Citation
Spero

Material Information

Title:
Spero a digital application design to help connect retirees and refugees
Creator:
Singer, Christina ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (68 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
application design -- service design -- social design -- refugees -- retirees
Art thesis, M.F.A
Dissertations, Academic -- Art and Art History -- UF
Genre:
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation.
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
Spero is a concept, system, and proposal--it is one possible solution to two wicked social problems (the refugee crisis and the growing population of retirees), which are practically impossible to solve. Spero is a mobile app and global platform that connects retirees and refugees based on their locality, needs, and skills. The overarching goal of Spero is to facilitate in the formation of reciprocal relationships between retirees and refugees. For many retirees, the need to matter, or remain socially engaged, is critical to their psychological state of wellbeing. As refugees integrate into a new country, they need social capital, language practice, and assistance navigating the bureaucracy that retirees have successfully navigated their entire lives. Through the use of a website, the Spero community expands and extends beyond the one-to-one matches formed in the app. The website hosts group networking, event creation, storytelling, and more information about the mobile app. The users are intergenerational and culturally diverse, requiring special features in the interface designs.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Major department: Art and Art History.
General Note:
Major: Art.
General Note:
Advisor: Slawson, Brian.
General Note:
Committee member: Hernández, María Gabriela.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Christina Singer.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
037251714 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
LD1780 2018 ( lcc )

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by Christina SingerSupervisory Committee: Professor Brian Slawson | chair Professor Mara Gabriela Hernndez | memberA PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE Q UIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTSUniversity of Florida 2018a digital application design to help connect retirees and refugees

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Christina SingerIn honor of my deepest inspiration and those who launched the original Sanctuary Movement in the 1980’s: “When a stranger sojourns with you in your land, you shall not do him wrong. You shall treat the stranger who sojourns with you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.” Leviticus 19:33 (ESV)

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retirees + refugees

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Acknowledgments Abstract Introduction Delimitations Methodology Inuences Project Reportsystem overview the brand the users the app the website the process book mock-up advertisement the wall exhibit the exhibition conclusionTerminology Works Cited Works Consulted Biographical Sketch 1 2 3 5 6 719 20 24 29 40 42 43 44 51 5254 55 56 64CONTENTS“If I look at the mass, I will never act. If I look at the one, I will.” Mother Teresa

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1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTSTo my committee, Brian and Gaby, thank you for your patience and time. anks for trusting me, giving me freedom to make mistakes, and guiding me as I learn. ank you for your advice in my career and throughout this project. To Nathalie Perez, Eunhui Yoon, and Dina Benbrahim, thank you for your translations in Spanish, Korean, and Arabic, respectively, for my exhibition wall graphic. To Michael Christopher, thank you for your help with nding printer paper and troubleshooting. To Dr. Rubino, thank you for your assistance with designing the in-app survey questions. To all my friends who brainstormed ideas with me for my project, thank you. To my fellow graphic design classmates, thank you for your feedback and constructive criticism. To Nora Kilroy, thank you for your encouragement, and for assisting me to graduate debt-free due in part to my Graphic Design Graduate Assistantship with UF O Campus Life. To my family, thanks for your constant support.

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2 ABSTRACTSpero is a concept, system, and proposal—it is one possible solution to two wicked social problems (the refugee crisis and the growing population of retirees), which are practically impossible to solve. Spero is a mobile app and global platform that connects retirees and refugees based on their locality, needs, and skills. e overarching goal of Spero is to facilitate in the formation of reciprocal relation ships between retirees and refugees. For many retirees, the need to matter, or remain socially engaged, is critical to their psychological state of wellbeing. As refugees integrate into a new country, they need social capital, language practice, and assistance navigating the bureaucracy that retirees have successfully navigated their entire lives. rough the use of a website, the Spero community expands and extends beyond the one-to-one matches formed in the app. e web site hosts group networking, event creation, storytelling, and more information about the mobile app. e users are intergenerational and culturally diverse, requiring special features in the interface designs. KEYWORDSapplication design, service design, social design, refugees, retirees

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3 INTRODUCTIONis mind map (Figure 1) is a visual representation of my thoughts while visiting my parents’ home in the summer of 2017. My father had just retired, and I had just returned from volunteering with North Korean refugees in Seoul. I began to envision how retirees and refugees could reciprocally meet each others’ needs as I observed my father’s situation with his free time, skill set, and nancial stability paired with his newfound need to nd a purpose during retirement. I imagined how much more time I could have spent in Korea working with refugees that summer if I were in his situation. I started researching North Korean topics in 2010 aer two South Korean exchange students at my university took a moment over lunch to enlighten me on their country’s unique history and divide. Figure 1

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4 INTRODUCTIONI did not know then how rare those students were—I came to nd out later that, in general, South Koreans prefer not to talk about the taboo topic of North Korea. I rst visited South Korea in 2013. en, I lived in Busan in southeast Korea from 2014 to 2015 for a full year and taught English at a public school. Later in 2015, I started graduate school and began pursuing potential design solutions to some social problems I observed in the divided nation. I returned to Korea in the summers of 2016 and 2017 to pursue and cultivate my professional ties with PSCORE (People for Successful Corean Reunication), a non-governmental organization for North Korean human rights and activism based in Seoul. Outside of school, I have had the honor of designing campaigns (Figure 2) and reports for PSCORE for the last two years, and I intend to continue the relationship indenitely. My research has expanded from investigating North Korean refugee integration in South Korea to the global refugee crisis and integration. I understand the value of native citizens assisting in integration and providing social capital from my rsthand experiences assisting interna tional students as a member of the International Friendship Program at my undergraduate university, and from receiving assistance from some of those same friends as I adjusted to South Korea as an expatriate. I created Spero with my future retired self in mind. I am the target audience in the year 2056. e core of Spero is creating and inspiring real-world relationships, regardless of the methods and tools used. Figure 2

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5 DELIMITATIONS• I am neither a retiree nor refugee; therefore, I am inherently not a user of Spero services. I had to acknowledge my implicit bias regarding the users and think reexively about where I come from in the scheme of the world, both socioeconomically and geograph ically, while researching the audience and stakeholders (organiza tions that would interface with Spero, as mentioned in the System Overview of the Project Report section of this paper in this paper). • I did not go through the IRB (Institutional Review Board) process to conduct original research with retirees and refugees. erefore, I relied on my own observations from my limited personal inter actions with retirees and refugees, noted in the Introduction of this paper, and secondary research, detailed in the Works Consulted section of this paper. Notably, if I had the opportunity to co-design Spero services with the users, then the designs, system, and in-app surveys would change in unpredictable ways directed by the users’ needs aer user testing. • e Spero system is a proposal and concept. It has not yet been for mally developed or tested in a real-world setting, as I produced it for an academic project. Spero relies on testimonies of retirees and refu gees, some of which are noted in the Inuences section of this paper. • Spero is not attempting to solve either the overall refugee crisis or the psychological wellbeing of the mass number of retirees; rather, Spero oers one possible solution to aid in making small changes that have the potential to multiply and inspire meaningful and reciprocal real-life relationships between retirees and refugees.

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6 METHODOLOGYFor this project, my design process and research methodologies include observation, user inventory, informal interviews, developing personas, user journeys, iterative design, and secondary research from websites, podcasts, books, and academic papers. My sister-in-law volunteers with World Relief, an international relief agency, in Durham, NC. She was paired with a local refugee family. She assisted them with integration and has continued to be part of their family. I have maintained contact with her throughout my project, from ideation to design, to get feedback from her perspective, as she continues to meet with the refugee family she is paired with in Durham. My best friend used to work at a refugee school in Charlotte. I consulted with her to learn about problems her students faced, and I visited the school in-person the summer before this project to get inspiration from how the school operates and assists refugees locally. I went to observe the cafe Mad Priest Coee Roasters (Figure 3), which is run by refugees in Chattanooga. I attended an event at a church for World Refugee Day (Figure 4) in the summer of 2017 and observed Chattanoogans welcoming refugees and sharing culture through food and music. I also privately volunteered a few times with a group of undocumented immigrants in Florida. ese observations, paired with my experiences volunteering with North Korean defectors in Seoul, informed my design decisions throughout this project. I conducted a user inventory study of objects (example: Figure 5) that my retired father interacts with, and I made observations based on those ndings. I designed personas and sketched user journeys based on my secondary research on real-world retiree-refugee relationships. As professors, M.F.A. peers, and friends provided feedback and directed changes, I iterated new design solutions. Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5

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7 ROBERT TAYLOR, CANADIAN, retired professor & civil servant, chairs the Ottawa South Committee for Refugee Sponsorship ‘“I know some people who throw up their hands,” he said, noting the millions eeing Syria, let alone the tens of millions of refugees globally. But “we’ve got applications for a total of 20 refugees we’re sponsoring now. at’s 20 fewer that are out there.”’ Justin Tang/e Globe and Mail Image and quote source: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/ retirees-roll-up-their-sleeves-to-help-refugees/article32349457/?ref=http://www. theglobeandmail.com&WEDIG VON HEYDEN, GERMAN, retired lawyer‘“en I went to Caritas [Catholic aid organization-the ed.]—which was the group organizing these things at the time. ey looked at me, thinking, ‘Oh, he’s an old man.” en they asked me whether I could imagine looking aer a young Syrian. Now we’ve been together for two years,” von Heyden says, looking at his Syrian-Kurdish protg, Nidal Rashow.” Manasi Gopalakrishnan/DW Image and quote source: http://www.dw.com/en/german-volunteer-nds-his-calling-helping-refugees/a-19456138CAROL BROOKS, AMERICAN, retiree“Mentor Carol Brooks, 72, wears a charm bracelet engraved with the names of the many refugees she’s helped in the past decade. “Some of them call me Mom,” she says. ...“I have mentored people from Africa, China, Bosnia, too,” Brooks says.” Jennifer Ludden/NPR Image and quote source: https://www.npr.org/2011/01/17/132705619/re tireeslend-a-hand-to-refugees-in-fargo-n-d JAWAD SHALGHIN, SYRIAN, refugee & student in Germany“Shalghin, who says he and Bauer [retiree] have taught each other a lot, says many new arrivals oen nd it easier to talk to older people. “ey can understand us in a better way, they have patience. ey can listen to us and wait until we get the right words and we have learned lots of cultural things from them: meals and songs.”’ Sarah Marsh/e Guardian Image and quote source: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/15/ miss-family-older-germans-taking-in-syrian-refugees STORIESese are some stories about reciprocal relationships between retirees and refugees that have made headlines around the world. ese stories highlight an existing environment and audience that justies the creation of and need for Spero’s services. Figure 6 (Ludden, 2011) Figure 7 (Gopalakrishnan, 2016) Figure 8 (Marsh, 2017) Figure 9 (Tang, 2017) INFLUENCES: secondary research

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8 e global population of refugees is growing in unprecedented numbers (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). At the same time, as the baby boomer generation ages, the world braces for the largest population of retirees in history (Mather, 2016). By exam ining the needs of these diverse groups, it is clear to see that willing retirees and refugees are capable of developing reciprocal relationships. As displayed on the previous page, there is evidence of these relation ships forming around the world. I read e Psychology of Retirement: Coping with the Transition om Work by retired British psychologist Derek Milne in eort to better understand the psychological eects of retirees’ social reintegration aer retirement. Dr. Milne writes about a “recipe,” as illustrated in Figure 10—these points (RECIPE) constitute guidelines for a healthy retirement and serve as the book’s framework (Milne, 2013). For the sake of my project, I focused on the sections of the book that deal with the topics of “purpose” and “engagement/social support.” Retirement disrupts social support and constitutes as one of life’s major transitions. Aer the author details the aects that lone liness can have on some retirees, Milne concludes that “whether from intimate relationships or not, eective social support includes informational, practical, and emotional help, and provides general companionship. It gives us a sense of attachment, belonging, recog nition, and guidance” (Milne, 2013). With regard to the retiree’s need to nd purpose, Milne speaks to the value of social capital in that “with greater social capital we will act together more eectively, responding jointly to adversity and towards shared goals, in ways that tend to promote heart-warming things like reciprocity, social bonds (cohesion), belonging, meaning, and purpose” (Milne, 2013). INFLUENCES: secondary researchR esources (e.g. sucient money) E xercise C oping strategies I ntellectual activity P urpose E ngagement (social support) Figure 10 (Milne, 2013)

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9 I was inuenced by Dr. Milne’s observations from his own retirement and the stories he tells of other retirees. My reection is that disruption to adjusting to a new lifestyle—as retirees maneuver life aer thirty plus years of a rigid work schedule—and disruption to adjusting to a new place—as refugees integrate to a new country—brings up a point of entry to why relationships between retirees and refugees have been successful and reciprocal. As both groups reckon with their new sense of identity, they can relate to and empathize with one another in a unique way. Ben Heaven, a British Medical Psy chologist who studies social relationships, echoes Milne’s advice. Dr. Heaven writes about the kinds of interventions that have been designed to promote social roles in retirement as people adapt their sense of purpose and self-ecacy that might have been embedded in their former work roles (Heaven, 2013). e author notes that activities like volunteering can “provide a sense of purpose, worth, identity, or structure to life” for retirees (Heaven, 2013). I consulted numerous sources while attempting to understand potential Spero users, retirees and refugees, which are noted in the Works Consulted section of this paper. I will focus on ve academic papers that direct designers on how to design for these diverse groups. e following three pages touch on how these papers address user research with regard to Spero users’ unique needs and concerns in relation to digital user interface design. I retrieved these articles and papers from the Procedia Computer Science’s 5th International Conference on Soware Development and Technologies for Enhancing Accessibility and Fighting Info-exclusion, IBM Research – Tokyo, a paper from the Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems, Langkawi, and a Social Anthropology thesis paper by Silke Jungbluth on “smartphone refugees” from the University of Tampere in Finland. Figure 11INFLUENCES: secondary research

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10 Figure 13 (Schreieck, 2017) A group of Information Systems scholars from Germany proposed a set of design principles for designing mobile application interfaces for refugees based on feedback from testing the mobile application INTEGREAT, which is used by refugees for local information gathering. eir ndings were reported at the Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems, Langkawi, 2017. eir tests considered user interface design feedback from intercultural refugees across four dierent refugee camps. e group then iterated the existing INTEGREAT mobile application user interface designs aer gathering feedback (Schreieck, 2017). ey prepared a chart (Figure 13) to highlight some design principles for designers follow when designing services in the form of mobile applications for refugees (Schreieck, 2017). ough this research was conducted within the refugee community, the design principles for typography, iconography, structure, and content for cross-cultural design and human-computer interaction purposes apply to any designer attempting to maximize accessibility to all people (Schreieck, 2017). e INTEGREAT screens (Figure 12) show variations in iconography and layout, depending on who is using the app and which direction they are reading in order to transmit information interculturally and intuitively to the users (Schreieck, 2017). Figure 12 (Schreieck, 2017)INFLUENCES: secondary research

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11 With regard to the research and ndings for the INTEGREAT app, I designated “Language Selection” as the rst screen in the Spero app on-boarding process. Navigational icons and layouts could and should theoretically shi based on the user’s cultural background and language specications. Social Anthropologist Silke Jungbluth conducted interviews with Iraqi refugees in Helsinki regarding how they used smartphones. Jung bluth writes about “smartphone refugees” and notes that their phones are indispensable to them for planning routes, nding information, keeping in touch with family back home, and nding organizations or individuals oering help in dierent countries ( Jungbluth, 2017). IBM Research – Tokyo conducted interviews in its study, Characteristics of Elderly User Behavior on Mobile Multi-Touch Devices, which details the resulting needs expressed by twenty-one elderly participants and proposes user interface design considerations for elderly based on those results (Harada, 2013). Pictured to the le are two images from the user interface testing scenarios. Figure 14 compares three participants’ scrolling and tapping gestures on a mobile smartphone. IBM researchers analyze the dierences in user experience on the same screen and how some participants make short gestures to “nudge-ick” the screen to scroll through contacts, while others take longer strokes and “stroke-ick” the screen to scroll through contacts (Harada, 2013). My takeaway from this is that the method of icking could cause the screen to slide too quickly, so the interface design should be adapted to account for a smooth scroll regardless of how the users swipe the screen. Figure 15 shows the dierence in elderly miss-taps on numerical keypads from a small iPhone to a large iPad. For this reason, I designed the retiree’s Spero user interface demonstration for the iPad. Figure 15 (Harada, 2013) Figure 14 (Harada, 2013) INFLUENCES: secondary research

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12 Figure 16 (Barros, 2014) Visual design for the elderly is also a topic that Barros, Leitao, and Ribeiro discuss in their paper from Procedia Computer Science on Design and Evaluation of a Mobile User Interface for Older Adults: Navigation, Interaction, and Visual Design Recommendations. is study tests Dance! Don’t Fall, a “dance and fall risk assessment app,” (Figure 16) which was designed for elderly users and employs some use of gamication, which users struggled with in terms of the wording used in the app (Barros et al., 2014). Tap and swipe gestures are reportedly confusing for elderly users— for example, some participants, unfamiliar with how to navigate back to the previous screen or the main menu, tried scrolling up rather than tapping the back button (Barros et al., 2014). e study suggests that designers use icons along with text, provide generous spacing between items, minimize keyboard usage, take advantage of scrolling if the application requires it (as elderly users intuitively mastered the concept of scrolling), and use the back button and home screen as navigational features (Barros et al., 2014). Another paper from Procedia Computer Science proposes guidelines for how to design mobile interfaces for older people. It suggests that icons should be simple and meaningful, background colors should not be pure white or change rapidly in brightness, screen layout and terminology should be simple, and graphics should be relevant with out elaborate animations (Daz-Bossini & Moreno, 2014). e paper also examines apps built for the elderly, such as Big Launcher Application and App Fontrillo. While designing the Spero user interfaces for retirees and refugees using both Android and iOS on dierent devices, I tried to follow these guidelines paired with the design principles proposed in the INTEGREAT case study with refugees.INFLUENCES: secondary research

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13 Objects that we possess and interact with can highlight our needs and values. For example, in 2015 the International Rescue Committee (IRC) gathered information on what refugees carry in their bags (Figure 17), from technology to toothpaste (International Rescue Committee, 2015). I specically chose to design an Android mobile interface for the Spero refugee in-app user journey demo in my project because the majority of refugees and people in general around the world who use smartphones use the Android operating system (Dunn, 2016). erefore, I used a twenty-ve dollar prepaid Android smartphone with WiFi capabilities to display the refugee’s interface at the Spero exhibition. I did not do this to generalize that all refugees use cheap phones; rather, on the contrary, I found by observing sites of refugee charging stations in refugee camps through various news sources (Figure 18) and in the IRC’s case study on the contents of refugees’ bags that refugees oen have expensive smartphones, as that is their lifeline. e phone I bought was what I could aord for my exhibit, and it had the Android operating system to display the interface. Likewise, I designed a larger screen for the app in the form of an iPad with larger fonts for the retiree in-app user journey demo in my proj ect. Studying objects that users interface with on a daily basis allows designers to eectively design for them. For twenty days, I collected objects from my father’s daily life and noted observations in my visual diary, a user inventory study, as pictured on the following pages. I observed he has bifocals for read ing, uses a ip phone, writes checks, has AARP and other magazine subscriptions, has two cars, and carries a pen. Small observations like these informed my decisions as I made the Spero app surveys and interfaces, such as increasing font sizes for the retiree interface. Figure 18 images from BBC & HuffPost Figure 17 (International Rescue Committee, 2015) INFLUENCES: secondary research & observations

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14 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 19 Figure 21 Figure 20 Figure 22

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15 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 23 Figure 25 Figure 24 Figure 26

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16 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 27 Figure 29 Figure 28 Figure 30

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17 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 31 Figure 33 Figure 32 Figure 34

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18 Figure 35 Figure 37 Figure 36 Figure 38 INFLUENCES: user inventory study

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19 SYSTEM OVERVIEWSpero is a global platform that connects retirees and refugees locally based on their needs and skills. e movement requires partnerships with retiree, refugee, and religious organizational sectors to help pro mote Spero services to potential users. From the retiree sector, Spero requires participation from retirement centers and organizations like AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) and BAGSO (Germany’s federal association of senior organizations). From the refugee aid sector, Spero requires participation from organizations like WR (World Relief) and the IRC (International Rescue Committee).PROJECT REPORT: system overview retirees refugees WR, IRC, etc. + churches, temples, mosques, etc. AARP, BAGSO, etc. + churches, temples, mosques, etc. Figure 39

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20 THE NAMEe name Spero means “I hope.” It comes from the Latin phrase “dum spiro spero,” which means “while I breathe, I hope.” Spero translates similarly into some Romance languages (ie. espero, “I hope” in Spanish). I ran across this term in my word map (Figure 40) while investigating the meaning of “indispensable,” which I found in a quote by professor Friederike von Schwerin-High as she described three German novels that romanticize relationships of retirees and refugees as indispensable to one another (Von Schwerin-High, 2017).PROJECT REPORT: the brandFigure 40

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21 PROJECT REPORT: the brand SKETCHESese are some of my branding sketches. Aer making Pinterest boards for inspiration, I drew multiple versions of letterforms and symbols while brainstorming and researching. I did not sit down to sketch these all at once; rather, over multiple weeks, I returned to the drawing board and nally took some concepts to the computer. Figure 41 Figure 42

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22 PROJECT REPORT: the brand THE LOGOMARKe logomark is a reference to the term “anchor” (n): “also referred to as a “U.S. tie,” a family member or friend in the United States who can provide assistance to a refugee during resettlement,” according to the Catholic Charities of TN refugee dictionary (Catholic Charities of Tennessee, Inc., 2013). Anchors also symbolize stability, strength, hope, and a safe end to a long journey—a meaning that resonates with both retirees and refugees as they socially reintegrate and/or integrate, respectively. Repetition of the anchor logomark forms a tessellation that references connectivity (Figure 44). THE LOGO CONSTRUCTIONI carefully constructed the logo, considering kerning, both vertical and horizontal orientations, as well as the stroke width of the logomark in contrast with the logotype. Figure 43 Figure 44

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23 PROJECT REPORT: the brand THE LOGOTYPEe logotype uses Futura Bold for its accessibility regarding the boldness, clarity, and simplicity of its sans-serif letterforms—these are design principles that Schreieck encourages while designing for intercultural audiences, as noted in the Influences section of this paper (Schreieck, 2017).THE COLOR PALETTE e color palette is bright green with contrasting accent colors throughout the app interface. Green is a safe color around the world, and “it means life and plenitude pretty much anywhere on Earth where plants grow” (Lupton, 2017). It represents growth, safety, nature, luck, and renewal. C: 75 M:0 Y:71 K:0 R: 39 G: 182 B: 122 hex #: 27b57a C: 58 M:0 Y:78 K:0 R: 114 G: 193 B: 108 hex #: 72c16b C: 40 M:0 Y:50 K:0 R: 157 G: 210 B: 156 hex #: 9dd19b Figure 45 Figure 47 Figure 46

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24 PROJECT REPORT: the users PERSONASe following pages describe Spero’s potential users. I created two scenarios of matched pairs based on personas that I designed in response to my secondary research on existing retiree-refugee rela tionships. I found that many retirees who volunteer with refugees are retired teachers and lawyers with unique motivations due to their interactions with refugees during their careers. e rst match is Ayah and Christina. ey are hypothetically located in Chicago, IL, USA, a designated sanctuary city and ideal host for a Spero community. I designed the user journeys displayed in the mobile application demonstration videos based on these specic personabased users. Additionally, I applied quotes to these personas on the wall infographic for the Spero exhibit. I used my rst name for the retiree here with full intentionality, as to design for my own future. I ran across the name Ayah in an interview with a refugee from Syria. e other match scenario of Mohammad and Henryk takes place in Hamburg, Germany, a similarly welcoming city for refugees. I was personally inspired to select Henryk as the retiree’s name here because of my personal heritage and relation to Henryk Sawik. My surname “Singer,” is an invented one. My surname was Sawik before my great-grandfather immigrated to Ellis Island and changed his name years later. Aer some intense genealogy research on Ancestry.com and with the help of a distant relative, I found my relation to Henryk Sawik, a politician and activist who was killed by Nazis for forging documents to save the lives of thousands of refugees during World War II.

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25 IMAGE SOURCE : http://www.helpforsyria.org.uk/ wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Women.pngAYAH REFUGEEAGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOALS MOTIVATIONS INTERESTS34 yrs. female Syria (3 yrs. displaced) refugee Chicago, IL, USA (9 mos. resettled) baker; former bakery owner w/husband in Syria $22,500/yr.; $45,000 combined with husband husband, 2 girls (9 & 12 yrs. old), & a cousin living in Chicago, 3 siblings & an aunt in Syria lost, disconnected, brave, & hopeful meet Americans & understand the culture better future for children, survival, & integration TECH• Android smartphone • Dell laptop • in-home Wi-FiSKILLS• accounting • management • marketing • bakingEDUCATIONAssociate degree in Business Administration from Damascus University in SyriaTRANSPORTATION• uses public transit • comfortable walkingSOCIAL• uses WeChat & Google Hangouts to keep in touch with family & friends • member of Syrian Community Network on FacebookORGANIZATIONS• Masjid Al-Faatir Mosque • refugeeone.orgQUOTE“‘We came to a country that is not our country, and everything changed on us: the system, the people the area, the city,” she says in Arabic.” ( SOURCE : https://www.npr.org/2017/01/04/508220451/ immigration-climate)VALUES• family • safety • cultural preservation • independenceNEEDS• social capital • language practice • friendsCONCERNS• good health for herself & family members • fear that children will be bullied or rejected by American children • HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE A REFUGEE? HEAR THEIR WORDS: https://www.oxfam.org/en/rights-crisis/how-does-itfeel-be-refugee-hear-their-words https://sweetsweetsyria.com https://www.facebook.com/SyrianCommunityNetwork/ https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr/stateprograms-annual-overview EMBROIDERY: https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ originals/2014/09/lebanon-syria-refugees-womenwork-ngos.htmlLANGUAGEArabic (native) English (intermediate): reading writing speaking listening PROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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26 https://www.illinoispolicy.org/cps-budgetbreakdown-where-has-the-money-gone/ CHRISTINA RETIREE IMAGE SOURCE : https://ak8.picdn. net/shutterstock/videos/27337348/ thumb/1.jpgAGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOAL MOTIVATIONS INTERESTS68 yrs. female St. Paul, MN. USA US citizen, daughter of German immigrants Chicago, IL, USA (33 yrs.) 3 yrs. retired public school US History teacher $70,000 (pension) 1 yr. widowed, 3 out-of-town adult children, 5 grandchildren (2, 3, 6, 7, & 10), & a brother (72) create a purposeful post-retirement life; to matter motivated by students & parents’ immigration story TECH• iPhone • iPad Air • HP desktop computer • in-home Wi-FiSKILLS• teaching • cooking • pianoEDUCATIONB.A. in History from Winona State University in MN & Masters in Education from The Hamline School of EducationTRANSPORTATIONhas a carSOCIAL• part of an intergenerational Bible study group at church • uses Facebook & FaceTime to keep in touch with adult children and grandchildrenORGANIZATIONS• St. James Lutheran Church • AARP memberQUOTE“I don’t think I expected to be so close to them and care so much about them as I do. I thought this was going to be somewhat distant.”( SOURCE: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/25/world/ canada/syrian-refugees.html)VALUES• security • hospitality • family • privacy • independenceNEEDS• companionship • to be needed (to matter) • activitiesCONCERNS• using time wisely • distance from family membersLANGUAGEEnglish (native) German (beginner): reading writing speaking listening http://www.aarp.org/experience-corps/ http://www.pewinternet. org/2017/05/17/tech-adoptionclimbs-among-older-adults/PROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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27 MOHAMMAD REFUGEE IMAGE SOURCE: http://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/ assets/150521105101-16-white-helmets-img-2285exlarge-169.jpg WHAT DID YOU BRING WITH YOU? : https://www. mercycorps.org/photoessays/jordan-syria/we-askedrefugees-what-did-you-bring-youAGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOALS MOTIVATIONS INTERESTS29 yrs. male Syria (1 yr. displaced) asylum seeker Hamburg, Germany (1 mo.) former architect in Syria; currently unable to work in Germany while seeking asylum volunteer at a B&B for meals & accommodation wife, 3 yr. old girl, 2 brothers & father in Syria, 1 cousin in Germany anxious, vulnerable, insecure, displaced, & hopeful attain refugee status in Germany; provide for family better future for family & survival music, art, & soccerTECH• Android smartphone • external hard driveSKILLS• project management • drawing • designEDUCATIONB.A. in Architecture from the University of AleppoTRANSPORTATION• uses public transit • comfortable walkingSOCIAL• uses WeChat in public Wi-Fi to communicate with friends & family in SyriaORGANIZATIONS• The Refugee Centre Hamburg (Flchtlingszentrum)QUOTE“Older people can understand us in a better way, they have patience. We have learned lots of cultural things from them– meals and songs.”( SOURCE: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/15/ miss-family-older-germans-taking-in-syrian-refugees)VALUES• safety • family • integrity • honestyNEEDS• to understand Germany • language practice • social capitalCONCERNS• getting refugee status for family • not being able to earn money • attaining stability • facing prejudice • learning codes in the German architectural worldLANGUAGEArabic (native) German & English (beginner): reading writing speaking listening https://qz.com/515994/hamburg-iscommandeering-empty-property-to-houserefugees-and-asylum-seekers/ http://www.fz-hh.de/de/kurzin fos/info-englisch.phpPROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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28 IMAGE SOURCE : https://cdn.aarp.net/content/dam/aarp/health/ healthy-living/2017/12/1140-fd-early-retirement.imgcache. rev631345f5b630f9662c8067b4eebab43d.web.360.207.jpgHENRYK RETIREE65 yrs. male Szeroka, Poland German citizen (immigrated for university) Hamburg, Germany (20 yrs.) retired lawyer ,600 (pension, etc.) divorced, 2 adult children, a sister, & a mother leave a legacy, self-improve, & keep active motivated by justice & personal integration golf, skiing, hiking, & readingTECH• Andriod smartphone • Android tablet • in-home Wi-FiSKILLS• navigating bureaucracy • communicating • advocatingEDUCATIONErste Juristische Prfung at the Faculty of Law University (Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin)TRANSPORTATIONhas a carSOCIAL• uses Facebook to network • uses email to occasionally keep in touch with former colleaguesORGANIZATIONS• BAGSO member (Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der Senioren-Organisationen)QUOTE“Somebody like me has a lot of time. I live comfortably and it would be worthwhile doing something like that [volunteering].”( SOURCE calling-helping-refugees/a-19456138)VALUES• family • justice • privacy • NEEDS• friends • communityCONCERNS• health • social re-integration • LANGUAGEGerman (native) English (advanced): reading writing speaking listening AGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOALS MOTIVATIONS INTERESTShttps://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/ retirees-roll-up-their-sleeves-to-help-refugees/ article32349457/ https://www.howtogermany.com/pages/ german-retirement.html http://www.bagso.de/bagsogerman-national-association-ofsenior-citizens-organisations.htmlPROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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29 PROJECT REPORT: the app THE APPe purpose of the native application is to connect retirees and refugees in real life based on locality and availability. ese two conditions are the bare minimum requirements for a match to form. I designed the in-app surveys in the “Personal Information” and “Match Preferences” sections of the app, as displayed in this section of the Project Report, in order to filter out strong desires to avoid unsuccessful matches. e goal is for the app to be used for a minimal amount of time, only matching one refugee with one retiree per referral code to encourage in-person relationships. ere are no photos or identiable personal information to judge people in the app. Features like the privacy policy and referral code attempt to address issues of concern for security pur poses, but inevitably these components of the app would be constantly updated to respond to the users’ needs. Perhaps a more approachable and understandable privacy policy, such as a visual narrative or an animation, could be integrated into the on-boarding process of the app to demystify the small print and gain the trust of the retiree and refugee users. When users match, the app generates a public location, date, and time to meet, as seen in Figure 48, based on their location and availabil ity as specied in the app surveys. Users can request to edit the plan to suit their needs, and their match can approve the suggestion or request further edits until both people agree on a location, date, and time. e app does not encourage online communication. A simple editable status bubble is the only tool in the app that allows communication before meeting in person. e dierences in the Android and iOS versions of the native apps are minimal. Notably, the navigation bars and fonts are oriented and selected based on Apple’s iOS guideline suggestions and Google’s material design guidelines. Figure 48

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30 PROJECT REPORT: the appFigure 49; link to iPad & mobile Android app demos: christinasinger.com/portfolio/mfa Figure 50; Sketch screen shots Android (L) & iPad (R) APP DEMOS + PROCESSe app demo videos showcase a match scenario of persona-based retiree, Christina (iPad), matching with persona-based refugee, Ayah (mobile Android). I built the screens using Bohemian Coding’s Sketch soware (Figure 50), the industry standard for user interface design; and, by using the Cra plugin, I synced the screens with designated swipe gestures to the prototyping tool, InVision. I then screen-recorded the user journeys with Apple’s QuickTime soware and used the VLC media player app to loop the demonstration videos (Figure 49) on the Android and iPad for the exhibition.

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31 PROJECT REPORT: the app UX SKETCHES Before prototyping the app, I sketched user journeys and potential scenarios (Figures 51) to help identify possible gaps in the app. I wireframed the content and ow of the app to establish a basic structure. Figure 51

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32 PROJECT REPORT: the appFigure 52 Figure 53UX SKETCHES

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33 PROJECT REPORT: the app PAPER PROTOTYPING Aer I wireframed a basic structure for the app, I used paper prototypes (Figure 54) to test the interface icons, graphics, and navigation with my M.F.A. design peers and friends in order to determine what features the app might lack.Figure 54

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34 PROJECT REPORT: the app ... ... ... APP SCREENSI built screens (Figure 55) aer I gathered feedback from the paper prototypes and added features like the referral code while on-boarding in the app. e screens below are selections from the Spero mobile Android app. e main dierences in the visual interfaces of the Android (material) and iOS are the navigation and fonts; I complied with OS standards by using San Francisco for iOS and Roboto for material design.... ...Figure 55

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35 PROJECT REPORT: the app SURVEY DESIGNI downloaded and examined dating apps like OKCupid and Coee Meets Bagel to benchmark how other matching services phrase and weigh questions. A matching algorithm would theoretically be developed to accommodate preferences and match people based on their responses to the in-app surveys (Figure 56). Figure 56

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36 PROJECT REPORT: the app ANDROID MOBILE APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based refugee, Ayah’s personal informationMATCH SCENARIOe following four pages (Figures 57) show survey results from an in-app match scenario of persona-based users, Ayah (refugee) and Christina (retiree). e surveys in the “Personal Information” and “Match Preferences” sections of the app aim to provide answers to generate the best match scenarios. I originally considered more specic questions like dietary restrictions and career goals, but I narrowed the questions down to address major concerns that might arise for the users. For example, perhaps a female only wants to match with a female based on her religious customs. Maybe an LGBTQ+ person has ed a country for persecution and fear for their life, and they only want to be matched with a retiree from the LGBTQ+ community. Maybe a person is homophobic and joins the service—the scales used to denote preference could prevent a failed match from forming, as the questions are designed to eliminate possibilities of matches forming when strong preferences are specied as very important in “Match Preferences.” Figure 57

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37 PROJECT REPORT: the app ANDROID MOBILE APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based refugee, Ayah’s match preferencesFigure 58

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38 PROJECT REPORT: the app i OS i PAD APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based retiree, Christina’s personal informationFigure 59

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39 PROJECT REPORT: the app i OS i PAD APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based retiree, Christina’s match preferencesFigure 60

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40 PROJECT REPORT: the website WEBSITE CONTENTBefore I chose a design style or template, I sketched a quick informa tion architecture map (Figure 61) to organize the website content. e content is based on Spero’s goal of providing a global platform for sharing stories of retirees and refugees around the world, sharing and creating events, and participating in member-only message boards. Figure 61

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41 PROJECT REPORT: the website WEBSITE DESIGNe website is responsive and meets the needs of the content described in Figure 61 on the previous page. e website mock-up (Figure 62) is live online and employs the Karuna Wordpress template. I adapted the colors and imagery to match the Spero brand, but the template was pre-built and can be accessed at wordpress.com/theme/karuna. website link: sperocomm.wordpress.com Figure 62

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42 PROJECT REPORT: the process book PROCESS BOOK AT THE GALLERY EXHIBITIONI highlighted my design process in the book pictured above (Figure 63). During the exhibition opening, people paused to read the chunked text and look through the sketches and diagrams that I made as I cre ated Spero. is book brought pedagogic value to the exhibit display while demystifying the user experience, branding, and design pro cesses for the general public. roughout the duration of the show, I observed art and design students, as well as people from outside the art and design community, as they attentively looked over every page of this book.Figure 63

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43 PROJECT REPORT: mock-up advertisement retirees + refugeesSpero: a welcoming community for retirees & refugees JOIN TODAY! Looking for a worthwhile way to spend your time while helping others?• Match and meet up with a refugee in your local area by joining the Spero community today! • Download the Spero app from the app store. • Visit sperocomm.org for more information. • For your security, we have a simple screening process and referral code required to join the system. • Please call 1-800-000-0000 today to get your referral code so you can join the app and get matched with a refugee in your area! If you don’t have access to a tablet or smart phone, we can assist you. “Since losing my husband last year and retiring from teaching a few years ago, I have a lot of time on my hands and live comfortably. My adult children live out of town, so it has been worthwhile for me to spend time with Ayah and her family.” Christina, retiree, Spero member AARP MOCK-UP SPERO ADis mock-up advertisement for AARP magazine (Figure 64) is a possible dissemination of Spero’s services. Advertisements and yers like this (Figure 65) would theoretically be distributed by diverse religious groups and refugee and retiree centers around the world.ASSISTANCEAs noted in this ad, users without access to a smart device could theoretically seek assistance with getting matched from Spero partner organizations like AARP.Figure 64 Figure 65

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44 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit DISPLAY WALL SKETCHESI sketched more than y thumbnails (Figure 66) of what the Spero exhibition gallery wall space might look like. In the end, I combined three of the concepts into one, iterated the mock-up based on peer feedback, tested type sizes from a distance, and executed the nal adhesive vinyl graphic design. Figure 66

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45 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit TOUCH DO NOT TOUCH sperochristina singer DISPLAY WALL MOCK-UP DISPLAY INFORMATION GRAPHICWith the assistance of native speakers’ translations in Arabic, Spanish, and Korean, as referenced in the Acknowledgments section of this paper, this display (Figures 67 & 68) introduces Spero to the public as a call-toaction for potential users to join. e display, with interfaces included, would be placed at retiree and refugee centers around the world. e adhesive vinyl wall graphic has one statistic to represent retirees and one to represent refugees, one quote from both people featured here, based on personas, a description of Spero, and a quote from Mother Teresa that addresses “psychic numbing,” as psychologist Paul Slovic describes in his research on decision-making and why people can only respond to “the one” and not the masses (Slovic, 2007). Figure 67 Figure 68

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46 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit STATISTIC REPRESENTING RETIREES ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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47 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit QUOTE REPRESENTING PERSONA-BASED RETIREE, CHRISTINA, ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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48 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit STATISTIC REPRESENTING REFUGEES ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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49 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit QUOTE REPRESENTING PERSONA-BASED REFUGEE, AYAH, ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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50 THE INSTALLATIONI planned for sta from Signs By Tomorrow, a vinyl print and instal lation company in Gainesville, FL, to print and install my adhesive vinyl wall infographic. Figure 69 shows the installation process as they trimmed the bleed around the edges of the vinyl. I do not specialize in printing vinyl or have access to print such a large-scale piece on my own, nor do I have the skills required to install it. I hired this local company for their expertise, and I executed the design. I was pleased with the results, despite minor imperfections on the gallery wall. Aer the exhibition, I was able to easily remove the piece as one large graphic and save it by placing paper on the back and rolling it up. PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibitFigure 69

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51 PROJECT REPORT: the exhibition ABOUT THE EXHIBITIONAn adhesive vinyl infographic—with content in Arabic, Spanish, Korean, and English—covered the curved gallery wall. Two pedestals, one supporting an iPad Air and one supporting an iPad Air and an Android smartphone, exhibited the website and app demos of a retiree and refugee Spero app match scenario. To teach the public about the design process and user experience research, my process book was on the third pedestal. e Spero installation was part of the MFA group 1 exhibition, which was from March 20. e reception was Friday, March 23, 2018 from 7 p.m. in the University Galleries at the University of Florida (Figures 70 & 71). Figure 71, at the reception with studiomates Figure 70, reception guests

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52 PROJECT REPORT: conclusion PERSONAL REMARKSI cannot submit a report for this project without bringing up the inherent political climate that would play host to this system around the world, namely as President Trump occupies the White House and continues to spread and foster an irrational fear of refugees (Altman, 2017). Although the mission and purpose of this project is about people and not about politics, the system is naturally limited to legally documented refugees and asylum seekers. ere are systems and networks in place around the world that provide support to undocumented immigrants; but a service like Spero, that intentionally publicizes its community online, would prove to be dangerous and could be abused by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement ocers, for example, to target those undocumented immigrants for deportation in this political climate. ere is authentic relational value in the face-to-face interactions and Spero community meet-ups that could be facilitated by the website events portal. Relationships give people meaning, in that they feel a sense of belonging and that they are valued and needed as a result of being part of a relationship or community. A plethora of apps, such as INTEGREAT and Ankommen , have been released in the last few years around the world to assist refugees with local infor mation gathering and language knowledge, but very few, if any, have attempted to form communities built on such reciprocity as Spero aims to do with retirees and refugees.

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53 I learned so much throughout this project, not only about Spero’s potential users and their needs, but also about the technical skills required to produce the app interface designs and how to design for large surfaces with the Spero exhibition wall graphic. I plan to share my ndings as a template to guide and assist my future students as they pursue their passions through design projects. I plan to nd ave nues to disseminate this type of in-depth design process and research to the design community by presenting my work at service design, social design, and human-centered design conferences. My work in the future will likely deal with Korean studies, as I hope to continue to visit Korea and foster my design relationships there to form a faculty-led study abroad trip to Seoul for my students. Lastly, I plan propose the Spero system to stakeholder organizations aer running tests of the services with focus groups in a sanctuary city.PROJECT REPORT: conclusion

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54 TERMINOLOGY• asylum seeker, in this paper, refers to a person who is in the process of seeking asylum, or sanctuary, in another country that is not his/ her/their own due to life-threatening circumstances in the country of origin due to persecution, war, or violence (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). • refugee , in this paper, refers to a person who has ed his/her/their country of origin as a result of life-threatening circumstances in a country of origin, and who has sought asylum in another country and received legal refugee status from said country. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, a refugee is “has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group” (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). • religious group, in this paper, refers to a formal collective of people that come together under a corporate religion such as, but not lim ited to, churches, mosques, and temples located around the world • retiree , in this paper, refers to a person who has, by choice or force, reached retirement in that he/she/they does not work or works minimally and no longer practices his/her/their profession • retiree and refugee organizations, in this paper, refers to NGO’s (non-government organizations) and for-prot organizations that interface directly with retirees and refugees around the world

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55 WORKS CITED Altman, A. (2017, February 9). How President Trump Uses Fear. Retrieved from http://time.com/4665755/donald-trump-fear/ Barros, A. C., Leito, R., & Ribeiro, J. (2014, February). Design and evaluation of a mobile user interface for older adults: Navigation, interaction and visual design recommendations. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 369-378. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2014.02.041 Catholic Charities of Tennessee, Inc. (2013, May). Refugee terminology. Retrieved from http://www.cctenn.org/pdles/ Refugee%20Terminology%20Glossary%2005%2013.pdf Daz-Bossini, J., & Moreno, L. (2014, February). Accessibility to mobile interfaces for older people. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 57-66. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2014.02.008 Dunn, J. (2016, August 22). ere’s no hope of anyone catching up to Android and iOS. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider. com/smartphone-market-share-android-ios-windowsblackberry-2016-8 Gopalakrishnan, M. (2016, August 22). German volunteer nds his calling helping refugees. Retrieved from http://www. dw.com/en/german-volunteer-nds-his-calling-helpingrefugees/a-19456138 Harada S., Sato D., Takagi H., Asakawa C. (2013) Characteristics of elderly user behavior on mobile multi-touch devices.In: Kotz P., Marsden G., Lindgaard G., Wesson J., Winckler M. (eds) HumanComputer Interaction – INTERACT 2013. INTERACT 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 8120. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar. org/6cef/1c61db1c953ab64cdde33ef8a2f4af5.pdf Heaven, B., Brown, L. J., White, M., Errington, L., Mathers, J. C., & Moatt, S. (2013). Supporting well-being in retirement through meaningful social roles: Systematic review of intervention studies. e Milbank Quarterly, 91 (2), 222. http://doi.org/10.1111/ milq.12013 International Rescue Committee. (2015, September 4). What's in my bag? Retrieved from https://medium.com/uprooted/what-s-inmy-bag-758d435f6e62 Jungbluth, S. (2017, February). “Smartphone refugees” mobility, power regimes, and the impact of digital technologies (Master’s thesis, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland). Retrieved from https://tampub.uta./bitstream/handle/10024/100787/ GRADU-1490004757.pdf?sequence=1 Ludden, J. (2011, January 17). Retirees lend a hand to refugees in Fargo, N.D. Retrieved from http://www.npr. org/2011/01/17/132705619/retirees-lend-a-hand-to-refugeesin-fargo-n-d Lupton, E. (2017). Design is storytelling. New York, NY: Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum. Marsh, S. (2017, November 27). 'I miss my family. Angelika's like an aunt.' e older Germans taking in Syrian refugees. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/15/missfamily-older-germans-taking-in-syrian-refugees Mather, M. (2016, January 13). Fact sheet: Aging in the United States – Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved from https://www.prb. org/aging-unitedstates-fact-sheet/ Milne, D. (2013). e psychology of retirement: Coping with the transition om work. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: WileyBlackwell. Schreieck, M., Zitzelsberger, J., Siepe, S., Wiesche, M., & Krcmar, H. (2017). Supporting refugees in every day life–Intercultural design evaluation of an application for local information. In Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems (p.1). Langkawi, Malaysia: Intercultural Design Evaluation. Slovic, P. (2007, April). If I look at the mass I will never act: Psychic numbing and genocide. Judgment and Decision Making, 2 (2), 7995. Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/7303a/jdm7303a.htm Tang, J. (2017, April 6). Retired Canadians roll up their sleeves to help Syrian refugees. Retrieved from https://beta. theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/retirees-roll-uptheir-sleeves-to-help-refugees/article32349457/?ref=www. theglobeandmail.com& United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2018). Forced displacement worldwide at its highest in decades. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/stories/2017/6/5941561f4/ forced-displacement-worldwide-its-highest-decades.html Von Schwerin-High, F. (2017, November). Refugees, retirees, and revised realities in recent German works of ction. Paper presented at Pacic Ancient and Modern Language Association 115th Annual Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii.

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56 AARP Foundation. (2017, August 11). Experience Corps. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/experience-corps/ AD Council. (2016). Embrace Refugees. Retrieved from http:// embracerefugees.org/ Adiseshiah, E. G. (2017, July 4). UX design thinking from a senior citizen’s perspective–usability geek. Retrieved from https:// usabilitygeek.com/ux-design-thinking-senior-citizen-user/ Allen, M., Matthew, S., & Boland, M. J. (2004, Fall). Working with immigrant and refugee populations: Issues and Hmong case study. Library Trends, 300+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A129015983/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE& xid=cf968388 Amnesty International. (2016). e Refugee Nation. Retrieved from http://therefugeenation.org/ Amnesty International. (2017, November 6). What’s the dierence between a refugee and an asylum seeker? Retrieved from https://www.amnesty.org.au/refugee-and-an-asylum-seekerdierence/ Amos, D. (2016, October 30). For Syrian refugees in Connecticut, A helping hand from private volunteers. Retrieved from http:// www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2016/10/30/499509208/forsyrian-refugees-in-connecticut-a-helping-hand-from-privatevolunteers Anderson, M., & Perrin, A. (2017, May 17). Tech adoption climbs among older adults. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet. org/2017/05/17/tech-adoption-climbs-among-older-adults/ Anderson, M., & Perrin, A. (2017, May 23). ink older people are technophobes? ink again. Retrieved from https:// www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/05/think-older-people-aretechnophobes-think-again Anderson, O. G. (2016, November). 2016 Technology trends among mid-life and older Americans. Retrieved from https:// www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/research/surveys_statistics/ general/2016/2016-technology-trends-older-americans. doi.10.26419%252Fres.00140.001.pdf Anderson, T. (2016, September 13). More seniors are driving Uber and Ly in retirement. Retrieved from https://www. cnbc.com/2016/09/30/uber-ly-helps-seniors-cruise-intoretirement.html Bachoo, D. (2004, Spring). Successful job training for immigrants. Review of Business, 25 (2), 51+. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A119108643/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=616a281e Barros, A. C., Leito, R., & Ribeiro, J. (2014, February). Design and evaluation of a mobile user interface for older adults: Navigation, interaction and visual design recommendations. Procedia Computer Science, 27 , 369-378. doi:10.1016/j. procs.2014.02.041 BBC. (2015, September 22). Refugee crisis: Food and phone charging. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/av/worldeurope-34328857/refugee-crisis-food-and-phone-charging-onturkey-border Bauman, S. (2016). Seeking refuge: On the shores of the global refugee crisis. Chicago, IL: Moody Publishers. Behnia, B. (2012). Volunteering with Newcomers: e perspectives of Canadianand foreign-born volunteers. Canadian journal of nonprot and social economy research, 3 (2), 6.doi:10.22230/ cjnser.2012v3n2a116 Blair, E. (2017, May 5). When Elmo And Big Bird Talk To Refugees. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/ ed/2017/05/05/526775562/when-elmo-and-big-bird-talk-torefugees Blitz, B. (2017). Another story: What public opinion data tell us about refugee and humanitarian policy. Journal on Migration and Human Security, 5 (2), 379-400. doi:10.14240/jmhs. v5i2.89 Bode, K. (2017, August 18). is app is helping to fund education for refugees. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/ agenda/2017/08/this-app-is-helping-to-fund-education-forrefugees Bostian, M., & Howard, D. (2017, October). inking mobile rst: Health and human services in the digital age. Policy & Practice, 75 (5), 6+. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A513852783/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=364e5763 Brockett, C. (1978). A hierarchy of human rights. In 1978 Annual Meeting of e American Political Science Association (p. 1). New York, NY: e American Political Science Association. Budds, D. (2017, October 31). From Ideo.org: 3 Ways designers can help x the refugee crisis. Retrieved from https://www. fastcodesign.com/90147348/from-ideo-org-3-ways-designerscan-help-x-the-refugee-crisis Campbell, H. (2015, July 23). Why senior citizens are ocking to Uber. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/ harrycampbell/2015/07/23/why-senior-citizens-are-ockingto-uber/#54d22b4620ae WORKS CONSULTED

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57 Campbell, O. (2015, February 5). Designing for the elderly: Ways older people use digital technology dierently. Retrieved from https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/02/designingdigital-technology-for-the-elderly/ Catholic Charities of Tennessee, Inc. (2013, May). Refugee terminology. Retrieved from http://www.cctenn.org/pdles/ Refugee%20Terminology%20Glossary%2005%2013.pdf Chenoweth, J., & Burdick, L. (2001, November). e path to integration: meeting the special needs of refugee elders in resettlement. Refuge, 20+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A86388214/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=73510ca5 Cervone, B. (2008). President, What Kids Can Do, Purpose Prize winner. Retrieved from https://encore.org/purpose-prize/ barbara-cervone/ Child Refugees. (2017). Retrieved from https://www.unicefusa. org/mission/emergencies/child-refugees Corporation for National & Community Service. (2017). Senior Corps Programs. Retrieved from https://www.nationalservice. gov/programs/senior-corps/senior-corps-programs Criag, A. (2017, August 9). 19 ings we’re dying to redesign. Retrieved from https://www.ideo.com/blog/19-things-weredying-to-redesign Darling, N. (2016, October 9). Metaphors help explain tough topics like bias. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday. com/blog/thinking-about-kids/201610/metaphorshelpexplain-tough-topics-bias DeLong, M., & Martinson, B. (2012). Color and design. New York, NY: Berg. Daz-Bossini, J., & Moreno, L. (2014, February). Accessibility to mobile interfaces for older people. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 57-66. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2014.02.008 Dixon, G. (2017, April 6). Retired Canadians roll up their sleeves to help Syrian refugees. Retrieved from https://beta. theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/retirees-roll-uptheir-sleeves-to-help-refugees/article32349457/?ref=www. theglobeandmail.com& Dunn, J. (2016, August 22). ere’s no hope of anyone catching up to Android and iOS. Retrieved from http://www. businessinsider.com/smartphone-market-share-android-ioswindows-blackberry-2016-8 Durrant, A., Kirk, D., Trujillo Pisanty, D., Moncur, W., Orzech, K., Schoeld, T., Monk, A. (2017). Transitions in digital personhood. Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI , 6398+. doi:10.1145/3025453.3025913 EdSeed. (2017). Education is a human right. Retrieved from https://edseed.me/ Egan, B. (2017, June 8). Trump travel ban inspired a mobile app to help immigrants and refugees. Retrieved from https:// www.forbes.com/sites/bobegan/2017/06/08/trumptravel-ban-inspired-a-mobile-app-to-help-immigrants-andrefugees/#7156ecd15919 Emanuel, G. (2016, December 31). Living in America 101: When refugees arrive, What do they need to learn? Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2016/12/31/484050992/ living-in-america-101-when-refugees-arrive-what-do-they-needto-learn Epatko, L. (2015, October 2). Photos: Children are most vulnerable in the refugee crisis. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/ newshour/world/photos-children-vulnerable-refugee-crisis Encore.org. (2017). e Encore vision. Retrieved from http:// encore.org/who-we-are/encore-org-encore-vision/ European Resettlement Network. (2013). Germany. Retrieved from http://www.resettlement.eu/country/germany Ferreira, F., Almeida, N., Rosa, A. F., Oliveira, A., Casimiro, J., Silva, S., & Teixeira, A. (2014, February). Elderly centered design for interaction–e case of the S4S medication assistant. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 398-408. doi:10.1016/j. procs.2014.02.044 Flaskerud, J. H. (2016). Places of refuge and sanctuary. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 38 (4), 368-371. doi:10.1080/0161284 0.2016.1243743 Florido, A., & Martin, M. (2017, April 9). Churches still guring out how to protect immigrants and themselves. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2017/04/09/523203739/churches-stillguring-out-how-to-protect-immigrants-and-themselves Flyer to the Ankommen app. (2017). Retrieved from https://ankommenapp.de/APP/EN/Service/ Flyer/yer-node.html;jsessionid=B377337 F8FDE7D4D0F990BEF644E36A6.2_cid286 Freedman, M. (2017, August 3). Dare to know [Video le]. Retrieved from https://www.tedxsanfrancisco.com/talk-marc-freedman WORKS CONSULTED

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60 MacFarlane, A., Glynn, L. G., Mosinkie, P. I., & Murphy, A. W. (2008, December). Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners. BMC Family Practice, 9, 68. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A193482823/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=e05a016c Mao, K. (2017, February 15). 5 Principles for designing delightful digital experiences for seniors. Retrieved from https://medium. freecodecamp.org/5-principles-for-designing-delightful-digitalexperiences-for-seniors-8ece28229653 Marcellini, F., Sensoli, C., Barbini, N., & Fioravanti, P. (1997). Preparation for retirement: Problems and suggestions of retirees. Educational Gerontology, 23 (4), 377-388. doi:10.1080/0360127970230406 Margolin, V., & Margolin, S. (2002). A “social model” of design: Issues of practice and research. Design Issues, 18 (4), 24-30. doi:10.1162/074793602320827406 Mars, R. (2017, February 28). Church (sanctuary, part 1); State (sanctuary, part 2). Oakland, CA: 99% Invisible. McCool, B. (2017, November 10). Designer Lisanne Koning thinks inside the box for refugee children. Retrieved from http://www. thedieline.com/blog/2017/11/8/designer-lisanne-koningthinks-inside-the-box-for-refugee-children McBrien, J. L. (2005, September). Educational needs and barriers for refugee students in the United States: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75 (3), 329-364. doi:10.3102/00346543075003329 McGrath, S., & McGrath, I. (2013, Summer). Funding matters: the maze of settlement funding in Canada and the impact on refugee services. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 22 (1), 1+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A349607677/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=6006d7ac Miller, C. (2016, August 18). Latest Gartner data shows iOS vs Android battle shaping up much like Mac vs Windows. Retrieved from https://9to5mac.com/2016/08/18/androidios-smartphone-market-share/ Milne, D. (2013). e psychology of retirement: Coping with the transition om work. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: WileyBlackwell. Mobilearn. (2016). About the Service. Retrieved from https:// se.mobilearn.com/en/about-service/ Mulholland, M. (2017). Welcoming the Stranger in Alberta: Newcomers, Secularism and Religiously Aliated Settlement Agencies. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 49 (1), 19-42. Canadian Ethnic Studies Association. Retrieved January 1, 2018, from Project MUSE database. New Retirement. (2017, August 29). Jobs for seniors: What are the best jobs aer retirement? Retrieved from https://www. newretirement.com/retirement/jobs-for-seniors-best-jobs-aerretirement/ Obordo, R. (2017, March 9). Teaching refugees languages: ‘No specic skills required, just a desire to help and a friendly smile’. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/ sep/11/teaching-refugees-languages-no-specic-skills-requiredjust-a-desire-to-help-and-a-friendly-smile O’Brien, L., Burls, A., Townsend, M., & Ebden, M. (2010). Volunteering in nature as away of enabling people to reintegrate into society. Perspectives in Public Health, 131 (2), 71-81. doi:10.1177/1757913910384048 O’Donnell, C. A., Higgins, M., Chauhan, R., & Mullen, K. (2007, May). ey think we’re ok and we know we’re not. A qualitative study of asylum seekers’ access, knowledge and views to health care in the UK. BMC Health Services Research, 7, 75. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A164936593/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=70ecadf2 OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017, January). Who bears the cost of integrating refugees? Retrieved from Migration Policy Debates website: https://www.oecd.org/els/mig/migration-policy-debates-13.pdf Oce of Refugee Resettlement. (2015, November 9). State of Florida–Programs and services by locality. Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr/resource/state-of-oridaprograms-and-services-by-locality Olson, E. (2016, January 22). Older drivers hit the road for Uber and Ly. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/2016/01/23/your-money/older-drivers-hit-the-road-foruber-and-ly.html?mcubz=0 Omri, R. (2016, August 31). U.S. reaches goal of admitting 10,000 Syrian refugees. Here’s where they went. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/08/30/us/syrianrefugees-in-the-united-states.html?mcubz=0 Orlov, L. M. (2016, April). 2016 Technology survey older adults, age 59+. Retrieved from Linkage website: https:// www.ageinplacetech.com/les/aip/Linkage%202016%20 Technology%20April%202016.pdf WORKS CONSULTED

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61 PEW Research Center. (2013, May 9). Most say immigration policy needs big changes. Retrieved from http://www.people-press. org/2013/05/09/most-say-immigration-policy-needs-big-changes/ Piliavin, J. A., & Siegl, E. (2007). Health benets of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48 (4), 450-464. doi:10.1177/002214650704800408 Pillai, P. (2012). Cultural directions and origins of everyday decisions. Integr Psych Behav, 46, 235. doi:10.1007/ s12124-012-9196-9 Ram, A. (2015, December 5). e smartphone completely changed the refugee crisis. Retrieved from https://www.wired. com/2015/12/smartphone-syrian-refugee-crisis/ Radford, J., & Connor, P. (2016, December 6). Just 10 states resettled more than half of recent refugees to U.S. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/06/just10-states-resettled-more-than-half-of-recent-refugees-to-u-s/ Rajnes, D. M. (2002). e 2001 Minority Retirement Condence Survey: Minority Attitudes and Behaviours Towards Retirement. Public Policy & Aging Report, 12 (3), 19-23. Retrieved from https://encore.org/wp-content/uploads/ les/2002_survey_analysis.pdf Refugee aid app–Refugee aid app. (2017). Retrieved from http:// refugeeaidapp.com/ Refugee Council. (2017). Refugee services–Refugees & asylum seekers UK–Refugee council. Retrieved from https://www. refugeecouncil.org.uk/what_we_do/refugee_services Refugee Processing Center. (2016). Resources. Retrieved from http://www.wrapsnet.org/resources/ Refugee Republic. (2012). Interactive map. Retrieved from https:// refugeerepublic.submarinechannel.com/intro_en.php?o=o Refugees Welcome. (2016, April 20). About us. Retrieved from http://www.refugeesarewelcome.org/about-us/ Rendgen, S., & Wiedemann, J. (2014). Understanding the world: e atlas of infographics. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. Rendgen, S., In Wiedemann, J., Ciuccarelli, P., Wurman, R. S., Rogers, S., & Holmes, N. (2016). Information graphics. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. Rodrigues, ., Carreira, M., & Gonalves, D. (2014, February). Developing a multimodal interface for the elderly. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 359-368. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2014.02.040 Rosales, A., & Fernndez-Ardvol, M. (2016). Smartphones, apps and older people’s interests. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services MobileHCI . doi:10.1145/2935334.2935363 Rouhollahi, M. (2016, Fall). Choice theory: Investigating human behavior in four dimensions. International Journal of Choice eory and Reality erapy, 36 (1), 31-34. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/b26c419fd70a68ab796 94734b6899eea/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1046401 Sandre, A. R., & Newbold, K. B. (2016, December 30). Telemedicine: Bridging the gap between refugee health and health services accessibility in Hamilton, Ontario. Refuge, 32 (3), 108+. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A515495273/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=8c57f9 Schreieck, M., Zitzelsberger, J., Siepe, S., Wiesche, M., & Krcmar, H. (2017). Supporting refugees in every day life–Intercultural design evaluation of an application for local information. In Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems (p.1). Langkawi, Malaysia: Intercultural Design Evaluation. Shea, A., Drenttel, W., & Lupton, E. (2012). Designing for social change: Strategies for community-based graphic design. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Shubert, A. (2015, September 14). Refugee crisis: How Germany rose to the occasion. Retrieved from http://www.cnn. com/2015/09/13/europe/germany-refugees-shubert/index.html Silvius, R. (2016). Neo-liberalization, devolution, and refugee wellbeing: A case study in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 48 (3), 27-44. doi:10.1353/ces.2016.0024 Slavek, T. (2014). Touch screen mobile user interface for seniors (Master’s thesis, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic). Retrieved from https://dip.felk.cvut.cz/browse/ pdfcache/slavito3_2014dipl.pdf Slavek, T. (2014, November 25). Designing a mobile interface for older people. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@ tomasslavicek/designing-a-mobile-interface-for-older-people1c9b70fd645c Slovic, P. (2007, April). If I look at the mass I will never act: Psychic numbing and genocide. Judgment and Decision Making, 2 (2), 79-95. Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/7303a/ jdm7303a.htm Soliman, H. H., & Miah, M. R. (2011). An educational empowerment practice model for social workers involved in relief services for refugee populations. Social Development Issues, 33 (2), 74+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/ A391930392/AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=b8c40d61 WORKS CONSULTED

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62 Souleles, N. (2017). Design for social change and design education: Social challenges versus teacher-centred pedagogies. e Design Journal, 20 (1), 927-936. doi:10.1080/14606925.2017.1353037 Smith, A. (2014, April 3). Older adults and technology use. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/04/03/ older-adults-and-technology-use/ Smith, R. C., Vangkilde, K. T., Kjrsgaard, M. G., Otto, T., Halse, J., & Binder, T. (2016). Design anthropological futures. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic. Steinmetz, K. (2015, July 30). Uber wants your parents to be drivers. Retrieved from http://time.com/3978019/uber-older-drivers/ Sweet, Sweet Syria. (2017). About us. Retrieved from https:// sweetsweetsyria.com/ Techfugees. (2017). Empowering the displaced with technology. Retrieved from https://techfugees.com/ omson, J. (2004). Life begins at seventy. Psychodynamic Practice, 10 (4), 529-537. doi:10.1080/14753630412331313758 Tomkiw, L. (2016, February 5). Europe refugee crisis: How retirees in Germany are helping Syrians. Retrieved from http://www. ibtimes.com/europe-refugee-crisis-how-retirees-germany-arehelping-syrians-2292304 U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. (2017, February). Albany, New York still welcomes refugees with felp from USCRI. Retrieved from http://refugees.org/news/albany-newyork-still-welcomes-refugees-help-uscri/ United Health Foundation. (2017). Explore volunteerism in the United States, 2017 senior report. Retrieved from https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/2017senior-report/measure/volunteerism_sr/state/ALL?utm_ source=senior2017&utm_medium=print&utm_ campaign=senior2017 UNICEF. (2016, September 7). Nearly 50 million children uprooted worldwide. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/ media/media_92725.html UNHCR Innovation Service. (2016). A brief innovation glossary. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/wp-content/ uploads/2017/07/UNHCRInnovation-Glossary.pdf UNHCR Innovation. (2017, July 13). New publication: UNHCR Innovation’s year in review 2016. Retrieved from http://www. unhcr.org/innovation/new-publication-unhcr-innovations-yearin-review-2016/ UNHCR Innovation Service. (2018). Innovation starts with people. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/ UNHR. (2017). What is a refugee. Retrieved from http://www. unrefugees.org/what-is-a-refugee/ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016, September 14). Mobile connectivity a lifeline for refugees, report nds. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/afr/ news/latest/2016/9/57d7d4478/mobile-connectivitylifelinerefugees-report-nds.html United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016). Figures at a Glance. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/ gures-at-a-glance.html United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016). Global trends: Forced displacement in 2016. Retrieved from http:// www.unhcr.org/en-us/statistics/unhcrstats/5943e8a34/globaltrends-forced-displacement-2016.html United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016, June 3). ese 10 refugees will compete at the 2016 Olympics in Rio. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/news/ latest/2016/6/575154624/10-refugees-compete-2016olympics-rio.html US Department of Homeland Security. (2017, October 24). Learn about the refugee application process. Retrieved from https:// www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/refugees-asylum/refugees US Department of State. (2018, January 20). U.S. refugee admissions program FAQs. Retrieved from https://www.state. gov/j/prm/releases/factsheets/2017/266447.htm Valenta, M., & Bunar, N. (2010, April). State Assisted Integration: Refugee Integration Policies in Scandinavian Welfare States: the Swedish and Norwegian Experience. Journal of Refugee Studies, 23 (4), 463-483. doi:10.1093/jrs/feq028 Vandenberg, S. (2017, March 8). Volunteer abroad opportunities for seniors and retirees. Retrieved from https://www. volunteerforever.com/article_post/volunteer-abroadopportunities-for-seniors-and-retirees Vargas, R. (2017, January 11). Cupertino retirees make comfort quilts. Retrieved from https://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/ local/Cupertino-Retirees-Make-uilts-For-Local-And-GlobalCommunities-410415355.html WORKS CONSULTED

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63 WORKS CONSULTED Vernon, A., Deriche, K., & Eisenhauer, S. (2016). Connecting refugees. How internet and mobile connectivity can improe refugee well-being and transform humanitarian action. Retrieved from United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees website: http://www.unhcr.org/5770d43c4 Viskovich, Y. (2017, December 5). Education is key for refugees to build their futures. Here’s how we can help them do that. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/educationis-key-to-rebuilding-refugees-future-and-to-refugees-rebuildingtheir-countrys-future-heres-how-we-could-help-them-do-that/ VolunteerMatch. (2017). VolunteerMatch–Where volunteering begins. Retrieved from https://www.volunteermatch.org/ Von Schwerin-High, F. (2017, November 12). Refugees, Retirees, and Revised Realities in Recent German Works of Fiction. Retrieved from http://pamla.org/2017/proposals/refugeesretirees-and-revised-realities-recent-german-works-ction Walters, J. L. (2017). Olivier Kugler: bearing witness. Eye: e International Review of Graphic Design, 42+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A486712230/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=bd290243 Waxman, P. (2001, Summer). e economic adjustment of recently arrived Bosnian, Afghan and Iraqi Refugees in Sydney, Australia. International Migration Review, 35 (2), 472. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A77875791/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=03c5a5af Welcome at appsforrefugees.com. (2018). Retrieved from http:// appsforrefugees.com/ Welcoming America. (2017). Welcoming refugees. Retrieved from http://www.welcomingrefugees.org/about-project Welsh, T. (2015, November 20). 8 Facts about the U.S. program to resettle Syrian refugees. Retrieved from https://www.usnews. com/news/articles/2015/11/20/8-facts-about-the-us-programto-resettle-syrian-refugees What Design Can Do. (2017, March). e WDCD refugee challenge. Retrieved from https://www.whatdesigncando.com/ challenge/refugeechallenge/ What Design Can Do. (2017). What design can do to bring refugees and host communities closer to one another. Retrieved from https://www.whatdesigncando.com/ challenge/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2016/04/0.-WDCD_ RefugeeChallenge_BRIEF3.pdf Wilson-Forsberg, S., & Sethi, B. (2015). e volunteering dogma and Canadian work experience: Do recent immigrants volunteer voluntarily? Canadian Ethnic Studies, 47 (3), 91-110. doi:10.1353/ces.2015.0034 Woodeld, M. (2016, October 20). Educating refugees: e value of digital platforms and mobile technology. Retrieved from http://www.digitalistmag.com/improving-lives/2016/05/05/ educating-refugees-value-of-digital-platforms-and-mobiletechnology-04180972 Wong, D. M. (2013). Guide to information graphics: e dos and don’ts of presenting data, facts, and gures. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. World Relief. (2017). About. Retrieved from https://www. worldrelief.org/about Zong, J., & Batalova, J. (2017, June 7). Refugees and asylees in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/ article/refugees-and-asylees-united-states VISUAL RESEARCH (PINTEREST BOARDS)branding: https://pin.it/ujkujujtvugdgj exhibit display: https://pin.it/2uz6q62di5basz refugees: https://pin.it/uapqmgob5yiyza retirees: https://pin.it/inw2h2folqyrzg ux/ui: https://pin.it/ryduocvpjdx3u5 STUDIO PROCESS & RESEARCH SPACEFigure 72

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHChristina Singer is a designer and educator. She was born and raised in Chattanooga, TN, where she attended Girls Preparatory School. Growing up, Singer was a competitive gymnast, swimmer, diver, pole vaulter, and rock climber. In 2013, Singer earned a B.F.A. in Studio Art with a concentration in Graphic Design and a Marketing minor from East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, TN. From 2013 to 2014, she worked as the Associate Art Director for EatingWell magazine in Vermont. Later in 2014, she moved to Busan, South Korea to teach English as a Second Language for a year. From 2015 to 2018, she pursued her M.F.A. in Fine Arts with a concentration in Graphic Design at University of Florida while working as a Graphic Design Graduate Assistant for UF O Campus Life. While in graduate school, she continued to visit South Korea to tour, visit friends, form professional relationships, and contribute design work to the NGO, PSCORE (People for Successful Corean Reunication). Singer successfully completed her M.F.A. in 2018. She will join the faculty at the University of Tampa as a tenure-track Assistant Professor of Art, Graphic Design.





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by Christina SingerSupervisory Committee: Professor Brian Slawson | chair Professor Mara Gabriela Hernndez | memberA PROJECT IN LIEU OF THESIS PRESENTED TO THE COLLEGE OF THE ARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE Q UIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FINE ARTSUniversity of Florida 2018a digital application design to help connect retirees and refugees

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Christina SingerIn honor of my deepest inspiration and those who launched the original Sanctuary Movement in the 1980’s: “When a stranger sojourns with you in your land, you shall not do him wrong. You shall treat the stranger who sojourns with you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.” Leviticus 19:33 (ESV)

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retirees + refugees

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Acknowledgments Abstract Introduction Delimitations Methodology Inuences Project Reportsystem overview the brand the users the app the website the process book mock-up advertisement the wall exhibit the exhibition conclusionTerminology Works Cited Works Consulted Biographical Sketch 1 2 3 5 6 719 20 24 29 40 42 43 44 51 5254 55 56 64CONTENTS“If I look at the mass, I will never act. If I look at the one, I will.” Mother Teresa

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1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTSTo my committee, Brian and Gaby, thank you for your patience and time. anks for trusting me, giving me freedom to make mistakes, and guiding me as I learn. ank you for your advice in my career and throughout this project. To Nathalie Perez, Eunhui Yoon, and Dina Benbrahim, thank you for your translations in Spanish, Korean, and Arabic, respectively, for my exhibition wall graphic. To Michael Christopher, thank you for your help with nding printer paper and troubleshooting. To Dr. Rubino, thank you for your assistance with designing the in-app survey questions. To all my friends who brainstormed ideas with me for my project, thank you. To my fellow graphic design classmates, thank you for your feedback and constructive criticism. To Nora Kilroy, thank you for your encouragement, and for assisting me to graduate debt-free due in part to my Graphic Design Graduate Assistantship with UF O Campus Life. To my family, thanks for your constant support.

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2 ABSTRACTSpero is a concept, system, and proposal—it is one possible solution to two wicked social problems (the refugee crisis and the growing population of retirees), which are practically impossible to solve. Spero is a mobile app and global platform that connects retirees and refugees based on their locality, needs, and skills. e overarching goal of Spero is to facilitate in the formation of reciprocal relation ships between retirees and refugees. For many retirees, the need to matter, or remain socially engaged, is critical to their psychological state of wellbeing. As refugees integrate into a new country, they need social capital, language practice, and assistance navigating the bureaucracy that retirees have successfully navigated their entire lives. rough the use of a website, the Spero community expands and extends beyond the one-to-one matches formed in the app. e web site hosts group networking, event creation, storytelling, and more information about the mobile app. e users are intergenerational and culturally diverse, requiring special features in the interface designs. KEYWORDSapplication design, service design, social design, refugees, retirees

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3 INTRODUCTIONis mind map (Figure 1) is a visual representation of my thoughts while visiting my parents’ home in the summer of 2017. My father had just retired, and I had just returned from volunteering with North Korean refugees in Seoul. I began to envision how retirees and refugees could reciprocally meet each others’ needs as I observed my father’s situation with his free time, skill set, and nancial stability paired with his newfound need to nd a purpose during retirement. I imagined how much more time I could have spent in Korea working with refugees that summer if I were in his situation. I started researching North Korean topics in 2010 aer two South Korean exchange students at my university took a moment over lunch to enlighten me on their country’s unique history and divide. Figure 1

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4 INTRODUCTIONI did not know then how rare those students were—I came to nd out later that, in general, South Koreans prefer not to talk about the taboo topic of North Korea. I rst visited South Korea in 2013. en, I lived in Busan in southeast Korea from 2014 to 2015 for a full year and taught English at a public school. Later in 2015, I started graduate school and began pursuing potential design solutions to some social problems I observed in the divided nation. I returned to Korea in the summers of 2016 and 2017 to pursue and cultivate my professional ties with PSCORE (People for Successful Corean Reunication), a non-governmental organization for North Korean human rights and activism based in Seoul. Outside of school, I have had the honor of designing campaigns (Figure 2) and reports for PSCORE for the last two years, and I intend to continue the relationship indenitely. My research has expanded from investigating North Korean refugee integration in South Korea to the global refugee crisis and integration. I understand the value of native citizens assisting in integration and providing social capital from my rsthand experiences assisting interna tional students as a member of the International Friendship Program at my undergraduate university, and from receiving assistance from some of those same friends as I adjusted to South Korea as an expatriate. I created Spero with my future retired self in mind. I am the target audience in the year 2056. e core of Spero is creating and inspiring real-world relationships, regardless of the methods and tools used. Figure 2

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5 DELIMITATIONS• I am neither a retiree nor refugee; therefore, I am inherently not a user of Spero services. I had to acknowledge my implicit bias regarding the users and think reexively about where I come from in the scheme of the world, both socioeconomically and geograph ically, while researching the audience and stakeholders (organiza tions that would interface with Spero, as mentioned in the System Overview of the Project Report section of this paper in this paper). • I did not go through the IRB (Institutional Review Board) process to conduct original research with retirees and refugees. erefore, I relied on my own observations from my limited personal inter actions with retirees and refugees, noted in the Introduction of this paper, and secondary research, detailed in the Works Consulted section of this paper. Notably, if I had the opportunity to co-design Spero services with the users, then the designs, system, and in-app surveys would change in unpredictable ways directed by the users’ needs aer user testing. • e Spero system is a proposal and concept. It has not yet been for mally developed or tested in a real-world setting, as I produced it for an academic project. Spero relies on testimonies of retirees and refu gees, some of which are noted in the Inuences section of this paper. • Spero is not attempting to solve either the overall refugee crisis or the psychological wellbeing of the mass number of retirees; rather, Spero oers one possible solution to aid in making small changes that have the potential to multiply and inspire meaningful and reciprocal real-life relationships between retirees and refugees.

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6 METHODOLOGYFor this project, my design process and research methodologies include observation, user inventory, informal interviews, developing personas, user journeys, iterative design, and secondary research from websites, podcasts, books, and academic papers. My sister-in-law volunteers with World Relief, an international relief agency, in Durham, NC. She was paired with a local refugee family. She assisted them with integration and has continued to be part of their family. I have maintained contact with her throughout my project, from ideation to design, to get feedback from her perspective, as she continues to meet with the refugee family she is paired with in Durham. My best friend used to work at a refugee school in Charlotte. I consulted with her to learn about problems her students faced, and I visited the school in-person the summer before this project to get inspiration from how the school operates and assists refugees locally. I went to observe the cafe Mad Priest Coee Roasters (Figure 3), which is run by refugees in Chattanooga. I attended an event at a church for World Refugee Day (Figure 4) in the summer of 2017 and observed Chattanoogans welcoming refugees and sharing culture through food and music. I also privately volunteered a few times with a group of undocumented immigrants in Florida. ese observations, paired with my experiences volunteering with North Korean defectors in Seoul, informed my design decisions throughout this project. I conducted a user inventory study of objects (example: Figure 5) that my retired father interacts with, and I made observations based on those ndings. I designed personas and sketched user journeys based on my secondary research on real-world retiree-refugee relationships. As professors, M.F.A. peers, and friends provided feedback and directed changes, I iterated new design solutions. Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5

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7 ROBERT TAYLOR, CANADIAN, retired professor & civil servant, chairs the Ottawa South Committee for Refugee Sponsorship ‘“I know some people who throw up their hands,” he said, noting the millions eeing Syria, let alone the tens of millions of refugees globally. But “we’ve got applications for a total of 20 refugees we’re sponsoring now. at’s 20 fewer that are out there.”’ Justin Tang/e Globe and Mail Image and quote source: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/ retirees-roll-up-their-sleeves-to-help-refugees/article32349457/?ref=http://www. theglobeandmail.com&WEDIG VON HEYDEN, GERMAN, retired lawyer‘“en I went to Caritas [Catholic aid organization-the ed.]—which was the group organizing these things at the time. ey looked at me, thinking, ‘Oh, he’s an old man.” en they asked me whether I could imagine looking aer a young Syrian. Now we’ve been together for two years,” von Heyden says, looking at his Syrian-Kurdish protg, Nidal Rashow.” Manasi Gopalakrishnan/DW Image and quote source: http://www.dw.com/en/german-volunteer-nds-his-calling-helping-refugees/a-19456138CAROL BROOKS, AMERICAN, retiree“Mentor Carol Brooks, 72, wears a charm bracelet engraved with the names of the many refugees she’s helped in the past decade. “Some of them call me Mom,” she says. ...“I have mentored people from Africa, China, Bosnia, too,” Brooks says.” Jennifer Ludden/NPR Image and quote source: https://www.npr.org/2011/01/17/132705619/re tireeslend-a-hand-to-refugees-in-fargo-n-d JAWAD SHALGHIN, SYRIAN, refugee & student in Germany“Shalghin, who says he and Bauer [retiree] have taught each other a lot, says many new arrivals oen nd it easier to talk to older people. “ey can understand us in a better way, they have patience. ey can listen to us and wait until we get the right words and we have learned lots of cultural things from them: meals and songs.”’ Sarah Marsh/e Guardian Image and quote source: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/15/ miss-family-older-germans-taking-in-syrian-refugees STORIESese are some stories about reciprocal relationships between retirees and refugees that have made headlines around the world. ese stories highlight an existing environment and audience that justies the creation of and need for Spero’s services. Figure 6 (Ludden, 2011) Figure 7 (Gopalakrishnan, 2016) Figure 8 (Marsh, 2017) Figure 9 (Tang, 2017) INFLUENCES: secondary research

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8 e global population of refugees is growing in unprecedented numbers (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). At the same time, as the baby boomer generation ages, the world braces for the largest population of retirees in history (Mather, 2016). By exam ining the needs of these diverse groups, it is clear to see that willing retirees and refugees are capable of developing reciprocal relationships. As displayed on the previous page, there is evidence of these relation ships forming around the world. I read e Psychology of Retirement: Coping with the Transition om Work by retired British psychologist Derek Milne in eort to better understand the psychological eects of retirees’ social reintegration aer retirement. Dr. Milne writes about a “recipe,” as illustrated in Figure 10—these points (RECIPE) constitute guidelines for a healthy retirement and serve as the book’s framework (Milne, 2013). For the sake of my project, I focused on the sections of the book that deal with the topics of “purpose” and “engagement/social support.” Retirement disrupts social support and constitutes as one of life’s major transitions. Aer the author details the aects that lone liness can have on some retirees, Milne concludes that “whether from intimate relationships or not, eective social support includes informational, practical, and emotional help, and provides general companionship. It gives us a sense of attachment, belonging, recog nition, and guidance” (Milne, 2013). With regard to the retiree’s need to nd purpose, Milne speaks to the value of social capital in that “with greater social capital we will act together more eectively, responding jointly to adversity and towards shared goals, in ways that tend to promote heart-warming things like reciprocity, social bonds (cohesion), belonging, meaning, and purpose” (Milne, 2013). INFLUENCES: secondary researchR esources (e.g. sucient money) E xercise C oping strategies I ntellectual activity P urpose E ngagement (social support) Figure 10 (Milne, 2013)

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9 I was inuenced by Dr. Milne’s observations from his own retirement and the stories he tells of other retirees. My reection is that disruption to adjusting to a new lifestyle—as retirees maneuver life aer thirty plus years of a rigid work schedule—and disruption to adjusting to a new place—as refugees integrate to a new country—brings up a point of entry to why relationships between retirees and refugees have been successful and reciprocal. As both groups reckon with their new sense of identity, they can relate to and empathize with one another in a unique way. Ben Heaven, a British Medical Psy chologist who studies social relationships, echoes Milne’s advice. Dr. Heaven writes about the kinds of interventions that have been designed to promote social roles in retirement as people adapt their sense of purpose and self-ecacy that might have been embedded in their former work roles (Heaven, 2013). e author notes that activities like volunteering can “provide a sense of purpose, worth, identity, or structure to life” for retirees (Heaven, 2013). I consulted numerous sources while attempting to understand potential Spero users, retirees and refugees, which are noted in the Works Consulted section of this paper. I will focus on ve academic papers that direct designers on how to design for these diverse groups. e following three pages touch on how these papers address user research with regard to Spero users’ unique needs and concerns in relation to digital user interface design. I retrieved these articles and papers from the Procedia Computer Science’s 5th International Conference on Soware Development and Technologies for Enhancing Accessibility and Fighting Info-exclusion, IBM Research – Tokyo, a paper from the Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems, Langkawi, and a Social Anthropology thesis paper by Silke Jungbluth on “smartphone refugees” from the University of Tampere in Finland. Figure 11INFLUENCES: secondary research

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10 Figure 13 (Schreieck, 2017) A group of Information Systems scholars from Germany proposed a set of design principles for designing mobile application interfaces for refugees based on feedback from testing the mobile application INTEGREAT, which is used by refugees for local information gathering. eir ndings were reported at the Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems, Langkawi, 2017. eir tests considered user interface design feedback from intercultural refugees across four dierent refugee camps. e group then iterated the existing INTEGREAT mobile application user interface designs aer gathering feedback (Schreieck, 2017). ey prepared a chart (Figure 13) to highlight some design principles for designers follow when designing services in the form of mobile applications for refugees (Schreieck, 2017). ough this research was conducted within the refugee community, the design principles for typography, iconography, structure, and content for cross-cultural design and human-computer interaction purposes apply to any designer attempting to maximize accessibility to all people (Schreieck, 2017). e INTEGREAT screens (Figure 12) show variations in iconography and layout, depending on who is using the app and which direction they are reading in order to transmit information interculturally and intuitively to the users (Schreieck, 2017). Figure 12 (Schreieck, 2017)INFLUENCES: secondary research

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11 With regard to the research and ndings for the INTEGREAT app, I designated “Language Selection” as the rst screen in the Spero app on-boarding process. Navigational icons and layouts could and should theoretically shi based on the user’s cultural background and language specications. Social Anthropologist Silke Jungbluth conducted interviews with Iraqi refugees in Helsinki regarding how they used smartphones. Jung bluth writes about “smartphone refugees” and notes that their phones are indispensable to them for planning routes, nding information, keeping in touch with family back home, and nding organizations or individuals oering help in dierent countries ( Jungbluth, 2017). IBM Research – Tokyo conducted interviews in its study, Characteristics of Elderly User Behavior on Mobile Multi-Touch Devices, which details the resulting needs expressed by twenty-one elderly participants and proposes user interface design considerations for elderly based on those results (Harada, 2013). Pictured to the le are two images from the user interface testing scenarios. Figure 14 compares three participants’ scrolling and tapping gestures on a mobile smartphone. IBM researchers analyze the dierences in user experience on the same screen and how some participants make short gestures to “nudge-ick” the screen to scroll through contacts, while others take longer strokes and “stroke-ick” the screen to scroll through contacts (Harada, 2013). My takeaway from this is that the method of icking could cause the screen to slide too quickly, so the interface design should be adapted to account for a smooth scroll regardless of how the users swipe the screen. Figure 15 shows the dierence in elderly miss-taps on numerical keypads from a small iPhone to a large iPad. For this reason, I designed the retiree’s Spero user interface demonstration for the iPad. Figure 15 (Harada, 2013) Figure 14 (Harada, 2013) INFLUENCES: secondary research

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12 Figure 16 (Barros, 2014) Visual design for the elderly is also a topic that Barros, Leitao, and Ribeiro discuss in their paper from Procedia Computer Science on Design and Evaluation of a Mobile User Interface for Older Adults: Navigation, Interaction, and Visual Design Recommendations. is study tests Dance! Don’t Fall, a “dance and fall risk assessment app,” (Figure 16) which was designed for elderly users and employs some use of gamication, which users struggled with in terms of the wording used in the app (Barros et al., 2014). Tap and swipe gestures are reportedly confusing for elderly users— for example, some participants, unfamiliar with how to navigate back to the previous screen or the main menu, tried scrolling up rather than tapping the back button (Barros et al., 2014). e study suggests that designers use icons along with text, provide generous spacing between items, minimize keyboard usage, take advantage of scrolling if the application requires it (as elderly users intuitively mastered the concept of scrolling), and use the back button and home screen as navigational features (Barros et al., 2014). Another paper from Procedia Computer Science proposes guidelines for how to design mobile interfaces for older people. It suggests that icons should be simple and meaningful, background colors should not be pure white or change rapidly in brightness, screen layout and terminology should be simple, and graphics should be relevant with out elaborate animations (Daz-Bossini & Moreno, 2014). e paper also examines apps built for the elderly, such as Big Launcher Application and App Fontrillo. While designing the Spero user interfaces for retirees and refugees using both Android and iOS on dierent devices, I tried to follow these guidelines paired with the design principles proposed in the INTEGREAT case study with refugees.INFLUENCES: secondary research

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13 Objects that we possess and interact with can highlight our needs and values. For example, in 2015 the International Rescue Committee (IRC) gathered information on what refugees carry in their bags (Figure 17), from technology to toothpaste (International Rescue Committee, 2015). I specically chose to design an Android mobile interface for the Spero refugee in-app user journey demo in my project because the majority of refugees and people in general around the world who use smartphones use the Android operating system (Dunn, 2016). erefore, I used a twenty-ve dollar prepaid Android smartphone with WiFi capabilities to display the refugee’s interface at the Spero exhibition. I did not do this to generalize that all refugees use cheap phones; rather, on the contrary, I found by observing sites of refugee charging stations in refugee camps through various news sources (Figure 18) and in the IRC’s case study on the contents of refugees’ bags that refugees oen have expensive smartphones, as that is their lifeline. e phone I bought was what I could aord for my exhibit, and it had the Android operating system to display the interface. Likewise, I designed a larger screen for the app in the form of an iPad with larger fonts for the retiree in-app user journey demo in my proj ect. Studying objects that users interface with on a daily basis allows designers to eectively design for them. For twenty days, I collected objects from my father’s daily life and noted observations in my visual diary, a user inventory study, as pictured on the following pages. I observed he has bifocals for read ing, uses a ip phone, writes checks, has AARP and other magazine subscriptions, has two cars, and carries a pen. Small observations like these informed my decisions as I made the Spero app surveys and interfaces, such as increasing font sizes for the retiree interface. Figure 18 images from BBC & HuffPost Figure 17 (International Rescue Committee, 2015) INFLUENCES: secondary research & observations

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14 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 19 Figure 21 Figure 20 Figure 22

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15 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 23 Figure 25 Figure 24 Figure 26

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16 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 27 Figure 29 Figure 28 Figure 30

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17 INFLUENCES: user inventory studyFigure 31 Figure 33 Figure 32 Figure 34

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18 Figure 35 Figure 37 Figure 36 Figure 38 INFLUENCES: user inventory study

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19 SYSTEM OVERVIEWSpero is a global platform that connects retirees and refugees locally based on their needs and skills. e movement requires partnerships with retiree, refugee, and religious organizational sectors to help pro mote Spero services to potential users. From the retiree sector, Spero requires participation from retirement centers and organizations like AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) and BAGSO (Germany’s federal association of senior organizations). From the refugee aid sector, Spero requires participation from organizations like WR (World Relief) and the IRC (International Rescue Committee).PROJECT REPORT: system overview retirees refugees WR, IRC, etc. + churches, temples, mosques, etc. AARP, BAGSO, etc. + churches, temples, mosques, etc. Figure 39

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20 THE NAMEe name Spero means “I hope.” It comes from the Latin phrase “dum spiro spero,” which means “while I breathe, I hope.” Spero translates similarly into some Romance languages (ie. espero, “I hope” in Spanish). I ran across this term in my word map (Figure 40) while investigating the meaning of “indispensable,” which I found in a quote by professor Friederike von Schwerin-High as she described three German novels that romanticize relationships of retirees and refugees as indispensable to one another (Von Schwerin-High, 2017).PROJECT REPORT: the brandFigure 40

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21 PROJECT REPORT: the brand SKETCHESese are some of my branding sketches. Aer making Pinterest boards for inspiration, I drew multiple versions of letterforms and symbols while brainstorming and researching. I did not sit down to sketch these all at once; rather, over multiple weeks, I returned to the drawing board and nally took some concepts to the computer. Figure 41 Figure 42

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22 PROJECT REPORT: the brand THE LOGOMARKe logomark is a reference to the term “anchor” (n): “also referred to as a “U.S. tie,” a family member or friend in the United States who can provide assistance to a refugee during resettlement,” according to the Catholic Charities of TN refugee dictionary (Catholic Charities of Tennessee, Inc., 2013). Anchors also symbolize stability, strength, hope, and a safe end to a long journey—a meaning that resonates with both retirees and refugees as they socially reintegrate and/or integrate, respectively. Repetition of the anchor logomark forms a tessellation that references connectivity (Figure 44). THE LOGO CONSTRUCTIONI carefully constructed the logo, considering kerning, both vertical and horizontal orientations, as well as the stroke width of the logomark in contrast with the logotype. Figure 43 Figure 44

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23 PROJECT REPORT: the brand THE LOGOTYPEe logotype uses Futura Bold for its accessibility regarding the boldness, clarity, and simplicity of its sans-serif letterforms—these are design principles that Schreieck encourages while designing for intercultural audiences, as noted in the Influences section of this paper (Schreieck, 2017).THE COLOR PALETTE e color palette is bright green with contrasting accent colors throughout the app interface. Green is a safe color around the world, and “it means life and plenitude pretty much anywhere on Earth where plants grow” (Lupton, 2017). It represents growth, safety, nature, luck, and renewal. C: 75 M:0 Y:71 K:0 R: 39 G: 182 B: 122 hex #: 27b57a C: 58 M:0 Y:78 K:0 R: 114 G: 193 B: 108 hex #: 72c16b C: 40 M:0 Y:50 K:0 R: 157 G: 210 B: 156 hex #: 9dd19b Figure 45 Figure 47 Figure 46

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24 PROJECT REPORT: the users PERSONASe following pages describe Spero’s potential users. I created two scenarios of matched pairs based on personas that I designed in response to my secondary research on existing retiree-refugee rela tionships. I found that many retirees who volunteer with refugees are retired teachers and lawyers with unique motivations due to their interactions with refugees during their careers. e rst match is Ayah and Christina. ey are hypothetically located in Chicago, IL, USA, a designated sanctuary city and ideal host for a Spero community. I designed the user journeys displayed in the mobile application demonstration videos based on these specic personabased users. Additionally, I applied quotes to these personas on the wall infographic for the Spero exhibit. I used my rst name for the retiree here with full intentionality, as to design for my own future. I ran across the name Ayah in an interview with a refugee from Syria. e other match scenario of Mohammad and Henryk takes place in Hamburg, Germany, a similarly welcoming city for refugees. I was personally inspired to select Henryk as the retiree’s name here because of my personal heritage and relation to Henryk Sawik. My surname “Singer,” is an invented one. My surname was Sawik before my great-grandfather immigrated to Ellis Island and changed his name years later. Aer some intense genealogy research on Ancestry.com and with the help of a distant relative, I found my relation to Henryk Sawik, a politician and activist who was killed by Nazis for forging documents to save the lives of thousands of refugees during World War II.

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25 IMAGE SOURCE : http://www.helpforsyria.org.uk/ wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Women.pngAYAH REFUGEEAGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOALS MOTIVATIONS INTERESTS34 yrs. female Syria (3 yrs. displaced) refugee Chicago, IL, USA (9 mos. resettled) baker; former bakery owner w/husband in Syria $22,500/yr.; $45,000 combined with husband husband, 2 girls (9 & 12 yrs. old), & a cousin living in Chicago, 3 siblings & an aunt in Syria lost, disconnected, brave, & hopeful meet Americans & understand the culture better future for children, survival, & integration TECH• Android smartphone • Dell laptop • in-home Wi-FiSKILLS• accounting • management • marketing • bakingEDUCATIONAssociate degree in Business Administration from Damascus University in SyriaTRANSPORTATION• uses public transit • comfortable walkingSOCIAL• uses WeChat & Google Hangouts to keep in touch with family & friends • member of Syrian Community Network on FacebookORGANIZATIONS• Masjid Al-Faatir Mosque • refugeeone.orgQUOTE“‘We came to a country that is not our country, and everything changed on us: the system, the people the area, the city,” she says in Arabic.” ( SOURCE : https://www.npr.org/2017/01/04/508220451/ immigration-climate)VALUES• family • safety • cultural preservation • independenceNEEDS• social capital • language practice • friendsCONCERNS• good health for herself & family members • fear that children will be bullied or rejected by American children • HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE A REFUGEE? HEAR THEIR WORDS: https://www.oxfam.org/en/rights-crisis/how-does-itfeel-be-refugee-hear-their-words https://sweetsweetsyria.com https://www.facebook.com/SyrianCommunityNetwork/ https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr/stateprograms-annual-overview EMBROIDERY: https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ originals/2014/09/lebanon-syria-refugees-womenwork-ngos.htmlLANGUAGEArabic (native) English (intermediate): reading writing speaking listening PROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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26 https://www.illinoispolicy.org/cps-budgetbreakdown-where-has-the-money-gone/ CHRISTINA RETIREE IMAGE SOURCE : https://ak8.picdn. net/shutterstock/videos/27337348/ thumb/1.jpgAGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOAL MOTIVATIONS INTERESTS68 yrs. female St. Paul, MN. USA US citizen, daughter of German immigrants Chicago, IL, USA (33 yrs.) 3 yrs. retired public school US History teacher $70,000 (pension) 1 yr. widowed, 3 out-of-town adult children, 5 grandchildren (2, 3, 6, 7, & 10), & a brother (72) create a purposeful post-retirement life; to matter motivated by students & parents’ immigration story TECH• iPhone • iPad Air • HP desktop computer • in-home Wi-FiSKILLS• teaching • cooking • pianoEDUCATIONB.A. in History from Winona State University in MN & Masters in Education from The Hamline School of EducationTRANSPORTATIONhas a carSOCIAL• part of an intergenerational Bible study group at church • uses Facebook & FaceTime to keep in touch with adult children and grandchildrenORGANIZATIONS• St. James Lutheran Church • AARP memberQUOTE“I don’t think I expected to be so close to them and care so much about them as I do. I thought this was going to be somewhat distant.”( SOURCE: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/25/world/ canada/syrian-refugees.html)VALUES• security • hospitality • family • privacy • independenceNEEDS• companionship • to be needed (to matter) • activitiesCONCERNS• using time wisely • distance from family membersLANGUAGEEnglish (native) German (beginner): reading writing speaking listening http://www.aarp.org/experience-corps/ http://www.pewinternet. org/2017/05/17/tech-adoptionclimbs-among-older-adults/PROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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27 MOHAMMAD REFUGEE IMAGE SOURCE: http://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/ assets/150521105101-16-white-helmets-img-2285exlarge-169.jpg WHAT DID YOU BRING WITH YOU? : https://www. mercycorps.org/photoessays/jordan-syria/we-askedrefugees-what-did-you-bring-youAGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOALS MOTIVATIONS INTERESTS29 yrs. male Syria (1 yr. displaced) asylum seeker Hamburg, Germany (1 mo.) former architect in Syria; currently unable to work in Germany while seeking asylum volunteer at a B&B for meals & accommodation wife, 3 yr. old girl, 2 brothers & father in Syria, 1 cousin in Germany anxious, vulnerable, insecure, displaced, & hopeful attain refugee status in Germany; provide for family better future for family & survival music, art, & soccerTECH• Android smartphone • external hard driveSKILLS• project management • drawing • designEDUCATIONB.A. in Architecture from the University of AleppoTRANSPORTATION• uses public transit • comfortable walkingSOCIAL• uses WeChat in public Wi-Fi to communicate with friends & family in SyriaORGANIZATIONS• The Refugee Centre Hamburg (Flchtlingszentrum)QUOTE“Older people can understand us in a better way, they have patience. We have learned lots of cultural things from them– meals and songs.”( SOURCE: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/15/ miss-family-older-germans-taking-in-syrian-refugees)VALUES• safety • family • integrity • honestyNEEDS• to understand Germany • language practice • social capitalCONCERNS• getting refugee status for family • not being able to earn money • attaining stability • facing prejudice • learning codes in the German architectural worldLANGUAGEArabic (native) German & English (beginner): reading writing speaking listening https://qz.com/515994/hamburg-iscommandeering-empty-property-to-houserefugees-and-asylum-seekers/ http://www.fz-hh.de/de/kurzin fos/info-englisch.phpPROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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28 IMAGE SOURCE : https://cdn.aarp.net/content/dam/aarp/health/ healthy-living/2017/12/1140-fd-early-retirement.imgcache. rev631345f5b630f9662c8067b4eebab43d.web.360.207.jpgHENRYK RETIREE65 yrs. male Szeroka, Poland German citizen (immigrated for university) Hamburg, Germany (20 yrs.) retired lawyer ,600 (pension, etc.) divorced, 2 adult children, a sister, & a mother leave a legacy, self-improve, & keep active motivated by justice & personal integration golf, skiing, hiking, & readingTECH• Andriod smartphone • Android tablet • in-home Wi-FiSKILLS• navigating bureaucracy • communicating • advocatingEDUCATIONErste Juristische Prfung at the Faculty of Law University (Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin)TRANSPORTATIONhas a carSOCIAL• uses Facebook to network • uses email to occasionally keep in touch with former colleaguesORGANIZATIONS• BAGSO member (Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der Senioren-Organisationen)QUOTE“Somebody like me has a lot of time. I live comfortably and it would be worthwhile doing something like that [volunteering].”( SOURCE calling-helping-refugees/a-19456138)VALUES• family • justice • privacy • NEEDS• friends • communityCONCERNS• health • social re-integration • LANGUAGEGerman (native) English (advanced): reading writing speaking listening AGE GENDER FROM STATUS CURRENT CITY OCCUPATION INCOME FAMILY FEELING GOALS MOTIVATIONS INTERESTShttps://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/ retirees-roll-up-their-sleeves-to-help-refugees/ article32349457/ https://www.howtogermany.com/pages/ german-retirement.html http://www.bagso.de/bagsogerman-national-association-ofsenior-citizens-organisations.htmlPROJECT REPORT: the users SOURCES CONSULTED FOR THIS PERSONA

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29 PROJECT REPORT: the app THE APPe purpose of the native application is to connect retirees and refugees in real life based on locality and availability. ese two conditions are the bare minimum requirements for a match to form. I designed the in-app surveys in the “Personal Information” and “Match Preferences” sections of the app, as displayed in this section of the Project Report, in order to filter out strong desires to avoid unsuccessful matches. e goal is for the app to be used for a minimal amount of time, only matching one refugee with one retiree per referral code to encourage in-person relationships. ere are no photos or identiable personal information to judge people in the app. Features like the privacy policy and referral code attempt to address issues of concern for security pur poses, but inevitably these components of the app would be constantly updated to respond to the users’ needs. Perhaps a more approachable and understandable privacy policy, such as a visual narrative or an animation, could be integrated into the on-boarding process of the app to demystify the small print and gain the trust of the retiree and refugee users. When users match, the app generates a public location, date, and time to meet, as seen in Figure 48, based on their location and availabil ity as specied in the app surveys. Users can request to edit the plan to suit their needs, and their match can approve the suggestion or request further edits until both people agree on a location, date, and time. e app does not encourage online communication. A simple editable status bubble is the only tool in the app that allows communication before meeting in person. e dierences in the Android and iOS versions of the native apps are minimal. Notably, the navigation bars and fonts are oriented and selected based on Apple’s iOS guideline suggestions and Google’s material design guidelines. Figure 48

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30 PROJECT REPORT: the appFigure 49; link to iPad & mobile Android app demos: christinasinger.com/portfolio/mfa Figure 50; Sketch screen shots Android (L) & iPad (R) APP DEMOS + PROCESSe app demo videos showcase a match scenario of persona-based retiree, Christina (iPad), matching with persona-based refugee, Ayah (mobile Android). I built the screens using Bohemian Coding’s Sketch soware (Figure 50), the industry standard for user interface design; and, by using the Cra plugin, I synced the screens with designated swipe gestures to the prototyping tool, InVision. I then screen-recorded the user journeys with Apple’s QuickTime soware and used the VLC media player app to loop the demonstration videos (Figure 49) on the Android and iPad for the exhibition.

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31 PROJECT REPORT: the app UX SKETCHES Before prototyping the app, I sketched user journeys and potential scenarios (Figures 51) to help identify possible gaps in the app. I wireframed the content and ow of the app to establish a basic structure. Figure 51

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32 PROJECT REPORT: the appFigure 52 Figure 53UX SKETCHES

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33 PROJECT REPORT: the app PAPER PROTOTYPING Aer I wireframed a basic structure for the app, I used paper prototypes (Figure 54) to test the interface icons, graphics, and navigation with my M.F.A. design peers and friends in order to determine what features the app might lack.Figure 54

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34 PROJECT REPORT: the app ... ... ... APP SCREENSI built screens (Figure 55) aer I gathered feedback from the paper prototypes and added features like the referral code while on-boarding in the app. e screens below are selections from the Spero mobile Android app. e main dierences in the visual interfaces of the Android (material) and iOS are the navigation and fonts; I complied with OS standards by using San Francisco for iOS and Roboto for material design.... ...Figure 55

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35 PROJECT REPORT: the app SURVEY DESIGNI downloaded and examined dating apps like OKCupid and Coee Meets Bagel to benchmark how other matching services phrase and weigh questions. A matching algorithm would theoretically be developed to accommodate preferences and match people based on their responses to the in-app surveys (Figure 56). Figure 56

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36 PROJECT REPORT: the app ANDROID MOBILE APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based refugee, Ayah’s personal informationMATCH SCENARIOe following four pages (Figures 57) show survey results from an in-app match scenario of persona-based users, Ayah (refugee) and Christina (retiree). e surveys in the “Personal Information” and “Match Preferences” sections of the app aim to provide answers to generate the best match scenarios. I originally considered more specic questions like dietary restrictions and career goals, but I narrowed the questions down to address major concerns that might arise for the users. For example, perhaps a female only wants to match with a female based on her religious customs. Maybe an LGBTQ+ person has ed a country for persecution and fear for their life, and they only want to be matched with a retiree from the LGBTQ+ community. Maybe a person is homophobic and joins the service—the scales used to denote preference could prevent a failed match from forming, as the questions are designed to eliminate possibilities of matches forming when strong preferences are specied as very important in “Match Preferences.” Figure 57

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37 PROJECT REPORT: the app ANDROID MOBILE APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based refugee, Ayah’s match preferencesFigure 58

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38 PROJECT REPORT: the app i OS i PAD APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based retiree, Christina’s personal informationFigure 59

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39 PROJECT REPORT: the app i OS i PAD APP SURVEY DESIGN persona-based retiree, Christina’s match preferencesFigure 60

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40 PROJECT REPORT: the website WEBSITE CONTENTBefore I chose a design style or template, I sketched a quick informa tion architecture map (Figure 61) to organize the website content. e content is based on Spero’s goal of providing a global platform for sharing stories of retirees and refugees around the world, sharing and creating events, and participating in member-only message boards. Figure 61

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41 PROJECT REPORT: the website WEBSITE DESIGNe website is responsive and meets the needs of the content described in Figure 61 on the previous page. e website mock-up (Figure 62) is live online and employs the Karuna Wordpress template. I adapted the colors and imagery to match the Spero brand, but the template was pre-built and can be accessed at wordpress.com/theme/karuna. website link: sperocomm.wordpress.com Figure 62

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42 PROJECT REPORT: the process book PROCESS BOOK AT THE GALLERY EXHIBITIONI highlighted my design process in the book pictured above (Figure 63). During the exhibition opening, people paused to read the chunked text and look through the sketches and diagrams that I made as I cre ated Spero. is book brought pedagogic value to the exhibit display while demystifying the user experience, branding, and design pro cesses for the general public. roughout the duration of the show, I observed art and design students, as well as people from outside the art and design community, as they attentively looked over every page of this book.Figure 63

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43 PROJECT REPORT: mock-up advertisement retirees + refugeesSpero: a welcoming community for retirees & refugees JOIN TODAY! Looking for a worthwhile way to spend your time while helping others?• Match and meet up with a refugee in your local area by joining the Spero community today! • Download the Spero app from the app store. • Visit sperocomm.org for more information. • For your security, we have a simple screening process and referral code required to join the system. • Please call 1-800-000-0000 today to get your referral code so you can join the app and get matched with a refugee in your area! If you don’t have access to a tablet or smart phone, we can assist you. “Since losing my husband last year and retiring from teaching a few years ago, I have a lot of time on my hands and live comfortably. My adult children live out of town, so it has been worthwhile for me to spend time with Ayah and her family.” Christina, retiree, Spero member AARP MOCK-UP SPERO ADis mock-up advertisement for AARP magazine (Figure 64) is a possible dissemination of Spero’s services. Advertisements and yers like this (Figure 65) would theoretically be distributed by diverse religious groups and refugee and retiree centers around the world.ASSISTANCEAs noted in this ad, users without access to a smart device could theoretically seek assistance with getting matched from Spero partner organizations like AARP.Figure 64 Figure 65

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44 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit DISPLAY WALL SKETCHESI sketched more than y thumbnails (Figure 66) of what the Spero exhibition gallery wall space might look like. In the end, I combined three of the concepts into one, iterated the mock-up based on peer feedback, tested type sizes from a distance, and executed the nal adhesive vinyl graphic design. Figure 66

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45 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit TOUCH DO NOT TOUCH sperochristina singer DISPLAY WALL MOCK-UP DISPLAY INFORMATION GRAPHICWith the assistance of native speakers’ translations in Arabic, Spanish, and Korean, as referenced in the Acknowledgments section of this paper, this display (Figures 67 & 68) introduces Spero to the public as a call-toaction for potential users to join. e display, with interfaces included, would be placed at retiree and refugee centers around the world. e adhesive vinyl wall graphic has one statistic to represent retirees and one to represent refugees, one quote from both people featured here, based on personas, a description of Spero, and a quote from Mother Teresa that addresses “psychic numbing,” as psychologist Paul Slovic describes in his research on decision-making and why people can only respond to “the one” and not the masses (Slovic, 2007). Figure 67 Figure 68

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46 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit STATISTIC REPRESENTING RETIREES ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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47 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit QUOTE REPRESENTING PERSONA-BASED RETIREE, CHRISTINA, ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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48 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit STATISTIC REPRESENTING REFUGEES ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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49 PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibit QUOTE REPRESENTING PERSONA-BASED REFUGEE, AYAH, ON THE WALL GRAPHIC

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50 THE INSTALLATIONI planned for sta from Signs By Tomorrow, a vinyl print and instal lation company in Gainesville, FL, to print and install my adhesive vinyl wall infographic. Figure 69 shows the installation process as they trimmed the bleed around the edges of the vinyl. I do not specialize in printing vinyl or have access to print such a large-scale piece on my own, nor do I have the skills required to install it. I hired this local company for their expertise, and I executed the design. I was pleased with the results, despite minor imperfections on the gallery wall. Aer the exhibition, I was able to easily remove the piece as one large graphic and save it by placing paper on the back and rolling it up. PROJECT REPORT: the wall exhibitFigure 69

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51 PROJECT REPORT: the exhibition ABOUT THE EXHIBITIONAn adhesive vinyl infographic—with content in Arabic, Spanish, Korean, and English—covered the curved gallery wall. Two pedestals, one supporting an iPad Air and one supporting an iPad Air and an Android smartphone, exhibited the website and app demos of a retiree and refugee Spero app match scenario. To teach the public about the design process and user experience research, my process book was on the third pedestal. e Spero installation was part of the MFA group 1 exhibition, which was from March 20. e reception was Friday, March 23, 2018 from 7 p.m. in the University Galleries at the University of Florida (Figures 70 & 71). Figure 71, at the reception with studiomates Figure 70, reception guests

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52 PROJECT REPORT: conclusion PERSONAL REMARKSI cannot submit a report for this project without bringing up the inherent political climate that would play host to this system around the world, namely as President Trump occupies the White House and continues to spread and foster an irrational fear of refugees (Altman, 2017). Although the mission and purpose of this project is about people and not about politics, the system is naturally limited to legally documented refugees and asylum seekers. ere are systems and networks in place around the world that provide support to undocumented immigrants; but a service like Spero, that intentionally publicizes its community online, would prove to be dangerous and could be abused by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement ocers, for example, to target those undocumented immigrants for deportation in this political climate. ere is authentic relational value in the face-to-face interactions and Spero community meet-ups that could be facilitated by the website events portal. Relationships give people meaning, in that they feel a sense of belonging and that they are valued and needed as a result of being part of a relationship or community. A plethora of apps, such as INTEGREAT and Ankommen , have been released in the last few years around the world to assist refugees with local infor mation gathering and language knowledge, but very few, if any, have attempted to form communities built on such reciprocity as Spero aims to do with retirees and refugees.

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53 I learned so much throughout this project, not only about Spero’s potential users and their needs, but also about the technical skills required to produce the app interface designs and how to design for large surfaces with the Spero exhibition wall graphic. I plan to share my ndings as a template to guide and assist my future students as they pursue their passions through design projects. I plan to nd ave nues to disseminate this type of in-depth design process and research to the design community by presenting my work at service design, social design, and human-centered design conferences. My work in the future will likely deal with Korean studies, as I hope to continue to visit Korea and foster my design relationships there to form a faculty-led study abroad trip to Seoul for my students. Lastly, I plan propose the Spero system to stakeholder organizations aer running tests of the services with focus groups in a sanctuary city.PROJECT REPORT: conclusion

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54 TERMINOLOGY• asylum seeker, in this paper, refers to a person who is in the process of seeking asylum, or sanctuary, in another country that is not his/ her/their own due to life-threatening circumstances in the country of origin due to persecution, war, or violence (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). • refugee , in this paper, refers to a person who has ed his/her/their country of origin as a result of life-threatening circumstances in a country of origin, and who has sought asylum in another country and received legal refugee status from said country. According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, a refugee is “has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group” (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 2018). • religious group, in this paper, refers to a formal collective of people that come together under a corporate religion such as, but not lim ited to, churches, mosques, and temples located around the world • retiree , in this paper, refers to a person who has, by choice or force, reached retirement in that he/she/they does not work or works minimally and no longer practices his/her/their profession • retiree and refugee organizations, in this paper, refers to NGO’s (non-government organizations) and for-prot organizations that interface directly with retirees and refugees around the world

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58 Freedman, M. (2012, December 11). Don’t leave a legacy; Live one. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2012/12/dont-leave-a-legacylive-one Gallagher, D. (1994). Durable solutions in a new political era. Journal of International Aairs, 47 (2), 429. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24357290 Goodridge, R., Ward, T., Leach, S., & Elawa, C. (2017). Settle is a digital platform that helps refugees coming to Canada by simplifying the process of lling out refugee application forms. Retrieved from http://www.robyngoodridge.com/settle/ Google. (2015). Google Fortune Telling: what does your future look like? Retrieved from http://betagoogle.com/ Gopalakrishnan, M. (2016, August 22). German volunteer nds his calling helping refugees. Retrieved from http://www. dw.com/en/german-volunteer-nds-his-calling-helpingrefugees/a-19456138 Gustke, C. (2016, March 11). Making technology easier for older people to use. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/2016/03/12/your-money/making-technology-easier-forolder-people-to-use.html Grant, H. (2017, March 9). How do I ... oer a room to a refugee? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/ sep/11/how-do-i-oer-a-room-to-a-refugee Green, A. (2017, August). e distinction between asylum seekers and refugees. Retrieved from https://www.migrationwatchuk. org/brieng-paper/70 Greve, J. E. (2017, April 26). Refugees in America: By the numbers. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/weta/washingtonweek/ blog-post/refugees-america-numbers GSM Association. (2017, August 10). Apps for refugees–Refugees and connectivity. Retrieved from https://www.gsma.com/ refugee-connectivity/apps-for-refugees/ GSMA. (2017, February 8). Vodafone instant network: Providing connectivity for refugees in an emergency environment. Retrieved from https://www.gsma.com/refugee-connectivity/ case-study-vodafone-instant-network/ Habeku, V. F., & Schmitt, S. (2015, October 1). Refugees: Why do you need a mobile phone? Retrieved from http://www.zeit. de/gesellscha/zeitgeschehen/2015-09/smartphones-mobilphones-refugees-help Hannon, K. (2013, May 14). Working Abroad Aer Retirement Gains Appeal. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes. com/2013/05/15/business/retirementspecial/working-abroadaer-retirement-gains-appeal.html?mcubz=0 Harada S., Sato D., Takagi H., Asakawa C. (2013) Characteristics of elderly user behavior on mobile multi-touch devices. In: Kotz P., Marsden G., Lindgaard G., Wesson J., Winckler M. (eds) Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2013. INTERACT 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 8120. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar. org/6cef/1c61db1c953ab64cdde33ef8a2f4af5.pdf Hathaway, J. C. (2007, Fall). Refugee solutions, or solutions to refugeehood? Refuge, 3+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A178453436/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=20e36b1e Hathaway, J. C. (2007, May). Why refugee law still matters. Melbourne Journal of International Law, 8 (1), 89+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A167305288/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=fc4a4417 Heaven, B., Brown, L. J., White, M., Errington, L., Mathers, J. C., & Moatt, S. (2013). Supporting well-being in retirement through meaningful social roles: Systematic review of intervention studies. e Milbank Quarterly, 91 (2), 222. http://doi. org/10.1111/milq.12013 Hsiao, S.-W., Lee, C.-H., Yang, M.-H., & Chen, R.-Q. (2017, May). User interface based on natural interaction design for seniors. Computers in Human Behavior, 75 , 147+. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A512969922/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=81f07078 IBM100 A Global Volunteer Network. (2012, March 7). Retrieved from https://www-304.ibm.com/jct03001c/ibm/ history/ibm100/us/en/icons/volunteerism/ IBM. (n.d.). Retiree helps refugees nd new life and new language in Germany. Retrieved from https://www.ibm.com/ibm/ responsibility/initiatives/stories/IBM-Renate-Kittelmannvolunteer.shtml IIT Institute of Design. (2017). Designed services. Retrieved from https://www.id.iit.edu/themes/service-design/ Ijeoma, E. (2016). e Refugee Project. Retrieved from http:// www.therefugeeproject.org/ International Rescue Committee. (2017). Refugees in America. Retrieved from https://www.rescue.org/topic/refugees-america Jacob, A. (1994, May). Social integration of Salvadoran refugees. Social Work, 39 (3), 307. doi:10.1093/sw/39.3.307 WORKS CONSULTED

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59 Jalonick, M. C., & Burke, G. (2016, January 29). U.S. placement program failed to protect child migrants from tracking, Senate panel says. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/ newshour/nation/u-s-placement-program-failed-to-protectchild-migrants-from-tracking-senate-panel-says Jensen, M. (2017, February 23). Pay it Forward: Retired history teacher spends all his time helping refugees in Utah. Retrieved from http://kutv.com/features/pay-it-forward/pay-it-forwardretired-history-teacher-spends-all-his-time-helping-refugeesin-utah Johnson, T. (2016, July 18). Sweden: Using a digital app to speed up migrant integration. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/ esf/transnationality/content/sweden-using-digital-app-speedmigrant-integration Jones, C., & E. Williamson, A. (2014). Volunteers working to support migrants in Glasgow: A qualitative study. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 10 (4), 193-206. doi:10.1108/ijmhsc-10-2013-0034 Jones, M., & Houle, F. (2008, Fall). Building a better refugee status determination system: Introduction. Refuge, 25 (2), 3+. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A229302916/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=33c4eb22 Jungbluth, S. (2017, February). “Smartphone refugees” mobility, power regimes, and the impact of digital technologies (Master’s thesis, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland). Retrieved from https://tampub.uta./bitstream/handle/10024/100787/ GRADU-1490004757.pdf?sequence=1 Kallick, D. D., & Mathema, S. (2016, June). Refugee integration in the United States . Retrieved from Center for American Progress website: https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/ uploads/2016/06/15112912/refugeeintegration.pdf Kals, E., & Strubel, I. T. (2017, Fall). Volunteering to support refugees: A question of one’s scope of justice. Refuge, 66+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A515495287/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=29fd72ce Kandal, S. (2014, October). Sustainable integration in Norway: A social systems design approach. In Proceedings of RSD3, ird Symposium of Relating Systems inking to Design (p. 1). Oslo, Norway. Kantor, J., & Einhorn, C. (2017, March 25). Canadians adopted refugee families for a year. en came month 13. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/25/world/canada/syrianrefugees.html?smid=tw-nytimes&smtyp=cur Kelley, N., & Durieux, J.-F. (2004, March). UNHCR and current challenges in international refugee protection. Refuge, 22 (1), 6+. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A119114308/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=5ca3bdaa Kelly, D. (2016, October 14). Senior hosts grow exponentially with Airbnb. Retrieved from https://beta.theglobeandmail. com/report-on-business/senior-hosts-grow-exponentiallywithairbnb/article32350445/ Krogstad, J. M., & Gonzalez-Barrera, A. (2014, December 11). Texas tops list of states where this year’s unaccompanied child migrants ended up. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch. org/fact-tank/2014/12/11/texas-tops-list-of-states-where-thisyears-unaccompanied-child-migrants-ended-up/ Krogstad, J. M., & Radford, J. (2017, January 30). Key facts about refugees to the U.S. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch. org/fact-tank/2017/01/30/key-facts-about-refugees-to-the-u-s/ LifeSpots app–Trellyz. (2017). Retrieved from http://trellyz.com/ lifespots-app/ Lippert, R. K. (2009, Spring). Wither sanctuary? Refuge, 26 (1), 57+. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A238751973/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=b1267735 LinkedIn for refugees–Mobile app. (2017, September 21). Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/LinkedinforGood/ linkedin-for-refugees-mobile-app Lupton, E. (2011). Graphic design thinking: Beyond brainstorming. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Lupton, E. (2017). Design is storytelling. New York, NY: Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum. Ludden, J. (2011, January 17). Retirees lend a hand to refugees in Fargo, N.D. Retrieved from http://www.npr. org/2011/01/17/132705619/retirees-lend-a-hand-to-refugeesin-fargo-n-d Lum, Z. A. (2016, September 9). UNICEF exec calls out people’s apathy toward refugee crisis. Retrieved from http:// www.hungtonpost.ca/2016/09/08/unicef-childrenrefugees_n_11912540.html Ma, A. (2015, December 8). Sydney hackathon creates new apps for refugees. Retrieved from https://www.hungtonpost.com/ entry/australia-apps-refugees_us_56659f57e4b072e9d1c6a77f WORKS CONSULTED

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60 MacFarlane, A., Glynn, L. G., Mosinkie, P. I., & Murphy, A. W. (2008, December). Responses to language barriers in consultations with refugees and asylum seekers: a telephone survey of Irish general practitioners. BMC Family Practice, 9, 68. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A193482823/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=e05a016c Mao, K. (2017, February 15). 5 Principles for designing delightful digital experiences for seniors. Retrieved from https://medium. freecodecamp.org/5-principles-for-designing-delightful-digitalexperiences-for-seniors-8ece28229653 Marcellini, F., Sensoli, C., Barbini, N., & Fioravanti, P. (1997). Preparation for retirement: Problems and suggestions of retirees. Educational Gerontology, 23 (4), 377-388. doi:10.1080/0360127970230406 Margolin, V., & Margolin, S. (2002). A “social model” of design: Issues of practice and research. Design Issues, 18 (4), 24-30. doi:10.1162/074793602320827406 Mars, R. (2017, February 28). Church (sanctuary, part 1); State (sanctuary, part 2). Oakland, CA: 99% Invisible. McCool, B. (2017, November 10). Designer Lisanne Koning thinks inside the box for refugee children. Retrieved from http://www. thedieline.com/blog/2017/11/8/designer-lisanne-koningthinks-inside-the-box-for-refugee-children McBrien, J. L. (2005, September). Educational needs and barriers for refugee students in the United States: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75 (3), 329-364. doi:10.3102/00346543075003329 McGrath, S., & McGrath, I. (2013, Summer). Funding matters: the maze of settlement funding in Canada and the impact on refugee services. Canadian Journal of Urban Research, 22 (1), 1+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A349607677/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=6006d7ac Miller, C. (2016, August 18). Latest Gartner data shows iOS vs Android battle shaping up much like Mac vs Windows. Retrieved from https://9to5mac.com/2016/08/18/androidios-smartphone-market-share/ Milne, D. (2013). e psychology of retirement: Coping with the transition om work. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: WileyBlackwell. Mobilearn. (2016). About the Service. Retrieved from https:// se.mobilearn.com/en/about-service/ Mulholland, M. (2017). Welcoming the Stranger in Alberta: Newcomers, Secularism and Religiously Aliated Settlement Agencies. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 49 (1), 19-42. Canadian Ethnic Studies Association. Retrieved January 1, 2018, from Project MUSE database. New Retirement. (2017, August 29). Jobs for seniors: What are the best jobs aer retirement? Retrieved from https://www. newretirement.com/retirement/jobs-for-seniors-best-jobs-aerretirement/ Obordo, R. (2017, March 9). Teaching refugees languages: ‘No specic skills required, just a desire to help and a friendly smile’. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/ sep/11/teaching-refugees-languages-no-specic-skills-requiredjust-a-desire-to-help-and-a-friendly-smile O’Brien, L., Burls, A., Townsend, M., & Ebden, M. (2010). Volunteering in nature as away of enabling people to reintegrate into society. Perspectives in Public Health, 131 (2), 71-81. doi:10.1177/1757913910384048 O’Donnell, C. A., Higgins, M., Chauhan, R., & Mullen, K. (2007, May). ey think we’re ok and we know we’re not. A qualitative study of asylum seekers’ access, knowledge and views to health care in the UK. BMC Health Services Research, 7, 75. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A164936593/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=70ecadf2 OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017, January). Who bears the cost of integrating refugees? Retrieved from Migration Policy Debates website: https://www.oecd.org/els/mig/migration-policy-debates-13.pdf Oce of Refugee Resettlement. (2015, November 9). State of Florida–Programs and services by locality. Retrieved from https://www.acf.hhs.gov/orr/resource/state-of-oridaprograms-and-services-by-locality Olson, E. (2016, January 22). Older drivers hit the road for Uber and Ly. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes. com/2016/01/23/your-money/older-drivers-hit-the-road-foruber-and-ly.html?mcubz=0 Omri, R. (2016, August 31). U.S. reaches goal of admitting 10,000 Syrian refugees. Here’s where they went. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/08/30/us/syrianrefugees-in-the-united-states.html?mcubz=0 Orlov, L. M. (2016, April). 2016 Technology survey older adults, age 59+. Retrieved from Linkage website: https:// www.ageinplacetech.com/les/aip/Linkage%202016%20 Technology%20April%202016.pdf WORKS CONSULTED

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61 PEW Research Center. (2013, May 9). Most say immigration policy needs big changes. Retrieved from http://www.people-press. org/2013/05/09/most-say-immigration-policy-needs-big-changes/ Piliavin, J. A., & Siegl, E. (2007). Health benets of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48 (4), 450-464. doi:10.1177/002214650704800408 Pillai, P. (2012). Cultural directions and origins of everyday decisions. Integr Psych Behav, 46, 235. doi:10.1007/ s12124-012-9196-9 Ram, A. (2015, December 5). e smartphone completely changed the refugee crisis. Retrieved from https://www.wired. com/2015/12/smartphone-syrian-refugee-crisis/ Radford, J., & Connor, P. (2016, December 6). Just 10 states resettled more than half of recent refugees to U.S. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/12/06/just10-states-resettled-more-than-half-of-recent-refugees-to-u-s/ Rajnes, D. M. (2002). e 2001 Minority Retirement Condence Survey: Minority Attitudes and Behaviours Towards Retirement. Public Policy & Aging Report, 12 (3), 19-23. Retrieved from https://encore.org/wp-content/uploads/ les/2002_survey_analysis.pdf Refugee aid app–Refugee aid app. (2017). Retrieved from http:// refugeeaidapp.com/ Refugee Council. (2017). Refugee services–Refugees & asylum seekers UK–Refugee council. Retrieved from https://www. refugeecouncil.org.uk/what_we_do/refugee_services Refugee Processing Center. (2016). Resources. Retrieved from http://www.wrapsnet.org/resources/ Refugee Republic. (2012). Interactive map. Retrieved from https:// refugeerepublic.submarinechannel.com/intro_en.php?o=o Refugees Welcome. (2016, April 20). About us. Retrieved from http://www.refugeesarewelcome.org/about-us/ Rendgen, S., & Wiedemann, J. (2014). Understanding the world: e atlas of infographics. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. Rendgen, S., In Wiedemann, J., Ciuccarelli, P., Wurman, R. S., Rogers, S., & Holmes, N. (2016). Information graphics. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. Rodrigues, ., Carreira, M., & Gonalves, D. (2014, February). Developing a multimodal interface for the elderly. Procedia Computer Science, 27, 359-368. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2014.02.040 Rosales, A., & Fernndez-Ardvol, M. (2016). Smartphones, apps and older people’s interests. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services MobileHCI . doi:10.1145/2935334.2935363 Rouhollahi, M. (2016, Fall). Choice theory: Investigating human behavior in four dimensions. International Journal of Choice eory and Reality erapy, 36 (1), 31-34. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/b26c419fd70a68ab796 94734b6899eea/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1046401 Sandre, A. R., & Newbold, K. B. (2016, December 30). Telemedicine: Bridging the gap between refugee health and health services accessibility in Hamilton, Ontario. Refuge, 32 (3), 108+. Retrieved from http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A515495273/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=8c57f9 Schreieck, M., Zitzelsberger, J., Siepe, S., Wiesche, M., & Krcmar, H. (2017). Supporting refugees in every day life–Intercultural design evaluation of an application for local information. In Twenty First Pacic Asia Conference on Information Systems (p.1). Langkawi, Malaysia: Intercultural Design Evaluation. Shea, A., Drenttel, W., & Lupton, E. (2012). Designing for social change: Strategies for community-based graphic design. New York, NY: Princeton Architectural Press. Shubert, A. (2015, September 14). Refugee crisis: How Germany rose to the occasion. Retrieved from http://www.cnn. com/2015/09/13/europe/germany-refugees-shubert/index.html Silvius, R. (2016). Neo-liberalization, devolution, and refugee wellbeing: A case study in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Canadian Ethnic Studies, 48 (3), 27-44. doi:10.1353/ces.2016.0024 Slavek, T. (2014). Touch screen mobile user interface for seniors (Master’s thesis, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic). Retrieved from https://dip.felk.cvut.cz/browse/ pdfcache/slavito3_2014dipl.pdf Slavek, T. (2014, November 25). Designing a mobile interface for older people. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@ tomasslavicek/designing-a-mobile-interface-for-older-people1c9b70fd645c Slovic, P. (2007, April). If I look at the mass I will never act: Psychic numbing and genocide. Judgment and Decision Making, 2 (2), 79-95. Retrieved from http://journal.sjdm.org/7303a/ jdm7303a.htm Soliman, H. H., & Miah, M. R. (2011). An educational empowerment practice model for social workers involved in relief services for refugee populations. Social Development Issues, 33 (2), 74+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/ A391930392/AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=b8c40d61 WORKS CONSULTED

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62 Souleles, N. (2017). Design for social change and design education: Social challenges versus teacher-centred pedagogies. e Design Journal, 20 (1), 927-936. doi:10.1080/14606925.2017.1353037 Smith, A. (2014, April 3). Older adults and technology use. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/04/03/ older-adults-and-technology-use/ Smith, R. C., Vangkilde, K. T., Kjrsgaard, M. G., Otto, T., Halse, J., & Binder, T. (2016). Design anthropological futures. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Academic. Steinmetz, K. (2015, July 30). Uber wants your parents to be drivers. Retrieved from http://time.com/3978019/uber-older-drivers/ Sweet, Sweet Syria. (2017). About us. Retrieved from https:// sweetsweetsyria.com/ Techfugees. (2017). Empowering the displaced with technology. Retrieved from https://techfugees.com/ omson, J. (2004). Life begins at seventy. Psychodynamic Practice, 10 (4), 529-537. doi:10.1080/14753630412331313758 Tomkiw, L. (2016, February 5). Europe refugee crisis: How retirees in Germany are helping Syrians. Retrieved from http://www. ibtimes.com/europe-refugee-crisis-how-retirees-germany-arehelping-syrians-2292304 U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. (2017, February). Albany, New York still welcomes refugees with felp from USCRI. Retrieved from http://refugees.org/news/albany-newyork-still-welcomes-refugees-help-uscri/ United Health Foundation. (2017). Explore volunteerism in the United States, 2017 senior report. Retrieved from https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/2017senior-report/measure/volunteerism_sr/state/ALL?utm_ source=senior2017&utm_medium=print&utm_ campaign=senior2017 UNICEF. (2016, September 7). Nearly 50 million children uprooted worldwide. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/ media/media_92725.html UNHCR Innovation Service. (2016). A brief innovation glossary. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/wp-content/ uploads/2017/07/UNHCRInnovation-Glossary.pdf UNHCR Innovation. (2017, July 13). New publication: UNHCR Innovation’s year in review 2016. Retrieved from http://www. unhcr.org/innovation/new-publication-unhcr-innovations-yearin-review-2016/ UNHCR Innovation Service. (2018). Innovation starts with people. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/ UNHR. (2017). What is a refugee. Retrieved from http://www. unrefugees.org/what-is-a-refugee/ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016, September 14). Mobile connectivity a lifeline for refugees, report nds. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/afr/ news/latest/2016/9/57d7d4478/mobile-connectivitylifelinerefugees-report-nds.html United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016). Figures at a Glance. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/ gures-at-a-glance.html United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016). Global trends: Forced displacement in 2016. Retrieved from http:// www.unhcr.org/en-us/statistics/unhcrstats/5943e8a34/globaltrends-forced-displacement-2016.html United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. (2016, June 3). ese 10 refugees will compete at the 2016 Olympics in Rio. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/news/ latest/2016/6/575154624/10-refugees-compete-2016olympics-rio.html US Department of Homeland Security. (2017, October 24). Learn about the refugee application process. Retrieved from https:// www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/refugees-asylum/refugees US Department of State. (2018, January 20). U.S. refugee admissions program FAQs. Retrieved from https://www.state. gov/j/prm/releases/factsheets/2017/266447.htm Valenta, M., & Bunar, N. (2010, April). State Assisted Integration: Refugee Integration Policies in Scandinavian Welfare States: the Swedish and Norwegian Experience. Journal of Refugee Studies, 23 (4), 463-483. doi:10.1093/jrs/feq028 Vandenberg, S. (2017, March 8). Volunteer abroad opportunities for seniors and retirees. Retrieved from https://www. volunteerforever.com/article_post/volunteer-abroadopportunities-for-seniors-and-retirees Vargas, R. (2017, January 11). Cupertino retirees make comfort quilts. Retrieved from https://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/ local/Cupertino-Retirees-Make-uilts-For-Local-And-GlobalCommunities-410415355.html WORKS CONSULTED

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63 WORKS CONSULTED Vernon, A., Deriche, K., & Eisenhauer, S. (2016). Connecting refugees. How internet and mobile connectivity can improe refugee well-being and transform humanitarian action. Retrieved from United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees website: http://www.unhcr.org/5770d43c4 Viskovich, Y. (2017, December 5). Education is key for refugees to build their futures. Here’s how we can help them do that. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/innovation/educationis-key-to-rebuilding-refugees-future-and-to-refugees-rebuildingtheir-countrys-future-heres-how-we-could-help-them-do-that/ VolunteerMatch. (2017). VolunteerMatch–Where volunteering begins. Retrieved from https://www.volunteermatch.org/ Von Schwerin-High, F. (2017, November 12). Refugees, Retirees, and Revised Realities in Recent German Works of Fiction. Retrieved from http://pamla.org/2017/proposals/refugeesretirees-and-revised-realities-recent-german-works-ction Walters, J. L. (2017). Olivier Kugler: bearing witness. Eye: e International Review of Graphic Design, 42+. Retrieved from Academic OneFile, http:// link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A486712230/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=bd290243 Waxman, P. (2001, Summer). e economic adjustment of recently arrived Bosnian, Afghan and Iraqi Refugees in Sydney, Australia. International Migration Review, 35 (2), 472. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A77875791/ AONE?u=gain40375&sid=AONE&xid=03c5a5af Welcome at appsforrefugees.com. (2018). Retrieved from http:// appsforrefugees.com/ Welcoming America. (2017). Welcoming refugees. Retrieved from http://www.welcomingrefugees.org/about-project Welsh, T. (2015, November 20). 8 Facts about the U.S. program to resettle Syrian refugees. Retrieved from https://www.usnews. com/news/articles/2015/11/20/8-facts-about-the-us-programto-resettle-syrian-refugees What Design Can Do. (2017, March). e WDCD refugee challenge. Retrieved from https://www.whatdesigncando.com/ challenge/refugeechallenge/ What Design Can Do. (2017). What design can do to bring refugees and host communities closer to one another. Retrieved from https://www.whatdesigncando.com/ challenge/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2016/04/0.-WDCD_ RefugeeChallenge_BRIEF3.pdf Wilson-Forsberg, S., & Sethi, B. (2015). e volunteering dogma and Canadian work experience: Do recent immigrants volunteer voluntarily? Canadian Ethnic Studies, 47 (3), 91-110. doi:10.1353/ces.2015.0034 Woodeld, M. (2016, October 20). Educating refugees: e value of digital platforms and mobile technology. Retrieved from http://www.digitalistmag.com/improving-lives/2016/05/05/ educating-refugees-value-of-digital-platforms-and-mobiletechnology-04180972 Wong, D. M. (2013). Guide to information graphics: e dos and don’ts of presenting data, facts, and gures. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company. World Relief. (2017). About. Retrieved from https://www. worldrelief.org/about Zong, J., & Batalova, J. (2017, June 7). Refugees and asylees in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/ article/refugees-and-asylees-united-states VISUAL RESEARCH (PINTEREST BOARDS)branding: https://pin.it/ujkujujtvugdgj exhibit display: https://pin.it/2uz6q62di5basz refugees: https://pin.it/uapqmgob5yiyza retirees: https://pin.it/inw2h2folqyrzg ux/ui: https://pin.it/ryduocvpjdx3u5 STUDIO PROCESS & RESEARCH SPACEFigure 72

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHChristina Singer is a designer and educator. She was born and raised in Chattanooga, TN, where she attended Girls Preparatory School. Growing up, Singer was a competitive gymnast, swimmer, diver, pole vaulter, and rock climber. In 2013, Singer earned a B.F.A. in Studio Art with a concentration in Graphic Design and a Marketing minor from East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, TN. From 2013 to 2014, she worked as the Associate Art Director for EatingWell magazine in Vermont. Later in 2014, she moved to Busan, South Korea to teach English as a Second Language for a year. From 2015 to 2018, she pursued her M.F.A. in Fine Arts with a concentration in Graphic Design at University of Florida while working as a Graphic Design Graduate Assistant for UF O Campus Life. While in graduate school, she continued to visit South Korea to tour, visit friends, form professional relationships, and contribute design work to the NGO, PSCORE (People for Successful Corean Reunication). Singer successfully completed her M.F.A. in 2018. She will join the faculty at the University of Tampa as a tenure-track Assistant Professor of Art, Graphic Design.