Citation
Perspectives and impacts of the EU cadmium regulation on the Colombian cacao value chain

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Title:
Perspectives and impacts of the EU cadmium regulation on the Colombian cacao value chain
Creator:
Prieto Rodriguez, Gustavo ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (47 pages) : illustrations ;

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Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable Development Practice field practicum report, M.D.P
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
The Colombian cacao sector is one of the most important national industries in the country, mostly due to the cultural history of hot chocolate consumption nationwide, which has been up to 90% of the national production per year. There is national interest in the growth of the cacao sector, specially focusing on increasing farmers' productivity and yields, to make Colombian cacao grain and sub-products more available for exportation. However, in 2014, the European Union announced the regulation of cadmium levels permitted in cacao sub-products, which is a heavy metal known to be present in the soil both naturally and anthropogenically, that is absorbed and accumulated by the cacao tree. The regulation, (EU) NO 488/2014, came into force on January 1st, 2019, establishing the maximum levels of cadmium permitted in cacao sub-products such as chocolate and cacao powder, among others. These limits vary depending the cacao content of the sub-product, going to a maximum of 0.8 mg of cadmium per kg of product if the cacao levels are equal or higher than 50%. In 2016, in the wake of a peace agreement between the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Colombian government, and the necessity of preparing for the announced regulation, USAID, Purdue University and the International Center of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) initiated a capacity building project called "Cacao for Peace," with an overall goal of increasing Colombia's cacao production. To achieve this goal, the project is working closely with cacao farmers and public and private organizations to increase cacao productivity and improve the sustainability of its production, with a supplemental goal of improving the performance of the cacao value chain as an alternative to illegal crop production through agricultural extension, research and technical assistance, (Conlon et al., 2018; Abbott et al.,
Abstract:
2018, p. 13). However, the EU cadmium regulation challenges the intended growth of the cacao sector in Colombia, as cadmium levels are believed to be higher than permitted both in the soil and in the cacao beans in South America. For this reason, cadmium presence in soils, cacao plants, leaves and pods is now one of the key research areas related to cacao in several national and international research institutions. For instance, better understanding the issue of high cadmium accumulation, lack of mitigation strategies and its implication on the cacao sector has become of the research goals of USAID's Cacao for Peace project and is the core research issue for CIAT's Climate- Relevant and Low Cadmium Innovations to Promote Sustainable Cacao Production (CLIMALoCa) project. This study was conducted under the umbrella of CLIMA-LoCa. Through semi-structured interviews with key informants at every node of the Colombian cacao value chain, the main goal of this study is to explore and evaluate the different perceptions of cadmium levels, the regulation and research initiatives across the cacao value chain; the impacts of the regulation on the value chain; and the possible mitigation strategies that have or could be put in place at the farms or at the cacao transformation level, therefore generating site-specific information that would guide further actions regarding communication about the regulation and research needs on the relation between cacao and cadmium. In addition, in this study the value chain is conceived as not only the production, transportation, transformation and commercialization of cacao between stakeholders but also the production and dissemination of information on the crop. In this sense, the most important nodes considered in the chain are Producers, Industry, and Institutions. This study is divided in the following way: First, a literature
Abstract:
review to introduce information on the cacao crop by presenting its most important characteristics; the types of cacao and where they are produced; and defining the main challenges related to its production. Going forward, I will present the Colombian cacao value chain in its present form. Next, this information will be linked to cadmium, presenting its relation to the cacao plant, the significance of the regulation and why cadmium intake poses a risk to human health. Finally, I will end the section with an overview of the current research on this topic. Second, I will present the objectives of the field work carried out for this study in a deeper manner and the conceptual-contextual framework that motivated it, along with the methodology used to gather the data. Finally, I will present the results of the study and discuss implications for the Colombian cacao value chain.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Major departments: Latin American Studies, African Studies.
General Note:
Major: Sustainable Development Practice.
General Note:
Advisor: Useche, Pilar.
General Note:
Co-advisor: Galloway, Glenn.
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Gustavo Prieto Rodriguez.

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University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
037835492 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
LD1780.1 2020 ( lcc )

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E ( ( Contents Introduction ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>> ( F ( Literature review ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>> ( G ( Cacao: Importanc e and production ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>> ( G ( Table 1. Fine and Flavor cacao exporting countries (ICCO, 2019) ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( H ( The Colombian Cacao Value Chain ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>> ( EI ( Fi gure1. The Colombian Cacao Value Chain (Adapted from: Abbott et al., 2018) ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EE ( Key Actors in the Colombian Cacao Sector ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EE ( Producers ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>> ( EE ( Industry ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EJ ( Table 2. The Percentage in Metric Tons of Cacao purchased internally by the Colombian Industry (by company) (Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, 2011) ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EF ( Figure 2. Cacao Production Zones (Adapted from: Zambrano & Chavez, 2018) ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EK ( Institutional >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>> ( EG ( Markets and Public Policy >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EH ( Cadmium and Cacao ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( EL ( Health Issues ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>> ( EM ( EU Cadmium regulation explained ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>> ( EM ( Figure 3. Maximum levels of Cadmium in cacao products (From: European Commission, 2019) >>>> ( JI ( Research regarding the problematic of Cadmium and Cacao in the context of the EU Regulation ( >>>>>>> ( JE ( Mitigation Strategies ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( JF ( Contextual and Conceptual Framework ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >> ( JG ( Objectives of the Field Practicum ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>> ( JH ( Methodology ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>> ( JL ( Table 3. Description of the Key Actors interviewed for the study ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( JN ( Results and Discussion ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( FE ( Perception of the regulation ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( FE ( Impacts of the Regulation ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( FF ( Mitigation Strategies ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( FL ( Table 4. Mitigation strategies used in the chain ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( FL ( Research involvement and research needs ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( FN ( Conclusions ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>> ( FN ( Recommendations ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> > ( FM ( Limitations ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>> ( KI (

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J ( ( Bibliography ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>> ( KI ( Annexes ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> ( KG ( Interview Questionnaire by role in the Value Chain. ( >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>> ( KG (

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F ( ( Introduction The Colombian cacao sector is one of the most important national industries in the country, mostly due to the cultural history of hot chocolate consumption nationwide, which has been up to 90% of the national production per year. There is national interest in the growth of the cacao sector, specially focusing on increasing farmers' productivity a nd yields, to make Colombian cacao grain and sub products more available for exportation . However, in 2014, the European Union announced the regulation of cadmium levels permitted in cacao sub products, which is a heavy metal known to be present in the soi l both naturally and anthropogenically, that is absorbed and accumulated by the cacao tree. The regulation, (EU) NO 488/2014, came into force on January 1 st , 2019, establishing the maximum levels of cadmium permitted in cacao sub products such as chocolate and cacao powder, among others. These limits vary depending the cacao content of the sub product, going to a maximum of 0.8 mg of cadmium per kg of product if the cacao levels are equal or higher than 50%. In 2016 , in the wake of a peace agreement between the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Colombian government, and the necessity of preparing for the announced regulation , USAID , Purdue University and the International Center of Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) initiated a capacity b uilding project called " Cacao for Peace ," with an overall goal of increasing Col o mbia's cacao production > To achieve this goal, the project is working closely with cacao farmers and public and private organizations to increase cacao productivity and improv e the sustainability of its production, with a supplemental goal of improving the performance of the cacao value chain as an alternative to illegal crop production through agricultural extension, research and technical assistance , (Conlon et al., 2018; Abb ott et al., 2018, p. 13).

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K ( ( However, the EU cadmium regulation challenges the intended growth of the cacao sector in Colombia, as cadmium levels are believed to be higher than permitted both in the soil and in the cacao beans in South America. For this reason, cadmium presence in soi ls, cacao plants, leaves and pods is now one of the key research areas related to cacao in several national and international research institutions . For instance, better understanding th e issue of high cadmium accumulation, lack of mitigation strategies an d its implication on the cacao sector has become of the research goals of USAID's Cacao for Peace project and is the core research issue for CIAT's Climate Relevant and Low Cadmium Innovations to Promote Sustainable Cacao Productio n (CLIMA LoCa) project . T his study was conducted under the umbrella of CLIMA LoCa. Through semi structured interviews with key informants at every node of the Colombian cacao value chain, the main goal of this study is to explore and evaluate the different perceptions of cadmium levels, the regulation and research initiatives across the cacao value chain; the impacts of the regulation on the value chain; and the possible mitigation strategies that have or could be put in place at the farms or at the cacao transformation level, the refore generating site specific information that would guide further actions regarding communication about the regulation and research needs on the relation between cacao and cadmium. In addition, in this study the value chain is conceived as not only the production, transportation, transformation and commercialization of cacao between stakeholders but also the production and dissemination of information on the crop. In this sense, the most important nodes considered in the chain are Producers, Industry, an d Institutions. T his study is d ivided in the following way: First, a literature review to introduce information on the cacao crop by presenting its most important characteristics; the types of cacao and where they are produced; and defining the main chall enges related to its production. Going forward, I will

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G ( ( present the Colombian cacao value chain in its present form . Next, this information will be linked to cadmium , presenting its relation to the cacao plant, the significance of the regulation and why cadmium intake poses a risk to human health. Finally, I will end the section with an overview of the current research on this topic. Second , I will present the objectives of the field work carried out for this study in a deeper manner and the conc eptual contextual framework that motivated it, along with the methodology used to gather the data. Finally, I will present the results of the study and discuss implications for the Colombian cacao value chain. Literature review Cacao : I mportance and produ ction C acao ( Theobroma cacao L.) has been around for millions of years and has been a native crop in Mesoamerica and South America. I ts scientific name , T . c acao , means "food of the gods" , named appropriately as indigenous people used it as a ritual beverage. C acao was exported to Europe during colonial domination of the Americas and was gradually transformed giving rise to the products we know today. Recognized as the raw material for the produc tion of chocolate as bar through the processing of cac ao butter and cacao liquor, and foodstuffs such as chocolate drinks, chocolate ice cream or chocolate cakes through the use of cacao powder, cacao is also used to produce cosmetic products such as soaps, animal feed, mulch and even alcoholic drinks such as brandy ( Abbot t et al., 2018; I nternational C ocoa O rganization , 2003). Cacao growth is only suitable in the tropics, and despite its origin being in the America s , during the colonial exploitation it was gradually introduced to West Africa, where the great majority of the cacao supply of the world is presently produced, e specially in the Ivory Coast, Ghana and

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H ( ( Cameroon with 63.2% of global production . This stands in compar ison to a 14.1% produced in Latin America , primarily in Br azil, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia (Ab bott et al., 2018; Naranjo Merino et al., 2017 ). However, according to the I nternational C ocoa O rganization (2019), most of the Cacao produced in South America and Central America is a higher quality type of cacao t hat is known in the market as Fine and Flavor Cacao, which comes from Trinitario and Criollo varieties. It is generally more highly valued than the ordinary or bulk cacaos produced in West African countries . The difference between both types of cacao beans , as the name suggests, is the flavor characteristics of the Fine cacao, including flavor fruity , floral and herbal flavor notes (International Cocoa Organization, 2019). These characteristics give the Fine and Flavor Cacao producing countries a competitive advantage in certain specialized markets, such as the bean to chocolate bar market . In this market, these types of Cacaos are required in some of the finest chocolatier recipes for products in consumer countries of the European Union such as France, Belgium, Germany or Switzerland (Abbot et al., 2018; International Cocoa Organization, 2019 ; Jimenez Tobon, 2015; Rios et al., 2017 ). Table 1. Fine and Flavor cacao exporting countries (ICCO, 2019) Countries Share of tota l exports of the country classified as F ine and Flavor cocoa Belize 50% Bolivia 100% Colombia 95% Costa Rica 100%

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L ( ( Dominica 100% Dominican Republic 40% Ecuador 75% Grenada 100% Guatemala 50% Honduras 50% Indonesia 1% Jamaica 95% Madagascar 100% Mexico 100% Nicaragua 100% Panama 50% Papua New Guinea 90% Peru 75% Saint Lucia 100% S‹o TomŽ and PrincipŽ 35% Trinidad and Tobago 100% Venezuela, Bolivarian Rep. of 100%

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N ( ( Vietnam 40% Table 1 shows the share of total Fine and Flavor cacao export s by country according to the International Cacao Organization. As shown in the table, most of the countries that export these types of cacao are Latin American, including Colombia with 95% of its cacao export s as Fine and Flavor , while 75% of the exports from Ecuador and Peru correspond to this quality . Overall, the largest producer of bulk cacao is the Ivory Coast . In 2014 , the country produced an estimated of 1 .4 million metric tons of cacao , representing 32% of global producti on. C olombia only produced 54 ,7 98 metric tons in 2016 , or 1.1 % of global production (Abbo t t et al., 2018). Of the amounts produced in Ecuador and Peru, 117,162 and 61,238 metric tons are Fine and Flavor , representing 31.01% and 16.21% of global supply. In the case of Colombia, it s 45,345 metric tons produced represent 12 % of the global supply of fine and flavor cacaos (Abbott et al., 2018 . Rios et al., 2017 ; Zambrano and Chavez, 2018 ). However, according to Abbot et al. (2018) , the global markets do not distinguish between bulk and fine and flavor cacaos , as cacao beans are considered a commodity and therefore its price depends on market speculation that is independent of quality considerations mentioned above. In fact, accordi ng to Abbot et al., (2018), ICCO's Fine and Fla vor estimates on how much of each cacao distinction enters the commodity market could not be realistic. The distinction between bulk and Fine and Flavor quality , however, is an important factor underlying behind the motivation of the Cacao for Peace project and its importance for the Colombian cacao sector . The value chain actors also consider the distinction between specialt y and bulk cacaos as a competitive advantage and as something to be improved for th e positioning of Colombia as a leading producer of high quality cacao. Unlike the Fine and Flavor cacao designation, the markets recognize the cacao's country of origin as a differentiator for price,

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M ( ( alongside certifications , but this is usually only considered on a case by case basis. (Abbott et al., 2018) . Traditionally, cacao is mostly grown by smallholder farmers and families. According to Naranjo Merino (2017) 90% of the cacao in Colombia is produced on small farms. Moreover, 80% of the cacao is produced in parcels of land less than five hectares in rural settings, which in the producing countries are generally the most under developed areas (Swisscontact, 2016) . In Colombia, some of these areas have also been affected by the armed conflict and still suffer intermittent security problems , lack of state services and infrastructure (Zambrano & Chavez, 2018). Under these conditions, most of Colombian cacao farmers only reach yields of 500kg/ha (Abbo tt et al., 2018) , an d 75% of their income depends on their cacao production (Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, 2011) . This is the case because, as mentioned above, farmers' livelihood s are vulnerable to price fluctuation s and productivity levels ar e not enough to generate income that farmers can utilize to improve their plantations and post harvest infrastructure (Swisscontact, 2016) . On the other hand, a less common cacao production in Colombia includes farmers with access to capital and constant technical assistance that can produce yields up to 1800kg/ha (Abbott et al., 2018). Additionally, the nature of the smallholding farming that characterizes cacao production in Colombia comes along with logistical challenges. For Garcia Caceres et al (2014) , the dependence on road transportation is of crucial importance to accessibility to markets and is unfavorable for the price paid to farmers in remote locations. In other words, problems of accessibility make it impossible to have fixed transportation cos t s at harvest (Abbott et al., 2018). CIAT and Purdue University recommend that in order to improve the performance of the value chain in relation to infrastructure access, increased yields should be pursued in sites accessible to gathering centers or marke ts while public infrastructure and logistics issues are improved in remote regions (Abbott et

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EI ( ( al., 2018). For Caceres et al. (2014), the production stage of the value chain is characterized by vulnerabilities in logistics, land management and low productiv ity while intermediaries and wholesalers operate in stronger positions. Improvements in production would improve farmers livelihoods and would likely , in theory, enable them to secure better prices. The Colombian Cacao Value Chain There are multiple charac terizations of the Colombian cacao value chain. However, the studies by Abbott et al., (2018) and Garcia Caceres et al., (2014) have the most complete description of the production, cacao bean flow and cacao bean transformation, therefore they will be used as the conceptual backbone of this study. Figure 1. shows a model of the Colombian cacao value chain adapted from Abbott et al., (2018). It describes the different pathways for cacao beans, from production to consumer markets, characterized by the volume commercialized. Two main types of pathways are distinguished: the typical pathway and the lower volume pathways for cacao beans. The typical pathway c onsists of production by farmers associated with cooperatives or farmer's associations . Then, producers either sell their cacao to their respective farmer's associations who sell it to the industry or directly to commission agents from the industry node. T he two major companies that purchase a large volume of the product from farmers and associations (explained below) gather the cacao in their warehouses for transport to their factories where they transform it into products. Finally, most of these products target domestic market s . It is important to note that the institutional sector is not graphically represented in Figure 1 as its role does not necessarily represent the flow of the cacao beans. However, as it will be explained below, some organizations from the institutional level such as FEDECACAO play a minor purchasing role in the chain as well.

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EE ( ( Figure1. The Colombian Cacao Value Chain (Adapted from: Abbott et al., 2018) Key Actors in the Colombian Cacao Sector Generally, the key actors in the Colom bian cacao sector for the purpose of this study could be divided in three groups or nodes : Producers, Industry and Institutional. Within the Industry and Institutional groups, the buying role is included . Producers In Colombia, there are around 35,000 cacao producers (Abbott et al., 2018; Rios et al., 2017) and a s mentioned above, producers are often classified depending on plot size, yield, degree of technification and diversification (Abbot et al., 2018). Producers carry out activities on the farm , su ch as the preparation of the soil, which includes land clearing an d tree planting ( both cacao and shade trees) and proper weeding, pruning, and pest and disease control (Garcia Caceres et al., 2014). Even though c acao beans can be commercialized without further treatment ( Zambrano & Chavez, 2018) , post harvest includes activities such as fermentation and drying on the farm . B est practices are fundamental for the quality of the beans , and therefore , for the price received by producers (Abbott et al., 2018 ). The fermentation process is important as it creates the flavor and sensorial characteristics t hat the chocolate industry is looking for (Contreras, 2017; FEDECACAO, n.d.). The process involves the storage of the cacao beans for a period of 3 to 5

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EJ ( ( days i n a place that allows the cacao to have contact with air that stimulates grow th of yeast and bacteria (Abbott et al., 2018; Garcia Caceres et al., 2014; FEDECACAO, n.d.). The lack of infrastructure for the fermentation process, as well as lack of economic capital are some of the challenges producers face to earn a competitive price for cacao produced in their farms, as some buyers, especially the ones that give great commercial value to specialty cacaos ( F ine and Flavor ) , require specific organole ptic characteristics such as humidity content, acceptable levels of impurities, specific weight and color, etc., conditions only acquired through a thorough and controlled fermentation process (Abbott et al., 2018). Cooperatives and farmers associations a re common in the Colombian value chain , according to Contreras (2017), and 67% of the Colombian cacao farmers are somehow related to a cooperative or an associat ion . T hese are organizations that coordinate the production of their members, provide guidelines for best management of the plantation, harvest and post harvest practices , as well as providing special services to their associates such as connection to markets, technical assistance and participation on extension and research projects through partnerships with the industry and the institutional sector (Abbott et al., 2018). Overall, the producers' node , composed by farmers and farmers' associations , fulfill the role of cacao production , and through the associations, the commercialization of th e grain. Industry The industry node in Colombia is composed of two traditional private companies , Casa Luker and Compania Nacional de Chocolate s (CNCH), and by several medium sized companies dedicated to the manufactur ing of chocolate for drink s , foodstuff s and bean to bar . Some medium sized companies include Colombina S.A, Girones or Italo (Abbott et al., 2018; Contreras 2017; Garcia Caceres et al., 2014 ). The share of the market controlled by Casa Luker and CNCH is estimated to

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EF ( ( be between 75% and 80 % of the national cacao production , as seen on table 2. (Abbott et al., 2018; Garcia Caceres et al., 2014, FEDECACAO, n.d.). These companies have a presence in the principal cities of the country, e specially the ones near cacao regions, such as Bucaramanga in the Santander department , as seen in Figure 2 . Santander is the cacao department par excellence, embodied in more than 50,000 hectares planted and a yearly production of approximately 24,212 metric tons (Abbott et al., 2018 ; Zambrano & Chavez, 2018) . It is followed by the departments of Arauca , Huila or Antioquia , which together approximate 35,000 hectares and 18,000 metric tons of production, as seen in Figure 2. Th e companies' presence is embodied in gathering centers where the farmers' association pools the grain of their associates and sells it to the companies (Abbott et al., 2018) . Even though this is the usual path to sell the grain to both companies , commission agents and wholesalers also work as intermediaries between producers and industry (Garcia Caceres et al., 2014). Among the roles of the industry , the transformation of cacao into the sub products mentioned earlier and its commercialization are the most important, as it is their economic activity, but this is complemented with a series of activities inherent to the strengthening of their relationship s with the farmers and improvement of the cacao supplied, including technical assistance for farmers, training sessions a nd inputs in exchange of e xclusivity and to follow some production requirements in the farms such as the establishment of agroforest ry systems based on cacao and timber, cacao and fruit trees, or cacao and plantain (Abbott et al., 2018). Table 2. The Percentage in Metric Tons of Cacao purchased internally b y the Colombian Industry (by company) ( Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio, 2011) Colombian Chocolate Companies % Metric Tons Compa nia Nacional de Chocolates 54.8% Casa Luker 31.9% Girones 2.4%

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EK ( ( Italo 2.3% Andino 1.3% Tolimax 1.2% La Fragancia 1.1% Chocolate Caldas 0.6% Ch ocolate Colosal 0.5% Jordavila 0.4% Chocolates Triunfo 0.4% Chocolates al Gusto 0.4% Colombina S.A. 0.3% Other 1.4% Figure 2. Cacao Production Zones (Adapted from : Zambrano & Chavez, 2018) ) (

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EG ( ( Institutional The institutional node of the Colombian cacao value chain consists of public and private national organizations . The roles they play are quite broad, including the regulation and development of the sector by the formulation of norms and policies , technical and financial support, research , and specialized services (Garcia Caceres et al., 2014 ; Rios et al., 2017 ). Below are some organizations that were important informants for this study . FEDECACAO is a n important non profit organization in the sector as it functions through diverse roles and capacities. First, they function as an aggregation of the cacao farmers and as a representative of their interests. In fact, according to Abbott et al., (2018) it represents close to 70% of all cacao fa rmers. Moreover, FEDECACAO also has a minor purchasing role, as seen in figure 1 , that has increased consistently during the last decades. However, the importance of its work lies in being the principal provider of technical assistance, research and the tr ansfer of technology. Finally, FEDECACAO manages the National Cacao Fund that collects its funds through a promotion fee paid by the associates to be reinvested in the value chain in the form of capacity building projects, research on varieties and other o n farm improvements (Ab b ott et al., 2018; Rios et al., 2017) The Consejo Nacional Cacaotero is a multilateral organization made up of entities from every node of the chain, including producers, industry in the heads of Luker and Compania Nacional de Chocolates , FEDECACAO and governmental institutions . I t is an enabling organization that connect s the private and the public sector to help establish and steer the strategies of the cacao sector , including re search and development capacities on varieties, on farm improvements and cacao processing . (Abbott et al., 2018 ; Rios et al., 2017 ).

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EH ( ( Agrosavia is a public institution whose purpose is to generate scientific knowledge and development of the agricultural se ctor in Colombia through research, extension and technical assistance ( Agrosavia, 2019). Agrosavia is one of the most important organizations of the institutional node as it is responsible of setting the cacao research agenda, e specially on genetic improvement , best practices and disease control (Abbott et al., 2018 ; Rios et al., 2017 ) Several government institutions are also part of this institutional node. These institu tions, including the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and organizations attached to the office of the President of the Republic, have the task of facilitating the connection between farmers and companies to international markets, promot ing exportations and sector growth , as well as fostering investments (Abbott et al., 2018 ; Rios et al., 2017 ) . In this group, the Program of Productive Transformation, under the Ministry of Foreign Trade, plays an important role in research netwo r king and policy influence for the cacao sector. Markets and Public Policy The consumption of chocolate is culturally rooted in the Colombian society, especially chocolate as a hot drink consumed during breakfast or to warm the body in cold weather. That is the reason why i n response to local demand, more than 80% of the cacao produ ced is purchased by Casa Luker and CNCH . Furthermore, Casa Luker and CNCH were required to import up to 17 thousand metric tons to fulfill th is demand in 2016 (Abbot et al., 2018; Rios et al., 2017), highlighting productivity deficits that characterize the Colombian cacao sector. However, the sector was able to export, from the producer and the industry node, only 24,300 metric tons in 2016 (Abbot et al., 201 8 ; Rios et al., 2017). Within the exported products, grain comes as the highest exported cacao form, followed by cacao powder, cacao butter, chocolate, and foodstuffs (Abbot et al., 2018) .

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EL ( ( Currently, an important public policy goal regarding the cacao sector is to enhance the capacities of the production of Fine and Flavor cacao, to capitalize on a competitive advantage for the cacao market. A ccording to Rios et al., (2017) these policies seek to: • ! Develop the productive varieties used regionally • ! Enhance the sensorial and physical quality of the cacao beans through capacity building on post harvest practices • ! Rehabilitate old plantations • ! Market initiatives such as cacao awards, chocolate contests, etc. • ! Position cacao's origin in the international market as an important characteristic to show its quality • ! Foster the internal consumption of products base d on specialty cacaos, for example fine chocolate. Cadmium and Cacao Cad mium (Cd) is a heavy metal with 48 as an atomic number , part of the same group of elements like Zinc and Mercury (Jimenez Tobon, 2015) . Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and it is known to be present in the soil both naturally and anthropogenically. Some of the natural presence or contamination of the soil by cadmium occurs after volcanic eruptions or during the process of mineralization of the parent material or bed rock . A nthropogenic contamination h appens after mining , waste incineration , use of agrochemicals , pollution from combustion, among others ( Casteblanco , 2018; Iniciativa Latinoamericana del Cacao, 2018; Lara Zambrano, 2017 ; Meter et al., 2019; Zambrano & Chavez, 2 018 ) . A ccording to Lara Zambrano (2017) , 41% of cadmium in the soil is deposited from the air . The use of phosphate fertilizers accounts for 54% of cadmium depositions, with waterways contaminated by the metallurgical industry representing another

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EN ( ( significant source (Ramirez, 2013) . When available in the soil, cadmium can disturb the functioning of crops in different ways, such as generating water absorbing deficiencies , and most importantl y it can replace the accumulation of nutrients such as Zinc, because of its similar chemical conformation . ( European Comission, 2019; Jimenez Tobon, 2015; Pernia et al., 2016 ; Zambrano & Chavez, 2018 ) . One of the crops affected by this phenomenon is cacao , which accumulates cadmium available in the soil . Much has been said by research institutions about the reason s why cacao accumulate s cadmium and research is being done t o determine the causal pathways . Among some accepted reasons , edaphic factors that contribute to Cadmium accumulation are low soil pH , high salinity of the soil , high cadmium concentrations , and Zinc deficiency (Codex Alimentarus, 2018 ; Crozier, n.d ) . In addition to this, some parts of the plant a re believed to be more sensitive to cadmium accumulation . For instance , leaves are mor e sensitive to the absorption of c admium than grain, fruits or edible roots ( Codex Alimentarus, 2018) . A ccording to Pulleman & Van Santvoort (2019), cadmium absorption could also depend on the variety of cacao tree , and in turn , trees growing in the same environment and conditions could have diffe rent levels of cadmium absorption. Also , some post harvest practices , e specially related to the innocuity of the area where the fermentation or drying of cacao is carried out , are believed to increase or decrease the presence of cadmium or other heavy metals (Casteblanco, 2018) . Even when the levels of cadmium in the soil and in cacao vary drastically from one site to another , there is consensus among the cacao sector and the research community that the average levels of cadmium are higher for Latin American cacao plantation s and beans compared to production in Africa , representing a risk for the cacao sector after the introduc tion of the European Union Food Safety regulation on maximum cadmium levels on cacao sub products. ( Jimenez Tobon, 2015 ;

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EM ( ( Iniciativa Latinoamericana del Cacao, 2018; Pulleman & Van Santvoort, 2019 ; Van Santvoort , 2018 ) Cadmium related Health I ssues According to the World Health Organization (2010) , cadmium has adverse effects on human health , specifically embodied in cadmium accumulation in the kidneys which can lead to renal tubular dysf unction (Jimenez Tobon, 2015) , respiratory diseases including pulmonary edema and chronic obstructive airway disease , skeletal and bones diseases like osteoporosis . Furthermore, it is considered to be a carcinogen in the lungs, kidneys and prostate . Within the main sources of exposure could be found the natural exposure through breathing contaminated air , industrial activities and human intake ( WHO, 2010) . The FAO has established a cadmium human weekly intake of 2.5mg/kg of body weight as the maximum level that is safe (Jimenez Tobon, 2015) EU Cadmium R egulation E xplained C admium exposure is mo re prevalent in countries with high dietary intake of agricultural crops susceptible to cadmium accumulation (Jimenez Tobon , 2015) . Within these crops , it has been established by the European Union that cereals , vegetables, and tubers are the most common crop types susceptible to cadmium intake with 56% of the total. Cacao and chocolate products represent a little more of 4% (Jimenez Tobon, 2015) . In the same line, the FAO established that cacao intake i s low in general and therefore the exposure to cadmium through this source w as not considered a significant health risk to humans (Iniciativa Lationamericana del Cacao, 2018) . However , considering that the levels of cadmium i n cacao are high and that the European Union traditionally consumes more products with high cacao content , especially consumption by children , using a precautionary principle the European Regulation (EU) NO 488/2014 establish es the maximum levels of cadmium permitted in cacao sub products was put in place on January 1 st after 4 years of its announcement. The permitted levels are indicated in figure 3 :

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JI ( ( Figure 3. Maximum levels of Cadmium in cacao products (From: European Commission, 2019) It is important to note that even when it has been already established that the levels of cadmium in the cacao beans are higher than average in some cacao producing countries , the EU regulation only addresses the level s of cadmium for the sub and transformed cacao products which means that raw cacao pods are not subject to this regulation. The levels of cadmium accepted increase as the cacao content is higher in chocolates. The reason for this is that it is assumed that raw cacao pods would have the higher cadmium levels that woul d be reduced through the chocolatier recipes. If the chocolate bar produced has higher cacao content it would be much harder to reduce the cadmium levels and therefore the threshold must be more flexible. A study by Echeverry Aranda (2015) compare d the cad mium levels of Colombian high cacao content chocolates wi th similar foreign chocolates . The results o f this study showed that both Colombian and foreign chocolates contained cadmi um. However, the Colombian chocolate ha d higher levels of cadmium than what is permitted by the regulation , while the foreign chocolate levels did not reach high enough levels to be prohibited from the market . This study illustrates the challenge that cadmium represents for the Colombian cacao sector. Jimenez Tobon (2015) presents the cadmium regulation on cacao products from countries outside of the European Union to assess market opp ortunities that would serve as an alternative after the establishment of the European Regulation (EU) NO 488/2014. Markets located in Hong Kong,

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JE ( ( Mexico, Chile, United Kingdom, Japan , Ru s sia , Canada, South Korea, South Africa, and the United States do not regulate cadmium content in cacao products so far . However, other heavy metals like Lead or Arsenic are regulated for many products , including cacao. Countries like Australia, New Zeala nd, Argentina, and Uruguay have similar regulations as the one established by the European Union . However , these countries do not consume as much chocolate as countries like Switzerland and Austria , with an average consumption of only 14 and 10 chocolate bars a month respectively A market alternative in this case would be Canada , with an average consumption of eight chocolate bars per month (Jimenez Tobon, 2015). Research regarding th e problematic situation of Cadmium and Cacao in the context of the EU Regulation Since the enforcement of the EU Regulation on maximum cadmium levels o f cacao sub products in January of 2019 and since its announcement in 2015 , multiple research projects and multilateral efforts have been put in place in Colombia and in other produc er countries in Latin America , even some of them funded by the European Union (European Commission , 2019 ; Meter et al., 2019 ). However , there are not tangible , published results about implications, cadmium availability in soils or mitigation strategies yet that can be e xtrapolated f rom a socio economic perspective to the whole Cacao sector in Colombia . In fact, there is only one research project being currently c arried out looking at the socio economic impacts of the regulation (Meter et al., 2019). Despite this , research institutions and scholars are sharing the ir on going work to provide a glimpse into the current situation regarding the relationship of cadmium and cacao in Latin America , and site specific research pilots for mitigation strategies are showing promising results. One example of such an effort is the project by the Codex Alimentarus , a commission that establishes norms, policies and practices under the FAO , which is currently working on the development of a code of practices for the prevention and reduction of the cadmium contamination

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JJ ( ( in cacao (Codex Alimentarus , 2018; Iniciativa La tinoamericana del Cacao , 2018) . A code of practice of these characteristics will be fundamental for the mitigation of the problem in produc er countries. A report by Bioversity International (2019) summarizes the work of ongoing research projects on cacao and cadmium in Latin America . A total of 28 projects are being discussed in 5 countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Trinidad & Tobago, and Indonesia, being the latter the only one outside of Latin America . The research objectives of these projects can be cat egorized in the following areas : • ! C admium levels in soils and soils mapping • ! C admium levels in the cacao plant • ! Identification of sour c es of cadmium contamination in the soil • ! S oil and nutrient management • ! P lant uptake and accumulat ion of cadmium • ! C acao genetic variability and its relation ship with cadmium uptake • ! M itigation strategies such as phytoremediation and bioremediation • ! P ost harvest practices, and • ! S ocio economic implications (Meter et al . , 2019) . Across these thematic areas, most interest has been placed on soil & nutrient management ( 10 studies ) , and cacao genetic variability and its relationship with cadmium uptake (eight studies ) . Mapping soil cadmium levels, and socio economic implications are the least explored topics , with only 3 and 1 studies respe ctively (Meter et al., 2019).

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JF ( ( Mitigation Strategies As mentioned above, since the establishment of the regulation , research efforts have been put in place to determine measures to mitigat e negative impacts of th is regulation on the nodes of cacao value chains most affected by high cadmium levels. Within the mitigation of such impacts, the reduc tion of the levels of cadmium in the soil, cacao plant, cacao beans and sub products is fundamental to any solution. Mitigation strategies related to the soil The available literature suggests that it is important to increase soil pH, which could be done through liming , a process in which th e soil is treated with lime application s to reduce soil acidity , since low pH favors cadmium availability ( Chavez Hurtado et al., 2018; Codex Alimentarus, 2018 Crozier, n.d ; Meter et al., 2019; Pulleman & Van Santvoort, 2019 ; Ramtahal et al., 2018 ) . The Ramtahal et al ., (2018) liming control 18 month study concluded that a lime treate d cacao tree leaves reduced cadmium absorption levels three times faster than untreated cacao tree leaves. An interesting finding from Ramtahal et al.,(2018) is that this study did not only show that liming is effective in reducing cadmium levels but also that the cadmium levels naturally change in the plant depending on the conditions of growth of the plant, such as shade or nutrient availability (Ramtahal et al., 2018). Mitigation strategies related to agricultural practices Avoiding the use of phosphate fertilizers and irrigation with contaminated water is recommended as well (Meter et al., 2019) . Increasing the levels of Zinc in the so il would also be important taking into consideration its relation to cadmium accumulation in the soil and subsequent absorption by the plant ( Chavez Hurtado et al., 2018 ; Codex Alimentarus, 2018 Crozier, n.d) .

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JK ( ( C asteblanco (2018) proposes techniques of phyto remediation and bioreme d iation to mitigate cadmium absorption by the cacao plant. Phytoremediation consists in the use of plan ts to phytoextract heavy metals like Cadmium from the soil to make it less available for the cacao plant. Similarly , bioremediation consists in the use of microorganisms to transform such contaminants into safe substances. A study highlighted in Meter et al., (2019) review by Universidad de Santander and FEDECACAO looks to evaluate Heliconia psittacorum (Parrot's beak) plant efficiency to work as a phytoremediator for cadmium in cacao, as it is a plant that commonly grows i n cacao plantations. However, this method might not be realistic for implementation in rural areas in Colombia due to the necessity of a timely disposal of the organic matter left behind by the phytoremediators, which could be a difficult task in the small holder context of Colombian cacao production (Meter et al., 2019). Additionally, a gradual renewal of older plantations with low cadmium accumulating genotypes is recommended in the literature as a result of pilots and field trials, but it is recognized th at even though it would be an important measure, it is not feasible in the short term (Meter et al., 2019). Mitigation strategies related to post harvest and transformation practices. According to Meter et al., (2019), there is still research to be carried out on the relationship between improved post harvest practices and cadmium levels. On the other hand, cacao blends between high cadmium content cacao beans and beans with lower cadmium content at the transformation stage is being used as a short term mit igation strategy (Meter et al., 2019) There are still information gaps that need to be addressed insofar as the research and the technical assistance organizations advance in test ing different mitigation alternative s , as well as the replicability , scalability, and economic feasibility of th ese recommendations for the farmers.

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JG ( ( Contextual and Conceptual Framework The relationship between cadmium and cacao production is now subject of attention by the academic and research realms, but also the commercial realm. As the producing countries and their respective cacao institutions have turned their attention to the issu e of cadmium , research initiatives have put in place to answer the questions presented in the section . This study addresses the perceptions and impacts of the regulation in the Colombian cacao value chain and the conceptual and conceptual framework underly ing the study is presented as follows: Figure 4. C/C Framework ( Author's design) Figure 4. shows the contextual and conceptual framework that guided this study . There is a context in which external factors that can have an incidence in the c acao value chain are present. This context contains demographics; socio economic conditions; micro and macro economic factors; and especially three factors that threaten directly or indirectly the chain: Climate change, f ood safety regulations and low prod uctivity (refer to orange portion of the framework) . Climat ic

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JH ( ( variation , accentuated by climate change, could hamper suitability of crops, or even destroy full harvests. F ood safety regulations on cadmium levels represent an unexpected risk that the value chain is not prepared to mitigate yet, and low productivity is preventing the sector from reaching desired levels of production in which exportations and access to sophisticated markets are feasible. The Colombian c acao v alue chain performs as one based mostly o n smallholder cacao production systems with specific market conditions indicated in the framework (blue box) . To provide investment and engagement guidance, information that will help the host organization prioritize the activities that woul d lead to the development of climate smart and low cadmium production systems that are scalable depending on the producing region, my project focus ed on engaging in semi structured interviews with key informants of the chain such as producer's associations , grain commercialists, transformation companies, exportation companies, research enablers, governmental and extension institutions, among others (green box) . Through these interviews I sought to generate site specific information illustrated in the framew ork. This information on these topics is relevant because it gives an actual overview of the chain and how it is responding to the threats mentioned above. Objectives of the Field Practicum • ! Generate site specific information about the current situation of the Colombian cacao value chain with respect to the European Union r egulation o n maximum permitted cadmium levels on cacao sub products. o ! Assess the perception of the regulation at each level of the value chain o ! Evaluate if the regulati on has impacted any level of the chain in terms of price reduction, negotiation power, sales reduction s o ! Determine if there are any mitigation strateg ies in place

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JL ( ( Metho d ology The first step in this study was to determine what information was necessary to understand what is happening in the cocoa value chain with respect to the problem of cadmium. Within the cocoa value chain, producers differ from grain marketers , to marketers of finished product. These in turn, play different role s than cocoa processors a nd to research and government institutions, etc. , as seen in F igure 1. To design a proper instrument to gather the information, it was necessary to identify the key actors that would provide the relevant information for this investigation . K nowing the oper ation of the chain is therefore fundamental, from the production based on associations, as these associations are also grain merchandisers and they do so in their great majority with two companies, Nacional de Chocolates and Casa Luker, and as to a lesser extent they have purchase and sale contracts with smaller chocolate companies and in other cases grain exporters. This production takes place within the interaction between farmers associations and governmental and non governmental institutions that work o n extension, research, and technical support projects , which ultimately seeks to improve the functioning of the chain and its productivity. Since the actors or key informants and their roles and functions differ in each link of the chain, the information they provide regarding cadmium w as also expected to vary. I designed the instrument considering the most relevant questions for each link of the chain. The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the state of the art of the cocoa value cha in in Colombia, specifically with respect to cadmium. To gain this understanding, it was important to consult informants from each link in the value chain and inquire how they have responded to the regulation of cadmium. These considerations guided the des ign of the instruments, resulting in questions appropriate for each specific actor. For example, while research and government institutions

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JN ( ( develop projects related to the control and mitigation of cadmium, the producers in the field have a better grasp on the actual process of producing cocoa. The development of the instruments took these types of considerations into account. The key actors are described in Table 3 . Table 3. Description of the Key Actors interviewed for the study Key Actor Key I nformant Role Role in the Chain Region Producer Producer Production/ Grain Commercialization Tolima Aprocasur President of Association Production/Association / Grain Commercialization Bolivar Cesar Asoprocamm Secretary Production/Association/ Grain Commercialization Sucre Coomprocar President of Association Production/Association/ Grain Commercialization Arauca Ecocacao Technical Manager Cooperative/ Production/ Grain Commercialization Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca, Cauca, Cesar, Magdalena y Santander Montescuro General Manager Private company/ Production/ Grain Commercialization Santander : Farm Commercialization at : Antioquia, Santander, Magdalena, Cesar Girones General Manager Transformation/ Commercialization/ Exportation / Importation National Level Compa–’a Nacional de Chocolates (CNCH) Purchases, Agricultural Development Transformation/ Commercialization/ Exportation / Importation National Level FEDECACAO Research Director Productive Projects/ Grain Commercialization/ National Level

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JM ( ( Technical Assistance/ Research/ Farmer's Federation Consejo Nacional Cacaotero Technical Secretary Policy Technical Assistance Networking National Level Productive Transformation Program: Ministry of Foreign Trade Coordinator Policy Research and Development Enabler Governmental National Level Agrosavia Innovation Manager for the Cacao Sector Research Extension National Level Finally, with the help of CIAT, I identified the regions of interest for research , based on the most important cocoa areas of the country (Figure 2) . Likewise, Nacional de Chocolates, Luker and other chocolatiers buy cacao and transform it into products that are consumed internally ( 80 % of production) and that are also subject to export ation as explained in other sections of this report. In this way, the important actors were identified with respect to the transformation, commercialization, and institutional nodes of the value chain, and with the help of a database of my host organization, I s tarted to approach potential informants via e mail. Semi structured interviews were the most convenient method for the informants, to tap into their firsthand knowledge of the chain . Additionally, the method was convenient as it had to be done by phone as most of the informants were not in the vicinity of CIAT. The analysis of the data collected was done systematically, comparing what different actors from the same role in the chain say about a specific thematic area and then globally. To carry out this an alysis, pre determined categories were set in advance to enable a coding process with the help of a qualitative data analysis software , Atlas.ti . The pre determined categories were:

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FI ( ( • ! Informant perception of the cadmium regulation • ! Impact of the cadmium regulation • ! Cacao price management or price establishment • ! Research involvement in the chain • ! Information management in the chain • ! Cadmium mitigation strategies • ! Cadmium and c ac a o regions Each category became a thematic area during the coding process, in which quotes from the interviews were separated. During the analysis process, it was possible to encounter the situation in which the same quote would give information relating to two or more categories of information. In this sense , the following quote serves a s an example : " There have not been any problems with cacao deals, but we have seen that this issue is simply a commercial strategy from who monopolizes the market in Europe to take down competitors. We have perceived that when producers or marketers are d ealing with cacao that might have unacceptable cadmium levels for the client, buyers use this to reduce grain price. Clients are requiring laboratory tests and we believe that depending on the results they could offer less money. However, when producers te st their grain and it reach such undesired levels, they try to export it to other places (where there is no regulation) " (Institutional, Interview, July 2019) Here the informant expresses the opinion that the cadmium regulation is not intended to address a public health issue, but it is rather a market strategy . It also provides information on what has been the impact of the cadmium regulation, including requiring laboratory tests as a new mandatory activity for the success of a cacao negotiation within the chain including exportations, and the

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FE ( ( reach for new and maybe underexplored markets in which commercialists would search for exportation opportunities that do not require any cadmium maximum levels . Results and Discussion Perception of the regulation Understanding the degree of knowledge and perceptions of key actors regarding the EU regulation is important as it could help explain the measures being taken to mitigate its impacts . In addition, it is possible to assess if the perception of the regulation corresponds with the impacts of the regulation. Producers There is a sharing of misinformation concerning the Cadmium issue and the UE regulation among Cacao producers in Colombia. Most producers know that there is a regulation, but not all of them fully understand it or know what it means. This leads to claims such as "some believe that cacao production is going to be banned", "Cacao is a crop that has c ome to change many regions from the issue of illicit crops, it is a way to change the lifestyle and we are afraid that might change" (Producers, Interview, June 2019) . In a post conflict context deeply rooted in the problematic of illegal crops, such misinf ormation is dangerous. On the other hand, one interviewee who is not associated to any cooperative or farmers' association , responded that he did not know what cadmium was or i ts relationship to cacao. An important issue is that the information on the regulation that is already available is not being effectively shared with the producers, and what has been shared with them is confusing . When asking an association about what information they have on the regulation, the answer was that their members prefe r to " not talk about cadmium" .

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FJ ( ( Because of the lack of information about the issue, farmers decide to not give as much importance to cadmium as they do to other crop issues such as diseases or climate change . Industry Unlike the producers, i ndustry seems to have an u nderstanding that corresponds accurately with what the EU is regulating . However, t his level of the chain consider s that the way the information has been managed could discourage cacao production. As C havez Hurtado et al., ( 2019 ) recommends , new cacao plantations should be established in soils where cadmium levels are less than 1.4mg/kg . Land near mining sites and busy roads should not be planted in cacao . This implie s that a producer wanting to establish a cacao production system would necess arily have to know the cadmium levels of the soil , which requires costly testing . Of course, the decision to pursue these tests implies that the producer understands the risks associated with cadmium. Key actors in industry acknowledge that there is misinformation on what cadmium represents for th e commercialization and trade of cacao beans. As noted in the European Union Infographic (European Commission, 2019) , cacao beans are not subject to the regulation, as it intends to regulate sub products and finished products. In this sense, industry understand s that cadmium is not a tool for price bargaining but a barrier for cacao purchase. This is important since industry believes th at many producers have no clarity regarding the importance of cadmium at the moment of trade , fostering misinformation, which could lead to di scomfort , fear, or panic among the producers. Institutional Informants at t he institutional level are careful when characterizing the situation , as they are the level of the chain most involved in understanding the problematic relationship between cadmium and cacao . The re is a consensus among the institutions at this level that the purpose of the

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FF ( ( regulation is not clear for the producers . For this reason , p roducers are more concerned about climatic conditions , p ests, diseases, and other challenges than cadmium. Although it is potentially harmful to the value chain , some of the informants from the institutional level consider that cadmium is a secondary problem , as cacao is not being exported in great quantities . With all the potential found on specialty cacaos, looking at the exportations by Ecuador and Peru of ordinary and specialty cacaos mentioned above, the situation for Colombia is different due to its high internal consumption. On the other hand, the i nstitutional level is hesitant to believe th e EU is addressing the cadmium regulation solely as a public health issue but a lso as commercial one , as the cadmium intake is almost impossible to avoid whe n consuming agricultural crops ( Jimenez Tobon, 2015) . In this way, two of the institutional informants believe that the EU would regulate cadmium intake by controlling foreign products consum p tion rather than impacting their own locally grown, high cadmium content, agricultural crops . Fine and Flavor c acao was also mentioned as one of the reasons for the cadmium regulation . As mentioned above, it has a lot of market and growth potential . From the institutional sector some believe that this is an attempt to get rid of the "premium bonus" over the stock market price . Even though it has been said that a Fine and Flavor distinction is not made in the trading markets, Fine and Flavor is also associated with the cacao country of origin, characteristic that is considered in specialty cacaos. If cadmium is associated with a specific producing region, informants at the institutional level believe that the premiums for the country of origin could b e in risk. " They do not want to pay for premiums anymore " is one of the most illustrative quotes relating to this perception . Impacts of the Regulation

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FK ( ( Producers As mentioned above, the regulation does not place cadmium limits on cacao beans. The regulation focuse s on processed or finished sub products . Therefore, the impact on grain producers is not as tangible , since they have not been directly affected by measures affecting prices for cacao sub products . Price has not change d for producers doing business as usual at the national level due to the cadmium content of their production . Studies like Abbott et al., (2018) and Rios et al., (2017) specify that the price received by the producers depends on the international market price, the quality of the bean s , established in the Colombian T echnical N orm NTC 1252 , and producer location with respect to the gathering centers . As can be seen, to date, cadmium is not a quality issue affecting the price paid . Furthermore, t wo of the producer's associations say that producers in Colombia usually get a higher profit margin than their fellow farmers of other countries when selling internally , as some tariffs that apply to other countries are not in force in Colombia. However, when properly associated, farmers are required to make a payment to the Cacao National Fund. P roducers do express unconformity when prices are low, but tend to go along with them since industry provides them with other services that they are interested i n . T wo associations claim that even if they grow fine and flavor cacaos, they do not receive a price premium , as the internal market does not yet recognize a difference between ordinary and fine and flavor cacaos . This corroborat es what is mentioned in Abbott et al., (2018) study regarding the fact that fine and flavor cacaos are not widely recognized to be different from ordinary cacaos in the global commodity marke t. In the other hand , all the informants agree that when signing quota contracts with international clients, specialty cacaos are treated different than a commodity , in a case by case basis, and receive higher prices . This shows that the relation between the specialty characteristic of origin cacao has not been related with cadmium, at least not yet.

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FG ( ( Most of the producers interviewed agree that cacao buyers will not enter into contracts if producer s are unable to guarantee that cadmium levels of caca o are below the regulation . However, two informants at this level believe d that cadmium could still be used by some clients to create pric ing advantages . For this reason, it is important that the institutional and industry levels of the chain disseminate the information regarding cadmium and price to the producer level, thus avoiding potential price abuses. Likewise, o ne of the associations claims that they could get a differential price for low cadmium and that the y would be open to use informatio n obtained after testing the beans produced by their associates to gain a competitive advantage. Finally, producer informants expressed concern about the cost of recommended mitigation strategies , limiting their adoption . Industry After the establishment of the regulation , industry started to pa y close r attention to the origin of the cacao they purchased and began systematically conducting cadmium lab tests. Both transformation companies interviewed agreed that the approach to deal with exportations restriction involves pre selection of cacao . While the industry sector has intended to strengthen cacao purchases in regions where the cadmium tests have resulted in low er levels, the overall policy is to keep buying cacao following a "business as usual" logic . At present , information about which reg ions have shown higher cadmium levels is confidential , and the price paid for cacao does not consider cadmium levels. For the Industry, all the actions carried out since the implementation of this regulation are precautionary, as there has not been an impact different from the investment in private laboratories for the testing of Cacao. In this way the industry has separated cacaos with high levels of cadmium

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FH ( ( from the ones with acceptable levels . In this way, the industry level makes sure to use cacaos with appropriate cadmium levels for the demand of the regulated markets. Institutional At the Institutional level, c admium is a prominent issue that needs to be addressed , but the y believe there are other issues in need of immediate attention , such as climate variability and diseases . The concern is that the cadmium issue will supplant attention to other priorities . Cacao is a crop that demands specific practices to maintain the quality desired from plantation to harvest and post harvest practices (Abbott et al., 2018; Rios et al., 2017 ; Zambrano Chavez , 2018 ) . Actors at the institutional level believe p roduction practices such as fertilization , pruning , and disease control are fundamental processes for the quality of the beans , which will ultimately determine their value . The main disease that attacks the cacao tree is known as Ô Monilia' , which attacks the cacao pod , creating an injury in the pod that makes it unfit for commercialization (FEDECACAO, n.d.) . If not controlled, this disease can destroy up to 90% of the production (Abbott et al., 2018 ; Contreras, 2017 ; Zambrano Chavez, 2018) . Regarding impacts, institution representatives agree that n either the producers nor the industry has lost money as a result of the regulation due to the functioning of the cacao sector in Colombia. Low productivity and high internal consumption have protected the chain from any impacts of the regulation. For instance, o ne of the key actors said that : "S ome producers claim that a batch of cacao has been returned by the buyer because of unacceptable cadmium levels , but after reviewing the cases we have established that the returns occurred for other reasons, such as inadequate fermentation or drying . ( Institutional, Interview, July 2019 )

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FL ( ( However , three out of four of the informants believe that this could change as the cacao sector grows and could lead to abuses in the setting price s . For this reason, they recommend postpone the establishment of new plantations until cadmium levels of the soil are known . This recommend ation is in line with that of Chavez Hurtado et al., ( 2018). Recognizing that cadmium soil t esting could imply a dditional capital investment s, this could negatively harm most producers who are smallholders. Indeed, testing may not be feasible for many producers. As a result, t his recommendation could derail efforts to establish cacao as the flagship crop for the voluntary substitution of illegal crop s . C osts for cadmium laboratory testing vary between 70.000 and 120,000 Colombian Pesos for each cacao sample , around $20 to $40 . If a farmer's association would like to know its status with respect to cadmium contamination, this would be the cost that would be incurr ed . Mitigation Strategies Table 4. Mitigation s trategies used in the chain Producers Industry Institutions • ! Avoid u sing f ertilizers with high cadmium content and Phosphoric Rock • ! Agricultural practices: Liming • ! Organic Matter as manure • ! Cadmium precipitation products • ! Post Harvest: Improved fermentation process • ! Blends of Cacao: Mixing of different types of cacao according to the product's recipe • ! For the producers: Liming and getting rid of the cacao residu e Recommended: • ! Agricultural practices such as Liming and improvements in Fermentation • ! pH increase, Zinc increase • ! Avoid using certain fertilizers with cadmium content • ! Phytoremediation p lants When the producers know that their region has low cadmium levels , they disregard mitigation strategies. Others may or may not apply them depending on cost , as mentioned above. The

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FN ( ( socioeconomic condition and the type of farmer according to Abbott et al., (2018) affect the adoption of the mitigation strategies. Research involvement and research needs As mentioned above, since the announcement of the cadmium regulation, many research efforts have been launched in the cacao sector by the producing countries. In Colombia, such research efforts are furthered by institutions and industry. Having said that, there is no complete research right now that can say with certainty how to mitigate the cadmium levels in cacao trees in a viable and cost effective way , as most of the studies regarding mitigation have not concluded yet (Meter et al., 2019) . The main recommendation is t o avoid the use of some high cadmium conten t fertilizers, as recommended by an investigation carried out by industrial companies . However, th is measure is more a response to cadmium content in the fertilizers, rather than an understanding of mechanisms of cadmium accumulation in the plants . Interviewees mentioned that the re is a list of this fertilizers that have been tested but did not share this information . Institutions like Agrosavia are working on a mapping exercise for cadmium across different regions , to generate a clearer picture of the situation. This information was not available during my field practicum . Conclusions C admium represents one of the most prominent challenges for the future of the cacao industry in Colombia and Latin America, as it has been widely agreed that cadmium presence is not affecting African cacao crops. While the European Union food safety regulation on cadmium le vels is specific for processed cacao products and not on raw cacao beans, the establishment and startup of the regulation has fostered an environment of uncertainty in producing countries, creating different perceptions and narratives on the regulation an d its impacts . Over time, it will test the adaptive capacity of the cacao value chain and has already driven multiple research and institutional efforts to seek effective mitigation strategies .

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FM ( ( Since the enactment of the regulation, impacts on the economy of the producer have been negligible since most of what is produced is purchased internally. Experiences from associations trying to export their grain s indicate that there are buyers requesting cacao with low cadm ium levels and if producers cannot meet this market demand , the consequence s may become more serious over time . On the other hand, the industry on the head of the most important chocolate products companies, has made progress to prepare for any possible im pacts, including investing in laboratories and improving their product recipes. Even though the current narrative is that price has remained the same despite the regulation, information management on the purpose of the regulation and the impacts across the chain seems to be one of the most immediate issues regarding the cadmium problem as it could lead to unpleasant situations, misunderstandings or abuses. Recommendations Research efforts on cacao and cadmium must be articulated with the key actors of the chain and especially with producers' cooperatives and associations. This implies sharing useful information and diffusions/dissemination of early results. It is understandable that research institutions have been addressing different aspects of the problem in perhaps a rather fragmented way. Soon , however , it is important that key stakeholders in the sector align their efforts to ensure a general understanding of the problem, the regulation and emerging findings to mitigate its impact. It is particularly important to clarify information about the regulation with producers who are vulnerable to abuse by unscrupulous buyers . Additionally, it would be important to have realistic expectations regarding the growth of the cacao sector to prio ritize efforts to mitigat e the impacts of this regulation. Knowing that internal consumption has been one of the primary reason s why farmers have not perceived major impacts,

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KI ( ( if the intention of the sector is to increase productivity for exportation, it is crucial to know what are the target markets and their intentions on regulating cadmium content. In the same line, exploring alternative markets for exportation could be a short term answer to the emerging issues with international buyers . Limitations Not reaching all the cacao producing regions in Colombia is one of the most important limitations of the study, e specially to explore the narrative of cadmium presence in different parts of the country . However, that information would unlikely change the concl usions of this report . In like manner , looking at cross scale implications, integrating the efforts in the Colombian cacao sector with what producing countries like Ecuador or Peru are doing is important to understand the impact of the regulation as a whol e, and th e gap s that need to be addressed . Bibliography Abbott, P.C., Benjamin, T.J., Burniske, G.R., Croft, M.M., Fenton, M., Kelly, C.R., Lundy, M., Rodriguez Camayo, F., W. M. . (2018). An‡lisis de la cadena productiva de cacao en Colombia. Cali, CO. Agrosavia. (2019). MARCO ESTRATƒGICO CORPORATIVO 2018 Ð 2028. Retrieved November 23, 2019, from https://www.agrosavia.co/quŽ hacemos Alarcon Torres, E. A. (2018). Evaluacion del Potencial de Mercado de un Bioinsumo Inmovilizador de Cadmio en el Sistema Cac aotero Colombiano (Universidad EAFIT). Retrieved from https://repository.eafit.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10784/13378/ErikaAndrea_AlarconTorres_2 018.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y Arbel‡ez CortŽs, E. (n.d.). Knowledge of Colombian biodiversity: published and inde xed . Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Enrique_Arbelaez Cortes/publication/256459568_Knowledge_of_Colombian_biodiversity_Published_and_ind exed/links/54419d340cf2a76a3cc826ff.pdf Casteblanco, J. A. (2018). Heavy metals remediation with pot ential application in cocoa cultivation. Granja , 27 (1), 21 Ð 35. https://doi.org/10.17163/lgr.n27.2018.02

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KE ( ( Charry, A., Matthias, J., Enciso, K., Romero, M., Sierra, L., Quintero, M., É Burkart, S. (2018). Cadenas de valor con enfoque ambiental y cero deforest acion en la Amazonia colombiana . Cali, CO. Chavez Hurtado, C. R., Soto Cardenas, E., & Guerrero Barrantes, J. (2018). Cadmio en el Cacao: ÀComo mitigar el impacto economico y comercial? Retrieved from https://www.swisscontact.org/fileadmin/user_upload/COUN TRIES/Colombia/Documents/C ontent/Presentacion_Peru_Cadmio.pdf Chavez, E. F. (n.d.). Cadmio en cacao: enfoque cient’fico para mitigar el impacto regulaciones internacionales . Retrieved from https://www.fedecacao.com.co/portal/images/MEMORIAS_V_SEMINARIO/008 ._Dr._Edu ardo_Chavez_ _ESPOL_Ecuador.pdf CIAT. (2018). Concept Note for Climate relevant and low cadmium innovations to promote sustainable cacao production in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru . Cali, CO. Codex Alimentarus Comission. (2018). Discussion paper on t he development of a code of pracice for the prevention and reduction of Cadmium contamination in Cocoa . Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fao who codexalimentarius/sh proxy/pt/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fworkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcode x%252FMeeting s%252FCX 735 12%252FWD%252Fcf12_16e.pdf Codex Alimentarus Comission. (2018). Report of the 12th Session of the Codex Commitee on Contaminants in Foods . Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/fao who codexalimentarius/sh proxy/en/?lnk=1&url=https%253A%252F%252Fw orkspace.fao.org%252Fsites%252Fcode x%252FMeetings%252FCX 735 12%252FREPORT%252520%2528FINAL%2529%252FREP18_CFe.pdf Conlon, M., Romero, A., & Gallego, J. (2018). Cacao for Peace Update: Firing on All Cylinders . Contreras Pedraza, C. A. (2017). An‡lisis de l a cadena de valor del cacao en Colombia: generaci—n de estrategias tecnol—gicas en operaciones de cosecha y poscosecha, organizativas, de capacidad instalada y de mercado (Universidad Nacional de Colombia). Retrieved from http://bdigital.unal.edu.co/59141/ 1/1032373448 2017.pdf Crozier, J. (n.d.). Heavy Metals in Cocoa . Retrieved from www.cabi.org Echeverry Aranda, A. (2015). DETERMINACIîN CUANTITATIVA Y ANçLISIS DE CADMIO PRESENTE EN CHOCOLATE COLOMBIANO CON ALTO CONTENIDO DE CACAO (Universidad del Quindio) . Retrieved from https://bdigital.uniquindio.edu.co/bitstream/001/4467/1/DETERMINACIîN CUANTITATIVA Y ANçLISIS DE CADMIO PRESENTE EN CHOCOLATE COLOMBIANO CON ALTO CONTENI.pdf

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KJ ( ( Echeverry, A., & Reyes, H. (2016). Determinacion de la concentracion de cadmio en un chocolate colombiano con 65% de cacao y chocolates extranjeros con diferentes porcentajes de cacao. Entre Ciencia e Ingenier’a , 10 (19), 22 Ð 32. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1909 83672016000100004 European Comission. (n.d.). THE CADMIUM LEVEL IN CHOCOLATE IS LOWER THAN IN THE COCOA BEANS DUE TO THE PROCESSING OF COCOA BEANS INTO CHOCOLATE . Farrell, A. D., Rhiney, K., Eitzinger, A., & Umaharan, P. (2018). Climate adaptation in a minor crop species: is the cocoa breeding network prepared for climate change? Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems , 812 Ð 833. https://doi.org/10.1080/21683565.201 8.1448924 FEDECACAO. (n.d.). Manual de Buenas Practicas Agricolas BPA en el cultivo del Cacao . Retrieved from https://www.fedecacao.com.co/portal/images/recourses/pub_doctecnicos/fedecacao pub doc_11B.pdf Garc’a c‡ceres, R. G., Perdomo, A., Ortiz, O., Bel tr‡n, P., & L—pez, K. (2014). Characterization of the supply and value chains of Colombian cocoa. Dyna , 81 (187), 30 Ð 40. https://doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v81n186.39555 ICCO. (2019). Fine or Flavour Cocoa. Retrieved November 19, 2019, from https://www.icco.org/ about cocoa/fine or flavour cocoa.html ICCO. (2003). Products that can be made from cocoa. Retrieved November 16, 2019, from https://www.icco.org/faq/52 by products/115 products that can be made from cocoa.html Iniciativa Lationamericana del Cacao. (2018). OBSERVATORIO DEL CACAO FINO Y DE AROMA PARA AMƒRICA LATINA . Retrieved from http://bit.ly/PublicacionesFONTAGRO Jimenez Tobon, C. S. (2015). Estado legal mundial del cadmio en cacao (Theobroma cacao): Fantasia o realidad. Produccion + Limpia , 10 (1), 89 Ð 104 . Retrieved from http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/pml/v10n1/v10n1a09.pdf Lara Zambrano, V. E. (2017). Evaluacion del Contenido de Cadmio en dos variedades de Cacao considerando distintos metodos de secado en la localidad de Luz de America (Universidad de las F uerzas Armadas). Retrieved from https://repositorio.espe.edu.ec/bitstream/21000/12962/1/T ESPE 002802.pdf Li, H., Ou, J., Wang, X., Yan, Z., & Zhou, Y. (2018). Immobilization of soil cadmium using combined amendments of illite/smectite clay with bone chars . Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 25 (21), 20723 Ð 20731. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356 018 2227 4

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KF ( ( McGreevey, W., Gilmore, R., Parsons, J., Garavito, C., & Kline, H. (2018). Colombia. Retrieved October 20, 2018, from Encyclopedia Britannica web site: https://www.britannica.com/place/Colombia Segura, E., Morales, R., Somolinos, J. A., & L—pez, A. (2017). Techno economic challenges of tidal energy conversion systems: Current status and trends. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 77 (May 2016), 536 Ð 550. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.054 Naranjo Merino, C. A., Ort’z Rodriguez, O. O., & Villamizar G, R. A. (2017). Assessing green and blue water footprints in the supply chain of cocoa production: A case study in the Northeast of Colombia. Sustainability (Switzerland) , 10 (1). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010038 Pernia, B., Mero, M., Mu–oz, J., Bravo, K., Moran, N., Zambrano, J., É Torres, G. (2016). Aquatic plants with potential for phytoextraction of Cadmium in rice fields of Daule Parish, Province of Guayas, Ecuador . 10 (2), 37 Ð 51. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321418435 Pulleman, M., & Van Santvoort, M. (2019). Supporting Farmers and Chocolate Companies on the Implementation of the EU Cadmium Regulation. Retrieved November 26, 2019, from World Cacao Foundation website: https://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/blog/cadmium continued supporting farmers and chocolate companies on the implementation of the eu regulation/ Ram’rez Agurto, Augusto. (2013). Conceptos actuales p ara evaluar exposici—n ambiental u ocupacional con indicadores biol—gicos. Anales de la Facultad de Medicina. 63. 10.15381/anales.v63i1.1477. Ramtahal, G., Yen, I. C., Hamid, A., Bekele, I., Bekele, F., Maharaj, K., & Harrynanan, L. (2018). The Effect of L iming on the Availability of Cadmium in Soils and Its Uptake in Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) In Trinidad & Tobago. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis , 49 , 2456 Ð 2464. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2018.1510955 Rios, F., Ruiz, A., Lecaro, J., & Rehpani, C. (2017). Estrategias pais para la oferta de Cacaos Especiales: Politicas e iniciativas privadas exitosas en el Peru, Ecuador, Colombia y Republica Dominicana (1st ed.; Swisscontact Colombia, Ed.). Retrieved from www.swisscontact.org/colom bia Superintentencia de Industria y Comercio. (2011). CADENA PRODUCTIVA DEL CACAO: DIAGNîSTICO DE LIBRE COMPETENCIA . Retrieved from https://www.sic.gov.co/recursos_user/documentos/promocion_competencia/Estudios_Econ omicos/Cacao.pdf Swiss Foundation for Tec hnical Cooperation. (2016). Cocoa Value Chain Development: Transforming cocoa farming into a sustainable business for smallholder farmers . 31. Retrieved from

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KK ( ( http://www.swisscontact.org/fileadmin/user_upload/HEAD_OFFICE/Documents/Topics_B rochures/Brochure_ Cocoa_Value_Chain_Development.pdf Van Santvoort, M. (2018). The Impacts of New EU Cadmium Regulations on the Cocoa Supply Chain. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from World Cacao Foundation website: https://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/blog/the impacts of new eu cadmium regulations on the cocoa supply chain/ WHO. (2010). Exposure to Cadmium: A Major Public Health Concertn . Retrieved from http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc135.htm Youngers, C. A., & Walsh, J. M. (2010). Washington office on Latin america De velopment First A More Humane and Promising Approach to Reducing Cultivation of Crops for Illicit Markets . Retrieved from https://www.wola.org/sites/default/files/downloadable/Drug Policy/2010/WOLA_RPT_Development_web_FNL.pdf Zambrano, J. L., & Ch‡vez, E. F. (2018). Diagnostico D=del Estado del Arte de la Cadena de Valor del Cacao en America Latina y el Caribe . Retrieved from https://www.fontagro.org/wp content/uploads/2019/03/2018 CacaoDocFinal.pdf

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KG ( ( Annexes Interview Questionnaire by role in the Value Chain. Producers 1. ! How long have you been cultivating Cacao? 2. ! Are you part of a cooperative or farmers' association? 3. ! How is your cacao priced? Who is the main Cacao buyer at your region? 4. ! Do you know the production costs of your cacao farm? 5. ! Do you receiv e any type of technical assistance from research, extension or governmental institutions? 6. ! Have you ever exported cacao? How was your experience doing so? 7. ! Do you know what Cadmium is? Have you heard about the relationship between cadmium and cacao? 8. ! What is your perception of the cadmium regulation on cacao products? 9. ! Since the introduction of the cadmium regulation on cacao products, have you had any problems selling your cacao? Have you experienced any price reduction? Have you lost business? 10. ! Do you know any mitigation strategy to reduce levels of cadmium in cacao crops? Are you implementing any mitigation strategy? 11. ! What other type of economic activities are popular around your farm besides agriculture? Commercialists, Transformers, Chocolatiers 1. ! How long have you been working with cacao? With how many producers, associations or cooperatives do you do business with? Do you commercialize any other type of product? 2. ! What is the price standard that you work with? Is there any difference between price in the interna l marker and the market for exportation? Are there any primes for quality characteristics or certifications that are being paid in the internal Colombian market? 3. ! What do you know about the problematic between Cacao and Cadmium? 4. ! What is your perception of t he regulation? Why do you think it was implemented? 5. ! Since the introduction of the cadmium regulation on cacao products, have you had any problems doing business with cacao? Have you stopped buying cacao in any region because of cadmium presence in the crop ? Has the price in the market changed?

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KH ( ( 6. ! Do you know any mitigation strategies to reduce cadmium presence in the crop? Are there any mitigation strategies at the cacao transformation level? 7. ! Is the cadmium issue being considered a quality problem for cacao be ans? 8. ! Do you export cacao products? Where are you exporting cacao products? 9. ! In your opinion, what are the top priorities, opportunities and challenges of the cacao sector in which research and policy need to put their attention? Research, Extension and Gove rnmental Institutions/Organizations 1. ! What is the role of your organization in the Colombian cacao value chain? 2. ! Are you familiarized with the cadmium problematic? 3. ! What are the causes of cadmium contamination in cacao beans? Is there a most predominant cause than another? 4. ! What is your perception of the cadmium regulation on cacao products imposed in the European market? 5. ! From your point of view, have you noted any positive or negative impact on the cacao value chain after the implementation of the regulation? 6. ! W hat mitigation strategies for cadmium levels in cacao do you know? Are there any research projects on mitigation strategies? Is there any mitigation strategy being applied in Colombia right now? 7. ! Which do you think are the research opportunities and challen ges for the cacao value chain moving forward into the future?