A PROPOSED PLAN OF SCHOOL-COMM4UNITY' COORDINATION FOR THE
BOOKER HIGH SCHOOL OF SARASOTA, FLORIDA DESIGNED
TO COMBAT DELINQUENCY AMONG NEGRO YOUTH
the Graduate Faculty of
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science
Roland W. Rogers
A PROPOSED PLAN OF S HOOL-COMTUNI Y COORTDNAT'1ION FOR THE
BOOKER HIGH SCHOOL OF SARASOTA, FLORIDA DESIGNED
TO COMBA' DELNQUENCY AMONG NEGRO YOUTH
the Gr.auate Faculty of
Flori 'a Agricultural an MIechanical College
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Master of Science
Roln ty Roger
RolanO h:. Rogers
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION . . . 1
Statement of the problem . .. 3
Sub-problems . . . 4
Definitions of Terms ... 4
Assumptions . . . 6
Sources of Data . ........ 6
Method of Study . . . 7
Organization of the Study . 7
II. SURVEY OF LITERATURE . 9
Coordinated Community . 9
Chicago Area Project . .. .. 16
Police Type Action in Crime Prevention 21
Community Coordination . 26
III. PURPOSE OF INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDIES 29
Case Studies . . ... 38
Data Concerning Questionnaires ..... .. 53
Sur n ar . . . . 58
IV. THE PRESENT EFFORTS OF SARASOTA TO SERVE
ITEGRO YOUTH .. . . .. 59
Booker School an its Program . 59
The Community and its Program . 61
The Program of the Probation Officer . 63
V. PROPOSED PROGRAM FOR CLOSER COORDINATION
THROUGH BOOKER SCHOOL . . 66
TWht Booker Proposes ........ 69
Organization of Council .. .... 71
Coordinating Council at Vork .. 72
VI. COiNCLUSIGONS AND RECOM 'NATIONS . 75
BIBLIOGRAPHY .. .... .. ...... 78
APPENDIX . . . . 79
LIST OF TABLES
I. Type ane Offenses By Year and Age Groups
Offenders as Revealed by Principals
Report at Booker School ....... .. 6
II. Offenders and Percentage of Offenders
For the School Terms 1917 1950 .50
III. Type of Offenses by Number ane Age
Groups of Offenders 147 1950 . 51
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Diagram of the Relationship Between
School, Home Church ani Juvenile
Officer . . .
The author wishes to express his appre-
ciation to Dean T. E. McKinney and Dr. Edwin
Thompkins for their helpful suggestions and
criticisms. Acknowledgments are also due to
my secretary, Miss Juanita Neal, who typed and
retyped first crafts of this thesis.
Most deeply and most directly the author
is indebted to Dr. W. 5. Maize, Chairman of the
Division of Graduate Study, Florida A and M
College and Mrs. T. I. Lang for their many
suggestions and their careful recaing of the
paper curing its preparation for publication.
Some authorities agree that the causes of delin-
quency are multiple and complex. The import of these causes
vary in significance. To understand the delinquent behavior
of an adolescent, it is necessary to learn about him. We
must secure objective information concerning his mental, as
well as his physical, make-up. We must be aware of the
social and psychological forces that have affected him from
the time of his birth. If we would attack effectively any
problem of delinquency, we must understand what forces have
influenced an individual's thinking; we must know what
prompts him to do the things he does; we must have a definite
knowledge of his cultural background. To obtain this in-
formation necessary for our study, we must be ready to
utilize all agencies which are concerned with the welfare
of youth. The homes, the schools, the churches, the rec-
reational centers, the health and guidance clinics, the
public and private social services must be resorted to in
order to obtain a sound basis for a well planned study.
The point of view in this study, however, is that these
1 William Healy and Augusta F. Bonner, New Light on
Delinquency and Its Treatment (New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1936), p. 7.
agencies of society must do more than perform their tra-
ditionally specialized functions. They must plan and work
together in a coordinated program based upon the twenty-
four hour needs of all of the community's children. The
task of curtailing and preventing delinquency require the
united effort of everyone in the community.
Until all citizens develop a sense of civic respon-
sibility and cooperate with others for the common good can
we hope to achieve the kind of community life in which
delinquency will have little opportunity to thrive. The
position taken in this study is that Booker High School,
in Sarasota, is strategically situated to effect between
school and community a functional interactivity which will
insure the coordination required to cope with the rising
tide of delinquency among the Negro adolescent boys and
girls. There are several reasons why this is true. The
principal one, however, is the fact that "the greatest
intellectual resources for both personal development and
social improvement is organized knowledge which has been
systematically mastered".2 The organization referred to
here is one that is functional and related to lifets needs.
Also, the explicit statement of philosophy of the Booker
E. G. Olsen, School and Community (New York:
Prentice Hall Company, 1950), p. .
High School, coupled with the educational achievements of
its faculty, suggests that this agency is advantageously
situated to take the initiative in the proposed program.
The curtailment of delinquency among Negro adoles-
cent boys and girls is a problem of major importance in
Sarasota, Florida. A cursory examination of the files of
the probation officer, coupled with a glance at the
suspension records in the office of the high school
principal, is sufficient to document the aforementioned
fact. For example, more than seventy percent of the re-
ported cases of breaking and entering and larcency during
the period 1947-1950 were committed by Negro youth between
the ages of twelve and twenty years.
Statement of the problem. The problem of this study
is to formulate a plan of functional interactivity between
the Booker High School and its immediate community, Sara-
sota. The plan would be designed to improve coordination
among present agencies serving Negro youth to curtail and
combat delinquency among adolescents by:
1. Bridging the gap which exists in the present
essential services of agencies serving this group.
2. Pointing up and correcting needless dupli-
cation of effort in present agency programs.
3. Recommending widest and most economical uses
of present community resources.
1. What is the extent of delinquency among the
Negro adolescents of Sarasota, Florida? (Types of
Offenses, frequency, and age of offenders).
2. What is the nature of the present working
relationships between the following in Sarasota: Booker
High School, the probation officer, the churches, the
homes, and the recreational center in combating juvenile
3. What constitutes essentials in a program of
school-community coordination designed specifically for
Definitions of Terms
A proposed lan refers to an ordered scheme setting
forth the organization of agencies which will correlate
the interests and services of the participating groups for
a better understanding of youth problems.
The term school-community coordination refers to a
relationship of the school to other associational and in-
stitutional agencies such as the home, church, child
welfare center, and the recreational center in which the
school working with these agencies is continuously sharing
in the identification of community needs and the develop-
ment of subsequent action programs.
The term combat is used in the sense of perfecting
a program of eternal vigilance which will discourage
The term delinquency in this study, refers to the
misconduct of youth between the ages of six and twenty
which has come to the attention of the courts, school
personnel, and other associational and institutional
While it is recognized that all community services
must be drawn upon in any plan to cope effectively with
delinquency for this study only the following agencies of
Sarasota will be considered: The school, the home, the
church, and the probation officer and recreation center.
These constitute the principal agencies working with Negro
adolescents in Sarasota. The study is limited further in
the sense that only the misconduct of boys and girls which
has come to the attention of parents, teachers, and the
probation officer is considered. In the program of
coordination which is being proposed, the objective has been
to indicate schematically the recommended relationships
along with a statement of basic principles to serve as guide
posts in putting the program into action. Only records
for the period 1947-51 were used.
1. The institutional and associational services to
youth in Sarasota can be so organized and coordinated that
opportunity for delinquency may be progressively lessened.
2. Booker High School is strategically situated
to serve in the role as coordinator.
3. The records of the courts, coupled with confi-
dential interviews with officials of agencies serving
youth, are valid sources of data for identifying the status
of delinquency among Negro adolescents in Sarasota.
Sources of Data
The data for this study were obtained from the
following sources: (1) confidential records of the County
Probation Officer; (2) misdemeanor reports of teachers and
the principal of Booker High School; (3) questionnaires to
the parents of all children; (4) a second questionnaire to
parents of children reported as delinquent; (5) case studies;
(6) (a) interviews with County Probation Officer, (b) class-
room teachers at Booker High School, (c) parents of students,
(d) County Judge, (e) ministers, and (f) students themselves.
Other sources of data for this study were the many docu-
mentary references in books and magazines, describing
successful practices in school-community programs through-
out the United States.
Method of Study
In order to obtain data relative to the nature and
trend of delinquency among Negro adolescents of Sarasota,
the following procedure was used: confidential records of
probation officer, principal, and teacher were analyzed.
This was followed by interviews with the probation officer,
teachers, parents, ministers and students. Two questionnaires
were used, th4 first was a general schedule sent to all
parents; the second, a more detailed questionnaire sent to
parents of delinquent pupils. Case studies were made only
of a few of the delinquent pupils. The preliminary sections
of this thesis represent principally an analysis of the data
referred to above. The program proposed in the later phases
of the thesis reflects the emphasis and trends found in
successful school-community programs throughout the country.
Organization of the Study
This study consists of six chapters. The intro-
duction to the thesis is set forth in Chapter I. Here the
problem has been stated, the purpose of the study
delineated, the terms defined, and its organization into
chapters indicated. In Chapter II, a review of related
literature is provided. The literature is discussed under
two broad categories; namely: (a) Successful School Com-
munity Program for General Community Uplift, and (b) The
Role of the School in Combating Delinquency Through Com-
munity Interactivity. Chapter III furnishes a comprehen-
sive word picture of Sarasota, in regard to delinquency
among its Negro adolescents and the work of the local
agencies in coping successfully with the problem. In
Chapter IV, the writer tells what is being done in Sarasota
to serve its Negro youth. In Chapter V, a proposed program
for closer coordination through Booker School which is re-
lated to findings in Chapter III. In Chapter VI are con-
clusions and recommendations.
SURVEY OF LITERATURE
Education is much more comprehensive than the skills,
attitudes, and knowledges which are attained in the school,
In the educative process, six agencies make major contri-
butions to the growth and development of the school child.
Influence is brought to bear in different ways and with
great force by (1) the family, (2) the church, (3) the com-
munity, (h) economic agencies, and (5) the school. The
cumulative impact leaves imprints which must be considered
in the formulation of the school program.
Coordinated Community. Glueck1 has presented a
symposium of experiments in crime prevention. These are
classified largely on an administrative basis, as
(1) coordinated community programs, predicated upon the
recognition of the community or neighborhood or area as a
natural, cultural and social entity, necessitating the in-
tegration of all forces in an over-all program; (2) school
programs, ranging from coordinated community efforts
initiated by schools to the specialized schools for
children; (3) police department acting as crime prevention
Sheldon Glueck and Eleanor Glueck, Juvenile
Delinquency (New York: Bond and Noble Inc., 1949), p. 256.
bureaus collaborating with other constructive agencies;
(4) intramural guidance programs emphasizing group games,
exemplified in the George Junior Republic, Longview Farm,
Boy's Town, and various summer camps for delinquent boys.
These types overlap and can be variously classified,
but they indicate, each with varying degrees of success, the
range of efforts made to prevent crime and delinquency.
They are evidences of an awakening of the citizenry in
various communities to their responsibility in this matter,
and an evidence of a desire to participate intelligently in
the elimination of crime-producting conditions.
The work of Donald DuShane, superintendent of
schools in Columbus, Indiana, is an outstanding example of
what school leadership can accomplish in a to~wn of 10,000.
DuShane introduced psychological and behavior guidance ser-
vices, ungraded and special classes, a thorough going
health service, facilities for physical education and a com-
munity-wide program of organization and prevention. This
program was ultimately financed by the school board, the
recreation commission, and a voluntarily supported private
agency, the Foundation. Although the Foundation establish-
ed a boy's club, the schools, juvenile court, the churches,
Juilliard Carr Lowell, Delinquency Control (New York:
Harper and Brothers, 1941), p. 365-366.
the service clubs, the Chamber of Commerce, and the city
council all worked together to meet the problems of young
people in that community.
At the other end of the urban population scale in
the midst of the nations largest city, another school man,
Dr. Nathan Perser, from 1914 to 1936 put on an interesting
demonstration, first in Harlem and later in Brooklyn Public
School 181. In his Brooklyn school Peyser began by organiz-
ing a mothers' league which worked through a number of
committees dealing with relief, child health, pre-school
education, teacher cooperation, hospitality, social welfare,
neighborhood home visitation, and parental education. He
formed a men's league which combined with the mothers'
league to form the Brooklyn Community League. Later the
league's membership increased by other citizens of the
community, started making local surveys, and very soon had
twenty-five committees working on various projects. The
league with the cooperation of the Federal Nursery School
Committee, operated a day nursery. It surveyed traffic for
safety control purposes; established a dental clinic; enlist-
ed the cooperation of physicians, dentists, optometrists,
and druggists, in order that no family in the community need
go without medical and dental assistance. It set up offices
in the school building and functioned as a first-aid agency
for taking children to clinics to secure dental and surgical
treatment, and for providing clothing, food and other needs
for the family. Supported by the league, a number of play-
grounds were opened in the neighborhood. The Saturday Club
met at the school and the children were taken in small
groups to points of interest about the city. The League
organized a program of adult education and was active in
encouraging a community symphonic orchestra. It formed a
Junior Service League among the children of the school.
The Junior Service division in turn formed a Mothers'
Council composed of two parent representatives from each
class who met weekly during school hours to discuss ways and
means by which the association could contribute to the wel-
fare of the school. Dr. Peyser's final step was the
organization of a coordinating council with representatives
from forty-two organizations. Only highly skilled leader-
ship through the years could hold together the various
individuals and organizations working on this complicated
Meanwhile the school was adjusting itself to the needs
of its own children and seeking to re-adjust its delinquent
cases. Courses of study were revised, remedial teaching was
stressed, creative activity was encouraged. Children were
early given experience in self-government. The school set
about developing personal inventories of all its children.
Periodically an accounting was taken of each child to
determine the individual's problem situation -- in what
subjects was he retarded, what physical defects did he have,
what behavior symptoms was he showing, what home diffi-
culties or community situations were causing trouble. In
1934 the New York City Principals' Association, after a
two-year study by a committee on delinquency prevention,
endorsed Dr. Peyser's plan. The Board of Superintendents
officially approved it. On the whole, it represents
probably the most extensive community-minded program that
has been tried in any American city. It is a program that
calls for a high degree of administrative ability on the
part of the school officials and grept skill in community
leadership. It does not include, however, an adequate
mental hygiene program for the children or the teachers or
for the parents in the community. Except for this one
omission it probably represents the most complete mobiliza-
tion of techniques that any school administration has yet
A survey of Juvenile Delinquency was undertaken by
300 young people, students of the Benson High School, in
Omaha, Nebraska, as an extra-curricular activity. Partici-
pants ranged in age from fourteen to eighteen years.
Questionnaires were printed covering such topics as causes
Ibid., p. 367.
of delinquency, types of child offenders, definition of a
delinquent child, remedial work, and recent findings on the
subject. A separate group of children was dealt with in each
phase of the survey.
These questionnaires were mailed to forty-six institu-
tions in Omaha, including grade, high, industrial and paro-
chial schools, community centers, convents, Boy and Girl
Scout Headquarters, juvenile courts, and state institutions.
The answers were tabulated, and conclusions drawn which were
of great aid to officials and organizations.
It was only natural that some of the social theories
which poured over American education in the thirties should,
in time, have produced something of promise. Such, indeed,
were the community schools which appeared in various parts
of the nation. Stressing society rather than the individual,
they have become known as "Society-Centered Schools". Their
creatorst proposal was essentially simple. "Let us use the
school", they suggested, "to deal with the'real and practi-
cal problems found in our community every-day problems of
every-body". They beheld the community, not as something
divorced from the school, but as an actual part of it. The
community, they explained, was like a laboratory, full of
5 Paul R. Hanna, Youth Serves the Community (New York:
D. Appleton-Century Company, 1948), p. 216.
Ibid., p. 217.
problems "which will serve as an immediate and practical
program for every school system". On the other hand, the
schools purpose was to help young people to grow by offer-
ing them real help in meeting the larger and inevitable
problems arising beyond the fringes of the community prob-
lems affecting the nation and even the world.
In the Benjamin Franklin High School of New York the
link between school and community was forged through such
committees as Parents' Association, Adult Education,
Juvenile Aid, Youth Guidance, the Old Friendship Committee,
Housing, Community Health, Citizenship, and the like. More-
over, through a service bureau for education in human re-
lations, the school undertook a study of racial problems,
not as they were presented in the learned books, but as they
existed in all their reality in the community itself.
Through this study the school hoped to eliminate intolerance
and to enhance fairness and understanding among the people
of the community.
Margaret Patricia Meyer, The Development of Edu-
cation in the Twentieth Century (New York: Prentice Hall,
Ind., 19-9T, p. 9T.
COORDINATED COMMUNITY PROGRAM, PREDICATED UPON THE
RECOGNITION OF THE COMMUNITY LEADERS
CHICAGO AREA PROJECT
There have been many efforts to meet social problems
in the'United States through neighborhood organizations.
Such enterprises have become increasingly democratic with
local residents helping to initiate programs and in deter-
mining policies. In the field of delinquency prevention the
most important experiment of this type is the Chicago Area
Project, based upon decades of neighborhood research of
Professor Ernest 'T. Burgess and Clifford Shaw. This experi-
ment has imitators elsewhere.
The Chicago Area Project is an experiment to test the
soundness of principles derived from the research which pre-
ceded it. In addition it is a continuation of that research.
Its distinctive characteristics include:
1. Emphasis upon the fullest possible neighbor-
hood participation through its natural leaders in
planning their own program for the welfare of their
own children. Even the professional workers are, so
far as possible, taken from among the residents.
2. A program for the neighborhood as a whole.
3. Outside professional staff serves chiefly as
4. Local residents are encouraged to utilize
existing institutions and agencies in the area "and
to co-ordinate these in a unified neighborhood program."
5. Efforts are made to create and crystallize
neighborhood sentiments on behalf of the welfare of
its children and the improvement of the community as
6. Whenever possible "natural groups are utilized
and children enrolled along with other members of the
group to which they belong. In the case of delinquent
groups, "the task becomes one of introducing construc-
tive value into the life and structure of the group."
7. Delinquents are not set apart as such, but
particular efforts are made to meet their needs, and
they are given a place in neighborhood activities.
8. The program involves continued research and
experimentation; and complete records are kept on all
activities, problems encountered, methods used, and
facts concerning known truants and delinquents.
9. It has been the policy to give all credit for
any achievements to local leaders and established
Financed increasingly by residents in the neighbor-
hoods, but partly by private funds, the Chicago Area Project
is in operation in various areas of delinquency. Of these,
the projects in South Chicago, on the near west side, and
immediately north of the Loop, are of longest standing.
The specific, largely recreational activities
sponsored in these neighborhoods, have not been different
from similar activities developed by organizations of a
The greatest cooperation and success has been ob-
tained in the South Chicago Russell Square community,
which has had somewhat less delinquency than the other two.
This community has supplied funds for a substantial number
of girls aged from eight to eighteen so that they might
participate every month in the activities of the Community
Center. "Every gang and play group among the boys in the
neighborhood is involved in the general activities program."
Local action has been taken against tavern keepers who sell
liquor to minors and persons who purchase stolen articles
The sponsors of this project insist that its success
should be measured primarily in terms of community coopera-
tion, It is interesting to note that in the Russell Square
area the percentage of boys arrested for delinquency de-
creased from ten percent in 1932 to three percent in 1938.
A basic query which this project suggests is whether
such local organizations can be permanently effective so
long as conflicting elements exist in the-larger culture of
which the delinquency area is a product. Can mere local
neighborhood organization be effective unless it is concern-
ed with meeting more basic economic needs, the satisfaction
of which involve legislation and collective action covering
industrial relations? It has been urged that influences
making for delinquency are not so much matters of neighbor-
hood organization as of gang and other smaller primary
group affiliations which may not have a neighborhood basis.
Since more basic changes cannot be achieved at once, the
area project constitutes one of the most significant develop-
ments in the field of crime prevention.
In Chicago, more recent than the Chicago Area Project
is the Back-of-the-Yards Neighborhood organization enter-
prise, directed by Saul D. Alinsky of the Industrial Areas
Foundation. Its distinctive characteristics include its
effort to deal with all aspects of community life as a whole
and its recognition of the importance of the economic
problems of the people. Though concerned with a neighborhood
with a very heterogeneous nationality composition this pro-
ject has the advantage in that most residents are employed
in the stock yards, and they are nearly all of the same
While the Back-of-the-Yards project seems to attack
the crime problem at a level deeper than the Chicago Area
Project, it may be questioned whether economic problems are
generally sufficiently concentrated geographically to per-
mit solution through community organization. It is perhaps
too young to show statistical results in delinquency pre-
vention; but its social achievements are already notable and
the movement is spreading.
POLICE TYPE ACTION IN CRIME PREVENTION
Dade County was the first Florida County to employ a
special probation officer for Negro children. The Negroes
of Dade County have problems peculiar to their situation and
having an officer of their own race on the staff of the
court has enabled many a Negro problem child to obtain aid
he would ordinarily not receive. Juvenile courts are wel-
fare courts, whose function is to aid the child, not to
punish him. Therefore, the court is to know hov; to rule in
each case. The Dade County Court does not make use of the
Dade County Social Service Exchange and therefore must be in
a position to gather itself all the background material it
needs. This lack of usage of the Exchange probably means
that the court does not get a complete case history, and
spends more time than necessary in securing the material.
Cases can be disposed of through commitments to institutions,
probation, dismissal with or without warning, fines against
the parents or guardians, or release to private institutions
or homes. The Dade County Home is operated by the court and
therefore commitment to it is by the Judge's order, without
the filing of a legal order. The court recognizes the fact
that to take a child away from his family and home is poor
welfare practice, and every attempt is made to permit the
child to remain at home before his hearing. When it is
necessary to retain possession of the child, the court
usually keeps boys on a separate floor of the County Jail
located on the nineteenth floor of the Dade County Court
House and girls at the County Home in Dendall. One needs
a pass to visit a child at either of these places. Usual-
ly such permits cannot be obtained by anyone except the
child's family. Dade County Juvenile and Domestic
Relations Court files its cases by families; thus every
child in a family will have the same case number. Cases
handled officially indicate that the child received a
hearing before the Judge and legal papers were filed in
the case against the parents or guardians of the child.
Cases marked "unofficial" indicate that any action taken
was done so by the Probation Officer who decided that the
complaint did not warrant a court hearing.
Norman F. Soloman, A Study of Juvenile Delinquency
In Dade County Florida, University of Florida, 68:24-38,
COORDINATED MUNICIPAL COURT
The principal criticism of the administration of the
criminal law in the United States has been the lack of
organization on the principles of business-like efficiency.
The Illinois legislatures of 1905 authorized the establish-
ment of a coordinated municipal court to replace indepen-
dent Justices of the Peace and Police Courts. It was
organized,under a Chief Justice with wide powers. On
September 14, 1922, a similar unification plan was estab-
lished in the Federal Court System, with William H. Taft as
Chief Justice. The work of the district and circuit courts
remained disintegrated, each still functioning without
systematic supervision and coordination. Cases for trial
remained delayed for reasons unknown to many judges, as
there were no statistics to show the reasons.
Roy W. Russell, Individual Treatment of Delinquency:
A Study of its Development and Application, University of
Florida, 37:22, August, 19 l. .
Methods and Techniques in Rehabilitation. Social
therapy is an important adjunct to treatment processes.
The offenders are individuals who will not respond favorab-
ly to being told how to live and conduct themselves. The
probation officers must remember that treatment begins
always with the first contact with the client. Lasting
rapport may be established by letting the offender tell his
own story, from which the probation officer may obtain in-
valuable suggestions for formulating a treatment program
through an insight into the clients own attitudes, likes,
and dislikes. A knowledge of the individuals own cultural
setting and attitude toward his social realm may be obtain-
Physical examinations to determine handicaps, the
existence of chronic diseases, or pathological conditions
in need of correction are made. Many offenders, as we
shall see in the case study presentation, are suffering
from some deep-seated illness, perhaps a combination of
psychological, physical, environmental and emotional dis-
turbances, which finally expresses itself in such symptoms
as delinquency and crime. After these personal and social
problems and needs which are casual factors in the offend-
erts delinquency are determined, the next process is to find
substitute satisfaction for these needs which usually seek
satisfaction through conduct which is in conflict with the
rules of good society.
SIbd., pp. 27-28.
New York City now has a staff of twenty-four com-
munity coordinators who are assigned to the job of bringing
the school and the people of the neighborhood closer toget-
her. This staff has proved extremely effective in helping
parents understand the changing school programs and in
getting civic organizations to work closely with school
officials and teachers.
It is doubtful whether many other school systems in
the country have a comparable set-up. A special community
relations division created by the school board and headed
by Frances A. Turner, helps bridge the gap that frequently
keeps parents and teachers apart, particularly in under-
privileged areas. The community coordinators worked behind
the scene at last week's conference, and were effective in
creating greater interest in a permanent liaison between
educators and citizens.
Four major problems were considered by the 1,000
teachers, civic leaders and spokesmen for industry attend-
ed the sessions:
(1) What and how are community conditions affect-
ing school and after school activities for our youth?
The educators and citizens agreed that adequately
equipped school plants may be utilized not only during
regular hours of instruction but also in the after-
noon and evening under the guidance of well-trained
teachers to provide socially acceptable outlets of
activities for youth. This could become a major
factor in the reduction of juvenile delinquency.
(2) How should school administrators and community
organizations meet their responsibility to equip school
personnel and help improve school-community relations?
Two proposals were made: (a) The creation of teacher-
supervisors training courses which would include work
in school and community activities; (b) development
of more effective avenues of communication between the
schools and the community.
(3) What should be the relationship of the public
school system and the community or neighborhood council?
How should the council meet its responsibility to the
school and community? The conference recommended that
the schools take the initiative in setting up school-
community councils if the community is not prepared to
do so. The Board of Education was urged to provide
additional trained school-community coordinators assign-
ed to these community councils to provide professional
guidance and to insure continuity of program and action.
(4) How do we meet the problem of making more
effective use of community participation for the im-
provement of neighborhood conditions? It was
proposed that the Board of Education provide specific
leadership-training courses, which would show leaders
how to make best use of their talents. It would also
be necessary to develop the skills and abilities of
potential leaders, and encourage them to participate
more fully in meeting local problems.
11 Editorial in the New York Times, December 9, 1951.
PURPOSE OF INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDIES
The study of individual cases is necessary, first, to
determine what conditions produce offenders against the law,
and second, to investigate what method or methods of reha-
bilitation will work best for each person. Psychologists
from time immemorial have told us "all individuals differ
and respond differently only in degree." This fact is
evidenced throughout in the following case studies, which
have been made in an effort to determine just what type of
treatment techniques should be attempted in each individual
case. In selecting the offender for probation treatment, for
instance, definite consideration must be given to the ques-
tion of whether he has the mental capacity to profit from
certain types of treatment.
One of the first principles affecting the selection
of the type of treatment to be administered is an appreci-
ation of the responsibility involved. The first responsi-
bility is to society, which believes the individual needs
moral rehabilitation; the second responsibility is to the
offender, who needs to be re-established and advanced in
social adaptation. There should be no conflict between the
two responsibilities. The fact that conflict exists may be
interpreted as a need for changes in our rigid prevailing
social viewpoints. The selective process for treatment
must not be based upon sentimentality, but upon the belief
that the offenders pattern of action may be changed with
the removal of those influences which caused the behavior.
In this connection, those known to be psychopathic or with
mental disorders which require permanent institutionaliza-
tion are considered as exceptions. Any crime factor must
be considered and analyzed in order to estimate the con-
tingent possibilities for treatment. The study of his
behavior patterns and previous experiences in attempts to
control his physical and social environment lends itself
to predicting the offender's probable response to the
treatment to be prescribed. In other words, it is neces-
sary, as has been done in the cases presented, to study all
those factors of the offender's past life from which we may
predict his future responses, as it is assumed that they
will determine to a great extent his response to any given
The Gluecks developed prediction tables, utilizing
those factors in the individual's pre-treatment life which
were found to be highly associated with outcome of treat-
ment.1 In studying successful parole, they assessed pre-
dictive value to work habits, the capacity for assuming
SIheldon Glueck and Eleanor Glueck, 5j0 Criminal
Careers (New York: Alfred A. Knopt, 1930), p. 278.
economic responsibility, the age at first delinquency, and
the presence or absence of mental abnormalities. Such pre-
diction norms cannot guarantee that failures will not occur
among these classified within the predictive behavior mode
nor that success will not attend many not conforming to the
mode. Thus, such tables may be regarded only as valuable
aids in the classification of offenders or the designation
and application of treatment.
Burgess analyzed three thousand male paroles cases
from the Illinois State Prison, and found the following
factors among the lowest percentage of violations:2
Married men: first or occasional offenders -- usually
involved in robbery, sex offenses, murder, and man-
slaughter, with three or more associates in the crime
committed; farm boys and recent immigrants with service
of less than one year in prison with no punishment record
before release on parole; persons with no prior criminal
record: regular work habits and favorable psychiatric
prognosis. His examination led him to the establishment
of a relationship between twenty-two pre-parole factors in
the lives of the men studied, and the outcome of parole.
E. W. Burgess, "Factors Determining Success or
Failure on Parole," in Andrew A. Bruce, et al, The Workings
Of the Indeterminate Sentence Law and the Parole System in
Illinois (Springfield, Illinois, 1928-, pp. 221-2W3.
The violation rate was determined and each pre-treatment
factor was compared with the average violation rate. The
percentage thus obtained would be regarded as the average
failure rate. The percentage rate on each of the twenty-
two factors studied was thus obtained, the score of which
would be a cumulative index of the relationship between the
individual's pre-sentence life and his response to super-
vision. Thus, he gave weight to all factors utilized in the
By using the Burgess method of factorizing, Robert
Schiedt analyzed five hundred released prisoners from the
Bavarian Prison System in Germany. He found the following
classification of factors to be favorable from the lowest
percentage of violations upon release; good home conditions;
regular work habits; increase of violation rate with the
number of previous sentences; non-psychopathic psychiatric
diagnosis; good prison behavior; decrease of failure rates
with increase of age beyond thirtyafive years at time of
release; and good social conditions after release.
The knowledge and use of rating scales and predictive
findings have advanced rapidly, thus, objective social in-
Robert Schiedt, Ein Beitrag Zum Problem der
Ruckfallprognose, dissertation, The University of Munich,
1936, reported in Franz Exner, Uber Ruckfallprognosen,
Monatsschrift fur Kriminalpsychologie und Strafrechtsreform
VTolT 27, 1936, pp. 04-406 .
vestigations and life histories, which are necessary for
making case studies, should be made more adequate for
statistical findings. Instead of comparable findings,
standardized comparable data should be obtained. Reckless
questions that the statistical approach to factor analysis
of human behavior will ever get at causative factors of
behavior, but predicts the use of inventories to gauge
reliably important factors related to the varying degrees
of delinquency and crime, and to indicate the risk or
reliability for becoming criminal. Such personal inventory
ratings have many advantages. They are easier administered;
the necessary information may be obtained in less time than
complete case studies may be made --thus lessening the coat
figures and becoming more standard in approach,
Selection of treatment necessitates the evaluation
of the offender against the background of a mass of alleged-
ly similar wrongdoers. However, the similarity in moti-
vation is usually less real than fancied, if one acknow-
ledges that individual differences constitute the essence
of treatment. The extent of physical and mental maturation
demands special consideration, as it is one of the most
influencing factors in general reformation; hence, complete
W. C. Reckless, Criminal Behavior (New York:
Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, 1940), pp. 329-93.
diagnosis of a case is imperative before deciding on the
type of treatment. It is important to consider the prob-
able results of each method of treatment, the psychologi-
cal needs and drives of the offender, his previous
relationship to companions, to family, to school, to work,
to conventions, and his outlooks and ideals. The foregoing,
plus a study of the causal factors motivating the action in
committing the offense or underlying the offenders down-
fall, his opportunities for growth, his possibilities, and
other significant episodes of his past life which portray
a vivid picture of his very character and personality,
lays a foundation upon which one may exercise reasonable
judgment in determining the most appropriate measure for
aiding in the rehabilitation of an offender.
Doctor Smith Ely Jelliffe, in an article on medicine,
the law, and juvenile delinquency, reveals that a knowledge
of "causation" is essential for an understanding of "what"
needs to be done. By way of analogy, during past eras,
mankind judged human nature as an automobile may be judged
by the varnish instead of by the engine that runs it. To-
day, attempts are made to see the individual delinquent as
a bit of human machinery out of adjustment. As human
engineers, our first problem would be to inquire how the
machine got that way. What was the genesis and the develop-
ment of the disordered conduct? After an appraisal has
been made, some suggestions are offered as to what to do
with the instrument.-- repair it or junk it? Let it run on
a limited roadway or have someone else always on hand to
drive it? Either it will be given adaptive jobs or
shackled down to certain speeds. So far as the community
is concerned much of the damage has been done before a
situation involving anti-social behavior is presented to
special community agencies for consideration. If a real
and lasting service is to be rendered, issues must be
decided by a most painstaking inquiry into the character
of an individual, rather than by any "rule of thumb"
method. Doctor Jelliffe goes so far as to say that the
community gets what it deserves, sinbe what is observed as
juvenile delinquency is only that which exists in adult
modes of behavior. The presence of this and other forms
of illness is referred to as symbols of the defects of our
social developments. The most important feature of this
point of view is that the most effective type of treatment
of abnormal behavior constitutes a pooling of case studies
by the psychologist, the physician, the psychiatrist, the
Ibid., p. 512.
educator, the social worker, and the legal agents.
Even though our thinking within the field of
criminology may be of the most realistic kind, we must not
fail to take into account the popular public sentiments.
As Professor Logan Wilson has pointed out, the underlying
attitudes of the public may be circumvented but they cannot
be ignored, because in them is found the crix of many prob-
lems which baffle an effective program of action. Public
opinion has advanced little beyond the Beccarian dictum
that "Crimes are only to be measured by the hurt done to
society", and except in cases of obvious mental irresponsi-
bility the offender should be punished according to the
gravity of the offense and not otherwise. The average
layman is yet unwilling to give up the doctrine of freedom
of the will in the placement of social responsibility. He
must be shown that there is economy as well as justice in
the individual form of treatment which shifts the emphasis
from the crime to the offender.
The fact that our knowledge of character and conduct
has shifted the emphasis from the crime to the criminal is
further revealed by Nathaniel Cantor in "A Disposition
Tribunal". He points out that treatment should not depend
exclusively upon the personality of the offenders any more
than correction should depend upon the anti-social nature
of the act or social dangerousness of the individual; but
we do wish to treat the individual and not to punish the
crime. Such individual treatment can lead to concentration
camps as well as therapeutic guidance. The author believes
that the authorities mentioned have the same philosophy as
his regarding pre-treatment life and the outcome of the same.
These are true reports of cases that occurred at
Booker School in Sarasota, Sarasota County.
Case Report on Willie
Address: Sarasota, County of Sarasota
Reason For Referral
Willie was referred by his adopted mother because he
was not interested in school. He has served one year in a
reformatory school. He steals and uses profanity frequently.
He often approaches small girls with sex questions.
Statement of Problem
He developed undesirable habits at an early age. He
steals from his adopted parents. He takes money to bring to
school to buy things for the younger boys and girls. He
buys lunches and ice cream for his friends. He has had a
number of sex experiences and he tells them to other
children. He has fits of temper quite often.
His adopted parents run a restaurant in a "red light"
section. He works after school until late hours at night.
The family lives next door to a rooming house. He has told
the other children about several fights between his parents.
Sometimes he helps his mother fight his father.
Willie repeated third grade because of non-attend-
ance. He shows interest in all classroom work. He was
transferred to Booker fron another county. He steals
pencils and paper quite often and gives them to other
members of the class. When left alone he gets into mischief,
His appetite is excellent. He has had all of the
childhood diseases. His arm has been broken. The school
nurse has given him considerable attention.
He has been given three tests during the year which
revealed average intelligence. His grade placement is
4.6. He expresses himself well.
Willie has an adult brother. Their parents died when
he was ten years of age. He was then taken by an aunt in
another town. He was sent to reform school@ a the age of
twelve for stealing. His explanation is "everybody says
I am bad, so I am." He was adopted by a family in this city
after his return. His actions vary. Sometimes he acts like
a child of nine years and then he changes and acts like a
Case Report of John
Address: Sarasota, County of Sarasota
Reason for Referral
This child was referred because of continued ab-
sences, untidy appearance, and continued acts of eating
lunches belonging to his classmates.
Statement of Problem
His record of poor attendance began his first year
in school. It grew worse during his second year. At first
he was absent a day or two out of each week. Later he was
absent on several occasions a week or two each period.
Whenhe waw-in school his appearance was very untidy and
sometime offensive. He also created a social problem by
his inability to get along with others, and the repeated
act of stealing.
The family lived on a farm in another southern state
until 1940 when they moved to their present location. At
that time they rented a shabby four room house much too
small for the family. It was in this house that he andr
several more sisters were born and still live. For ten
years the father's income was 433 a week; and the mother
remained a housewife spending most of her time at different
liquor bars. Less than a year ago the father deserted the
family and moved out of town. The mother now seeks work
whenever she is sober. During the time that John's mother
and father were together he witnessed daily 'quarrels and
weekly fist fights between them.
He began school at the age of five years and six
months. At present, this is his second year in school. It
was not until a few months ago that he began to show interest
in school. His social adjustment has been slow; however,
the last month shows remarkable social progress.
Although he has suffered from malnutrition, his
health has been average. He has had mild attacks of child-
hood diseases. At present he is being fed in the school
lunchroom by an organization and given vitamins by another
He has been given several tests in school. These
results have always been poor and show very little progress.
He is in second grade but according to recent test his
placement is 1.5.
He acts as a bully or gang leader. He give away
things that he really needs.
Before eating in the lunchroom, he would take lunches
belonging to others. Now he says that either he is not
hungry, or that he does not like what is being served in
Case Report of Joe
Address: Sarasota, County of Sarasota
Reason for Referral
This little boy was referred because of long absence
Statement of Problem
Joe became sick and was out of school for more than
two weeks. After he did not return another check was made.
This time his foster father was seriously ill. It was
during this time that his father died leaving him homeless.
He was born in a family of several children. Each
one has a different father. Unfortunately he does not'know
who his father is. His mother did not want him when he was
born; hence, she tried to kill him by leaving him to starve
to death. A family living near by investigated the home
after hearing the baby crying. This family later adopted
th4 child. Soon after the adoption, the foster mother be-
came an invalid confined to her bed until death five years
later. This was his second year in school. Thus a period
of normal life was quite brief for Joe, His foster father's
death was only a few months later. A friend took him in
with the intention of adopting him. A distant aunt claimed
him because of insurance money and the child did not act
normal; after an investigation proved there was no money,
he lost his home with his aunt. A half sister took him in
for several days but she decided that she did not want to
keep him. He is living with a cousin at present. Conditions
are fair. Yet, it is doubtful as to how long he will enjoy
the privilege of calling this home.
Joe began school at the age of six years. He has no
interest in the basic subjects but enjoys the recreational
program. He has mpde fair adjustment socially.
He has suffered from malnutrition for a period of
several years, had most of the childhood diseases, and was
born with a slight defect of vision.
He thinks and acts on the level of a pre-school
child. He has not reached the reading readiness-stage.
He has a humble disposition. He says that no one
loves him. Joe states that he is not wanted. He says that
any day he may be without a home.
Table I reveals that delinquency trends move upward
during the year 1949-50. Records show that larceny by
breaking and entering increased from five cases in 1947-48
to sixteen cases in 1949-50. Damage to property increased
from thirty-seven cases in 1947-48 to fifty-eight in 1949-50.
In 1947-48 there were seventy-five fights and in 1949-50
there were ninety-one. Gambling cases in 1947-48 were seven-
teen, while in 1949-50 there were twenty-eight cases. In
1947-48 there were eight cases of insubordination, in 1949-
50 there were twenty-three cases. Fifty cases of larceny
in 1947-48; seventy-six cases in 1949-50. Loitering moved
upward from thirty-two cases in 1947-48 to forty-four cases
in 1949-0. In 1947-48 there were detected forty-five
instances of lying, and in 1949-50 the number of lies detect-
ed was fifty-six. In 1947-48 there were recorded six cases
of pregnancy, and in 1949-50 there were twenty-five cases.
Offenders through profanity were twelve in 1947-48 and twenty-
nine in 1949-50. Sex problems advanced from twelve in 1948-
49 to twenty-seven during 1949-50. There was a smaller in-
crease in truancy cases than in any other acts of delinquency.
There were thirty-five cases of truancy in 1947-48 and
thirty-six cases in 1949-50, an increase of only one.
There is a variation in the report of the principal
and the report of the probation officer. Since most of the
fights among students were reported to the principal and
TYPE OF OFFENSES BY YEAR AND AGE GROUPS OFFENDERS AS REVEALED
BY PRINCIPAL'S REPORT AT BOOKER SCHOOL
1947-48 1948-49 1949-50
Enrollment 739 747 822
Offenders 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. Totals
and 2 3 5 1 4 6 11 2 7 7 16 32
Property 2 25 10 37 4 30 12 46 lo 35 13 58 141
Fighting 30 35 10 75 33 38 15 86 35 40 16 91 252
Gambling 2 5 10 17 5 7 12 24 6 8 14 28 69
nation 1 2 5 8 3 5 7 15 4 9 10 23 46
Larceny 25 15 10 50 27 18 11 56 31 25 20 76 182
Loitering 10 12 10 32 11 13 11 35 13 15 16 44 111
Lying 20 15 10 45 21 17 12 50 23 18 15 56 151
(continued on next page)
TABLE I (continued)
TYPE OF OFFENSES BY YEAR AND AGE GROUPS OFFENDERS AS REVEALED
BY PRINCIPAL'S REPORT AT BOOKER SCHOOL
1947-48 1948-49 1949-50
Enrollment 739 747 822
Offenders 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. Totals
Pregnancy -- 2 4 6 -- 4 10 14 10 15 25 45
Language 1 5 6 12 2 8 8 18 4 15 10 29 59
Sex 2 5 5 12 3 7 4 14 5 12 10 27 53
Truancy 10 15 10 35 9 10 12 31 11 12 13 36 102
Total 103 138 93 334 119 161 120 400 144 206 159 509 1243
Note: Because the Principal of Booker School years ago recognized the need for this
study, he set up a record keeping system to help prove the extent of delinquency
in Sarasota County, Florida. The record above does not include several minor
offenses which the writer has not recorded. It will be noticed that there were
more truant cases in 1949-50 than there were in 1948-49. This was not because
of less cooperation between the Attendance Supervisor and School, but because
all of these were problems solely within the sChool's jurisdiction. Because &
the school has an equal interest in all its pupils, no attempt other than is
shown in the above record has been made to report separate findings according
to sex and age.
not to the probation officer, fighting takes first place
in the principal's report and larceny is the top offense
in the probation officers report. Larceny has second
place in the principal's report; breaking and entering
holds second place in the probation officer's report.
Lying holds the third place in the principals report.
The fact that the results shown in the Table were
revealed through a study of conditions existing in Booker
School may justify the author's belief that Booker School
should be in the foreground in any effort to reduce de-
linquency in Sarasota County.
Table II shows that breaking and entering increased
from two per cent in 1947-48 to three per cent in 1949-50.
Damage to property remained eleven per cent from 1947
through 1950. Fighting was twenty-three per cent in 1947-
48 but decreased to seventeen per cent in 1949-50. The
percentage of gambling rose from five per cent in 1947-48
to six per cent in 1949-50. Insubordination increased
three per cent between 1947 and 1950. The per cent of
larceny remained the same from 1947 through 1950. Loiter-
ing decreased one per cent in the course of three years.
Lying decreased two per cent in the course of three years.
In 1947-48 it was thirteen per cent, but in 1949-50 it
was eleven per cent. Pregnancy increased from two per
cent in 1947 to five per cent in 1950. Profane language
doubled in the course of three years.
As the Table indicates, fighting ranks highest among
offenses reported by the Principal's office. In 1947-48
fighting was twenty-three per cent of the total offenses.
In 1948-49 fighting dropped one per cent, but it still rep-
resented the highest offense. In 1949-50 seventeen per cent
of the total offenses centered around fighting. Although
fighting was reduced six per cent by the school over a
period of three years, fighting still represented the
greatest offense. Next to fighting came larceny. It is
shown as representing fifteen per cent of the total
offenses in 1947-48, fourteen per cent in 1948-49 and re-
turned to fifteen per cent in 1949-50. The lowest offenses
as reported by the office of the principal over a period
of three years were breaking and entering, insubordination,
and pregnancy. Breaking and entering was only two per cent
of the total number of offenses in 1947-48. For the years
1948 through 1950 it remained three per cent.
Table III shows that there was only one delinquent
act of killing in 1947 through 1950. Breaking and entering
increased from seven in 1947-48 to twelve in 1949-50. Larceny
increased from eleven in 1947-48 to thirty-one in 1949-50.
There was no robbery from 1947-1949, but in 1949-50 there
was one case of robbery. The unfounded or unsettled cases
were seven in 1947-48 but increased to seventeen in 1949-50.
The figures show a steady increase in delinquency in Sarasota,
OFFENDERS AND PERCENTAGE OF OFFENDERS FOR SCHOOL TERMS 1947 1950
Number of:Percentage Number of:Percentage Number of:Percentage
Offenders: of Total Offenders: of Total Offenders: of Total
Breaking and Entering 5 2 11 3 16 3
Damage to Property 37 11 46 11 58 11
Fighting 75 23 86 22 91 17
Gambling 17 5 24 5 28 6
Insubordination 8 2 15 4 23 5
Larceny 50 15 56 14 76 15
Loitering 32 10 35 9 44 9
Lying 45 13 50 12 56 11
Pregnancy 6 2 14 4 25 5
Profane Language 12 3 18 4 29 6
Sex 12 3 14 4 27 5
Truancy 35 11 31 8 36 7
All Offenders 334 100 40 100 509 00
TYPE OF OFFENSES BY NUMBER AND AGE GROUPS OF OFFENDERS 1947-1952 *
Frequencies by Years and Ages
Offenses 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50
6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. 6-12 13-16 17-20 Tot. Totals
Killing 1 1 1
Entering 2 5 7 2 7 9 4 8 12 28
Larceny 7 3 1 11 8 3 2 13 15 7 9 31 55
Robbery 1 1 1
Unfounded 2 5 7 1 8 9 5 12 17 33
Total 7 7 11 25- 8 6 18 32 15 16 30 61 118
*Source of figures Probation Officer's Records
Note: According to the figures above, as taken from the records of the probation officer's
files in Sarasota, delinquency has increased each year. This table does not give
a clear breakdown of the ages, but it complies with requirements of Florida Laws.
Florida from 1947 through 1950. These problems may be
traded to poor home conditions.
According to the information given by the probation
officer of Sarasota, there was more larceny in 1947-48 than
any offense. This was among the six to twelve year old
group. Larceny was at the head of the list of offenses in
1948-49, and still is greatest among the six to twelve year
old group. Larceny more than doubled in 1949-50. This, too,
was within the same age group.
Next to larceny was breaking and entering. The
youngsters in the seventeen to twenty age group were the
Robbery, and assualt and murder were the fewer
offenses over the three year period. There was one of each
These were committed by members of the seventeen to twenty
year old group.
DATA CONCERNING QUESTIONNAIRES
In order to determine the parents and guardians who
were willing to cooperate with the school, the ministers and
the juvenile office in combating juvenile delinquency, there
were Pent to them 550 questionnaires pertaining to inter-
views between parents or guardians, and principal, teacher,
minister and juvenile officer. Of the number sent out,
approximately 200 were returned. The following information
wts received from the returned questionnaires: (1) There
were 500 children under twenty years of age in the homes;
(2) Five parents or guardians had visited the school to
discuss the behavior of their children. Each of these
parents made one visit to the school; (3) No parent or
guardian reported. visiting a minister to discuss with him
the behavior problems of their children; (4) No parent had
approached the juvenile officer to discuss with him the
problems of their children. Answers to the questionnaire
support the opinion that neither the home nor the church nor
the juvenile officer is doing as much as may be expected from
it in its efforts to reduce the number of delinquents in the
It is -worthy of attention that while the juvenile
officer dealt with one hundred eighteen problem cases, the
Booker School dealt with twelve hundred forty-three cases.
The school has automatically taken its rightful place in
attempting to reduce delinquency and its position as leader
in the coordinating council of Sarasota to combat delin-
quency should be recognized.
Questionnaire number two intended to gain additional
information concerning the causes which contributed toward
delinquency in Sarasota County disclosed the fact that in
dome families there were from five to ten children and a
few parents had as many as seventeen children. The study
did not strengthen the idea that delinquency is prevalent
in large families.
Questionnaire number two did not show that Question-
naire number one had done much to improve parents' interest
in delinquency in the relationship between the principal
and the parent. According to Questionnaire number one
there had been five interviews between parents and princi-
pal; Questionnaire number two reported five such interviews.
The diagram below shows the position that Booker
School is to hold in Sarasota's Program of Coordinated
agencies to combat delinquency.
DIAGRAM OF THE RELATIONSHIP
EETETEN SCHOOL, HOME, CHURCH AND
Because the school knows more about the child than any
other agency, except the home; and because the parents are not
trained for thiss position, end do not have the tine, Booker
School will serve as head in coordinating the social agencies
in Sarasota County to combat juvenile delinquency.
The institutions of which the coordinating council
will be composed are the home, the church, the probation
officer and the school.
A survey is taken of the Negro families of' Sarasota,
each year, by the teachers of Booker School. The surveys
have shown the following:
1. One per cent of the heads of homes have a
2. Two per cent have high school training
3. Seventy per cent leave home at day break and
return at sundown; the children care for themselves
4. A great number of the parents live on their
5. Eighty-five per cent of the parents use the
telephone, write notes or meet the principal on the
streets to discuss problems concerning their children.
The Negro churches of Sarasota are concerned with
their own church problems. These problems are mostly those
of finance. In the thirteen Negro churches, one minister
states he has a college education, two have special train-
ing in connection with church work. The other ten have not
completed the tenth grade.
The probation officer of Sarasota was formerly a
deputy sheriff. Only after the Children's Committee of
of Sarasota became aware of juvenile delinquency in Sarasota
was this gentleman appointed probation officer. Because his
office is to be abolished soon, and his duties merged with
the duties of the County Judge, the probation officer is
now seeking election to the office of Sheriff of Sarasota.
Booker's faculty is composed of teachers certified
by the State Department of Education. Fifty per cent of its
teachers hav: had training in guidance programs. No teacher
on Bookerts faculty bas less than four years of college
training. Four members of Bookerts faculty have Rank II
Certificates. The school day is seven hours. Many days
the pupils are in school more than seven hours. Therefore,
Booker School can take the lead in the coordinating council.
In order to clarify the findings pertaining to
juvenile delinquency among Negroes in Sarasota County,
Florida a random selection of case studies has been pre-
In attempting to choose a method or methods of
rehabilitation, a careful study of individual cases should
be made in orcer to determine what factors contributed to
each individual's becoming an offender against the law,
The causal factors, the general characteristics and con-
duct have been the phases for emphasis in the treatment.
Individual differences have been very noticeable.
In many instances treatment in controlled environment
vould be necessary.
The tables show that delinquency in Sarasota County,
Florida has increased each year from 1947 to 1950.
The diagram shows that the school is in a good
position to bring about a closer relationship among the
agencies to combat juvenile delinquency in Sarasota County.
THE PRESENT EFFORTS OF SARASOTA TO SERVE NEGRO YOUTH
The Booker School includes grades one through twelve.
with an enrollment which during the last three years has
varied from approximately six hundred fifty to eight hun-
dred fifty students. There are thirty-two teachers pro-
viding instruction for these students in thirty-two rooms
located in fifteen different buildings. All instructors
hold at least the Bachelorts Degree from an accredited
A. Course Study
The course of study at Booker School is of the
traditional type. Although as many as twenty-five percent
of the students enrolled are involved in cases considered
delinquent behavior, no special provisions commensurate
with the needs are being made to cope with the situation
through the instructional program of the school. The
following subjects are offered: Mathematics, Science,
Social Studies, Language, Art, Music and Physical Education.
The health classes have dealt with factual material per-
taining to health but this teaching has had little or no
effect on the unsanitary and slum conditions prevalent in
the Negro section of the city.
B. Guidance Program
The time allotted for this important aspect of the
school program is a daily period of ten minutes known as
home room period. Two or three minutes of this period are
used taking the daily attendance. No period of the day is
set apart specifically for counselling. Only three members
of the staff have had special training in educational
C. The Recreational and Athletic Program
The recreational and athletic program of the Booker
School consists essentially of the following activities:
Football and Basketball. These activities are supervised
by only two members of the faculty and less than seventy-
five of the school's approximate enrollment of eight hundred
fifty students participate in the program. There is no
gymnasium and these activities are practiced in the open
fields adjoining the school.
D, The Music Program
The program in music at the Booker School is under
the supervision of an instructor certified in music by the
Florida State Department of Education. She is regarded as
a regular teacher in the elementary department and, as such,
presents the materials usually found in the public school
program. Her contact with the high school pupils is mainly
in the role of chorus director.
E. Marriage and Family Relations Program
The program of family relations at Booker School is
promoted through its Home Economics Department. The girls
in grades nine through eleven cook one semester and sew the
other. There is no program designed for the boys of these
grades nor for any pupils in grades one through eight and
F. Ethics and Etiquette
Booker School has no block in its curriculum for
ethics and etiquette.
G. Audio Visual Aid Program
The program of Audio Visual Aid at Booker School is
directed by two members of the faculty who have a full
teaching schedule. Films are shown in the chapel. When-
ever a suitable film is available, the elementary and
high school teachers are notified by the teacher who
directs the program for each group.
H. The Community
The Negro community includes thirteen churches,
approximately ten secret organizations, twenty-five business
places, three hotels and red light districts. The Negro
community which consists of approximately 3,741 persons or
twenty percent of the total population of Sarasota, is
divided into two sections. One section is called Newtown
and the other Oldtown. Sarasota was once a part of Manatee
County. Although Sarasota is now a tourist town, Negroes
first settled here to do farm labor. Even now several of
Sarasota's Negro inhabitants are migrants.
J. The Program of the Parent-Teachers Association
The Parent-Teachers Association was re-organized at
Booker School in September, 1946. The purpose of the first
meeting was to ask the School Board to furnish a bus to
transport pupils from Oldtown to Newtown, a distance of two
miles. This meeting was a success and the bus was given.
During the school term 1947-1948 the P.T.A. met once per
month. In 1948-1949 the P.T.A. helped to secure a fence
around the athletic field. During the school terms 1949-
1950 and 1950-1951, the P.T.A. encouraged the organization
of a band, and raised a little more than $500 toward this
project. The association attempted and failed to assert
its right to "hire and fire" the school's personnel.
K. The Local Recreation Program
The local recreation program of Sarasota's Negro
community is under the supervision of a young man who
received his training in business. The building available
for recreational purposes consists of a recreation room
approximately 40 ft. by 25 ft. (used also as a reading room)
a kitchen, office and porch which is nearly 100 ft. by 15 ft.
The playground area is about 400 ft. by 200 ft. On the
playground is one set of swings, a barbecue pit, and stakes
for horseshoe throwing. Adjacent to these grounds is a
baseball diamond with bleachers and a new wire fence on two
sides. Various social activities for young people are
scheduled weekly by the director of recreation. The city
pays the director. The director endeavors to have softball
teams for all who desire to participate. Working with the
director and some city officials is a three committee ad-
visory board. Booker's principal serves as chairman of the
board. The board members are appointed by the city manager
L. The Program of the Probation Officer
The office of the probation officer was initiated a
little more than three years ago. Before this time the
attendance supervisor endeavored to perform the probation
officers duties in connection with her school attendance
duties. The probation officer works through the sheriffs
office. He visits the school whenever there is an offender.
The probation officer, with the aid of the city police de-
partment, attempted to start a Negro Junior softball
league in the summer of 1950. This effort did not
M. The Churches in Sarasota
Each church's program is designed to work with those
individuals who attend a particular church. There are two
teachers on Bookerts faculty who teach Sunday School.
There are thirty-two members on Bookerts faculty, including
the principal. There are approximately nine hundred fifty
youngsters in Sarasota between the ages of four and twenty.
According to Booker's school report, a few less than fifty
percent of the school population attend Sunday School.
There are thirteen churches in Sarasota for Negroes.
Approximately twenty percent of the churches have junior
choirs in which Booker School pupils participate. Only one
pastor of these thirteen churches has visited the school
in the past three years.
N. The Program of the Boys and Girls' Clubs
According to the knowledge of the writer, there are
no boys' and girls' clubs in Sarasota for Negroes.
0, The Program of the Families
According to the records of Sarasotats Chamber of
Commerce, the population of Sarasota for 1951 is 18,705.
The Negro population consists of approximately 3,741 or
twenty percent. The records on home visitation, taken each
term by the members of Booker School's faculty, show that
over eighty percent of Booker's parents or guardians are
engaged in either domestic or farm labor. These jobs re-
quire that the employees work from twelve to fourteen hours
per day. The farm laborers work for six and occasionally
seven days per week. With such a schedule, the family has
little time for home projects in connection with the develop-
ment of its youth.
P. Present Role of the Probation Officer in Working with
Youth in Sarasota
The probation officer works with the youth only when
there is an offense. He has no regular schedule in Booker
Q. Present Role of the Local Churches in Working with
Youth in Sarasota
The local churches have for their functions definite
-programs set up within the churches of their denomination.
These have been afore mentioned in Community Projects.
Besides those mentioned earlier in this chapter, the
churches have no projects in connection with Booker1s
youth or the youth of Sarasota.
PROPOSED PROGRAM FOR CLOSER COORDINATION
THROUGH BOOKER SCHOOL
Four groups of people in Sarasota must be considered
in plans for improved relations between the school and the
community in combating juvenile delinquency. These groups
are the school, the church, the home and the probation
Among the significant movements in modern society,
one is the trend toward community organization. The
changes in rural life, the rapid growth of cities, accom-
panied by widespread social disorganization, have created
a need for the unification and coordination of local groups
to increase their efficiency and to adjust the community to
the larger units of which it comprises an integral part. 1
In a broad sociological sense, community organization
is the process whereby people in a given area build up
common centers of interests and activities, and tend to
function together in the chief concerns of life. In a more
technical sense, as used by social workers, it is funda-
mentally a method of coordinating institutions, agencies,
groups and individuals to make collective adjustments and
H. Martin Neumeyer, Juvenile Delinquency: New York
In Modern Society (New York: Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1949),
to cooperate in meeting common needs.2
In Sarasota, community organization is chiefly ex-
pressed by "conflicting situations". For example, (1) some
churches charge that school activities interfere with church
activities; (2) Parent-Teacher Association versus the school
board on the administrative policies of the school. Con-
flict is one of the major social processes in Sarasota's
Judging from the records at Booker School, from the
information the Principal gathered from the teachers, the
ministers, the Juvenile Officer, several old citizens and
some parents of Satasota, little has been done toward a
community coordinated program to combat juvenile delinquency
At present, the Booker School works in part with the
city recreation program, which is headed by a young man,
whose training is not recreation, but business education.
This definitely is not qualification enough to do an
adequate job. The school gives a few musical programs at
some of the churches during the year. The teachers and
principal make some home visits to determine the background
of Bookerts pupils and to evaluate them in terms of their
2 Dwight Sanderson and Robert Polson, Rural Community
Organization (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1939),
The church has no program in this connection.
The Juvenile Probation Officer is consulted only
when a case arises.
Because most of the parents have to work, a great
number of the homes in Sarasota are without any kind of
guidance most of the time. Several parents leave in the
morning before their children get out of bed and return in
the late afternoon or early evening. With some exceptions,
the parents who work on fafms leave home about 6:30 A.M.
and return around 9:00 P.M. or later. There are instances
in Sarasota where parents, who do domestic work, eat and
sleep on the job sixty percent of the time. These cases
and others give tremendous opportunities for continued
delinquency. For these reasons and those indicated by the
Tables of this thesis, supplemented by other afore mentioned
reasons presented within this paper, Booker School proposes
a program for closer coordination in the community of
Sarasota to combat juvenile delinquency.
What Booker Proposes
Nest to the home, the school is in the most strategic
position in the community for the combating of juvenile de-
linquency. The school differs from other social institutions
and agencies in that it has close, frequent and continuous
contact with most of the children in the community. In most
cases, the teachers have the respect and trust of the home,
so that cooperative programs which are necessary to any
really successful preventive work should be feasible. More-
over, the training that is possessed by the teacher, what-
ever its present inadequacies, is adaptable to the wider
and more specialized skills in dealing with children and
could greatly extend the role of the school in preventive
and ameliorative work for the maladjusted. The school en-
joys a potentially promising place in the community as an
agency to coordinate and cooperate in programs of aid to
children who suffer from maladjustments,
The writer does not propose that the school be over-
burdened. There is much that the school cannot and should not
be expected to do. Some agencies, and often educators them-
selves, are sometimes addicted to quite unrealistic extensions
and elaborations of the teachers functions in placing upon
the school burdens that some other social institution is
attempting to avoid. The school is not to take over the
total parental training, religious and moral inculcations,
juvenile court functions, nor many other tasks. The writer
does propose, however, a closer coordination of the home,
the church, the juvenile probation officer and the school.
Such coordination will motivate the child to live a more
wholesome life thereby combating juvenile delinquency. One
of the best methods by which this can be perfected is
through a coordinating, council.
Organization of Council
As an initial step, a small group will be called
together to discuss the general functions of the coordi-
nating council and to consider the particular needs of
Sarasota for such a coordinating agency to combat juvenile
delinquency. This small group will include the school
principal, the faculty, the Juvenile Probation Officer,
ministers from all thirteen Negro churches, city recreation
representatives, the president of the Parent-Teachers
Association, parent representatives and student representa-
After the initial meeting, at which time an outside
authority will be invited to explain the operation of
coordinating councils elsewhere and the group has discussed
its problem, a coordinating council will be formed. Its
purpose, as will be stated in the by-laws, will be "to
coordinate the various organizations of Sarasota in a
unified program to combat juvenile delinquency."
The writer sees fit to use the chosen persons in
connection with the small group because they represent a
cross section of the entire community of Sarasota. In order
that the members of the coordinating council will feel that
they are making definite contributions to the success of
the program, a committee of the group, headed by one
familiar with by-laws, will state the specific duties of
the officers and the council.
Coordinating Council At Work
A list of pertinent problems which contribute to
juvenile delinquency of the community will be made and dis-
cussed. After this discussion the council will be divided
into four tentative committees for additional specialized
study and recommendations for action. The names of the
committees will be as follows: Home Survey, Church Survey,
Child Problem Survey, and School Survey. The functions of
these committees will not be discussed here. It might be
said, however, that generally these functions are as those
included in the usual meaning of their names. Because the
community should be aware of the work of the council, a
public relations committee, which will be responsible for
preparing a monthly calendar of community events and will
give publicity to all important community affairs, will be
created. The total group will function similarly to other
organizations. An executive committee will be chosen as
the general governing committee of the council.
One of the most important outcomes to be expected will
be the beginning of an effective program of cooperation be-
tween Booker School and various organizations in Sarasota
As the school broadens its participation in community affairs
its understanding will increase with respect to the prob-
lems of the community and those of the individual pupils
within it. Likewise, all agencies coordinated will
develop greater ability to contribute democratically to
the solution of community problems and will perhaps
develop more effective personalities in the community and
in this manner, combat juvenile delinquency. From its
free discussions, surveys and other forms of cooperative
work, the program of the coordinating councils, as a de-
vice for developing community solidarity and single-
purposeness in combating juvenile delinquency in Sarasota
will be increasingly effective.
This organization will function as long as there is
need in Sarasota for combating juvenile delinquency.
Every group exists as a means of .satisfying certain
purposes, wishes, or interests, of furnishing certain goods
or values, to its members. If Booker School is going to
succeed in its proposed plan, it must first organize the
community of Sarasota. Having considered the nature and
and structure of Sarasota's community, it must determine
what is meant by community organization, and what are the
circumstances or Conditions which give rise to a sense of
need for a better organization of the community to combat
After the council has agreed on what is meant
by community organization and what the circumstances
and conditions are which give rise to juvenile delin-
quency in Sarasota, it will then formulate some specific
objectives of community organization to combat juvenile
The principal of Booker School suggests the follow-
ing should be the objectives of the council:
1. To obtain consciousness of community identity.
2. To satisfy unmet needs.
3. To obtain social participation as a means of
4. To obtain social control through community
spirit and loyalty.
5. To coordinate groups and activities, so as to
prevent conflict and promote efficiency and cooperation.
6. To preserve the community from the introduction
of undesirable influences or conditions that will
7. To cooperate with other communities and agencies
to obtain common needs (complete in athletics, et6.)
8. To establish a means of obtaining interest
(community meetings, to discuss community problems).
9. To develop leadership under which the community
can act to combat delinquency.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The conclusions and recommendations herewith sub-
mitted are confined to those which grow out of the data
presented in this thesis. This data showed that the lack
of coordination, poorhome conditions, the lack of guid-
ance for youngsters, poor examples set by adults and the
like have contributed toward delinquency in Sarasota.
From these fundamental facts it is clear that any-
thing which makes the community a better place in which to
live will reduce or combat delinquency. The better we can
make our schools, the more recreational facilities we can
provide, the more happy homes we have with good housing,
and incomes sufficient to provide the necessities for
modern living, the less delinquency there will be, Since
the data presented show there has been no program of
coordination in Sarasota to combat delinquency, and since
it has been further indicated that no individual agency
has had a sound program for combating juvenile delinquency,
the writer recommends three simple and direct proposals
for combating delinquency.
1. Locate the vulnerable. At the earliest possible
age see that they are chosen for special help. The
schools, because they reach all children between six
and twenty are particularly important in carrying
out this function.
2. Make full use of all existing resources to meet
the needs of children. This will involve strengthen-
ing and coordinating existing agencies to serve better
this special group of children.
3, Create and support services not now available
through existing agencies and groups.
Booker School recommends the following:
1. Discover the problem cases
2. Change the curriculum as often as needed to
help the child.
3. Keep the school open for twelve hours per day
(7 A M to 7 P M)
4. Make more frequent home visits
1. Include some wholesome recreation for young-
sters in its program.
2. Ministers work closer with school program.
3. Ministers counsel more often with parents and
4. Seek to find better prepared ministers
The Probation Officer
1. Should have a definite program with the
2. Should be considered as a member of the faculty
3. Should attend regular P.T.A. Meetings
4. Should become qualified for his position
5. Should endeavor to have pupils understand his
1. Parents endeavor to leave their children in
custody of a neighbor
2. Parents conduct themselves in a respectable
manner at all times, especially before children
3. The home should afford love and protection
for each child
4. Parents should endeavor to beautify their
homes inside and outside.
5. Know the type of movies the child sees and
the literature he reads
6. Visit the school weekly, if possible
7. Meet all teaching personnel.
Apovian, Harry Shury, Delinquency Conciliation In A Small
Urban Community: Function and Operations of a Juvenile
Aid Board, New York University, 1948
Armstrong, Clairette P., Why Boys Desert Their Homes, New
York University, 1931.
Benson, John L., The Immigrant and Juvenile Delinquency
University of Chicago, 1912.
Brennan, James Joseph, The Juvenile Aid Board of the
Police Department of the City of New York: An
Historical and Critical Analysis. New York Uni-
Cain, Emma Mary, Environmental Factors in the Lives of
100 Problem Negro Bo of Junior High School 139,
Manhattan, New York University, 1948.
Deshay, Lewis J., Relations of Male Sex Delinquency to
Later Behavior; A Statistical Analysis of Current and
Follow-up Records of 2fi Juvenile Delinquency Cases
Segregated for Comparison into Two Essential Tgpes,
New York University, 190.
Martin, Robert E., Relations of Juvenile Delinquency in
Areas With or Without Playgrounds, New Xork University,
Perkins, Richard, Treatment of Juvenile Delinquents,
University of Chicago, 1906.
Ross, Robert, A Study in Testing Moral Judgement, University
of Chicago, 1927.
Sollins, Irving V., Juvenile Delinquency, A Historical
Study, New York University, 1931.
Solomon, Norman F., A Study of Juvenile Delinquency,
University of Florida, 19~9.
Zabel, William, Street Trades and Juvenile Delinquency,
University of Chicago, 1918.
NUMBER OF OFFENSES BY YEAR AND AGES OF
OFFENDERS AS KEPT BY BOOKER SCHOOL'S PRINCIPAL
Slipping off Campus
3 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
These records are kept so that the principal might use them to
help evaluate the progress the school is making in improving
citizenship at Booker School.
10 o _m - -o
QUESTIONNAIRE NO. I
QUESTIONNAIRE TO PARENTS OR GUAPDIANS
Please give the correct answer to the
following questions by placing same in
the opposite blank.
I. How many children under 20 years of age are there in
II. Teachers and/or PrincipalT
A. Have you ever visited the school to discuss with
the teachers and/or principal behavior problems
of your child (children)?
B. How many times have you visited the teachers add/or
principal for this purpose?
C. When did you visit the school last?
A. Have you ever visited a local minister to discuss
with him behavior problems of your child (children)?
B. How many times have you visited the minister for
C. When did you visit the minister last in this connection?
IV. Juvenile Officer
A. Have you ever visited the Juvenile Officer to discuss
with him behavior problems of your child (children)?
B. How many times have you gone to see him for this
C. When did you visit the Juvenile Officer last in
-- -- -- ----s---- --
QUESTIONNAIRE NO. II
CASE STUDY ON DELINQUENT PUPIL
Please give the correct answer to the following
questions by placing the same in the opposite
Number in family
Number in family working_
Number in family in school
Does Father work? Type of work
Does Mother work? Type of work
Mother and father living?
If living, are they together?
9. Living conditions
Excellent Good Fair Low
10. Parents Church membership
11. Pupil's homeroom teacher
12. Have you discussed your child's behavior problems with
the teachers and/or principal?
13. When did you discuss the behavior problem with them last?