Chronicle of
Higher Education, letter to editor, Volume 6, No. 6, November 1, 1971
Lewis, E. C., Developing Woman's Potential, Ames: Iowa State University Press,
Newman, F. Task Force, Chm., Report on Higher Education, U. S. Office of
Education, Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1971
Noble, Jeanne L., The Negro Woman's College Education, New York: Teachers
College, Columbia University, 1956
Olson, Claire T., "The U. S. Challenges Discrimination Against Women," Junior
College Journal, Volume 42, No. 9, June/July 1972
Oltman, Ruth M., "Focus on Women in Academe, 1980," Improving College and
University Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Report of the subcommittee on the status of academic women on the Berkeley
Campus, Berkeley: University of California, May 1970
Robinson, Lora H., "The Emergence of Women's Courses in Higher Education,"
ERIC Higher Education Research Currents, Publications Department,
American Association for Higher Education
Scully, Malcolm G., "Women in High Education: Challenging the Status Quo,"
The Chronicle of Higher Education Volume 4, No. 18, February 9, 1970
Semas, Philip W., "Women's Studies," Improving College and University
Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Shaffer, Harry G., and Shaffer, Juliet P., "Job Discrimination against Faculty
Wives," The Journal of Higher Education, Volume 37, No. 1, January 1966
Shaffer, Helen B., "Status of Women," Editorial Research Reports, Volume 2,
No. 5, August 5, 1970
Shearer, Lloyd, "Successful Women," Parade, Intelligence Report, February
20, 1972
Sievert, William A., "NCAA Concerned About Legality of Its Exclusion of
Women," The Chronicle of Higher Education, Volume 6, No. 15, January 17,
"The American Woman," Transaction, Volume 8, Nos. 1 and 2, No. 63,
November/December 1970, Special combined issue
Tompkins, Pauline, "Change and Challenge for the Educated Woman," Satur-
day Review, Volume 46, No. 20, May 18, 1963
Trow, Jo Anne, "Higher Education for Women," Improving College and Uni-
versity Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972
Tucker, Frank H., "The Study of Women in History," Improving College and
University Teaching, Volume 20, No. 1, Winter 1972

Ferment in Black Colleges
and Universities:
A Variety of Perspectives

by Leander L. Boykin
Professor of Education
Florida A&M University

The decade 1962-72 might well be characterized as the age of ferment in
black colleges and universities. This ferment may be described in terms of a
variety of perspectives which run the gamut from changes in the historical legal
status of black colleges and universities as segregated institutions to their future
prospects as relevant quality institutions within the system of American higher
The student of higher education who is well versed in the literature on black
colleges and universities and what is going on to keep them alive and viable may
find this discussion elementary. But it is precisely because it is elementary and
basic to an understanding of the ferment now taking place in, between and among
black colleges and universities that it is being presented here.
At this time of crisis in all American higher education, and especially black
colleges and universities, it is truly amazing and appalling how little so many per-
sons know about black colleges and universities. There are far too few who know
anything at all about the social, economic and political conditions which gave
birth to black colleges and universities, and who fail to realize that black in-
stitutions of higher education were established to do what American society had
failed to do and was unprepared to do at a most critical period in the nation's
history. Little do they realize that black institutions of higher education came
upon the scene when the barriers of caste, and the cobwebs of ignorance
resulting from years of slavery, educational denial, economic starvation, and
racial prejudice were denying blacks of all ages both the right to and opportunity
to develop their abilities and talents. The\ are unacquainted with the con-
tributions of black colleges and universities to the nation and to human progress.
They lack knowledge and understanding of the struggle to survive and of the
problems and needs of black institutions of higher education.
I unaware that part of the answers to many of the current questions being
asked about black colleges and universities must come from history; without
realizing that only when we look at higher education for black Americans from a

long range historical perspective within the broad context of societal value
changes, political upheavals and economic materialism, the contemporary ad-
vocates of a total new society for blacks and other minority groups have engaged
in discussion of black colleges and universities without the benefit of proper
perspectives. This variety of perspectives on the ferment now taking place in
black colleges and universities will, it is hoped, provide encouragement for
deeper reflection and more serious study of the contributions and future role of
black colleges and universities.
The dismantling of the system of segregated black colleges and universities
which began with the famous Gaines decision in 1936 has resulted in considerable
legal ferment and changes in the administrative structure of black institutions of
higher education. Created in an era of political, sociological and economic up-
heaval resulting from slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction, black colleges
and universities are now undergoing several patterns of change from their legal
status as racially identifiable institutions.
Inquiry into current movements now underway in an effort to comply with
constitutional provisions, federal laws and HEW guidelines reflect a number of
patterns of change in the administrative structure of black colleges and uni-
versities and is indicative of one major aspect of ferment.
Some black institutions have been merged already with white institutions.
Others are in danger of losing their identity through outright abolition, reduced
status or integration. Significant among those which have been merged are
PrairieView A&M College now part of the Texas A&M University administrative
structure, Arkansas AM&N College which has been merged with the University
of Arkansas, and Maryland State College at Princess Anne now the University of
Maryland-Eastern Shore.
Some formerly all black colleges and universities have ceased to be
predominantly racial institutions. For example, West Virginia State and
Bluefield State are now majority white. About half of the enrollment of Lincoln
University in Missouri, and one-third of the student bodies at Delaware and
Bowie State Colleges in Maryland, and Kentucky are predominantly white.
Among the black public institutions now threatened by direct competition
from white state institutions are Alabama A&M and Alabama State Universities;
Florida A&M University, Albany and Savannah State Colleges in Georgia,
Grambling State College and Southern University in Louisiana; Morgan State
and Coppin State Colleges in Maryland; North Carolina A&T University; Texas
Southern University; Norfolk State and Virginia State Colleges in Virginia.
All of the historically black public supported institutions now enroll some
white students as do many of the privately supported colleges and universities.
During the past decade, black colleges and universities have continued to com-
pete fairly successfully for students, but the rate of increase in their enrollments
appears now to be slowing.
Estimates compiled by the Southern Regional Education Board from the U.
S. Office for Civil Rights data revealed that during 1970 forty-seven (47) per cent
of black undergraduate students attended colleges and universities in the South,
while fifty-three (53) per cent went to institutions outside the region.

While there appears to be growing consensus that the survival prospects of
a majority of private black colleges and universities are brighter than ever before,
no one can be certain what will be the ultimate result of the ferment now reshap-
ing the administrative structure of black public institutions stemming from con-
stitutional requirements outlawing racial segregation and discrimination in
educational facilities, and federal laws holding that blacks must be admitted to
white graduate schools where equal opportunities are not immediately available
within the state at formerly all black institutions.

In no area, perhaps, has ferment in black colleges and universities been more evi-
dent than in campus governance and management.
An interesting fact discovered in a recent study currently underway by the
author is that thirty-seven (37) new presidents have assumed leadership roles in
black colleges and universities since 1968. Among these are such well known in-
stitutions as Howard, Southern, Florida A&M, and Tennessee State Univer-
sities; also, Dillard, Knoxville, Johnson C. Smith, Morgan and other colleges.
Many of those becoming presidents appear to have travelled the route from
professor, to department head, to dean or some other administrative position to
president. On the other hand, this was not always so, because five (5) were
professors just prior to becoming college presidents. Some of the other positions
held at the time of their appointment as president were: Vice President for Fiscal
Affairs or Business Manager, 2; Vice President or Director of College Develop-
ment, 2; Dean of Administration, 1; Vice President for Academic Affairs or
Academic Dean, 3; Criminal Court Judge, 1; Director of Admissions, 1; and
Director, Division of Arts and Sciences, 1; Assistant Dean or Vice Presidents, 2.
Three presidents moved from one position as president to another.
On the basis of evidence gathered and analyzed to date, considerable
changes in administrative personnel generally occur with the appointment of a
new president. At thirteen (13) of the colleges and universities new ap-
pointments were made in more than half of the top administrative positions.
Some examples are nine (9) out of ten (10) positions at one institution; eight (8)
out of twelve (12) at another; and six (6) out of nine (9) at still another.
At one institution, among the major administrative changes since 1968 are
the following: the appointment of a new president; three new vice presidents;
five academic deans; seven directors of such administrative units as Director of
Libraries, Personnel, etc.; twelve academic department chairmen; and other ex-
A study of 90 four-year black institutions indicates that the most of them
follow the traditional organizational internal structure pattern such as President
(90); Vice Presidents for Academic Affairs, Dean of Faculty, Dean of Instruction
(90); Vice Presidents for Student Affairs or Dean of Students (75). Of con-
siderable interest is the number still retaining the positions of Dean of Men (34)
and Dean of Women (56), most in addition to the Vice President for Student Af-
fairs or Dean of Students.
Among the newer or more recently established positions are Directors of
Computer Services or Managers of Data Processing in 21 institutions, Directors
of Research or Projects,21; Directors of Placement, 50; Directors of Public

Relations, 41; Vice Presidents or Directors of Development, 37; Directors of
Alumni Affairs or Secretary, 18; Financial Aid Officers, 49; Vice President for
Business Affairs or Business Manager, 86, with a majority retaining the latter;
Registrar, 76, and (or Director of Admissions), 38; and Director of Libraries or
Head Librarian, 85.
In terms of who is responsible for, engages in and performs what duties in
the administration of black colleges and universities, if position titles are any in-
dication of the same, administration in black colleges and universities is
characterized by great diversity, and is undergoing considerable change. But
whether the change is resulting in improved communication between ad-
ministration and faculty, and between faculty and students; whether steps are
being taken to insure improved conditions that will result in better faculty
morale; whether the new presidents represent a "new breed" in terms of chang-
ing the traditional manner of administering black colleges and universities
remains to be seen.
The recent surge of black awareness and of activism, protests and demands for in-
dependence has resulted in ferment in many areas once regarded as belonging ex-
clhsivelv within the province of administrative and faculty control in black colleges
unId umIveLt Mtaes.
Black students of today tend to ignore formal pronouncements on how
things are done, and to concentrate on the actual ways in which things are done;
to identify the main springs of power, and to infiltrate the decision-making
bodies of their colleges and universities.
Black students are asking their institutions to be more responsive to the new
thrust toward black cultural nationalism. They are asking in tones that range
from quiet demands to acts of near violence. The first request came from black
students in white institutions who felt a need to receive an education more rele-
vant to their needs, to dramatize their isolation from the mainstream of campus
life and to establish communication channels between themselves and ad-
ministrative officials. But no less significant have been the demands militancy
and activism of students at such well known black colleges and universities as
North Carolina A&T, Howard, Southern and Florida A&M Universities; Lane,
South Carolina State, Grambling, Knoxville, Morgan State, Alabama State,
Alabama A&M, Vorhees, and other colleges.
Students enrolled in black colleges and universities today are no longer, it
appears, concerned with civil rights. They are demanding that black colleges and
universities continue as black institutions. They are asking for more black
teachers, counselors, and administrators. They are demanding an end to
straight rows, fifty minute class periods, five point grading scale, and education
that is inferior and non-relevant. Recent studies of college unrest verify the
repetitive theme: racial injustices and new racial pride, college and university
authoritarianism, archaic rules and regulations; grinding boredom, poverty syn-
dromes, inadequate counseling, war, the draft, the nuclear threat, and the
spiritual oppressiveness of modern technology.

Almost every black college or university in the country is trying in one way
or another to survive the ferment resulting from the wave of student criticism,
protests and demonstrations to increase their commitment to black students and
to develop more relevant programs in response to the challenges of student
While it appears that considerable ferment is taking place in black colleges and
universities in the broad area of curriculum, few, it seems, have established new and
innovative academic programs, or engaged in major curriculum revisions and adap-
tations which will enable them to become more viable and relevant in terms of new
employment demands and emerging opportunities for black students.
According to the Tenth Edition of Colleges and Universities, sixty black
colleges and universities have "special academic programs and/or significant
academic activities." Below is a detailed compilation of special academic
programs in black colleges and universities from data obtained from this source.
The numbers in parentheses represent the number of institutions indicating
such a program.
Honors Programs (21); Afro-Asian Studies (11); Afro-American Studies
(11); Summer Institutes in math-science (8); Teachers of Disadvantaged Youth
(1); Conferences for Guidance Workers (1); Training Teachers for Inner City
Schools (1); Workshops for Public School Supervisors and Principals (4);
Human Relations Institute (2); Courses in Computer Science (2); Community
Relations Programs (3); Upward Bound Programs (6); International Studies
(3); Developmental Programs for Entering Freshman Students (8); Closed-
Circuit TV (3); Faculty Operated Radio Station (1); Workshop in Library
Science (1); English for Foreign Students (1); Workshop in Reading (1);
Workshops in Education (3); Independent Study (2); Interdepartmental
Teaching Majors (3); Inter-disciplinary Programs (3); Annual Conference on
Preaching (1); Overseas Study Programs (1); Workshop in Teaching of Excep-
tional Children (3); Conference on Aging (1); Workshops in Economics and Ur-
ban Planning (1); Workshops in Business (1); Curriculum Development
Programs; Urban Problems (2); Multi-Occupational Program (2); Summer In-
ternship Programs in Business (1); Summer Institute Program in Agriculture
(1); Reading Improvement Courses (2); Undergraduate Research (5); Headstart
Readiness Institute (3); Academic Year NSF Institutes (2); Special Lecture
Series-Symposiums (3): and Terminal two-year Programs (3).
The most frequently mentioned of the more than 40 separate listings were
departmental programs in 21 institutions. Summer institutes in Math and
Science constituted the second largest listing among black college and uni-
versity special academic activities.
In view of the evidence which indicates that most students entering black
colleges and universities are not fully prepared to undertake college work, of par-
ticular interest was the small number of institutions (8) reporting the ve-
tablishing of special developmental and/or remedial programs for entering dibsad-
vantaged students. The programs at Morgan College, Shaw University and
Bishop appear to be noteworthy of special mention.

Since publication of the Tenth Edition of Colleges and Universities, there is
some evidence to suggest that black colleges and universities are accelerating
their efforts to make their curriculum offerings and programs more relevant and
viable. Some examples are as follows:
South Carolina State College is one of ten institutions selected to offer
Army ROTC to women beginning in the fall of 1972; Navy ROTC programs will
be offered at Southern University and Florida A&M University.
The Institute for Study of History, Life, and Culture of Black People at
Jackson State College, offers a summer program in black culture for college
teachers. The program is full-time and will offer 12 credit hours. Jackson State
College also has a new Industrial Chemistry major which offers students
laboratory work in manufacturing companies as part of their experience. Team
work and individual projects developed by students are features of the program.
Jackson State College opened its new Counseling Center in the Fall of 1971.
Specific goals of the center are to help students become better oriented to
college, to help them achieve academically, to identify courses and activities
which will interest students, to help them understand themselves and their
motivations, and to aid students in setting and achieving vocational goals.
Atlanta University has established a Center for School and Community Ser-
vices within its School of Education. The center will offer workshops and con-
sultation to Georgia School systems and communities, especially to develop and
implement school integration.
Albany State College has begun to offer an undergraduate degree in early
childhood education, tailoring it to persons wishing certification for teaching
kindergarten through third grade, and those involved in day care.
A&TState University has a new program to guide black college students into
the field of certified public accounting. Students in the program take all courses
to prepare them for the North Carolina Board of Examiners test for CPA's. They
also serve as accountants for a CPA firm or industry before graduation.
In recognition of the need on the part of black colleges and universities to
strengthen and improve their academic programs, federal agencies and foundations
are making substantial grants to black institutions of higher education. Some ex-
amples are as follows:
North Carolina Central University's School of Library Service has an-
nounced receipts of four grants totaling $237,265 to be used in strengthening
and expanding its total curriculum. Included in the total amount are the follow-
ing: $120,000 from the Carnegie Corporation, $20,000 from the Z. Smith
Reynolds Foundation, and two grants of $53,265 and $44,000 from the Office of
Economic Opportunity.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development signed a contract on
March 22, 1972 with Texas Southern University to find new ways to utilize the
resources of black colleges and universities in fostering community development
activities. The contract, in the amount of $135,000, brings the level of TSU's in-
volvement with the model cities program to more than one million dollars in
federal and local funds.
The School of Library Service at Atlanta University has instituted two
programs to improve the administration of libraries in black institutions: a one-

year, in-service program for libraries which includes a six-week workshop and an
internship, and a three-year program which will provide special study grants to
enable 60 students to earn masters' degrees in library service. A Ford Foundation
grant finances the programs.
Atlanta University has also received a five-year grant of $501,680 from the
Ford foundation to help support the university's new Master of Arts in Afro-
American Studies, the first such degree offered in the country. The program will
begin in the School of Arts and Sciences but will eventually be broadened to all
schools of the university. Over the period of the grant, Atlanta University will
match the Ford grant with $530,710.
On July 22, 1972, the Ford Foundation announced grants of $1,750,000
each to Howard University and Atlanta University to help them become graduate
centers of excellence in the social sciences. The two-year grant to Howard was to
enable the departments of history and political science to hire eight new full-time
faculty members each, and for assistantships, library acquisitions, and other
expenses such as travel, seminars and space renovation. The grant to Atlanta
University was to provide for an endowment for three chairs in political science
and for matching funds over a period of six years for additional faculty
fellowships, library acquisitions and other expenses.
The Ford Foundation will also make available a grant of $5,000 to each of
not more than ten predominantly black institutions whose nominations of black
candidates are chosen as ACE fellows in the Council's 1972-73 Academic Ad-
ministration Internship Program. Although the AAIP offers the option of a host
campus or non-campus internship, the foundation stipulates that an institution,
to qualify for the grant, must send its participant for a nine-month internship on
a host campus.
A $565,000 grant from the Ford Foundation provides support for 26 new
courses in Urban Affairs recently added to the curriculum at Morgan State to
form the core of an undergraduate major in this new field of study.
Producing educational media generalists who can use a full range of
resources in reaching the culturally and economically deprived learning in the
nation's ghetto and rural schools is the goal of a program being conducted by the
Learning Resources Center of Virginia State College. The U. S. Office of Educa-
tion is co-sponsoring the master's level program.
A&T State University has been awarded one of 12 regional manpower
research and training grants by the U. S. Department of Labor. A grant of $262,-
000 will support operation of the center for four years. The center will direct its
programs at finding solutions to unemployment, underemployment, and racial
discrimination and will coordinate manpower research and training for North
Carolina, Alabama, Kentucky, South Carolina, and Tennessee.
The Kellogg Foundation through its program of Educational Opportunities
for Minorities has been the most substantial contributor to public black colleges
and universities.
Among its major contributions is support of the Office for the Advancement
of Public Black Colleges which was established in 1967 by the National Associa-
tion of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges. For support of the Office the
Foundation has contributed more than $350,000.

The Kellogg Foundation has awarded grants to fourteen (14) institutions
for the purpose of strengthening particular departments or curricula to increase
occupational opportunities for blacks in business administration, library
science, social science, and engineering. Institutions receiving grants under this
program are: Alabama A&M, $203,050; Florida Memorial College, $207,500;
Fort Valley State College, $199,744; Jaksoni State College, $204,000; Langston
University, $197,000; Miles College. $206,500; Mississippi Valley, $205,000;
Norfolk State College, $208,000; North Carolina A&T, $200,000; Rust College,
$152,550; South Carolina State, $207,000; Southern University, $220,000;
Tennessee State, $226,000 and Virginia Union, $207,900.
The Kellogg grant of $208,000 to Norfolk State was for the purpose of
strengthening its program in the Division of Social Sciences with emphasis on
the Department of Sociology.
Two Kellogg Foundation grants to Alabama A&M University were for the
purpose of supporting its new School of Library media, the first such curriculum
to be certified by the Alabama State Department of Education.
Tuskegee Institute was awarded $1,042,355 to develop continuing educa-
tion facilities and programs, and Stillman College $23,520 for experimental pro-
jects in environmental quality.
In addition, twenty-three black colleges and universities have received
Kellogg Foundation grants for development of library resources for environmen-
tal studies.
Delaware State College has received from the Dupont Company a grant
totaling $100,000 for student assistance and faculty support. The programs,
which provide for (1) tutoring and counseling services for students, (2) grants
for faculty members, and (3) a guest lecture series is the largest single financial
investment from a private source in the college's history.

The R. J. Reynolds Company has funded to more than a half-million dollars,
Winston-Salem State University's program to strengthen its curriculum
offerings. The latest gift was a grant of $143,274.

Florida A&M University's Area of Business has received substantial sup-
port from the Arthur Young and Company for a Professor's chair in Accounting.
A special Price Waterhouse grant of $50,0() for scholarships; also a grant of
S50,000 from the American Institute of CPA's for the same purpose. In addition,
Lvbrand Ross Brothers and Montgomery, all of the"BigEight" CPA firms, and
quite a number of industrial firms such as Mobil Oil, General Electric, Monsan-
to, Humble Oil and Union Carbide Corporation have underwritten an effective
program for the recruitment of high potential students.
The Ford Foundation has announced a major shift in its funding of higher
education; more concentration on minority education. One hundred million
dollars will be awarded over the next six years to improve education of blacks,
with hall of the money to go to institutions. IHampton and Tuskegee Institutes,
Benedict College and Fisk I'nicersitv have already been named as recipients of

Other Foundations making substantial grants and other commitments to
black colleges and universities include the Gulf, Esso and Sears Roebuck Com-
panies; also the Carnegie, Danforth, Henry Luce and others.
Ferment resulting in increased support of black colleges and universities by the
States and the Federal government adds another dimension to the brightening,finan-
cial picture of black colleges and universities.
The Federal government has shown increased understanding of and con-
cern over the financial problems besetting the nation's black institutions of
higher education.
HEW Secretary Elliot L. Richardson, in a statement released October 10,
1972 said the nation's black colleges and universities received $125.5 million in
Federal funds in the Fiscal Year. 1970 (July 1, 1969 to June 30, 1970). He said this
marked a 16 percent increase in Federal support to black colleges over the
previous year. The 1969 total was reported as $107,896,000. It should be noted,
however, that ten black institutions received 36 percent of the total amount of
funds awarded to black colleges and universities in 1970: Howard University,
$10.2 million; Meharry Medical College, $6.7 million; Tuskegee Institute, $5.4
million; Wilberforce University, $4.8 million; Bishop College, $4.6 million;
Southern University, $3.4 million; Florida A&M University, $2.7 million; North
Carolina A&T University, $2.7 million; Texas Southern University, $2.5
million; and Federal City College, $2.2 million.
The Nixon Administration has indicated its intention to provide increased
financial support to black colleges and universities.
Secretary of Agriculture Butz, in response to Alabama A&M University
President R. D. Morrison's charge that black institutions have never been
accepted by the land-grant community as bona fide members, acknowledged that
the black institutions "shared only nominally" in the land-grant system for far
too long, but said, "we are moving actively on this."
National Science Foundation Director, William D. McElroy reported that
the Foundation allocated $6 million for 1971 to improve science education at
four-year colleges and universities that historically have served disadvantaged
minorities. He said the nation's 86 black four-year colleges and universities con-
stitute the largest number of institutions that may be eligible for grants under the
new program.
Speaking at Commencement exercises at Southern University in 1970,
Secretary of Transportation John A. Volpe announced a $148,000 grant to the in-
stitution to support development of an undergraduate program in transporta-
Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare Richardson announced that
$20 million in loans had been marked for black colleges in a total package of $30
million in funds the Administration was making available to black colleges which
had complained that not enough Federal funds were provided to them. On
January 8, 1971, his Office announced that loans had been approved for the
following: Benedict College, Columbia, S. C., $1,225,000; Saint Augustine's
College, Raleigh, N. C., $433,000, and Voorhees College, Denmark, S. C., $395,-
000; also that eight applications for another $6.8 million are under review.

Robert J. Brown, special assistant to the President, said HEW, the Office of
Economic Opportunity, and the U. S. Department of Agriculture will provide
funds to help black institutions buy $4 million in surplus government property.
Some southern states have increased substantially their financial support of
black public institutions. According to one author ...Several states have responded
to the need for "catch-up" funds at the black institutions. North Carolina ap-
propriated $1,000,000 for 1967-69 and $1,300,000 for 1969-71 to the state board
of higher education as additional allocations for the five black public in-
stitutions. Approximately $2,000,000 has been requested for the 1971-73 bien-
nium to expand their effort.
The Florida Board of Regents has approved a differential factor in allocating
funds to Florida A&M University in support of compensatory programs. The
Mississippi legislature made a special appropriation of $600,000 to Mississippi
Valley State College in 1963 to strengthen the faculty and improve library
facilities. In 1970 the general assembly of Tennessee created a joint legislative
commission to examine special financial needs of its black institutions. The com-
mission has presented its report on Tennessee State University and offered ten
recommendations relating to finances.
The State of Maryland has appropriated $150,000 as its share of first year
support of a new undergraduate major in Urban Affairs at Morgan State College.
Florida A&M University received a $150,000 appropriation above its
regular allocation for the fiscal year 1971-72 from the Florida Senate and House
to enable it to create the necessary position to be eligible for the Arthur Young
chair in accounting and ten other faculty positions.
Recognition of the dire financial deprivation needs and problems of black
colleges and universities has resulted in considerable ferment on the part of many
forces now at work to enhance their financial support.
Particularly significant as part of the ferment now taking place in black
colleges and universities, are the efforts and activities of the United Negro
College Fund; the Institute for Higher Educational Opportunity established by
the Southern Regional Educational Board in 1967; the Institute for Services to
Education; the College-Industry Relations Program, popularly known as the
"Cluster Concept;" the National Association for Equal Opportunity; the Moton
Foundation; the Office for the Advancement of Black Public Colleges and Uni-
versities; TACTICS (Technical Assistance Consortium for the Improvement of
College Services); the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and the
several church and denominational boards.
A survey of the wide range of diversified and significant activities of these
will be presented in another article entitled, "The Survival Potential of Black
Colleges and Universities."

Inter-institutional co-operative programs between black and white colleges and
universities is further evidence of the ferment taking place between black and white in-
stitutions of higher education and among black colleges and universities themselves.

According to the Tenth Edition of Colleges and Universities, twenty-three
black colleges and universities reporting have cooperative programs. Several
outstanding examples of inter-institutional arrangements are listed below.
Bennett College each year, under sponsorship of the U. S.-India Exchange
Program for Women's Colleges, hosts visiting faculty from India who teach one
or two terms at Bennett. The colleges also participate with eighteen other schools
in the Piedmont University Center consortium to enrich the offerings of
member schools through faculty exchanges, interlibrary services, lecture and art
programs. The center also provides financial awards for faculty travel, research,
and summer study.
Morgan State College's cooperative 3-2 engineering program leads to the B.
S. from Morgan and engineering degree from New York University. Morgan also
participates with Coppin and Towson State Colleges and the Baltimore public
schools in a Ford Foundation project for training teachers for inner city schools.
Tuskegee Institute has a cooperative arrangement with the University of
Michigan which includes faculty and undergraduate student exahanges, con-
sultation and curriculum development. The arrangement involves about 25
Michigan and 20 Tuskegee faculty and approximately 20 Michigan and 30
Tuskegee students in long-term exchange.
In addition, Tuskegee sponsors a teacher-training program at Zorzor,
Liberia, in cooperation with the Liberian government and the U. S. Agency for
International Development; also cooperative health programs, lectureships, and
research with Emory and Howard Universities and the Tuskegee Veterans Ad-
ministration Hospital; also research in mammalian cell cultures and enterovirus
antisera with Baylor University, and amino acids in humans, cardiovascular
physiology with Howard and Emory Universities.
Knoxville College maintains cooperative engineering plans with Lafayette
College, Pa., and the University of Tennessee leading to baccalaureate degrees
from Knoxville and the other schools attended. Cooperative course programs
offered with the University of Tennessee include psychology, Spanish, political
science, economics, and business administration. The college participates in a
semester student exchange program with Macalester College, Minn., and in
weekend student exchanges with Maryville College, Tenn., and Gettysburg
College, Pa.
Hampton Institute's cooperative work-study program is between its
divisions of business and technology and American industries; also cooperative
exchange of students, faculty, and administrators program sponsored by Har-
vard University's law school to encourage outstanding black students to pursue a
career in law. Similar programs with Harvard, Yale, and Columbia Universities
are designed to prepare black students for graduate work in English and the social
Wilberforce University operates a plan by which Wilberforce students take
courses at Central State University in business and elementary education. Other
intercollegiate exchange programs are with Yale University, Rutgers Uni-
versity, and Sarah Lawrence, Vassar, Connecticut, Bates, and Radcliffe colleges.
Two students are selected yearly to spend theirjunior year at the Universityof

Hull in England. The Summer Scholarship Program offers summer study at the
University of Oslo in Norway, Dartmouth College and Georgetown University.
The Chapman Scholarship Program offers a year's study on a ship, "The Seven
Seas," in cooperation with Chapman College in California.
Shaw University's cooperative engineering program is with North Carolina
State University at Raleigh. Cooperative programs with nearby St. Augustine's
College enable students at each institution to take classes at the other and
provides for faculty exchange.
Livingstone College is one of nineteen (19) members of the Piedmont Uni-
versity Center. The Center provides means for voluntary programs of inter-
institutional cooperation in areas of academic planning, scheduling of visiting
scholars and of performing artists, placement services for students, cooperative
employment of faculty, joint business programs in matters of purchasing, in-
cluding library books, and a film service. The Center offers programs of faculty
research and, through grants from the Fund for the Advancement of Education,
summer leave programs for the faculty. Through the Center, Livingstone and
Catawba College have employed cooperatively a faculty member for their
departments of sociology in new programs in fields of community organization.
St. Augustine College's cooperative program with Shaw University allows
students to take courses at either school and provides for exchange of faculty.
Students at St. Augustine and North Carolina State University at Raleigh may
enroll at the other institution for courses not offered at their own.
Inter-institutional arrangements at Xavier University (La.) feature
cooperative study programs in medical technology, engineering, corrective
therapy, and music therapy, requiring study or internship on the campuses of
participating schools and hospitals. Some of the programs lead to more than one
degree. Cooperating institutions include Loyola (New Orleans), Marquette,
Notre Dame, Detroit, and St. Louis Universities and Tuskegee Institute, as well
as selected area hospitals and accredited internship programs. One semester,
junior-year student exchange programs are maintained with Marquette and
Notre Dame Universities, the College of St. Mary (Nebraska), and College of St.
Catherine and Hamline University (Minnesota).
Tougaloo College's off-campus programs include a semester program in
cooperation with American University in Washington, D. C., and student ex-
change programs with a number of other colleges and universities.
Stillman College has cooperative programs with New York University in
fine arts and with George Washington University in political science; also
cooperative curriculum development and faculty improvement exchange
programs with Indiana University.
Bethune-Cookman's cooperative engineering program leads to both B.S.
and B.S. Engineering degrees after three (3) years at Bethune-Cookman and two
(2) years at Tuskegee Institute.
LeMoyne College maintains a student exchange program with Grinnell
College, Iowa. A joint program with the University of Iowa, conducted under Ti-
tle III of the Higher Education Act of 1965, provides for cooperative cultural
programs, faculty exchanges, and curriculum developments. The program

facilitates the transfer of LeMoyne students to Iowa University for upper divi-
sion work in specializations not available at LeMoyne College.
Bishop College participates in a student exchange program with Southern
Methodist University. The College is also a member of the Association for
Graduate Education and Research of North Texas, making it possible for a varie-
ty of cooperative programs for the improvement of graduate and undergraduate
teaching and research among institution members.
Fisk University has student exchange programs with Allegheny, Antioch,
Beloit, Berea, Bluffton, Carleton City, Colby, Cornell, Dartmouth, Luther,
Oberlin, Pamona, St. Olaf, Whitman, Whittier, and Wooster Colleges, and
Adelphi, Denison, Temple, and Redlands Universities.
Benedict College participates in a college Faculty Exchange Program with
the College of St. Thomas, Hamline University, and Macalester College in
Minnesota. The College is a member of an eight college consortium sponsored by
the Ford Foundation for determining means of receiving financial aid from the
federal government and private foundations as well as coaching in proposal
writing. Members include Allen, Claflin, Knoxville, Lane, Morris, Paine, and
Voorhees colleges.
Johnson C. Smith's cooperative engineering program with New York Uni-
versity leads to the A.B. from Johnson C. Smith and the B.S.E. from the
cooperating school. A junior year abroad program permits study at a foreign in-
stitution with full credit granted. The college participates with 18 other North
Carolina Colleges in the Piedmont University Center, which provides voluntary
programs of inter-institutional cooperation in areas of academic planning,
scheduling of visiting scholars and of the performing artists, placement services
for students, cooperative employment of faculty, joint business programs in
matters of purchasing, including library books, and a film service. The center
offers programs of faculty research, and through grants from the Fund for the
Advancement of Education, and summer leave programs for faculty.
Lane College has a student exchange program with Nebraska Wesleyan Uni-
versity. The institutions exchange four students during one semester of each
school year.
Coppin State is affiliated with Temple University in the Developing In-
stitutions program under the Higher Education Act and the National Teaching
Fellowship Program.
Delaware State has a cooperative five year program with the General Motors
assembly plant in Wilmington which provides work experience for students
earning a degree in business administration.
Langston University's B.S. in medical technology is offered on a3-1plan
with St. Francis Hospital, Tulsa. The University participates with Stephens
College, Columbia, Mo., in an amplified telephone project for presentation of
courses in the history of science and great issues in contemporary society.
Lincoln University (Pa.) offers a 3-2 program in engineering that leads to
the A.B. degree from Lincoln University and a B.S from Drexel Institute,
Lafayette College, or Pennsylvania State University. The 3-2 program in inter-
national service leads to the A.B. from Lincoln and the M.I.S. from American

Dillard University has a cooperative program with Tulane University which
opens courses in each university to students from the other.
Jackson State College has a cooperative program with the State University
of New York, Brighamton, under Title III of Higher Education Act, 1965, which
includes the junior year at SUNY for Jackson State students and the exchange of
faculty for lectures, seminars, and special courses.
Savannah State College (black) and Armstrong State College (white) have
been authorized by the Georgia State Board of Regents to permit a full-time stu-
dent enrolled at either college to take one credit course at the other institution
without additional cost. Also, faculty members may teach one course at the
cooperating college and joint faculty appointments may be made under the
A cooperative program in veterinary medicine has been established by
Tuskegee Institute with Oklahoma State University and the University of West
At Elizabeth City State University, North Carolina, graduate work is offered
in education in cooperation with East Carolina University of Greenville.
Florida A&M University and Florida State have a cooperative agreement
which provides for exchange of students and faculty.
The establishment of consortia is further evidence of institutional cooperation
among black colleges and universities.Amiong the earliest of these was the Texas
Association of Developing Colleges composed of Bishop, Texas, Jarvis Christian,
Wiley, Houston-Tillotson and Paul Quinn Colleges. The Texas consortium
became the prototype of similar institutional cooperation in Alabama and Mis-
sissippi. Since these early beginnings new forms and patterns of inter-
institutional cooperation have been developed.
Five mostly black institutions are participating in a consortium that will im-
plement computerized admissions systems at the colleges and establish a student
data bank at one of the members, Virginia State College. Others involved are
North Carolina Central University, where the system will be initiated, Elizabeth
City State University,Fayetteville State University, St. Augustine's College, and the
National Laboratory for Higher Education. The U. S. Office of Education will
fund the project.
Six predominantly Negro colleges have formed a consortium, the Triangle
Association of Colleges of South Carolina and Georgia. Members are
Allen University and Benedict College, Columbia; Claflin College, Orangeburg;
Morris College; Sumter; and Paine College, Augusta, Ga.
Atlanta University is one of seven universities composing the new Consor-
tium Center for Educational Leadership which is being aided by a Ford Founda-
tion grant of $814,488 to train better school superintendents, principals and
other educational administrators.
Atlanta University is also a member of the Southern Consortium for Inter-
national Education which links five Georgia institutions in a bid for regional
progress on an international scale, the University of Georgia, Emory University,
Georgia Tech., and Georgia State University, and Atlanta University.

The support given by foundations and governmental agencies to cooperative
programs and activities between and among black colleges and universities is further
evidence of the fact that inter-institutional cooperation is increasingly being recogniz-
ed as one of the primary methods by which black colleges and universities can expand
their services, improve the quality of their offerings, and contribute more significantly
to the goal of expanding higher educational opportunities.
Some outstanding examples of such encouragement and support are the
The University of Miami and Florida Memorial College, under a three-year
grant of $300,000 from the Ford Foundation are cooperating in economic and
social research, planning and activities dealing with major urban problems in
Dade County.
A $60,000 grant from the Eastman Kodak Company and a $20,000 grant
from the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare are making possi-
ble a new program in cooperative education at A&TState University, N.C. East-
man's grant will be for work-study programs in science and engineering. The
federal grant will be used for work-study programs in all courses.
Atlanta University has received a grant for $21,500 from the Josiah Macy, Jr.
Foundation for a study to explore cooperative programs between AU and Emory
University School of Medicine to increase the number of black physicians being
educated in Georgia.
At the University of Miami, twenty (20) black college graduates are in a pilot
program to train for middle management positions in local businesses while
studying for advanced degrees. The UM's Center for Urban Studies has joined
with Economic Opportunity Programs, Inc. in the project funded by a grant from
the Rockefeller Foundation.
Atlanta University and Emory University have combined resources and
needs to study social changes as it involves both black and white Americans.
Known as the Inter-institutional American Studies Curriculum, the project is
financed by a $35,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
A $2 million federal grant designed to help improve management techniques
in the nation's 84 predominantly black institutions of higher learning will be ad-
ministered by six schools in the SREB region. They are North Carolina A &TState
University, Clark College, Ga., Morgan State College, Md., St. Paul's College, Va.,
Tougaloo College, Miss., and Stillman College, Ala.
Five black institutions and the Southern Regional Education Board sup-
ported by a $2 million grant from the William R. Kenan Jr. Charitable Trust of
New York City are developing programs to strengthen instruction. Participating
institutions are Hampton Institute, North Carolina Central University, Fisk Uni-
versity, Tuskegee Institute and Xavier University in New Orleans.
Financed by grants totaling $631,000 from the National Science Founda-
tion, SREB established a project to aid small colleges in the cooperative use of
computers. One cluster of black institutions sharing a small computer facility
were those comprising the Atlanta University Center ( Atlanta University),
Clark, Morehouse, Morris Brown and Spellman College.
Supported by a grant from the American College Testing Program, Jackson
State College and the Southern Regional Education Board cooperated recently to

secure funds and organize an in-service experience for guidance personnel in
Under a grant from the Emergency Assistance Act, the SREB Institute for
Higher Educational Opportunity is operating three pilot projects in which black
and white institutions in proximity hold joint workshops and seminars for
students preparing to teach.
Florida A&M University, Norfolk State College, and Grambling are the
three black institutions participating in SREB's teacher education project. The
project focuses on the development of interinstitutional seminar experiences
for student teachers, and is supported by the U. S. Office of Education through
the Emergency School Assistance Program.
The wide spread ferment in black colleges and universities generated by the
numerous survey reports, articles, book reviews, and other important writings reflect
on the one hand the long and useful history of black colleges and universities and their
significant contribution to human progress, and the weaknesses and strengths, and the
survival prospects and future potentials of black colleges and universities on the other.
Measured by the volume of literature, both "pro" and "con", during the
past few years, one unfamiliar with the historical, political, economic and
sociological factors underlying the establishment, the struggle for survival and
the long history of the historic mission of black colleges and universities might
infer that along with poverty and pollution, America did not discover black
colleges and universities until the publication of the much publicized article,
"The American Negro College," by Jencks and Riesman, and the responses and
replies which generated so much outcry, passion, rebuke and ferment over the
relative merits, failures, and contributions of black colleges and universities.'
However, a survey of the literature indicates that black colleges and uni-
versities have been the subject of study and investigation by many agencies,
organizations, and individuals long before the Jencks and Riesman publication.
As early as 1913 W. T. B. Williams, Field Director for the Slater Fund
published a report on Negro universities in the South, which included twenty-
two institutions having the title of university. This report was followed by a se-
cond publication in 1922 which covered "thirty-three of the leading institutions
offering advanced training to colored youth."
Historical and Statistical documentation of the development of higher
education for Negroes was provided in surveys made by the U. S. Office of
Education in 1916, 1928, and 1942.
Bulletin, 1916, No. 38 entitled, Negro Education: A Study of the Private and
Higher Schools for Colored People in the United States, was prepared in cooperation
with the Phelps-Stokes Fund under the direction of Thomas Jessee Jones,
Specialist in the Education of Racial Groups, Bureau of Education, Department
of the Interior.
'See: Christopher Jencks and David Riesman. "The American Negro College." Harvard
Educational Review. XXXVII (Vinter. 1967), 3-60: also "The American Negro College: Four
Responses and a Reply" by two former Negro college presidents, and t le o-aut hors of he o le original ar-
ticle in Harvard Educational Review. XXXV\ II (Sunimm r, u 1T). pp. I51-4 8.

Bulletin, 1928, No. 7, Survey of Negro Colleges and Universities by the Divi-
sion of Higher Education, Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior
(Arthur J. Klein, Editor). The 1928 Survey represents a significant contribution
to the literature on black colleges and universities.
In addition to its general observations concerning higher educational
provisions for Negroes in each state, it contains also a detailed analysis of each
college and university with recommendations for improvement.
The 1942 Survey is perhaps the most comprehensive investigation ever un-
dertaken of black colleges and universities.
In 1939 Congress charged the U. S. Office of Education with the respon-
sibility of making a National Survey of the Higher Education of Negroes. This ac-
tion by the Congress resulted from a request by the Association of Colleges and
Secondary Schools for Negroes, endorsed by many other educational leaders,
particularly presidents of Negro land-grant colleges.
The Survey was planned with the aid of an advisory committee appointed by
the U. S. Commissioner of Education.
The purpose of the Survey as set forth by the Advisory Committee at its first
meeting was stated in the following language:
To assemble and interpret such social, economic, and educational data as to indicate
programs of higher education needed, and to indicate the nature of the educational ser-
vices now rendered to meet those needs.
The report of the Survey appeared in four volumes. Volume I (Socio-
Economic Approach to Educational Problems) dealt with socio-economic factors
as a background for understanding the educational problems involved, threw
penetrating light on the basic aspect of needs, and pointed out ways in which
each college could develop its own objectives. The volume comprised six
chapters covering the following subjects: I. The education of Negroes in the
American democracy; II. The background of American race relations; III.
Regional factors in the socio-economic status of Negroes; IV. Regional
variations: The county analysis; V. State analysis; and VI. Socio-economic
status and the higher education of Negroes. Suggestions for applying socio-
economic data to educational problems were given in Appendix A.
Volume II (General Studies of Colleges for Negroes) attempted to show the
extent of the higher educational facilities available to Negroes, and consisted of
nine chapters covering the following subjects: I. Present status and trends in the
higher education of Negroes; II. Availability of curricula; III. Costs of main-
taining a college; IV. Educational plans of high-school seniors; V. Students in
institutions for the higher education of Negroes; VI. Higher education of
Negroes in northern institutions; VII. Availability of library service; VIII.
Provisions and practices for safety and health in colleges and universities for
Negroes; and IX. Adult education through colleges.
Volume III (Intensive Study of Selected Colleges for Negroes) is an evalua-
tion of the quality of the educational programs in colleges for Negroes. There are
nine chapters dealing with the following subjects: I. Introduction-Methodology;
II. Aims and purposes of the institutions; III. The faculty; IV. The Curriculum;
V. Instruction; VI. Student personnel service; VII. Administration; VIII.
Financial expenditure and support; and IX. Cooperation among institutions.

Volume IV (A Summary) attempted to summarize the reports contained in
the three major volumes into a unified and synthesized whole.
The summary was organized into the following sections: I. Introduction;
II. Higher educational needs of Negroes; III. The kind and extent of educational
facilities available to Negroes; IV. The quality of educational facilities available
to Negroes; V. Implications of the Survey for the war and post-war adjustments;
and VI. Recommendations.
Beginning in 1933, the Journal of Negro Education has devoted several com-
plete issues and many pages in its publications to black colleges and universities.
Some of America's most competent authors who have been concerned with im-
proving the higher education of black Americans, and with the survival of black
institutions of higher education have contributed to these issues. It is the opi-
nion of the writer that these volumes constitute the best source of data for one
desiring a comprehensive treatment of the problems, issues, trends, and
developments in the area of higher education for blacks up to about 1967.
The titles of the yearbooks are as follows: 1933-A Survey of Negro Higher
Education; 1942- World War II and Negro Higher Education; 1946-Negro
Higher and Professional Education; 1958-Desegregation and the Negro College;
1960- The Negro Private and Church-Related College; 1962-The Negro Public
College; 1966-Studies in the Higher Education of Negro Americans, and 1967-
The Higher Education of Negro Americans: Prospects and Programs.
These volumes contain more than 164 chapters by such well-known
educators as: Charles H. Thompson, John W. Davis, B. E. Mays, Ambrose
Caliver, Buell G. Gallagher, Charles H. Wesley, Horace M. Bond, H. A. Bullock,
Rayford W. Logan, Stephen J. Wright, Rufus B. Atwood, Frederick D. Patter-
son, Rufus E. Clements and others.
More recently, the Southern Regional Education Board has published a
number of reports and studies prepared by the Institute on Higher Educational
Opportunity. Among the significant publications of the Institute are: Special
Financial Needs of Traditionally Negro Colleges; A Task Force Report; New Careers
and Curriculum Change, a report aimed at helping black institutions adapt their
curriculum to new job opportunities; The Negro and Higher Education in the
The extent to which these reports may have generated ferment both within
and without black colleges and universities is subject to question.
The Race Relations Information Center located in Nashville, Tennessee,
has released two studies by John Egerton, The Black Public Colleges: Integration
and Disintegration, June 1971; and State Universities and Black Americans, An In-
quiry into Segregation and Equity for Negroes in 100 Public Universities, in 1969.
No publication has generated more ferment among black colleges and uni-
versities than the Jencks and Riesman report published in the influential Har-
vard Educational Review in 1967, and entitled the "American Negro College."
This report characterized a majority of black colleges and universities as
academic disaster areas, as fourth-rate institutions, as academically inferior, ill-
financed, ill-staffed, caricatures of white higher education, and ranking in the se-
cond half of the academic roster of distinction. According to the report black

colleges and universities are so repressive and monotonous that, at least among
the men, it may well be that better students leave in frustration or boredom. It ac-
cused some black colleges and universities of petty blackmail and fraud, dis-
honesty, pretense and protectiveness.
In addition to derogating black institutions of higher education, the report
ridiculed their faculties as unprepared and inept; observing that "underpaid as
their faculty members are, many of them could not make as much elsewhere."
Some, indeed, could not get any other job. Insecure and marginal, they become
insistently pedantic. .It depicted black students as academically unprepared for
college work, as unmotivated, and pitied and chided them for attending inferior
institutions. It portrays black college presidents as domineering, frightened and
as contemporary Uncle Toms.
Jencks and Riesman's severe criticism of black colleges and universities
brought forth vigorous and thoughtful defense from many. In fact, the ferment
generated by the Jencks and Riesman article and the resulting inward look of
American academa upon the successes and failures of black colleges and uni-
versities was probably never so widespread as the replies to Jencks and Riseman's
report. Wright described the report as a reportorial essay, replete with unsup-
ported generalizations, judgments, speculations, impressions, and a good many
errors, stated or implied, rather than a thorough-going scientific investigation.
Mays comments were as follows: "they talk like uninformed men,"...The
article is not the result of thorough research. The authors developed no research
design that would be impressive to scholars in their field.
Dent commented as follows: The resurrection of ancient, moribund
stereotypes by the Jencks and Riesman report, applying to the Negro college
characteristics once used for the race, is most unfortunate at this stage in our
history. The over-all stereotyping of Negro colleges is based on "impressions,"
hearsay, and "anecdotes," an all too familiar method and one we would not an-
ticipate from these authors. Replying also to the report were Hugh Gloster, Paul
Garver, Elias Blake, William Brazziel and many others. Not only did all of these
replies recognize the faults, the short comings and the weaknesses of black in-
stitutions, but they also attempted to put into proper perspective the difficult
situation black colleges and universities have faced in finance, in faculty recruit-
ment and in constant adjustment to changing political pressures, and complex
social and economic problems. What is more important, perhaps, is that all of the
authors believed in the essential soundness, the prophetic mission and the future
survival of black colleges and universities.
Two other recent contributions to the increasing volume of literature on
black colleges and universities are those sponsored by the Carnegie Commission
on Higher Education. Between Two Worlds: A Profile of Negro Higher Education
by Frank Bowles and Frank H. DeCosta (1971); and From Isolation to Mainstream:
Problems of the Colleges Founded for Negroes (February 1971).
From Isolation to Mainstream the Carnegie Commission's report, in contrast
to some others, extols the achievement of black colleges and universities, sets
forth the new conditions which have resulted from legal and social changes, out-
lines the adjustments and change that black institutions must make in order to

survive under these new conditions, and makes a number of recommendations to
ameliorate the financial problems being experienced by black colleges and uni-
Another significant contribution to the literature on black colleges and uni-
versities is the 1971 Summer issue of Daedalus entitled, "The Future of the
Black Colleges." This special issue of Daedalus, the official journal of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, contains articles by 15 outstanding
scholars, including Andrew F. Brimmer, S. M. Nabrit, Elias Blake, Thomas F.
Pettigrew, Henry H. Bullock, St. Clair Drake and others. It seeks to address itself
to some of the more compelling questions that presently preoccupy those con-
cerned with the higher education of black men and women. According to the
preface, the issue is intended to draw attention to a group of institutions still too
little reflected on; it is intended to raise questions that have nothing to do with
the institutions themselves but relate to the fabric of American Society.
Readers of this discussion on ferment in black colleges and universities will
recognize immediately that there are many things going on in black colleges and
universities not mentioned by the author. No claim is made to complete coverage
or treatment of the many, many activities, programs and changes and reforms
taking place that are worthy of mention. He will also recognize that a number of
publications reflecting the ferment generated over the years are not included in
the discussion, such as those of McGrath; Jaffe, Adams and Meyers; Holmes, Mc-
Quistion Leavell, Caliver, Davis, Brazziel, Harrison, Wright and the author
whose list of publications on black colleges and universities is quite extensive.
Since 1943, the author has been attempting to provide perspective, and to
chart a course of action that would enable black colleges and universities to face
up to the challenges of a changing social, economic and technological order. In
subsequent articles now in progress, the author plans to expand the coverage to
deal with survival prospects, management and governance, institutional
research needs, curriculum obsolescence and needed reform for changing oc-
cupational and employment demands, and opportunities for black students.
The number of references used (over 100) in the preparation of this article
is too large for presentation here. Among the important sources used were:
Chronicle of Higher Education, Ford Foundation Letter; Higher Education and
National Affairs published by the American Council on Education; Regional
Spotlight by the Southern Regional Education Board, and Advancement
Newsletter and Profiles in Success both published by the Office for Advancement
of Public Negro Colleges; the Journal of Higher Education; the Educational
Record; the New York Times, the Harvard Educational Review, and The College
Board Review. With few exceptions the references used were for the years 1970-
71, and 1972.

Standardized Test Scores
As the Major Criterion For Entrance
To State Supported Universities in

by Robert E. Burney
Acting Dean
College of Business and Economics
Alabama State University


Admittedly, recent junior college and university programs in Florida have
been extremely fruitful in terms of enrollment. Yet these programs have not
provided equal educational opportunities for high school graduates from lower
socio-economic groups.
Secondly, the general content and high score requirements prevailing at
most state supported universities in Florida have actually permitted bias in stu-
dent selection and thus have functioned as a barrier to entrance for potentially
capable students from lower income groups. Thus much of the tremendous ex-
pansion in enrollment in recent times in the university and junior college
systems in Florida came largely from high socio-income groups, that is, with the
possible exception of Florida A&M University.
Thirdly, most predominantly white state supported junior colleges in
Florida have served as a dead end for educationally deficient students, many of
whom are black. This condition is prevelant even though entrance examination
requirements are less rigorous in public junior colleges in Florida than in the
state university system exclusive of Florida A&M. Evidently, the level of dis-
crimination in all matters including grading is higher in state supported junior
colleges than in the university system as a whole. Further, if or when remedial or
corrective programs are initiated on the junior college level, because of the
suspected presence of bias, black students resent being placed in these programs,
since to them there is a stigma of inferiority built into such programs. Also, too
many white teachers, especially on the junior college level, appear to be in-
different toward the progress of such students. Accordingly, the above

statements will go far in explaining the existence of low enrollment and a slow
rate of increase in the number of black students on junior college campuses in
Florida since the 12 state supported black junior colleges were phased out a few
years ago.
Available data on junior college enrollment in Florida indicate that enroll-
ment of black students in junior colleges in Florida declined significantly when
state supported predominantly black junior colleges were phased out between
1962 and 1964.'According to the St. Petersburg Times of November 11, 1968,
enrollment of blacks at Daytona declined from 451 students in 1962 to 123 in
1964. In Pensacola, enrollment decreased from 331 in 1962 to 122 in 1964. At
Ocala, enrollment dropped from 266 in 1962 to 118 in 1964, etc.
Enrollment Requirements at State Supported Universities
Requirements for admission to universities in the Florida University
System, with the exception of Florida A&M, indicate that only those high school
graduates who score in the upper 40 percentile in the Florida Statewide Twelfth
Grade Testing Program are academically eligible for admission.2 On the other
hand, Florida A&M permits entrance of all graduates of accredited Florida high
schools, although some admissions are tentative since students who earn ex-
tremely low scores on the Florida Statewide Test Battery, or who stand in the
lowest 40 percentile of their graduating class, must be screened by an appropriate
faculty committee before acceptance is final.3
If percentile scores from standardized tests are biased in the way that many
claim, then experiences of youths from favored income groups will be one of the
main criteria for admission to most publically supported universities in Florida.
As a result,youths from higher socio-income groups will have the edge on youths
from more deprived circumstances. Consequently, state supported universities
in Florida, with the apparent exception of Florida A&M University, will be filled
with youth from economically advantaged families both black and white.
Available data seem to bear this statement out.4

Economic Profile of Students in Florida Supported Colleges and
A review of the economic profile of students entering the state junior
colleges and universities with the possible exception of Florida A&M, indicates
that reported family incomes are relatively high. Evidently, opportunities for ad-
vanced education are slanted more and more toward higher income students
both black and white. Thus, from a cost-benefit approach taxpayers from lower

'State of Florida, "Florida High School Graduates, 1968," Research Reports, no. 72 (Tallahassee:
Department of Education, 1969), Table 5.
2Florida State University, Bulletin-General Catalog Issue, 1968- University Announcements, 1968-
69, p. 26.
3Florida A&M University, Bulletin, June, 1968-General Catalog, 1968-69, p. 38.
4Douglas Windham, Education, Equality and Income Redistribution (New York: Heath and Co.,
1970). Also, Economic Report of the President (Washington, D. C. : GPO. 1968). P. 153.

income groups are in reality subsidizing college education for youths from upper
income groups.5
Data on family incomes of students entering the various state supported
junior colleges and universities in Florida provide a dramatic illustration of the
above point. For example, according to a recent Board of Regents report for the
1966-67 school term, only 4 to 7 per cent of the freshmen entering the large and
predominantly white universities reported family annual incomes as low as $3,-
000. On the other hand, 36 per cent of the freshmen entering Florida A&M Uni-
versity during the same period reported family income below $3,000. This same
survey revealed that between 47 and 48 per cent of all freshmen enrolling at the
University of Florida and at Florida State University reported incomes of $10,-
000 or above. Figures for state supported junior colleges were surprisingly
similar. Contrariwise, data for Florida A&M University freshmen showed that
only 6 per cent reported comparable family incomes (see Table 1 below).
Table 1
Reported Family Income for New Students Enrolling in Florida Universities and
New Community Junior Colleges 1967, By Percentage
(In current dollars)

Income $3,000 Above N=
below to $10,000
Institution $3,000 $10,000
Florida A&M
University .36 .58 .06 717
Atlantic U. .06 .63 .31 793
State U. .04 .49 .47 870*
Univ. of
Florida .04 .48 .48 4,079
Univ. of
S. Florida .07 .60 .34 1,727
Santa Fe
J. C. .10 .59 .32 405**
South Fla.
J. C. .16 .61 .23 92
J. C. .05 .71 .24 431
J. C. .12 .63 .25 591
Florida J.C.
Jacksonville .08 .67 .25 244*
*Response of freshmen only.
** Responses of a sample of the entering class.Source: Research Notes #15 (Tallahassee: Florida
Board of Regents, Office for Academic Affairs, March 8, 1967). p.l.

In the years since 1967, the total number of blacks in Florida University and
Junior College systems have increased slightly in both absolute and percentage
terms. However, the increase has not been significant. And in the cases of the
Universities other than Florida A&M, the increase seems to have occurred large-
ly because of a policy recently adopted by some of these schools of exempting
ten or so per cent of the entering freshmen classes from the usual standardized
test score requirements. Not uncommonly, about one-half of the students ad-
mitted under this policy are on athletic scholarships. Of the remaining, not all
are from disadvantaged income groups and certainly not all are black.

Should College Training Be Reserved for the Academically Elite?
It is felt by many that because of the high costs involved in college educa-
tion, only the superior achievers should received state subsidized advanced
training. On this basis it is reasoned that higher academic training can be treated
in the same manner as other kinds of capital. The rationale behind this approach
is the argument that students who do well in high school and on the statewide test
battery are most likely to succeed in college. What may be overlooked in this
train of reasoning is the distinct possibility that many low achievers in high
school may not have received sufficient attention or training to equip them for
college entrance examinations. Also, if such students are admitted to the large
and predominantly white institutions, many who might succeed under less com-
petitive environments will eventually be eliminated.
Yet according to a statement made to the author by Mr. Earl Gordon, Direc-
tor of the Horizons Unlimited Program at Florida State University, students ad-
mitted to FSU who failed to meet the university's standardized test score re-
quirements are represented on the dean's list in about the same proportion as
those who come in by the regular route; which is one fact in opposition to the
statement made at this point. The explanation for this seeming paradox lies in the
amount of attention and motivation given the special cases. On the other hand,
under similar conditions, were the percentage of such students higher in
relationship to total enrollment, the records might be different indeed.
Most persons will agree that it is important to the learning experience that
young people be able to relate and identify with someone in order for motivation
to take place. Youths from deprived economic circumstances may not find social-
ly acceptable qualities at home to identify with. Thus it may be imperative that
they relate to an individual outside the family group. This person may be a
member of some faculty. Unfortunately, black students on predominantly white
campuses will find the act of relating almost impossible in the absence of suf-
ficient black teachers, since it is very difficult for black students to identify with
white persons under present social mores and biases. The slow rate of faculty in-
tegration at most predominantly white state supported colleges has not improved
the situation very much.
Lack of identical educational and cultural experiences, plus the absence of
proper test orientation have stumbled important numbers of economically disad-

vantaged youths, many of whom are black.6 In a recent report, college entrance
scores of students at two predominantly white universities in the Florida Uni-
versity System were evaluated. It was discovered that in the larger university, 99
per cent of the students admitted made scores of 300 or above on the Statewide
Twelfth Grade Battery, 95.7 per cent scored above 350, while 66.8 per cent scor-
ed above 400 out of a possible score of 499. Almost identical performances were
recorded for the smaller university.7 Yet, as late as 1962, only about 5 per cent of
Florida's black high school graduates for that year scored as high as 300 on a
similar battery." It thus appears that for that year only 5 per cent of the state's
black high school graduates could have qualified for entrance to predominantly
white state controlled universities in Florida.
What do these statistics indicate? Are they actually measurements of
capacity and native ability, or do they point toward experiences and exposure?
Are standardized test scores valid enough by themselves to serve as criteria for
excluding certain categories of college aspirants from institutions of higher lear-
ning? Perhaps the following excerpts from publications in the field of education
and human development will shed some light on the matter.
After extensive research in the area of human resource development, the
University of California at Berkeley came to the conclusion that "The only way
American higher education is going to stop perpetuating the systematic exclu-
sion of minority groups and low income students is by assuming a commitment
toward them." Accordingly, a program was inaugurated to increase the enroll-
ment of such students, although 60 per cent of these students would not have
qualified for admittance under normal circumstances. Final results indicated
that, "If enrolles are given the necessary academic and financial assistance, they
will perform surprisingly well-about as well as regularly admitted students, and
in many cases better.9
In another study conducted under the auspices of the University of Kansas,
it was discovered that if students who made low scores on standardized tests had
been excluded from the university on that basis, the ensuing loss to the state and
nation would have been 202 teachers, 176 engineers, 22 journalists, 32 lawyers,
25 medical doctors, 43 pharmacists and 484 graduates in other fields.'0
After 15 years of legal integration, black students still constitute a very
small percentage of enrollment in predominantly white state controlled colleges
and universities in Florida. For instance, in 1968-69 there were only 174 black
students enrolled at Florida State University out of a total student body of 15,-

"Carl T. Rowan and Da\id M. Maize, "Upward Bound-Salvaging Talent and Teenagers,"
Readers Digest (May, 1969). p. 39.
:Admission Information About Honda Colleges and Counselors (Tallahassee, Florida: State
Department of Education, 1967).
"A. A. Abraham and Gertrude L. Simmons, "The Education Outlook for Non-Whites in
Florida". The Journal of ,egro Education, Vol. 35 (Fall. 1966), p. 369. Also. Bill Somerville, "Can
Selected Colleges Accommodate the Disadvantaged?" College Board Rerieu, \ol. 65 (Fall, 1967),
pp.5-1 I.
'"George Smith, "Who Should Be Eliminated?" in The Coming Crisis in the Selection of Students
for College Entrance, edited by The American Research Assn. (Washington, D. C.: 1962).

027. In 1970 there were less than 400 out of a total enrollment of more than 17,-
000. Many of these blacks were enrolled through a special program called
"Horizons Unlimited," and represented only 1.2 per cent of the student body.
The percentages of black students at other state controlled predominantly white
universities during 1968-69 were: 5.3 at Florida Atlantic, 2.1 at West Florida,
1.7 at South Florida, 1.4 at Florida Tech., and 0.5 at the University of Florida.
Thus, out of a total enrollment of 53,490 students in state controlled
predominantly white universities in Florida in 1968-69, only 720 or 1.3 per cent
were black.
Total enrollment of blacks in state controlled universities in 1968-69 was
approximately 4,700 or 8.2 per cent of an aggregate enrollment of 57,400,
although blacks at that time constituted about 16 per cent of the state's popula-
Available evidence shows that the rate of growth in enrollment of black
students in state controlled universities in Florida, including Florida A&M Uni-
versity, has not been impressive. This does not appear logical since the rate of
growth in population of blacks in the state has been much greater. Evidently, the
lack of comparable growth in college enrollment of blacks in the state must be at-
tributed to (1) the lower rate of change in income for the typical black family, (2)
the earlier long-term indifference of school officials towards curricula, and (3)
the lack of proper counseling in black preparatory schools. Further, the slow rate
of expansion at Florida A&M is undoubtedly another reason for the slow rate of
growth in enrollment of blacks in the State's higher education systems.

Because of biases in the American social structure, the education of blacks
generates more marginal income than the education of whites. Consequently,
from an economic as well as social point of view, educating low income students,
especially blacks will accelerate the elimination of hard core poverty, while
enhancing both national income and social welfare."
From evidence presented in this study, experiments in the field of human
capital development such as those conducted at the Universities of California
and Kansas, the "Horizons Unlimited" program at Florida State University and
other such innovations will yield high returns in human capital recovery. Yet
these programs as they are now constituted, are not far reaching enough to touch
a sufficient number of deserving low income college aspirants, many of whom
are black. Schools like Florida A&M performed unique and indispensable ser-
vices in the past and were appreciated as such since they served as the only means
by which blacks could move up the economic ladder.In so doing these schools
developed the necessary efficiency and know-how to cope with the inferior train-
ing received by black children in segregated and ill-equipped primary and secon-
dary schools. This is not the case with large and predominantly white uni-

"Robert E. Burney, The Role of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in the Develop-
ment of Human Capital, unpublished dissertation (Tallahassee: Florida State University, 1971), p.

From all present indications, vestiges of segregation and inequalities will
continue to be present in the foreseeable future, hence institutions like Florida
A&M must continue as viable institutions until the debilitating effects of such
earlier errors are eliminated.

Abraham, A. A. and Simmons, Gertrude L. "The Education Outlook for Non-
Whites in Florida" The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 35 (Fall, 1966), p.
369. Also, Somerville, Bill, "Can Selected Colleges Accommodate the Dis-
advantaged?" College Board Review Vol. 65 (Fall, 1967), pp. 5-11.
Admission Information About Florida Colleges and Counselors (Tallahassee,
Florida: State Department of Education, 1967).
Burney, Robert E. The Role of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University in
the Development of Human Capital, unpublished dissertation (Tallahassee:
Florida State University, 1971), p. 111.
Florida A&M University, Bulletin, June, 1968-General Catalog, 1968-69, p. 38.
Florida State University, Bulletin-General Catalog Issue, 1968-University An-
nouncements, 1968-69, p. 26.
Rowan, Carl T. and Maize, David M. "Upward Bound-Salvaging Talent and
Teenagers," Readers Digest (May, 1969), p. 39.
State of Florida, "Florida High School Graduates, 1968," Research Reports, no.
72 (Tallahassee: Department of Education, 1969), Table 5.
Smith, George "Who Should Be Eliminated?" in The Coming Crisis in the Selec-
tion of Studentsfor College Entrance, edited by The American Research Assn.
(Washington, D. C.: 1962).
Windham, Douglas. Education Equality and Income Redistribution (New York:
Heath and Co., 1970). Also, Economic Report of the President (Washington,
D. C.: GPO, 1968). P. 153.

Teacher Sensitivity:
An Important Dimension of Student

Theodore B. Cooper
Professor of Education
Florida A&M University

The attitude the teacher has about the learner and in turn transmits to him
in no small way determines the zest and readiness the student manifests in at-
tacking instructional challenges. It is well known that the teacher, especially in
the early years of the child's life can intellectually cripple the learner by making
him feel his efforts are inferior, by shutting off his queries as worthless, omitting
him from meaningful learning activities and in general making him feel he
counts for nothing.1 The realization of our limitations, especially early in life, is
in itself a harsh reality to face and when crudely reinforced by a teacher may be a
cross too hard to bear by the learner and may express itself in behavior hostile to
the class, school and/or the community.2 It should therefore come as no surprise
that many youngsters are turned off so far as school is concerned when teachers
manifest such behavior.
It is known by educators that some teachers manifest the described
behaviors.3-4-5 It would therefore seem in order that we do all possible to
eliminate this undesirable teacher from the educational scene. The writer
suggests the following as being helpful in this regard: When the prospective
teacher-candidate enters the undergraduate program he is interviewed by his
departmental advisor/counselor where it is made abundantly clear that the
College of Education among other things is interested in graduating teachers who
are sincerely interested in the well being and wholesome development of all
youngsters and this type of concern would be expected to be manifested by the
candidates throughout the training period. Utilize where relevant, and as deter-
mined by the Student Teaching faculty, standardized tests. Especially pertinent
are those assessing attitudes towards other social classes and ethnic groups.6

These tests should be administered at the onset of the teacher education ex-
perience and the results of these instruments should prove beneficial in guiding
the education of the prospective teacher. This is particularly true if it is found
the candidate holds views detrimental to the well being of the learner. If such
views are held, they should be eliminated by programs designed to do so, or the
candidate should be guided into other work where his views cannot damage
Another recommended technique is to plan an intelligent sequence of
professional laboratory experiences that begin when the prospective teacher
enters the teacher education program until its conclusion and provide direct ex-
periences with young people from all social classes and with white and black
youngsters.7 These experiences should be geared to the age-grade level the can-
didate plans to teach. As a consequence of these experiences the candidate
should be in a better position to make these decisions on his own. Do I really
want to teach? Do I sincerely care for youngsters? If it is discovered that the
prospective teacher has negative feelings towards students from a certain social
classes) or race(s) the advisor/counselor should recommend a remediation
program if such is agreeable to the candidate. If this plan of action is not accep-
table to the candidate, he should be directed into work more suited to his at-
titudinal inclinations.
The hallmark of this program is to develop teachers who have an insightful
understanding and compassion for the human needs of the learner.
We are currently reaping the whirlwind of our indifference to young people
in our society as pointed up by their various forms of confrontation and the
school is no exception. These young people say they can't communicate with
us-that we turn them off-this is a serious indictment. Let us change this con-
dition where it is true by educating teachers who place the well being of all
youngsters foremost in their teaching.


'Havighurst, Robert L. and Bernice L. Neugarten. Society and Education, 3rd
Edition. Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1967. Pp. 86-87.
2Perkins, Hugh V.Human Development and Learning. Wadsworth Publishing
Company, 1969. Pp. 124-125.
3Durlyn, E. Wade. "Social Class In a Teachers College," Journal of Educational
Sociology, Vol. 28 (1954) Pp. 131-138.
4Hoover, Kenneth H. Learning and Teaching in the Secondary School, 2nd Edi-
tion. Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1968. P. 482.
5Parker, Francis W. Talks on Pedagogics. E. L. Kellogg and Company, 1894. P.
6Allport, Gordan W. The Nature of Prejudice. Addison, 1954. P. 537.
7Stratemeyer, Florence and Margaret Lindsey. Working with Student Teachers.
Bureau of Publications, Teacher College, Columbia University, New York,
1958. Pp. 165-196.

Some Observations on the Black College
In An Age of Ferment

S. Randolph Edmonds'

Our subject, "The Black College in the Age of Ferment," postulates two
basic assumptions: The first is that there is a category of institutions which is
readily identifiable as Black Colleges; and the second is that we live in an age of
ferment. Since so much has been said, written, observed and philosophized about
both, they readily fall into the realm of prima facie knowledge or generally
accepted truths which require no further definition or proof for their existence
or validity. The task before us, then, is to make some observations and draw some
conclusions about Black Colleges in the chaotic world of today. The lack of time
and space will, of necessity, make for generalities rather than the details such an
important theme warrants.
I have heard that the following quotation is attributed to Horace Greeley,
the great journalist: "Hindsight is further than foresight by a darn sight."
Embedded in this truism is the fact that we can understand the present and plan
for the future with greater certainty if we know something of the past. So, let us
look back in time and history for a brief while and note some of the educational
opportunities and programs which were available to Black Colleges which they
failed to initiate or emphasize. This can serve as a background for some
suggestions of the contributory and innovating programs and experiments which
are open to them today.
Historically, Black Americans came out of slavery with three basic skills in
which they excelled. They could cook better than most Americans. They could
wash clothes; and they were outstanding in the skilled trades-especially the
building trades. What happened to this expertness? More and more as the ex-
slaves and their off-spring became literate at the turn of the century they became
mesmerized and polarized on the Booker T. Washington-W. E. B. DuBois
debate of vocational versus collegiate education. DuBois' "Talented Tenth"

'Dr. S. Randolph Edmonds is Retired Professor of Speech and Drama at Florida A&M Uni-
versity and Lecturer in the field of Drama.

theory won. Blacks became convinced that their great wave of the future was in
the white collar jobs rather than in the blue collar ones. They considered it
demeaning to cook the white man's meals and wash the white man's clothes. Yet
at the same time they boasted about working in laundries and cafes doing the
same jobs. As a result, when the restaurant business began to flourish and ex-
pand over America the Greeks and the Italians became the chefs and dietitians.
The Chinese people and others cornered the laundry business.
During the first quarter of the century black institutions boasted that their
own students taught by their own black instructors, built most of the large
buildings on the black campuses. Not now. White skilled workers have more and
more taken over these trades and have unionized themselves. Today blacks are
on the outside petitioning to get into the unions. A rare thing it is these days to
see black skilled tradesmen working on the multi-million dollar buildings being
erected on black campuses.
The irony of all of this is the fact that Booker T. Washintgon did as much as
any single person in the country to popularize vocational education. Yet, his
descendents today are seldom called upon as learned consultants and specialists
in the area. Still further, community colleges are now spreading like wild fire
over the land boasting of their terminal vocational trades as well as their college
preparatory courses. It is obvious that today skilled, blue collar workers are in
demand, some making as much as $20,000 a year while thousands of teachers are
looking for work; and many with Ph.D. degrees are gladly working for $9,000 a
year or less.
This mistake in philosophy led to one of the last opportunities of our early
institutions; for Blacks by the hundreds of thousands should today be working in
the skilled vocations.
Another fact of the past which has not been considered significant is that
our institutions of higher education were then, and are now, relatively small.
The largest have never exceeded six or seven thousand students in enrollment.
This is a far cry from our thirty to fifty thousands in some of our huge multiver-
sities in America.
With the comparatively small number of students in attendance, ex-
perimentation in many areas could have been initiated which would have
benefitted all of education and the educative process. Let us point out a few as

1. Investigation in the merits and dements of extending the tutorial or consulting
method of teaching the under-privileged might have advanced further. The English and
Europeans have used the tutorial method successfully for the aristocrats and the classes.
Maybe some variation on the method can have merit and meaning for the masses. Who
knows the answers unless some experiments are made.
2. Despite the widely accepted "Talented Tenth" theory of Dr. DuBois, no black
college has as yet experimented with a method of developing leaders. For the most part
our leaders seem to just grow like Topsy. Some better method is certainly necessary.
3. Programs and methods of teaching exceptional children have not been in-
novated in the past. Courses and proposals for teaching the retarded and slow learners
have received considerably more attention than for the creative and gifted pupils and

students. With a great number of our children and our young adults in each classifica-
tion, it is of greatest importance that all learn to their maximum capacity. Yet, despite
this rich opportunity most of authorities and their experimentation have come out of
our white institutions.

Such examples as cited open up a wide field of suggestiveness. Nevertheless,
with some outstanding and obvious exceptions, our black teachers have not
given sufficient importance to experimentation and making original and creative
contributions to education. This is illustrated by a brilliant young teacher of five
years experience.
The young Ph.D. told me: "I teach my classes here just as I learned them at
The University of Chicago and the University of California. It is just too bad if
these dumb students cannot pass them." Of course, it is all well and good to
follow examples from our distinguished universities. However, I am sure the
eminent Professors at these institutions would be the first to admit that perfec-
tion did not exist within their hallowed walls. The young professor should have
realized that black colleges as well as all colleges expect their teachers to be more
than mere "copy cats."
However, the expressed attitude of this teacher was in sharp contrast to the
last time I saw the great scientist and surgeon, Dr. Charles Drew. We had gone to
Morgan College to teach together in the fall of 1926; and we remained warm
friends throughout his life. Fresh from a brilliant career in Athletics at Amherst
College, he was one of the first coaches of a long line of subsequent Morgan teams
which followed through the years. He later studied medicine and had become
Head of the Department of Surgery at the Howard University Medical School on
the occasion of my visit.
All of Charlie's friends were concerned at the time about his future. He had
three children and could have easily earned $100,000 a year by practicing sur-
gery. I told him this concern of this friends. He pointed to a gold and red expen-
sively bound set of books on one of his library shelves. He said, "Those books
contain the 'History of Medicine.' Now do you know that no black physician has
in those books any extensive paragraphs on the theory and practice of
I confessed my ignorance of such knowledge.
He then said, "Well, before I pass on, and working with my students, I in-
tend to put a few more paragraphs in the next edition of that history."
As most people know, Charlie had already a few paragraphs ready for inser-
tion. It was a happy accident that I saw him in a Y.M.C.A. shower on 135th Street
in Harlem the next morning after he discovered the process of "banking blood"
which led to the world wide use of establishing blood banks in hospitals. That
morning Charlie was as happy as a kid with a new toy. I did not have a sufficient
background in science to know what he was explaining but he did tell me that he
had tried 21 different small devices to assist with his experiments. He informed
me that the night before he had bought a gadget from a five and ten cent store on
125th Street which was successful in holding the blood just right for banking. He
proudly said it would revolutionize transfusions in hospitals, all over the world,
which, of course, it has done.

Charlie's death from an automobile accident in Rockingham, North
Carolina, was truly an American tragedy. Because of the segregation policy in
vogue at the time, he could not be admitted to any of the hospitals in the city. His
discovery of the method of banking blood has saved millions of lives. Yet,
because of segregation, he could not be admitted to a hospital and given a transfu-
sion with the method he had discovered.
Now it is obvious that no one expects black institutions, or any other in-
stitutions, to turn out many geniuses like Charles Drew. The incidents about him
are included to show that we have had teachers, who were experimentalists. In
addition, it is to call attention to the fact that a greater history of experimenta-
tion and research could have been written with deeds in our early institutions.
It is admitted that there are many good reasons for the lack of experimenta-
tion and innovation in our black institutions. The shortage of funds and the
curricula offerings and teacher training demanded by rating agencies and boards
are most often cited. Whereas both are real handicaps, they are not the whole
story. Teachers do have classrooms accessible to them and a class of students
before them. Thus a great deal of experimentation in curricula and methods can
be carried on with no cost or a minimum of expenditures. In some public schools
a great deal of a teacher's time is spent in raising money for athletics, the band
and other activities. At least once in a great while some efforts could be devoted
to research and learning. In short, alert and determined teachers can usually find
ways of doing what they think is important to do.
What is usually forgotten in the curricula argument is that most liberal arts
colleges allow 30 hours of electives in most majors. This is a whole year or one-
fourth of the requirements for a Bachelor's degree. Surely with that many op-
tions many courses relevant to new knowledge and the Black experience could
have been offered all along.
The foregoing opportunities of neglected or unemphasized opportunities in
Black institutions in the past are not intended as condemnatory criticism. Far
from it. They are merely to serve as background or premise for some suggested
directions for the future. With some of the hindsights of lost or misdirected op-
portunities listed above, we can now turn our attention to the fermenting Black
world of the present and future with the hope that foresight will guide us in the
right direction. If so, we can then grasp each new opportunity as it comes.
In thinking and planning for the future the first observation is that the
problems and opportunities noted about curricula, methods, vocational educa-
tion, experimentation, etc., have not been entirely solved. So, there is still time
to make contributions in those areas.Other suggestions added to the list, merely
become supplementary.Some of these which require attention and scrutiny in
the future are as follows:

1. A hat are the rightful contents anid alue stern of the mushrooming African
Studies and Programs in American College/! I am nindiiul of the large amount of %works
and studies which have appeared recently in this area. Far too lfe, however. are ex-
pressed from the African or Afro-American point of view.

2. How can we get more Black students to specialize in Black Studies? When I was
attending college in the middle '20s only Carter G. Woodson, W. E. B. DuBois, William
Hansberry and J. A. Rogers were recognized as scholars of African life. With the an-
tipathy to and lack of value placed upon such knowledge, we have few trained personnel
today to meet the mounting demand for African specialists. How can we fill this void?
How can we in the '70s continually get scholars to staff the plethora of Afro-American
Departments, institutes, workshops, etc.? Somehow we must get our young people to
study and do more research rather than protesting.
3. We hear a great deal these days about relevancy. What are the subjects relevant
to the Black experience? How do they fit in with the knowledge of the western world in
which all Afro-American Blacks live? In the future we have a right to expect that our
philosophers and thinkers will throw more light on these subjects.
4. Another question which needs answering is: How much time should a student
spend in college to get an A.B. degree? Would a three-year program for gifted students
and a five-year program for handicapped students be realistic? It is obvious that an extra
year for the retarded or handicapped could not be called a Sub-Freshman course. "A
Review Year" or "Introductory" year to bring those who score low on entrance tests
might semantically be more acceptable. At any rate the four-year college course is not so
sacrosanct that experimentation cannot be made in time.
5. Continuing education, especially for senior citizens could also come in for more
attention. Learning should be a continuous process from the cradle to the grave.
Research scholars should give some thought to the objectives and goals of such a
6. In a much more general way than the foregoing, it is my conviction that in the
future some procedures, methods and techniques will have to be evolved in the teaching
profession for the training in the imagination, emotions, tastes and attitudes of students.
I realize that here we are on uncharted ground. In the intellectual area we can start a
child in kindergarten counting numbers, and step by step train that mind until it can do
the intricate abstract mathematical thinking to split an atom or place a man on the moon
240,000 miles away and make him land only a few hundred yards of the spot where he is
scheduled to land.

If we can train a mind to such a degree in abstract thinking, why is it that we
can see a student with a juke-box level of appreciation in music spend four years
in a college with a first class music department and graduate with the same low
level of appreciation? Similar comparisons, of course, can be made in all of the
Can the hate emotions of people be changed and put into more productive
channels? Can the appreciation of audiences be changed from the gutter type
language now in vogue in so many of our modern plays? What about the un-
American attitude of so many citizens in this country? By way of comparison the
world saw Hitler change the emotions, thinking and attitudes of one of the
greatest scientific nations on earth. Can people likewise be trained for the good of
all rather than the murder of six million people?
A sufficient number of experiments and teaching techniques have not been
made to even begin to answer questions such as these. They are on the horizon
before us, however; and Black colleges should be preparing to do their share in
solving these problems. If they do not, they will be on the periphery when great
world educational problems are solved.
As we conclude these observations, it should be noted that attempts have
been made to be suggestive, not conclusive. The premise that the world is in fer-

ment and chaos has been fully accepted. Even a cursory reading of the
newspapers and opinion magazines will reveal the uncertainty about
governments, monetary systems, economic situations, social welfare, education,
penal institutions, religion, philosophy, science, humanities and the myriads of
things, people and forces that surround and impinge upon our lives and ac-
tivities. Is it any wonder, then, that one cannot be certain, precise and definite
about the exact role that Black colleges should play in the hurlyburly of today's
What I have attempted to do here is to look back in history and call atten-
tion to some paths that might have led us to different goals today had they been
adopted or emphasized at the time. I referred particularly to vocational educa-
tion, and experimentation in contents and methods of education. In using these
lost opportunities as spring boards into the present and the future we observed
that we have problems today in which Black colleges and Black educators could
give much needed aid in solving. These revolve around the values, contents,
methods and relevancy of Black studies; and in a general sense, a need for ex-
perimentation to help arrive at some methods of training in the imagination,
emotions, tastes, appreciation and attitudes-all of which loom in the distance as
important areas of learning which desperately need light. It is a basic premise of
education that it is not static but must continually evolve newer and better ways
of teaching and learning. We have lost valuable opportunities in the past, so, we
should not lose more in the future. All of this suggests to Black colleges in our
fermenting world that it is high time for them to be up and about their Father's

Philosophical Tendencies
In the Black Educational Experience

James Hudson
Retired University Chaplain
and Professor of Philosophy and Religion
Florida A&M University

We shall be concerned in this paper with an examination of the
philosophical tendencies which constitute a part of the contemporary black
educational experience. It is hoped that the result of this inquiry will provide
some clarity in perceiving what black education means in this time of educational
crisis. In particular, we shall seek an understanding of what the Black College is
all about in these days of ferment, and what we may reasonably anticipate as a
usable future in the general context of American life. Initially we make the claim
that there is no one philosophy of black education and no philosophical tendency
in the black educational experience.
The black experience in the United States has been that of a minority group
brought into a colonial social structure at the level of forced labor. The traumatic
conditions of the black emergence on the American continent have not fully
ceased to be an influence in the social conflicts and progression of events which
constitute the history of our nation. Black education in this country has been
historically an experience of raw survival. The idealism of America as a promised
land included blacks only as a means to a coveted end. In somewhat similar
fashion the same idealism of a promised land created a great quandary for the
aborigines. The immensities of land and sea beckoned the new comers to in-
creasing explorations. The development of an industrial economy and the emerg-
ing desire for release from colonial restrictions provided the basic ingredients for
the American Revolution. Political democracy, although not immediate, even-
tually became the controlling ideal of the emerging nation state. The moraliza-
tion of the slave question was at least one of the issues involved in a decisive
struggle for a free society in middle and late Nineteenth Century America. In this
context it may be asserted that the next major trauma of the black experience in

America was emancipation from physical slavery. Emancipation accentuated a
crisis in our national life which unfolded a drama not yet fully acted out. We
shall now attempt to interpret black educational experience against the
background already sketched.
Most black colleges in the United States were founded in the generation that
followed the ending of slavery. In most instances they were created to render a
total educational service. A religious zeal prompted many of those who gave
themselves to this effort. The emerging Black Colleges were chiefly a
phenomenon of the South. In any case, the black experience in formal education
was significantly affected by the development of these institutions. Public educa-
tion in those days was almost non-existent while these schools were providing a
light in the darkness. The black experience in formal education, especially at the
upper level, has been radically affected by the labors and philosophies of many
men and women to whom America will always owe much.
American education was early dominated by idealistic tendencies in its con-
ception of those educated as well as the content of the education offered.
Emphasis upon the "Classics" and an authoritarian method were characteristic
of most of the early schools. Black Colleges were influenced by this early
idealistic tendency in education. The early American school men reluctantly
applied themselves to a realistic study of the mind and a first hand observation of
the natural conditions in which education was thought to take place. Direct
observation and contact with nature gradually arose to first order priorities. The
development of public education gave additional force to the claim that learning
ought to be relevant to the daily life of the students. This claim was later rein-
forced and dramatized by John Dewey who called for both the democratization
and pragmatization of American education.
Let us now take account of an example of an idealistic and pragmatic con-
troversy involving Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois. Washington
stood for an emphasis upon industrial education for black people. By becoming
technicians in an industrial society, Washington felt that black Americans could
at least hope for economic survival, if not social acceptance in the larger society.
DuBois favored the higher academics of the classical tradition. His was an elitist
emphasis designed to provide the black community with greater visibility in the
upper ranges of scholarship and professionalism. Both educators felt that the
fulfillment of their proposals was necessary to meet the black existential situa-
tion of those times. Both men in some way offered realistic answers to black
problems. Both proposals were expressions of philosophical tendencies in the
black educational experience. Unfortunately the two educational giants became
locked in an "either/or" encounter in which both missed opportunities for a
close comradeship in service to the black community. The black world of that day
and likewise the black world of our day need an emphasis upon the theoretical
and abstract as well as an emphasis upon the practical and concrete. Social ex-
istence requires both.
The black educational experience of the contemporary world has shifted
considerably from the encounters of DuBois and Washington. World changes
have had a tremendous influence. The emergence of independent blacks states

has greatly influenced the character of the black collegiate consciousness in the
United States. The freedom movement epitomized in the life, labor, and sacrifice
of Martin Luther King, Jr. has become a legacy in the thinking and acting of the
present college generation of blacks. Whitney Young's contributions have caus-
ed blacks to sense new horizons of economic participation in American life. The
thrust of quality contributions by blacks in various professional and academic
fields of specialization has conditioned an atmosphere of expectancy. The
Philosophical tendencies of the contemporary black world cover wide spectrum
of reflections on life and destiny. It appears that there is developing a new
phenomenology of black existence. In this new phenomenology one finds
elements of naturalism, rationalism, materialism, and many more strains. One
constant seems to be the search for self identity expressible in black poetry,
drama, music, and other art forms. By a process of bracketing the black self-
consciousness is exploring the primal depths of its search for being. In and out-
side of the college experience blacks are feeling for new expressions of power in
economics and politics. The phenomenon of black mayorships is a case in point.
There is a growing educational realism in the black academic community. The
idea articulated in this educational realism is that our schools and colleges need
to address themselves more specifically to the actual and potential job ex-
periences of students. In all of these explorations black students wish to main-
tain their linkage with the black heritage. Black Studies Programs point up the
existentialist quality of the desire for black identity. Such programs offer a need-
ed balance to the models of the majority society.
The ideology of the black or predominantly black college both private and
public is today experiencing a new test of its viability. Gut questions regarding
their existence and significance are being raised all over again. Some traditional-
ly black colleges have ceased to be exclusively or predominantly black. Perhaps
in this way they have escaped most of the rigors of the new critique of black
schools. One wonders whether the existence of any ethnic majority in a school
situation in an open society is per se alien to democratic principles of govern-
ment. The principle of racial balance ought to be combined with a demand for
quality education. The demand for accountability has today acquired a new force
and range in education. Role and Scope studies are resulting in new re-
quirements for academic operations and fiscal managements. Whether by design
or otherwise, some black colleges have been put in a defensive position. The
reduction in the flow of revenue from a number of foundations and the required
reconstruction of some of the grant programs have created serious problems for
the private black college. In general black colleges public and private have been
put on the alert for more difficult days ahead.
This examination of philosophical tendencies in the black educational ex-
perience has been conceived as a way of understanding the ferment of these
times. Hopefully it has been a venture in comprehending the values which have
been agonizingly produced in the black educational experience. The writer has
purposely avoided many of the technical issues involved in the schools of
philosophy discussed. Admittedly there are values available to those who desire
I( deal more precisely and deeply with the basic concepts of the various schools

of thought that make up the American philosophical tradition. It is hoped,
however, that the modest labor of this paper has resulted in a perception of
philosophical tendencies at work in the history of the black educational ex-
Black colleges have been and will probably remain for some time yet the ma-
jor producers of black leadership in the United States. It seems that they have
earned the right to be heard before being transformed out of existence. More and
more a devoted clientele will possibly have to bear the greater burdens of their
existence. The black college has incarnated most of the philosophical tendencies
operating in the black educational experience. These tendencies constitute a
chapter in American social philosophy. It will not be easy for black colleges to
survive the turbulence of these days. If they do, it will be necessary for them to
examine continuously the philosophical foundations of their existence, and to
apply the lessons gained to a more efficient operation and a wiser governance of
these schools.

The Black Colleges:
The Role They Have Played and Can


Dr. Benjamin E. Mays2

Let me state briefly the role these black colleges have played in the life of
America. If black America is a fairly literate people, considerable credit must be
given to the black colleges. The South was angry and public schools for Negroes
came slowly and grudginglyand when they did come discrimination was rampant.
High schools for Negroes were very late coming. The first high school for black
people in Atlanta, Georgia, was built in 1924. This means that every black college
up to about 1930 had to have a high school connected with it. When the public
elementary schools were established for Negroes, they often ran three and four
months a year and after finishing elementary school, Negroes who wanted to go
further had to go to one of the black institutions for high school and college.
Since only a negligible number of blacks went to college, the leaders in the local
communities of the South were the high school graduates of the black colleges-
mainly teachers. Around the turn of the century, black teachers who had only a
high school education or less received their training from the black colleges es-
tablished by the churches. As the state schools for Negroes developed, they
supplied teachers for black schools also. The doors of white schools in the South
were bolted and locked to blacks, so black teachers had to come from black
Without in the least condoning segregation, there was a blessing in disguise
in having black colleges. For the most part, the white teachers who came South to
teach black people after 1865 were dedicated and many of them believed that
given a chance black students could master any branch of knowledge. These
white teachers were soon joined by dedicated black teachers. So the black
colleges had teachers who believed that there was no limit to the Negro's ability
'As printed in the Amsterdam ew's (N.Y.), September 18, 1) i1.
I2'residenl t Emeritus of Morehouse College and President of the School Board. Atlanta, Georgia.

to learn, once given the opportunity. As the years moved on, the faculties of
Negro colleges became blacker and blacker and the presidents also became black.
It is clear then that the motivation that blacks needed to aim high and aspire
nobly came from the Negro colleges, inspired by black and white teachers who
came South with a sense of mission to teach blacks; many of them came void of
paternalism and condescension with no purpose other than to serve.
Without a doubt, in the area of motivation the black colleges made their
greatest contribution and played their chief role. The black student entered a
classroom where the teachers were sympathetic and understanding. The student
was not discouraged and was not made to feel that he could not achieve. Even
when there was no opening in a special field, skill or profession, black teachers
encouraged their students to prepare themselves for the future so that when
doors were opened they would be ready to enter. In addition to the motivation
pointing them to the sky as the limit of their achievement, the black teacher was
the image, the symbol of what the black student could do and become. Though
grateful for what white teachers did for me at Bates College and the University of
Chicago, I am mighty glad I had Negro teachers through high school and my
freshman year in college. So, I entered the white world of scholarship having full
confidence in black educators and black people.
At Virginia Union University where I spent my freshman year, there were
white teachers but there was no doubt in my mind that among the able teachers at
Union, perhaps the ablest, one found black men: Barco, Simpson, and Sampson.
There is Morehouse in Atlanta which has been under black leadership since
1906. What was happening at Union and Morehouse under black teachers and
black leadership was taking place in most of the black colleges in the South.
It is no accident therefore, that from the black colleges have come the vast
majority of the Negro leaders in this country since the turn of the century and
before-teachers, ministers, physicians, dentists, lawyers, business men, social
workers, nurses, skill workers in the trades, a few engineers, government
workers and common laborers. If the only schools available to Negroes had been
white and if all the teachers had been white, I believe, the story would be a sad
one. Even the dedicated white teacher could not say as much to the black student
as a black teacher equally dedicated and able. A white scientist at Tuskegee could
hardly have meant as much to black students as George Washington Carver. A
white physician and scientist at Howard University could hardly have meant as
much to black medics as Charles Drew. So, in evaluating the role black colleges
have played in American life, one must make central the role the black colleges
have played in motivating black students to aim high and aspire nobly. No white
educator could have motivated black students as did Booker Washington and
I may be treading on dangerous grounds but I am convinced that so few
Northern blacks went to college in previous years because virtually all the
teachers in the public schools of the North, until fairly recently, were white and
tlic\ discouraged the few black students who went to high school from aspiring
for collegee and university work. Blacks were discouraged from entering certain
fields on the ground that blacks would not be accepted in this trade or that profes-

sion. The exceptionally bright blacks who broke through and graduated from
colleges and universities were advised to go South and work among "your peo-
ple." For a long time, the Negroes who pursued graduate work in the North were
largely blacks from Negro colleges who had been motivated by black teachers and
dedicated whites who were teaching in Negro colleges.
So much for the past. What role can the black colleges play in the future?
Before addressing myself to this question, I must make two assumptions: (1)
More people will go to college in the years ahead then now and that every college
that is serving a useful purpose will be needed; (2) And black colleges will not be
permitted to starve and die because they are black.If the latter occurs it will be a
sad commentary on our country which in its Constitution, the Declaration of In-
dependence, the Bill of Rights and the 14th Amendment are found the greatest
democracy on earth.
If my assumptions are sound, I see three major roles for the black colleges to
play in the years ahead. (1) They must offer a curriculum that prepares the
black students to enter the various occupations that will enable them to compete
favorably in a highly competitive society. Whatever one may think about
building a black university that offers a curriculum relevant to the needs of black
people, Negroes cannot live in a totally black society, wholly separate and dis-
tinct from the white society, one that is separate and distinct in education,
economics, business, politics, and other community affairs. Graduates of black
colleges must be prepared to serve the total community in every aspect of life and
those who think otherwise will be disillusioned. If the black colleges do not
provide this kind of education, the same students who emphasize blackness will
register in white colleges and universities that provide the skill they need. The
graduates of black colleges will continue to enter the professions and they will
continue to seek jobs in the business world whether it be in black business or
white business. It may not be important that black colleges attract students of
other racial groups but the curricula must be deep enough and broad enough to
meet the needs of all students who elect to enter a black college.
(2) The black colleges must provide a curriculum and an experience that
are highly relevant to the black community. Economics that is geared wholly to
big business, large corporation and the like will not be relevant to the vast majori-
ty of black folks. Economics and other social sciences should be part and parcel
of what is going on in the black communities and courses should be designed to
help black people improve life in their communities. This means direct involve-
ment of Negro professors and black students in the life of black people in the
slums and ghettoes of our cities. Certainly the part blacks have played in the
economic development of this country cannot be left out in courses in
economics-from 1619 to the present time. History courses in Negro colleges
must include the part Negroes have played in making American history what it is
from Crispus Attuck to 1971. Courses in literature, education, science, the
various arts, religion and athletics must be designed to give the black man due
credit for his contribution to American life in these areas. It does not matter
what you call this emphasis-Afro-American Studies or Black Studies, so long as
relevant courses dealing with the black experience are given. I do not believe this

emphasis will be properly made in white oriented colleges and universities nor do
I believe that white colleges and universities will have the same concern for black
life in our cities as black colleges. This is a contribution that black colleges are
uniquely qualified to make.
(3) In the future as in the past, the black colleges can serve as the con-
science of the nation. Being close to the black poor and black students and
professors themselves being members of a suppressed minority, they are more
likely to spear head movement to abolish interracial injustices. It was at Howard
University, a black institution, and not at Chicago, Yale, Columbia or Harvard
that the ground work was laid to go to the Supreme Court to get segregation in the
public schools declared unconstitutional and a violation of the 14th Amend-
ment. It was at a black institution, A&T University in Greensboro that the non-
violent student revolution started which lead to the downfall of segregation in es-
tablishments of the cities in the South. This revolution did not start in white
colleges and could not have started there. Since the battle has not yet been won
in desegregating education, housing, unemployment, it may be the role of the
black colleges to wage nonviolent campaigns to win more justice in these areas.
Finally, the black image in education will stand out only if black colleges
survive. All mergers of black and white institutions whether private or state sup-
ported will mean liquidation for the black colleges under the hypocritical dis-
guise of integration. The black man's image in education will not be adequately
maintained with a few stellar black professors in white colleges and universities.
We need a Howard University, an Atlanta University Center, the Nashville and
New Orleans centers of education, Tuskegee, Hampton and other black colleges
to provide the image that black students need and must have. Integration that
would wipe out black institutions will reduce the number of black teachers in
higher education to a negligible minimum. A galaxy of able black scholars will
mean more to the black students than a galaxy of white scholars. And such a
galaxy of black scholars will hardly be found in a few white institutions scattered
over the nation in a few universities.

The Black Institution
In An Age of Ferment

Oscar A. Moore
Professor of Physical Education
Florida A&M University

"To Be or Not To Be, That
is the Question-"

Torn between the struggling past and an uncertain future brought about
through a change of Federal laws, social upheaval and the inevitable phenomena
of change itself, the black college is really in an age of ferment. While providing
hope and self-improvement for thousands of young blacks, rising operating
costs, "planned benign negligence" on the part of state legislatures in the case of
publicly supported institutions, and a general lack of confidence and support of
the public for higher education generally, project a dismal picture.
Paradoxically, at a time when the needs of young blacks are greatest, when
these needs can be met and the goal of self-identity can be formulated, planned
and realized, the black colleges which function as well-springs of personal
achievement are apparently and actually facing a dilemma. Survival and visibili-
ty of existence as quality institutions are over-riding concerns of the day.
Always faced with the problem of inadequate operating funds for salaries,
buildings and equipment, a new dimension has to be contended with. After years
of self-evaluation, self-improvement, struggle and the developing of techniques
for teaching those who otherwise would not be given an opportunity, the black
college suddenly finds itself competing for its own black students on all levels.
Those persons who have achieved academically are courted, sought after and en-
couraged to by-pass the black college, thus robbing it of an essential element for
progress. Low achievers or late developers, who traditionally found refuge in
black colleges only to eventually find themselves later to become productive
citizens, have been the beneficiaries of grants, scholarships, and other Federal
and private finances to once again delete the ranks of the black college.
This pattern continues with the selection of the top black athletic talent
wherever it is found. The black high school athlete whose talents were complt~'e
ly ignored and disregarded, has suddenly received the attention of those w no

would direct him away from the black college. Black persons with musical talent
and who are gifted in other areas of the arts are also courted and recruited for
white institutions.
In a similar vein, the black professional educator has suddenly become a
much sought-after individual by predominantly white institutions, north, east,
west and south. Tempted by attractive salaries and other inducements, the black
educator must philosophically debate with himself whether to remain loyal to
the black college, or pragmatically accept the largely materialistic benefits
suddenly thrust upon him but denied for so long based solely on color.
The black institution in an age of ferment, therefore, may be viewed from
different ways with varying results. In the first place, the age of ferment seems
to be a normal and natural phenomena when judged by the philosophical belief
that the only thing permanent is change itself.
As a social institution, the black college has the responsibility of fostering
change in individual thinking and behavior. Dedicated individuals, teachers and
administrators, have created a climate for the nurturing of change in the hearts
and minds of students. This apparent positive direction of ferment in the black
college is desirable, utilitarian and is a justifiable defense for the continued sup-
port of these institutions. The destiny of a race, the intelligent cooperative solu-
tion of the problems of ignorance, poverty, and racism, may well be determined
or realized by the beneficiaries of the ferment generated. The direction for fer-
ment, therefore, is positive, real and constructive.
On the other-hand, ferment in the black college may be brought about
through poor administrative practices and inadequate staffing as a result of long-
standing under-financing policies with which black administrators had to con-
tend. Ironically, the ferment is sometimes generated by the very persons who
will benefit the most from the experiences at the college. Cynical, impatient and
impetuous youth today demand efficiency, speed, realistic and relevant educa-
tion which are justifiable demands in an age of computer planned spectacular
moon landings and which do not appear to be excessive or unreasonable.
However, anguished and impatient cries alone cannot immediately correct the
situation. Only through actual and active commitment of public officials and the
tangible financial support of the growing alumni of black colleges, can a degree of
help be expected. Such massive financial support could provide a broad base of
operation as well as a semblance of equality for many.
The black college in an age of ferment perhaps is witnessing a period of in-
dividualistic re-appraisal by black professional educators themselves who are
raising pertinent questions concerning the education of black students for a
highly viable and competitive society. Questions are raised as to the effec-
tiveness of present methods of instruction and motivational techniques for lear-
ning in order to adequately prepare productive citizens who through cir-
cumstances and experiences may be highly critical, skeptical and apprehensive
of the status quo. Perhaps the motivational factor found in many of the black
college athletic programs, particularly in the area of football may provide direc-
tion for success. A casual inspection of the rosters of teams of the National Foot-
ball League today will find members from several black colleges in the country.

Contrary to the popular belief that professional football is all physical, these
young men show evidence that they were highly motivated in college and were
the beneficiaries of coaches with saleable and modern techniques of instruction.
Such skill adequately prepared their players for a tough, highly competitive
professional football market. Hard work, careful planning, and a knowledge of
the individual appear to be ingredients which make up a simplistic philosophy
with tangible and beneficial results.
Introspection, self-analysis and personal re-assessment of programs,
policies, procedures and techniques then are factors in the 1970s as the black in-
stitution moves in the age of ferment. Time being of the essence, it behooves all
who have the responsibility for educational programs in black institutions to
provide direction which will enable youth to achieve attainable and self-
rewarding goals for a better and improved society. The black institution in this
age of ferment can be a vital link in the educational process of the nation. Like all
worthwhile and constructive programs whose objectives are to change individual
behavior and increase the quality of living, the black institution seeks only the
opportunity to successfully complete its mission-the task is monumental but
the mission is possible.

Racism-Its Institutionalized Nature,
Psycho-Socio Aspects and Implications
For Predominantly Black Colleges

W. H. Shirley
Director, Counseling Center
Florida A&M University

This endeavor is not designed to deal with all of the classic arguments of
racism nor its causes or solutions. Instead, the effort is to take a realistic look at
some of its effects on the very fundamental aspects of the problems of
predominantly Black educational institutions. It is they who can and must deal
with the issues of racism, if they are going to meet the basic needs of the students
that they are designed to serve. There is no other ethnic group that can effective-
ly assume this responsibility. Also, efforts will be made to highlight the apparent
lag between the dominant culture and the Black subculture, and efforts will be
made to destroy any myths about an early eradication of racism.
For too many years, people with a yearning for truth, justice and love have
waited patiently for the author of these virtues to tip the scales in their favor.
However, expediency, seemingly, has always stepped in and dictated another
course of action which ran counter to these virtues. The here and now always
appears stormy and keeps man embattled against man for survival. History
attests to this fact.
It is now common knowledge that a philosophy had to be established in
America to serve as a launching pad for the enslavement of Blacks. It fitted the
puritanical philosophy of the inhabitants of the New World. The philosophy had
to be compatible with their religion. The Old Testament story was used as a basis
for causing the people to believe that the Black man had been cursed by God, and
was doomed to a role of servitude. Furthermore, the white man felt that the
Blacks did not mind their role as slaves-it was their inevitable lot. The story is
all too well known about the offspring of Ham. However, the truth is it was not
Ham who was cursed; it was Canaan, his son.

The concern here is what resulted from the creation of a nation that believ-
ed the Black man was inherently inferior to the white man and was created for
the role of servitude. During this same period, there was an increase in English
colonization which served as a vehicle to spread this same doctrine to many parts
of the world.
The English form of the enslavement of Blacks was markedly different from
all previous forms of slavery. There was no system of laws to govern this activity,
a fact which resulted in the slaves being classified as chattel property. They were
considered outside the law and were without the protection normally afforded
human beings. There was no legal remedy for the slave, and he was viewed as a
non-person, a thing.
The American system of slavery involved total possession of the Black
man's mind, body and spirit. It was designed to destroy ambition, prevent in-
dependence, and erode intelligence. A period of about three and one-half cen-
turies was sufficient time to establish a "Black personality make-up." This image
conformed to the stereotype behavior expected of the slave. The truth is the
Black man in America was programmed to be inferior-and the program was
successful. No national effort has been successful in unprogramming him. Of
course, this did not hold true for all Black people in America, but Blacks as a
group were not permitted to enter the main stream of American life. Most of the
Black people in America, one hundred years after slavery, still suffer from the ill
effects of slavery in mind and in spirit.
On the other hand, Americans who arrived after the abolishment of slavery
were influenced by the racist attitudes which were developed, promoted, and
perpetuated as a part of the American way of life. This became their way of life,
also. The shadow of slavery covers Americans today. both Black and white, like
an angry, summer, tempestuous storm threatening the very existence of this na-
The foundation upon which this nation was built, was and still is defective.
This society cannot correct its errors without going back to recognize the fun-
damental mistakes made in the laying of its foundation. This is a fundamental
truth which must be dealt with if any real progress is to be made in resolving the
race problem in America.
A very definite pervasive system of philosophy was established which sup-
ported a set of significant practices and attitudes which became an American way
of life. The following excerpt taken from a speech made by Abraham Lincoln in
1858 and quoted by Charles Silberman supports my thesis.
I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in any
way the social and political equality of the white and black races-that I am not nor ever
have been in favor of making voters or jurors of Negroes, nor of qualify' ing them to hold
office.... nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there
is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forbid the
races living on terms of social and political equity. And inasmuch as they cannot so live,
while they do remain together, there must be the position of superior and inferior and I
as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the
white race.'
'Charles E. Silberman, Crisis in Black and White (New York: Random House, Inc., 1964), pp.92-

The slaves were freed but the Black human beings were left to learn the
social systems as best they could. Less was done for them than for new im-
migrants to this nation.
The practice of racism affected the Black and the white alike in relation to
attitudes and predisposition to behavior. The white man of any social strata feels
that he is better than any Black man regardless of his education, of his vocation,
or his economic level. Whites will not admit this fact, but their behavior is a true
index of what they believe and think as opposed to what they say.
When the Black people were cut off from their cultural heritage, especially
their language, they became a people without an identity model. The only exis-
tent model was that of the white man. However, this was impossible because the
Black man's skin pigmentation made him highly visible. Psychiatrists agree that
the identity problems in human beings are a very difficult problem to resolve.
Black people, as a group, are basically without the benefit of their services
because of economic factors. Most of the psychiatrists in this country are white
and are likely to be racist in their attitudes, because they are a product of a socie-
ty which has not, at the present time, obliterated its racist ways.
True, laws were passed to extend civil rights to all of the citizens of this na-
tion. But what happened at the implementation level? The law was resisted and
circumvented where possible because of the racist nature of the people in
authority. Black people know that there is still a great price to pay for first class
citizenship. The "truth" is ugly and it hurts, but the "truth" must be told, if
racial unity is to become a reality.
A perfect example of the institutionalized nature of racism is highlighted in
the integration movement, which resulted in a large number of Black schools be-
ing closed or changed in function. Subsequently, this pr inpted the displacement
and/or relocation of a vast number of Black teachers and administrators.The
behavior displayed by the power structure indicated that it prefers white run
schools and white teachers over Black run schools and Black teachers. (Note all
were licensed by the same licensing agency.)
When one examines more closely the effects of this phenomenon at the in-
terpersonal level, it becomes clear that a new dimension of communication must
be dealt with. Let's call this new dimension of communication the "gut level" or
the "soul level" of communication. It deals with what one feels. It really com-
plicates the human relations aspect of the problem. Blacks often perceive at the
"soul level" that white people are not genuine. There is a discrepancy between
what they say and what they do at the "gut level." This feeling factor is a part of
the Black man's survival arsenal.
The Black person reacts negatively because of what he feels. The white per-
son because of his real feeling of superiority becomes angry or miffed when the
Blacks' predisposition to behave is not compatible with the dominant society's
expectation. The result is a breakdown in communication between whites and
Both groups may remain unaware of the function of the (soul level) com-
munication factor in the human relations scheme. Nevertheless, it remains an

element which must be dealt with. Of course, this aspect of communication is
common to all people but is more suppressed in highly organized industrial
literate societies. Great use is made of this aspect of communication in the less
literate societies.
The institutionalized nature of racism furnishes a base for perceiving a new
role and function for predominantly Black institutions of higher education, one
which is legitimate and is not in competition with predominantly white in-
stitutions. This is an important aspect of the survival game, because the domi-
nant power structure will not freely and willingly share its powers and resources
with Black America. Black America must free itself through the freeing of each
individual's mind. Creativity is a function of a liberated mind.
The following factors must be dealt with:

1. The nature of the educational experiences in these schools must be designed to
eradicate the slave syndrome. The students need help in developing healthy attitudes
about themselves, for what they are, and for what they can become. They are not in-
herently inferior.
2. New curriculum materials must be developed. The materials must be free from
negative concepts and theories. The object is to free the minds of Black youth from the
fetters which have bound them to a non-creative and non-productive existence. Failure
to develop new materials will result in the perpetuation of the slave syndrome. The exis-
tent materials were developed by just such a system.
So as to help, the Black students must know the truth. They must see the importance of
Blacks' contribution to the development of civilization at every point in history. The half
truths which were developed and utilized in support of the concept of "WASP" must be
discarded and abolished. These half-truths are prevalent in most standard textbooks.
One would expect no less because formal education is one of the methods by which socie-
ty maintains itself, but this is a new day.
3. A concept of equity must replace the concept of equality. A group of people who were
programmed to blunt the desire and motivation to compete and to achieve, and were kept
in this condition for three hundred years, could, in no way, suddenly overcome these
psychological handicaps. A counter program must be developed and implemented, if any
appreciable progress is to be realized in reversing the damage of slavery.
Equity, as the writer sees it, doesn't mean lowering the level of achievement; it means
only that these institutions must recognize that for most of its students, more time, more
individualized attention, and massive supportive services must be provided in assisting
the students to overcome the handicaps which were not of their making. Blacks need help
in acquiring meaningful knowledge that can be integrated into their personality struc-
tures. The meaning of knowledge is vital for positive growth. The goal is the production
of intelligent behavior.
4. The general faculty and staff who choose to work in predominantly Black institutions
must possess an unshakable commitment to their mission-the development of the stu-
dent. They must be willing to work harder to achieve the same level of success as their
white counterparts.
5. Concepts of a smooth running organization where students adhere to specific time
frames and policies must be tempered. The students' environment did not provide ex-
periences which resulted in the understanding of complex bureaucratic social struc-
tures. He has been programmed to concern himself with those things which directly in-
fluence his life on a day to day basis. He has difficulty in handling long range plans. He

has not learned how to look ahead, select alternatives, and determine consequences.
Employees in predominantly Black institutions must adjust to the fact that many of the
problems they will be called upon to solve will be atypical in nature.
6. The cold fact that there is a lag between the dominant culture and the Black sub-
culture must be recognized and dealt with by the educational institution. The lag has
been labeled as cultural deprivation, economic deprivation, and disadvantaged
background. These terms only describe the situation. The lag must be understood for
what it really is. It is basically and fundamentally a "literacy" lag. That is to say, Black
people basically are not so sophisticated at handling the symbolism of the dominant
society as their white counterparts. Why? The answer is not difficult. The need for a
high degree of sophistication in symbolism is not demanded in the Black community.
Therefore, the motivation for acquiring this competency is missing. Too often this quali-
ty has been interpreted as a lack of intelligence which shows up when tests are used to
measure achievement andare equal to intelligence. The tests measure the literacy level.
If it is the goal of teachers of Black youth to have their students perform well on tests,
then a part of the teaching responsibility must be to help these students develop a com-
petency for taking such tests-become test oriented. Tests will remain a way of selecting
candidates for various kinds of vocations as along as the supply remains greater than the
It is not difficult to determine, from the above points, areas where educational programs
for predominantly Black colleges and universities must be strengthened. Uniqueness is a

For fear one may think the task is easy, a brief examination of the political
aspects of the existence of the status of predominantly Black institutions in the
American scheme of things should be made.
The function of power in government and politics is well documented. It is
apparent that the powerless groups in any society will have the least degree of in-
volvement in the social processes and reap the least benefits from that society.
Since the Black man is seen through the eyes of white America as inferior, and in
many instances not seen at all, he has little "real power" in the general "scheme"
of the social order.
Most Black people realize they are not really important, and are not really
considered by the dominant society; thus they tend to feel alienated.
The American Black man is under a tremendous strain. He sees in the domi-
nant society large numbers of individuals acting in concert to generate massive
power against him and his desire to share in what society has to offer. It is no
wonder that Black America has had to develop a fantastic meta-physics of sur-
vival. Psychological principles state that when man is thwarted from reaching his
perceived goals, he has three alternatives open to him: (1) to apply more force
and break through the barrier, (2) to select alternate goals, and (3) to withdraw.
Prolonged delay in achieving the perceived goals results in frustrated behavior,
which is dysfunctional.
In assisting individuals who experience difficulty in reaching their perceiv-
ed goals, the first task is to deal with the dysfunctional behavior. When this task
is successfully dealt with, and only then, can one deal effectively with the real
problem. This may be why efficiency is lacking in predominantly Black
educational institutions.

The overwhelming power of the dominant society which the Black man
sees-real or imagined-threatens him and his perceived goals. He must deal
with this threat. Far too many Black youth choose the alternative of withdrawal.
This is not the most productive way to handle the problem.
According to Melvin Seeman, alienation has five different but related
aspects. They are as follows:

1. Powerlessness-The depiction of man's relation to the larger social order of the in-
dividual's sense of influence over socio-political events.
2. Meaninglessness-A low expectancy that satisfactory predictions about future out-
comes of behavior can be made.
3. Normlessness-A high expediency that socially unapproved behaviors are required to
achieve given goals.
4. Isolation-The assignment of low reward values to goals or beliefs that are typically
highly valued in the given society.
5. Self-estrangement-The degree of dependence of the given behavior upon anticipated
future reward (rewards which lie outside the activity itself).2

The conditions within the general society, as seen here, are in the Black
man's favor. Larger and larger groups, within the dominant society are experien-
cing various degrees of alienation. Black America has been dealing with this feel-
ing for many years. Alienation is no stranger to him. Here is a common element
which could be capitalized on, but the Black institution must shift its position
from one of defense to one of offense in order to take advantage of the present
conditions of society. Rarely do people rally to a dying cause.
One does not need a microscope to find example after example of alienated
behavior in the students, faculty and staff of Black colleges. A specialist in
human relations could be employed to an advantage on the predominantly Black
campus. The chief administrators, because of the high degree of alienation, must
cope with more delicate "people problems" than their white counterparts.
It will take many years of dedicated hard work on the part of this nation to
eradicate the evil practices of racism. Many more years of concentrated effort
will be required to overcome the massive damage inflicted on the minds and
spirits of Black people and white people. Hate is a destructive force. It destroys
the hater as well as the hated.
Love is a far more constructive force, but there is little room for it in a com-
petitive society. Few people know how to love. It is a sad commentary when
special programs must be designed to help people learn how to love.
Man and environment are a single system. They are inextricably bound
together. When changes are produced in either of the components, there is a
resultant change in the other component.
If it had been possible for the perpetuators of slavery of Blacks to have en-
visioned this day and its cancerous condition of racism, they probably would

2Melvin Seeman, "The Meaning of Alienation," American Sociological Review, XXIV (1959).

have decided on an alternate solution to their labor problems. The resultant
changes were not given consideration in their decision.
In conclusion, an effort has been made here to put into perspective, though
it may be rough, the real problems in predominantly Black institutions of higher
education. Little progress can be made in trying to solve any problem until that
problem is identified.
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University must face up to its stated
mission of helping youth who have been handicapped as a result of their
background. The literacy-gap, the alienation, and racism (Black or white) must
be dealt with and met head on. This is not the time to wish for yesteryears, or
wish for a different kind of student. Only the here and now can be considered.
The faculty and staff must become dedicated and committed to the task at
hand. The task can be accomplished only through team effort. There is no room
for ego-tripping. The concern must be the growth and development of the in-
dividual student.
The only viable stance for the survival of FAMU is to dare to be different.
The curriculum must be designed to meet the real needs of the students, especial-
ly at the lower level. When one applies the psychological principle of power to
the present crisis of scarce resources, FAMU cannot compete with the other uni-
versities and win. She can compete successfully only from a position of uni-
The author has dared to be different, by using what he feels is valid research
data. He has drawn heavily from his own years of experience in working with
young people, his involvement with his colleagues, his own encounters with the
dominant society, and what he has learned by working through his own problems
of growth and development.
Which shall it be, refuse to change and die or make the adjustment and live?
This is the question. The choice is yours.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs