Title Page
 Half Title
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Survey of related literature
 Analysis of data
 Summary, conclusions and recom...

Title: Adminstration and supervisory problems involved in the consolidation of rural schools of Jackson County
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/AM00000041/00001
 Material Information
Title: Adminstration and supervisory problems involved in the consolidation of rural schools of Jackson County
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Herring, Lee Cleveland Jr.
Affiliation: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publisher: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University
Publication Date: 1955
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Bibliographic ID: AM00000041
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Florida A&M University (FAMU)
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Resource Identifier: notis - AAA0923
notis - ABV5682

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Half Title
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Tables
        Page vii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Survey of related literature
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Analysis of data
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Summary, conclusions and recommendations
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
Full Text



A Thesis

Presented to the

Graduate Committee of

the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Education


Lee Cleveland Herring, Jr.

June 1955





Presented t t the Graduate Committee of the Florida Agri-

cultural and Mechanical University in Partial Fulfillnent

of the Requirements for the Degree Master of

Science in Education

Approved ,
C airman

A; vs-or


ea, Graduate choo


The writer wishes to express his appreciation to

I-Ir. A. J. Polk, Dr. Charles J. Stanley and Mrs. L. W.

Sewell for their constructive criticisms. Acknowledg-

ments are also due IMrs. Lola N. Reed for her efficient

service in typing the manuscript. Special acknowledg-

ments are for Dr. W. S. Maize, Dean of the Graduate

School, without whose constant encouragement the thesis

would not have been possible.

L. C. H.

I '




Statement of Problem . 2

Basic Assumptions . 3

Delimitation add Scope of

Investigation . . 3

Definition of Terms 4

II. PROCEDURE .......... 9

Problems in Administration . 9

Jackson County's Consolidation

Program o & . 9

Ways and ideans of Collecting

Information . . 10

Problems Facing the Supervisor

of Instruction ... 14.

Program to Improve Instruction

in Jackson County 14

Techniques to Improve Instruction

in the Consolidated Schools of

Jackson County .. 17





Promoting Consolidation 19

Types of Consolidation .. *. 20

Sore 1-oney Better Spent . 20

Large Units of Support and Control 22

Reorganization of School Administration

Areas . . 24

Cooperation Between Units . 27

Consolidation Areas . 28

Community Schools . . 29

Regional School . . 30

Transportation . . 30

Varied Experiences and Wider Social

Contact for the Pupil in Consolidated

Schools s % p 34

School Sites, Building and Equipment 38

Building Programs . . 39

School Building Needs . . 39

Long Term Building Programs . 40

Educational Plan . . 41

Expenditure Program .. 41

The Consolidated School Building. 41

The School . . . 42

Reorganization in South Carolina 43



The Consolidation Program, Weld

County, Colorado .. . 44

Buildings . . . 44

Obstacles to Consolidation . 44

Open Country Versus Village Consoli-

dation . 45






I. School Center, 1944-1954; Negro

Jackson County ...... ...... 50

II. Teacher Certification and Rank, 1944-

1954: regro Jackson County . 52

III, Expenditures: Capital Outlay -

Support and maintenance Funds, 1944-
1954: Negro Jackson County .. 5

IV. Expenditures: Capital Outlay -Support
and Maintenance Funds, 1944-54 Negro
Jackson County . .. 56

V. Enrollment by Grades and Grade Groups

1944-54: Jackson County, ... 58

VI. Full-time Positions of Instructional
Staff, 1944-1954: Negro Jackson County. 60



According to historical records, Jackson County was

formulated from the old Spanish Provinces; the Chipola

Region, August 12, 1822, after Florida had been in the

possession of the United States for approximately one year.

It was named for Andrew Jackson who was thcn an important

contemporary historical figure and one who played a major

role in the development of Florida. It is located in the

northwest section of Florida, bounded on the north and north-

west by the states of Georgia and Alabama.

At present, Jackson County is the largest agricultural

county in Florida, covering 620,000 acres, of which 240,000

acres are farm land. Due to the fertility of the soil
Jackson County has many large farms where a variety cf crops

are grown. Cattle ranches and milk dairies are prevalent

there. ',ith an area of 939 square miles, Jackson County's

population statistics reveal the following: Total Popu-

lation as of 1950 34,500; Rural Pupulation 27,595, and the

density of population 36.7.

The future reveal the struggle between the old guards

who want no changes and the new generation who wants to

modernize the communities for better living for its citizens.

Randall J. Stanley, E history of Jackson County
i-arianna, Jackson County Historical Society, 1951, p. 1.
48fM3 :2T;

Rural America is changing everywhere. The impact of urban

ways exert influence on rural life. The impact of the out-

side jorld is ever at the doorsteps of most rural conmmuni-

ties. The inflow of new ideas, social foriis, and moral

codes are the topics of todayts discussion and action.

Changes for uhe better have been accelerated during the

past decade and 1.ill undoubtedly continue if present indi-

cations are correct.

The Ceepest meaning of democracy is equality of

opportunity. NIo real progress and no lasting improvement

in any line of life is possible except through better edu-

cation of the people. Some of the best minds s of our nation

and others have attacked the problem of h;ow to best improve

rural education. The consolidation of rural schools is

one tentative solution for this great problem of how to

secure more effective rural education and thus, a higher

type of rural life.

Statement of the Qroblem. It is the purpose of

this study to discuss and point up the various problems

relative to the consolidation of rural schools in Jackson

County, and as these problems relate to Administration and

Supervision, r;d suggested ways of alleviating or completely

eli[:inatirig them.

3asic Assumptions. That Lhe consolidation of rural

schools will provide:

1. Improved educational facilities.

2. lore varied educational experiences for the

3. 'ider social contact for che child.

4. Improved teaching procedures.

Importance of the study, 'le investi;;.:tor is not

aware of any research as such which points up the .'roble:i.s

of consolidation pertaining oo ti.e area of supervision and

administration in Jackson County. It is the belief of the

investigator th.t such information would be invaluable to

supervisors, administrators, and school staff j;iembers. If

the lay public iLas some understanding of the problems in-

volved in the consolidation of rural schools, their many

attitudes and concepts Loward consolidation would, perhaps,

be positive rather than, in ::Iany instances, negative.

Delimitation or Sconfe of Investitation. This study

is limited to poiingin. up the ,any and wvried proble;.is

which accrue or is contingent upon consolidation of rural

schools of Jackson County as they relate to ad:linistzr.-'i.tion

and supervision.

Definition of Terms

Facilitating Function. 'o facilitate means to

help others do the things they cannot do for themselves.

Co-ordinating Function. Lake it possible for

individuals to share with one another, help each other,

and work as a group or groups in the improvement of the

school, or any project.

Evaluating Function. -What has been accomplished

in terms of vhat one started out toodo how far has this

effort helped us to progress.

Expression. Giving children opportunity to learn

through self-expression and doing things rather than being

mere passive listeners and manipulators of second hand


Practice. Encouraging children to perfect them-

selves by repeated efforts in the various skills which

thcy must obtain.

Objectification. iMaing the learning of children

concrete in the sense of being objective, t object-teachin g,

laboratory apparatus, demnonstr-,tion, excursions, use of

material things, pictures, etc., for illustrations.


Induction. Helping children to do their own
thinking through the discovery of principles from par-
ticular facts, finding similarities which embrace many
experiences, learning through the use of typed studies,
following the five formal steps of Herbart as refined by

Dewey in his "How We Think".

Deduction. Giving children ability to select the
principles which govern particular cases which are

problematic to them, to apply general principles to par-
ticular problems, and to gain power in guiding conduct
in the light of generalized experiences, and reciting by

topics certain conditions.

Formal Association. Helping children to learn the
meaning of words of language and formal linguistic symbols
in their concrete life settings rather than in a highly
artificial manner.

Study. Giving children ability and opportunity to
get knowledge, develop habits, gain ideas, and establish
interests, attitudes, and appreciations through their
own independent efforts, training in the techniques of
the learning process, including, for example, memorizing
in the quickest and most economical manner, and getting

command of the various tools of study such as the dictionary,

encyclopedias, references, etc., teaching, as the super-

vision of learning.

Discipline. So guarding the life of the school as

to promote the best working spirit on the -part of all and

as to avoid disorder and the breaking down of the value,

and purpose of conformity to the social order of the school

and community, and by expressive control, such as, giving

opportunity to act out, to work out,w-ayward emotions in

desirable ways, rewarding desirable actions and expressions

neglecting undesirable actions and robbing them of their

stimuli, surrounding children with incentives and stimuli

bo worthy efforts, and removing temptations to undesirable

actions, putting the stamp of disapproval of school and

teacher upon unworthy action, and by substituting channels

of desirable response for those which are offensive.

Appreciation. Cultivating the esthetic feelings and

responses of children, such as, sense of humor, love of

the beautiful, spirit of sportsmanship, taste in dress,

love of good music, love of desirable forms of recreation

and harmless enjoyment, etc., and furnishing ways to pro-

vide ethical expression along the various lines these

responses are to be cultivated; also, used to cover interests,

taste, prejudices, point of view, etc.

Instruction. Saving information to children directly

by short talks, reading, etc., in which the children take

the part principally of listeners and the teacher that of

the story-teller, the lecturer, the instructor; the prin-

cipal method in German and French schools.

Investigation, Encouraging children to learn things

for themselves; to get to sources and facts and interpret

them for themselves; to gain power in independent study.

Examination. Testing rather large units of subject

matter in more or less a formal manner, frequently by

having pupil write on what they have learned and have been

taught; desirable as an incentive and review, especially

for older pupils; gives pupil educative opportunity inde-

pendently to organize and clarify their knowledge or

improve their habits.

review. Fixing learning by repeating, applying and

reorganizing it at less frequent intervals than the brief

recall of related, apperceptive knowledge at the daily

recitation or lesson.

Assignment. Helping children when left to themselves

to take up new work or to drill on old work in an effective

and economical way without, however, robbing them of their

own opportunity to grow unaided; usually slighted as a

phase or type of teaching.

Consolidated Rural School. May be defined tenta-

tively as a school produced by bringing together the pupil

of two or more single-room or other schools in a graded

school of at least two rooms and two teachers for the pur-

pose of better educational advantages.

Complete Territorial and Grade Consolidation. This

is a condition wherein all of the grades.of all of the

schools within a given unit of organization are brought to-

gether into one or more multiple teacher school units.

Complete Territorial and Complete Grade Consplidation.
This type of consolidation is frequently found. In some

cases all the elementary pupils are left in the small school

and the four-year high school, In other cases only six

elementary grades are left in small schools and the junior

and senior high school students are transported.

Partial Territorial and complete Grade Consolidation.

This type of consolidation is often objectionable, as it

frequently loaves certain areas so stranded that it would

be impossible even to get complete territorial consolidation

without a re-locating of district.

Partial Te.ritorial and Partial Grade Consoli dation.

This form of consolidation frequently arises fromi the high

school r .aintained by a rural village drawing tuition stu-

dents from surrounding tICritory,


Democracy. A theory of government which, in its

purest fonrm, loldcs that the state should be controlled

by all the people, each sharing ecq-ually in privileges,
duties, and responsibilities and each participating in

person in the govermnent,



Problems of Administration. Those who a re active
in the promotion of consolidation in Jackson County are
faced with the following existing problems: (1) the

conservation and prejudices of the people, (2) the trans-
portation problem, (3) the added expense, (4) the character
of the teaching in the consolidated schools.

Jackson County's Consolidation Program

Jackson County's consolidation program is planned
from the consolidation program on the County-Unit system,
Many factors were taken in consideration in Jackson County
in planning consolidation of rural schools. The most im-
portant among those were:

1. Expenditures for consolidated schools
2. Location of centers
3. Highway development

4. Density of population
5. Probable population changes
6. Trends in normal population for various areas

7. Historical background of community
8. Prejudices of the people and public indifference
9. Bus transportation
10, School physical facilities

Ways and i'eans of Collecting Information

In planning or formulating the program of consoli-

dation, a county map was obtained showing landmarks,

sections, community sites, school sites, streams, hard-

surfaced roads, rivers, bridges and primitive roads.

ILaps ..ere studied by state experts on consolidation,

county officials and personnel, who were to gather per-
tinent information. 'his information was gathered from

such sources as: records, interviews, photographs, bus

routes and surveys, The following surveys were made:

1. Surveys revealing the least distant of bus routes.

2. Spotting of pupils for a given bus route.

3. Surveys to reflect the community's attitude toward
discontinuing the school in a given community.

4. Surveys to determine possible future aspects as
to number of pupils who will be in attendance at

a given school.

5. Surveys to determine pupil's needs.
6. Surveys of Attendance Records kept in one and
two teacher schools.

7. Surveys to show pupil's attendance during very

unfavorable weather.


8. Conferences with parents and other interested

persons in the community.

9. Surveys showing the longest distance any pupil

would have to walk to bus stop.

10. Surveys to determine attitudes and thinking

where consolidation took place.

11. Conferences with community representatives con-

cerning partial and total consolidation.

12. Interviews with individual parents about the

little community school as to its effectiveness

in the community.

13. Interviews with the administration's choice of

certain citizens of any given community as to

their attitudes toward consolidation.

14. Informal discussions with high school students

in the attempt to have them reveal their atti-

tudes toward being transported to larger con-

solidated schools.

15. Interviews with teachers of schools that were to

be discontinued, to secure their attitudes toward



i6. Surveys revealing land owners, and number of


school age,

tenant fanners

also tenant farmers

and the number of


school a ge,

17, Community maps

revealing the


of popu-

nation of the community as

to future

and present



18. Photographs of

the school buildings

to be dis-


showing pupils and teachers working

together in one and two teacher schools.

19. Inventories


the tVpes and kinds

equipment and teaching tools

in the school


20. Informal talks with

citizens at random,

cerning the new consolidated


21. surveys to show the formal training of the

teachers in the new

22. Surveys to show the

teachers in the new



teaching experiences


of the


23. Interviews with

individuals to secure suitable

bus drivers.



to be



Problems Facing the Supervisor of Instruction

Problems facing the supervisor of instruction were

many and varied. Aside from attempting to use what

might be called the objective method in placing teachers

where they might serve the school and the community in

light of their formal training, in the consolidated

schools, one could easily observe undue hate and fear

among at least 90% of the teachers. Almost 95% of the

teachers of Jackson County were born and reared there.

Obviously, this condition creates many problems.

Since it is well-known that teachers and principals

carried with them their past experiences to the consoli-

dated school, the grave problem is how can we, the

supervisor, teacher, and principal develop a program to

improve instruction so that nieaningful learning is pro-

vided for the pupil in the consolidated school.

Program to Improve Instruction in Jackson County

The first organized effort to improve or to indicate

better teaching in the consolidated schools was held

during the Post Planning Period of 1950.. A stimulating

program was developed with real direction toward the

improvement of instruction. The entire teacher personnel

of the county was organized based on their certification,


1. Special teachers

a. Music

b. Physical Education

c. Trade and Vocational Education
d. Library
2. Primary

a. Grades 1-3

3. Intermediate Grades

a. Grades 4-6

4, Junior High School

a. Grades 7-9

5. Senior High School

For ten days the various groups worked on the problem

of "The Role of the Teacher". Great differences of opinion

have existed regarding the role of the teacher in the class-

room. In the traditional program, she was the autocratic

dispenser of the program handed dovm from the administration

in the form of courses of texts. In extreme cases in the new

program, she has appeared to be only an observer of a class.

The teacher personnel of Jackson County attacked the program

of instruction in the light of Deweyss interpretation of the

teacher. He points out that the teacher:

1. ust have that sympathetic understanding of indi-

viduals which gives him an idea of what is actually

going on in the mind of those who are learning.

2. Must understand the needs and capacities of the

individuals who are learning at a given time.

It is not enough that certain materials and

methods have proved effective with other indi-

viduals at other times. There must be reasons

for thinking that they will function in generating

an experience that has an educative quality with

particular individuals at a particular time.

3. Is responsible for the knowledge of individuals

and for a knowledge of subject matter that will

enable activities to be selected which lend them-

selves social organization, and organization in

which the activity in which all participate, are

the chief carrier of control.

4. Must survey the capacities and needs of the par-

ticular set of individuals with whom he is dealing

and must at the same time, provide experiences

that satisfy these needs and develop these capa-

cities. The plans must be flexible enough to

permit free play for individuality of experience

and yet, finn enough to give direction toward

continuous development of power.


5. Must be able to judge what attitudes are actually

conducive to continued growth and to what is


6. Must not only be aware of the general principles

of the shaping of actual experiences by environ-

mental conditions, but they must recognize in

the concrete what surroundings are conducive to

having experiences that lead to growth.

7. Must select those things within the range of

existing experience that have the promise and po-

tentiality of presenting new problems which, by

stimulating new ways of observation and judgment

will expand the area of further experience.

8. Should allow his suggestion to develop into a

plan and project by means of further suggestions

and organized into a whole by the members of the



The county supervisor employed Lo give expert, tech-

nical service to teachers, pupils, principals and superinten-

dents inn an organized program calculated to bring about

improvement in classroom teaching procedures was generally


concerned in introducing the following types of teaching to

bring about improvement of teaching in the consolidated


1. Expression

2. Practice

3. Objectification

4. Induction

5. Deduction

6. Formal Association

7. Study

8. Discipline

9. Appreciation

10. Instruction

11. Investigation

12. Development

13. -ecitation

14.4 xamination

15, Useview

16. Assignment



Promoting Consolidation. According to Charles D.

Lewis, every person interested in the improvement of

rural life, and in making education contribute to this

end in the largest possible degree should be a promoter

of consolidation. Teachers, school officials, parents,

and taxpaying citizens have their part to play in

this cause.

The consolidated school of any type is a better

institution for the training of citizens than is any form

of small unit school. The money value of education has

been sadly over-emphasized during the past three decades,

but there seem to be no doubt that the caoiunity which

develops a good school of the consolidated type will gain

in both spiritual and material values. America today is

in need of a consistent and persistent educational camp-

aign to convince the general public that good education

and schools are of the most vital importance to society

as a moans of securing a permanent prosperity for its

citizenship, and that type of cultural development which

will give the fullest measure of satisfaction froa the

leisure time which modern science has not only made possible

but necessary. The one and two teacher school can do a fair

service sofar as training in the formal tools pf learning and


expression are concerned, but such an institution cannot

province adequately tlat broader and richer training which

ministers to the 3i'.or needs of humanity and which must

be neither incidental nor cheap. Consolidation must cone

as tie: results of careful planning and liberal spending.

Types of Consolidation

T.ere are for general tys of consolidation as

ex.pressed in tr fs of com.pleteness cr martial nature of

thic .rocess. Te ese types are: (1) -Completo territorial

and v;r.de consclid;tti on, (2) Complete territorial and

partial ar-de consolidation, () ?:irtial. territori-l and

co:;;plcta ;rado consolidation, and (4) Partial territorial
Iad ;art i r con solid : on.

.o.010 .cf! mc e J le11,t

.:.pter St.tcG s : Kirc Loov: on t coo

r=:P:,1 scholS 'b.: tor lo.0;2 school tr.:: -t :2 a nearer

approach o 7\ ac:Looln c.vi ; t:.t wz::,e nr-:':-:r of ..:onthz

in: tl. met col yc--:?, l'.r; --r 1..- .i,:.t:: l.r : .; crt n:d .d-

*,:1 .;' _.:
.. .-t : Ao:.1 *a b o-; -i s.'.: ry 'I o.5

1 1 ,;k I%

as compared with taxes and expenditures for other less
important purposes. ,le are yet far fr'n Dr. Eliotts ideal,
of expenditure for education of the child equal to that for

its food or clothing. In 1912 the total expenditures for

all public school purposes in the United States averaged

the amount of .;5.05 per capital of the total population.

In that year the total expenditure for public schools was

approxiratcly ,483,000,000 but only 3235,000,000 less
than 59 per cent of the whole was for techler's salaries.

Teaciher''s salaries, the ,nost important item in the

lengthening of thiC school tena, could, therefore, be doubled

with an increase of less than 60 per cent in the total ex-

penditures. The substantial amount uould increase monthlyly

salaries of teachers and, at tl'e sa:e time, lengthen the

school tenn to an average of 180 or 200 days. Even if no

additions were made to the monthly salary of the teacher,

tie longer annual salary that would cole with a longer school

term would increase the efficiency of the schools in other

ways and especially by placing and keeping in the schools

better teachers and giving them more opportunity for ex-

perience and enabling them to concentrate t:oeir energies

to a greater e:'te;t on the ':ork of the school. It is the

salary for the year rather than tho salary for T'ih :month

L. i'Lapcer, The Consolidated 7ural School, Jev; York:
Scribners aid Sons. 1920, p. 31.

that counts. Rapeer believed that no thinking man or

woman with any knowledge of economic causes and con-

ditions will deny that this increase in school funds might

be made both easily and profitably. It would be easy to

show where much more than this amount could be saved in

public or private expenditures without injury to any

useful cause.

Large Units of Support and Control

Per capital wealth varies sharply from one section

to another and from one local community to another, and

the variation is not always due to the industry or other

virtues of the people or to the lack of them. Fertile

lands, mines and convenience of waterways, highways, and

railways, with regard to natural routes of commerce, might

enable the people of one community to obtain larger results

from their investments of labor and capital than those of

another. Therefore, while one community may levy taxes

for better schools, another community might find it diffi-

cult to do so. The larger part of the school funds should

be raised by taxes levied on all the taxable property, rural

and urban alike, of both county and state. Some of the

school fund should be set apart to help counties in propor-

tion to their needs. This part should be apportioned

Ibid, p. 33.


to ihe several counties of 'he state in :roortion to

school population or agregate attendance, and inversely

as the ratio of taxable property to school population.

The idea that the federal government, through some modi-

fication of its earlier policy by which it gave millions

of acres of public lands for the support of public school,

should conserve and promote all its most important interest,

by devoting so-i e parts of its revenues to public education.

It should apportion its appropriations for the purpose of

equalizing school facilities caused by difference in tax

paying ability in the several states, and at the same time,

give the largest possible encouragement to the states to

help themselves, leaving to the states full freedom in the

development and control of their school system.

With the larger units of support must, of course,

come larger units of control and more efficient agencies

of administration and supervision. It is seldom wise to

give to small communities funds from what appears to them

foreign treasury without making at least some suitable
provision for the expenditure. Examples of lhe bad effects

of such a policy are too numerous to require specification.

In all those states in which the county is the unit for

other governmental purposes, it should be the unt also for

Ibid, p. 33


school ad.. inistration. In the New England States where
the town is the.governmental unit, the town is the unit

of school administration. In the state of New York,
with its strongly centralized system, supervision may
well be under the immediate direction of the state with
its district superintendent as its agent.

Reorganization of School Administration Areas

DeYoung states that public education is directly
the responsibility of almost 120,000 school districts

in the United States. This unnecessarily large number

of administrative units may be reduced through elimi-
nation and consolidation. The elimination of schools
with few pupils and the combining of small districts

should be a part of the state wide program for reform.

It must be constantly borne in mind that t is reorgani-
zation involves not only land, but people also, particu-

larly children. A child-centered administrative unit

places the welfare of the pupil first and the administra-
tion of the unit second. In consolidation, education is
not to be subordinated to economy. The reconstruction of
small units is necessary for the richer program of edu-

cation and for the equalization of educational opportunity
and financial burden.

Chris DeYoung, Introduction to American Edation.
New York: The McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1942, p. 85.

Listed here are some criteria for the establishment
of larger administrative units prepared by the Educational

Policies Commission. The Regentrs Inquiry in New York
State recommends that every school district should:

1. Contain enough children to provide a well-bal-

anced elementary and high school program tlat
can be maintained economically.

2. Be so planned geographically that the school can

be conveniently located and transportation, where

necessary, easily arranged without requiring
long routes.

3. Contain sufficient assessed valuation and tax-

paying capacity to carry the greater part of
the school program.

4. Coincide as far as possible with the natural com-

munity boundaries and, where possible, with local
government units so that cooperative services

may be arranged, particularly in connection with
health, traffic control, planning, recreation,
the joint use of plant, and proper management of
the public debt.

5. Keep the school and the government of the school
close to the people so that the citizens generally,
including the parents and the taxpayers, may know


what their schools are doin,:-, may have an ef-

fective voice in the school programT, .ind partici-

pate in the coi:lUunity use of the school building.

In connection with the last recommendation, it is

stated that if the relation of b.: school to the natur'?l

comM.unity, and the closeness of the school to the people

are sacrificed in the na:-ie of efficiency, then something

which money cannot buy will be destroyed.

Structur-rl remodeling will no; perform miracles.

Too ;.1any educators and laymen cherish hopes as to what it

will accomplish.

In considering The administrative structure, wv.ich

is essentin.lly the legal structure, it must be clearly

recognized that the be'st possible framework will not

guarantee either an efficient educational pro-rae or the

oporanion of Cermocritic processes. i':.e steel framework

of a skyscraper is not expected to guarantee that the

rooms it supports will be tastefully decorated or properly

used. It can only provide favorable conditions, T-e

actual operation of tho school will depend upon Lie re-

sources of both citizenry a.nc! professional staff. Further-

more, Lhe larger school unit alone cannot solve the problem

of reor.gnizing districts. In lar;.cr cities like Hew York

and Chicago bcLtcr education miJhlt r:.sult fro: smaller

administrative areas. Although the immediate danger is
remote, the creation of larger school units may be carried
so far that centralization produces more evils than de-

Some specific ways of effecting changes in school

administrative units are:

(1) Voluntary cooperation between school districts
(2) Legal consolidation of areas closely justaposed

(3) State-wide coordination of school districts
through a higher agency, via the state depart-
ment of education in each of the forty-eight
The latter step should be a part of a broader movement for

reorganizing all governmental units within a state. State
planning commissions may well join hands in a national

organization in which ideas and experiences are pooled.

Co-operation Between Units

People are likely to postmone working for larger
school units until legal consolidation can be effected,
but active voluntary cooperation between districts will
produce immediate benefits. Even where actual consoli-
dation may be remote to impossible, boards of education can

join in common tasks without changing district boundary lines.

Rapeer, op. cit., pp. 95-~6.

Examples of cooperative racasLa_ t- Sometimes

two or more districts together employ a music teacher

or school superintendent. A specific example of co-

ope ration is the union of three separate districts in

Caruthers, California. Another instance is the coopera-

tive buying of books and supplies on a county-wide basis

in Hennspin County, Minnesota.

Consolidation of Areas

The combining of two districts in Massachusetts

in 1838 was the beginning of legal consolidation of

school areas. Although more than one hundred years have

elapsed since then, progress in this direction is very

slow. Almost 120,000 separate and independent school

districts still exist. Opposition to the elimination of

districts is evident in the following Associated Press

News item:

Sheldon, Missouri, October 11, a rural school
district near here reports a teacher on hand every
day in its school with no enrolled pupils to teach.
Families residing in the district want the school
to be left open in order tg make sure the dis-
trict is not consolidated.

DeYoung, op. cit., pp. 85-86.

Substantial savings, greater efficiency, and better

opportunities for children will result and have resulted
from combining attendance units within a single school
district. A consolidated district may result from the

union of two or more administrative districts. Two types

of consolidated districts are here considered briefly, vis

(1) community schools, (2) regional schools.
Community Schools These schools may be effected
through voluntary cooperation or through legal consoli-

dation. The community school concept is well described in

the following paragraph:

"Community school" may be considered as a descrip-
tive term applying to that type of institutional organization

which recognizes the partnership in American public edu-

cation and the continuity of the educational process on the

adults as well as the child's level and which is well inte-
grated with the community it serves. It may exist in large

as well as small urban centers although the most rapid

development is taking place in the smaller, more flexible
and intimate communities, and in those places in which

sound structural reorganization is changing the obsolete

districts system into a grouping of natural, educational,

economic and social interests based upon related urban and

rural land usage. As indicated, sound structural reorgani-


nation of school districts promote the development of

community schools, in which educational, social and

economic considerations predominate, arbitrary or aca-

demic concepts of size, numbers, and financial ability

are contributing but distinctly recessive and secondary

factors. An example of several forces in the county

joining to produce community schools is found in Polk

County, Texas where farmers and farm women have banded

together under the cooperative leadership of extension

and vocational agricultural workers to form a "~ew School

of Good Neigbors". This points to new possibilities in

rural education and development. Community cooperation

for human improvement is an inescapable challenge.

Regional School. The first regional high school

in New England was opened at Falls Valley in the town of

Canaan, Connecticut in 1939. This school, called the

Houstatonic Valley Regional Hih School, serves six towns,

embracing an area of about 277 miles. Instead of four

weak and inefficient high schools in four towns, one high

school offers many opportunities to the youth of four towns.

Transpo ration

A serious problem that often develops in connec-

tion with a consolidation program is that of pupil transportation.


School boards are inclined to feel that bus-driving

positions off.--r .n opportunity Lo- t.ke care of personal

friends or politicall associates. Frequently, buses are

privately owied, giving an added opportunity for comi-

mercializing b;ci services.

Best jud~icnt approves publicly owned buses of a

standard type operated by men of good character .a-nd -er-

sonality wvho are competent and- safe drivers. Privately

owned and operated buses are frequently old trucks or cars

equipped with homse-built bodies and uncomfortable seats.

Administrative officers should watch carefully the cost

of transportation. i-.any states snow a wide range of cost

amj-ong counties. Tennessee in 1933-3-, had an -ivora e

cost, .er puil of 1,.42, and a range of from, 52 cents to

as :ruch as, .,3.25. Out of eighty counties reporting,

twelve paid less Uhan ..1.00 per ,month per pupil and nine

paid ;more than ..2.25. Any marked deviation fro:-ei a 3 tace

average cost should be carefully scrutinized to determine

whether inefficiency or waste, or both enter as f,-,tors
in this variable cost.

In a discussion of consolidation a.nd the state mini-

inui prougrali of education for all children, one cannot

Charles JD. Lewis, The "ural Cor:"-unity and Its
Schools (Atlanta: Americn look C company, 1937), p. 190


ignore the important factors of the availability of


The transportation of pupils Lo and from schools

is a necessary service if educational opportunities are

to -:e r.ade available to all pupils in the state. No

matter ho;i far a state go in financing educational enter-

prises in the local communities, there .ill be instances

where the program w-ill be unprofitable unless transporta-
tion is included.

At present, many rural youth are denied high school

education because they cannot reach bhe school,

Tile transporting of children is not a new edu-

cational undertaking. Beginning in a ilassachusetts district

in 1840, it continued wibhlout legal authorization until 1869

when idassachusetts passed the nation's first transportation


This provided that any town in that comri-onwealth

might raise, by taxation or otherwise appropriate money

to ue expended by the school committee at their dis-

crotion for bihe conveyance of pupils to and froli public

schools. Dy 1920, pupils ;cro being carried to school in

all states, with or without legal sanction. Today, the

provision of transportation facilities for school children

DeYoung, op. cit., p. 93.

_ ____


is generally mandatoryy under certain conditions. Approxi-

mately 5,000,000 pupils are transported daily at public

expense in so.ac 150,000 buses. Although automobiles are

usual neans of conveyance, "the old gray mare" and the

railroads still serve in some communities, especially
during Ilhe v:intor months.

The problem of transportation is not of equal im-

portance in all the states. within n states, wide vari-

ations exist in lte population of pupils carried by bus.

Although the average for Tcxas is less than 15 per cent

in one district of the state, nearly half the school popu-

lation is carried by buses.

The transportation of pupils is more than a local

problem. ilny state treasuries provide financial

assistance in defraying the cost of pupil's travel as a

:icans of equalizing educational opportunities, ome state

departments lend technical assistance in the mapping of

school c.us routes, as in Alabana. becausee otf %'e close

relationship between Lte transportation of pupils and the

consolidation o.f districts, each sLal. should m ke con-

tinuous analysis of both matters.

DeYoung, op. cit., pp. 93-94.

Varied Experiences and \'ider Social Contact for the
Pupil in Consolidated Schools

Instead of continuing the old process of carrying

a poor school nearer to the child, the consolidation

movement proposes to reverse the process and carry the

child some distance to a good school, and usually one

where at least partial high school advantages may also

be attained. It takes himr from his home in the morning

and lands him safely and dry at the school, on time each

day, and then takes him back home each evening, and in
the same condition*

The Benefits of the Consolidated Plan. The bene-

fits may be summwarized as follows:

1. Both the enrollment and the attendance for

the consolidated area are materially increased.

The gain in attendance in the sixth, seventh

and eighth grades is usually marked. The pro-

vision of sole high school advantages brings

in the older pupils who are now absent from

the district schools.

2. The elimination of tardiness and the reduction
of absences to a minimum. The driver should

be authorized to act as an attendance officer,

Ellwood P. Cubberley, Rural Life and Education,
New York: Houghon hiifflin Company, 1920, pp. 241-2Y0/


also, to report reasons for all failures to

attend. In consolidated districts, the o:r-

centiage of attendance is about as good as the

city schools.

3. Pupils arrive dlry a nd w ar.l eac h day. here are

no wVet clotliing to be dried an.'K colds and other

troubles due to exposure are materially reduced.

4. The **uiils are under the care of a responsible

personn to and fro, and o.iarrelin, smoking,

profi.nity, vulrity, andC improper language and

conduct arc rev.::.nted. In some localities the
protection afforded girls is very desirable

5. :;otter -ra; dinc.; and cla:sifica.tion of "uip ils is

posi le>, classes are l3rge enough ;o sti:a-ulate

enchusias-i and intellectual riv:.lry, and pupils

can b- placed '..here they Tco.n work to beat ad-
Sntae. nt rest enthusia sm, i confidence

co:.e f' romn contact uith number .

6. TLe -nuz-:ber of .:raCes whichh each teacher rmus

-wiandle is reduced frooi eiLht or nine ;o one or

two with larger recitation periods in consequence.

7. opportunityy is provided for the introduction of

good instruction in drawing, usic nature study,


manual training, domestic science, and agri-

culture as well as for enrichment of other

subjects of study. It is the one great means

for introducing these newer subjects into the

rural schoolL

SThe pupils have the advantages of better schools

buildings and school sites, better schoolhouse

equipment .in heating, lighting, ventilation,

and sanitation; better teaching apparatus, books,

maps, etc. All of these follow a concentration

of wealth in school advantages and often cost

less per capital than the much inferior equip-

ment novw costs for small, scattered schools,

9. It leads to school te.rm of eight oP nine months

instead of the five or siix commonly provided

by the district schools; to the employment and

retention of better teachers; to supervision

for the school, and to a higher grade of instruc-

tion. Instead of passing the teacher around

from district to district, she is retained, and
the pupils are passed from grade to grade.

10. Community interest in education is quickened, and

Cubberley, op. cit., pp. 244-245.


% 37

community pride is awakened in the school and

maintained. This leads to community interest

as opposed to district interest; tends to

break dov-n the isolation and the stagnation of

rural communities; and leads to deeper sympathy

and better fello.-ship among the people. It

improves the community as well as the school,

and opens the wvay for such consolidated schools

to become centers for the higher life of the

c omrunity.

11. It brings enough pupils together at one place

to permit the organization of group games and

thus, provide for wholesome and stimulating

play. The educative value of play is largely

lost in the little district school because there

are not enough pupils to play any games.

12. It is much more economical in administration

and often holds true even after longer terns

and better teachers have been provided. iuch

depends upon the economy rith which the trans-

portation can be arranged. If a wagon is

required for eac ch school the expenses vill be

about the same; if fewer wagons are required the

expenses will be less. In the relative effic-

iency of the two kinds of schools there is no

13. It offers to the rural boy and girl, and hence
to country parents, all of the desirable edu-

cational advantages which the city boy and

girl now obtains, and without having to go to

the city to obtain them.

14. The transportation feature indirectly aids in
the building of better roads, which in turn

makes rural life more attractive and help to

break up the isolation.

15. In reducing the number of teachers needed, it

eliminates many of the poorest and the weakest

and it also reduces from 65 to 80 per cent the
number of district trustees.

School Sites, Building and Equipment

The influence of environment in the life of a

child is appropriately expressed in the following lines

from West ;Jhitman:
There was a child went forth every day
And the first object he looked upon
That object he became, and that became part
of him for the day or a certain part of the day,17
Or for many years or stretching cycles of years,.

Cubberley, op. cit., p. 245.

DeYoung, op. cit., pp. 553-555.


School sites, buildings, and equipment are a material

part of the daily scene of the child. The building

should be intimately fitted to human needs practical,

psychological and aesthetic. The building ought to

be planned as a unified collection of functional re'

lationships, erected in such close sympathy with its

surroundings, and so fittingly furnished that its beauty

charms the students who breathe into the architect's

creation the breath of life.

Records and reports are becoming more numerous

as activity increases in the field of child and teacher

accounting. The classroom furniture, desk, files and

cupboards should be arranged economically, for many

useless steps can be eliminated through an alert analysis

of arrangements within the room.

Building Programs

School Building Needa. If pupils are to be housed

properly, then several thousand new school buildings

are needed. According to conservative estimates, a half

million children attend school in temporary portable,

or rented school buildings; and a million or more pupils

are housed in buildings that are unsafe and unsanitary.

Several thousand school buildings are over seventy years

old. This national overview is supplemental by the

following statement from the superintendent of Georgia.

The majority of our 2595 one-teacher schools for 'iegroes

are housed in dwellings, lodges, churches and log cabins

thai are terrible beyond description in regards to struc-

ture, equipment, lights and sanitation. Although the fed-

eral program aiding. school construction has improved

conditions tbrougicutt the United SL2tes, much new construc-

tion is still needed. In addition to replacement of un-

desirable building s, new facilities are necessary .o take
care of the increases in all schools.

Lo. Tcrm iuildin Prog.ra.s. Tlhe erection of edu-

cational buildings is a long-span proposition. Inasmuch

as a new structure involves bonded indebtedness, iL is

ncccssary to project the estiated cost 15 to 20 years irto

t.hie fut-re, This is net unv arrerCtd since the building :-lay

be used for 50 years or more,

Vreq-tenbly a building s-rvey i-ade for thie local dis-

trict by educational specialists is the basis for tile

forward-looking plan. Its relationship to co.nruunriuy zoning

necessitates total coo 2nity planning. Obviously the local

plan is directly connected with the building program of tie

state and with siate aid for school construction. 2..ith the

iurease lendi. :o pay at least 'part of .ichool. construction

'"u c io ......... "U V1 V o T W" ..'.. 1 .
-,-~ C -.5 01_, ; &. : I-. ..-, ., .. -0'-,:'.[ .' ~ r } /.,. ."]

costs fro-,; the suate treasury1, more interest in building

plans is being shown by state departments. In some states,

for example, Virginia, a general state planning board co-

op.erates with educational authorities in schoolhouse


Educational Plan. .School build dirngs u U si es ar

merely facilitating mediums for the instructional process.

If a school buildit is to be planned functionally, the

ed..ca.icnal ai>is and methods of '.he school must be brans-

lated into an actual, workable p}-rogram for the architect.

Expenditure Progran. O: ts flucuaLe with the price

of i--aterials and LaLbor, and the purchasing power of the

dolla-r It is no.: improbable that building cost will in-

crease, especially if beauty as well as utility is to be

consider dered. Certain, ther should be a diffi ence in the

appicarance of a manufactvring plant and a school building.

T-e Consolidated School Duildinu, ThiLi building-

should possess enough space and rooms; ce fitted wit' all

the facilities necessary to enable it to become the center

of the coni.munity life. 'he initial cost for bui Icings and

equipment, hen sp-read over the large area, is relatively

smiiall, as is also tei annual maintenance charsc, while the
educaLioi;al a.nd social -.*enefi-s are very 3lage

Ellwood P. Cubberley, Rural Life and Educabion
Boston: Hougliton iifl'lin Comniany, 1922, pp. 252-256.


The lSchool. It Is grtifyi; to. see how- the Southern

^Stra-tes haviT takn to cosolidtion, eecially when one con-

siders the Lany difficulbios this section has lo conLbend

with an drifficulics t;Lt arc; pr^ticly unknown in the

north. Soc.h of .he .1] Son-Dixon Line, -aryl.and is carrying

on an active c.niairgn of consolidation, the sole aim being

to give the children better teachers and betber school

facilities. In Virginia tho number of consolidated schools

is on the increase.

State Su )orintendent J. Y. Joyner of N]I th Carolina

declares that consolidation is rapidly driving the old log

schoolhouse out of his state. South Carolina and Georgia

are mIaking progress. The former by actual figures that

the system is cheaper to the taxpayers; lengthens the school

term, and enriches the course of study. The latter found

progress rather slow, but has, inspite of thi2, aLLained

good results. Florida too, iLmus be reckoned with. Its record

is consolidaLed schools in 17 ot ot 44 counties, and other

counties ready and favorable Lo consolidation. Louisiana

has nide ::;arked advance in this respect under State Superin-

tendent James I. Aswellts administration.

Under conmlete consolidation the gross cost is un-

deniable greater; but virhen we consider the added effective-

ness of the new schools in the matter of increase regularity

of attendance, general economy, and ultimate educational
effectiveness, the net individual cost is far less than
the passing regime.

Reorganizatio n South Carolina. Many states have
in recent years, undertaken fundamental reorganization of
the local units of school administration. The legislature

of South Carolina in 1951 enacted a statute which abolished

county boards of less than seven members, and established
seven member boards with authority to consolidate schools
and school districts.

A recent issue of South Carolina Education News
reports that the elimination of school districts is proceeding

rapidly. In one county, the number of districts was re-
duced from eighty-two to one; in another from fifty-seven to

nine; and in still another from thirty-four to three. Ap-

parently, a good many county boards are adopting the county

as a single unit. It is estimated that the total number
of school districts will be reduced from 1,600 to 130.

Harold Waldstein Foght, The American Rural School.
New York: The MlacMillan Company,-7918, pp. 312-313.

Newton Edward, The Elementary School Journal.
September-May 1951-1952, pp. 319-320.

The Consolidation Progra J Wld County clorado.
The public schools of Weld County are organized on the dis-

trict system. Each school district is a body corporate,

with a board of education of three or more districts, and

are entirely independent of all other districts in all

matters relating to the administration of the schools.

Consolidation is brought about by local initiative, through,

the rr ocess of petition and election.

Buildings. Eighty-five old schoolhouses of the one-

room variety have been abandoned and new modern school

buildings, complete in every respect, including modern motor

bus transportation, have already replaced them, or will re-

place them just as soon as the plans now pending are carried

to completion. The present value of the new school plants
and other equipment is $1,578,450. This is at least one

hundred tines greater than the combined value of eighty-five

abandoned buildings. Most of them have been in use many

years. Many of them were utterly unfit for any purpose.

This comparison in cash value of the old and new schools

speaks volume for the efficiency*

Obstacles to Consolidation. Public inertia and the
district system are the major obstacles to consolidation

of schools. It is little wonder that rural school has humor-

ously been characterized as "a little house on a little piece

of ground, with a little equipment, where a little teacher

for a little vdhile at a little salary teaches little children

little things", and that it is located in a little dis-

trict with a little assessed valuation, where people

with little vision do little for themselves and their


0pen Country Versus Village Consolidation. In

most sections of the country the best consolidation
can be effected by including the natural trade and com-

munity center; the village in the consolidation district

by erecting the new central building here most of the
taxable wealth of the community will be centered in the

village, and it is only fair that this wealth which is

created by the community should help educate children

of the community. Little apprehension need be felt that

the village center will spoil t[e country child for the
farn. In the age of automobiles he will mingle with

much wider circles than his im.nediate neighborhood, and

if farm life is not made more attractive to him than city
life, he willleave the farm inspite of a rural school.

The problem is not so much one of location as it is
one of stimulation. The country boy and girl must be
filled with enthusiasm for country life by having all its
possibilities revealed to them. The village center is
sufficiently rural in its makeup to make it possible to

offer rural life courses together with other courses.

A. D. M1ueller, Proressive Trends in Rural Education.
New York: The Century Book Company, 192&6 p.- G-64-, -

It will be a splendid thing to create a consolidated

school which will break down the social barriers between

country folk and village folk. Each will profit by ming-
ling with the other.
From objective research, it was revealed that equa-

lity of opportunity does not exist for the rural youth in
Jackson County, except in theory, The farm youth has not
had a square deal, and the fundamental cause of it all is
that our rural population does not spend enough on the

education of their boys and girls, nor does it spend this
money to the best advantage. Much of what is invested in

rural education by school boards and communities is spent

to poor advantage in feeble, poorly constructed schools
which might as well be abandoned or consolidated.

A. D. lMueller, Progressive Trends in Rural Edu cat .
New York: The Century Book Company, 1926, pp. 235-236

Harold Waldstein Foght, The er~canI ural SdQol.
New York: The MacWlillan Company, 918, pp. 313; 331.



The analysis of data, which is shown in table form,

pages 49 through 54 tell a fascinating story of Jackson

County's school system, covering a period of ten years.
They illustrate main points made in Chapters II and III.

They reveal new insights into Jackson Countyrs educational

progress and problems from the viewpoint of administration

and supervision, It would have taken a hundred pages or

more of narrative to do giving a oornunity-by-community

picture of the complex problems which school administra-

tors and supervisors were faced with. However, the gap

between the one-teacher school and the consolidated school

has been slowly closing.

The progress which Jackson County has been making
in recent years, and the dimensions of the job that still

lies ahead are also illustrated in these tables.

The data in the tables is subject to two important


1. For the most part, they were compiled from

records and reports of the State Department

of Education and the county school system of

education in Jackson County.

2. The latest figures are for the school
year 1953-1954, so the tables do not
reflect the schools recently discon-
tinued as of August 16, 1954.

Table I, on page50 represents the number of
Negro School Centers in Jackson County for the ten
year period, 1944-1954. It reveals the r.'radual de-
crease of school centers year by year as consolidation
took place.
There are eight Lypes of schools represented in

TA.ble I. TI:ose schools are set up by the State Depart-

Ilent of Education* The Elementar- School is composed
of grades 1-6; Elementary Junior High,,grades 1-6 and

7-9; Elementary Junior-Senior igh, 3.-de 1-6, 7-9,
and 10-12; Ele:Zenatary 4-ycar High, grades 1-8 and 9-12;

Junior High, grades 7-9; Senior High, grades 10-12;
and 4-year High, grades 9-12. Within ten years the

program of consolidation has eliminated nineteen ele-
mientary schools. Of the nineteen, ninety per cent were
one-teacher schools. Over a period of ten years the

Elementary Junior High Las been completely eliminated.
The ElemLentary Junior-Senior High was set up in 1948-49,
and has increased one over a period of six years. There
is only one Junior-Senior High School in Jackson County
for ;;egroes, and no Junior 3igh, Senior High 4-year }High
nor Elementary 4-year High. The Table set forth the

school year 1953-54 as the greatest single year for con-

solidation. The school yeam cf 1950-51, 1951-52 and

1952-53 should be observed also because the program of
consolidation was very slow prior to these years.


Elementary Elementary Junior
Elementary Junior-Senior 4-Year Junior Senior Senior 4-Year
Year Elementary Junior High High High High High High Hig Total

1944-45 38 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 45
1945-46 35 9 0 0 0 0 1 0 45
1946-47 32 12 0 0 0 0 1 0 45

1947-48 30 13 0 0 0 0 1 0
194-49 34 8 1 0 0 0 1 0 44
1949-50 34 8 1 0 0 0 1 0 44
1950-51 35 4 1 0 0 0 1 0 41
1951-52 32 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 36
1952-53 28 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 31
1953-54 19 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 22

Table II, on page 52 represents Kegro teachers'

certification and rank over a period of ten years -

1944-1954 in the Negro Schools of Jackson County.

The significance of Table II is the gradual in-

crease of teachers wi-ith I'asters and Bachelors degrees
in the Negro Schools of Jackson County, which implicates

better or improved instruction as consolidation is

perfected. From 1944-54, rank three had the greatest
increase in high certification. Significant to note also

are ranks four, five and six, as teachers earned high

certification. No teachers were in rank six in the Negro

schools of Jackson County during the school years of

1951-54. The improvement of teachers' certification is
also pointed out in rank two. There were seven teachers
employed in the Negro schools of Jackson County with
Masters degrees during the school year, 1953-54.




Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Rank Total
lear 1 2 3 4 5 6 Teachwe

194445 0 0 35 36 25 15 111

1945-6 0 0 42 38 S2 12 120

1946-7 0 0 40 45 21 14 120









1951-52 0 0 86 41 6 0 133

19 2-53 0 2 9 31 4 0 135

1953-54 0 7 103 20 3 0 133

Doctorate Degree
Hater's Dagre
Bachelorts Degree
90 College Crudits and up to 4-bar Dagree
60-89 College Credits
Bhlov 60 College Crdita


1 -
3 -

.. ..~..... _.._..... _..

- -- -- ---- -- --- -- -- --


Table II on page 54 is an analysis of expendi-

tures, embracing Capital Outlay, Support and Maintenance
funds for Negro Schools in Jackson County over a period
of ten years, 1944-54.

During the first four school years, 1944-48,

very little money was spent for any of the items listed
in Table III. Implications are that less money was
spent on small schools, with one result being poor instruc-
tion. During the school years of 1948-54, the money spent
for school sites, new buildings, additions, alterations
new equipment and transportation increased yearly, ex-
cept for additions. The money spent annually for trans-
portation does not include any expenditures for new buses
for Negro Schools. The expenditures listed under "Trans-
portation Expenses" includes operating expenses and bus
driverst salaries. No funds were spent for new buses,
summer program, adult education, and a very little for
new books for libraries during 1944-54 for Negro Schools
in Jackson County.



New New Books
'ow Altere- Equip- for School S1aer Adult Transportation
Year Sites Buildingo Additions tioa meent Libraries Busses Program Education Expenses

1944-45 0 5A4.59 0 0 256.75 0 0 0 0 0

1945-4. 0 0 0 0 15.00 0 0 0 0 0

1946-47 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1947-48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

194849 137.00 235.53 1924.44 0 477.20 0 00 0 3160.00

1949-50 6609.43 7754.77 1268,33 0 299.53 0 0 0 0 2227.50

1950-51 2375,00 38396.43 0 817.70 (2.54 0 0 0 0 7391.60

1951-52 5249.60 71355.03 0 2400.00 7001.59 29.70 0 0 0 10073.80

19532-53 1113.85 59463.24 0 11845.08 9143.59 0 0 0 0 14413.05

1953h5 0 59571.16 0 3685.58 1859,.9 3.50 0 0 0 26347.92
- -- -I

Table IV on page 56 is an analysis of expendi-
tures, embracing support and maintenance funds for Negro
Schools in Jackson County over a period of ten years,


Significant to note in Table IV is the gradual
increase of teachers' salaries. Implications are, as
teachers earned bachelors and masters degrees, salaries
increased. Also, a small salary increase was given to
all teachers annually. The salaries of the principals
are noticeable. There was one principal in the Negro

schools of Jackson County during 1944-52. There were
four Negro principals in Jackson County during 1952-54.
The increase of Negro principals was due to consolidation.
It is interesting to note that no funds were spent for
other instructional staff, such as, clerical help and
guidance counselor. A small amount was spent for Jani-
toral services, as well as library services. Expenditures
for classroom supplies shows a slight increase annually.
The consolidation of schools can account for the amount
spent for classroom supplies and janitoral services.



Salaries Salaries Wages
Salaries of of Other Inut. of Library Clasaroam
Tear Health Supv. Principals Teachers Staff Janitors Expense Supplies



















1953-54 1623.58 390.E60 14750.05




































? .



































_ __ __ ..

~~ ~_ ____~~~~_

679.50 31.50 1730.44

328084.21 0

.. -.







- ---








Table V on page 58 is an analysis of the en-
rollment by grade and grades groups in the Negro
Schools of Jackson County, covering a period of ten
years, 1944-54.

The decrease in enrollment over the period of
ten years in the first grade is based on two facts
(1) the Negro school population of Jackson County is
decreasing, (2) the lack of adequate transportation*
Significant to note is the increase in the twelfth grade

each year during 1949-54, as well as most of the Junior
High and Senior High grades. In most cases, the ele-

mentary grades show a marked decrease in enrollment
year by year. The increase in the twelfth grade and
other Junior and Senior High School grades is due to



Total Total Total Total
Kinder- 3 rde irarte Grade h-ade Grade Grade Grade GQrde Grade Grade Grad. Grade Qrade Grade Grade tradee
Year garten 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1-6 7-9 10-12 1-12

1944-45 0 855 427 386 397 354 319 220 177 121 70 41 33 2738 518 14 3400

1945-46 0 821 434 386 372 358 270 260 170 109 67 47 38 2641 539 152 3332

1946-47 0 748

1947-48 0 668

1948-49 0 699

1949-50 0 601

1950-51 0 612

1951-52 0 551

1953-53 0 499






































































2549 558 169 3276

2459 612 154 3225

2539 632 220 3391

2465 613 266 3344

2452 630 278 3360

2374 645 273 3292

2229 6(0

321 3210

72 2178 723 320 3221

__ _



_ _









_L _

I____ _

_ _

_ __ __ __




340 344 321
















i -





- -



Table VI on page 60 is an analysis of Full-
Time Positions of Instructional Staff in the Negro
Schools of Jackson County during the period, 1944-54.

Table VI reveals an increase of men teachers in
the elementary school during the period, 1944-54, This

increase is due to consolidation. The teachers in the
small schools were transferred to the consolidated
school and most of the small schools had a man as head
teacher. Then, there were several one-teacher schools

operated by men. The women teaching personnel of
Jackson County Negro Schools varied slightly each year.
There was a slight decrease of women teachers during

1952-54 in the elementary school, but a slight increase
in women teachers in both the Junior High and Senior
High Schools during 1952-54.









. Zr.
. HI.

Sr, 4 Tol
H. Hi.( I.1 9







4 Yr,



Tot i
Tos a


Oth. Tea,
Inst. Prin. &




S I O 1 9 7 5 0 19 0 92 7 2 0 101 120 0 1 120

90 j5 4

102 119


1947-46 0 1 0 1 15 11 3 0 29 0 75 8 9 0 92 121 0 121

1948-49 0 1 0 1 16 2 4 0 22 0 92 1i 3 0 10. 127 0 128

1949-56 0 0 1 15 4 5 0 24 95 7 8 0 110 134 0 15

190- 1 0 1 19 8 6 0 5 0 87 1 3 0 103 16 0 157

1951- 0o 1 0 1 20 8 6 0 O5 0 03 9 4 0 96 132 0 15O

19 52-5$ 1 1 2 4 27 7 9 0 64 0 82 5 5 0 9 132 0 135

19=3-54 1 1 2 4 36 6 12 0 b. 0 L 8 0 77 15 0
I 1 3 r












Consolidation brings many educational benefits to
rural communities. The benefits may be summarized by

saying that consolidation makes possible better buildings
and facilities, an enriched curriculum, excellent teaching,

and a rich social life within the school. Local interests .
should not be permitted to determine the locations of con-1

solidated schools. Where the county is the local .nit of

school control, a careful survey should be made to deter-

mine where schools might be located to best serve all the
people of the county.

It is the belief of the investigator, that the
hardest problem is to get a real consolidated school with

complete or fairly complete plant, transportation and staff
established. After that, it is its own best argument.

The teacher is, however, the most important single factor
in education and no consolidated or other school can be a
success with poor teachers. State aid, strong county

superintendents, and good publicity are desirable.


The investigator concludes that the solutions of the
rural areas of Jackson County must be marked out in terms of


the situations found rural life in the county. Recent

basic changes in the present structure of rural life in the
county has important implications, not only for the schools,

but for the whole social structure of which the school is

an integrate part. One single administrative pattern can

not be applied uniformally and mechanically in Jackson
County with the expectation of securing an equally desirable

educational program or equally effective democratic controls.

In the light of the many varied problems involved
in the consolidation of rural schools in Jackson County as
they relate to administration and supervision, the functions

of the administrator and supervisor might be summed up in

four terms; a stimulating function, a facilitating function,

a coordinating function and an evaluating function. These
functions lend themselves to the improvement and consolida-

tion of rural schools in Jackson County.

The writer further concludes that where a consoli-

dation has taken place in Jackson County, the school is

found disappointing, or a little better than the one-room

system. Too few of the very essentials are provided, such

as, complete plants, transportation, teachers who are ef-
fective and efficient in their work. On the other hand, and

in a few cases where consolidation is fairly complete, there

are definite indications of benefits which will prove bene-
ficial to the community.

These indicated benefits are as follows:

1. An increase in enrollment and attendance.

2. Older pupils will remain in school longer,

3. The cost for high school privileges will be reduced.

4. Better trained teachers and other school nprsonnel.

5, More and better grade work.
6. An enrichment of the civic-social life activities
and better school spirit.

7. Better conservation of health and morals of pupils.
8. Adequate supervision.

9. Reduce tardiness and an increase in time for
10. Improvement in industrial conditions in the county.

11. An increase in value of real estate.

12. A greater interest in county life generally.

13. A decrease in the number of pupils drifting to cities
and towns from the rural areas.

14. More and better equipped building s for private and
public use,

15. An elimination of the small weak schools and treacers.

16. Creation of a school of greater usefulness, dignity,
and worth*

17. A more economical school and an increase in equal
educational opportunities.

Recommendati ons

Recommended solutions to solve some of the
problems involved in the consolidation of rural
schools in Jackson County:

1. Readjustments and organization at the

county level which will provide a summer
educational program at necessary centers.

2. Increase pupils transportation facilities.

3. Provide new sources for school revenue at
the county level.

4. An approved method of the distribution of
money now being spent for education at the
county level.

5. That provisions be made at the county level
for minimum library services and facilities
to meet regulations adopted by the State

Department of Education,


Betts, G. H., New Ideas in Rural Schools, New York:
Indianapol's: B Th s 'lerr -1Company, 1914, p.458.
Bowen, Qcnovieve, Livin anc Learnin;, in a Rural School,
:]ew York: The TacRdian Company, 1946, p. 324.
Bradshaw, i. W., "Consolidation of Schools," The American
School Bulletin, CXV, 1947, pp. 27-31.
Brim, Ornillo Gilart, Rural EdH.cation, New York: Tie
i-laclillan Com-a ny 1947 p. -7
Clarke, C. .I., "Junior High School and Aural Consolidation"
,Hji School Journal, XXXII, 1949, p. 31.
Cubberley, Ellwood P., Aiural Life and Education, New York:
Houghton J.ifflin Company,1T922, p. 324.
DeYoung, Ciiris, Introduction to Axorican Public Education,
New York: -Ic rra'w-Iill Tok Company, 1942, p. 72.
Ellis, Harry L., Ioeller Lugh C., and Swains, C rl 0.
RuLal School I".ana ement, New York: Scribner's Sons,
Foght, Harold Walcistein, 'The American Rur:al School,
-iac.lillan Comn:any, 191-, p. Wl.
Hart, J. K., Educational Resources of Villare and Rural
C ommun i ties, 3New Tork: The a crmillan Con !a ny, 116,
p. 98.
filton, Ernest, Rural School 1.a.. gemient, New York: Ameri-
can Book Company, 1949, p. 78.
Lovis, Cinarles D., Thie Rural Gom .unity and its School,
iexu York: nAerican Book Company, 1937, p. 41.
Lowth, ?rank J., Everyday Problems of the Country Teacher,
New York: 'The .acUil~.ean Company, 1927, p. 56
Rapoer, L. W., Consolidated Rural School, ;New York:
Scribnerrs Sons, 192-, p. 507.


Stanley, Randall J., History f Jackson
Jackson Historicl Society, 1950,

County, IMarrianna:
p. 387.

State Depart'mcnt of Education, Biennial Report of theState
Department of Education, T.allahassee: Stace Deiart-
ment of Education, 1946, p. 248.

State Department of Education, Biennial Report of
State Department of Educaton, al lahasse e:
apartment of Education, 1948, p. 283.
State Dep rtment of Education, Biennial Renort of
State Department of Education, Tallahassee:
De-:artjment of Education, 1950, p. 265.
State Department of Education, Biennial Report of
State Denartment of Education, Tallahasse;
apartment of Education, 1952, p. 267.




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