Title Page
 Half Title
 Table of Contents
 Historical background of the Red...
 Home services of the Tallahassee...
 Disaster relief services of the...
 Nursing services of the Tallahassee...
 Services rendered by the first...
 The blood program
 Appendix A
 Appendix B
 Appendix C

Title: Ten year study of the Social Welfare and Health Services Rendered to the People of Leon County by the Tallahassee Chapter of the American Red Cross
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000046/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ten year study of the Social Welfare and Health Services Rendered to the People of Leon County by the Tallahassee Chapter of the American Red Cross
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Holland, Claudia Maedene Wright
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
Publication Date: 1953
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: AM00000046
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0915
notis - ABV5543

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Historical background of the Red Cross and definitions of terms used
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Home services of the Tallahassee chapter
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Disaster relief services of the Tallahassee chapter
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Nursing services of the Tallahassee chapter
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Services rendered by the first aid, water safety and accident prevention committees
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The blood program
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Appendix A
        Page 55
    Appendix B
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Appendix C
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
Full Text




A Thesis

Presented to

The Faculty o' the Graduate School

Florida agricultural and M.echanical College

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education


Claudia Maedenea Wight Holland

August 1953




A Thesis Presented to the Graduate Committee of the Florida Agricultural
and Mechanical College in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree .Ifaster of Science in Education


Claudia Maedene ikright Holland

August 1953

App roved:



I. IjTRUOUC-iIl; . ,

The problem . . a .

statement of the problem

Importance of the study .. .


S ea .i as a 1 a 0 v 0 0 0 a

Delimitation . . .

Status q a ** 0 i *

Sources of data .......

Procedure .* a a o a a o *


OF TEiaJS USEi ,, A *


* to

a a

* 5


* 0*

v a 9 a ft 9 4 0 v

* 5 5











Sa a 0IEF a NS

SCH r .0 9 .
C}ItAIJKR 0 3 U S a .







IX. COiCLUSUON a . . .


. 32

S 38

* 47

S 49











As oea ity life became systematised, ad a feeling of social

consciousness developed, it became apparent that the relief of hmlan

suffering ought to be systematsed, too. One of the moremnts which

grew out of a need for organized relief of human suffering as the Red

Cross-a noivemet that anchored itself in the authority of national

govrrmant, but was free from the limitations of garaerent control;

that ws satisfied only with the utmeot efficiency and bunsnesslik

methods that trained its wrkera, whether volunteer or paid, for their

tasks; that accounted scrpul nly for every contribution,. th prin-

ciples that characterized the Red Cross at the beginning have persisted

thrghout its history.


Sta~tamt of the p Gbl It is the purpose of this study (1)

to produce a ten year record of the pat activities of the Tallhahasm*

Chapter of the American National Red Crossj (2) to develop a deeper ap-

preciation for the work of the Tallahasee Chapter in particular and
the American National Bd Cross in general; and (3) to learn if th

services rendered by the Tallhassee Chaptar have been in keeping with

the basi obligations of the American National Red Gross.

'Me American National Red Cross, Introdction to the Red Cro.
(revised editiaol Washington, D.C., 19i8)T, B,


Importance of the tu Too much cannot be said about the Red

Cross for as one author puts it, "it is the heartbeat of America.W2

Through the years the Red Cross has expressed the universal desire to

help the less fortunate wherever they were found (1) families crushed

by disaster needed aid to rebuild their tornado-smashed homes; (2)

tired doctors called for blood to save human lives; (3) soldiers in Korea

anxiously awaited the reassuring word that their wives had recovered from

illness; (4) accident victims needed quick, sure, first aid to save their

lives. These and hundreds and thousands of calls like these were brought

to the Red Cross through the years. As the Korean conflict continues,

and with all the climatic differ nces that go with continental geography,

natural disasters are bound to be varied and frequent.

Then there remains the human problem--people who need food,

clothing, or medical care--families that are homeless or destitute. To-

day as never before, there is need for the distinctive services of the

Red Cross. This stucr is important, therefore, in that it reveals the

fact that year after year the Red Cross has been confronted with increased

demands from people who were in need. As these needs have increased, it

becomes necessary for the American people to become aware of the increased

need for their support.

Hypothesis. During the past ten years of continuous operation,

it is assumed that the Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red

2The American National Red Cross, "Answer the Call," Red Cross
Facts for 3, (revised October, 1952, Washington, D*C.), p.: T

Croes has carried out the basic obligations of the national office in ad-

inistering its services to the people of Leon County.

Delimitation. This etid is limited to the Social Welfare ad

Health Services of the Tallahasee Chapter of the Acrican Red Cross.

States. According to the records of the Tallahasee Chapter of

the Amarcan National Red Cross, no earlier study of the local chapter

has been made lith particular emphasis on these phase of the work

Sources of data. This investigation compr;ied a stwy of books,

bulltina, pamphl t, annual reports, articles, and new clippings

twich are pasted in Osrapbooks and kept in the office of the ExBcutive

Secretary of the Tallahasse Chapter of tha Aari~an National Red Crosa,

119 Bronagh Street, Petroleu Building, Tallehasse, lorida.

In addition numerous interview were held with social service

workers, professors of edaeation and social alenoes ho had had ex-

perience and information pertaining to the writer' probl.aa

For background material a brief study of the origin, history,

and Scope of the progr of the international d Cross 9as mad.

Pro e. Th resaroh method nuwd in the treatment of this

study was hiastorical The problem has been sub-divided into two major

area each of hLoh will be treated developmental. The areas covered

are, namelys (1) Social Welfare Services hioh include Home Servios

and Disaster Relief; (2) Health Srvices which inolde Nrsiang 5ervi*ea,

Nutrition, First Aid, Water Safety and Prevention, and the Blood Program




The International Red Cross. The work of any local chapter can-

not adequately be appreciated without a historical background of the

International and National Red Cross movements, For as the three move-

ments are studied, it is not hard to see how the programs are intervene

and their activities integrated, and how, that during emergency and dis-

aster the three wrrk as a unit. Thus, the following account of the origin

of the International and National Red Cross should be interesting and

lend to a better understanding and appreciation of the work of the local


The Red Cross began from the impulse of a human heart seeking

mercy and relief for those in need. "I gave bread to the hungry, water

to the thirsty, clothing to the naked, and a ferry to him who was with-

out boat,0 is quoted from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, written in

1600 B.C. Cyras, King of Persia, foreshadowed the principle of the Red

Cross of modern times when he commanded his surgeons to aid the wenmy

wounded. Religious leaders, too, gave emphasis and direction to the

humanitarian impulse Hospitals were established, societies for personal

service and relief of suffering were organized, and individuals sacri-

ficed themselves for the well being of others long before Florence

3The American National Red Cross, Introduction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C., 198),- p. 7

Nightingale and Henri Durnat appeared to usher in the modern concept of

comprehensive organind relief on a wrld-mde scale. The former was

motivated by companion for hamn suffering. She ant from London in

1854 with a group of Englth n=ses to help relieve the terrible condi-

tions at Soutiri, a suburb of Conatantinople, ter thousands of aoldLars

wounded in the Crimean War were crowded into hospital barracks, with acat

attention from doctor or nuse. Ser, dysentery, gangrene, cholera, and

typhus we taking heavy toll. Florence ightingale's important contri-

bution ias not that her heart bled for the but that she organized that

forces there werer instituted strict, efficient methods, and enforced

stern discipline among those who served wLth her, Much of her effort

was ade in the face of criticism and even the open opposition of the

atlltary authorities* As a result of her rwrk the death rate as reduced

from a high of nearly halofof those brought in during one math to only
twenty-to in seery thousand. Florenme Nightingale, "the ly with the

Lamp," was not one of the founders f he Red Cross, but her work pro-

foudly influiened the thinking of her day, including Ienri Dunant, who

became a central figure in the organization of the International Bed


Henri Dunant, a young businessman of Geneva, Switerland, who was

on a buainaes trip in northern Ital in 1859, happened to be present at

the battle of Solferino When it was ovr, he went to wmr and did hat

be could by working hjielf and recruiting local women to alleviate the

horrible conditions on the field idth 0,000 dead and wounded soldiers

who had been left unattended. From this experience he wrote a book en-

titled, tU Souvenir de Solierino, in which he proposed voluntary national

societies, which in time of war would render aid to the wounded without

distinction of nationality.

In 1863 an international preliminary conference was held at Geneva

for a discussion of the proposals Dunant advocated. This was followed by

a convention in Geneva in August 1864 for final consideration and decision.

Sixteen governments were represented by delegates, twelve of whom were

authorized to sign a treaty, subject to ratification by the governments

they represented. The delegates decided that out of compliment to Swit-

zerland, Dunant's country, its emblem was to be the Swiss flag with

colors reversed--a red cross on a white ground. That was the beginning

of humanity's flag, the sight of which has ever since meant so much to

suffering men, women, and children all over the world in time of distress.

By 1866, thirty-three nations had organized Red Cross societies

and were registered with the International Committee of the Red Cross in

Geneva. So the Red Cross began out of an impulse of a human heart seek-

ing mercy and relief for those in need.

The National Red Cross. When the international convention met at

Geneva in 186I the United States was engaged in the Civil War, but in-

structed George C. Fogg, United States Minister to Switzerland, and

Charles S.P. Bowles, European Agent of the Sanitary Co=nission, then

operating on the Union side of the Civil War, to attend the meeting in

an informal manner, for the purpose of giving and receiving suggestions

likely to promote the humane ends which prompted it. The realistic

attitude of the convention was shown by the fact that the experiences

of the Sanitary Commission in the Civil War, related by the American

representatives, swept aside the objections of certain European repre-

sentatives that the Dunant proposals were impossible of realization be-

tween hostile armies. The treaty was signed, establishing international

principles and understandings that have become a part of the law of

nations. The United States was not included amng the signatory nations

at the Geneva Conference, but signed the treaty eighteen years later and

became an integral affiliate of the International Movement. The Civil

War, which had almost run its course before the treaty was initiated,

made a very definite contribution to the movement for better treatment

of wounded soldiers. Two forces may be mentioned The Sanitary Con-

mission and the work of Clara Barton. Lacking only the basis of an

international convention, both made history and established precedents

along lines similar to those advocated by the group at Geneva.

The Sanitary Commission, like the American Red Cross of today,

was a voluntary organization that had the sanction of the government

but was without government financial support. It was organized in New

York early in 1861, with Henry W. Bellows as president, and concerned

itself with the welfare, comfort, health, and sanitary conditions of the

Union Army. To achieve these ends it undertook to provide cooks, nurses,

hospitals, medicines, bandages, clothing, an food br the federal offi-

cers and soldiers. Its program of caring for the wounded of both sides

was very similar to that proposed by Henri Dunant in his Souvenir. The

Commision demonstrated to the leaders of the nation that a civilian

agency assisting the official medical service was both desirable and

practical. Uary of the basic principles that were later embodied in the

Geneva Convention were regarded and accepted as necessary by the Commis-

sion. Its experience, as told to the Geneva Convention, contributed to

the decision that the objectives the delegates were working on were possible

of realization. In spite of this and of good service rendered during the

war, the commission did not try to perpetuate itself, although its leader-

ship later made a valiant effort to get the United States government

interested in accepting the Red Cross.

The work of Clara Barton in the Civil War stands alone. At the

outbreak of the war she was in 'ashington working in the patent office,

but took time out of her busy life to visit the hospitals which the

sick and wounded were being brought to in increasing numbers. After the

battle of Bull Run Clara Barton went to other battle fronts, where she

spent much time from raising mney and making government contacts to ar-

range for supplies and transportation of the wounded. She corresponded

with the families of soldiers and collected lists of wounded, lists of

prisoners, and lists of burials. Her name became a legend as she worked

under fire at the front, in hospitals behind the lines, and in the halls

of government.

The war over and her health broken, Clara Barton went to Europe to

rest and to recuperate. There for the first time she learned of the Red

Cross. It appealed to her imagination. She saw it at work during the

war of 1870 and had participated in its operations. Upon her return to

America in 1877, she was determined to secure the participation of this

country in the Geneva Convention. She met with many discouragements

but persistence was rewarded when President Garfield promised he would

recommend ratification. After untiring efforts, Clara Barton organized

the American Red Cross in 1881 and became its first president. In March

1882 President Chester A. Arthur, who had succeeded 3arfield, secured

the ratification of the treaty without a dissenting vote.

Tallahassee A charter was granted the Tallahassee

Chapter on May 16, 1917, with twelve members serving as directors. Mr.

Frederick Towle Myers served as chairman, but there is no record of the

length of his services. It is assumed that the chapter rendered some

kind of service to the people of Leon County from its origin in 1917

to March 18, 1938, but because there are no records prior to this period,

no study can be made on its previous operations. The above information

concerning the origin of the Tallahassee Chapter comes from news articles

pasted in scrapbooks and kept in the office of the Executive Secretary,

119 Bronough Street, Petroleum Building, Tallahassee, Florida.

On March 18, 1938, the Tallahassee Chapter of the American National

Red Cross was reorganized and opened offices in the grand jury rooms of

The American National Red Cross, Introduction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C., 19418)7 p. 10

Leon County Courthouse. Mr. Joe Frank was elected chairman, and Mrs.

John McIntosh of Washington, D.C., who had completed training in executive

duties, served as coordinator of the organization's varied activities.

There are no records of any kind available concerning the activities of

the Tallahaasee Chapter between March 18, 1938 and Decenber 31, 19L2. As

this study reveals the Chapter has rendered continuous service to the

people of Leon County from January 1, 1942 through December 31, 1952.


Disaster. "Disaster. has been interpreted as a situation, usually

catastrophic in nature, in which numbers of persons are plunged into

helplessness and suffering, and, as a result, may be in need of food,

clothing, shelter, medical care, and other basic necessities of life.

Home Service. "Home Service" has been defined as a program

through which the American National Red Cross carries out in communities

its responsibility to servicemen and veterans and their dependents, and

to the dependents of deceased servicemen and veterans. Under certain

conditions, the Red Cross also offers emergency relief to civilians.6

5The American National Red Cross, When Disaster Strikes, (re-
vised, June 1948; Washington, D.C.), p. 1i --- -

6The American National Red Cross, American Red Cross Home Service,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C., 1951), p. a

Veteran. The term veteran includes all personnel who have

served at any time in any of the components of the armed forces of the

United States; that is, the Ary, Navy, the Air Force, the Marine Corps,

and the Coast Guard.

Servicemen* The terms "asrvicetmen and "veterans" include both

men and women.7

7The American National Red Cross, American Red Cross Home Service,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C., 1951), p. 1.



Home Service is an obligation of every chapter. In serving the

servicemen an! their dependents, the veterans sud their dependents, and

the dependents of the deceased servicemen and veterans, the chapter has

the cooperation of field directors in camps, hospitals, and Veterans

Administration offices as well as the cooperation of other chapters.

Hme Service includes counseling in personal and family problems,

assistance in presenting and developing applications for governmental

benefits, assistance with communications on behalf of members of the

armed forces ani their families, providing reports and social histories

requested by commanding offices of the armed farces ani by the Veterans

Administration, providing information oncerning government regulations

and legislation and community resources, giving referral service through

which applicants to the Red Cross may be informed and assisted in the

utilization of other available resources, and providing financial

assistance on the basis of need in conformity with the policy of the

national organization.8

The following is a ten year account of the Home Services rendered

to the people of Leon County by the Talahassee Chapter of the American

National Red Cross:

The American National Red Cross Introduction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; JWashington, D.C., 19N), p. 05 -

During 1943 a total of two thousand families received some form

of Home Service. The average case load of one hundred fifty persons per

month in Home Service ranged from approximately 110 in January to 550 in

December 1943. Because of the demand for increased services in this

phase of work it became necessary for the chapter to employ two Hoes

Service workers and additional clerical help to adequately care for the

volume of work involved in keeping case records and collecting loans.

The number of cases under care in February 1944 was 632. During

this year more than 6,180 persons visited the Home Service Department.

The following figures summarize the services of the Home Service Com-

mittee for 194:10

Visits to homes of service men's families 534
Office interviews 6,180
Wires received regarding service men
and their families 1,180
Wires sent regarding service men and
their families 1,j13
Long distance telephone calls regarding
service men and their families 376
Expended in financial assistance to
service men's families $12,000.79
Repayment of loans to service
men's families $ 7,757.50
Case load for the year 7,929

As the records reveal, there was a considerable increase in Home

Service case load in the Tallahassee Chapter during 194~, and this in-

crease continued long after the war. As men and women were discharged

9Tallhassee Chapter of the American National Hed Crosa, Annual
RTpor t 1943
10Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1944.


from military duty there was also an increase in the veteran's claim work

and additional problems of readjustment to civilian life which required

experienced understanding and treatment.

The usual services to men in the armed forces an~ their dependents

was carried out during the entire year of 1945. Assistance was given in

securing family allowance, emergency furloughs (many of them thich in-

volved men overseas), home conditions, reports to help the military make

decisions in cases involving hardship, and advice and guidance on per-

sonal and family problems. These ani many other appeals were answered.

The following figures give a better idea of the 194) activities of the

Home Service Committees

Office interviews 3,902
Incoming telegrams 1,072
Outgoing telegrams 1,268
Outgoing long distance telephone calls 274
Home visits 421
Financial assistance given $10,769.71
Repaid on loans $ 5,026.06
Requests from ara personnel
or their dependents 1,641
Requests from Navy personnel 452
Appeals from ex-service men and
their families 344

Appeals from ex-service men and their families increased steadily

throughout 19h5, from four in January to seventy-two in December of the

same year.

Nineteen forty six was the first full year of peace since the Pearl

Harbor attack. Approximately 300 servicemen, veterans, and their

llTallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Anunal
Report, 1956.

dependents received various kinds of aid through the Home Service Com-

mittee during the year. A summary of that year's work is presented

below 2

Active care load 3,457
Aid to service men, veterans, and
their dependents 300
Cases interviewed 3,47
Number of persons receiving
financial assistance 388
Financial assistance given to arm
and navy dependents $lO,Sb9.8
To veterans and their dependents $ 7,559.93
To civilians 22.65
The chapter received repayments of $ 5,136.72

Financial assistance was given to dependents of servicemen whose

low income could not meet their immediate needs, and to veterans who ex-

perienced difficulty in adjusting to civilian life. Each applicant for

assistance was considered on an individual basis, but %need" to the

local chapter means basic necessities, such as, shelter, food, and


In comparing the services of 1946 with those for similar period

during the war, it was revealed that the types of services which were

rendered during the former period required more detailed and continuous

work from the home service staff.

Besides giving financial assistance on the basis of need, the

home service department carried out its responsibility through the fol-

lowing functions

12Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1946.

Persons received counseling services 846
Army personnel 256
Navy personnel 70
Veterans 520
Persons assisted in preparing form
for assistance of various kinds 377
Ary dependents 2W4
Navy dependents 51
Veterans 82
Persons assisted in verification of
their need for their presence at home 14
Army cases 118
Navy cases 27
Persons furnished with communication
services 532
Arry cases 431
Navy cases 81
Civilian cases 20
Social histories prepared for
veterans and servicemen 66
Veterans represented through the power
of an attorney 753
Telephone calls 905

Hundreds of air mail and regular letters to Field Directors and

other chapters at an unestimated cost were sent out by the Home Service.13

Although there was some decrease in the total case load, 19h7 was

another busy year for the Home Service Department of the Tallahassee

Chapter of the American National Red Cross. During this year the depart-

ment was confronted with several different situations. There were decided

changes in the kinds of problems that brought people to the agency for

services as well as changes in the personnel. As was expected, more

veterans and families sought service than service men. An increasing

number of these problems were of emotional al ladjustment and in some

1Tallaassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annumi
Report, 1946.

instances even mental illness. These situations not only required a

great deal of time but skill in the treatment of them. Loans were con-

tinued to veterans on the basis of educational grants. A number of

students who took "on the job training" asked for loans. Thus, it became

necessary for Home Service to assist a number of both white and Negro

students. Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College established a

loan fund which aided the Tallahassee Chapter in meeting the needs of

Negro students. Florida State University also helped its veterans who

were in need of grants,

A sumay of the services of the rcs f e Home Service for 19W7 is pre-

sented below14

Active cases interviewed 2,704
Cases received financial assistance 307
Spent for financial assistance $2,536.87

In 1947 the Home Service Committee devoted more tie to a study
of individual applications. This was done so that the decision to make

a loan or grant could be based on a better understanding of the need of

each applicant. As a result of this individualized study in 1947, during

that year $1,71l.86 or six per cent was repaid on loans.

In addition to the agency giving financial assistance to the 307

cases, Home Service carried out its responsibility in other areas:1

lTallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Anal
Reepot, 17id.
5IMid .

Social histories compiled 9
Studies for furloughs or leaves 17
Emergency communications made 79
Consultations held 180

The Home Service Committee interviewed a total of 2,785 persons

in 1948; of this number 343 were given financial assistance. The flow-

ing is a statistical report of the types of cases handled by the Talla-

hassee Chapter in 1948:6

Number of persons given various
kinds of information 234
Number of investigations for other
chapters or agencies 187
Foreign inquiries handled 11
Applications withdrawn or not
accepted as cases 279
Social histories compiled for
military or Veterans Administration 3
Verifications of extension of
furloughs or leave 158
Report of guardianship for
Veterans Administration 5
Assistance with claims for compen-
sation, insurance, or family
allowance e
Consultations 502

Other reports for Military, Veterans
Administration, Servicemen, Vet-
erans and their families (One 539
typical case of this type concerned
the wife and mother of a veteran
who were hospitalized in another
community. The wife understood the
necessity of hospitalization, but the
mother was a problem. The Chapter
was requested to get the true picture
of the situation for hospital authori-
ties so that they might better help
the veteran and act for his benefit
in treating him for a mental disorder.

Tal0lahansee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Bypopt, 198*

Services not included in the items above
and involving no financial assistance 1,0o4
(These included cases of illiterate
mothers bringing letters from their sons
overseas to be read and answered. A
Negro mother whose daughter had not
written for several months asked for help
in locating and communicating with the
girl; and hundreds of others who brought
all kinds of papers and forms to be filled
out and explained.17

The membership of the Home Service Committee was selected and ro-

tated to represent the oormmunity as largely as possible, both with regard

to changing economic conditions and with respect to pressure of social

needs of the community. Thus, it was felt by the committee that the bud-

get which had been made by a twelve-member local committee could be


In connection with the work of the budget, the committee gave its

attention to the problem of setting a policy for salary and promotion

schedule for the personnel in the division. A schedule was set up which

afforded stability enough to insure the morale ol workers in the depart-

ment, and at the same time was flexible enough for changes in economic

conditions. This committee also undertook a study of salaries over a

long period to the end that some definite policy was made,

The most constant work of the committee during this year was that

of reviewing and setting policies for the "permissive" cases, "Permissive"

cases were those which concerned the veterans in school under the G.I. Bill

17Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Reort 19--8.

of Rights with the wife and the children living on Q120,00 per month,

then sudden illness and death occurred in the family which necessitated

more than the usual income, Home Service cooperated with local agencies

in assisting such families until the next check arrived. These cases

were numerous and afforded a multiplicity of different angles. The com-

mittee could not service all of them, therefore, policies were set

regarding which type could be served and which could not.

The giving of aid was a relatively small proportion of all of the

services rendered by this division of the Red Cross. The amount of

financial aid during this year was about twenty one per cent of all per-

sons in the office, and less than twenty per cent when based upon the

total number of cases.

Home Service was instrumental in bringing to nineteen veterans

in the community, a total of some $9,626800 in retroactive benefits.

In addition to this cash sum, there was a total of $1,339.75 comin in

to these veterans monthly. In most instances it was the knowledge and

skill of the workers handling these cases, thich enabled the veterans

to secure their claims. Thus, removing those individuals from future

welfare-relief of Leon County*

Many valuable social services which required little or no money

were rendered by this committee in 1949. Arrangements for the return

of run-a-way boys, contact with a husband whose wife had suddenly broken

mentally, leaving a five year old child uncared for, arrangements for

leave from service for a father, son, or husband, in time for reaching

a critically ill ember of his family, verification of records relative

to the securing of rightful benefits anc counseling in family problems.

All of these, and many other types of services were given in the daily

round of the work of the Home Service Committee. Then, too, there were

those who came to the Red Cross for which there was no proper referral.

Those were community problems which were not met, but the committee was

concerned about them because they seemed to have fallen between the

agencies and yet not within the services of any of them.

Some 264 transients appealed to the Red Cross for help in 1949.

The Home Service Committee sponsored an inter-agency meeting for dis-

cussion and study of this problem. A study was made for a month, and

the analysis netted the information that there was considerable over-

lapping of services rendered to some cases, with no adequate handling of

the problem as a whole. Therefore, the Home Service Committee was

prompted to undertake the sponsoring of a coordinated effort to inform

the city officials of the rapidly growing city of Tallahassee of its

equally rapidly growing social problems. The following are statistics

on the services of the Home Service Committee of the Tallahassee Chapter

for 1949a18

~Tallahaasee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
eport, 199.

Total nuber of persons in office 1,6-
Investigations made for other chapters
or agencies 607
Cases given financial assistance 339
After hours calls 181
Telegrams handled relative to cases 358
New cases 347
Reopened cases 300
Total cases 1,781

In 1950 the Home Service Committee achieved the following:rl

Total case load 1,451
After hours calla 261
Letters handled:
Out 959
In 686
Total 1,644
Telegrams handled:
out 176
In 115
Total 291
Active military given service 568

The Committee also assisted veterans in procuring benefits, compensations

and pensions, retroactive in the amount of $3,531.10. The same veterans

through the efforts of the Home Service Committee received monthly pay-

ments varying from $15.00 to $185.00, many of them for the remainder of

their lives.

Home Service carried on its mandatory service of assistance to

members of the Armed Forces and their dependents, and veterans and their

dependents in 1i5l. The committee maintained a twenty-four hour seven

days a week service for the benefit of the comnnnity. It cooperated

with other agencies in Tallahassee and helped with plans to solve the

19Tallahassee Chapter of the American Red Cross, Annal Rert

transient problem. The statistical report for 1951 follows20

Cases handled 1,2t7
Informated and limited service 427
Individual in office 1,731
Financial assistance given i,0o42.61
After hours calls 559

Sunmary of services rendered by the Tallahassee Chapter in 195221

Case load 828
Office visits 1,053
'ransients 64
loime visits 144
Telephone calls 2,o36
Telegrams 479
Letters 896
Reports for other Chapters and Agencies 98
After hours calls 233
Financial assistance given 838 .81
Repaymenta $467.11
Social history for the Lilitary 4
Verification of leave or extension
for the Military 1
Reports for the military, VA Servicemen,
Veterans or their families, and as-
sistance in obtaining compensation,
pension, insurance or family allowance 538
Counseling in personal and family
problems 348
Other services to cases--referrals to
other agencies floating missing person,
handling repayments of loans, and
general information 125

20Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 195i.

11allahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Rport., 1952.



Preparedness for disaster is also an obligation of every chapter.

This committee provides for separate subcommittees with responsibility

for survey, warning, rescue, and evacuation; medical and nursing aid,

shelter, food, and clothing; transportation anu communication, registra-

tion and information, public information ana central purchase and supply.

Only by ever chapter being thus prepared is the Red Cross able to meet

its charter obligation.

Seldon is a chapter operation carried on without the assistance

of the area office in providing trained personnel. Rarely is a chapter

able to entirely finance its own disaster relief. The national organi-

zation is always ready to provide the necessary additional ~inds through

the area channel. Neighboring chapters usually sup;21y aid in the form

of personnel, equipment, or both. An account ot the Disaster Services

rendered to the people of Leon County over a period of ten years fol-

No disaster resulted from either natural causes or energy action

occurred in 1943 to test the strength of the Disaster Relief Committee.

However, it was well organized and made a complete survey of local re-

sources that could be employed in case of disaster in Leon County. Had

22The American National Red Cross, Introduction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C., 1948), p7 "5.


disaster of any kind struck, the committee was ready for service under the

direction of the authority of the Capital Office of Civil Defense.2

During the early fall of 1944, when it appeared that Leon County

might be in the direct path of a tropical storm, the Disaster Relief Com-

mittee was alerted and the various divisions were read to function. The

Dale Mabry weather station furnished regular reports and Radio Station

1WTAL was prepared to broadcast them with proper instructions. Fortunately,

the path of the storm changed and did but very little damage in this area,

so the Disaster Relief Committee was not called into active service.4

A major disaster befell Tallahassee at 6:45 P.M., October 22, 19h5,

when a tornado descended approximately one-half mile south of the city

limits, killed one, and destroyed or damaged the property of thirty-

seven families in Leon County.

Members of the Disaster Relief Committee ani H.O. Hill, Chapter

Chairman, went immediately to the scene of destruction on notification

by the City Manager, M.N. Yancy. Efforts on the night of the disaster

were concentrated on providing shelter and medical care for the sufferers.

On October 23, the Disaster Relief Committee, chapter case workers, and

the Home Service Corps made a survey of the area affected and transmitted

23Tallahasee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1943.
4Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1944o


this survey to Ur. Allen J. Carter, Director of the Southeastern Area of

the National Red Cross, who subsequently assigned Red Cross specialists

in disaster work to cooperate with the Tallahassee Chapter.

During those critical periods three volunteer corps gave service

to the Red Cross the Home Service Corps, the Nurse s Aide Corps who, on

the request of the doctor atteming the tornado victims, served at Johns-

ton's Sanitarium; and the Motor Corps, to registered a call list at

chapter headquarters.

On November 15, 1945, a report submitted to Atlanta by Mr. James M.

Jones, Assistant Director of the Southeastern Area, showed that 47,580.76

of national ftnds had been spent for emergency assistance, medical ex-

penses and rehabilitation of the families left destitute by the tornado.

Throughout the year the Disaster Relief Committee was alerted

when the weather bureau reported the approach of a hurricane. During

the critical times, close communication was kept between the Tallahassee

Chapter and the Field Director's Office at Dale Mabry Field so that co-

operative efforts could wrk to the best advantage for the military and

civilian personnel of Leon County. Fortunately, the damaging force of

these storms did not reach the county.

Services to the victims of the October 22, 1945, tornado were com-

pleted during 1946. In addition to the amount of $7,580.76 expended for

these services in 1945, $912.08 were spent to settle all accounts and

marked the end of the 1945 tornado operations.

2Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1945, December 31, 19$45

In September 1946 with disaster preparedness in mind the Talla-

hassee Chapter asked over ninety citizens in Leon County to serve on speci-

fic committees should another disaster strike the community. With few ex-

ceptions those appointed accepted their responsibilities, and were ready
to serve efficiently in case of disaster.

Upon the advice of the Weather Bureau September 18, 1947, all com-

mittees were alerted by the chairman of the Tallahassee Chapter to meet

the expected storm with winds up to seventy five or eighty mile winds.

The committees were prepared to take care of, feed and house, up to 2,000

people on forty five minutes notice.

All committees were alerted a second time on September 23 when a

second storm approached but veered its course missing Tallahassee. Only

a small amount of money was spent and each committee took care of its

o Tn expenses,

The committees gained much from these two near disasters and they

became more capable of rendering invaluable assistance to Leon County in

case of other disasters27

In June 1948 Colonel H.W. Howie offered the services of the Talla-

hassee Military Sub-District located at Dale tabry Field in the Tallahassee


In September 1948 when a tornado struck Havana, Florida, a town

26Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Ananal
Report, 1946.

27Tallahassee Chapter of the American Red Cross, Amnnual Rport 1947.

sixteen miles northeast of Tallahassee, the committee assisted the Gadsden

County Committee by sending a number of workers and First Aid supplies.

The local chapter later assisted the Gadsden County disaster victims at

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Hospital with small services until
December, 19h8, at Vhich time the last one was discharged.

During 1949 the Disaster Relief Comnittee sought to improve and

perfect the local community defenses against disaster.

In August, when the United States Bureau notified the Disaster

Committee that a hurricane was approaching, all committee chairmen were

alerted and the majority of them met and made definite plans to safe-

guard the community in case of disaster. The older Girl Scouts ard Sea

Scouts delivered a copy of the Disaster Booklet to the Chairman of each

committee. The First Aid Committee gave additional help by training orre

than one hundred persons mho were killing to serve in case of disaster.

This committee cooperated to the fullest extent with local, state, and

federal government authorities charged with the responsibility for

planning and operating the Civil Defense programs in accordance with

plans agreed upon by the National Resources Board and American National

Red Cross.29

8Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1948

29Tallahasee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
IT. CIL~ig

The Disaster Committee had a meeting in August, 190O with a full

attendance of all chairmen of sub-committees present. The Disaster plan

as set up during the year was gone over step by step, and each chairman

was briefed on his special responsibility. On September 4, 1950 the

entire committee was alerted for a hurricane. From 8:00 A.M. until mid-

night the group was ready for any emergency. Shelters were opened and

Nurses, Nurses Aides and First Aiders were assigned. All day the radio

stations broadcasted directions as to the course of the storm and ad-

vised the people what to do if it should strike Tallahassee. Many

citizens called and volunteered their services in any capacity. The

Florida Forest Service offered the use of their tw way comumnication

trucks. Fortunately, the storm turned to the east and all that Tallahassee

received was a Dood workout for the Disaster Commit tee3

In January, 1951 the Tallahassee Chapter chairman and executive

secretary attended an all day meeting of the organization of the local

Civil Defense group* During the afternoon Mr. ,ehdunt addressed the

group on the Red Cross Disaster set-up, and offered the organization in

its entirety to tie Leon County Civil Deiense group. Mr. LS. Marshall,

chapter chairman, appeared before several legislative hearings on the

State Civil Defense bill on behalf of the Area Red Cross office, explain-

ing the position of Red Cross with regard to natural disasters. This bill

was accepted by the committees in the Legislature and was expected to go

through as originally set up.

3Tallahassee Chapter of the American Red Cross, Annual Report, 1950.


Loon county did not have any threats of disaster during this year

The Disaster Camitttee rained set up according to plans and held itself

in readiness in case of mergency. The chapter was called upon to raise

$1,000 in the samer of 191 for the National Red Cross to help oare for

the Kansas Flood victim. A sau of I4.65 was collected from local

oitisas, and the balance of 54.35 to make up the $I,000 vas taken

from chapter funds upon reco endation of the Emacutive Camittee of the


In the spring of 1952 the committee was again called on by National

Red Cross to appeal for funds for relief of viot3ts of tornadoes ln ire-

sotri, Arkansas, Tenneasee and Alabama, and for Tictims of the floods in

the Missouri and Msisd ppi vtLwer valley. The Tallahassee Chapter as

asked to raise a miniuma of $0.00. Only $318.63 was received in dona-

tions tith the remainder taken frao choaptr fund,

Cb August ]5, 1952, Mr. Howard Walters of the Area Staff, conducted

a vary interesting and snocessful oneday aonfarene on Disaster Procedure

which Ias ll attended.

On December 7, 19J2, Tallahassee had a terrible fire in the Negro

section. Six families were burned out a other and two children burned

to death and the father wa seriowly burned. A disaster wrkar from

the Area Office ome to assist the chapter in carrying out the relief

1Talahassee Chaptar of the American National Red Cross, Annal
ReportK 1951

assignment. Emergency care was ;iven immediately. During the week fol-

lowing the fire, furniture, food, and clothing were arranged for the

families and within a week all were re-established. The burned man was

hospitalized for three months at the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical

College Hospital. He was later discharged, but was unable to wori for

quite some time and basic maintenance was gien him until he was able to

work again. A total expenditure for disaster was $1,932.57 and was paid

by the Tallahassee Chapter and the National Red Cross.

The Chapter was also called on to collect clothing and furniture

for several one-family fires in Leon County during 195232

3-Tallaassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1952.



Through Public and Home Nursing committees the organization recruits

professional nurses for emergencies and for various chapter nursing pro-

grams Disaster nursing, teaching classes in Red Cross Home Nursing,

public health nursing, and cooperation in the teaching and supervision of

nurse's aides. The Red Cross Home Nursirn classes are provided by local

chapters to teach people to give simple nursing care to members of the

family, under the doctor's guidance, and to promote better codnnmmty and

family health.3

The following is a summarized report of the services rendered to

the people of Leon County by the Public Health CommLttee in 1943:

A total of 29,037 hours were served by 8,191 workers.
1,545 garments were made and 596 miscellaneous articles
I44 Amn Kit Bags were made, filled, and shipped to
ports of embarkation
244 Havy Kit Uags were filled and shipped to servicemen
317,132 surgical dressings were made anm shipped, the
chapter quotas having been finished on scheduled

Since there is no record of services rendered by the committee in 194.,

it appears that the Public Health Nursing Committee was inactive during

that time.

"The AmerLican National Red Croas, Introduction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C., 1948), ?. .

34Tallahasaee Chapter of the American National ged Cross, Annual
Report, 193.

The Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross grad-

uated twenty-six Nurse's Aides in 1945. These aides gave volunteer

service in Dale tabry Hospital, the welfare clinic, and Florida State

College for 'omen Infirmary, during a flu epidemic, and to disaster

patients after the tornado in October. The six month period folloWmng

their Zraization, the Nurse's Aides rendered 2,530 hours of volunteer

service in Leon County.

During the latter part of the year the Nursing Committee spent

much time in the processing of non-workers anr in determining the status

of workers who were still willing to work. This was necessary because

the Dale Mabry Hospital had closed and there was a lack of adequate

medical centers for Red Cross volunteer work.

The fields of service were limited to welfare clinics from

December, 1945, to August, 1946. During that period the aides worked

at the Leon County Health Unit, assisted the public health nurses with

routine checks at public schools, and gave service at the Kiwanis Tonsil

Clinic in July, 1946. Late in August of the same year the American

National Red Cross approved the Baptist Memorial Hospital for the volun-

teer services of qualified NArse's Aides. During that year nine aides
gave 354 volunteer hours of service in Leon County. Since there are no

records of service rendered by the Nursing Committee in 19h7 and 19h8, it

appears that it was inactive during those years.

35Tallahassee Chapter or tne American Red Cross, Annual Report,


This group was reorganized in September, 199. After contacting

a number of organizations and individuals, a class was held on October 12,

with Vrs. George palmer, Red Cross registered nurse, as teacher. During

the year the Niurse's Aides served 1,597 hours of work at the Tallahassee

ITemorial Hospital with thirty one different aides participating.

In 1950 a second class of fourteen Red Cross Nurse's Aides finish-

ed the prescribed eighty hours course and were capped at a ceremony at

Tallahassee Menmrial Hospital on Ju4l 2837 These graduates later gave

many hours of service at the various medical centers in Leon County.

The Red Cross Nurse's Aide Committee lost four of its workers in

1951, one resigned, one placed on inactive list, and two left the city.

In an effort to supply the demand for services, the Tallahassee Chapter

organized another class with Mrs. Robert Mickler, a qualLfied Red Cross

instructor, as teacher. By so doing, the chapter was able to replace

the workers nhich it had previously lost.

During the o years-1950-95-11--Nurse as Aides gave a total of

1,121 hours of service at Tallalassee Lmaorial Hospital. From the Annual

Report for 1951, it appears that the services of the Nurse's Aide classes

merged with that of the Home Nursing classes. A report of the activities

of the latter follows:

36allahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1949.

37Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1951.

In 1943 the chairman of the Home Nursing Committee made several

surveys in regard to the possibilities of training courses in Hoam

Service. Because of the critical situation and shortage of nurses, the

committee learned that instructors were unavailable. However, some in-

terest was manifested and the chapter looked forward to organizing and

training in this phase of work later during the year.8

The Home Nursing Committec was organized in AuLnst, 1945 and ef-

forts were made to enlist the interest of the community in this most

essential phase of Red Cross work. luch publicity was given on the ad-

vantages and needs fulfilled through Home Nursing Service. Unfortunately,

the registered imrses authorized by the Area Office to teach the class

planned for Nornmber, did not return to Tallahassee. Since the coromittee

was unable to get another qualified instructor wLth time to devote to

this community service, active recruiting for a class ceased. However,

the need continued, arm the chapter hoped and planned that amzthsr in-

structor would soon be procured3 9

In February 1947, a Red Cross Home Nursing Committee was re-

organized for the purpose of inaugurating classes in Home Nursing.

Southeastern Area was contacted with regard to services of an itinerant

nurse to teach the initial classes and to train a local nurse for

38Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Export, 193,.

Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
port, 1-5.

subsequent classes, This request was granted and the classes began at

Leon AMigh School as part of the health education classes and at the

health unit for adults and college students. The chapter sponsored an

extensive publicity program and soon this work was wiell on the waiy.

In 1948 the Home Nursing Cor rittee confined its efforts to

finding the services of a qualified instructor, Due to the strict regu-

lations imposed upon instructors by the American National Red Cross, the

efforts were in vain. Bulletins were mailed to the chapter from the

Area Headquarters stated that new rules, for qualifications of instruc-

tors had been lifted. therefore, the chapter looked forward to finding

a nurse who could qualify under the new systan.

The Home Nursing chairman, Mrs. W.T. Cogswell, held several

meetings with the Home Nursing representative of Atlanta during the

first part of 1949. The Chapter did not have a committee so the two

worked together in trying to organize one. There was a critical need

for efficient Home Nursing services in the Civil Defense program so it

was necessary for persons to be trained and to train others in the com-

munity. The efforts of the committee during the latter part of the year

were confined to solving that problem.2

Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Sport, 1947.

4Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Amnal
Report, 1948.
2Tallahasee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
Report, 1949.


Following a teacher training conference held in Tallahassee in

191, Home usingg classes were again started in the fall of that year.

Later the chapter issued 282 certificates to women who completed the


The committee assisted with recruiting registered nurses to help

with the Blood program. All of the nurses who assisted in the program

were given Red Cross Nursing Badges.

During the summer of 1952, Miss Edith Olsen conducted an instruc-

tor training class at Florida Agricultural and Lechanical College Nurses

in Leon County again assisted in the Blood Program. Because the chapter

lost many instructors during the year, some of the classes which had been

previously planned were not taught. Consequently, there was a lapse

in the services rendered by this committee during the latter part of


4Tallahassee Chapter of the American Hed Cross, Annual jgort

Tallahassee Chapter of the American Red Cross, Annual Report,




First Aid, Watet Safet and Accident Prevention.

This service combines into one unified operation three

closely related programs for the conservation of human life. The

purpose is, first, to prevent accidents through a knowledge of their

causes and consequences; second, to provide thorough training in skills

and right procedures for intelligent and effective aid in emergencies

to the victims of accidents. Basically, first aid as the term is used

by the American Red Cross means immediate care given to the injured in

the absence of a physician; water safety is aimed at reducing unneces-

sary loss of life romd drowning and in giving enriched purpose to

winning and other aquatics; accident prevention centers attention on

developing safety in the day-by-day activities of family life in city or

country. Certified courses of instruction are provided in all three

phases of the program. Trained and qualified community leaders are

developed, and highway First Aid stations and mobile emergency First Aid

units are authorized.h

From November & to November 16, 1945, Mr. Robert Zubrod, Field

QTallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, An
Introduction to the Red Cross, (revised edition; Washington, D. C., l1h8),
pe 6.b,

Representative of First Aid, after Safety and Accident Prevention,

taught special classes to First Aid instructors. Those classes were the

first of First Aid in the Southeastern Area to use the 1945 First Aid

Textbook which included the techniques for handling injured persons as

developed during the war.

Two attempts were made to organize a class in Accident Prevention

in the community, but both failed. A class for instructors was held at

Florida State College for t7ome from which eleven instructors received


During Fire Prevention Week, materials for aid in teaching Fire

Prevention in the home, and statistical material concerning fire

accidents, were assembled and mailed to the fire chief, the county

superintendent, the high school principal, chief of police, the

Demonstrated School, principals of Caroline-Brevard Elementary School,

Seely Memorial School, and the Tallahassee Democrat.

There was a lag of interest in First Aid activities in 19h6.

However, the committee did many things to further the safety program.

The chapter sent a negro representative to the Aquatic School, and gave

the Tallahassee firemen and policemen standard courses of training in

First Aid.

During the early summer, the Chapter contacted Leon County School

Officials relative to the possibility of including First Aid training in

the schools. The officials responded favorably. One class was conducted

n September and OCtober by Misa Dorothy Kitchen under the anspices of the

ellogg Foundation. Miss Tonne Marcha seau taught beginning swing

techniques to sumer atadents at Florida State College for Women. Mrs.

Ralph Carter, als an anthoriaed Red Cross instructor, taught after

Safety training to GLrls Scouts in Tallahasee.

There was a teadier and more definite interest in First Aid on

a more permanet soal in 19L7 than in 196.* In February 1947, M.

WiFliam tionan held a training course for First lid Instructors at

Florida State Univeraity. Swamr eoures ww given to techear at te

ame school and those teachers in turn gave First Aid courses throughout

the state of Flarida. AUl information pertaining to the course vas

handled by the TllahUase Chapter. The local bramh of the United

States rertry Service completed a Standard Course in First Aid and wa

givan eory assisntanc by the local chapter office, involving applying

book, and chart howLng pressure points. Mr. Robert Griffin, wo was

sent to the Aquatic Sohool, began working wth Boy Sout and teaching

First Aid the foloig semester at Florida Agricultral and Ieahanical

College. M. GrIffin and Coach Alan.o Gaither alao of F orida AgricultLral

and Kechanical College did msch to foster the Red Cross First Aid program

among Negroes.

The chapter advertised this phase of its work by paying poster

and actual pictures of First Aid in a booth at Loon County Fair the

woek of ooveber 3, 1917. The Chapter also kept an experiewe First Aid

First Aid Station was nanned by a Registered Nurse and assistants who

rendered genuine service in the treatment of several emergencies during

the inauguration.

The committee issued copies of the new Junior Red Cross Textbook

with the hope that they would be used in the seventh, eighth, and ninth

grades First Aid classes the following school term.

In 199, Mr. &arl Lavy, First Aid Chairman, planned a class and

invited all organizations to train one person who would in turn teach

First Aid to their employees. As a result of his invitation, twenta-one

persons completed the course in February the following year. The chapter

furnished Florida State University a Safety Service Director quarterly

to instruct students in First Aid and Water Safety. These students went

out over the state to teach others.

A limited water safety program was offered during the year at

Lake Bradford. 'The response and eagerness of the public was oaerdhel ,ng

Over two hundred persons received some type of certificate from this


Robert Jones, a Hegro boy was sent to the Aquatic School and taught

many Scouts and as well as others. Mr Robert Griffin offered water

safety courses to cNgroes, but had to take them to Florida National Forest

for available water.

In November 19"0, Mr. Harry Kenning conducted an instructors course

in First Aid for the members of the Forestry Department. This group,

stationed at the Forestry Station on the Perry Highway, then opened, with


the help of the chapter, an EMergency First Aid Station with appropriate

exercise ani publicity. The equipment for the station was purchased

with chapter funds. The men at this station were on duty twenty four

hours per day.

Florida Agricultural and iecnanical College andFlorida State

University carried on constant programs of First Aid and Water Safety

during 1950. Doth schools taught all physical education senior majors

to be First Aid Instructors. Classes were also taught to all Negro

teachers in Leon County. ir. Harry Kenning of the Area Office visited

Tallahassee in May to assist with final instructions to all students who

had taken the course and were going out to teach.

As a result of the classes conducted by NL. Earl Levy in 1949

and .r, Harry kenninE in 1550, First Aid was taught to Industrial

Commission groups, State Board Department groups, United States Fores-

try, and Girl Scouts leaders in 1951. School bus drivers, both white

and colored, were given the fundamentals of safety from three men who

took the course. Classes in Junior First Aid were taught at Chaires

and Ft. Braden where there were no doctors.

One direct result of the First Aid classes was the saving of a

mants eye when a battery exploded filling his yes with acid. The

doctor stated that the quick action of the trained First Aider, a

fellow employee, saved the manrs eyesight.

Mr. Harry Kenning of the Area Office trained several instructors,

both white and colored, and in December taught a large class of instruc-

tors the new method of artificial respiration,

Many other groups took First Aid Courses; one class from the

woman's club, workers in the Industrial Commission, students at Ylorida

State University, students at the Florida Agricultural aid Mechanical

College, students at Leon High School, workers at the telephone company,

and many others.

A total of 773 First Aid certificates and 293 slater Safety certi-

ficates were issued in 1951.

The Safety Service Committee furnished a staff for the First Aid

Station at tle Fishathon, Lake Ella, Florida, for the County Fair First

Aid -ooth, and for the First Aid Booth at the dedication of the New

Tuberculosis hospital. The Committee also mnainained an emergency First

Aid Station on the Perry -{ighway throughout 1951.

Employees of the Florida Forest Service, Federal Bureau of Investi-

gation, Florida Same and Fresh water Fish Commission, Seventh Day Adven-

tist Church members, and students at Florida Agricultural aid oMchanical

College, received instructions during the year.

A First Aid Life and Saving Service was again furnished to the

Third Annual Fishathon held at Lake Ella on June 6, 19i2, under the

auspices of the Exchange Club. A First Aid Station was maintained at the

Fair in October of the same year. The fWater Safety Committee again con-

ducted children's sitrmiLng classes in the sumnr of 1952. The classes

were held at Lake Bradford and a total of 239 children were certified,

Accident Prevention. The Committee on accident prevention made

a full report for ;9h8 and a partial report for 19h9. A summary of the

report of that committee follows The chairman of the coonittee re-

ceived a request form Mrs. Bonnie J. Carter, Home Improvement Specialist,

to teach safety to 4-H Girls at their Annual Short Course at the Florida

State University.

Sergeant Keith of the Florida Highway Patrol was secured as

volunteer for the Red Cross and taught two classes a day for four days

with an average of forty-five pupil per class. Several radio programs

were given over W'TAL on Forest Fire Prevention and three nnws releases

were used by the "Tallahassee Democrat1 on Accident Prevention.

Every teacher in Leon County was given Forest Fire Prevention

Kits to be used in teaching Accident Prevention through the schools and

every teacher received a monthly a short Red Cross publication pertain-

ing to the accident most dangerous during the month and methods of

teaching prevention to the students of those accidents.

The following table is a statistical report of tie number arn

kinds of certificates issued by the Tallahassee Chapter of the American

National Red Cross over a ten year period, 1943-1952.6

6Tallahassee Chapter of the Ametican National Rao Cross, Annual
,ports 1943-1952.


193 1944 1945 1946 1947 19P8 1949 1950 1951 1952 for 10

Junior First
Aid S

Standard First

Advanced First

Instructor s
First Aid

Total First Aid
Certfic ates
issued each

Junior Life
Saving and
ater Safety

Senior Life
Saving and
Ttater Safety

Water Safety


Swirming Skill

Beginner a Swim-

131 21 15 66 79 90 185 979

35 41 71 92 79 121

2 lit 29 79 86 68

131 21 7k 121 179 266 350 1171 773 305 3,391

1 15 15 2 6

74 70 153 11 54

26 25 11

82 50 10

51 33


91 36 45

97 180 102


66 36 95 63 113 64

TABLE I (continued)

1943 194 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 for 10

Advanced Swim-

Swimming and
Water Safety*

3 3

Total Swirmnin
and W7ater
Safety certi-
ficates issued
each year 236 199 100 242 85 4i0 523 269 293 LW 2,798

Total Accident
Prevention 11

Number of First Aid Certificates issued
Number of iater Safety Certificates issued
Number of Accident Prevention certificates

Total certificates issued during the ten years



*Data not itemized for 1l51-52.

~ '~'''~ '~''~~'--- ---



The purpose of this service is to help raise the standard of health

through the knowledge and practice of better eating habits. Its program

in comammities includes courses, demonstrations, exhibits, and numerous

other activities, ihutrition Service also trains the members of the

Canteen Service and provides technical advice and guidance on the nutri-

tion phases of other Red Gross Services, such as Disaster Preparedness

and Relief and Home Service.7

In 1913 the Nutrition Committee was host to an Area workshop with

Red Cross Chapters in all nearby towns represented. A demonstration of

various foods proved most hellpul to this committee.

In 19Ih Miss Eleanor Bowdoin, a Field Aepresentative of Atlanta,

Georgia visited Tallahassee for the purpose of starting a class in

nutrition. She and a group of interested women in the community met

and made plans for the class which started at Leon High School in

January 19645

As a result of the services rendered by the persons who had

finished the classes in nutrition in 19h5, the Tallahassee Chapter

reported to .te Area meeting in 1946, that the people of Leon County

were the best fed in Florida. Because food prices continued to rise

during the war years, housekeepers in Leon County, as well as other

47The American National Red Cross Introdiuction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; washing ton, D.C.), 19

counties, became more conscious of food values ana put forth special

effort to secure foods that gave their families the best nutritive

values at the most economical prices. It was during this time that

housewives began to realize the importance of complete and sufficient

nourishnent-the seven basic foods,

Durtin the sane year the Home Economics Department of Leon jigh

School taught nutritional courses that from all indications had far

reaching effect in Len County.

At the close of the war, this phase of the Med Cross work re-

ceived special attention and emphasis. Ars. Fred Carroll, chairman

of the Nutriticn Committee in 19L5 made the following comment regarding


The home maker must be taught the basic foods
if our children are to have proper physical develop-
ment. Aruy statistics show that every other man in
the Southeastern United States was rejected from
military service because of physical unfitness. It
must be the purpose of this committee to raise the
standard of proper eating to a high level in Leon
County so that our sons and daughters will grow and
thrive into citizens physically fit and sound.

The Nutrition 2Comittee has not been active since J197, but some

of the former members of that committee have offered their services to

the chapter in case of urgent need.

4Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Annual
rt, 1945.



In carrying out this program, chapters Tork closely with local

medical societies, official health agencies, and hospitals. All aspects

of the operation are under the supervision of the national organization.

In each center the technical work is directed by a qualified physician,

assisted by registered nurses and technicians. The non-technical acti-

vities are under a center director. A large part of the staff, particu-

larly for the non-technical operations, are furnished by Volunteer


The National Blood Program was established by Executive order of

the President on December 10, 91 under the auspices of the office of

Defense mobilizationn, The national office immediately contacted the

local blood banks throughout the country and asked that blood be taken

and shipped to laboratories to be made into plasma. The Office of

Defense ILbilization would in turn take the blood and use it for mili-

tary purposes or national disaster.

During 1952 the Bloodmobile from Jacksonville Blood Bank made

four trips to Tallahassee and were able to get blood twice from lorida

State University and once at Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College

from students and stalt maeners. Blood was gotten once at Tallahassee

h9The American National Red Cross, Introduction to the Red Cross,
(revised edition; Washington, D.C.), 19 4-8. -

memoriall Hospital from local citizens. A total of 1275 pints of blood

were taken, all of which went to the Armed Forces.

The Chapter compiled the names of blood donors types of local

people who gave blood at Tallahassee memorial Hospital. Each donor

received a Blood Donor pin and Blood Donor certificates were mailed to

every ne.

On October 23, 1952, the Sloodmobile from Jacksonville visited

Florida State University, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College,

and the Federal Correctional Institute. As a result of these visits,

a total of 259 pints of blood were taken and shipped to the laboratories

for military and disaster purposes.

ClaPirEt IX


Home Service and Preparedness for disaster are mandatory obligations

of every Red Cross Chapter. Since 1943, the Tallahassee Chapter of the

American National Red Cross has carried out thcse basic obligations,

Through its Home Service program, the local chapter has given:

1. Counseling in personal and family problems

2. Guidance in reports, information, and communications
between servicemen and their dependents

3. Assistance in applying for government benefits, and

I. Financial assistance an the basis of need

Though the Disaster -telief Committee, the Tallahassee Chapter

has rendered invaluable service to the people of Leon County. It has

furnished personnel, supplies, food, shelter, ana money during each

disaster in the Tallahassee area; and has also assisted other chapters

during emergencies,

Through its Nursing Service Committee, the chapter has recruited

professional nurses iho have rendered genuine service to servicemen,

veterans, and civilians.

Because of its fail-re to find enough qualified people with the

time and the interest in nutrition, that phase of the chapters program

has received least attention. However, the little that was done from

1945 to 1946 had far reaching effects.

The First Aid, Water Safety and Accident Prevention Committees

have given continuous and effective service since 1943. They have

trained 3,391 persons in First Aid, thus qualifying them to administer

treatment to this elves and others in the absence of a physician. Dur-

ing the ten years, 2,798 persons were trained in Water Safety, thereby

reducing unnecessary loss of life and instilling within those persons

a deeper appreciation for swu ing and the aquatics in general.

In Accident Prevntion, eleven persons were trained; those per-

sons in imrn assisted the Tallahassee Chapter in its effort to develop

good safety habits in the daily activities of family life.

Through its Blood Program, the Tallahassee Chapter has worked

with medical societies, official health agencies, and hospitals in Leon

County in an effort to furnish its blood quotas. Since December 10,

1951, the chapter has collected 1,531 pints of blood for military and

disaster purposes.

During the past ten years the Tallahassee Chapter has caTried on

an extensive and effective program of service for which the people of

Leon County should feel proud, and willing to support in the future.

Because of the lack of sufficient funds and volunteers, some

phases of the Red Cross work have received little attention; however, the

members of the Tallahassee Chapter are hopeful and look forward to broad-

ening its scope of service as the need arises, and as human and financial

resources become available.



Clark, Helen Isabel, Principles and Practice of Social Work, New Yorkt
Appleton-Centary-Croits, Inc., 197

Eaton, Allen, "Reports of Fact-Fdidin Studies Made As A Basis Lor Social
Action-Arranged by Subjects and Localities," A ibliqagraphy of
Social Science Survqrs, New Yorki Russel Sage Foundation, 1930

North, Cecil Clare, The Cormuwit and Social Work, cGOraw-Hill Book Co.,
Inc., New York, 731T
Jtitjer, Helen Leland, 4What Is Social W;ork?" Social '.ork, New Yorkl
Rinehart and Co., Inc., 1931


Tallahassee Chapter of the American National Red Cross, Tallahassee, Floridat

Annual Rport1, 19.3

Annual Report, 194

Annual Report, 1945

Annual Report, 1969

Amnnal Reort, 19h8-194 9

Annual Report, 1949-1950

Annual Report, 1950-1951

Annual Report, 1951-1952

Annual Report, 1952-1953

The American National Red Cross, ..'ashington, D*C.

American Red Cross Home Service, kevilsed December 1951.

Blood and the Nlation August, 1952.

Introduction to the --ed Cross, Revised March 1948.

Mhen Disaster Strikes, Revised June, 1948.

Te Disaster Story, February, 1951.

The Story of Blooi, Keviaed February, 1949.

questions am Ansiwer, Red Cross Blood Program, Revised June, 1952.

he Tallahassee Democrat (mespaper clippings in scrapbooks at the
Chapter's of 'ice, 119 Boughton Street, Petroleum Duilding,
Tallahassee, Florida), 1938.




1828 1910

Jean Henri Dunant, an author, a philanthropist, am founder of

the international Red Cross, was born in Geneva, Swltzerland in 1b28.50

Dunant conceived the idea of funding a society for aiding wounded

soldiers while visiting the scene of the battle of Solferino. He

wrote the first edition Un Souvenir de Solferino in 1862 and the

second edition in 1871. He delivered many lectures advocating relief

in war before the Society of Public Utility in Geneva. Soon afterward

a meeting was held in that city which resulted in the Geneva Convention

in 1864 and the establishment of a permanent international committee,

In 1864 the cooperation of ten governments had been obtained,

the Red Cross Society was of-icially established on August 22, 1664.

Dunant bestowed his entire fortune on various charities. Before his

death, however, in 1901, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

5Americana Corporation, The Encyclopedia Americana, Vol. 9
(New York, 1829-1949), p. 400.




lb 21 1912

Clara Barton, an American philanthropist and founder of the

American National Red Cross, was born in Oxford, iassachuaetts in 1821..

During the Civil ';ar she distributed supplies for the relief of wounded

soldiers; ano at its close she organized at zashington a bureau of

records to aiU in the search for missing men, In connection with this

wrk she identified and marked the graves of more tiian 12,000 soldiers

in the National Cemetery at Andersonville, Georgia.

During the Franco-Prussian ;far, Miss Barton assisted in organiz-

ing military hospitals.

In 1871 she superintended the distribution of relief to the

poor in Strasbourg, and in 1872 performed a like service in Paris. For

her services she was decorated with the Iron Cross by the German


In 1U73 Clara Barton returned to the United States, where sie at

once began her efforts to effect the organization of the United States

branch of the are Cross and to bring her country into the Treaty of

Geneva. Her efforts were successful in 1681-82. She was the first

5'Americana Corporation, The Enc-clopedia American, ol 03 (New
Yore, 1829-149), p. 296.

president of the American Red Cross, holding the position until 1904.

She represented the United States at the following international con-

ferences held at Geneva, 18IM, Karlsruhe in 1887, Home in 1892, Vienna

in 1897, and St. Petersburg (Leningrad) 1903.

Clara Barton was the author of the American amendment to the con-

stitution of Red Cross which provides that the society shall distribute

relief not only in rar but in times of such other calamities as famines,

floods, earthquakes, cyclones and pestilence. She conducted the

society's relief for sufferers from the yellow fever in Florida in 1887;

the flood at Jamestown, Pennsylvania in 1889; the famine in Russia in

1891; the hurricane along the coast of South Carolina in 1893; the

Massacre in Armenia in 1896; the Spanieh-American ;iar in Cuba in 1898;

the hurricane at Galveston, Texas in 1900; and numerous other calamities.

Clara Barton wrote An Official Istor of the Red Cross in Peace

and War in 1898, A St of the Ied Croas in 1904, and Story o

Childhood in 1907.

She died at Glen 3cho, Uaryland on April 12, 1912.




Location: 'allahassee is in Iofrth Z'loriua, 178 miles west of

Jacksonville and 200 miles east of Pensacola. It is 20 miles from the

Gulf of M.exico.

Chief topographical features Rolling hills, I.'aximmu elevation,

216 feet above sea level,

Annual January April y 0

formal temperature 66. 51.7 66.2 80.8

Normal rainfall 5.l17 3.76 3.40 6.61

Growing season Average date of last killing frost in spring,

February 25; avorajo date of first killing frost in fall, December 9;

average length of growing season, 282 days.





imber: Longleaf, slash and black pine, pulpqood, gim and magnolia

are cut in commercial quantities in this area. Naval stores supplies,

Wastewood, Turpentine and Resin, constitute a sizeable industry in the

52Tallahassee Chamber of Commerce, "Inventory of Advantages,"
A Yearly pu'.lication, (revised Ju3J,- 1952; Tallahassee, :'lorida).


area. Stands are rnw five to 30 miles from town. LMCall and Barrinear,

McDonnell Lumber Corpany and Harris Sawmill Company are the principal

sawmill operators. J,.any portable sawmills are also cutting timber in the

county. W.J. Boynton & Sons, Inc., and T.J. Chason are the main stores


Minerals a Middle Florida Sand Company and Coleman andi Maige are

working sand deposits iive to 10 miles from town. Fuller's earth deposits

20 miles from town were worked several years ago. The deposit is not

believed to be exhausted and there are probably several other deposits in

the county. Bentonitic clays are found throughout the county but are not

being utilized.

Agricultural Products: Beef Cattle, Dairy Products, Poultry and

Fggs, Hogs, Tung Nuts, Corn, Sweet Potatoes, Sugar Cane, Honey, Pecans,

Tobacco, Vegetables, gladioli are planted in commercial quantities.

Annual value of agricultural products Q2,C5)0,000 to $3,000,000.

Estates: 'any large Estates, mostly devoted to game, boasting

excellent quail, turkey and deer hunting are located near Tallahassee.

Soilsa Mostly well drained, friable, colluvial sand loam with

considerable sand and fine sands in the South and Southwestern parts of

the County. 'he predominant farn land beine Norfolk, Ruston, Portsmouth,

Ducker, Orangeburg, Tifton, Magnolia and Greenville sandy loams.


City of Tallahassee Population, 1951) federal Census 27,237
Population of additional area annexed by City on
January 1, 1952, as per Census of June 1, 1952 8,8l3

Total known population o City June i, 19, 2 36,050

Predominant nationalities t Native-torn wnite; Negro.


Approximate wases: Unskilled white male, 854 per hour; unskilled

Negro male, 754 per hour; unskilled white female, 75T (for trainees); un-

skilled Negro female, $12-15 per week (domestic help); skilled male,

$1.50-$2.25 per hour; skilled Hegro male, employment is negligible but

rate would be about the same as for skilled white males; clerical and

sales female, $30 per week for sales clerks, $160 per month for typists.


General: Cities and towns in the primary retail trade area are

Chattahoochee, Quincy, Havana, Monticello, Madison, Greenville, Perry,

Blountstown, Apalachicola, Carrabello, Marianna, Bristol and TIAo,

Florida; Bainbridge, Ioultrie, Thomasville, Cairo, Donalsonville, Col-

quitt, Camilla, Ochlocknee, Pelham, Quitman, Valaosta an Attapulgus,

Georgia. A survey by the Chamber of Commerce shows 17 Florida and 17

Gaorgia counties in the primary and secondary taket area, with a total

population of nearly 650,000o


Principal manufacturing plants Fruit and Vegetable Baskets,

Wooden Boxes and Crates, Shuttles, Lumber, Mill Work, Door Finishing,

Naval Stores, Concrete Blocks, Pla&tics, Pecan Shelling and Processing,

Commercial Fishing, Machine and Iron 'Works, Monument Works, Rebuilding

and Refinishing Automobile Parts, Tung Oil Production, Serum, Dairy

Products, Ice Cream, Ice, Bottling, Feeds (Grain and Related Feeds),

Mattresses, Printing, Tents and A'tnings, Metal Screens, Honey and Syrup

Processing, Electric Power Generation, Gas ManufacturinL, Venetian

Blinds, Utility Line Poles.


Tallahassee is the seat of county and state government. Florida

State University (co-ed), with an enrollment of 6,000 and Florida Agri-

cultural and echanaical College (co-*ed,Negro), with an enroll=ent of

2,006, supplement the local retail market,


_rne: t..anager-Commission.

Officials: ;.ayor, 3.A. ?agsdale; Acting City Manger, Arrah

Hopkins; Citl Clerk-Auditor, Goorge C. White; City Attorney, Jamae

Messier, Jr.

Special Depart entse The City has an active building inspector,

plumbing inspector, electrical inspector, city engineer, park board,

recreation department, ama street department. The City also employs a

sanitary officer.

Zoning: City now has zoning ordinance and an official advisory

board for city planning.


iail: The Seaboard Air Line Railroad main line between Jackson-

ville and River Junction provides the only east-west service, with four

passenger and six freight trains daily. The Florida, Georgia and

Alabama Hailroad, operated by the Seaboard, provides passenger service

from Tallahassee to Cuthbert, Georgia, with one passenger train in each

direction daily and freight service from Tallaassee to Hichland,

Georgia, smith one local freight and three through freight trains in each

direction daily. The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad provides north-south

passenger andr mail service from Monticello (26 miles aray),

Hi fyI_ U.S. Higlrays 27 (Florida 63), 90 (Florida 10) and 319

(Florida 61) and Florida Highway 20 pass through Tallahassee.

Local bus services Eleven busses are used for local service.


Telephone service: Southeastern Telephone Company operates a

Dial exchange serving 11,123 company-owned stations in the city and 608

rur.l stations. At present 65 toll circuits are available. An average

of 90,000 local and 1700 long dist-ance calls are handled daily by the

local exchange.

Telegraph service: restern Union provides telegraph service.

The local office is open from 7 A to Uidnight, including Sundays and



Elementlr Junior Hilh High

Z.tite: lumber of schools 5 2 2
Enrollment 3,338 1,212 12,U1

1Ngro~ ulmber of schools 5 4 3
Enrollment 3,299 971 730

Colleges: Florida State University, co-educational, 6,000 students;

Florida Agricultural and .iccnanical College (Negro), co-educational, 2,000


Libraries: David lkecr Tenorial Library; Florida State Library,

45O000 volumes, Facilities of the University and College libraries are

also available for reference.

Health Facilitics: City Health Departmentt None. The City contri-

butes financial support to the County Health Department.



Parks Five blocks of lanacaped parks along Par. Street and

nine other parks in various sections comprise Tallahasseo' s park system

of nearly 108 acres.

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