Newcastle Disease Vaccines Value Chain: A situation analysis of gender roles and participation in the Kaffrine Region, Senegal Visiting a veterinary pharmacy in Kaffrine after a key informant interview with the owner A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, FL USA Avril 2020 Prepared by: Pierre William Blanc Supervisory Committee: Dr Renata Serra, Chair Dr Sarah McKune, Member Dr John Kraft, Member
Acknowledgements I would like to thank the University of Florida International Center (UFIC) for giving me the opportunity to do my field practicum as part of the IDRC funded project at the University of Florida. My special gratitude goes to my Committee members Dr Renata Serra, Dr Sarah McKune, Dr John Kraft for their support and advice. I would like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Galloway, Dr. Andrew Noss, and the research team from the IDRC funded project at the University of Florida, Dr Sandra Russo, Dr Nargiza Ludgate, and Mr Daniel Acost a for their invaluable contribution in the realization of my field practicum, as well as the writing of this report. Many thanks Dr. Ibrahima Barry (University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar), Dr. Alioune Tour (University of Sine Saloum El Hadji Ibrahima NIASS (USSEIN), Kaffrine), Oumar Malick Ba from Cheikh Anta Diop University, my field assistant Mamadou Fall and to all those who supported me during my fieldwork in Senegal. I also would like to thank my wife July Dayane Nelson and all of my family for their support.
Table of Contents INTRODUCTION ! "!CONTEXT AND BACKGROU ND! #!LIVESTOCK AND POULTR Y PRODUCTION ! $!ANIMAL HEALTH AND DISEASE ! %!ANIMAL DISEASE SURVEILLANCE NETWORK! "#!VETERINARY SECTOR ! ""!CONTEXTUAL -CONCEPTUA L FRAMEWORK ! "#!RESEARCH AIMS AND ME THODS ! "&!METHODS OF DATA ANAL YSIS ! "'!DATA ANALYSIS AND RE SULTS ! "%!1.!KEY ACTORS IN THE PVVC ! "$!1.1.!THE MINISTRY OF LIVESTOCK (MEPA) AND THE DIRECTORATE OF LIVESTOCK (DIREL)! "$!1.2.!DOMESTIC POULTRY VACCINE PRODUCERS! "%!1.3.!KEY FOREIGN PRODUCERS AND IMPORTERS OF LIVESTOCK VACCINES FOR SENEGAL! "%!1.4.!OTHER ORGANIZATIONS A ND PROJECTS IN THE POULTRY SECTOR! "%!1.5.!PRIVATE VETERINARIANS! !1.6.!AUXILIARIES (â€œRELAYSâ€)! !1.7.!POULTRY FARMERS! &"!2.!ND VACCINE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM! &"!2.1.!ND VACCINES DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 1: â€œPUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMâ€ ! &"!2.2.!ND VACCINES DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 2: â€œPRIVATE DISTRIBUTIO N SYSTEMâ€! &&!3.!PERCEPTIONS IN THE PVVC, GENDER ROLES AND INTERSECTIONALITY! &'!3.1.!POULTRY PRODUCTION AND VACCINATION! &'!3.2.!POULTRY VACCINATION DEMAND IN THE KAFFRINE REGION! &(!3.3.!AVAILABILITY OF POULTRY VACCINES IN THE KAFFRINE REGION! &(!3.4.!ACCESSIBILITY TO POULTRY VACCINES IN THE KAFFRINE REGION! &)!3.5.!POULTRY FARMERSâ€™ PERCEPTIONS ON POULTRY VACCINES! &)!3.6.!INSUFFICIENT VETERINARY SERVICES! &$!3.7.!LACK OF AWARENESS OF ND POULTRY DISEASE AND VACCINES FOR ND ! &$!3.8.!SOME RELUCTANCE TO VACCINATE POULTRY AGAINST ND ! &$!3.9.!GENDER ROLES AND INTERSECTIONALITY! &$!4.!GAPS IN THE POULTRY VVC FOR ND ! *"!DISCUSSION ! &"!CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ! &&!REFERENCES ! &%!ANNEXES ! ("!ANNEX 1: KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW (KII) ! '"!ANNEX 2: SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW! '*!ANNEX 3: FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS (FGD) WITH POULTRY KEEPER S! '(!
List of Figures Figure 1 Map of Senegal Figure 2 Breakdown of meat production in Senegal (2015) Figure 3 Prevailing livestock diseases in Senegal (2017) Figure 4 Structure of the animal disease surveillance network in Senegal (2018) Figure 5 Contextual -c onceptual framework Figure 6 Respondents and data c ollection i nstruments Figure 7 Brea kdown by gender and respondent c ategories Figure 8 Distribution system of poultry vaccine for ND in Senegal List of Tables Table 1 Distribution of heads of farm households by sex and place of residence ( 2013) Table 2 Animal health situation in Senegal (2004) Table 3 Breakdown of fieldwork activities by location
Abbreviations ANSD Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Dmographie CIA Central Intelligence Agency CNA Centre National Avicole CPV Chef de Poste Vt rinaire DIREL Direction de lâ€™Elevage DINFEL Directoire National des Femmes en Elevage DSV Direction des Services Vtrinaires ENSAS Enqu te Nationale de S curit Alimentaire au S n gal FG D Focus Group Discussion FIDA Internationa l Funds for Agricultural Development GDI Gender Development Index GDP Gross Domestic Product GIE Groupement dâ€™Intrt Economique GII Gender Inequality Index HDI Human Development Index II Individual Interview IDRC International Development Research Centre ISRA Institut Sngalais de Recherches Agricoles KII Key Informant Interview LNERV Laboratoire National dâ€™Elevage et de Recherches Vtrinaires P VVC Poultry V accine V alue Chain MAER Ministre de lâ€™Agriculture et de lâ€™Equipement Rur al MEPA Ministre de lâ€™Elevage et des Productions Animales NESS National System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Animal Diseases ND Newcastle Disease NGO Non-Governmental Organization ODVS Ordre des Docteurs Vtrinaires du Sngal OIE World Organization for Animal Health PAFA-E Projet dâ€™Appui aux Filires Agricoles â€“ Extension PARC Pan African Rinderpest Campaign PASA LouMaKaf Projet dâ€™Appui de Scurit Alimentaire Louga, Matam et kaffrine PNDE Plan National de D veloppement de lâ€™Elevage PPP Purchasing Power Parity PRODAF Projet de D veloppement de lâ€™Aviculture Familiale PRODEC Projet de D veloppement des Esp ces Cycle court PSE Plan Sngal Emergent PVVC P oultry V accine V alue C hain RGPHAE Recensement Gnral de l a Population et de lâ€™Habitat, de lâ€™Agriculture et de lâ€™Elevage SDELPA Services D partementaux de lâ€™Elevage et des Productions Animales SECNSA Secr tariat Ex cutif du Conseil National de S curit Alimentaire. SNSE Syst me National de Surveillance Epid miologique SOPRODEL Socit pour la Promotion de lâ€™levage SRELPA Services R gionaux de lâ€™Elevage et des Productions Animales UF University of Florida UNDP United Nations Development Programme VPS Veterinary Post Station
Abstract Livestock rearing represents a main livelihood in Senegal and the poultry subsector accounts for 17% of the livestockgenerated GDP. Domestic poultry production experienced an average annual growth of 9.6% during 201015, partly facilitated by t ariffs on poultry imports. The poultry sector includes many small holder farmers, particularly women, who stand to benefit from the increasing demand for poultry meat. Howe ver, Newcastle disease (ND) is a major limiting factor in poultry production, leading to high rates of animal mortality. While vaccines are available to prevent this disease, awareness, distribution and adoption are patchy and insufficient. My 2019 summer fieldwork in the region of Kaffrine, Senegal, aimed to better examine constraints and opportunities in the poultry vaccine value chain (PVVC) for Newcastle disease, especially for women. M y m ain objectives were to characterize the actors along the PVVC for ND and identify gender barriers to participation in the PVVC. Primary data were collected using semi structured interviews and focus group discussions with actors along the value chain. I f i nd that the top constraints in the vaccine distribution system are: insufficiency of domestic vaccine production, difficulty to maintain the cold chain during transport ation, and poor logistics. There is also limited formal training for poultry farmers on poultry management and the benefits of vaccination, which leads to a lack of awareness of the main ND vaccines and a reluctance to use them. While the constraints in the PVVC for ND affect both men and women, it is more difficult for wom en to overcome them due to limited mobility and cultural norms. However, social acceptability of women poultry vaccinators is high according to key informants, suggesting the opportunity to increase womenâ€™s participation in the PVVC. Although there is no e xact translation of empowerment in Wolof, most respondents agreed that women must be financially independent and have their own income generating activity to be considered â€˜empoweredâ€™.
! ! " ! Introductio n P oultry is of high economic and social importance to rural women in Senegal. For instance, womenâ€™s livelihoods are more reliant on poultry keeping when compared to men, and women are also more likely to own poultry than men (USAID, 2010). Despite the important role of women in family poultry keeping, they are more likely to seek menâ€™s opinions before making important decisions such as vaccination and sales ( Guye, 2003). Due to the very high prevalence rates of poultry diseases, such as Newcastle disease (ND), which accounts for 80% of poultry deaths (Gning, 2004), poor animal health constitutes one of the biggest threats to poultry production. Vaccination is the only effective way to prevent Newcastle disease (Ndiaye et al., 2017). However, poultry farmers must have access to affordable vaccines against ND, as well as to veterinary services , and be able to make decisions about vaccination. Given the importance of gender roles in smallholder farmersâ€™ poultry production, which is a family activity in rural households, t here is a need to explore the poultry vaccine value chain for ND to understand gender constraints in the poultry vaccine value chain (PVVC) for ND , in order to identify measures to increase vaccination rates and income generating opportunit ies especially f or women. This Field Practicum Report provides essential information to better understand barriers to vaccination and gender integration in the P VVC, focusing on the Kaffrine region in Senegal. Specifically, it characterizes the actors along the poultry vaccine value chain for ND, then identifies gender barriers in the PVVC for ND. The results will help key stakeholders in activities related to ND prevention to design and implement program s or in terventions that increase womenâ€™s access to, and use of, vaccines, and promote womenâ€™s participation in ND prevention in Senegal. The information was collected through a review of official reports and documents ; 15 s emi structure d key i nformant interviews with private veterinarians , public actors and key stakeholders in the P VVC; 5 i ndividual i nterviews and 11 f ocus group discussions (6 to 12 participants in each focus group ) primarily with poultry farmers. Throughout this report, relevant information about the poultry vaccine value chain is examined drawing on a review of the literature , combined with content and thematic analyses . In addition , it highlights knowledge gaps for guiding further research efforts. The information in this report was also used to inform
! ! & ! the first output for Senegal of the IRDC funded research project â€œAdvancing Womenâ€™s Participation in Livestock Vaccine Value Chains in Nepal, Senegal, and Ugandaâ€. C ontext and Background C ountry P rofile Geography: Senegal is located at the westernmost point of West Africa on the Atlantic Ocean. Bordered to the north by Mauritania, to the east by Mali, to the south by Guinea and Guinea Bissau, and to the west by the Atlantic Ocean, the country has a total area of 196,722 sq. km with the Republic of The Gambia enclaved within its southwest ern portion (Figure 1) . Dakar, the capital, is a peninsula located in the far west (CIA, 2001) . Senegal is a relatively flat country made up of sandy soils , with a mean elevation of 69 m (CIA, 2019). T he country has four major rivers, which are the Senegal, Saloum, Gambia and Casamance rivers (CIA, 2001) . Just under one half or 46.8% of the land is agricultural land, and the tropical climate is dominated by a sevenmonth rainy season (starting in May) and a very hot , five month dry season (starting in December) in most regions of the country (CIA, 2019). ! ! ! Source: Worldatlas and Wikipedia (2017) "#$%&'! ( ! ) ! *+, ! -. ! /'0'$+1 !
! ! * ! Politic s : The Republic of Senegal is a democratic country, which gained its independence from France on April 4, 1960. The current President of the Republic, Macky Sall, has been in power since March 25, 2012, serving his second term. The number of years per term in office is now fixed at five years, after being changed back and forth from seven years to five years between 1963 and 2012 (Hesseling, 2010; Smith, 2015). In 2012, the Senate was abolished for economic reasons , and the parliament of Senegal comprises only the H ouse of R epresentatives, which constitutes the National Assembly (Smith, 2015) . Economy: In francophone West Africa, Senegal is the secondlargest economy behind Ivory Coast (â€œFrance Diplomatieâ€, 2019). In 2017, the estimated gross domestic produc t (GDP) of Senegal was $54.8 billion purchasing power parity (PPP) and ranked 107 among 230 countries and territories in the world (CIA, 2019). The estimated GDP per capita in 2017 was $3,500 with an annual growth rate of 7.2%. The service sector was the l argest driver of Senegalâ€™s economy, with an estimated contribution of 58.8% of the GDP, while the industrial sector and the agricultural sector accounted for 24.3% and 16.9% respectively. Although agriculture had the smallest contribution to the GDP, this sector accounted for the majority (77.5%) of the total estimated 6.9 million people in the labor force. The main agricultural products are peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables, cattle, poultry, pigs, and fish. The primar y sources of employment in rural areas are agriculture (comprising farming, livestock, and fisheries), mining, construction, and tourism. The rate of official unemployment in Senegal is relatively high, i.e., 48%, which place s the country near the very bottom, 216th out of 218 countries and territories ; but this figure ignores the large proportion of the population informally employed or underemployed (CIA, 2019). Based on the results of the survey "Listening to Senegal in 2014" by the National Agency of Statistics and Demography in collaboration with the World Bank Group, 56.5% of households live in poverty, 45.7% of which report being very poor (ANSD, 2015). The l evel of poverty is higher in the rural areas, where 69% of households are considered poor and 53.2% consider themselves very poor (ANSD, 2015). Demography: The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated in July 2018 the total population of Senegal to be 15 million people with 48% male and 52% female. About 53% of the
! ! ' ! population lives in rural areas , and the capital city of Dakar has around 3 million residents. The age structure is divided as follows: 61% are under 25 years old, 31% are between 25 and 54 years old, and 7% are above 54 years. The majority (96%) of the population is Muslim and 4% are Christian. There are several ethnic groups, however, the predominant ones are Wolof (37%), Pular (26%), and Serer (17%). The population uses French as the offic ial language, along with other nonofficial languages, including Wolof, which is the most widely spoken (CIA, 2019). The Human Development Index (HDI) of Senegal has been progressively increasing from 1990 (HDI: 0.367) to 2017 (0.505) . In 2017, Senegalâ€™s HDI was slightly higher than most of its neighboring countries: Mali (0.427), Guinea Bissau (0.455), Guinea (0.459) and Gambia (0.460). Senegalâ€™s HDI ranked 164 out of 189 countries , which placed the country in the medium human development category (UNDP, 2018). In Senegal, there is a significant level of inequality in terms of the three dimensions of human development, which are: a long and healthy life, access to knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Gender roles: In 2010, then President Abdoulaye Wade signed the law on gender parity in Senegal (Official Journal of the Republic of Senegal, 2010). The law established measures to promote greater gender equality in the education sphere, employment and the political sector within Senegalese society. I t mandates that each political party is to give equal access for both women and men on candidate lists for elections; as a result, Senegal ranks 7th worldwide for the highest percentage of women parliamentarians (41.8% in the 2017 parliamentary elections) (UNDP, 2018). However, according to the fourth General Census of Population and Housing, Agriculture and Livestock (â€œRecensement Gnral de la Population et de l'Habitat, de l'Agriculture et de l'Elevageâ€ RGPHAE), the majority of agricultural households ar e headed by men (84.7%), while the remaining 15.3% of households are headed by women (ANSD, 2013). In the same period, the region of Kaffrine had the lowest percentage of female headed agricultural households in all regions: only 4.8% of the 43,916 agricul tural households in this region were headed by women (Table 1). Women represent 50% of the agricultural workforce and often are marginalized compared to men. Gender can be a barrier limiting womenâ€™s access to education, training, agricultural inputs and m arkets ( Jones, 2014). One of the main factors that hinder the participation of women in agriculture and livestock farming is the unequal allocation of land and other productive resources
! ! ( ! between gender (Rubin, 2010). In some ethnic groups such as the Fulani, the type of livestock ownership is determined by household membersâ€™ gender and age. Men usually own draft animals, horses, and bulls, while women are more likely to own and be responsible for small ruminants and poultry (Fisher et al., 2000). The partic ipation of women in the livestock sector in Senegal is also affected by gender inequalities because of cultural, religious beliefs and practices that limit girlsâ€™ and womenâ€™s opportunities (Rubin et al., 2010). The practice of marrying girls at a young age is one of the barriers to womenâ€™s education. And parents are reluctant to give part of the cattle herd to girls because they are more likely to leave home when they get married. In case of difficulties (such as urgent financial need of the household), gir ls are the first to lose their rights to the family herd (Ancey et al., 2008). Table 1 Distribution of heads of farm households by sex and place of residence (ANSD, 2013) Source: ANSD (2013) Livestock and Poultry P roduction Livestock: In Senegal, the livestock sector contributes 28.8% of the agricultural generated GDP (ANSD, 2013) . This sector is a n important source of nutrition, income, and employment, especially in rural areas. In fact, livestockkeeping activities contribute to the livelihoods of 28% of Senegalese households (with 20.7% and 7.3% living, respectively, in rural and urban areas). The four main species raised are poultry (27%), sheep (23%), goats (18%), and cattle (12%) (ANSD, 2013). The major constraints to the development of the livest ock sector are related to: 1) inadequate pastoral infrastructure, access to water, and feed; 2) inappropriate management of agropastoral zones; 3) poor animal health due to the persistence of animal diseases and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
! ! ) ! insufficient health and vaccination coverage; 4) lack of access to markets and poor physical infrastructures, especially for landlocked regions; and 5) limited technology and institutional support for the processing and marketing of livestock products (ANSD, 2017). Poultry production: The poultry subsector accounts for 17% of the livestockgenerated GDP ( Fages , 2018) . Domestic poultry production experienced an average annual growth of 9.6% during 201015, partly facilitated by tariffs on poultry imports and an increasing demand for poultry meat. I n 2015, poultry meat production increased by 10.2% increase, from 73,882 tons in 2014 to 81,420 tons in 2015, and represented 38% of overall meat production (Figure 2) . The strong performance of the poultry sector is mainly due to the expansion of commerci al poultry farm s which suppl y 2/3 of poultry meat production based on sales of poultry meat . Figure 2 Breakdown of meat production in Senegal (2015) Source: ANSD (2018) According to FAO, poultry production in Senegal can be divided into two main systems (FAO, 2014). System 1: The village and backyard poultry farming system, which is practiced mainly in the family poultry sector across the country. Women and children are the most involved in taking care of poultry in this system, by raising imported chickens or domestic chickens whose scientific name is â€œ Gallus gallus â€. However, the development of this poultry production system is affected and limited mainly by ND and inte rnal parasites. Cattle 34% Sheep 14% Goats 8% Pigs 6% Poultry 38% Cattle Sheep Goats Pigs Poultry
! ! $ ! System 2: The commercial poultry farming system , which can be divided into three subsystems: 1! The industrial and integrated poultry farming system, based in Dakar, This and Saint Louis. This system concentrates on producing layers, chicks and poultry feed. 2! The intensive commercial poultry farming system, which accounts for 80% of the commercial poultry production workforce , is based in the Niayes area of Dakar and This. Th is system producers mainly layers, broilers and eggs . 3! The semi in tensive and amateur breeding poultry farming system exists mainly in the suburbs of large cities but also in rural communities. This type of farming is practiced by people with low incomes such as women and children who are mainly involved in breeding broi lers , or sometimes a mixed breeding of imported commercial chickens and local chickens. In the commercial poultry farming system, there are four types of poultry farmers: large, medium, small and subsistence poultry farmers . Large poultry breeding is prac ticed with at least 5,000 chickens in facilities that meet government poultry standards and have mechanical or automated system s . Medium poultry farming usually takes place in medium size poultry facilities that can be artisanal or modern, with an average of 2,000 chickens. Small poultry farming is carried out in small artisanal facilities , with an average of 500 chickens. Subsistence poultry farmers poultry farm ing usually has 50 to 100 chickens that are raised in small chicken cage. Animal Health and Disease In Senegal, livestock diseases have high prevalence due to insufficient animal health service provision and low vaccination coverage (Senagriculture, 2017). In addition, livestock diseases are also one of the main obstacles to increasing livestock productivity. In 2005, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) provided an overview of a nonexhaustive list of diseases faced by the Senegalese livestock sector throughout 2004. Table 2 shows the list of â€œA diseasesâ€, which are defined as having a high degree of spread and severity. â€œA diseasesâ€ have serious socioeconomic and health consequences, including a likely negative impact on international trade. â€œNewcastle disease (ND)â€ (190 cases) is the second most reported number of cases of â€œA diseases â€ in Senegal, and also one of the five diseases targeted by the National System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Animal Diseases (NESS) (MEPA, 2017). Also, ND
! ! + ! was among the top five confirmed cases during the infectious disease outbreaks in 2017. The to tal of reported infectious disease outbreaks in 2017 (379 cases) increased by more than 50% compared to 2016 (133 cases). This increase was associated with an improvement in reporting due to an increase in more qualified agents in the surveillance system, rather than a real deterioration in livestock health (MEPA, 2017). Figure 3 shows the dominant animal diseases reported in 2017. Table 2 Animal health situation in 2004 for Senegal V: vaccination +: Case reported or known (Year): Date reported for the last time Source: OIE (2016)
! ! % ! Figure 3 Prevailing livestock diseases in Senegal (2017) !!!!!!!!!!!! ! Source: MEPA (2017) ND is highly contagious in poultry farming in Senegal (Paul, 2005). This disease is a viral infection caused by a paramyxovirus that affects bird species, especially in poultry farms. The virus is spread by direct contact with fluids of infected birds, especially their feces. The incubation period is often between five to six days but may vary from two to 15 days and death may occur within 24 to 48 days (Paul, 2005). Symptoms of ND include acute fever and respiratory distress, depression, nervous manifestations and diarrhea (Suarez, 2000; Alders & Spradbrow, 2000). Despite vigorous measures such as the annual vaccination campaign that the Senegalese government has implemented, ND remains one of the deadliest diseases in poultry under surveillance in Senegal.
! ! "# ! Animal Disease Surveillance Network The National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SNSE) was officially created in 2005 by ministerial decree (N 005917 / MEL / ANSD / DPZ) (FAO, 2019). The surveillance of animal diseases in Senegal is under the control of the Directorate of Livestock Se rvices (DSV), which is attached to the Ministry of Livestock and Animal Production (MEPA). The 14 administrative regions of Senegal are served by Regional Services for Livestock and Animal Production (SRELPA) which supervise the Departmental Services for L ivestock and Animal Production (SDELPA). These in turn supervise the Chief of Veterinary Post Stations (CPV) which represent the surveillance system at field level (Figure 4) . In case of suspicion or identification of disease, livestock farmers contact the public veterinary services or the private veterinarians who intervene to conduct investigations. After the investigations, they fill out information sheets for the collection and transmission of epidemiological data to higher levels up to the DSV. The DSV then informs the National Laboratory for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Research (LNERV) of Dakar which will analyze the samples and continue the investigations. Finally, the LNERV sends the results back to the DSV, which publishes the final results in a n epidemiological bulletin and informs the lower levels of the actions to be taken concerning treatment and prevention.
! ! "" ! Figure 4 Structure of the animal disease surveillance network in Senegal, January 2018. Source: FAO. 2019. Sngal valuation pour action valuer les capacits de surveillance des maladies animales (Janvier 2018). Rome. 52 pp. Licence: CC BY NC SA 3.0 IGO. Veterinary Sector In Senegal, up to 1995, the government was solely in charge of the distribution of veterinary vaccines across the country (Paul, 2015). In the early 1990s, the veterinary profession underwent significant transformations. A program of voluntary departures in the public service induced veterinarians to move to private veterinary services (Official Journal of the Republic of Senegal, 2010). Then, the reform of the animal health system in Senegal, which started during the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC), supported the privatization of the veterinary services (Paul, 2005). In 1992, law No. 9252 of July 10, 1992, established the Order of Veterinary Doctors of Senegal (ODVS), which is the regulator of the veterinary sector in the country. Finally, in 1995, with the Decree No. 95645 of 6 July 1995 establishing the vete rinary health mandate, the government officially granted some of its prerogatives (including a collection of prophylaxis of animal diseases, hygiene and sanitary inspection of animals, and distribution of animal products) to private veterinarians. This sit uation contributes to the current scenario, which
! ! "& ! sees greater participation of private veterinarians than the government in both the sale and the distribution of veterinary products. However, since there are very few private veterinarians in remote areas the state remains the main provider in those regions (Gning, 2004). Contextual -Conceptual Framework My conceptual framework (Figure 5) is tailored around three main components: 1! T he key stakeholders in the poultry VVC (in dark blue) , which are the main sources of information about the roles of actors, gender perceptions and barriers that were collected during my fieldwork. 2! T he core of my field practicum (in dark green) includes the methods that were used to collect information from key stakeholders, and the type of analysis and lenses used to review the data. 3! T he general objectives (in dark orange) . The general objectives aim to provide insights to key stakeholders including government and nongovernmental organizations so that they could better design and implement programs or interventions that prevent high poultry mortality rates and increase womenâ€™s participation in ND prevention in Senegal.
! ! "* ! Figure 5 Contextual Conceptual Framework Research Aims and Methods My fieldwork addresses two interrelated objectives : i) to characterize the actors along the poultry vaccine value chain for ND, identifying the main actors in the poultry VVC, their roles, the connections and nodes between the actors; ii) enhance understanding of gende r barriers that prevent poultry keepers from accessing and using vaccines, and prevent other actors from enter ing the value chain, by focusing on gender and intersectionality factors, such as geographical location, age, social status, ethnicity and form of livelihood. I used the following m ethods when carrying out my field practicum : 1. ! Document review : Throughout the preparation and implementation of the fieldwork, a number of documents were collected and studied, including peer reviewed publications , reports on vaccination campaigns from official institutions (such as MEPA, DSV),
! ! "' ! documents from NGOs and international cooperation development projects in the livestock sector in SubSaharan Africa in general, and particularly in Senegal. These documents were found through internet searches as well as by asking experts and informants during the fieldwork. 2. ! Key informant interviews (KII s ) with experts from public and private sector s , including central and local government s as well as international donors : The fieldwork began with semi structured interviews with key informants to identify the main actors, entry points and distribution sites for poultry vaccines, as well as poultry vaccination practices. Overall, during JulyAugust 2019, I conducted a total of 15 KIIs , which include five actors in Dakar, and 10 at the regional and district levels within the region of Kaffrine. 3. ! Individual Interviews (IIs) with key actors in the poultry value chain at the community level: A total of five IIs with key local actors in the poultry sector were conducted in the region of Kaffrine : poultry farmers as well as auxiliaries (relays) 1 . IIs with key stakeholders in the poultry production systems aimed to capture their roles at the community level and their decisionmaking power related to the use of poultry vaccines. Sociodemographic information was also collected to identify barriers and intersectionality in poultry production and in the poultry vaccine value chain. 4. ! Focus group discussions (FGDs) with poultry farmers : FGDs used openended questions about poultry keeping, poultry diseases, access to vaccines and acceptance of vaccines. Eleven FGDs with 6 to 12 participants in each group were organized separately for men ( five FGDs in total) and wome n ( six FGDs in total) so that each group could discuss openly about opportunities and constraints specific to each gender. The information collected throughout these discussions contributed to a better understanding about the different perceptions, roles a nd responsibilities of men and women in the P V V C , as well as elements of intersectionality (gender, ethnicity, livelihood, socioeconomic class, etc.) that mostly affect their participation in the PVVC . During notetaking, particular attention was paid to the interactions between the participants in relation to poultry vaccination practices at the community level. ! 1 Auxiliary and relay are frequent words used by farmers or veterinarians for a man or a woman who can administer vaccines.
! ! "( ! The breakdown of KIIs, IIs and FGDs by location is indicated in T able 3 below. Table 3 Br eakdown of fieldwork activities by location Region Dept. Period Focus Group Discussion Individual Interview Key Informant Interview Grand Total Dakar 5 5 Dakar 2 weeks 0 0 5 5 Kaffrine 11 5 10 27 Birkelane 4 Weeks 6 7 Kaffrine 3 4 8 15 Malem Hodar 2 1 2 5 Koungheul 0 0 0 0 Grand Total 11 5 15 31 Source Fieldwork in Senegal (Summer 2019) Figure s 6 and 7 below show the level of participation by gender in the data collection. There were more FG D s with women than men. This reflects the predominance of women among traditional poultry farmers. Figure 6 Respondents and Data Collection Instruments ! " # $ % &! &" &$ &% "! "" "# "$ '' ()* '' +'' ()* +'' ()* +'' ,-./01230 +244.-30 52106 7892. *2/2. :;.21 <.=23 :0>?83903@>A239A*2@2AB8110C@-83A'3>@.;603@>AA 5210 (06210
! ! ") ! Source Fieldwork in Senegal (Summer 2019) Figure 7 Breakdown by Gender and Respondent Categories Source Fieldwork in Senegal (Summer 2019) Throughout the data collection period, slight modifications of the research instruments were made to adapt to the local context in order to make them more comprehensible to the local people . For example, the word â€œempowermentâ€ th at we used in the questionnaires does not have the same meaning when it is translated in French and does not exist in Wolof . Therefore, we had to explain empowerment in the questionnaires. The fieldwork started in Dakar ( two weeks), during which I conduct ed KIIs with a vaccine importer /wholesaler , â€œGlobal VET Distributionâ€, and established contact with stakeholder s in the PVVC, such as ISRA vaccine production laboratories , public actors and private veterinarians . Then, I traveled to the region of Kaffrine where I spent 4 weeks conducting FGDs and semi structured interviews (KII & II) in three districts (Kaffrine, Birkelane, and Malem Hodar). Metho d s of Data Analysis I analyzed the data collected throughout my field work using content and thematic analyses . According to Irvin Seidman, thematic analysis is very important in qualitative research. A thematic analysis organize s excerpt from the transcript into categories and identif ies threads and patterns among the excerpts within categories, then make connect ions between categories that 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Other organizations Private Veterinarians Public Actors Commercial poultry farmers Backyard poultry farmers Breakdown by Gender and Respondent Categories Male Female
! ! "$ ! can be called theme (Seidman, 2006). Therefore, I chose to do a thematic analysis of the qualitative data to review the information by identifying and establishing relationships between specific themes. The data analysis was done manually in Microsoft World and Excel. First of all, I read all the transcripts several times in Microsoft World and each time I highlighted the sections from the informantsâ€™ responses that I judged relevant to describe the actors of the PVVC and their interactions, the gender roles, the perceptions of vaccines and poultry production, the vaccine distribution system as well as constraints related to availability and access to vaccines. Second, I created a table in Microsoft Excel where I inserted all the texts of interest, organized by data collection instrument and category. Third, I examined the categories and the texts to identify similarities, contradictions and patterns among what the informants said. Then, I interpreted and summarized the categories within themes that I used in the presentation of my results. Finally, I applied an intersectionality perspective to understand the gender barriers in the PVVC. An â€œintersectionality perspective explores the interactions of social markers such as race, class, gender, age, and sexual orientation that shape an individual's or group's experienceâ€ (Norris et al., 2007). While interpreting the information for each category I tried to identify how different social markers influence both the perceptions of actors across the PVVC and their experiences in the PVVC. Data Analysis and Results After reviewing the data collected using content and thematic analysis, I organize d my finding into four main categories: K ey A ctors in the PVVC ; ND vaccine distribution systems; Perceptions in the PVVC, Gender Roles and Intersectionality; Gaps in the Poultry VVC for ND. 1. ! Key Actors in the PVVC 1.1. ! The Ministry of Livestock (MEPA) and the Directorate of Livestock (DIREL) The Ministry of Livestock and Animal Production (Ministere de Lâ€™Elevage et des Productions Animales (MEPA)) is responsible for overseeing the production, import, and distribution of vaccines and other veterinary medicines in Senegal (FAO, 2002). The Directorate of Livestock (DIREL) is the Department within MEPA appointed to supervise the commercialization, distribution and utilization of vaccines (both imported or locally produced) and other animal health products. In accordance with the recommendations of the World Organization for Ani mal Health (OIE), the DIREL
! ! "+ ! strives to develop a network of regional laboratories. T he Directorate includes the following decentralized structures (see also Figure 8) (FAO, 2002): ! ! The Regional Livestock Services carry out control and enforcement functions in the veterinary field. Each inspectorate is headed by a veterinary doctor, who may be assisted by a subordinate cadre of scientists and policymakers. I was able to interview the head of the regional livestock service in Kaffrine. The head of the regiona l livestock service is a woman who coordinates and oversees the distribution of vaccines to the four Departmental Livestock Services during the annual vaccination program. Usually, the regional livestock service received vaccines from the Directorate of Li vestock Services. ! ! The Departmental Livestock Services are responsible for assisting the Regional Livestock Services in the implementation of the animal health and public health protection policy, the promotion of animal production, and the development of professional organizations and pastoralism. Their mission is to ensure the implementation of the programs of collective prophylaxis, the inspection of foodstuffs of animal origin, the application of animal health policies and the coordination of the networ k of epidemiological surveillance. I interviewed the head of the Departmental Livestock Services in Malem Hodar, one of the four department in the Kaffrine region. The Departmental Livestock Services in Malem Hodar is led by a man who is a veterinar y doct or . He works with the Veterinary Post Stations in his area to coordinate and oversee the administration of vaccines during the annual vaccination campaign. ! ! The Veterinary Post Stations are led by veterinarians who work closely with auxiliaries (relays) in the dissemination of poultry vaccines. There are 23 veterinary stations in the region of Kaffrine (Birkelane: 4 veterinary post stations, Malem Hodar: 4 vet erinary post stations, Kaffrine: 7 veterinary post stations, Koungheul: 8 veterinary post stations). I interviewed two inspectors of Veterinary Post Stations in the department of Kaffrine. One is a man in the town of Gniby and the other is a woman in the t own of Boull. Their activities in the field include and are not limited to the execution of vaccination campaigns, the inspection of animal products, poultry keeping counseling, etc.
! ! "% ! 1.2. ! Domestic Poultry Vaccine Producers In Senegal, two main laboratories are involved with livestock vaccines: the â€œInstitut S n galais de Recherche Agricole (ISRA)â€ (Paul, 2015) that produces livestock vaccines, and the â€œLaboratoire National d'Elevage et de Recherches V t rinaires (LNERV)â€, which is in charge of vaccine quality control. ISRA , the only producer of I2 vaccines in Senegal , is one of the major actors in the PVVC . ISRA sells poultry vaccines to the directorate of livestock services, veterinarians and poultry farmers , and also offer s vaccine delivery services to ensure the conservation of the vaccine cold chain. Sometimes ISRA experience s shortage s of I2 vaccines because of limited access to eggs that are Special Pathogen Free (SPF), which are an essential input for I2 vaccine production. 1.3. ! Key Foreign Producers and Importers of Livestock Vaccines for Senegal In 2017, the Directorate of Veterinary Service reported that more than 93.6% of animal health products (including veterinary drugs and vaccines) were imported from the European Union (MEPA, 2017). In all, 63.3% of veterinary drugs and vaccines are imported from French companies represented by Laprovet (26%), Merial (19.5%) and Ceva Sant Animale (17.8%) (MEPA, 2017). In turn, 97.24% of veterinary drugs and vaccines are imported by the main wholesalers Senevet (54.4%), Soprodel (25%), Distrivet (11.3%), Sedima (4.58%) and Sosedel (1.96%) (MEPA, 2017). The largest market share (87%) was for imports of vaccines against avian disea ses (around 274.7 million doses). 1.4. ! Other organizations and projects in the poultry sector During the interviews, I identified several organizations and projects that participate in the PVVC in the Kaffrine Region: ! ! The Regional Directorate of Women in Live stock (DIREFEL) collaborate s with the public livestock services, projects like (PASA, PAFA E) and the local NGO Malem Auder to support women in the Kaffrine region in livestock farming activities, especially poultry farming and production of cow milk. They also mobilize women poultry farmers to accept and participate in poultry vaccination. This association has 1,000 women members in the department of Malem Hodar.
! ! ! ! ! The Economic Interest Group (GIE) in Birkelane which includes 12 groups of women from the five districts of Birkelane. This is an association which helps women gain land right s and mobilize s women poultry farmers to accept and participate in the vaccination of poultry. ! ! PASA and PAFA E are two ongoing projects in Kaffrine that received funding from the Senegalese government and international organizations like IFAD/ FIDA. They finance the purchase of poultry vaccine s such as ITA New which is imported, and they support vulnerable people in poultry farming activities . They also provide funds to train auxiliaries ( relay s) and raise awareness of poultry disease prevention. ! ! The l ocal NGO Malem Auder also provide s funds to train auxiliaries (relays) and raise awareness of poultry disease prevention. 1.5. ! Private Veterinarians Most of the private veterinarians that I interviewed work with veterinar y pharmacies and also practice poultry farming. There are private veterinarians who own wholesale animal health product companies that import poultry vaccines. There are also private veterinarians who have a mandate f rom the regional livestock service to participate in the annual vaccination campaign. Veterinarians generally refer to â€œindustrial poultryâ€ to talk about imported vaccines and â€œtraditional poultryâ€ to talk about the poultry vaccine (I2) produce d domestical ly by ISRA and used primarily during the annual vaccination campaign. In my interviews , most of these key informants agree d that they prefer to work with women because the y are reliable and follow recommendations . 1.6. ! Auxiliaries (â€œRelaysâ€) Auxiliaries/relays are people who have received training (formal and informal) on vaccination techniques from veterinarians. They work under the supervision of the Chief of Veterinary Post Stations and are often a ssigned to a Veterinary Post Station. They are the actors within the PVVC who work most with traditional poultry farmers. They usually mobilize poultry famers to participate in the vaccination campaign and visit the poultry farmers at their poultry farms to vaccinate their chickens. I interviewed 3 auxiliaries/relays (1 male and 2 females).
! ! &" ! 1.7. ! Poultry Farmers In Senegal, poultry farmers are people who raise birds, especially chickens either for food or as a source of income for their households. The 97 poultry farmers who participated in the FGDs or the IIs fall into two categories, smallholder backyard poultry farmers (96 out of 97) and medium commercial poultry farmers (1 out of 97). Smallholder backyard poultry farmers use traditional hen house s with very few chicken (sometimes they start the poult ry farm with less than 10 chicken). Commercial poultry farmers use adapted or modern facilities with a production capacity of several hundred chickens. 2. ! N D Vaccine Distribution System There are two main ND vaccine distribution systems in Senegal. The first distribution system which I called the public distribution system (green color in Figure 9) , mainly used for vaccines produced in Senegal, is most commonly used for those vaccines distributed during the annual vaccination campaign or accessed by traditional poultry owners (see more detail on traditional poultry below). The second distribution system , which I called the private distribution system (blue color in Figure 9) is primarily used for vaccines that are imported by the private veterinary sector. At the bottom of the two poultry vaccine distribution systems in Figure 9, I used the two colors for auxiliaries (relays) and poultry farmers because they are part of both systems. 2.1. ! ND Vaccines Distribution System 1: â€œPublic Distribution System â€ In the first system, ISRA supplies the vaccine. MEPA orders vaccines one to two months prior to the annual campaign through the Directorate of Veterinary Services (DSV). ISRA then transports the vaccines to the regional livestock services with refrigerated trucks, or regional services may pick up vaccines at ISRA or MEPA in their cars with coolers and store them in refrigerators at their office location. Departmental livestock services then collect the vaccines from regional services with coolers. From ther e, an agent at the veterinary station will typically collect the vaccines, and the animal health relay agents will pick up vaccines from the veterinary stations. Finally, the chief of the veterinary station, the auxiliaries will go to households in a designated area to administer poultry vaccines. In the public distribution system, the main beneficiaries of ND vaccines are traditional poultry farmers.
! ! && ! 2.2. ! ND Vaccines Distribution System 2: â€œPrivate Distribution Systemâ€ The second distribution system of the ND vaccine is the one used mainly by the private veterinary sector, in which the vaccines may be imported or produced locally . In this system, illustrated in Figure 8 below, although I did not show informa l distribution channel of poultry vaccines, there are actors in the PVVC that are buying poultry vaccines from informal distribution channel s , for which I do not have details . The official distribution channel is mainly dominated by the private veterinary sector (such as Laborex, Cophase, Sodepa, Sosodel, etc .), which distributes the vaccines to wholesale pharmacists and/or veterinarians, who then supply the vaccine s to the retail pharmacists and/or veterinarians. The retail pharmacists and/or veterinarians are in charge of direct delivery to the livestock owners/keepers, or indirectly through intermediate entities such as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), auxiliaries and others. Despite the laws in place to regulate vaccine distribution system in Senegal, t here is also an informal distribution channel tha t mainly imports veterinary products (such as Ourofino and Ivermectin) from neighboring countries and uses nonprofessional actors to deliver the veterinary products to the endusers (Paul, 2015) . The informal distribution channel is identified as one of t he major obstacles for the distribution of standardized veterinary products.
! ! &* ! Figure 8 Distribution system of Poultry Vaccine for ND in Senegal Source Fieldwork in Senegal (Summer 2019)
! ! &' ! 3. ! Perceptions in the PVVC, Gender Roles and Intersectionality 3.1. ! Poultry Production and Vaccination According to the participants that I interviewed, there are two major categories of poultry farmers: traditional poultry farmers, who use traditional hen house and traditional poultry production practices; and industrial poultry farmers, who use modern facilities. The following statements show the way that the veterinarians whom I interviewed referred to these two poultry production systems to answer questions on poultry vaccines for ND : ! â€œ T he annual vaccination campaign is for traditional poultry, the backyard poultry. â€ (KII 2 Dakar â€“ male, 8 July 2019).â€ ! â€œ The annual vaccination campaign organized by the state is not for the industrial poultry system that make s genetically modified broilers and layers . â€ (KII 2 Dakar â€“ male, 8 July 2019).â€ ! â€œ T he distribution of vaccines is at two levels, I2 vaccines is produced domestically by ISRA for traditional poultry, and for industrial poultry, we import the vaccines at th e level of foreign laboratories . â€ (KII 1 Dakar â€“ male, 3 July 2019). Both traditional and industrial poultry farmers vaccinate their chickens against ND diseases. Traditional poultry farmers usually wait for the annual vaccination campaign to vaccinate their chickens. Most of them think it is important to vaccinate their chickens, however, some of them are reluctant due to bad experience s with vaccinations, when they lost their chickens a few days after vaccination. These bad experiences led them to beli eve that the vaccines had killed their chickens. They also believe that the ITA New vaccine (imported) is more efficient than the I2 vaccine (produced by ISRA), because, for the prevention against Newcastle, ITA New could be given to the chickens only once or twice a year. In contrast an I2 requires three boosters after the first administration, and the vial of vaccine loses effectiveness each day after being prepared. Industrial poultry farmers see vaccination as highly important and vaccinate their chicke ns regularly according to guidelines for prophylaxis . They prefer to use HB1 because it can be administered more conveniently to a high number of birds (through water or aerosolized). However, other vaccines, including LaSota, CEVAC Broiler ND K, and ITA New are also used by SEDIMA to prevent ND.
! ! &( ! 3.2. ! Poultry Vaccination Deman d in the Kaffrine Region Poultry farmers vaccinate their chickens at different moments . First, when they buy small chickens (chicks) at the veterinary pharmacy or from commercial poultry company such as SEDIMA , and i n some cases, they buy chickens (chicks) that were already vaccinated. They also vaccinate during annual vaccination campaign organized by the ministry of livestock usually from October to March. Finally, they vaccinate their chicken during outbreaks , before or during the dry season, using services of private veterinarians and auxiliar ies (â€œ relay sâ€) . 3.3. ! Availability of Poultry Vaccines in the Kaffrine Region Poultry vaccine s are not always available for many reasons. First, there is an insufficient quantity of vaccines that are produced domestically by ISRA. T he main constraint they face to producing the I2 vaccine in Senegal is related to limited access to eggs that are Special Pathogen Free (SPF), which is the essent ial input for the development of I2 vaccines. Second, there is often disruption in the poultry vaccine supply chain during the annual vaccination campaign. This disruption is associated on one hand to the under reported census number s of poultry farmers a nd chickens before the annual livestock vaccination campaign; and on the other hand, the transportation infrastructure to remote villages is poor. P oor logistics and untimely power outages respectively hinder the appropriate transportation, storage and conservation of large amount of vaccines. Although I2 and ITA New are two thermostable vaccines that can be stored at room temperature s up to about 32C or 72F, cooling is required because in the Kaffrine region the maximum temperature during the day can be more than 40C. The following quote illustrates the shortage of poultry vaccines during the annual vaccination campaign in the Kaffrine region: â€œ W hen we launch the vaccination campaign, usually after one or two weeks there is shortage of vaccines . W e can w ait two to three weeks to receive some vaccines to continue with the vaccination campaign that is why the vaccination campaign lasts up to six months . I f we had all the vaccines in 2 months, we could complete the vaccination campaign. â€ (KII 10 Kaffrine â€“ Male , 31 July 2019)
! ! &) ! Although ISRA shows on their website that they sell I2 vaccines in vials containing 100 doses each, poultry farmers and private veterinarians have complained that ISRA does not produce small batches of doses for I2 vaccines , which are generally sold in vials of 100 and 1000 doses. They think that if there was a bottle with a small number of doses, I2 vac cines could be more affordable for poultry farmers. This measure could increase the vaccination rate among small backyard poultry farmers and reduce the waste of I2 vaccines. One of the respondents said: "The vaccine availability issue is more related to the presentation of the vaccine. The vial of vaccine contains 1000 doses, while backyard poultry farmers have small production units, about 10 chickens. " (KII 3 Kaffrine â€“ Male , 8 July 2019) 3.4. ! Accessibility to Poultry Vaccines in the Kaffrine Region A lthough vaccination fees seem to be small ( 30 CFA francs (USD 0.051) per chicken during the annual livestock vaccination campaign and 50 CFA francs (USD 0.085) outside of the annual livestock vaccination campaign), vulnerable households still cannot afford this relatively small amount to vaccinate their chickens. During the vaccination campaign, both the location of some remote village s and the l ack of transport ation (such as motorcycle, vehicle) make it difficult for vaccinators or auxiliaries to go to these remote villages. Thus, location and level of isolation present a barrier for poultry farmers to access poultry vaccines. 3.5. ! Poultry Farme r s â€™ Perceptions on P oultr y V accine s Poultry farmers express different preferences for ND vaccines according to their typology. There are three types of vaccines, I2, ITA New and HB1 that are mainly used for ND in Senegal . Government officials prefer to use domestically produced I2 vaccines that are easy to administer to chickens , one by one . Large commercial farms prefer to use HB1 because it can be administered more conveniently to a high number of chickens. Smallholder farmers prefer ITA New because they believe it is more convenient and allegedly effective than I2. Poultry farmers in villages with poor infrastructure and logistics prefer the I2 vaccine because it is more resistant to heat than ITA New. The following quote shows the reason why farmers in Ma l em Hodar decided to use I2 instead of ITA New:
! ! &$ ! â€œ Electricity is not very widespread in Malem Hodar, so it is difficult to maintain the cold chain of ITA New vaccine. Therefore, we have to use I 2â€ ( KII 7 Kaffrine â€“ Female , 23 July 2019) 3.6. ! Insufficient V eterinary S ervices There are villages with very limited number s of active auxiliaries (relays) to administer poultry vaccines. For example, although there are 10 auxiliaries (relays) for the 21 villages of Gniby, only two of them are active during the annual vaccination campaign because the others lack the means of transport to reach out a sufficient number of households and are thus not motivated . In the department of Malem Hodar, there are eight auxiliaries (relays), which is insufficient to serve all the department. According to one of the auxiliaries, he estimated that a team of four auxiliaries can vaccinated about 5,000 chickens during a vaccination campaign, but he usually vaccinates 150 chickens per month when there is no vaccination campaign. 3.7. ! Lack of A wareness of ND and V accines for ND Although the majority of the participants in the focus group discussions were able to describe symptoms (such as loss of appetite, laziness, paralysis) of Newcastle disease , they did not know the name Newcastle disease as a poultry disease. In addition, they did not know the names of the vaccines that are usually used to vaccinate their poultry against ND. 3.8. ! Some R eluctance to V accinat e P oultry A gainst ND Although vaccination against ND is widely accepted, a few poultry farmers who raised local chicken are reluctant to vaccinate because of the perception that local chickens are more resilient to disease. These poultry farmers become increasingly pessimistic about the benefits of vaccination each time some of their chickens die after being vaccinated. During my third focus group discussion, the participants made the following statement : "It happened that we vaccinate chickens and the expected result did not succeed because the chickens die the next day . W e suspect the quality of the vaccines or the expiration dat e . â€ (FG D 3 â€“ Birkelane (urban) â€“ Female (11) , 19 July 2019) 3.9. ! Gender R oles and I ntersectionality Both men and women participate in poultry farming, however women constitute the majority of backyard poultry farmers in rural areas . M en are apparently more involved in
! ! &+ ! commercial poultry farming in urban areas . Of the farmers I interviewed, only one practices medium scale commercial poultry farming, and he is a man. Most poultry farmers are involved in poultry farming because they need an additional source of income in order to supplement daily expenses or provide support for their households. During the fourth focus group discussion, the following statement was made: "P oultry production as an activity is cultural and is generally intended for consumption or source of income to take care of small needs . W hen we take the cultural dimension, we will say that for the owners of backyard poultry, there are 7 women for 3 men but when we integrate the commercial dimension, this business is mainly owned by men for 7 men for 3 women. " ( FGD 4 Birkelane â€“ 7 men, 20 July 2019) In general, m arried w omen have limited decisionmaking power over their poultry because the y have the obligation to inform and seek permission from their husbands before they can s ell or vaccinate their poultry. However, this is not the case for married women in the urban are as of Birkelane. Below are four statements from three different group discussions that illustrate decisionmaking power dynamics between wives and husbands regarding vaccination of poultry. ! "W e make the majority of the decisions (7 out of 10) concerning the cattle but we must necessarily discuss them with our husbands so that they can tell us whether they agree or not and also to give us advice . " (FG D 1 â€“ Kathiotte (rural) â€“ Female (7) , 16 July 2019) ! â€œI n the village of Kathiotte, the decision to sell may come from female poultry owners but it is the men who go to the market to sell . â€(FGD 2 â€“ Kathiotte (rural) â€“ Male (7) , 16 July 2019) ! "At Birkelane, female poultry owners make all decisions personally with or without their husband. "( FGD 3 â€“ Birkelane (urban) â€“ Female (11) , 19 July 2019) ! â€œ W hoever the owner is, it is always the men who make the decisions, even when the woman wants to do something she must tell him about it; you are the owner who bought the chickens but you can't do anything without the approval of your husband. â€ ( FGD 7 â€“ Gniby (village) â€“ Female (12) , 31 July 2019)
! ! &% ! T here is high social acceptability of women auxiliaries . However, they are more disadvantaged than men auxiliar ies to participate in the annual livestock vaccination campaign. First, women are limited i n terms of mobility since they are less comfortable using motorcycles (Jakarta) which is the primary transportation provided by the SRELPA during the annual livestock vaccination campaign. Second, women cannot spend as much time in the field because they are more responsible than men for household chores, such as preparing food and taking care of children. Third, vaccinating poultry can be difficult when poultry farmers do not have a chicken coop that can be closed. In this s ituation, the best time to vaccinate is early in the morning or at dusk, which are not convenient times for women to be outside of their home. The following quote s illustrate difficulties encountered by women to administer poultry vaccines: ! â€œF or poultry , almost all the auxiliaries are women. I f the chickens are not together in a chicken coop, the vaccination of poultry is not easy . I t is necessary to have a lot of motivation since it must be done early in the morning or at sunset from 7 p.m. until 9 p.m.â€(K II 10 Kaffrine â€“ Male , 31 July 2019) ! â€œ I t's difficult to wait until dusk to go and vaccinate the chickens . â€(KII 12 Gniby â€“ Female , 31 July 2019) Women poultry farmers also say that they are more impacted when there is shortage of vaccines during the annual vaccination cam paign for two main reasons. Women, especially women of advanced age (over 45 years old) who constitute the large majority of backyard poultry farmers, are less flexible in terms of mobility and less likely to own a donkey cart. The following statements show some of the problems that women encountered with transportation whether to participate in poultry vaccination campaign or to seek for poultry vaccination services at a veterinary shop: ! â€œ A man can easily take a Jakarta motorbike to get supplies while for a woman it is not obvious, especially when they are of advanced age . â€ (KII 7 â€“ Malem Hodar â€“ Female , 23 July 2019) ! "I t is the men who manage the animal carts, women donâ€™t manage the cart therefore the constraints are more accentuated among women." (KII 7 â€“ Malem Hodar â€“ Female , 23 July 2019)
! ! *# ! In Kaffrine, women are more likely to be beneficiaries or leaders of poultry projects in the livestock sector. For example, out of the 11 ongoing subprojects of PAFA E in Kaffrine, 10 are led by w omen, and the majority of the beneficiaries are women. Furthermore, more women work as laboratory technicians than men for livestock vaccine production. These observations indicate that women have important roles to pla y in the VVC. However, women across t he board, and especially within poor households, have fewer opportunities to earn income than men. Consequently, it is more difficult for women to pay cash expenses (such as phone call s , transport costs, vaccination costs) to vaccinate their chickens . In addition, c ultural norms l imit women's land ownership right s , therefore women have less access to financial credit which could allow them to increase their poultry production. The quotes below illustrate the disadvantage of women compared to men in terms of financial opportunities and land ownership rights . ! "T o use my poultry vaccination service outside the vaccination campaign, there is a lack of financial means mainly among women who cannot make phone call, they cannot cover the transport costs, they cannot also pay the service fees." (II 1 Kaffrine â€“ Male , 13 July 2019) ! â€œ W e always say that it is absolutely useless to grant a parcel of land to a wom an because she lives where she is going to marry.â€ (KII 5 Kaffrine â€“ Male , 18 July 2019) Women play a major role in the prevention of ND. In rural communities they are more likely to receive training for backyard poultry vaccination because it is more convenient to have women auxiliaries working with small backyard poultry for better communication with fem ale poultry owners. Men prefer to work with women as animal caretakers because they believe that women are more reliable than men and it is easier to collaborate with women than men. A key informant said: â€œif someone has to participate in a vaccination cam paign, it can be linked to gender because in fact most of the people who raise poultry are women, therefore communication can happen much better with women auxiliaries . â€ (KII 3 Dakar â€“ Male, 8 July 2019)
! ! *" ! 4. ! Gaps in the Poultry VVC for ND On the basis of the information collected from secondary sources as well as this fieldwork, several gaps were identified as obstacles to increasing womenâ€™s engagement in, and benefits from, the P VVC for ND in Senegal and specifically in Kaffrine . The following specific gaps identified across the poultry VVC could inform ongoing and future fieldwork in the poultry VVC for ND. ! L ack of awareness about the importance to vaccinate poultry on time according to poultry disease prevention programs communicated by veterinarians . ! Limited reach of vaccination campaigns or vaccination services due to physical location and geographical distance (especially for remote areas) . ! Complex intra household dynamics, whereby even when women have ownership or primary care of poultry , vaccination is considered to be in the menâ€™s decisionmaking realm . ! Insufficient vet erinarians and auxiliaries (â€œrelaysâ€) in the poultry VVC for ND , especially in remote areas. ! L ack of access to financial credit for women to increase their poultry production. Discussion In Senegal, both men and women are present at all nodes of the poultry vaccine value chain for ND, from production to distribution, dissemination and administration. There are women in positions like Head of Regional Services for Livestock and Animal Production (SRELPA) in Kaffrine, Head of Departmental Services for Livestock and Animal Production (SDELPA) in Kaffrine, Chief of Veterinary Post Stations (CPV) in Boull, and in another Region like Fatick. According to the key informants from both public and private institutions , recruitments are made by merit regardless of gender. However, women seem reluctant to apply for jobs where men predominate. This reluctance could be caused by the complex intra household dynamics in which women are used to be led by men. In one of my interviews with a married woman in the urban area of Kaffrine, I experienced a situation in which that woman first had to call her husband to get his permission to do the intervi ew. Then, during the interview, her husband did not allow her to answer household questions or to be i n any of the photos that were taken with me . Therefore, I can imagine that women poultry farmers living with this type of intra household
! ! *& ! dynamic might not be able to receive auxiliaries to vaccinate their chickens during the vaccination campaign without the authorization of t he i r husbands . In terms of distribution of ND vaccines to poultry farmers, my findings show no evidence of gender preference among f armers. P ublic livestock services do not distribute more poultry vaccines to certain groups of traditional poultry farmers based on gender . Regardless of the gender of traditional poultry farmers, they receive poultry vaccines based on the number of chicke ns in their farm . One of the key informants mentioned that: "When we give the poultry vaccines, we don't look at the household, we don't think of ethnicity, we don't think of religion, we don't look at the person."(KII 3 Dakar â€“ Male, 8 July 2019) However, there are remote areas where the vaccination rate is very low, either because of remoteness or lack of awareness about the benefits of vaccines among certain poultry farmers. In rare cases, auxiliar ies can give priority to poultry farmers with whom they usually have good interactions and avoid going to villages where poultry farmers are reluctant to use ND vaccines and do not believe too much in the benefits of vaccination. C onsider ing poultry production overall, regardless of the type of poultry f arming system, women are predominant . However, it is important to highlight that men are predominant in commercial poultry farming because they are more likely to have access to financial credit , whereas women need to be part of a cooperative or a womenâ€™s association in order to have access to financial credit. This situation shows the existence of a patriarchal system which still exists in Senegal. Although men encourage women to participate in traditional poultry vaccination as an income generating activi ty and agree that women must be financially independent, there appear to be no concrete steps taken by men to facilitate participation of women in the PVVC. According to the statements below made by two key informants, m en do not seem to have a problem for women to be empowered, but they do not provide equitable means to increase income generating opportunities for women. ! "B ased on my personal experience women follow recommendations better than men, but I prefer not to see women on the field in conditions that are not suitable for women, but if women accept to work in the same conditions as men, they can do the field work" (K II 4 Kaffrine â€“ Male , 9 July 2019)
! ! ** ! ! "I can leave my house in Kaffrine for a fortnight to be in Dakar outside my house, of which imagine a woman it can be constraints for them which it is not the institution"(KII 3 Dakar â€“ Male , 8 July 2019) My f ieldwork was limited by time, thus a minimum number of interviews and focus groups with the participants at all the different nodes of the P VVC were carried out . The fieldwork took place during an unfavorable period (July and August) to meet farmers, as it was t he rainy season during which farmers carry out agricultural fieldwork such as preparing their land for planting . The fieldwork coincided with Eid Al Adha, which is a famous Muslim holiday and many authorities key to this value chain were preoccupied with i t and hence did not have time to meet for KIIs . O ther periods of the year could offer more opportunit ies for interviewing a larger group of actors in the P VVC, as well as to observe a vaccination campaign which is usually held from October to March. Another important period is during the cool weather in the Kaffrine Region when smallholder backyard poultry farmers usually increase their poultry activities. As indicated previously, participants were not comfortable talking about gender issues and womenâ€™s empowerment. It was difficult to obtain transparent answers and opinions regarding the concept of gender and womenâ€™s empowerment. In addition, it was sometimes difficult to get elaborate answers on how socioeconomic status influences potential vacc ine distribution disparities. Respondents (both male and female) avoided those questions or just gave tentative answers to then move to the next question as fast as possible. Maybe it was how the questions were formulated, and the fact that men were asking the questions, or that it is just a sensitive subject in those communities. In addition, in group discussions, I now realize it is important to have facilitators who understand Wolof for better notetaking and to reduce the loss of content during data translation into French. Conclusions and Recommendation s In Senegal, the rapidly increasing demand for livestock products in general, and chicken meat in particular, offer s an important income generating opportunity for women who are predominant in the management of backyard poultry. Although, Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the biggest threats to poultry production, there are vaccines available in Senegal to prevent the disease. The
! ! *' ! to p vaccines used against Newcastle Disease in smallholder poultry farms are I2 (produced domestically) and ITA New (imported). Sometimes there are disruption in the supply chain of poultry vaccine for ND due to insufficient production of I2 vaccine by ISRA, under reported numbers of poultry farmers by periodic censuses, and poor transportation infrastructure and logistics in the village s. There is limited formal training for poultry farmers on poultry management and the benefits of vaccination, which leads t o a lack of awareness of the main ND vaccines and reluctance to use them. While the constraints in the PVVC for ND affect both men and women, it is more difficult for women to overcome them due to limited mobility and cultural norms that reduce womenâ€™s acc ess to financial credit and womenâ€™s decisionmaking power over poultry. All those constraints also prevent women from having large commercial poultry farms. Based on the findings, the following recommendations may provide good solutions to improve awar eness and accessibility of poultry vaccines for ND in the country of Senegal: 1! Increas e awareness about ND disease and prevention of ND through prophylaxis program. o! Limited access to mobility is one of the main constraints preventing poultry farmers, especially women who are the most affected, from participating in training about ND prevention. Limited access to mobility also hampers training coverage in remote areas. Creating a special radio show at the national or local level and offering radio with rechargeable battery like the solar hand crank radio can be an effective way to educate poultry farmers and keep them informed of ND disease and vaccination techniques. Given the current power dynamics within households where women have less decisionmaking power , it is important to make the radio show available at different times of the day to increase the opportunity for women to listen to the show at a time when men ar e not using the radio for something else. o! Religious leaders play an important role in Senegalese society. They can make a valuable contribution by sharing information about ND vaccines with their followers and convincing them to regularly vaccinate poultry. Therefore, I strongly encourage to involve them in the dissemination of information on ND vaccines, vaccine distribution and ND vaccination training.
! ! *( ! 2! Increase production and access to ND vaccines o! The majority of respondents, including veterinarians and poultry farmers, expressed the need for access to vials of small doses of ND vaccine because poultry farmers in the rural areas of Kaffrine are more likely to have an average minimum of 10 to 50 chickens. Therefore, laboratories such as ISRA could be encouraged to produce 10dose vials of ND vaccine. On the one hand, it will make the ND vaccine more affordable and accessible to small poultry farmers. On the other hand, this will reduce the waste of vaccines like I2, which loses its effectiveness after openi ng the vial. o! It would be important to have a better organization of the supply chain by improving logistics in key distribution nodes like the Regional Livestock Services, the Departmental of Livestock Services and the Veterinary Post Stations. MEPA could provide adequate logistics to transport and store large quantity of ND vaccine vials depending on poultry production in the respective areas. o! Due to limited access to transportation, which is most of the time not affordable to poor household in rural villa ges, the SRELPA may consider having and training one community vaccinator in each village and making sure they have access to veterinary posts, information and training on a regular basis. That should increase access to poultry vaccination services and ND vaccines. 3! Increase training on ND vaccination techniques in rural areas o! More t raining on vaccination techniques for ITA New and I2 vaccines should take place in the rural areas than the urban areas of the countryside. I would also encour age the participation of household heads in these trainings because they have more decisionmaking power in the households . Therefore, if household heads are also trained and well informed about the benefits of ND vaccines , they will influence other household heads to be more support ive of womenâ€™s decision about ND vaccination. 4! Provide adequate resources to women to facilitate their participation in ND vaccination activities in order to increase ND vaccination rate
! ! *) ! o! ND vaccination rate can be increased by providing women with adequate means of transport ation as an alternative to motorcycle. I encourage the use of car or animal drawn cart s available to facilitate and increase their participation in ND vaccination activities. In this sense, the SRELPA could c reate policies that promote gender equity to facilitate and increase womenâ€™s participation in the annual vaccination campaign. 5! Increase accuracy of reported census numbers of poultry farmers and chickens before the annual livestock vaccination campaign o! SRE LPA could improve the policy requiring veterinary post stations to collect information on the number of chickens in their respective district or village . One way to do that is to collect the information twice, four and two months before the vaccination cam paign. Then, the numbers should be reconciled, and the veterinary post stations should verify the accuracy of any suspicious deviation. In this way, ISRA can be better informed to increase their production of I2 vaccines and importers of vaccines can also increase the quantity of ITA New vaccines in their orders. 6! Increase income generating opportunities for women poultry farmers by crea ting more cooperative or association of women poultry farmers o! SRELPA could encourage each village to have a cooperative or association which can be a good way for women poultry farmers to establish contacts with other organizations, public authorities and potential buyers of chickens in order to increase their opportunities for generation. of income and sell more chickens. The PVVC creates a space for interaction between actors from different domains , such as agriculture, animal and human health, economics , politics, technology, etc. A good management of the PVVC for ND can have high socioeconomic benefits for the country. The results of my field practicum can help policy makers and development organizations like IDRC explore the PVVC through a gender pers pective and implement more effective interventions or programs to increase poultry production and income generating opportunities for women. An increase in poultry production will allow more people to have access to animal source food and alleviate poverty.
! ! *$ ! Reference s Alders, R., & Spradbrow, P. (2000). La maladie de Newcastle dans les levages avicoles villageois: Manuel de terrain. 70. http://www.fao.org/3/a ah930f.pdf Ancey, V., Ickowicz, A., Corniaux, C., Manoli, C., & Magnani, S. (2008). Stratgies pastorales de scurisation chez les Peuls du Ferlo (Sngal). Journal des africanistes, (781/2), 105119. Retrieved from https://journals.openedition.org/africanistes/2280 Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la D mographie. (2018). Situation Economique et Sociale du S n gal Ed. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.ansd.sn/ressources/ses/SES 2015.pdf Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la D mographie. (2013). Rapport dfinitif RGPHAE 2013. 345â€“372.Sngal. Retrieved from http://www.ansd.sn/ressources/RGPHAE 2013/ressources/doc/pdf/12.pdf Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la D mographie (ANSD). (2015). Pauvret et condition de vie des mnages.Retrieved from http://www.ansd.sn/ressources/public ations/PAUVRETE%20ET%20CONDITION%20D E%20VIE%20DES%20MENAGES DEF VRC VF.pdf Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Dmographie (ANSD) [Sngal]. (2017). Rapport Regional. Rapport Rgional Dfinitif R gion de Kaffrine. Retrieved from http://www.ansd.sn/ressources/RGPHAE 2013/ressources/doc/pdf/RGPHAE Rapport regional_KAFFRINE_vf.pdf Alexander D.J. (2009) Ecology and Epidemiology of N ewcastle Disease. In: Capua I., Alexander D.J. (eds) Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease. Springer, Milano. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978884700826 7_2 CIA. 2019. World Factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/LIBRARY/publications/the worldfactbook/geos/sg.html CIA. 2001. Senegal Handbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA RDP79 00891A0010000700015.pdf Coly, R., Youm, B. G., & Ly, C. (2002, October). CAHWs in Senegal: problems and prospects for acti on. In Primary animal health care in the 21st Century: shaping the rules, policies and institutions. Proc. International Conference (K. Sones & A. Catley, eds) (pp. 1518). Retrieve from http://sites.tufts.edu/capeipst/files/2011/03/Colyet al Mombasa.pdf
! ! *+ ! Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2019. Sngal valuation pour action valuer les capacits de surveillance des maladies animales (Janvier 2018). Rome. 52 pp. Licence: CC BY NC SA 3.0 IGO. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2014. Secteur Avicole Senegal. Revues nationales de lâ€™ levage de la division de la production et de la sant 38 nimals de la FAO. No. 7. Rome. Retrieve from http://www.fao.org/3/i3659f/i3659f.pdf Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2002). Evaluation des Capacites Nationales de Controle Zoosanitaire et des Besoins en Formation, Etude commanditee par la FAO dans le cadre du TCP/RAF/0177, Dr Raphaâ€˜l COLY, Vtrinaire spcialiste en sant animale. â€œFrance Diplomatieâ€. Last updated on 10 April 2019. Access on Aug 30, 2019. Retrieve from https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/dossiers pays/senegal/presentationdu senegal/ Gning, M. C. (2004). Trade, political influence and liberalization: situating the poor in the political economy of livestock in Senegal. PPLPI Working Paper Pro Poor Livest ock Policy Initiative, FAO, (8). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/logi n.aspx?direct=true&db=lah&AN=20073214228&site=eh ostlive%5Cnhttp://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/projects/en/pplpi/project_docs.html Gueye, E. F. (2003). Gender issues in family poultry production systems in low income fooddeficit countries. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture , 18(4), 185195. Hesseling, G. (2010). Le Snat au Sngal, une attraction secondaire. Retrieve from http://a frilex.u bordeaux4.fr/sites/afrilex/IMG/pdf/Le_Senat_au_Senegal_une_attraction_secondaire.pdf Killebrew, Katherine; Plotnick, Robert and Gugert, Mary Kay (2010). Poultry Market in West Africa: Senegal. Evans School Policy Analysis and Research, EPAR of t he Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.Retrieve from https://evans.uw.edu/sites/default/files/Evans_UW_Request%2086_Poultry%20Market% 20Analysis%20Senegal_524 2010.pdf Marangon, S., & Busani, L. (2007). The use of vaccination in poultry production. Revue Scientifique et Technique (International Office of Epizootics), 26(1), 265â€“274. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17633308 â€œMinistere de lâ€™Elevage et des Productions Animalesâ€(MEPA) (2017). Rapport dâ€™activit s 2016. Retrieve from: http://www.elevage.gouv.sn/documentations/rapport dactivits 2016 â€œMinistere de lâ€™Elevage et des Productions Animalesâ€(MEPA) (2017). R sum du Rapport annuel dâ€™activit s 2017 de la Direction des Services v t rinaires. Retrieve from:
! ! *% ! http://www.elevage.gouv.sn/sites/default/files/RESUME%20RAPPORT%20ANNUEL% 20DSV%202017.pdf Missohou, A., Dieye, P. N., & Talaki, E. (2002). Rural poultry production and productivity in southern Senegal. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 14(2), 2002.Retrieve from http://lrrd.cipav.org.co/lrrd14/2/miss142.htm Nahimana, G., Missohou, A., Ayssiwede, S. B., Ciss, P., Butore, J., & Tour, A. (2015). Pratiques de lâ€™aviculture familiale au Sngal oriental et en Haute Casamance. Homme , 9, 5. Ndiaye, N. F. T., Aidara, M., Sakho, A. C., Lo, F. T., Lo, M., Diop, M., ... & Dieng, A. (2017). Un vaccin bivalent efficace contre la maladie de Newcastle et la variole a viaire, produit au Sngal. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences , 11(2), 757767. Norris, A., MurphyErby, Y., & Zajicek, A. (2007). An Intersectional Perspective in Introductory Sociology Textbooks and the Sociological Imagination: A Case Study. Race, Gender & Class,14(1/2), 333344. Retrieved April 9, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/41675213 Official journal of the Republic of Senegal (2008). â€œLoi n07 du 24 janvier 2008 â€Access Aug 30, 2019. Retrieve from http://www.jo.gouv.sn/spip.php?page=imprimer&id_article=6631 Official journal of the Republic of Senegal (2010). Access Aug 30, 2019. Retrieve from http://www.jo.gouv.sn/spip.php?article8213 Paul, M. C. B. (2005). Sngal: un systme de sant animale en voie de privatisation. Retrieved from http://theses.vet alfort.fr/telecharger.php?id=745 Secr tariat Ex cutif du Conseil national de S curit alimentaire (SECNSA). (2016). Enqu te nationale de S curit alimentaire au S n gal 2016 (ENSAS, 2016). Retrieved from https://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp292119.pdf?iframe Seidman, I. (2006). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press. United Nations Development Program (UNDP). (2018). Human development indices and indicators: 2018 statistical update, Senegal. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/countrynotes/SEN.pdf United States Agency for International Development (2010). Gender Issues and Agriculture in Senegal Gender and Agricultural Value Chains in Senegal 1. (6), 0â€“11. Retrieved from http://www.culturalpractice.com/wpcontent/downloads/32010 31.pdf
! ! '# ! World Organization for A nimal Health ( OIE ) (2016) Handistatus. Annual Animal Disease Status.Senegal/2004. Last update: 14 December 2016. Retrieved from https://web.oie.int/hs2/zi_pays.asp?c_pays=166&annee=2004 Organisation des Nations Unies pour lâ€™Alimentation et lâ€™Agriculture (FAO), Lâ€™importance du genre dans les processus politiques pour garantir le droit l'alimentation, Le cas du Sngal, (2016). Retrieve from http://www.fao.org/3/a i5919f.pdf Fages, C. (2018). Chronique des matires premires Le Sngal va t il autoriser de nouveau les importations de poulet? Retrieved from http://www.rfi.fr/fr/emission/20180622le senegal va il autoriser nouveauimportations poulet . Rubin, D., & NiangMbodj, O. K. (2010). Gender Asse ssment: USAID/Senegal. Arlington, VA: DevTech Systems. Retrieve from https://www.kstate.edu/smil/docs/gender/Senegal_Gender_Assessment_Jun2010.pdf Smith, . (2015). Sngal, la diaspora fait elle lâ€™lection : Le vote distance de 1992 2012. Afrique contemporaine, 256(4), 5172.
! ! '" ! Annexes Annex 1: Key Informant Interview (KII) Gender and Poultry Vaccines Value Chain Analysis in Senegal Key Informant Interview University of Florida Background information Date_____________ Time _____________ Location (village, district, province, country): __________________________________ GPS Coordinates: L AT: ___________ LONG: ___________ Respondents Gender: _____________ Translators Name: __________________ Interviewerâ€™s name __________________ Poultry Vaccine Value Chain ( P VVC) 1) ! Can you describe the organization/project you work in? 2) ! Can you describe in few words your role in your organization/project? 3) ! How long have you been working in this position or similar? What poultry vaccines are distributed in Kaffrine areas? 4) ! What vaccines have higher priority? Why? Who decides this? 5) ! Are there regions/districts that receive more vaccines than others? Who decides the amount that goes to each region/district? 6) ! Describe the poultry vaccine distribution system in Senegal (from production/point of entry into the country all the way to delivery to farmers). a. ! Who are involved in the distribution system? b. ! What processes are involved? c. ! How do you participate in these processes? d. ! What are the triggers for the vaccine distribution? [probe: an outbreak, regular vaccination scheme, seasonality, particular funding from a donor, etc.
! ! '& ! 7) ! What do you think are the main problems/bottlenecks in this system? a. ! Is it availability? Quality? Cost? Supply delays? Infrastructure [storage]? Transport? Government certification/registration process for vaccines? 8) ! What are your particular constraints in your work with vaccines? [Notes: explain as many as possible and rank top three most important constraints for each vaccine if any] a. ! How do your constraints relate to the wider constraints in the vaccine distribution system? 9) ! Wha t are the main constraints farmers face getting vaccines? [Notes: explain as many as possible and rank top three most important constraints] 10) Is there a mandate from the government or donor that, for example, specifies that certain quota of female poul try holders to receive poultry vaccines? Or is there a special effort within your organization to increase the uptake of poultry vaccines among or by female poultry keepers? Why or Why not? 10) ! What are the different constraints men and women face at any point in the distribution system? [Note: men or women representing different value chain actors in the vaccine distribution system] a. ! Who receives more/less poultry vaccines and why? 11) ! What type of households face greater difficulties to access vaccines? a. ! Does it depend on socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, religion, livelihood? b. ! Does it depend on the sex of the head of the household? c. ! Who receives more/less poultry vaccines and why? [probe each on gender, socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, reli gion, and livelihood, i.e. use those Intersectionality aspects characteristic to the country/region.] 12) ! (If interviewee is not a government official) (a) Do you work in cooperation with the government? If so, describe the relationship. (b) Do you work with other NGOs? If so, describe the relationship. (c) Do you work with private sector? If so, describe the relationship. [Notes: ask as many details as possible considering who, when, what, why, how] 13) ! If interviewee is a government official) (a) Do you work wi th other government agencies? If so, describe the relationship. (b) Do you work with other NGOs? If so, describe the relationship. (c) Do you work with the private sector? If so, describe the relationship. [Notes: ask as many details as possible considering who, when, what, why, how]
! ! '* ! Annex 2: Semi structured Interview Gender and Poultry Vaccines Value Chain Analysis in Senegal Individual Questionnaire for Interview with Actors in the Value Chain University of Florida Background information Date_____________ Time ________________ Location (village, district, province, country): __________________________________ GPS Coordinates: LAT: ___________ LONG:___________ Respondents Gender: Female _____ Male ______ Translatorâ€™s Name: __________________ Note takerâ€™s name __________________ Interviewerâ€™s name _________________ General Question 1) ! What is your age in years? Less than 20 2025 2530 3540 4550 5055 More than 55 2) ! Are you married or living with a partner? ___ YES ___ NO [If yes, see below A for men and B for women] ,! How many wives do you have? .! Are you the only wife? If not, how many wives does your husband have? 3) ! Please specify your ethnicity: ___________ 4) ! Please specify your religious beliefs: _________ 5) ! Are you the head of hous ehold? *Household defined as the set of people who live in the same house or compound 6) ! What is your level of education? /! Didnâ€™t attend school / Attended primary school/madrasa (16) / completed primary school / attended secondary school / completed secondary school / higher than secondary 0! Did you attend vocational schools or other informal education? ___ YES ___ NO 7) ! Including yourself, how many people live in your household? 8) ! How many adults (+18) live in the household? 9) ! How many children (U18) live in the hous ehold? 10) ! What is the highest level of education attained by any member of your household? 11) ! What is the main livelihood for the household (select one below) a Crop farming bLivestock Fishing/Aquaculture
! ! '' ! c Non farm business/trade Wages/salaries 12) ! What is the secondary livelihood for the household (select one below) a Crop farming bLivestock Fishing/Aquaculture c Non farm business/trade Wages/salaries Distributors Module (CAHWs, Vetshop owners, Para vets) 1) ! How long have you been in this line of work? 2) ! What factors led you to become and how did you become a CAHW/Vetshop owner/ etc? 3) ! What type of training have you received (whether formal or informal)? /!Who delivered it? What did the training mainly focus on? 4) ! Have you received any business training? 5) ! What are the vaccines you sell/use in your work the most? 6) ! Where do you get vaccines for poultry diseases? What are they [can you please list?] Are they always available? Why or Why not? 7) ! [Probe this question with regard to Newcastle disease] Where do you get vaccines for Newcastle, or other diseases? Are they always available? Why or Why not? 8) ! a) If you sell vaccines [or vaccination service], how much do you sell [or charge if vaccination service] them for? How much do vaccines usually cost you? b) If you do not sell vaccines [or vaccination service], how much would you like to make out of vaccines [or vaccination service]? 9) ! What other services related to poultry do you provide, besides vaccines [or vaccination]? 10) ! Did you participate in vaccination projects in the past year? What project(s)? What vaccines? How many animals? 11) ! Which members of the household typically approach you for vaccines? Men? Women? 12) ! Is it usually the same person in the household who decides vaccinating animals? Do women buy vaccines [or vaccination service], and if so which ones? 13) ! How easy is it for community members to access your services? Please explain 14) ! Do you also sell [provide a vaccination service for] human vaccines/medicines? 15) ! Do pharmacists also sell veterinary medicines and/or vac cines? 16) ! Do you know of other CAHWs in your area? How many? How many are? 17) ! Do you know of other CAHWs in your district? How many? How may are women?
! ! '( ! Annex 3: Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with poultry keeper s Gender and Poultry Vaccines Value Chain A nalysis in Senegal Poultry Keeper Focus Group Discussion University of Florida Background information Date_____________ Time ________________ Location (village, district, province, country): __________________________________ GPS Coordinates: LAT: ___________ LONG:___________ Total number of participants: Female _____ Male ______ Translators Name: __________________ Note takerâ€™s name: ________________________ Interviewerâ€™s name: _______________________ Focus Grou p Questions 1. ! Mapping Activity Describe your community: grazing areas, water points, veterinary services, health services, schools, paved and unpaved roads, markets, type of livestock animals common, prevalent livestock diseases if known, number of livestock owners [ask the number of female vs. male livestock owners]. 2. ! Describe how poultry vaccinations take place here? What vaccines are available here? What are they for? Are they sold or free? Who sells them? Who gives them away? Where do they come from? Who buys them? Is it more likely to do so by men or women in the household? How often do you get them? Who vaccinates your animals? You or CAHWs [paravets]? How many chickens get vaccinated on average in your poultry ? Do you have a vaccination record book to keep track of vaccination eventst? Where are vaccines stored? How are they stored? Do you currently have any vaccines on hand? Why? 3. ! Who provides veterinary services and what are your constraints in accessing them? Do you have to walk long distance t o seek veterinary services?
! ! ') ! How is the road infrastructure? Do you pay for vaccines? How much? When? [Notes: this relates to question no 1 if they buy is purchased] Are they always available? If No, why? Why do you or other people want to buy or not buy vaccines? 4. ! Refer to question 2: If vaccines are given freely, proceed with question A. If they are available for sale, proceed to question B. 1. ! Imagine vaccines are not going to be given freely anymore , but they would be available all year round at the vet store/market, would you buy vaccines? What price would you consider would be fair? Do you also have to pay for vaccination [in addition to the cost of vaccine]? Do you find it fair? 2. ! If vaccines are available, what price would you consider would be fair [for vaccine and vaccination service]? 3. ! Hypothetical situation to probe: Would you like to buy a vaccination service that comes with vaccine? Why or why not? 5. ! How do you make decision about: a. ! Why do you vaccinate your animals? b. ! Does vaccination increase survi vability of animals? Why? c. ! How do they decide which animals to vaccinate (if limited quantity)? d. ! How do they decide when to vaccinate? After outbreaks? When available? As soon as possible? e. ! Who do you consult to make this decision? Alone? Whom you have consul tation with? 6. ! In your community, which households or individuals face the greatest barrier to access poultry vaccines? Does it depend on sex of the poultry keepers, their socioeconomic status, location, ethnicity, religion/cultural belief? 7. ! What constraints do you think CAHWs/Vets/Paravets face on getting vaccines? How many female CAHWs are in your area? How many are men? (or approximately what proportion of men and what proportion of women)? Are there different constraints for men that there are for women to be CAHWs? What are they? [if a poultry keeper is a woman] Are there any constraints for you to access vaccination services provided by man? Why or why not? 8. ! What do you think about having places in your community where you can access both veterinary and human health services? What would be the benefit of such colocation, what would be the problems? 9. ! Are there any other issues with vaccines we have not talked about?
!"#$%"&'(&)*% +,,-*../(0(,1'234'(5234'2)/3.-#"6)/3#)7.6"-8#(0+,.9#1&,"4:)#$(77("&72/"6 % % % !"#$%&'(&)*"+,--,'$.&,/012/10&34502467048/⏻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uly 2020