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An evaluation of the women's non-major physical education program in selected American colleges and universities

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An evaluation of the women's non-major physical education program in selected American colleges and universities
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Buie, Grace Elizabeth, 1914-
Publication Date:
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English
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1 v. : ; 28 cm.

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Subjects / Keywords:
Physical education for women ( lcsh )
Education thesis Ed. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Education -- UF
Physical education for women. ( lcsh )
Physical education for women. ( fast )
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bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Academic theses ( fast )
Academic theses ( lcgft )

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Thesis - University of Florida.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references (leaves 127-134).
General Note:
Manuscript copy.
General Note:
Vita.

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Full Text
An Evaluation of the Women’s Non-major
Physical Education Program in Selected American
Colleges and Universities
Copy r i C| hd-
By
GRACE ELIZABETH BUIE
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
June, 1956


COPIRIGETED
37
Grace Elizabeth Buie
1956


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
-y
The writer is deeply appreciative of the personal
interest and guidance given by the chairman of the advisory
committee, Dr* Kimball Wiles, and other members of the com¬
mittee, Dr. Clifford Boyd, Dr* Leon Henderson, Dr* Pauline
Hilliard, and Dr* E. Benton Salt* It has been a joy and a
source of great satisfaction to share experiences with the
chairman and other members of the committee*
Gratitude is expressed to Dr* Wesley Staton, former
co-chairman, now of Wayne University, for his helpful assis¬
tance in the early stages of the study, and to Dr. E* Benton
Salt who later became a member of the committee*
A deep sense of indebtedness is felt toward Miss
Barbara Dalsheimer who gave unstintingly of her personal time
and energy in the seemingly endless compilation of the
material*
Sincere thanks goes to Mrs. Robert Frampton, the
writer’s niece, for her Aid in the tabulation of the data,
and to Mr* Carlis Taylor of the University Statistical Labora¬
tory* Much thanks is also due the lj.86 respondents (twenty-
five in the pretest) who so graciously responded to the ques¬
tionnaire, to the typist of the study, Mrs. Hilda Clarke, and
to many others who so kindly assisted in the preparation of
the study.
ii


TABLE OP CONTENTS
Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . ii
LIST OP TABLES vii
Chapter
I.THE DESIGN OP THE STUDY 1
Statement of the Problem
Limitations of the Study
Source of the Data Concerning Status
of the Womens Non-Major Program
Procedure for Collecting Information
about Status
Development of the Questionnaire
Collection of Data Concerning Status
of Program
Treatment of Data
Explanation of Terms Used in the
Treatment of Data
Presentation of Data
II.DEVELOPMENT OP CRITERIA. 12
Summary
III.REVIEW OP STUDIES RELATED TO STATUS OP NON¬
MAJOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN .... 29
Requirement
Credit
Medical Examinations
Adapted Program
Number of Times Physical Education
Classes Meet Per Week
Class Size and Teacher Load
Length of Physical Education Class in
Minutes
Objectives of the Women’s Program in
Higher Education
Activities
Coeducation
Marking Practices
Democratic Practices
Guidance
Summary
IV.GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE WOMEN’S NON-MAJOR
PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN HIGHER
EDUCATION . 40
Enrollment
Hi


TABLE OP CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Requirement
Elimination of the Requirement of
Physical Education
Extension of the Requirement of Physi¬
cal Education
Proficiency Tests
Credit
Written Policies and Practices Regarding
the Operation of the Non-Major Program
Availability of Syllabi on Physical
Education Activities
Strict Adherence to Syllabi
Requirement of the Medical Examination
The Adapted Program
Approximate Number of Clock Hours Per
Week Non-Major Classes Meet
Total Length of the Class Period in
Minutes
Time Allowed for Actual Activity in
Class Periods
Time Allowed for Dressing and Showering
Average Number of Students Per Class
Per Instructor
Summary
V.IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED THE VARIOUS OBJECTIVES
OP THE WOMEN1S PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
IN THE PLANNING OP THE NON-MAJOR PROGRAM .
Social Development
Recreation
Personal Development
Safety in Sports
Motor Development
Intellectual Development
Physical Development
Health
Summary
VI.MARKING, . , . .
Type of Marks Used
Type of Grading Preferred
How Marks Are Dete mined
Relation of Marks to the Objectives
of the Women’s Program
Summary
VII.ACTIVITIES . , ,
Variety of Activities
iv
Page
53
59
6k


TABLE OP CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
VIII.
IX.
Page
Top Activities
Required Activities
Provision of Levels of Instruction
Differences Between Institutions in
the Activities Offered
Summary
COEDUCATIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES 73
Summary
TECHNIQUES OP GROUP WORK IN THE INSTRUCTION
IN THE WOMEN’S NON-MAJOR PHYSICAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM. ....... 78
Instructor-Student Planning of Class
Goals and Procedures
Class Discussion of Methods of
Evaluation
Utilization of Class Time for Purposes
of Getting Acquainted, Learning Names,
and Determining Student Interest
Informal Situations in Gymnasium, Field,
and Classroom
Student Election and Rotation of Leaders
Planning Committees in Class Operation
"Buzz** Groups in Class Operation
Role Playing in Class Operation
Sociometric Techniques in Class Operation
Observer in Class Operation
Recorder In Class Operation
Summary
THE ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND ORGANIZATION
OP THE WOMEN’S PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
IN HIGHER EDUCATION. 87
Administrator-Instructor Determination
of Departmental Policies and Procedures
Department Head Places a Major Emphasis
on Helping Each Staff Member Peel Accepted
Staff Members are Permitted to Deteraiine
Own Methods and Procedures
Staff Members are Encouraged to Experiment
and Share Results with Others on the Staff
Faculty-Students Formulate Departmental
Plans and Procedures
Personal Guidance for Students
Rotation of Chairmanship at Staff Meetings
Techniques of Group Work
v


TABLE OF CONTENTS - Continued
Chapter
Page
Use of Planning Committees in Staff
Operation
’’Buzz” Groups in Staff Operation
Role Playing in Staff Operation
Observer in Staff Operation
Recorder in Staff Operation
Inservice Education
Administrative Organization of the Women’s
Physical Education Department at the
College Level
Teaching and Administrative Experience of
Women Directors
Summary
XI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
103
Summary
Introductory Statement
Statement of the Problem
Procedure
Findings
Conclusions
Implications
Recommendations for Further Research
BIBLIOGRAPHY
127
13$
APPENDIX
Tables
Letter of Transmittal
Questionnaire
BIOGRAPHY
306
vi


LIST OP TABLES
Table
1.
An Analysis of Questionnaire Distribution
and Return
Page
136
2*
Number and Per Cent of Women Undergraduates
Enrolled in Non-Major Physical Education
Programs in lj.6l Institutions, •••••••
138
3.
Per Cent of Colleges and Universities
Requiring Physical Education of Undergraduate
Women •••••••••••••••••••
ll\2
k*
Per Cent of Institutions Which Have Extended
the Requirement of Women's Non-Major Physical
Education and in Which Physical Education
Department Heads Believe the Requirement of
Physical Education should be Extended • • .
Ikk
5*
Per Cent of Institutions Using Proficiency
Tests for Exemption of Women from Activity
Requirement .
ll|6
6.
Total Number of Semester Credits Awarded
for Participation in Women's Non-Major
Physical Education Program
llj.8
7.
Number of Semester Hours Awarded Per Semester
in Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program
150
8.
Per Cent of Colleges and Universities with
Policies and Practices of the Non-Major
Physical Education Program in Written Form,
152
9.
Per Cent of Institutions with Syllabi for
the Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program •••••«.
15k
10,
Per Cent of Colleges and Universities
Requiring Strict Adherence by Instructors
to Syllabi in the Women's Non-Major
Physical Education Courses. ••
156
11.
Per Cent of Institutions That Require a
Medical Examination of Entering Students
and Types of Medical Examiners Preferred, .
158
12.
Per Cent of Institutions with an Adapted
Program in the Women's Physical Education .
160
vii


LIST OP TABLES - Continued
Table
Page
13.
Basis Used for Assignment of Students to
the Women’s Physical Education Adapted
Program•
162
ill-.
The Organization of the Adapted Program
in the Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program. ••••••• ...
16I4.
15.
The Approximate Number of Clock Hours Per
Week Classes Meet in the Non-Major Physical
Education Program. •••••••••••••
\
166
l6.
Total Length of the Women's Non-Major
Physical Education Class Period in Minutes .
168
17.
Time Allowed for Actual Activity in the
Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program. ••••• •
170
18.
Time Allowed for Dressing and Showering in
the Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program
172
19.
Average Number of Students Enrolled Per
Instructor Per Class in the Women's Non-
Major Physical Education Program
I7I4-
20.
Degree of Importance Assigned the Various
Objectives of the Women's Non-Major
Physical Education Program ....
176
21.
The Approximate Value Allocated Various
Objectives in Marking in the Women's Non-
Major Physical Education Program ••••••
192
22.
Types of Marking Used and Preferred in the
Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program
208
23.
Activities Offered in the Non-Major Physical
Education Program. •••••••
210
2Í+.
Coeducational Course Offerings in the Non-
Major Physical Education Program in Higher
Education. .•••• ••
2I4.6
25.
Per Cent of Institutions in Which Students
and Instructors Share in the Planning of
Non-Major Class Goals and Procedures ....
2Í+.8
viii


LIST OP TABLES - Continued
Table Page
26. Per Cent of Institutions in Which Non-
Major Physical Education Class Time is
Utilized for Discussion of Methods of
Evaluation 250
27» Per Cent of Institutions in Which Non-
Major Class Time is Utilized at the
Beginning of Term for the Purposes of
Getting Acquainted, Learning Names, and
Determining Student Interest •••••••• 252
28* Per Cent of Institutions in Which Informal
Situations are Sought in Gymnasium, Field,
and Classroom of the Women’s Non-Major
Program 25I+
29* Per Cent of Institutions in Which Squad and
Team Leadership in the Women's Non-Major
Physical Education Program is Student
Elected and Rotated. •••••••••••• 256
30, Per Cent of Institutions Which Use Certain
Group Techniques in the Class Operation of
the Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program •••••••.. 258
31* Per Cent of Institutions in Which Admin¬
istrators and Instructors Share in the
Determination of Departmental Policies
and Procedures of Women's Non^Major
Physical Education •••••••••.••• 26I4.
32* Per Cent of Institutions in Which the Head
Of the Women’s Physical Education Places a
Major Emphasis on Helping Each Staff Member
Feel Accepted. ••••••••••••••• 2Ó6
33* Cent of Institutions in Which Staff
Members of the Women's Non-Major Program Are
Permitted to Determine Own Methods and
Procedures ••••••••• 268
34* Per Cent of Institutions in Which Staff
Members of the Women's Physical Education
Program Are Encouraged to Experiment and
Share the Results With Others9 ?•••••• 27O
35* Per Cent of Institutions in Which Faculty
and Students Share in the Formulation of
Departmental Plans and Goals of the Women's
Non-Major Program. 272
ix


LIST OP TABLES - Continued
Table
Page
36.
Per Cent of Institutions in Which Personal
Guidance is Available for Each Physical
Education Non-Major Student.
27l+
37.
Per Cent of Institutions in Which Chairmanship
in Staff Meetings is Rotated Among the Members
of the Women's Physical Education Staff, • •
276
38.
Per Cent of Institutions in Which Certain
Group Work Techniques Are Used in the Staff
Operation of the Women's Non-Major Program •
278
39.
Per Cent of Institutions Using Certain Types
of Inservice Education Procedures for the
Non-Major Physical Education Staff • • • • •
28I4.
1*0.
The Administrative Organization of the
Women's Non-Major Physical Education
Program
296
1*1.
The Number of Years of Administrative
Experience, Teaching Experience, and of
Occupying Present Position of Directors of
Physical Education for Women
298
x


CHAPTER I
THE DESIGN OP THE STUDY
This study is an attempt to discover whether college
physical education programs for women are being adapted to
meet the demands of the new role played by women in our
society today.
College is one place where women may be prepared for
this new role* Women*s physical education departments at
college level are challenged to assist in this preparation*
Do the women's physical education departments possess the
philosophy and practices that reflect the social, economic,
and political changes taking place in our society? Are the
majority of non-major physical education programs for women
in higher education In step with our times? Are they being
adapted to meet the bio-social needs and demands of the new
role played by women in our society today?
Statement of the Problem
Information concerning this problem will be sought
by collecting data on the following three sub-problemsi
1* To derive from a survey of statements about the role
of women in present day society and the functions of educa¬
tion and physical education, a set of criteria, which can be
1


2
used in evaluating existing programs of women’s physical
education*
2* To discover the status of certain aspects of programs
of women’s physical education in the areas of:
a* philosophy and objectives
b* curriculum (activities)
c* methods (operational procedures)
d, leadership (staff administration)
3* To evaluate the present programs in terms of the state¬
ments of desirable functions as identified in the criteria*
Limitations of the Study
The Information collected in this study was restricted
to certain selected aspects of the non-major or required physi¬
cal education program1 for women in higher education* The
club, intramural, intercollegiate, and the teacher education
program of women’s physical education were not considered*
Further, this data was collected only from accredited four
year colleges and universities of the United States which have
an enrollment of one hundred and over*
Sources of the Data Concerning Status of the
Women’s Non-Major Program
Data used in this study were secured from a survey of
the writings of authorities in curriculum and physical educa¬
tion, and by the use of a questionnaire*
^Program as used in this study is a collective noun*


3
In the formulation of the criteria, a broad survey
was made of the literature that dealt with the changing role
of women; investigation was also made of the literature of
general education for statements concerning the functions of
education with particular application to women; and finally,
examination was made of the literature of physical education
to determine the functions of physical education In our society
today.
The process of formulating these criteria was as
follows: The writer examined approximately forty books for
statements by authorities on the function of physical educa¬
tion and education in light of women's changed role. These
statements were extracted and placed on 8 x 11 sheets. As a
function was noted it was established as a categoary. All
succeeding statements discovered that were similar were placed
in the same category. New categories were foormed by items
that did not fall into previously established categories.
After all statements had been categorized, they were studied,
duplications were eliminated, and finally a generalized state¬
ment of function was derived for each category. The assump¬
tion was that through this elaborate process, the writer would
be able to synthesize the statements of function presented in
the books investigated and foi*mulate the criteria by which
non-major programs of physical education for women should be
judged•


k
Information regarding the names and status of all
four year colleges and universities in the United States was
secured from 1953“19$kt Educational Directory of Higher
Education. United States Office of Education* Lovejoy's
College Guide, 1953» and Irwin's American Universities and
Colleges, 1952, were used to supplement and verify the list
of institutions* Institutions accredited by state, regional,
or teacher education accrediting agencies were invited to
participate in the study*
Procedure for Collecting Information about Status
Before the final questionnaire was made, the writer
felt that it would be desirable to have a tryout or pretest¬
ing of the questionnaire* Authorities say that criticism of
qualified persons, before the final form of the questionnaire
is prepared and mailed out, is essential*(86) Pretesting was
done for the purposes of discovering the clarity and useful¬
ness of each question, and to see if the responses could be
tabulated satisfactorily*
Development of the Questionnaire
The items for the initial form of the questionnaire
were drawn from an examination of the professional literature,
related questionnaire studies, and conferences with advisors
and staff members*
The questions in this preliminary stage were then


5
subjected to the requirements of these criteria:
1# Does the response to the item shed light or provide
data of basic significance to:
a. philosophy and objectives
b. curriculum (activities)
c. methods (operational procedures)
d. leadership (staff administration)
2. Does the question relate to elements of crueial impor¬
tance in the program as indicated by professional literature?
3* Were the standards governing the construction of
questions carefully observed?
Barr, Davis,and Johnson (8fJ), state the following
standards to be observed when constructing a questionnaire:
....the critical character of the first few questions;
the avoidance of ambiguity; the use of words understood
by the lowest class of respondent; the use of questions
that are reasonable and concrete; the adapting of ques¬
tions to the type of person being interviewed; and
neutral phrasing of questions and avoidance of suggestion.
Conformity with these standards was sought.
Copies of the preliminary questionnaire were then
mailed to thirty-five women in the field of physical education.
Twenty-five of the women were directors of women’s physical
education programs at the college level and able to show how
the typical respondent would react to the inquiry form. The
remaining ten were authorities in research, selected from the
Editorial Board, Research Council, American Association for
Health, Physical Education and Recreation. All thirty-five


6
of the women were asked to identify questions they had
difficulty answering and to add, delete, or revise by simply
writing notations on the questionnaire pages* The twenty-
five physical education directors included in the tryout of
the questionnaire were from the Southern district: five from
coeducational state schools, four from private coeducational
institutions, four from coeducational state colleges, four
from private coeducational colleges, four from state women's
colleges, and four from private women's colleges* In the
selection of the women leaders in the Editorial Board,
Research Council, the sampling was as follows: five from the
western section of the United States, five from the eastern
section of the United States*
Replies were received from twenty-five of the thirty-
five women in the field of physical education, ten of whom
were research authorities* The respondents gave suggestions,
made additions, or answered the questionnaire in full*
Collection of Data Concerning Status of Program
The information received from the pretesting was used
in the revision of the questionnaire. A questionnaire, a
letter of transmittal, and a self-addressed stamped envelope
were mailed to 766 directors of women’s physical education
departments of higher education in the United States* Later,
i*20 air mail postal cards were sent to nonrespondents in an
effort to secure a more complete response* The total return


7
was 62*1 per cent or I+76 inquiry forms. Two per cent (or
fifteen questionnaires) were rejected because of lateness, ,
the institutions not having non-major programs, or inability
to answer due to a too limited program. Sixty and one-tenth
per cent or lj.6l questionnaires were used in this study,
(Analysis of questionnaire distribution and return is given
in detail in Table 1,)
Treatment of Data
Analysis and comparison were made of the data of
the study. Each item of the data was treated five different
ways: as a total response of all institutions, and as a part
of the four categories - type of institution, size of institu¬
tion, region or district in the United States, and type of
community. The types of responses recognized were those of
greatest and least frequency and answers of an unusual and
interesting quality. The findings are presented in tabular
form.
Data were analyzed into the following categories and
sub-categorie s:
a, by type of institution
(1) state coeducational
(2) state women
(3) private coeducational
(!}.) private women
(5) teachers colleges


8
b.
by institutional size
(1)
100 - JLj.99 (very small)
(2)
500 - 999 (small)
(3)
1000 ~ 2Í+.99 (medium)
(k)
2500 - 5999 (medium large)
(5)
6000 - 10,000 (large)
(6)
10,001 - above (very large)
c.
by districts
(1)
Southern
(2)
Eastern
(3)
Central
(k)
Midwest
(5)
Southwest
(6)
Northwest
d.
by i
community type
(1)
urban
(2)
suburban
(3)
small city
Oí-)
small town
(5)
rural
Explanation of Terms Used In the Treatment of Data
In the treatment of data, four classifications of
institutions were used: type, size, district, and community.
The meanings of these terms are as follows:
a. Type of institution - The types of institutions


9
included in this study were state controlled, coeducational,
and women’s institutions; privately controlled, coeducational,
and women’s schools; and teachers colleges*
b* Institutional size - This category refers to the size
of the institution: very small schools - institutions with a
student population of 100 to I4.99; small schools - $00 to 999»
medium size - 1000 to 2ÍJ.99» medium large - 25>00 to $999» large
6000 to 10,000; very large - 10,001 and more*
c* Districts - The districts employed in the study were
the division of states or districts used by the American
Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation*
Southern District • Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,
Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina,
Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia*
Eastern District - Connecticut, Delaware, District of
Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont*
Central District - Colorado, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota,
Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming*
Midwest District - Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio,
West Virginia, Wisconsin*
Southwest District - Arizona, California, Nevada,
New Mexico, Utah*
Northwest District - Idaho, Montana, Oregon,
Washington*


10
d. Communities - The institutions were categorized
according to the type of community in which they were located,
through the use of Lovejoy's Guide, 1953* Lovejoy did not
include any definitions of the terns "urban” and other
community terminology. The descriptions that follow were
secured from other sources: the Encyclopedia of Social
Sciences. Census of Housing 19E>0. and Webster's Unabridged
Dictionary:
urban - in general, a thickly settled urban core of
the standard metropolitan area*
suburban - one of a cluster of communities immedi¬
ately surrounding the central city*
city (small) - a municipality ranking higher in popu¬
lation than a town, borough, or village*
town (small) - a center of population, larger and
more fully organized than a village but not incorporated as
a city.
rural - area marked by a relative predominance of
agricultural occupations, by the smallness of its communal
aggregates, by a relatively sparse population, by greater
social homogeneity, by less internal differentiation and
stratification, and by less territorial, occupational, and
vertical social mobility of population*
It was assumed that Lovejoy's classification was
valid


11
Presentation of Data
Data are presented in a series of chapters. Chapter
II reports on the development of the criteria used in the
evaluation of women’s non-major physical education programs.
Chapter III reviews studies related to the status of the non¬
major physical education program. Chapter IV covers general
information on the women’s non-major physical education pro¬
gram in higher education in 195>5* Chapter V reveals the
importance assigned the various objectives of the women’s
program in the planning of the non-major program. Chapter
VI is concerned with the marking practices of the women’s
program. Chapter VII reports on the women’s activity program.
Chapter VIII is on the coeducational physical education
activities. Chapter IX is on the use of the techniques of
group work in the instruction in the women’s non-major program.
Chapter X reports on the administrative practices and organi¬
zation of the women’s physical education department. Chapter
XI gives the summary and conclusions of the study which includes
the statements of problems, procedures, conclusions, implica¬
tions, and recommendations for further research. The appendix
embodies the tables, a copy of the questionnaire, and a letter
of transmittal. Summaries are included at the end of each
chapter. The data are presented in tabular form to assist in
the interpretation.


CHAPTER II
DEVELOPMENT OP CRITERIA
In order to discover whether college physical educa¬
tion programs for women were being adapted to meet the demands
of the redefined role of women in our society today, it was
necessary to develop and apply criteria#
To determine these criteria, a broad survey was made
of the literature that dealt with the changing role of women
in our culture (1,2,3,k>5,6,7,8,9,10,11)• Study was also
made of what the leaders in general education think the
function of education should be with particular application
to women (12,13,1k,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,2k,2^,26,27,28,
29,30,31,32,33,3k,35,36,37,38,39), and, finally, the literature
of physical education was examined to ascertain the functions
of physical education in our society today (kO,kl*k2,k3,kk,k5*
k6,k7,k8,k9,50,5i,52,53,5k,55,56).
From the literature that dealt with women* s role in
today*s culture, the writer categorized statements from the
readings and derived conclusions which are discussed in the
following paragraphs#
More leisure time is available for women in their new
role# With the labor saving machinery (3) in homes today,
women are finding themselves with more leisure time# Meuller
12


13
(7) said that, "The technological improvements which have
overtaken the woman in the home are fully as real as that of
the weaver or the coal miner who has been displaced by the
machine#" "This leisure time is being spent in feverish
activity by some women."(6) Gruenberg (3) added, "Really
well spent leisure has as much value as work**
Women are becoming Increasingly more active in
voting, in the political field, and in community activities*
According to Wector (10) the place of women today was one of
the key factors determining the country's economic and political
texture* Montagu (6) said, "Women are already exercising a
tremendous influence in the realm of political and social
action*" It was estimated that women cast over half of the
ballots in national elections and at the present time there
are eleven women members in national Congress, 236 in state
legislatures, and women also in the cabinet of our national
government*" Mueller (7) gave praise to two women's organ¬
izations: the American Association of University Women and the
League of Women Voters, and especially to the League of Women
Voters. "The problems studied and the help given by the
League are outstandingly timely and pointed."(7) Besides
participating in the political field, women were very active
in community and civic affairs* "Religious organizations and
avenues for social welfare in general owe much to the efforts
of women."(7) Gruenberg (3) added, "Magazines today point out


Ik
how young mothers have been instrumental in improving com¬
munity facilities for education, health, recreation, safety,
and other civic needs.”
A greater per cent of women are working outside the
home. Gruenberg (3) said, ”More and more women seem to be
going into industry because they have to work for a living.”
Montagu (6) stated, ’’About half of the female labor force is
composed of married women living with their husbands.”
Komarovsky (I4.) reported, ’’One out of five college women work
after marriage." ”In 1950, over thirty*one per cent of all
women over fourteen years of age were working in this country."
(3) “In 19k0, there were only three of the k5"l occupations
listed by the United Bureau of the Census in which women had
not worked: locomotive engineer, fireman, and fire fighter."(7)
Mueller (7) added that by now "some adventurous woman may have
closed this gap." "There has been a sixty per cent increase
for the middle aged working group in the last ten years, and,
in the same period, the percentage for the still older group,
fifty-five to sixty-four, has more than doubled.®(7)
Women are participating in more recreational activities.
The Report of Social Trends (35) gave emphasis to the remark¬
able increase in recreational participation - more and more
men and women are sharing together their recreational activ¬
ities (3). Newspaper and magazine advertisements, the curric¬
ulum of women’s physical education at college level with its
sports program, and the provision of coeducational recreational


activities were evidences of the importance of this new role
of women*
There are increased mental and emotional disorders*
Schifferes (8) said, "About half of the hospital beds in the
United States are occupied by the mentally ill* It has been
estimated that one person in twenty in the United States will
enter a mental hospital for treatment sometime in his life*
This is about the same number as enter college* It Is further
estimated that an equal number will suffer from severe mental
Illness without entering a hospital.” Bucher (1) added to
this by stating, "Thirty to fifty per cent of all the people
who enter doctors’ offices do so from seme emotional disorder.*
Ann Morrow Lindberg (£), in her book Gift From the Sea, des¬
cribed the interests and duties of a woman as ”raying out in
all directions from a central mother-core, like spokes from
the hub of a wheel; the problem of women is to achieve a bal¬
ance in the midst of these contradicting tensions*" Mueller
(7) believed the outstanding problem, the issue that "affects
all other attitudes, frustrations, and maladjustments in the
life of the modern woman is women's employment*" Mueller (7)
continued by saying, "Man made differences weigh heavily on
the mental attitudes of women and create frustration for her
as she encounters societal pressures*" Cassidy (l+l) added
another cause for women's mental and emotional stress by say¬
ing, "Man's use of atomic energy has brought fear, anxiety,


16
and mistrust* «...also a realization of poor skills for liv¬
ing in such a world*”
Women,in their new role, have many more decisions to
make* Gruenberg (3) stated, "What is new about a woman is
that long accepted patterns have been broken*” These new
patterns required decision making as the woman "comes to terms
with issues affecting her life*1* Gruenberg (3) continued
with, "Every girl has to chart her own course now-a-days ...«
when such a girl marries today, she usually has to make
certain choices right at the start, decisions which were once
made for her by convention*" Women today have a voice in
decision making situations* In the "sharing" relationship
with their husbands - decisions relating to the economic and
social affairs of the family, community, and state were deci¬
sions of women in our culture*(2) Montagu (6) said, "A
recent survey showed that American women handle the finances
in about half of the families checked* The practical economic
situation of the household is determined by the woman who runs
it*"
Women live a longer life* Mueller (7) said, "Women
are not only here to stay but there are more of them than men,
fifty-three to forty-seven in every 100 persons fourteen years
or older* This is, of course, largely because women live
longer than men - being destined from birth to out last their
husbands by five years, seven months, and seventeen days*"


17
"Women are healthier than men - death from almost all causes
are more frequent in males at all ages."(6) Since the end of
the war the number of middle aged and older women has become
so large, and their life expectancy so great, that special
problems of this group have received much publicity.(3)
Prom sources dealing with the functions of general
education and from statements of leaders in physical educa¬
tion, conclusions have been drawn concerning the contributions
physical education should make to the changing role of women.
These observations have led to the establishment of seven
criteria for examining the present programs in physical educa¬
tion. These criteria are presented and discussed in the
following paragraphs.
1. Increased opportunities should be provided for
the practice of democratic human relations and cooperative
group action in the departmental operation of women’s physi¬
cal education classes at college level.
Emerging as significant developments in our dynamic
society has been the increasing emphasis upon cooperative
planning and action. These developments have deep implica¬
tions for the women’s program at college level. The
President’s Commission on Higher Education (3^) lamented that
"man’s capacity to subdue nature to his will has raced far
ahead of his ability to understand himself...," and recommends
that we experiment boldly in the whole area of human relations.
The importance of skill in human relations and group


18
cooperative action was accentuated by the Harvard Committee
(23) recommendation that "a course in human relations be
instigated in general education."
Commager (19) stated that "to develop the habit of
cooperation is essential/* Lilienthal (30) added, "Learning
the art of getting along together is mankinds* most difficult
and by all odds its most important and most rewarding task."
We are in an atomic age, resulting in a major revolution in
human relationships. School administrators in their 19^7
Yearbook (13) recognized as one of the crucial demands of an
atomic age, the importance of learning to live together*
According to Heaton (2J4.), "The student should become proficient
in the skills essential to participation in group action."
Montagu (6) said, "Because there is too much economics in our
society and not enough understanding of human relations, women
can make another major contribution by introducing a greater
understanding and practice of human relations in the business
world."
Chase (17) said, "When a number of individuals combine
for a common purpose - whatever it be, new patterns of activ¬
ity arise from the interaction of the members to each other."
The importance of practicing democratic processes was shown by
the President* s Commission (3Í4-) recommendation, "That a care¬
ful review be made of administrative policies in institutions
of higher learning to give students every possible experience
in democratic processes ....
democracy must be lived to be


19
understood#”
A leading function of the womens physical education
department should be to provide experiences directed toward
the development of skill in group living# Streit and McNeeley
(5l|-) stated in the Platform for Physical Education that, ”To
live fully today one must be able to get along with others#”
Oberteuffer (52) believed, "How individuals live with each
other is the only real measure of the relative success of
the physical education program#" Cowell (J4.3) and Sharman
(53) agreed that, "Contemporary social conditions indicate
that physical education should provide social intercourse
and cooperation#" Cassidy (ijl) believed it was imperative
that we have cooperative behavior#
In physical education there were vast opportunities
for the development of leadership and cooperative group action#
Leadership which proved most effective in democratic schools
was that which can be developed through cooperative group
action# Oberteuffer (52) believed that, "In teaching physical
education at any age, the physical education teacher should
afford rotating and ample opportunities for all to share in
leadership.” Oberteuffer (52) added, "Participation of
students not only in curriculum planning but in actual con¬
duct and administration of the class program is an important
contribution to the understanding of democracy in action#"
Kozman (ij.6) stated, "The traditional practice will have to
go.... The authoritative or coercive school must give way to


20
the democratic institution that achieves its ends through
cooperation, participating group process..." In the AAHPER’s
First Yearbook (1+0) we found that group process has proved to
be, when it really operates, the most effective method for
learning*
The ability to get along with others, to cooperate,
and to be a productive member of the group is highly desir¬
able in our society today, therefore, there should be daily
practicing of democratic action in women’s physical education
departments at college level*
2* Experiences should be provided which will develop
skill in self-direction, self-control, and self-appraisal*
An important responsibility of the women’s depart¬
ments today is the encouragement and recognition of efforts
of students at self-direction and self-appraisal*
The purpose of all education, according to the Harvard
Report (23), "Is to help students live their own lives•"
Opportunities should be provided for students to think through
problems, examine evidence, and redirect their actions accord¬
ingly* Kelley and Rasey (29) said, "We learn best by the
involvement of the total organism*" Wispe (39)* in the
summary of research on methods, declared, "Bovard, Asch, Wispe,
Cartwright, and Zander all make a strong case for group centered
teaching, for the increase in student interest, student parti¬
cipation, and student-instructor interaction and its resulting
emotional and social values•* Involvement of students in


21
decision making, with its accompanying responsibilities,
contributes to the maturity of the student*
Heaton and Koopman (2Í*) said, "The student should gain
skill in self-direction and self-appraisal....the ability to
direct and appraise one’s own activities is an important
characteristic of mature living*" Hopkins (26) added,
Í..«encourage them openly to self-select and evaluate learn¬
ings in relation to their needs*" Cowell (1*2) said, "Physical
education should promote the use of intelligence and self-
direction*"
Sharman (53) augmented this by saying, "The philoso¬
phy of education which is most widely accepted by American
educators emphasizes the importance of learning through self-
directed pupil activity*" The method to be used in educating
women for their new role in this dynamic world would, accord¬
ing to Kozman (1*8), place emphasis on self-direction* "We
want a general curriculum for college women in which the uni¬
que contribution of physical education in educating them for
living in today’s world is made better than in the past*..*
to contribute to developing individuals able and willing to
meet and move toward solving personal and group problems of
living*" Oberteuffer (52) added, "The American believes in
his right to self-direction, self-realization, and self-
discipline* Physical education in an American society must
resent all efforts to encourage and perpetuate the authori¬
tarian way of life*"


22
In the education of women for their new roles, ample
opportunities should be provided for practice in self-directed
activity; for the use of intelligence and the powers of self-
appraisal and self-discipline*
3* Health knowledges, attitudes, and practices should
be developed*
An important function of the women's physical educa¬
tion program today should be the establishing and maintenance
of sound attitudes and practices in regard to physical and
mental health*
Valentine (37) defined one purpose of the liberal arts
colleges, "..«.the developing and maintaining sound physical
and mental health ♦ "
Johnson (28) defined one goal of education as, "Main¬
tenance of good mental and physical health...." According to
the ASCD 195° Yearbook (12), "A mentally healthy person is
characterized by a vital positive, emotional approach to
living, both in day to day experiences and in long range
terms*" To be totally fit there must be an acceptance of
self* Jersild (27) said, "The concept of self provides a kay
to the understanding of mental health*" Jersild says the
healthy individual should develop the potential resources of
his real self and use them in a manner that is harmonious
with the total way of life* (27) According to Cassidy (1^.1),
“Self-acceptance is necessary for a democratic acceptance of
others•"


23
McCloy said, "Physical education today is facing two
outstanding opportunities: (1) that of definitely improving
the physical and mental health of the pupils, and (2) that
of providing a program of physical education adapted to lay¬
ing a base for effective character education*"
The first Yearbook of the AAHPER (I4.O) stated, "Habits
and attitudes of healthful living are the concern and respon¬
sibility not only of health education and recreation but physi¬
cal education as well*"
Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson (ltf) declared, "Physical
education as one part of education aims to aid the individual
to attain his fullest development in meeting the demands of
living in a democracy and in an interdependent world* It
achieves this through the selection and guidance of experi¬
ences appropriate to the field directed toward the total fit¬
ness of the individual*"
The program of women's physical education today should
place a strong emphasis on the total fitness of the individual*
1|>* Individual needs and abilities should be recognized*
Women’s programs should make provision for differences
among individuals. Kelley and Rasey (29) said, "Individuals
are unique, with unusual contributions to make and currículums
need to be arranged so that these contributions can and will
be made*" "Differences in the way children learn and achieve
must be recognized*"(12)


2k
Van Dalen, Mitchell, and Bennett (55) were concerned
with "....the degree of recognition given to individual differ¬
ences,” as were Duncan and Johnson (L|i+) who stated, “Educa*
tional programs should place emphasis on the individual per¬
son and his basic needs*” Cassidy (Ipl) said of the college
women’s service or non-major program, ”We must aid students
in the assessment of their needs and interests....there
should be fewer requirements and more choice.” Irwin (1+5)
declared, ”It is desirable for students to be permitted to
elect activities....no requirement of physical education at
college level if adequate facilities existed in colleges and
proper programs provided in high schools•” The program may
consist of a core of common experiences and also a wide variety
of activities from which selection can be made according to
individual preferences.
Sharman (53) stated, ”The program should be suited to
the independent needs of the pupils and should also contain a
common core of skills, interests, and appreciations which will
enable the pupils to fit in American society satisfactorily.”
The fourth criterion should acknowledge the importance
of women physical educators being cognizant of and making pro¬
vision for the differences among individuals.
5* Skills should be developed for purposes of sports
appreciation and participation in sports for use in leisure
time.
With the increased interest in recreation, both as


25
player and as spectator, modern women need a sound basis of
activity skills upon which to draw for purposes of participa¬
tion and sports appreciation* The Report of Social Trends
(35) stated, "One of the most important trends is the remark¬
able growth of public competitive sports, now a matter of
absorbing interest to all classes.” Also, ”One of the most
striking tendencies in America is the enormous increase in
"spectator* sports and passive recreation generally*"(33)
Prom The Challenge of Atomic Energy (18) we found, "There is
a possibility of an age of unlimited almost automatic, effort¬
less production of countless items.•••the greatly extended
period of leisure time to follow carries weighty implication»."
Schools will need to teach "the proper use of leisure time."
A Platform far Physical Education (54) had this state¬
ment, "Physical education should help youth develop useful
skills and the ability to enjoy wholesome recreation."
Oberteuffer (52) listed "skill" as one objective of
physical education, and said also, "The curriculum should con¬
sist of activities in which values are inherent and intrinsic¬
ally interesting." Cowell and Hazelton (42) stated, "People
learn skills when skills become dominant interest in the achieve¬
ment of purposes or for solving problems.••.the most effective
learning results from the organization of experience around
problems o"
Duncan and Johnson (44) said, "It becomes apparent
that physical education must concentrate efforts to accomplish


26
desirable outcomes in terms of social and motor skills.” The
increase in sports participation and in the spectator trend
in sports, coeducational and non-coeducational, has created a
need for sports knowledge and skill*
6# Experiences directed toward the development of
organic power should be stressed.
Organic or physical development has value in the
women’s physical education program at college level* Irwin
(1+5) said, nThe college program needs to stress physical
conditioning*” Oberteuffer (52), Nash (50), and Williams (56),
gave emphasis to the value of organic development* A Platform
for Physical Education (51+) advocated ”... .developing and
maintaining physical efficiency.” Cassidy (lj.1) said, ”The
college students physical education program (non-major) should
have more survival activities and an increase in vigorous
activity for girls*” According to Duncan and Johnson (I4I+),
”It becomes apparent that physical education must concentrate
efforts to accomplish desirable outcomes in terms of physical
fitness*” A strong body will permit women to extend their
activities in this dynamic society, to attempt new exploits,
and achieve new laurels*
7• ”Climate” of acceptance and warmth in the working
relationship of students and staff should be sought.
For the best learning situation in the women’s program
there must be a free and permissive emotional climate* Wiles
(38) said, ”The most efficient learning situation is one in


27
which the emotional climate fosters daring, the purposes of
the pupils and the teachers are harmonious, and the values of
the classroom coincide with the goals of society maintaining
the school*"
Hopkins (26) stated, "We can set a human climate which
promotes a cooperative, interactive field* We can set an in¬
formal, friendly, emphatic atmosphere that the deep, inner¬
most meanings of real selves will be shared and creatively
remade*” Cassidy (Ip.) gave as one of the seven cardinal
principles of group leadership -- principle of "field rela¬
tions or climate*.*.we must be aware of need of maintaining
a democratic ’climate1 if responsible behavior is to be
achieved, an atmosphere encouraging all to participate and
contribute*" Basic to all learning is the "feelings" or
climate associated with these learnings*
Summary
In light of the conclusions drawn concerning women’s
new role, and the statements from general education and physi¬
cal education on the contributions to be made to the changing
role of women, the following criteria has been formulated:
1* Increased opportunities should be provided for practice
in democratic human relations and cooperative group action*
2* Experiences should be provided which will develop
skill in self-direction, self-control, and self-appraisal.
3* Health knowledges, attitudes, and practices should be


28
developed#
if# Individual needs and abilities should be recognized#
5# Skills should be developed for purposes of sports
appreciation and participation in sports for use in leisure
time#
6# Experiences directed toward the development of organic
power should be stressed#
7* A ■’climate" of acceptance and warmth in the working
relationships of students and staff should be sought#


CHAPTER III
REVIEW OP STUDIES RELATED TO STATUS OP NON-MAJOR
PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN
A careful investigation of the literature revealed a
limited amount of information regarding the status of the
women’s physical education program at college level.
Studies available on various areas of the women’s
program were concerned with: general information on the women’s
non-major program such as; requirement (57,58,60,64,65,67,69,
74.75.77.78.79.83); credit (61,65,66,67,71,75,80); medical
examinations (65); the adapted program (65); number of times
physical education classes meet per week (57,65,67,71,75)J
class size and teacher load (65); length of class period (65,
71); objectives (6l,65,81); activities (57,58,60,61,63,65,69,
75.78.83); coeducation (61,62,72,75); marking practices (59,
68,69,75); democratic practices (73); an8 guidance (57)*
Requirement
"Should there be a specific requirement in physical
education for women at college level?" Baker (57) in 1944
asked this question and stated that in the early thirties
this subject was a highly controversial one. Investigation
revealed, however, that physical education for women in higher
29


30
education has continued to be a requirement (6i|,65,67,75,77) •
Baker (57) in an article in the Journal of Health and Physical
Education presented the recommendation of the National Associa¬
tion of Physical Education for College Women - ".«..that a
program of physical education be required*"
Some colleges favored the elective type of physical
education program (58,7^*75,69) • Marshall (7I1-) reported in
193Í+ that the following five institutions had eliminated the
requirement of physical education: University of California
at Berkeley, University of Kansas, College of Science, Letters
and Arts of the University of Minnesota, University of Chicago,
and Scruggs College. In a later study in 1936 Marshall stated
that three additional institutions had eliminated the require¬
ment: Goucher College, Joliet Junior College, and Sarah
Lawrence College,
Baker (57) said in the conclusion of her Minnesota
study in June, 19^7, “Instead of a single required course in
fundamentals, a progressive theme of understandings, apprecia¬
tion and experiences interrelated with the chosen activities
is to be preferred*n
Barr (60) and Warnke (83) in their studies of 1933
and 193k called attention to a type of program that was used
extensively - a program in which some courses were prescribed
and the remainder elective* They predict a continued trend
toward this type of program*


31
Investigation revealed that, in general, colleges and
universities required two years of physical education (60,614-,
65,67,714.,75,78»79*83) • Beginning with Marshall (75) in 1936
and continuing through Ogilvie (7?) in 195l|-, the studies re¬
ported a two year requirement as the general practice of the
majority of colleges and universities* Shaw and Rogers (79)
in 19bl found data reporting a general lowering of the require¬
ment* Ogilvie (77) found that the time requirement varied
from one to four years in women’s colleges of the south and
east and that the two year requirement received the greatest
emphasis*
Credit
Credit was granted for participation in the non-major
physical education program in approximately seventy-five per
cent of the institutions (61,65,66,67,71,75)* Physical educa¬
tion grades were included in the computation of hours for
graduation in the majority of institutions (65,66,80)* Pri¬
vate schools were more conservative in granting credit for
physical education than were state controlled schools (80),
An example of the comments made by Deans and Registrars in
computing hours was, ”Tradition is the primary factor in the
appraisal of the quality of this work*”(66)
Medical Examinations
George (65) reported that in 19I4.9 medical exaninations


32
were required of all entering students by ninety-eight per
cent of the institutions in her study, and the majority of
the institutions required the medical examination to be given
by the physician of the institution*
Adapted Program
George (65») found that less than half of the insti¬
tutions in his study required a course for students requiring
help in the correction of physical defects* She noted that
apparently the trend was toward adding this requirement (65)•
Number of Times Physical Education Classes Meet per Week
The number of times a non-major class meets varied
with different institutions (57*66,67,71,75)* Greene (67),
Kiphuth (71)» and George (65), reported three class periods
a week for the majority of institutions; Marshall (75) reported
two classes a week for over half the colleges and universities
surveyed; Baker (57) presented the recommendation of the
National Association for Physical Education of College Women,
"••••that all students be provided with the opportunity for
daily participation in activities adapted to individual needs•"
She recorded also the recommendation of a special government
committee, "••••that five hours per week be the requirement
of every student through college years*"
Class Size and Teacher Load
In a 19b9 study (65), it was reported that the average


33
physical education class in state coeducational institutions
was twenty-seven students# The average number of classes a
physical education teacher conducted per week was reported to
be approximately fifteen (65)#
Length of Physical Education Class in Minutes
There were variations in the length of class periods
in women’s physical education# Seme institutions had class
periods of forty minutes (71)J most of the state coeducational
institutions had periods of forty minutes or longer (65)#
Objectives of the Women’s Program in Higher Education
George (65) found that in I9I4.9 four out of five
universities emphasized interest, joy, and satisfaction in
many skills, an appreciation of the value of healthful living,
and a knowledge of sports which will have immediate and future
recreational value, Stoodley (8l),in a later study concerned
only with a study of objectives, found that acceptance of
objectives given in theory exceeded that accorded in actual
practice# Skills were given emphasis in theory and practice#
Knowledge and developmental objectives (organic development
and emotional aspects) were given approval in theory only (8l).
Principal objectives checked by students at the Univer¬
sity of Washington were as follows: to develop skills in
women's sports, to learn activities that can be continued out¬
side of school, to have fun, and to keep in good health and


34
good physical condition (6l). The development of skills was
apparently given greater emphasis than other objectives of
the women’s physical education program in higher education.
Activities
A wide range of activities was offered in the women’s
non-major physical education program (57,58,60,65,69,75,77,83)#
Barr (60) indicated eighty-seven activities in her 1933 study
of the activity program in women’s colleges; Warnke (83) in a
similar study in 1934 of state universities reported sixty
activities. Individual and dual sports were more prevalent
in the larger schools; gymnastics in the small and medium
sized institutions. Activities were divided into five general
groups; aquatics, gymnastics, individual sports, rhythm, and
team sports (58,83).
George (65) found team sports included in orientation
programs; individual and dual sports in the advanced program.
In women’s colleges In the south and east individual sports
outnumbered team sports (77)* Sailing, ice skating, and
posture correction (6l) were desired activities at the Univer¬
sity of Washington.
Barr (60) and Warnke (83) found that geographical
location, climatic conditions, and even the size of an insti¬
tution apparently had no influence on activities taught except
in the matter of winter sports.
In some schools students were required to fulfill


certain activity requirements in the women's non-major program
before graduation (57»63,66,69,75*77) • The most common
specific area requirements in 1936 were rhythmic activities,
sports, and swimming (75)* Ogilvie (77) found in 195& that
volleyball, followed by basketball, speedball, folk and
square dance, and field hockey were the most popular specific
activity requirements for graduation.
Coeducation
In 1936, a more liberal attitude was beginning to be
shown toward the inclusion of coeducational sports in the non¬
major physical education program for women in colleges (75)•
Kretchmar (72), in a recent broad survey of coeducational
physical education activities (1950)» found provision was
currently being made in some phase of the program for coeduca¬
tional physical education in ninety-four per cent of the seventy-
nine colleges studied, Cobb (62) found a wide variety of acti¬
vities (individual and dual sports, some softball and volley-
vall, and dance activities) were used.
Significant factors fostering the development of
coeducation were:
a. Increased emphasis in education upon preparation for
worthy use of leisure time,
b. Increased emphasis upon recreational activities and
upon social development,
c. Natural interest of college men and women in


36
associating with one another in social activities»
Significant factors hindering development in this
area were:
a* Limitation of facilities and lack of preparation of
staff members to handle coeducational classes*
b* Difference in athletic ability, strength, and endurance
of men and women (72)*
According to Kretchmar (72), coeducation in college physical
education was not a fad nor has it reached its maximum develop¬
ment, but will continue to increase in significance*
Marking Practices
Halliday (68) concluded from the results of his study
that there wa3 an amazing degree of variation, confusion, and
contradiction in regard to theory and practice in evaluating
physical education activities. Wo two institutions followed
the same procedure for determining a student's grade (68)*
The most frequently used method of marking was the
letter grade (67,75)* Greene (67) in 19kS found that at
least eighty-five per cent of the physical education depart¬
ments used the same type of marking as other colleges within
the university* Marshall (75) found a few colleges changing
from letter grades to "pass or fail#"
Democratic Practices
Barbara Mack (73) reported a 1951 study of the


37
National Association of Physical Education for College Women,
which consisted of a checklist for self study. This check¬
list was to be used by study groups or college staffs to
analyze their own practices in teacher preparation in rela¬
tion to democratic beliefs. The results or findings of these
checklists on the use of democratic practices in teacher pre¬
paration were not reported.
Guidance
In the area of guidance, Baker (£7) recommended that
physical education administrators provide for a guidance pro¬
gram through which "students will be intelligently aware of
their needs and will be stimulated to self-direction in making
their adjustments,"
Summary
On the basis of research data available at the time
this study was undertaken, the non-major program of women's
physical education at the college level had the following
status:
1, The non-major women's physical education program was
required in most schools,
2. The common practice appeared to be a two or more
years requirement,
3» Academic credit was given for participation in the
non-major program in approximately 75 per cent of the
institutions.


38
i}., Physical education grades were included in the compu¬
tation of grades for graduation in the majority of schools*
5* According to a single study in 19^9, medical examin¬
ations were required of almost all students upon entrance to
college and university (98$)*
6, The finding of one study in 19b9 was that the trend
was in the direction of more emphasis on the adapted program
though the program was in less than half the institutions*
7* The number of times per week that physical education
classes met varied with different institutions; three meetings
per week was the most common practice*
8# In one study (19^4-9) it was found that the average
class size for a women's physical education class at the
college level (non-major) was twenty-seven students, and the
average teaching load for a staff member was approximately
fifteen hours*
9* There were variations in the length of class periods*
Forty minutes appeared to be the most common practice,
10, Women physical educators place major emphasis on the
development of skills*
11* A wide range of activities was offered in the women's
non-major physical education program*
12* Factors of geographical location, climatic conditions,
and size of institution apparently had no influence on acti¬
vities taught with the exception of winter sports*


39
13* Some provision was being made for coeducation in the
women's non-major physical education program#
llj.# Practices used in the grading of physical education
activities showed inconsistency# The most frequently used
method of marking was the letter grade#
15# One study in 193>1 was concerned with use of demo¬
cratic practices in the teaching of women's physical educa¬
tion at the college level# The findings were not reported#
l6# A single study recommended the provision of a guid¬
ance program for non-major students#


CHAPTER IV
GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE WOMEN’S NON-MAJOR PHYSICAL
EDUCATION PROGRAM IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN 1955
Enrollment
Of the reported three hundred and thirty thousand
women enrolled in the undergraduate program of colleges and
universities in the United States, approximately half of the
women were enrolled in physical education*
Over one hundred and sixty eight thousand students
were reported as participating in the non-major physical
education program* The largest non-major groups were in
state coeducational schools, medium sized institutions, insti¬
tutions in the Eastern District, and in urban communities*
Teachers colleges (6l.lj$), very small colleges (63*9$),
colleges in the Northwest District (57*8$)» and colleges
located in rural communities (62*2$) led in the percentage of
women enrolled in the non-major program*
Requirement
Participation in physical education was generally
required of women undergraduates in colleges and universi¬
ties in the United States* Ninety-eight and three-tenths per
cent of the institutions studied reported a requirement of
ko


hi
physical education#
Prom lnfomation included in the response to the
question on requirement, it was revealed that the time of the
requirement varies from one year to four years with most
schools requiring two years of participation* The reasons
given for exemption from the requirement by some institutions
were as follows: students over thirty years of age; mothers;
students over twenty-five; and students in a marching band*
Elimination of the Requirement of Physical Education
One and three-tenths per cent of the colleges and
universities being studied reported that they had eliminated
the requirement of physical education*
The colleges and universities that indicated no re¬
quirement of physical education were: University of California
at Berkeley; University of Chicago in Chicago; University of
Kansas at Lawrence, Kansas; Culver Stockton College at Canton,
Missouri; Pairleigh Dickinson College at Rutherford, N* J*
(where the requirement has never existed); and Xavier Univer¬
sity at New Orleans, Louisiana (requirement was eliminated
except for those wishing some type of teacher certification)*
In addition to these, DePaul University at Chicago, Illinois,
reported an elimination of the requirement of women's physical
education and failed to send any further infomation. The
University of Miami at Miami, Florida, reported having no
physical education program for non-majors.


Four of the six institutions not requiring physical
education for women were private coeducational institutions,
and four were located in urban communities*
The directors of women’s physical education, in the
institutions which have eliminated the requirement of physi¬
cal education, stated that they believed there should be at
least a one year requirement*
Extension of the Requirement of Physical Education
The number of years required in physical education
for women in higher education (two years usually) has not
been extended to any appreciable extent in recent years*
Three per cent of the institutions studied have extended the
length of the requirement* Private women’s colleges (7*3$)»
very small colleges (5>*0$), schools located in the Eastern
District and institutions in urban communities (1^.8$)
led in the percentage of institutions that have extended the
length of the requirement*
Physical educators were almost evenly divided on the
question of whether the length of the requirement of physical
education should be extended. Forty-three and six-tenths per
cent were in favor of extending the requirement; I4.7 *1 per
cent were not; 9*3 per cent were unsure or would not commit
themselves by answering* Large universities had a high per¬
centage (62*1$) in favor of extending the requirement*
Comments included in the response to this question


indicated that some institutions were in favor of extending
the requirement but lack of facilities, staff, and other
causes prevented extension of requirement at this time*
Proficiency Tests
Proficiency tests for the purpose of exempting women
from activity requirements were not widely used in women’s
physical education* Very large universities (19*0$) utilized
the tests to the greatest degree* Proficiency in swimming was
the activity most usually tested for exemption*
Credit
Credit was generally given for participation in the
non-major physical education program at college level* Sixty-
one and one-tenths per cent of the institutions reported
giving semester credit for participation in physical education*
The most frequent total number of semester credits awarded was
four semester credits (37*1$){ the second most frequent total
number of semester credits given was two semester credits
(9.350.
The majority of institutions awarded one semester
credit per semester (i|6*i|$) • A small, rural, coeducational
college in the Midwest reported the awarding of three credit
hours per semester*
Some institutions favored the quarter system. Fifty-
five schools reported awarding quarter credits* Total quarter
credits awarded varied .from one quarter hour to twelve quarter


a
hours. The most frequent total number of quarter hours given
was six quarter hours.
There was a wide range of possible credits awarded
per quarter, one-half to three quarter credits, but the
typical pattern was one credit per quarter.
Written Policies and Practices Regarding the
Operation of the Non-Major Program
Policies and practices regarding the operation of the
non-major physical education program could generally be found
in a written form concerning women’s programs at college level.
Sixty-one aad four-tenths per cent of the institutions studied
indicated that they have written policies and practices in
the non-major program. State women’s colleges (83*3$)* very
large universities (76,2$), colleges in the Central district
(70,1$), and institutions in urban communities (66,9$) led in
the number of women’s departments with written policies and
practices.
Availability of Syllabi on Physical Education Activities
Syllabi or written course outlines on physical educa¬
tion activities were not generally available in women’s physi¬
cal education at college level. Thirty-nine and five-tenths
per cent of the institutions answered yes to the inquiry on
the availability of syllabi. Syllabi on activities were most
available in state coeducational institutions (53*6$), very
large schools (66,7$), colleges in the Northwest district


(5l«7%)t and institutions in urban communities (l|.5*0$). Some
institutions stated that syllabi were in the process of being
written; others used syllabi as catalogue material*
Strict Adherence to Syllabi
Women's departments of physical education at college
level did not as a general rule require strict adherence to
syllabi* Only 16*3 per cent of the institutions required
strict adherence; I^*2 per cent did not* Following a syllabi
closely was required most frequently in the state coeducational
institutions, the medium large universities, colleges in the
Central district,and in urban communities* Six state women's
colleges did not answer this question*
Requirement of the Medical Examination
The advisability of requiring a medical examination
of each student in physical education was recognized nation¬
wide* Ninety-six and three-tenths per cent of the institu¬
tions required medical examinations of their students* Women's
colleges were 100 per cent in the requirement of medical
examinations* Private coeducational institutions, teachers
colleges, large colleges, institutions in the Southern district
and in small city communities were less stringent in the re¬
quirement of medical examinations for physical education*
Medical examinations of entering students were usually given
by the institutions' physicians* Forty-three per cent of the
institutions studied preferred the school physician to give


the medical examination to beginning students* Thirty-one and
seven-tenths per cent of the colleges permitted the family
physician to give the required medical examination* Fifteen
and six-tenths per cent of the colleges and universities
allowed the family doctor and the university physician to
examine their entering students* The state supported colleges,
the large institutions, schools in the Northwest and Southwest
districts, and -urban communities leaned toward the services
of the university physician* The private women's colleges,
the very small institutions, and colleges in the Midwest
district were more apt to use the family doctor* Six and two-
tenths per cent of the colleges and universities permitted
other methods or means of giving medical examinations* These
variations included: examinations by medical internes, nurses,
and local physicians hired by the college*
The Adapted Program
An adapted program was based on recognition of the
principle of individual differences and makes necessary some
adjustments within the program to meet these needs* The impor¬
tance of the adapted program was evidenced by 59«2 per cent
of the institutions indicating that they had the program*
State coeducational institutions, very large schools, and insti¬
tutions in the Southwest district led in the provision of an
adapted program for the women participating in college physi¬
cal education*


k7
The leading method used as a basis for determining
the assignment to the adapted program was the utilization of
the findings of medical examinations* The two most common
practices used in determining assignment appeared to be: the
results of the medical examination (22*8$), and the results
of a combination of medical examination and teacher-pupil con-
*
ference (17*8$)* Comment was made by one Eastern college
that another technique used was anthropometric and orthopo-
metric examinations* Another college stated that it employed
orthopedic screening and then made the assignment* Assignment
by student choice was reported by a college in the Southwest*
The organization of the adapted program varied among
institutions* It consisted of a separate course, a program
of modified activities within other courses,or a combination
of a separate course and a program modified within other
courses* The most frequent type of organization of the adapt¬
ed program appeared to be a combination of a separate adapted
course and an adapted program modified within other courses
(22*ij$); the next most frequent type was a program modified
within other courses (activities which were less strenuous
than those in the regular program) (20$); the third ranking
type of organization was the separate adapted course (designed
to aid students to correct their defects) (19»5$)« State
coeducational institutions led in the provision of a separate
course for their adapted program*


M3
Approximate Number of Clock Hours Per Week
Non-Major Classes Meet
The approximate number of clock hours per week that
a majority of the non-major classes met was two clock hours;
6^*1 per cent of the institutions utilized this amount of
time* Large institutions and state women’s colleges had a
larger percentage of institutions meeting three clock hours
per week* Some of the colleges reported having three clock
hours for freshmen and two clock hours for the sophomores.
Total Length of the Class Period in Minutes
Fifty minutes was reported as the typical length of
the class period in the colleges and universities surveyed.
Sixty-two per cent of the institutions had class periods of
fifty minutes* Ninety-three and one-tenth per cent of the
colleges in the Northwest district had fifty minute class
periods. Two very large state coeducational universities in
urban communities in the Southern and Midwest districts had
thirty minute periods of non-major physical education.
Time Allowed for Actual Activity in Class Periods
Thirty-five to forty minutes appeared to be the time
of actual activity in non-major physical education classes*
Thirty-eight per cent of the colleges and universities re¬
ported an actual activity period of thirty-five minutes; 3¿Ul
per cent spent forty minutes in actual activity. The small
institutions appeared to have a longer period of actual


k9
activity than the large colleges and universities» Fifty per
cent of the suburban located institutions had forty minutes
of actual activity» Private institutions had a wide spread
of time spent in actual activity with nineteen colleges with
thirty minutes of actual activity and four colleges with over
sixty minutes reported as actual activity»
Time Allowed for Dressing and Showering
Time for dressing and showering was usually allotted
within the total length of time of the physical education
class period» Ten and fifteen minutes seemed to be the
typical amounts of time allowed for the purpose of dressing
and showering» Thirty-nine and seven-tenths per cent of the
colleges and universities allocated fifteen minutes for dress¬
ing and showering; 33*8 per cent set aside ten minutes for
this purpose» Some of the small colleges believed five
minutes was a sufficient amount of time for the purpose of
dressing» Institutions in the Southwest and Northwest dis¬
tricts did not allow over twenty minutes for this purpose*
Some of the colleges permitted dressing and showering in the
dormitories»
Average Number of Students Per Class Per Instructor
The average number of students per class per instruc¬
tor at the college level was twenty to twenty-five» Twenty-
nine and seven-tenths per cent of the colleges and universi¬
ties averaged twenty students per class per instructor;


50
29*1 P01* cent averaged twenty-five students per class per
instructor. The small and medium size institutions averaged
more students per instructor than the large schools, A
number of respondents made the comment that to give an aver¬
age number of students per class was very difficult since the
number varied with the type of activity.
Summary
Chapter IV has been an over-view of general informa¬
tion on the women’s non-major physical education program in
higher education. Responses to questions concerning enroll¬
ment, requirement, credit, written policies and practices,
syllabi on activities, medical examinations, adapted program
class organization indicated the following:
1, Approximately $0 per cent of the women undergradu¬
ates at college level were participating in the non-major
physical education program,
2, Participation in physical education was generally re¬
quired of women undergraduates in colleges and universities
in the United States (98*3$)*
3* One and three-tenths per cent of the institutions
studied had eliminated required physical education for women.
The length of the requirement of physical education for women
in higher education had not been extended any appreciable ex¬
tent in recent years. Physical educators were evenly divided
on the question of whether it should be extended.


51
1|« Proficiency testa for the purpose of exempting women
from activity requirements were not widely used in women’s
physical education*
5* Credit was given for participation in non-major
physical education* The awarding of four semester credits
was the most common practice*
6. The policies and practices of the non-major program
were in written form in the majority of institutions.
7* Syllabi or written course outlines on physical educa¬
tion activities were not generally available in women’s physi¬
cal education programs at the college level*
8* Syllabi of activities did not have to be strictly
adhered to in women’s programs of physical education at college
level.
9* Medical examinations were required of entering students
by nearly all colleges and universities* Medical examinations
were usually given by the institutions* physicians.
10* Slightly over one-half of the colleges and universi¬
ties included an adapted program in their curriculum* Assign¬
ment to the adapted program was generally based upon the find¬
ings of the medical examination*
11* A combination of a separate course and the provision
of nonstrenuous activities within a regular course was the
most frequent method of providing an adapted program.
12. The majority of the college and university non-major


52
physical education classes met twice a week*
13* Total length of the class period in the majority of
institutions was fifty minutes*
li|.* Actual activity time within the class period was
approximately thirty-five minutes*
15* The typical periods of time allocated for dressing
and showering in physical education were ten and fifteen
minutes*
16* Twenty to twenty-five students was the average num¬
ber of students per class per instructor*


CHAPTER V
IMPORTANCE ASSIGNED THE VARIOUS OBJECTIVES OP THE WOMEN'S
PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IN THE PLANNING OP THE
NON-MAJOR PROGRAM
A primary purpose of this phase of the study was to
determine the degree of importance that directors of women's
physical education at the college level place on objectives
in the planning of their non-major program.
The objectives of the women's program to which respond¬
ents were asked to react were: health (knowledges, attitudes,
and practices); physical development; personal development
(self-confidence, self-direction, self-appraisal, and self-
control); social development (able to work with others,
respect others, sportsmanship); safety in sports (knowledges,
attitudes, and practices); intellectual (miles, strategy,
techniques, history, problem solving); motor development
(basic and sports skills); and recreation*
Ratings used to designate the Importance of each
objective were as follows: very little, moderately little.
average. moderately much, and very much importance.
Objectives rated most importance were the social and
recreational objectives* Objectives of lesser importance were
motor, personal, and intellectual development, and safety in
53


5k
sports# These were awarded, generally, a rating of moderately
much importance# The health and physical development objec¬
tives were considered of average importance in the planning
of the program#
Social Development
The social development objective (able to work with
others, respect others, sportsmanship) was generally consider¬
ed of very much importance in the planning of the women’s
physical education program# Forty-three and four tenths per
cent of the institutions considered it very important# Most
of the teachers colleges and very large institutions believed
social development was of moderately much importance. Four
tenths per cent of the institutions, a state coeducational
and a teachers college, considered this objective of very
little importance#
Recreation
The recreation objective was also assigned a general
rating of very much importance in the planning of the women's
physical education program# Forty-two and five-tenths per
cent of the institutions rated it of very much importance#
Colleges of the Northwest district placed an equal rating of
moderately much (31*1$) and very much (31#1$) importance on
the recreation objective#
Statements by two respondents appeared to demonstrate
a lack of understanding concerning the meaning of the recreation


55
objective:
We emphasize teaching and learning - not fun* The
recreational aspects are provided for under W.A*A*
We believe our classes feed to this but we are not
designed for recreation but for learning*
One and one-tenth per cent of the institutions
believed recreation was of very little importance* Three of
these were private coeducational, two were state coeducational,
and one was a teachers college*
Personal Development
The objective, personal development of the individual,
which included self-confidence, self-direction, self-appraisal,
and self-control, received a general rating of moderately
much importance in the planning of the women’s physical
education program at the college level* Thirty-five and five-
tenths per cent considered this objective of moderately much
importance. The objective was of very much importance to fifty
per cent of the state women’s colleges, the majority of medium
large and large size universities, and colleges located in
the Eastern district*
One state coeducational, medium large institution in
a rural community of the South believed personal development
was of very little importance*
Safety in Sports
Safety in sports objective (knowledges, attitudes,
and practices) was considered to be of moderately much


56
importance in the planning of the college women’s non-major
physical education program. Thirty-seven and nine-tenths
per cent of the institutions gave this objective a rating of
moderately much importance* State coeducational institutions,
large and very large colleges and universities attached
major importance to safety in sports* Seven-tenths per cent
of all the colleges studied believed the safety in sports
objective was of very little importance*
Motor Development
The motor development objective (basic and sports
skills) of the women’s physical education program received a
general rating of moderately much importance in the planning
of the physical education program. Thirty-eight per cent of
the institutions rated this objective as of moderately much
importance* One and three-tenths per cent of the institu¬
tions believed the motor development objective was of very
little importance in the planning of the program* These
were private institutions: two coeducational, and two women’s
colleges; and one teachers college*
Intellectual Development
The intellectual development objective (rules, strategy,
techniques, history, problem solving) received a typical rating
of moderately much importance* Thirty-two and three-tenths
per cent of the institutions awarded this objective a rating
of moderately much importance* The intellectual development


57
objective was of major importance to the majority of teachers
colleges, meditan size institutions, and colleges located in
the Eastern and Central districts. One very small women’s
college in an urban community in the Midwest believed
intellectual development to be of very little importance.
Physical Development
The physical development objective was considered of
only average importance by fifty per cent of the colleges and
universities. This was the general rating awarded this
objective. Two and eight-tenths per cent of all the Insti¬
tutions believed this objective was of very little importance.
Health
The objective health (knowledges, attitudes, and
practices) was also considered of only average importance by
the responding colleges and universities Pour and
nine-tenths per cent of all the schools studied gave health
a very little importance rating in the planning of the pro¬
gram.
Opinions of some respondents regarding the health
objective showed a belief that the health objective should be
cared for in separate course:
Health classes are not a part of required activity
courses.
Health - separate course - nearly all take it.
All take required health education course.


58
The following additional comments were included in
the response to the question on objectives and their degree
of importance in the planning of the non-major program:
Can’t answer this as all objectives important in any
class - emphasis given where the needs of the class
are - the type of activity engaged in*
Impossible to answer your request* All these items
are on our list of objectives and we emphasize them as
the situation arises* Three, four, six, seven, and
eight, perhaps, are ahead but equal.
Varies with activity and teacher*
Summary
Directors of women’s physical education departments,
in the planning of their non-major program at the college
level, assigned the following degrees of importance to
objectives of the women’s program:
1* Social development - very much importance
2. Recreation - very much importance
3* Personal development - moderately much importance
ij-* Motor development - moderately much importance
5* Safety in Sports - moderately much importance
6* Intelle ctual development - moderately much
importance
7* Physical development - average importance
8, Health - average importance


CHAPTER VI
MARKING
This phase of the study was concerned with the mark¬
ing practices currently being used in womens physical educa¬
tion departments at the college level: the type of marks used,
type of grading preferred, how the marks are determined, and
the relation of the marks to the objectives of the women’s
program*
Type of Marks Used
Types of marks being used by respondents as checked
in questionnaire were: letters, numerical grade, pass or fall,
and no grades given* Other types of grading being used which
were written in by respondents included the following: credit
or no credit: excellent, good, fair, and poor: faculty evalu¬
ation or appraisal by written comment; deferred, incomplete.
failure*
The most typical method of marking in the women’s
physical education program at the college level was the letter
grade. Seventy-five and three-tenths per cent of the college
women’s physical education departments used this method of
marking* This marking practice was most common in state
women’s colleges (100$); very large universities (90.1|$);
59


60
institutions in the Southern district (85*2$); and colleges
in rural communities (8l*5$)*
The second system of marking most frequently used
was the pass or fall type of grading* This type of grading
was found most frequently in private womenrs colleges (17*1/0;
very small schools (15*6$); colleges in the Eastern district
(26*8$); and institutions in rural communities (18*5$)«
The practice of awarding no grades for participation
in physical education was most frequently found in private
women's colleges (3*7$)» small schools (3*5$)» institutions
in the Eastern district (3*9$)J and colleges in suburban
communities (3*6$)*
Type of Grading Preferred
The type of grading preferred by women physical educa¬
tors agreed generally with the method of grading used* Fifty
per cent of the state women's colleges that gave letter grades
would prefer to award either pass or fall to the physical
education participants. Fifty-six and eight-tenths per cent
of the colleges and universities stated a preference for the
letter type of marking; fourteen and one-tenth per cent pre¬
ferred to either pass or fail the physical education students;
two and six-tenths per cent of the institutions preferred to
give no grade for physical education* Private women's colleges
and medium large schools led in the percentage of schools that
would like to give no grades for physical education* Letter


6l
grade with comments was a type of grading preferred by one
institution*
How Marks are Determined
Analysis of the data on marking revealed variations
among institutions in the determination of grades for parti¬
cipation in physical education at the college level* Volun¬
tary comments made by some respondents indicated that attend¬
ance, skill, and knowledge of rules was considered in arriving
at a mark.
Comments included in the response to the question on
marking were as follows:
Attendance - entire basis for grade*
Varies with individual teacher and course offerings*
Our stress is on skill development* First stress is on
understanding*
We don’t grade on this basis - a rough idea of our
grading:
1* improvement in skills
2. knowledge of rules and tactics
3* attitudes
4* attendance affects overall grade, absences in
excess lowers It*
Relation of Marks to the Objectives of the Women’s Program
The directors of women’s programs were asked to award
a grading value to each of the objectives of the women's pro¬
gram in relation to the total program.
The awarding of a grading value to each objective


62
appeared to be very difficult because approximately fifty-
five per cent did not respond. The directors appeared very
reluctant to give a grading value to the objectives.
Analysis of the data revealed that apparently an
equal grading value was awarded to the various objectives;
most of the schools stated that they gave approximately ten
to nineteen per cent of the total program to each of the eight
objectives
Further analysis disclosed that in considering the
range of the grading values awarded the objectives, the
widest range, naught to ninety-nine per cent, was awarded the
motor development and intellectual development objectives.
The following comments were included in the response
to this question, comments attesting to the apparent diffi¬
culty of the question:
Impossible to make this estimate.
Impossible to estimate breakdown, subjective grading
and all factors are considered - skill, effort, interest -
largely.
Impossible to judge accurately at this time - we are at
present working on this problem.
No group feeling, much antagonism, Impossible to answer,
I feel that health and safety regulate the offerings and
are not to be included in the grading value.
Very difficult to estimate the over-all percentage.


63
Summary
1, The most typical method of marking in women's physi¬
cal education at the college level was the letter grade*
2* The type of grading preferred by women physical
educators agreed generally with the method of grading used,
3* Major factors in the determination of a grade in physi¬
cal education appeared to be attendance, skill, and knowledge
of rules*
ij.. The grading value awarded the objectives was approxi¬
mately ten to nineteen per cent of the total program, or an
approximate equal value to each objective* Objectives with
the widest range of grading value were motor development and
intellectual development with a range of naught to 99 per
cent*
5* Approximately 55 Per cent of the institutions did
not respond to the question on the awarding of a grading
value to the objectives*


CHAPTER VII
ACTIVITIES
Variety of Activities
Fifty-eight activities were offered in the women’s
non-major physical education program at the college level.
In addition to the thirty-five offerings listed in the
questionnaire, the respondents added the following activities
croquet, squash, lacrosse, whisket, tether ball, snowshoeing,
field ball, paddle tennis, recreational games, horseshoes,
billiards, riflery, shuffleboard, trampoline, back yard
varieties, outings, hiking, synchronized swimming, and water
safety instructors course*
Top Activities
The top activity, or the activity of the women’s
non-major physical education program offered most frequently,
was volleyball and was provided by 87*4 per cent of the
institutions studied* In order of frequency, the top ten
activities were volleyball (87*14$), tennis (8Í4*9$), basket¬
ball (83.8$), badminton (82*3$), archery (76*6$), softball
(76*5$), folk and square dance (75*7$)# swimming (65*3$),
modern dance (62*7$), and golf (62*5$)*


65
Required Activities
Participation in specific activities was generally-
required for graduation in the women's non-major physical
education programs in higher education#
Analysis of the data revealed that all the offerings
listed in the inquiry form were checked by physical educators
as required for graduation at some institutions, with the
exception of the following activities: skiing, camping, roller
skating, sailing and canoeing# Riding was required by only
one very small, private women's college in the East#
The most frequent activity required for graduation
was swimming (26#2$)# The top ten required activities in
order of frequency were: swimming (26,2$), basic program
(2l*#3jO, volleyball (16.7$), basketball (15.8$), softball
(15#0$), tennis and badminton (13#0$), body mechanics (12#8$),
folk and square dance (12.6$), archery (11#5$)# Required
activities, following the first ten, were in order of fre¬
quency: modern dance (10#6$), field hockey (9*3$)> soccer
(7*8$), table tennis (5#9$)» tumbling and social dance (5*6$),
golf (£,2$), bowling (1[■•6%), speedball (]+.#3$), deck tennis
(3#0$), track and field (2#6$), apparatus (2#1$), touch foot¬
ball (2#0$), tap and clog (1.1$), life saving and camping
(0*9$), ice skating and diving (0#7$), fencing (0#l4$), bait¬
casting (0#lj.$), and, in last place, riding (0#2$).
Teachers colleges, small schools, colleges in the


66
Northwest and Southern districts, and institutions in rural
communities led in the percentage of institutions requiring
participation in certain physical education activities for
graduation*
Provision of Levels of Instruction
Womens college non-major physical education activ¬
ities in seme institutions were available in three divisions
of instruction: beginners, intermediate, and advanced* This
was a classification in which students move through progress¬
ively more difficult standards of accomplishment (56)• Pro¬
vision of three levels of instruction was also a means of
meeting individual needs*
Activities with only one division of instruction were
classified as beginners* The top ten activities have already
been given* The other regular course offerings at beginner
level, in order of frequency, were as follows: field hockey
(58.1$), social dance (lj.l*9$), bowling (i|.l*9$), soccer (14-0.1$),
body mechanics (38*8$), table tennis (36*!$), tumbling (35«1$)>
basic program (3lj-•%%)» speedball (31*0$)* fencing (25*2$),
deck tennis (25*0$), diving (21*7$), tap and clog (17*8$),
f
riding (16.9$), camping (15*8$), life saving (lij.*l$), apparatus
(11*7$), skiing (10.8$), track and field (9*3$)» canoeing
(8*0$), baitcasting (7*2$), touch football (5«2$), ice skating
(5*2$), roller skating (3*5%)$ and sailing (2,2$)*
State institutions, particularly, state women’s


67
colleges, large and very large Institutions, colleges in the
Northwest district, and institutions in small city and small
town communities led in the percentage of institutions offer¬
ing activities at a beginners or one level#
At the intermediate division of instruction in non¬
major physical education activities for college women, the
same activities listed in the beginners level were found but
in a different order of frequency# The top ten activities
at intermediate level were the following: swimming (]?3>.1$),
tennis (£1.1).$), basketball (l|-3.0$), badminton (38*8$), modem
dance (37*3$)» volleyball (37*3$)* archery (3i|..3$), softball
(32.1$), folk and square dance (30*6$), and golf (27*1$)#
Activities, following the first ten, of intermediate offer¬
ings were in order of frequency: field hockey (2Í4.*1$), bowl¬
ing (18.9$), diving (17*1$), social dance (12#8$), riding
(12.6$), fenoing (11.1$), basic program (10.6$), table tennis
(10,2$), body mechanics (9*5$)* life saving (9*¿J$)# soccer
(9*3$)# tumbling (8.5$), speedball (6,7$), tap and clog (5*2$),
deck tennis (5.0$), skiing (5*0%), apparatus (3*5$)» camping
(3*!?$)» canoeing (3*0$), ice skating (2.2$), baitcasting
(1#7$), touch football (1#7$), track and field (l.j>$), roller
skating (0.9$)* and sailing (0.9$).
Women’s colleges, state and private, large, very
large, and small institutions, colleges in the Eastern dis¬
trict and institutions in small town communities led in the


68
percentage of Institutions offering activities at an inter¬
mediate level*
The top ten activities offered at an advanced level,
in their order of frequency, were as follows: swimming
(k$»3 $), life saving (36.2$), tennis (3^.3$), basketball (2 5*6$),
modern dance (2$*1$), badminton (19*37«)» volleyball (19*1$),
softball (16.3$), archery (l£.6$), and field hockey (l£.6$).
Activities offered at the advanced level, in order
beginning with the eleventh ranking activity, were as follows:
golf (ll|..7$), folk and square dance (13*7$)» diving (11*1$),
riding (8.9$), bowling (7*8$), table tennis (5*6$), basic
program (I4.*9$), social dance (lj..8$), fencing (lj.*6$), soccer
(3*7$), skiing (2,6%), deck tennis (2*!$), speedball (2 ,l±%)»
canoeing (2.1[$), tap and clog (2,2%), body mechanics (2.2$),
camping (1.7$), ice skating (1.5$), apparatus (1.1$), tumbling
(1.1$), sailing (0*1|$), touch football (0*lj.$), baitcasting
(0.2$), roller skating (0*2$).
Private women’s colleges, very large institutions,
universities of the Eastern district, and colleges in suburban
communities had the highest frequency of institutions offering
activities on the advanced level.
Differences Between Institutions in the
Activities Offered
Although each activity was offered in every type of
institution there were differences between institutions in


69
the offerings of certain activities as follows: roller skating
was not offered in any large schools; the Southwest district
did not require archery but led in the amount of archery
offered; the state women’s colleges did not include riding,
skiing, apparatus, track and field, ice skating, and touch
football in their non-major program; baitcasting was not
offered in any private women’s colleges and the only advanced
level offering of baitcasting was found in one large, Mid¬
western, urban community, private coeducational institution;
very large schools led in the offering of fencing; canoeing
was offered in the advanced division only by privately con¬
trolled institutions; tap and clog received the greatest
emphasis in the Central district; diving received the greatest
emphasis in the private women’s colleges*
Fencing was given greatest emphasis by private women’s
colleges at the intermediate and advanced levels* Archery and
table tennis received the greatest amount of emphasis from
state and private women's colleges. Skiing was found mostly
in the Northwest* Sailing was offered at the advanced level
by private coeducational schools in the East* Golf was offered
mostly by large schools. Basketball was offered one hundred
per cent in the Northwest district and received a major
emphasis also in the Midwest and Southern districts. The
following activities were offered one hundred per cent by state
women's colleges: modern dance, social dance, field hockey,


70
volleyball, tennis, badminton, archery, swimming (beginners
and advanced), softball, basketball, folk and square dance.
There were many comments included in the response
to this question on activities. They furnished the follow¬
ing data on the college women’s non-major physical education
program: number of years physical education is required,
area requirements, number of times classes meet, who teaches
the classes - men or women, recreational emphasis in class
program, and the number of new facilities becoming available
for the women’s college program.
We have no ’elective’ courses - our courses are set up
so that all freshmen taking physical education are
assigned to a class period which meets two hours per
week and the selection of activities is left to the
teacher entirely. If she chooses, she may plan with
the class, but there is no other choice.
Required one semester - swimming, sport, rhythmical,
but may take a proficiency test to exempt them.
One individual and one dual sport required - one dance
required - one team game required.
Students select four credit hours from any of the
courses offered.
Students have a choice of activities in order to fill a
two year requirement.
Classes meet once a week - man instructor - recreation
high rating.
Recreational emphasis - no pressure - wide variety of
activities. We teach the same type of class two semesters
in succession. We have a lot of fun and practically
everyone likes it.
May day emphasis - no head - no credit - freshmen and
sophomores together in one class.


71
Presionen now one year, sophomores required to take
semesters work; next year juniors will be required#
Program limited by lack of Indoor space and rigidity
of required courses for all curriculum and lack of
electives - hope to be elective in new setup#
Body mechanics required of all freshmen.
All sports are coeducational with the exception of
the team games - instructor either man or women -
program - 1 swimming - 1 individual - 1 dance - 1 body
mechanics - 1 team sport - 1 elective#
The following comments included in response to this
section gave indication that attempts are being made to improve
and enlarge the women’s program:
New building including pool will be finished in 1956#
Our program is at a difficult stage due to an expansion
program.
New physical education building. Have ordered needed
equipment. Bowling alley not finished. Men doing a
good job. Close knit group with equal voice. Have no
outside grounds#
Field to be completed in 1955 “ (field hockey)•
In another year, when a new gym is finished, it will be
possible to have all teachers teaching at the same time,
thus enlarging the offerings.
Summary
1. A wide variety of activities was offered in the women’s
non-major physical education program at the college level#
2# Fifty-eight activities were reported in this study.
3« The top ten activities of the study, in order of fre¬
quency, were as follows: volleyball, tennis, basketball, bad¬
minton, archery, softball, folk and square dance, swimming,


72
modern dance, and golf*
i}.. Participation in specific activities was generally-
required for graduation in the women’s non-major physical
education program at the college level*
5* The top ten activities required for graduation were
as follows: swimming, basic program, volleyball, basketball,
softball, tennis, badminton, body mechanics, folk and square
dance, archery, and modern dance*
6. The activities and percentages of the top ten activi¬
ties in the three levels of instruction, beginners, inter¬
mediate, and advanced, were as follows:
Beginners
Intermediate
Advanced
1. volleyball (87*1$) swimming (5>5>*1$) swimming (14-5*3$)
2. tennis (8l(.*9$) tennis (£1*1$) life saving (36*2$)
3» basketball (83*8$) basketball (14.3*0$) tennis
badminton (38*8$) basketball (25»<
!}■• badminton (82*3$)
5» archery (76*<
6. softball (76*
7* folk and square
dance (75*7$)
modem dance
(37.3$)
modern dance
(25.1$)
volleyball (37«3$) badminton (19*3$)
archery (3lj.*3$) volleyball (19*1$)
8. swimming (65.3$) softball (32.1$)
9* modern dance
(62*7$)
folk and square
dance (30*6$)
softball (16*3$)
archery (15*6$)
10 • golf (62*5$)
golf (27.1$)
field hockey (If?«6$)


CHAPTER VIII
COEDUCATIONAL PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES
Many authorities have spoken of the importance coed¬
ucational activities have in the physical education program#
The extent to which coeducational activities are used in the
women’s non-major program of the institutions studied is
discussed in the following paragraphs#
Coeducational activities were included in fifty-
three per cent of the women's non-major physical education
programs•
State coeducational colleges and universities led
other types of institutions in the percentage of schools
offering coeducational physical education: 82#5 per cent of
the state coeducational institutions offered coeducational
activities.
The percentage of institutions by size participating
in coeducational physical education activities was highest in
very large institutions (85*7^)» The offering of coeduca¬
tional physical education activities decreased with the size
of the institution#
Coeducational activities in institutions by district
were found to be most frequent in the Southwest district, 8l#f>
per cent offered coeducational activities in the women’s
73


Ik
non-major physical education program.
Analysis of the data by communities revealed that
most coeducational activities in the physical education pro¬
grams were in institutions in small towns or small city
communities.
There was a wide range of offerings in the women *s
non-major program which were coeducational. In addition to
the six activities listed in the questionnaire, archery,
bowling, badminton, golf, social dance, and square dance,
there were other coeducational activities: skish, sailing,
circus, boating, tap dance, deck tennis, table tennis,
fencing, ice skating, skiing, handball, water safety
instructors course, softball, riflery, shuffleboard, hiking,
badminton, open country varieties, roller skating, aeiral
darts, outings and camping.
Of the six coeducational activities archery, bowling,
badminton, golf, social dance, and square dance, square dance
was the most frequent activity. Forty-six and four tenths
per cent of the institutions offered coeducational instruction
in square dance. This coeducational activity was found more
frequently in state coeducational schools (78.1$), large
universities (72.1j$), colleges in the Southwest district (7k»V&) >
and small city communities (53»2$).
Social dance was the second most frequently offered
coeducational activity; thirty-four and one tenth per cent of


75>
the institutions offered social dance as a coeducational
aotivity. Institutions which offered the most ceducational
social dance were: state coeducational colleges and universi¬
ties (63,9$), very large institutions (6l.9$), colleges in
the Southwest district (55*5$)> and institutions in small
city communities (i|.0.5$).
The activity, archery, ranks third in popularity and
was offered as a coeducational activity in 28,8 per cent of
the colleges and universities. Coeducational archery was
found most frequently in state coeducational institutions
(37.1$), medium size schools (39*6$), colleges in the South¬
west district (5>5*5$)» and small town environment (33*7$) •
Badminton ranks fourth in the per cent of coeduca¬
tional course offerings; 2Ó.9 per cent of the institutions
studied offered badminton as a coeducational activity. Major
emphasis on badminton as a coeducational offering was evidenced
by the teachers colleges (3S>«6$), medium sized institutions
(38.6$), colleges in the Southwest district (59*2$), and insti¬
tutions in small town communities (30.1$).
The activity, golf, ranks fifth in popularity as a
coeducational course offering; 2ÍJ..5 per cent of the colleges
and universities offered golf as a coeducational activity.
State coeducational institutions (36.1$), large universities
(l|l.i|$), colleges in the Southwest district (lj-8.1$), and insti¬
tutions with a small town environment (30*6$) appeared to


76
give the greatest emphasis to coeducational golf#
Bowling was the sixth in the most frequently offered
coeducational activities; ll|#3 per cent of the colleges and
universities offered bowling as a coeducational instructional
activity# Leading other institutions in the offering of bowl¬
ing as a coeducational activity were; state coeducational
institutions (23#7$), medium large colleges and universities
(28.9$), schools in the Northwest district (31»1$), institu¬
tions in small city (l6#7$) or small town environment (16.8$)#
Instruction in coeducational physical education activ¬
ities was principally done by women. Women did the major
amount of instruction in square dance, social dance, and
archery. Men did the major part of the instruction in golf.
Summary
The growing popularity of coeducational course offer¬
ings as a vital part of the curriculum mu3t be recognized#
To summarize the situation:
1. Coeducational physical education activities were
offered in slightly more than 50 per cent of the colleges
and universities,
2. The percentage of colleges and universities partic¬
ipating in coeducational physical education activities was
highest in very large universities and gradually decreased
with the size of the institution#
3# Coeducational instruction was most popular in the


77
Southwest district.
Ij.. State coeducational institutions led all other types
of institutions in the percentage offering coeducational
activities.
5. Communities reporting colleges with the most coeduca¬
tional instruction in physical education were small town and
small city communities.
6. There was a wide range of offerings available for
coeducational activity.
7. Square dance was the most popular activity. Follow¬
ing in order of popularity were: social dance, archery, bad¬
minton, golf, and bowling.
8. Instruction in coeducational physical education activ¬
ities was principally done by women.


CHAPTER IX
TECHNIQUES OF GROUP WORK IN TEE INSTRUCTION IN THE
WOMEN'S NON-MAJOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
A hypothesis tested in this study was that instruc¬
tors in physical education at the college level did utilize
the techniques of democratic process in the operation of
their classes*
Department heads were asked to describe the extent to
which instructors followed certain procedures and group work
techniques in the operation of their classes* The procedures
checked were: teacher-pupil planning and joint discussion of
methods of evaluation; provision of a pentilssive "climate”;
seeking of Informal situation; rotation of leadership respon¬
sibilities in the class; utilization of planning committees,
"buzz" groups; role playing; sociometric grouping; and use of
observers and recorders*
Instructor-Student Planning of Class Goals and Procedures
College and university women’s physical education
departments, to some extent, have students share in the
planning of class goals and procedures* Sometimes was the
typical pattern* Forty-two and one tenth per cent sometimes
admit students into the planning of class procedures* This
pattern was most common in state women's colleges very
78


79
large schools (66.7$), institutions in the Southwest district
(63$), and colleges in suburban communities {$0%)•
Glass Discussion of Methods of Evaluation
Class time was not utilized as a general rule for the
discussion of methods of evaluation in women's departments of
physical education at college level* The highest percentage
of colüe ges responding to this question (37*5$) sometimes
had discussions on evaluation* Five of the six state women's
colleges sometimes devoted class time to discussion of methods
of evaluation; the remaining state women's colleges seldom
used any class time for purposes of discussion of evaluation*
This typical pattern of sometimes utilizing class time for
evaluation discussion was found most frequently in state
women's colleges (83*3$), very large universities (57*2$),
Middle West district (Í4.6• 1^), and suburban communities (14.8*2^)*
Utilization of Class Time for Purposes of Getting Acquainted,
Learning Names and Determining Student Interest
Usually was the most common response concerning this
activity by the institutions studied (34*1$)• Leading in
this practice of usually taking class time for purposes of
getting acquainted were: state supported institutions, parti¬
cularly, state women's colleges (£0$), very large universities
(I4.7 *6$), institutions in the Southwest district , and
colleges in suburban communities (39*3$)*
Comments of respondents concerning this class


80
procedure of using time for the purpose of getting acquainted
are as follows:
Always - all semester#
In a small college this is not necessary every semester
in every class*
Depends on class - sometimes can be done without taking
extra class time*
Done as classes go along - classes small.
Depends on the course and the teacher*
Not necessary in this case*
Our staff and student group so small that this is un¬
necessary*
Informal Situation in Gymnasium. Field, and Classroom
Informal situations were generally sought in the
gymnasium, field, and classrooms by colleges and universities*
Fifty-two and seven-tenths per cent of the institutions always
sought informal situations for teaching* These informal situa¬
tions were most common in: private women’s colleges (6I|..6$),
very small and medium large institutions (57*8$)» colleges in
the Middle West district (58*1$), and institutions in small
town communities (6l*5^)* Six state women’s colleges were
evenly divided in their practices: approximately thirty-three
per cent always, thirty-three per cent usually, and thirty-
three per cent sometimes seek informal situations in gymnasium,
field, and classroom. One medium large state, coeducational
institution in a rural community of the Southern district
seldom seeks an informal situation* One small teachers


81
college in a small Eastern city never tried to have an in¬
formal situation in gymnasium, field, and classroom.
The following comments were noted regarding this
procedure:
Depends on the action.
Situations are informal.
Student Election and Rotation of Leaders
Squad and team leadership was not always student
elected and rotated; usually was a common practice.
Institutions usually allowing students to elect their
own leaders were found most frequently in state women's
colleges (f?0$), large institutions (1+ lJjjO, colleges in the
Northwest district (38$), and institutions in small town
communities (38.6$).
The practice of always having student elected leader¬
ship was found most frequently to be: private women's colleges
(37.8$), medium size schools (33*6$), schools in the South¬
west district (37$), and colleges in rural environment (33.1j.$).
Comments of respondents on student elected leadership
are as follows:
Not used in college situations.
No squads.
Classes are so small there is little need for squads.
Especially team games.
When used, which is not too often.


82
Also appointed.
System not used in required class work.
Planning Committees in Class Operation
Planning committees were used occasionally in the
operation of physical education classes. Sometimes was the
typical pattern (17*1$) of the planning committee in the
class operation. This typical pattern of the class opera¬
tion was found most frequently in: state women’s colleges
(33.3^), very large institutions (38*1%), colleges in the
Southwest district (25«9$)> and schools in small town com¬
munities (21.7$). Fifty-eight and four tenths per cent of
the institutions did not respond to this question.
"Buzz” Groups in Class Operation
The most common use of "buzz” groups in class opera¬
tion was sometimes. Fifteen and two tenths per cent of the
institutions studied used this technique to that extent.
This pattern of operation was found most frequently in: state
coeducational institutions (26.8$), very large institutions
(38*1$), colleges in the Southwest district (25*9$)> and
schools in small city communities (19*8$). There was a non¬
response of 66.8 per cent to this question.
Role Playing in Class Operation
This activity was used very sparingly in the operation
of classes in women's physical education at college level.


83
Twelve and six tenths per cent, the highest percentage, never
employed role playing* This pattern was most common ins state
women's colleges (16*7$) and teachers colleges (16*1$), large
institutions (31.0$), colleges in the Eastern district (18.1$),
and schools in rural communities (ll|..8$) • Only nine tenths
per cent of the colleges and universities studied always had
role playing in class operation* There was a non-response of
72*5 per cent to this inquiry on role playing in class opera¬
tion.
Sociometric Techniques in Class Operation
Sociometric techniques were rarely used in women's
physical education departments* Never was the most typical
pattern* Twelve and one tenths per cent of the institutions
never used this technique* This typical pattern of class
operation was found most frequently to be in: state women's
colleges (16*7$), large schools (2ij..2$), colleges in the
Southern district (17«2$), and schools in rural communities
(18*^$), There was a non-response of 70*1 per cent
Observer in Glass Operation
The technique, observer, was used very little in the
operation of the non-major class. The most common response
was never (10.2$). The most frequent type of institutions
never using an observer in class operation were as follows:
state women's colleges (16*7$), large schools (21^.1$), colleges


in the Eastern district (15*7$)* and schools in rural communi¬
ties (lij.,8^). One and five-tenths per cent of the institu¬
tions always used an observer in class operation* The non¬
response to this question was 69*8 per cent#
Recorder in Class Operation
A recorder was used very rarely in the women’s physi¬
cal education class at college level* The typical pattern was
never* This pattern was most common in: teachers colleges
(13*8$), large colleges (2l+.*2$), institutions in the Eastern
district (l6#5$), and schools in small town communities
(13*3$). Only one and five-tenths percent always used a
recorder in their class operation* The non-response was
70,£ per cent*
Summary
Directors of women’s physical education departments
at the college level were asked to describe the extent to
which certain techniques of the democratic process were used
in class operation* Survey of the data reveals that women’s
departments of physical education utilized the techniques of
democratic process in the operation of their classes to only
a slight degree*
Summary of the findings on class practices revealed
the following patterns of operation:


85
Instructional Practices
1. Thirty-eight per cent of the students and instructors
shared in the planning of non-major physical education class
procedures (always 7*2$, usually 31*0$),in addition 1+2,1 per
cent sometimes shared in the planning.
2. Twenty-eight per cent of the non-major physical educa¬
tion classes used class time for discussion of evaluation
(always 7*2$, usually 21$), also 37*5 per cent sometimes had
class discussion of evaluation.
3* Sixty-three per cent of the institutions used class
time for purposes of getting acquainted, learning names, and
determining student interest (always 29«7$> usually 3l+..l$),
17.8 per cent sometimes used class time for these purposes.
1+. Eighty-eight per cent of the institutions sought in-
foimal situations in the gymnasium, field, and classroom
(always 52*7$» usually 36.2$)
5. Fifty-eight per cent of institutions had squad and
team leadership student elected and rotated (always 29*7$>
usually 29»9$)> 16*3 per cent sometimes had student elected
leaders in class squads.
6. The use of certain group techniques in the operation
of the classes in the women’s non-major physical education
program was as follows:
Sixteen per cent used planning committees (always 6.3$*
usually 10*6$).


86
Eight per cent used ’'buzz” groups (always 2.2%,
usually 6,7$) •
Two per cent used role playing (always .9%, usually
2.2%).
Three per cent used sociometric grouping (always
1.1%, usually 2.6%).
Pour per cent used an observer (always 1.$%, usually
3*$%)*
Four per cent used a recorder (always l.$%, usually
3*3%) •


CHAPTER X
THE ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES AND ORGANIZATION OP THE WOMEN’S
PHYSICAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Directors of women's physical education departments
in higher education were asked to describe the extent to which
they utilized certain techniques of cooperative planning and
group work in the operation of their departments; the extent
of use for each practice to be indicated by: always, usually,
sometimes, seldom, or never»
Administrator - Instructor Determination of
Departmental Policies and Procedures
Administrators and instructors always shared in the
determination of departmental policies and procedures in
lj.2.7 per cent of the institutions. An almost equal number,
39*5 P©r cent, usually shared in departmental planning.
The pattern of always having departmental policies a
shared procedure was found most frequently in state women's
colleges (66.7$), small schools , institutions in the
Northwest district (62.1$), and schools in the urban
communities (ij-9*7/o)*
Comments such as the following were included in the
response to the questions on shared departmental procedures:
Administrators and instructors share in the determination
87


88
of departmental policies and procedures between men’s
and women's department s•
Matters concerning both men and women the three in our
department decide among us. Matters concerning women
I make the decision,
A continuous committee of faculty who report regularly
to entire faculty. Reports used for progress in program.
Department Head Places a Major Emphasis on Helping
Each Staff Member Feel Accepted
Not all department heads of women's programs of
physical education at college level placed a major emphasis
on helping each staff member feel accepted. Fifty per cent of
the institutions indicated that they always tried to make each
staff member feel wanted. Those institutions which always
tried to make staff members feel at home were found most fre¬
quently in women's colleges (83*3$), very large universities
(76,2$), colleges in the Northwest district (69$), and insti¬
tutions in urban communities (%%%)•
Departmental heads who tried least to help staff
members feel accepted were located in: teachers colleges (5*7$)S
small colleges (ij.,9$); institutions in the Eastern district
(%•$%)» and schools in small town communities (1^.8^).
Twenty-two and eight-tenths per cent of the institu¬
tions in the study did not respond to this question.
Comments included in the response to this question of
whether the department head placed a major emphasis on helping
each staff member feel accepted were as follows:


89
If necessary and if acceptable.
We have a very stable staff and we work out our problems
together.
Department at our school so small that to my knowledge
problems never arise.
Not sure what you mean, but guess so.
There is only one person in department.
No need to.
Impossible - department head brought in over twenty-two
and twelve years seniority - professional jealousy here.
Staff Members are Permitted to Determine
Own Methods and Procedures
The most typical pattern in this departmental practice
was to always pennit staff members to determine their own
methods and procedures.
Fifty-one and four-tenths per cent of the institutions
always permitted freedom in choice of teaching method. Insti¬
tutions leading in this kind of practice were: teachers
colleges (52,9%); small schools (60,£$); institutions in the
Northwest district (69$); and colleges in small town communi¬
ties (60.3$).
One institution, medium sized, Southern, state coedu¬
cational in an urban community, never permitted the staff
members to determine their own methods and procedures.
Comments added to this question concerning the freedom
staff members are allowed in the determination of own methods


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