Citation
Photos for book, My Scrapbook of My Illness with Polio

Material Information

Title:
Photos for book, My Scrapbook of My Illness with Polio
Creator:
Lassie G. Black
Edna R. Black Hindson
Various
Language:
English
Physical Description:
photos for enhanced monograph

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Polio ( fast )
Medical Humanities ( fast )
Scrapbook ( fast )
LibraryPress@UF ( fast )

Notes

Abstract:
These 25 photographs complement and are part of the book, My Scrapbook of My Illness with Polio, by Lassie G. Black and Edna R. Black Hindson. The book is based on a handwritten journal that Lassie Black (Edna Black Hindson’s mother) kept between 1946-1951 recording Edna’s experience with polio. It is unknown as to why Lassie Black wrote it in Edna’s voice. The major concern recording this manuscript is to be true to her telling of this story. No attempt was made to change the touching simplicity of her writing. The solutions have been to add inserts to explain better to the reader what we (the collaborators, Edna Black Hindson and Nina Stoyan-Rosenzweig) believe she intended. The compelling, unique features that would encourage readers are that the format is most unusual. This story is told by my mother recording her impressions of her daughter’s pain, discomfort, and feelings of isolation experienced during the different stages of polio. To quote Nina Stoyan-Rosenzweig of the UF Health Science Center Libraries who produced this transcript, “…it also records the details of illness, treatments, activities, meetings with friends and family…For whatever reason, this unique record helps show how a child, and a family, responded to the challenge of poliomyelitis.” This work provides an important original, primary source on the experience of polio written in the time of the experience; many accounts of polio have been written much later.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright, Lassie G. Black and Edna R. Black Hindson. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.

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Georgia Hallcenter of the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation,
built by contributions from citizens of Georgia.


Georgia Warm Springs was established to help polio patients lead
normal lives. Franklin D. Roosevelt used an automobile with spe
cial equipment which he could drive while at the Little White House.


n the beginning there were the springs, gushing warm out of the earth
in a silent sea of pines. There, legend has it, Indians of the Creek con
federacy in Georgia, Alabama and northern Florida brought their
wounded warriorsto bathe in the springs, after all other efforts to heal
their injuries had failed. A stricken warrior was granted safe conduct
through territories of hostile tribes, if his destination was "the warm springs." Thus,
the springs became an influence for peace, a sort of inter-tribal sanctum in the
wilderness.
The atmosphere of peace still pervades the clearing in the pine woods, known today
throughout the world as the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation. In a sense, those
who come there also are granted safe conduct through the suddenly hostile territory
of the "normal" world to which they once belonged, from which they have become
separated by their affliction by infantile paralysis. Their safe conduct pass is the wish
of their fellow-men to see them become well and strong again, a wish given reality
through streams of dimes and dollars to ease the way.
Although the magical properties of the warm springs long have been discredited,
the waters are used to a greater extent and for more wounded warriors than ever
the Creek Indians could have imagined. They have become one of many routes to
health and strength offered at the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation.
Geologists have explained how the rain that falls on Pine Mountain, several miles
away, descends 3800 feet to a vast pocket of rock, is warmed by the inner earth and
returned to the surface, at a rate of 800 gallons each minute and a temperature of
88 degrees F. Engineers have calculated it would require twenty tons of coal every
twenty-four hours, to duplicate nature's water-heating performance at Warm Springs.
Thus it is that this spot naturally attracted, first, people who sought warm-water
bathing for recreation, later, cripples seeking warm-water treatment for their ills.
But it took another kind of magic to transform the Indians' warm springs and the
white man's holiday retreat into the first and largest hospital for the treatment of
the after-effects of infantile paralysis, mother of the infantile paralysis movement
in the United States.
It was the magic of a vision possessed by one man, who dreamed it into being.
alf a century ago, Warm Springs, Georgia, was a small summer resort for
people seeking relief from sultry cities and air adulterated with smoke
from multiplying chimneys of the new industrial age. There, on the site
of a post tavern on a military highway leading to Columbus, Georgia,
the Meriwether Inn did a thriving seasonal business. A large, rambling
building with gingerbread on its roofline, gables galore, curlicues in woodwork to
shame an old-fashioned penman and contours unclassifiable in architecture, it wel
comed two generations of guests who, in the early days, arrived by stagecoach from
the railroad depot at Durand, Georgia. The nearest village was Bullochville, which
took the name of Warm Springs in 1924.
In the early 1900's the automobile proved that it could take Georgians farther away
for relaxation, and Meriwether Inn went into decline. By 1924 it had become a run
down resort, still gracious with hospitality, still loved by a few who had known it
in more fashionable days, but hardly to be suspected of future growth or importance.
To Meriwether Inn, in the fall of 1924, came a private citizen from Hyde Park,
New York. He was a man in the prime of life who had been stricken by infantile
paralysis. His legs were useless. Improvement had been agonizingly slow for three
years. But Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Warm Springs to try to overcome his
crippling condition and to give the sleepy little village and the waning resort a new,
meaningful destiny in the doing.


He didn't know that, then. Nobody knew. He came because his friend, George
Foster Peabody, who had purchased an interest in old Meriwether Inn from its original
owners, Charles Davis and his niece, Miss Georgia M. Wilkins, told him about a
young man who had had infantile paralysis, who swam in the warm springs and
appeared to improve. Private Citizen Roosevelt stayed only a few weeks, but it was
the first of many visits, visits which were to change not only his own life but the
lives of many others who, like him, had had infantile paralysis. And here twenty-one
years later fate ordained that his life's work should end.
n those early days he swam in the public pool, located about 500 yards
from the shabby elegance of Meriwether Inn. He swam, and was startled
into belief in his own progress by the greater ease with which he was able
to move his lame legs under water. He was discovering, for himself, the
value of hydro-therapy, an ancient healing art that today has become
part of the flowering profession of physical medicine.
Not a scientist, and without medical background, Mr. Roosevelt could not explain
what was happening, as he progressed after many patient hours of exercise in the warm
buoyant waters of the resort pool. He consulted the local country doctor, Dr. James
Johnson; together they tried to figure it out on the basis of physical facts. Which mus
cles were used? How could one test their returning strength? The two men didn't find
the answers but they set the stage for later, scientific work along these very lines.
Dr. Johnson, still practicing in the neighboring town of Manchester, remembers a
crude muscle chart prepared by Unofficial Hydro-therapist Roosevelt that was used to
guide other infantile paralysis victims as they came to Warm Springs to follow Mr.
Roosevelt's example. For they came. How they came! By ones and twos, then five,
finally, that first year, a total of seventeen patients uninvited, unprovided for, drawn
by accounts in the newspapers of Fraqklin D. Roosevelt's efforts to "swim his way to
health.''
One of the first of these was young Fred Botts of Elizabethville, Pa., a recent college
graduate who had been studying singing in New York when infantile paralysis cut
short his career. Mr. Botts, today Registrar of the Georgia Warm Springs Founda
tion, remembers vividly the bewilderment, the confusion, the misunderstandings of
those old days. Regular resort guests protested the use of the pool by polio patients
for fear of "catching" the disease, forcing Tom Loyless, manager of Meriwether Inn,
to bar even the use of the regular dining room to the "pariahs." These men and women
seeking strength for their crippled bodies ate their meals for some time in a separate
dining room in the basement of the Inn.
Mr. Roosevelt, on his own, built a small treatment pool twenty-five or thirty yards
from the public pool, where he and his "gang" could continue their unsupervised, un
regulated, groping efforts to reduce their afflictions in the warm water of the springs.
But that wasn't enough, and Mr. Roosevelt knew it. He sought scientific appraisal
of what was happening.
In 1926, having observed that other patients, too, thought they had been benefited
by their sojourns at Warm Springs, Mr. Roosevelt invited Dr. LeRoy W. Hubbard,
orthopedic surgeon of the New York State Health Department, to come down and
take a professional look. Dr. Hubbard observed twenty-three patients for periods of
from five to seven weeks each between June and December of 1926. At the close of
the season, a detailed report of each case was sent to three prominent orthopedic sur
geons, all of whom had sent patients to Warm Springs. Each patient had seemed to
improve, and some showed marked improvement.
That convinced the man from Hyde Park. His dream of a center for after-care of
infantile paralysis at Warm Springs had been growing now professional opinion


Learning to walk againa familiar scene
at the Warm Springs Foundation.
Townspeople of Warm Springs always
greeted Franklin D. Roosevelt as a friend
and neighbor, when he arrived at the
little station in the village.
Occupational therapy plays a prominent
part in rehabilitating polio patients. This
boy is learning to operate an electric
typewriter.


gave sinews to the dream. With four other men whose interest he obtained, he formed
the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation, a non-stock, non-profit institution. The in
corporators were Mr. Roosevelt, George Foster Peabody, Basil O'Connor, Herbert N.
Straus, and Louis McH. Howe.
The new Foundation had two objectives:
1) To use the natural facilities of Warm Springs and the skill of an able, carefully-
selected professional staff for the direct aid of patients.
2) To pass on to the medical profession and to hospitals throughout the land any
useful observations or special methods of proved merit resulting from this
specialized work, which might be applied elsewhere.
So it was, in 1927, that gentlemen in plus-fours collected their golf clubs and checked
out of Meriwether Inn. Ramps replaced the front porch stairs, and men, women and
children in wheelchairs, on crutches or with canes, checked in. Women in crisp white
uniforms replaced women in sports clothes.
And an unseen guest checked into the old Inn, not as a transient but as a permanent
resident. Her name was Hope.
m eorgia Warm Springs Foundation of 1927 consisted of the old Meriwether
B "T Inn, several guest cottages and the old resort pool. It was called "the
M Colony, because of its residential appearance. According to Reinette
Lovewell Donnelly, one of the early patients, it "looked like any oldtime
hostelry in any quiet mountain resort of the Eastern states. Porch chairs,
a great dining room with negro waiters, parked automobiles with state licenses from
far and near, big trees of oak and pine, and under them a midget golf course. Only
after a first look did you see the fleet of wheelchairs filled, for the most part, with
youth, and the crutches, canes, braces. But nothing there seemed like a hospital or
sanitorium. It had the spirit of a country club.
Nevertheless, in 1927, seventy-one patients were treated, and there was a staff of
110 medical and other employees. There were 700 patients in 1946 and 226 employees.
Dr. Hubbard was the first medical director. He served until December 1, 1931, when
Dr. Michael Hoke, Atlanta orthopedist, became Surgeon-in-Chief.
The Foundation grew rapidly, amazing the associates of the man from Hyde Park,
who travelled frequently to Warm Springs with him, fired by his enthusiasm. Not even
Basil O'Connor, to whom Mr. Roosevelt turned over the direction of Warm Springs
in 1928 on becoming Governor of New York State, foresaw in those days what this
Foundation was to be.
Mr. O'Connor shared his former law partner's expressed belief: "In my opinion
it would be a mistake to think of the Foundation as just a hospital. It is all of that and
more ... But, in those days, before Mr. Roosevelt even had built his own cottage on
the grounds and long before he had any intimation that he would occupy a Little
White House there, who could have realized that the Indians' old healing springs and
the run-down summer resort would be sponsored by the whole American people
through a celebration of the President's Birthday each year, leading to the establish
ment of a public-supported National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis?
The first signs of growth were in 1928, when a glass-enclosed patients' pool was
built with a gift from Mr. and Mrs. Edsel Ford. Then came the Norman Wilson In
firmary, a small building to house patients with small illnesses, built in 1930 at a cost
of $40,000 raised directly by patients and their friends and named for a Philadelphia
patient who had died shortly after he left Warm Springs. There followed, in 1933,
Georgia Hall, the present administration building, built with $125,000 contributed
by the citizens of Georgia, the state President Roosevelt regarded as his "second home.


Then, in 1935, came two dormitories housing forty-five patients. Kress Hall was
built with funds largely donated by Samuel H., Rush H. and Claude W. Kress, and
Builders Hall with money donated by friends of the builders, Hageman and Harris
of New York City. That same year a playhouse was created by remodelling the old
outdoor dance pavilion of Meriwether Inn, through the generosity of the Honorable
Frank C. Walker and the late Michael E. Comerford. Its here present patients of the
Foundation see their movies Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays, movies provided
free of charge by Atlanta distributors. They also put on their own special shows, hear
visiting lecturers.
The Chapel was erected in 1937, the donation principally of Miss Georgia M.
Wilkins, one of the former owners of Meriwether Inn and the springs. The Brace
Shop, where appliances are made and fitted and adjusted to patients, came into being
in 1938. The School and Occupational Therapy Building went up in 1939, housing a
school, library and craft shop, gift of Mrs. S. Pinkney Tuck.
But the biggest step forward was the opening of the Medical Building, a complete
orthopedic hospital where today an average of 200 operations a year are performed.
Before 1939 patients in need of surgery had to travel to Atlanta, seventy-two miles
away, for such services. Last year, on June 15, 1946, a new east wing was added to the
Medical Building, bringing the capacity of the building from fifty-five to 141, or
the major part of the Foundations roster of 165 at any one time.
There is today a Physical Therapy Post-Graduate School at Warm Springs, set up
in 1941, to train physical therapists in the specialized care of polio patients. The
campus pool, where all hydrotherapy is given now, was erected in 1942.
The old Meriwether Inn is no more. It was razed to make way for Kress and Builders
Halls. Some of its cottages still stand one on the campus. There are thirty-six Foun
dation-owned cottages today.
The Foundation has become a complete community, a village unto itself. It com
prises about 4500 acres of land, of which twenty-five are landscaped and tended, and
includes what used to be the Roosevelt farm 2500 acres, 100 of which are cultivated.
There are ten miles of red clay road winding through this acreage, every mile of it
maintained by the Foundation.
The Foundation has its own heating plant, laundry, commissary, fire department,
even its own golf course and an 1800 volume library. Patients are transported from
trains and airports by modern ambulance and passenger car.
wenty years of growth have touched the clearing in the pine woods with
I a transforming finger. But it did not all happen at Warm Springs,
The new buildings that went up, the new interest that mounted, the
wider ripples of hope that spread from Warm Springs throughout the
nation were made possible by the generosity of a people who shared the dream of the
man from Hyde Park. For in 1932 they elected him thirty-first President of the United
States, and in 1934 they became his partners in supporting the Georgia Warm Springs
Foundation.
On January 30, 1934, the first Birthday Balls in celebration of the Presidents birth
day were held throughout the land. They were sponsored by the American people for
the benefit of the polio center their President had brought into being at Warm Springs?
More than $1,000,000 was raised that first year and it happened again in 1935,
1936, 1937.
By that time, the horizons of the dream had begun to grow.
The President continued to come to Warm Springs for periodic check-ups and treat
ment, living in the simple six-room house he nad built on the grounds in 1932, the


There is plenty of time for games and en-
tertainment at Warm Springs. Georgia
Hall has such gatherings every evening.
The dining room in Georgia Hall is arranged to ac
commodate patients in wheelchairs.
Warm Springs has its own brace shop so
that patients may be expertly fitted with
appliances to help them walk again.
The pool at Warm Springs. The water
comes from a natural spring and flows into
the pool at a constant temperature of 88
degrees.
The new Medical Building is one of the
most complete treatment centers in the
country.


Everything is done to help tiny tots lead
normal lives at Warm Springs.
Around the piano in Georgia Hall. Com
munity singing always is popular.
The Chapel is in the central group of build
ings. Here devotional services of various
denominations are held.
Surgery, sometimes necessary in the treat
ment of patients, is performed in this op
erating room.
Everybody goes to the movies, including those on
stretchers and in wheelchairs.


house destined to be known as "the Little White House." His visits were among the
happiest periods of his life. Each trip, from the moment he stepped down the ramp
from his special train at the tiny Warm Springs station, to be greeted by the villagers,
until he drove himself in his blue automobile with specially-constructed driving con
trols, followed by Secret Service men, for a last look at Shiloh Valley from the top of
Pine Mountain, he was "one of the Foundation gang" that man from Hyde Park,
seeking strength and health and happiness.
But much as he loved the place, he realized it was not the whole answer to the prob
lems of infantile paralysis patients. Obviously, the Foundation, with its limited number
of beds, could not take care of all the infantile paralysis patients in the country. Were
there enough other places equipped and staffed to give good treatment for the after
effects of infantile paralysis? Then, too, new victims of the disease appeared each
year. What were scientists doing in the field of research to find out what caused in
fantile paralysis and discover a preventive or cure?
An effort to answer these two questions came on January 3, 1938, when the National
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis was formed, with Basil O'Connor as president. The
new Foundation was to "lead, direct and unify the fight against infantile paralysis.
Since that time, all the funds raised in January of each year have been for the National
Foundation; the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation has been one of its grantees.
A large percentage of today's patients at Warm Springs, who always have been
preponderantly part-pay or no-pay patients, are financed by their local Chapters
of the National Foundation. There are more than 2,700 such Chapters in the country,
whose job it is to give financial assistance to infantile paralysis patients whose families
cannot pay all the cost of adequate treatment.
Many more are financed for care and treatment at hospitals in all forty-eight states
which have opened their doors to polio patients. Many hospitals now have polio wards
staffed and equipped in part with funds from National Foundation Chapters. Physi
cians, nurses, physical therapists, medical social workers, health educators, medical
record librarians and others have been trained with March of Dimes money for expert
care and treatment of infantile paralysis patients, wherever they might be. Warm
Springs is not the only place where excellent modern treatment for infantile paralysis
can be obtained today, although it still is the only complete hospital exclusively for
infantile paralysis cases.
Today, too, one of the largest medical research programs in history is under way,
financed by the people of the United States through the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis. The President had appointed a research commission in 1937 to
ascertain the need for nationally coordinated and financed research seeking to solve
the mystery of infantile paralysis. He tested his own idea that it was needed, much as
he had tried out the idea of a treatment center at Warm Springs by getting professional
advice. The recommendations of the commission have been followed with projects
totalling almost $13,000,000 for research and education since 1938, results of which
in knowledge of the disease and its proper care have been noticeable everywhere,
even though the ultimate goal of prevention or cure has not yet been attained.
All this activity, the improvement that has come about throughout the nation in
twenty years, was touched off by the vision of the man from Hyde Park and the co
operation of the millions of citizens whose destiny he guided for almost thirteen years.
Its birthplace was Warm Springs, Georgia.


any changes have come to the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation since
1927, but in some ways it hasnt changed at all.
"It is not the policy of the trustees to develop Warm Springs into
either a hospital or a sanitorium, reads an early report. "Warm Springs
does and always will offer people the facilities to live normal lives to
receive treatment and to be instilled with new hope, a new philosophy of thinking and
a mental therapy which, after all, is the heart and soul of physical therapy."
Of course, it is a hospital now, and an excellent one, but that spirit of normalcy
prevails within its walls and among its colonnades, none the less.
When the sun is bright on the clean white sides of Georgia Hall, and pine tree
shadows fall across the green campus, stretchers appear on the balcony porch of the
Medical Buildings, wheelchairs gather on the concrete walking area under the balcony,
ambulatory patients find a place in the sun. Even then, you are struck with the resort
like, the college-like, the country-club spirit of the place. For these are men and women,
boys and girls, who have come to improve their physical condition and to grow, study,
learn, play, make friends, fall in love, be happy while they are doing it.
They are following a high tradition. For each of them, the founder of Georgia Warm
Springs is an inspiration. He, too, did what they are doing his life, which was a great
one, was bound Up in this place. And he learned to rise above his afflictions. They feel
they will, too.
To them the newly-won prominence of Warm Springs as an historic site is personal
distinction. The white-shingled cottage caressed by thick foliage that has been empty
since April 12, 1945, is more than a national or international shrine to them. It is the
focal point of their interest, the visible evidence that Franklin D. Roosevelt lived here.
The Little White House itself is a simple, though charming, building set at the side
of a hill which is one of many surrounding the Foundation campus. Its unpretentious
ness, the informality of its furnishings, the vista of woods and valley glimpsed from its
stone terrace are typical of the man who built the house, lived in it, died there. But they
are typical of Georgia Warm Springs Foundation, too. Its all of a piece. Pine-panelled
walls, big stone fireplaces, hooked rugs, overflowing bookcases these are everywhere
at the Foundation. All the patients, and the Foundation staff as well, belong to it and
it belongs to them.
They dont stay here long, most of the patients. The average stay is 100 days. For
most, Warm Springs performs no miracles, nor do the patients expect miracles. They
may walk out of the gates with or without braces, may leave knowing they are scheduled
to return later on. But they carry with them that sense of belonging to a special fra
ternity, all the members of which understand a little better what they have done and
what they must do. Theirs is a proud faith in themselves to face the future with the
spirit of Warm Springs, of the man in the Little White House.
day before Franklin D. Roosevelt went away from Warm Springs for
the last time, he got in his familiar blue car and drove out to Dowdells
Knob, a flat shelf atop Pine Mountain which was his favorite look-out
station. He dismissed his guards and companions, sat there alone behind
the wheel of his car, looking over the green sweep of Shiloh Valley to the
pinkish hills. He sat for two hours.
Nobody knows his thoughts that day, nor ever will. But those who knew him best at
Warm Springs recalled something he had often said to them.
"You know, he used to say, "when we get hopeless patients, we ought to bring
them out here and let them look at this valley. If they can do it and not be inspired, then
well know they are really hopeless not before.
A look at the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation, over the valley of its twenty years
of existence, also presents a vista of hope.


The Little White House as it
looks from the entrance drive.
Franklin D. Roosevelt relaxing on the
rear terrace of the Little White
House overlooking the mountains
and valley.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's
favorite chair in which
he was fatally stricken.


he average American, knowing the social, financial, educational and cul
tural background of Franklin D. Roosevelt, is surprised by his first look
at the late President's Georgia home. It is an informal, inexpensive little
six-room house, the sort many ordinary men could and do build, in which
most men feel completely at home.
As an historical monument, the Little White House more closely resembles Lincoln's
log cabin than Jefferson's Monticello. There are a few unusual features: the glass wall
of the living room looking out on the rear terrace, the front and rear porches that
resemble those of the White House in Washington. But the whole place gives the
impression of being a masculine retreat, a house that illustrates the complete simplicity
of the man, rather than a decorator's dream.
The house is about sixty by thirty-two feet in size, of general southern Colonial
architecture, built low to the ground. The foundation is of white-washed stone, the
exterior walls white painted wood, the roof asbestos shingles. The shutters are green.
Rambler roses climb the columns of the front porch. It was built in 1932 for a total
cost of $8,700. Much of its raw material was locally produced. Most of the interiors
walls and ceilings are of unvarnished natural pine, the fireplace of fieldstone. Floors,
too, are of local lumber, stained darker than the walls.
The house bears few marks of having been built for what Warm Springs patients
call a "polio." Except for the doors that have no sills and the bathroom fixtures, which
are raised on cement blocks, there are no special conveniences. The hooked rugs surely
had to be moved before a wheelchair could maneuver around the furniture; there's a
metal floor grill covering a heating vent in front of the President's bedroom that must
have been an obstacle, too. No helping rails anywhere not a mirror Set at wheelchair
height. Perhaps the absence of special effects tells something about the man who
lived here.
The floor plan is simple. You enter a foyer, beyond which is a large living room,
which also was used as a dining room. A bedroom opens off either side of this room,
and another bedroom and the kitchen open off the foyer. There are two baths. From
the living room can be seen the stone terrace that overlooks the peaceful valley.
The furnishings are a mixture of old and new; old ladderback chairs and a fine welsh
dresser, a mohair davenport, chromium lamps with white parchment shades, an oval
Victorian mirror here, a stamped brass ashtray there and over each door leading
from the living room a painted plaster-bas-relief of a sailing vessel. No attempt at
"period design" nor "modern effect." Just rooms the living room meant for chatting
with friends before the open fireplace, the bedrooms strictly for sleeping purposes
with no distracting book shelves, radios or other gadgets.
The living room has the most to say to visitors. A room that definitely looks "lived
in," it contains books and a collection of miscellaneous objects probably presented
by friends and relatives. None of the objects is elaborate or a "collector's item." The
books run the gamut of law, economics, politics, international affairs, Wilson biogra
phies and murder mysteries, the latter mostly paper-backed pocket editions. There are
a number of fine old prints and quite a few ship models, including some in shadow-
boxes and several in bottles. One of the shadow-boxes still has its cereal label showing.
Your eye will fall at once on the brown leather club chair with nailheads and an
insert of gray velvet in the seat to make it skidproof. This was the chair in which the
President was fatally stricken while sitting for his portrait on April 12, 1945. Next to
this chair is a nest of tables, with a plain red string doily and a chromium ashtray with
a lighter in the form of a penguin. On the floor by the fireplace are two woven reed
waste baskets.
The President's bedroom has in it an oversized single pine bed with white candle-
wick spread, a small night table with glass lamp, parchment-shaded, one arm chair with
wheels, one ladderback chair with red and white woven seat pad, one straight armchair,
a pine chest with three drawers and a pencil sharpener screwed to it, a square blanket
chest, desk and swivel desk chair. The drapes are of cretonne with a chrysan
themum pattern in white, red, green and yellow; there is a hooked throw rug by the


bed in white, green, red and orange. On the walls are photographs of the two Dali
grandchildren, a three-sectioned folding mirror in a wood and plaster frame, and a
photograph of the south garden at Hyde Park showing flowers in bloom around the
spot which today holds the President's grave.
The other bedroom off the living room has white monkscloth drapes, white bed
spread with multi-colored flowers, a rust-colored rug, a green cretonne boudoir chair, a
small walnut desk, a blanket chest and two maps of the State of Georgia and the
Warm Springs Foundation on the walls.
The guest bedroom off the foyer has the same drapes as the President's room, with
yellow and white candlewick spreads on its twin beds, a brown cretonne boudoir chair,
green and pink Axminster rug, two lamps, a long mirror on the door and, on the
wall, an etching of a mule.
The kitchen and baths are far from luxurious. Green plaid marbleized linoleum on
the kitchen floor, walls and ceiling of unvarnished natural pine. Green oilcloth covers
the shelves and a wooden table. Canisters are red and green. There are an electric range,
an old sink with a wooden drainboard, several Georgia mountain type ladder chairs.
The china is white English type with fluting, the silver the same as that used in Georgia
Hall. The bathrooms are not tiled; white cotton curtains and lavender throw rug are
used in the one adjoining the President's bedroom.
The total effect of the house is informal comfortable happy. It was never a
"showplace," nor ever meant to be. The sentry-box entrance and hand-painted sign
saying ''Little White House" are all that distinguish it from other houses of similar
size and architecture. Yet from its friendly, cluttered, familiar interior, its conventional,
pretty tree-ringed exterior, comes the feeling of a home. It was here, at home, Franklin
D. Roosevelt lived. Here he came for rest. Here he died.
Franklin D. Roosevelt spent many
happy hours in front of this fireplace.




Early trustees of the Warm Springs Foundation. Left to right,
front: Dr. LeRoy W. Hubbard; Franklin D. Roosevelt; Leighton
McCarthy. Left to right, back: George Foster Peabody; Basil
O'Connor; Frank C. Root.


(Djjicebs
Basil OConnor President and Treasurer
George E. Allen Vice President
Keith L. Morgan Vice President
William F. Snyder Vice President and Secretary
Stephen V. Ryan, Jr Vice President and Assistant Secretary
Fred Botts Assistant Secretary
C. W. Bussey Assistant Treasurer
L. D. Cannon Assistant Treasurer
Raymond H. Taylor Assistant Treasurer
Executive Committee
John S. Burke Chairman
Vincent Cullen Clarence G. Michalis Basil OConnor
John C. Hegeman Jeremiah Milbank Louis H. Pink
William F. Snyder General Counsel
Raymond H. Taylor Executive Secretary
Jdcdica!
C. E. Irwin, M.D Chief Surgeon
Stuart Raper, M.D Internist
J. A. Johnson, M.D Consulting Physician
Robert L. Bennett, M.D., M.S Director of Physical Medicine
Bessie Mae Crowe, R.N Superintendent of Nurses
Mrs. W. A. Stewart, Jr X-Ray and Laboratory Technician
Mrs. J. O. Caldwell Corsetiere
Helen Vaughn Chief Physical Therapist
Genevieve S. Collins . Assistant Chief Physical Therapist
Physical Uheftafiy pest-^/iaJuate Scheet
Robert L. Bennett, M.D., M.S Director
Alice Lou Plastridge ... Assistant Director
Genevieve S. Collins Instructor in Physical Therapy
Helen Vaughn Instructor in Physical Therapy
Mrs. Hazel R. Stephens Recreational Director
Lamoille Langworthy Instructor
Betty Schlosser Instructor
School and Occupational Uheftajiy
Mrs. Hoke S. Shipp Director of School
Jeanette Ann Neal Director of Occupational Therapy
Administration
C. W. Bussey Business Manager
L. D. Cannon Assistant Business Manager
B. V. Davis Auditor
Admissions
Fred Botts
Registrar


Nothing jr to my
the health o* ^ur bov* -
men and
young
Franklin D. Roosevelt





# # #
Franklin D. Roosevelt is alive today in the hearts and
minds of many men. His service to his country and to the
world needs no monument for remembering.
And yet it is here, in Warm Springs, Georgia, the scene
of his own struggles against physical disability, that he is
most alive. For here he brought courage to others who had
had infantile paralysis. Here he showed others how to con
quer fear.
Today, as we dedicate his Georgia home, the Little White
House, as a national and international shrine, we feel his
presence. Whatever other accomplishments may keep his name
great throughout history, here at Warm Springs the memory
of the man is kept bright. These rooms he lived in, these hills
he loved, these red clay roads he delighted in driving over,
all are reminders. But mostly, he is alive in the spirit of the
patients here.
Georgia Warm Springs Foundation this year is celebrating
the twentieth anniversary of its founding. It is natural for
those of us who for a score of years have known that wave
of the hand at the Warm Springs railroad station and seen
that smiling face in front of Georgia Hall, to feel the presence
of the founder. And yet those who are visiting here for the
first time today will sense it, too. It is in the faces of patients
sunning on the campus, laughing in the dining room, drinking
cokes at the gift shop or golf house.
It is the spirit of Warm Springs, and it flows through from
him. How can I describe it? Debonair? Undismayed? One
man put it here in the beginning, fanned it, watched it grow.
And it is here today, just as strong as before April 12, 1945,
when Franklin D. Roosevelt died in the Little White House.
So long as there are boys and girls whose faces light with
hope, men and women who are standard-bearers in the fight
for a good, a wholesome and a happy life despite physical
handicap just so long will Franklin D. Roosevelt be
gloriously alive.
President of the
Georgia Warm Springs Foundation
and the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis.
June 25, 1947


GEORGIA WARM SPRINGS SCHOOL, THE FOUNDATION. WARM SPRINGS, GA.


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MARCH OF DIMES
THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR INFANTILE PARALYSIS
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, FOUNDER
BASIL OCONNOR, PRESIDENT
^Loxid a
JOE C. HALL
STATE CHAIRMAN
275 N. W. SECOND ST.
MIAMI
THOMAS D. BAILEY
STATE EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE
COACH BOB WOODRUFF
SPORTS BENEFITS
GAINESVILLE
MRS. A. KEITH BLACK
STATE ADVISER
WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES
LAKE CITY
MRS. CARL DUNAWAY
STATE ADVISOR
WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES
MIAMI
MARION T. JEFFRIES
REPRESENTATIVE
FLORIDA (SOUTH)
ORLANDO
BENSON SKELTON
REPRESENTATIVE
FLORIDA (NORTH)
TALLAHASSEE
Give
Voluntarily
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PBIDAY, APRIL 26, 1946
Little Miss Edna Ray Black, daughter of Mr. an j Mrs, A. K,
r*>IBIack, celebrated her seventh birthday at Hope Havan, April first.
Her parents gave a party for the 65 crippled children, the nurses
and a few friends, They served turkey sandwiches, cake and ice
cream. Colored hats were given as favors which were made by
-the patients who are able to attend school.
Pictures were taken and the group joined in singing Happy
HsBirthday to the honoree. She received many fine gifts anti cards
mfrom friends all over the state, and would like to express her
I deep appreciation for everyone's thoughtfulnessi






Full Text



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Georgia Hallcenter of the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation,
built by contributions from citizens of Georgia.

Georgia Warm Springs was established to help polio patients lead
normal lives. Franklin D. Roosevelt used an automobile with spe
cial equipment which he could drive while at the Little White House.

n the beginning there were the springs, gushing warm out of the earth
in a silent sea of pines. There, legend has it, Indians of the Creek con
federacy in Georgia, Alabama and northern Florida brought their
wounded warriorsto bathe in the springs, after all other efforts to heal
their injuries had failed. A stricken warrior was granted safe conduct
through territories of hostile tribes, if his destination was "the warm springs." Thus,
the springs became an influence for peace, a sort of inter-tribal sanctum in the
wilderness.
The atmosphere of peace still pervades the clearing in the pine woods, known today
throughout the world as the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation. In a sense, those
who come there also are granted safe conduct through the suddenly hostile territory
of the "normal" world to which they once belonged, from which they have become
separated by their affliction by infantile paralysis. Their safe conduct pass is the wish
of their fellow-men to see them become well and strong again, a wish given reality
through streams of dimes and dollars to ease the way.
Although the magical properties of the warm springs long have been discredited,
the waters are used to a greater extent and for more wounded warriors than ever
the Creek Indians could have imagined. They have become one of many routes to
health and strength offered at the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation.
Geologists have explained how the rain that falls on Pine Mountain, several miles
away, descends 3800 feet to a vast pocket of rock, is warmed by the inner earth and
returned to the surface, at a rate of 800 gallons each minute and a temperature of
88 degrees F. Engineers have calculated it would require twenty tons of coal every
twenty-four hours, to duplicate nature's water-heating performance at Warm Springs.
Thus it is that this spot naturally attracted, first, people who sought warm-water
bathing for recreation, later, cripples seeking warm-water treatment for their ills.
But it took another kind of magic to transform the Indians' warm springs and the
white man's holiday retreat into the first and largest hospital for the treatment of
the after-effects of infantile paralysis, mother of the infantile paralysis movement
in the United States.
It was the magic of a vision possessed by one man, who dreamed it into being.
alf a century ago, Warm Springs, Georgia, was a small summer resort for
people seeking relief from sultry cities and air adulterated with smoke
from multiplying chimneys of the new industrial age. There, on the site
of a post tavern on a military highway leading to Columbus, Georgia,
the Meriwether Inn did a thriving seasonal business. A large, rambling
building with gingerbread on its roofline, gables galore, curlicues in woodwork to
shame an old-fashioned penman and contours unclassifiable in architecture, it wel
comed two generations of guests who, in the early days, arrived by stagecoach from
the railroad depot at Durand, Georgia. The nearest village was Bullochville, which
took the name of Warm Springs in 1924.
In the early 1900's the automobile proved that it could take Georgians farther away
for relaxation, and Meriwether Inn went into decline. By 1924 it had become a run
down resort, still gracious with hospitality, still loved by a few who had known it
in more fashionable days, but hardly to be suspected of future growth or importance.
To Meriwether Inn, in the fall of 1924, came a private citizen from Hyde Park,
New York. He was a man in the prime of life who had been stricken by infantile
paralysis. His legs were useless. Improvement had been agonizingly slow for three
years. But Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Warm Springs to try to overcome his
crippling condition and to give the sleepy little village and the waning resort a new,
meaningful destiny in the doing.

He didn't know that, then. Nobody knew. He came because his friend, George
Foster Peabody, who had purchased an interest in old Meriwether Inn from its original
owners, Charles Davis and his niece, Miss Georgia M. Wilkins, told him about a
young man who had had infantile paralysis, who swam in the warm springs and
appeared to improve. Private Citizen Roosevelt stayed only a few weeks, but it was
the first of many visits, visits which were to change not only his own life but the
lives of many others who, like him, had had infantile paralysis. And here twenty-one
years later fate ordained that his life's work should end.
n those early days he swam in the public pool, located about 500 yards
from the shabby elegance of Meriwether Inn. He swam, and was startled
into belief in his own progress by the greater ease with which he was able
to move his lame legs under water. He was discovering, for himself, the
value of hydro-therapy, an ancient healing art that today has become
part of the flowering profession of physical medicine.
Not a scientist, and without medical background, Mr. Roosevelt could not explain
what was happening, as he progressed after many patient hours of exercise in the warm
buoyant waters of the resort pool. He consulted the local country doctor, Dr. James
Johnson; together they tried to figure it out on the basis of physical facts. Which mus
cles were used? How could one test their returning strength? The two men didn't find
the answers but they set the stage for later, scientific work along these very lines.
Dr. Johnson, still practicing in the neighboring town of Manchester, remembers a
crude muscle chart prepared by Unofficial Hydro-therapist Roosevelt that was used to
guide other infantile paralysis victims as they came to Warm Springs to follow Mr.
Roosevelt's example. For they came. How they came! By ones and twos, then five,
finally, that first year, a total of seventeen patients uninvited, unprovided for, drawn
by accounts in the newspapers of Fraqklin D. Roosevelt's efforts to "swim his way to
health.''
One of the first of these was young Fred Botts of Elizabethville, Pa., a recent college
graduate who had been studying singing in New York when infantile paralysis cut
short his career. Mr. Botts, today Registrar of the Georgia Warm Springs Founda
tion, remembers vividly the bewilderment, the confusion, the misunderstandings of
those old days. Regular resort guests protested the use of the pool by polio patients
for fear of "catching" the disease, forcing Tom Loyless, manager of Meriwether Inn,
to bar even the use of the regular dining room to the "pariahs." These men and women
seeking strength for their crippled bodies ate their meals for some time in a separate
dining room in the basement of the Inn.
Mr. Roosevelt, on his own, built a small treatment pool twenty-five or thirty yards
from the public pool, where he and his "gang" could continue their unsupervised, un
regulated, groping efforts to reduce their afflictions in the warm water of the springs.
But that wasn't enough, and Mr. Roosevelt knew it. He sought scientific appraisal
of what was happening.
In 1926, having observed that other patients, too, thought they had been benefited
by their sojourns at Warm Springs, Mr. Roosevelt invited Dr. LeRoy W. Hubbard,
orthopedic surgeon of the New York State Health Department, to come down and
take a professional look. Dr. Hubbard observed twenty-three patients for periods of
from five to seven weeks each between June and December of 1926. At the close of
the season, a detailed report of each case was sent to three prominent orthopedic sur
geons, all of whom had sent patients to Warm Springs. Each patient had seemed to
improve, and some showed marked improvement.
That convinced the man from Hyde Park. His dream of a center for after-care of
infantile paralysis at Warm Springs had been growing now professional opinion

Learning to walk againa familiar scene
at the Warm Springs Foundation.
Townspeople of Warm Springs always
greeted Franklin D. Roosevelt as a friend
and neighbor, when he arrived at the
little station in the village.
Occupational therapy plays a prominent
part in rehabilitating polio patients. This
boy is learning to operate an electric
typewriter.

gave sinews to the dream. With four other men whose interest he obtained, he formed
the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation, a non-stock, non-profit institution. The in
corporators were Mr. Roosevelt, George Foster Peabody, Basil O'Connor, Herbert N.
Straus, and Louis McH. Howe.
The new Foundation had two objectives:
1) To use the natural facilities of Warm Springs and the skill of an able, carefully-
selected professional staff for the direct aid of patients.
2) To pass on to the medical profession and to hospitals throughout the land any
useful observations or special methods of proved merit resulting from this
specialized work, which might be applied elsewhere.
So it was, in 1927, that gentlemen in plus-fours collected their golf clubs and checked
out of Meriwether Inn. Ramps replaced the front porch stairs, and men, women and
children in wheelchairs, on crutches or with canes, checked in. Women in crisp white
uniforms replaced women in sports clothes.
And an unseen guest checked into the old Inn, not as a transient but as a permanent
resident. Her name was Hope.
m eorgia Warm Springs Foundation of 1927 consisted of the old Meriwether
B "T Inn, several guest cottages and the old resort pool. It was called "the
M Colony, because of its residential appearance. According to Reinette
Lovewell Donnelly, one of the early patients, it "looked like any oldtime
hostelry in any quiet mountain resort of the Eastern states. Porch chairs,
a great dining room with negro waiters, parked automobiles with state licenses from
far and near, big trees of oak and pine, and under them a midget golf course. Only
after a first look did you see the fleet of wheelchairs filled, for the most part, with
youth, and the crutches, canes, braces. But nothing there seemed like a hospital or
sanitorium. It had the spirit of a country club.
Nevertheless, in 1927, seventy-one patients were treated, and there was a staff of
110 medical and other employees. There were 700 patients in 1946 and 226 employees.
Dr. Hubbard was the first medical director. He served until December 1, 1931, when
Dr. Michael Hoke, Atlanta orthopedist, became Surgeon-in-Chief.
The Foundation grew rapidly, amazing the associates of the man from Hyde Park,
who travelled frequently to Warm Springs with him, fired by his enthusiasm. Not even
Basil O'Connor, to whom Mr. Roosevelt turned over the direction of Warm Springs
in 1928 on becoming Governor of New York State, foresaw in those days what this
Foundation was to be.
Mr. O'Connor shared his former law partner's expressed belief: "In my opinion
it would be a mistake to think of the Foundation as just a hospital. It is all of that and
more ... But, in those days, before Mr. Roosevelt even had built his own cottage on
the grounds and long before he had any intimation that he would occupy a Little
White House there, who could have realized that the Indians' old healing springs and
the run-down summer resort would be sponsored by the whole American people
through a celebration of the President's Birthday each year, leading to the establish
ment of a public-supported National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis?
The first signs of growth were in 1928, when a glass-enclosed patients' pool was
built with a gift from Mr. and Mrs. Edsel Ford. Then came the Norman Wilson In
firmary, a small building to house patients with small illnesses, built in 1930 at a cost
of $40,000 raised directly by patients and their friends and named for a Philadelphia
patient who had died shortly after he left Warm Springs. There followed, in 1933,
Georgia Hall, the present administration building, built with $125,000 contributed
by the citizens of Georgia, the state President Roosevelt regarded as his "second home.

Then, in 1935, came two dormitories housing forty-five patients. Kress Hall was
built with funds largely donated by Samuel H., Rush H. and Claude W. Kress, and
Builders Hall with money donated by friends of the builders, Hageman and Harris
of New York City. That same year a playhouse was created by remodelling the old
outdoor dance pavilion of Meriwether Inn, through the generosity of the Honorable
Frank C. Walker and the late Michael E. Comerford. Its here present patients of the
Foundation see their movies Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays, movies provided
free of charge by Atlanta distributors. They also put on their own special shows, hear
visiting lecturers.
The Chapel was erected in 1937, the donation principally of Miss Georgia M.
Wilkins, one of the former owners of Meriwether Inn and the springs. The Brace
Shop, where appliances are made and fitted and adjusted to patients, came into being
in 1938. The School and Occupational Therapy Building went up in 1939, housing a
school, library and craft shop, gift of Mrs. S. Pinkney Tuck.
But the biggest step forward was the opening of the Medical Building, a complete
orthopedic hospital where today an average of 200 operations a year are performed.
Before 1939 patients in need of surgery had to travel to Atlanta, seventy-two miles
away, for such services. Last year, on June 15, 1946, a new east wing was added to the
Medical Building, bringing the capacity of the building from fifty-five to 141, or
the major part of the Foundations roster of 165 at any one time.
There is today a Physical Therapy Post-Graduate School at Warm Springs, set up
in 1941, to train physical therapists in the specialized care of polio patients. The
campus pool, where all hydrotherapy is given now, was erected in 1942.
The old Meriwether Inn is no more. It was razed to make way for Kress and Builders
Halls. Some of its cottages still stand one on the campus. There are thirty-six Foun
dation-owned cottages today.
The Foundation has become a complete community, a village unto itself. It com
prises about 4500 acres of land, of which twenty-five are landscaped and tended, and
includes what used to be the Roosevelt farm 2500 acres, 100 of which are cultivated.
There are ten miles of red clay road winding through this acreage, every mile of it
maintained by the Foundation.
The Foundation has its own heating plant, laundry, commissary, fire department,
even its own golf course and an 1800 volume library. Patients are transported from
trains and airports by modern ambulance and passenger car.
wenty years of growth have touched the clearing in the pine woods with
I a transforming finger. But it did not all happen at Warm Springs,
The new buildings that went up, the new interest that mounted, the
wider ripples of hope that spread from Warm Springs throughout the
nation were made possible by the generosity of a people who shared the dream of the
man from Hyde Park. For in 1932 they elected him thirty-first President of the United
States, and in 1934 they became his partners in supporting the Georgia Warm Springs
Foundation.
On January 30, 1934, the first Birthday Balls in celebration of the Presidents birth
day were held throughout the land. They were sponsored by the American people for
the benefit of the polio center their President had brought into being at Warm Springs?
More than $1,000,000 was raised that first year and it happened again in 1935,
1936, 1937.
By that time, the horizons of the dream had begun to grow.
The President continued to come to Warm Springs for periodic check-ups and treat
ment, living in the simple six-room house he nad built on the grounds in 1932, the

There is plenty of time for games and en-
tertainment at Warm Springs. Georgia
Hall has such gatherings every evening.
The dining room in Georgia Hall is arranged to ac
commodate patients in wheelchairs.
Warm Springs has its own brace shop so
that patients may be expertly fitted with
appliances to help them walk again.
The pool at Warm Springs. The water
comes from a natural spring and flows into
the pool at a constant temperature of 88
degrees.
The new Medical Building is one of the
most complete treatment centers in the
country.

Everything is done to help tiny tots lead
normal lives at Warm Springs.
Around the piano in Georgia Hall. Com
munity singing always is popular.
The Chapel is in the central group of build
ings. Here devotional services of various
denominations are held.
Surgery, sometimes necessary in the treat
ment of patients, is performed in this op
erating room.
Everybody goes to the movies, including those on
stretchers and in wheelchairs.

house destined to be known as "the Little White House." His visits were among the
happiest periods of his life. Each trip, from the moment he stepped down the ramp
from his special train at the tiny Warm Springs station, to be greeted by the villagers,
until he drove himself in his blue automobile with specially-constructed driving con
trols, followed by Secret Service men, for a last look at Shiloh Valley from the top of
Pine Mountain, he was "one of the Foundation gang" that man from Hyde Park,
seeking strength and health and happiness.
But much as he loved the place, he realized it was not the whole answer to the prob
lems of infantile paralysis patients. Obviously, the Foundation, with its limited number
of beds, could not take care of all the infantile paralysis patients in the country. Were
there enough other places equipped and staffed to give good treatment for the after
effects of infantile paralysis? Then, too, new victims of the disease appeared each
year. What were scientists doing in the field of research to find out what caused in
fantile paralysis and discover a preventive or cure?
An effort to answer these two questions came on January 3, 1938, when the National
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis was formed, with Basil O'Connor as president. The
new Foundation was to "lead, direct and unify the fight against infantile paralysis.
Since that time, all the funds raised in January of each year have been for the National
Foundation; the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation has been one of its grantees.
A large percentage of today's patients at Warm Springs, who always have been
preponderantly part-pay or no-pay patients, are financed by their local Chapters
of the National Foundation. There are more than 2,700 such Chapters in the country,
whose job it is to give financial assistance to infantile paralysis patients whose families
cannot pay all the cost of adequate treatment.
Many more are financed for care and treatment at hospitals in all forty-eight states
which have opened their doors to polio patients. Many hospitals now have polio wards
staffed and equipped in part with funds from National Foundation Chapters. Physi
cians, nurses, physical therapists, medical social workers, health educators, medical
record librarians and others have been trained with March of Dimes money for expert
care and treatment of infantile paralysis patients, wherever they might be. Warm
Springs is not the only place where excellent modern treatment for infantile paralysis
can be obtained today, although it still is the only complete hospital exclusively for
infantile paralysis cases.
Today, too, one of the largest medical research programs in history is under way,
financed by the people of the United States through the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis. The President had appointed a research commission in 1937 to
ascertain the need for nationally coordinated and financed research seeking to solve
the mystery of infantile paralysis. He tested his own idea that it was needed, much as
he had tried out the idea of a treatment center at Warm Springs by getting professional
advice. The recommendations of the commission have been followed with projects
totalling almost $13,000,000 for research and education since 1938, results of which
in knowledge of the disease and its proper care have been noticeable everywhere,
even though the ultimate goal of prevention or cure has not yet been attained.
All this activity, the improvement that has come about throughout the nation in
twenty years, was touched off by the vision of the man from Hyde Park and the co
operation of the millions of citizens whose destiny he guided for almost thirteen years.
Its birthplace was Warm Springs, Georgia.

any changes have come to the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation since
1927, but in some ways it hasnt changed at all.
"It is not the policy of the trustees to develop Warm Springs into
either a hospital or a sanitorium, reads an early report. "Warm Springs
does and always will offer people the facilities to live normal lives to
receive treatment and to be instilled with new hope, a new philosophy of thinking and
a mental therapy which, after all, is the heart and soul of physical therapy."
Of course, it is a hospital now, and an excellent one, but that spirit of normalcy
prevails within its walls and among its colonnades, none the less.
When the sun is bright on the clean white sides of Georgia Hall, and pine tree
shadows fall across the green campus, stretchers appear on the balcony porch of the
Medical Buildings, wheelchairs gather on the concrete walking area under the balcony,
ambulatory patients find a place in the sun. Even then, you are struck with the resort
like, the college-like, the country-club spirit of the place. For these are men and women,
boys and girls, who have come to improve their physical condition and to grow, study,
learn, play, make friends, fall in love, be happy while they are doing it.
They are following a high tradition. For each of them, the founder of Georgia Warm
Springs is an inspiration. He, too, did what they are doing his life, which was a great
one, was bound Up in this place. And he learned to rise above his afflictions. They feel
they will, too.
To them the newly-won prominence of Warm Springs as an historic site is personal
distinction. The white-shingled cottage caressed by thick foliage that has been empty
since April 12, 1945, is more than a national or international shrine to them. It is the
focal point of their interest, the visible evidence that Franklin D. Roosevelt lived here.
The Little White House itself is a simple, though charming, building set at the side
of a hill which is one of many surrounding the Foundation campus. Its unpretentious
ness, the informality of its furnishings, the vista of woods and valley glimpsed from its
stone terrace are typical of the man who built the house, lived in it, died there. But they
are typical of Georgia Warm Springs Foundation, too. Its all of a piece. Pine-panelled
walls, big stone fireplaces, hooked rugs, overflowing bookcases these are everywhere
at the Foundation. All the patients, and the Foundation staff as well, belong to it and
it belongs to them.
They dont stay here long, most of the patients. The average stay is 100 days. For
most, Warm Springs performs no miracles, nor do the patients expect miracles. They
may walk out of the gates with or without braces, may leave knowing they are scheduled
to return later on. But they carry with them that sense of belonging to a special fra
ternity, all the members of which understand a little better what they have done and
what they must do. Theirs is a proud faith in themselves to face the future with the
spirit of Warm Springs, of the man in the Little White House.
day before Franklin D. Roosevelt went away from Warm Springs for
the last time, he got in his familiar blue car and drove out to Dowdells
Knob, a flat shelf atop Pine Mountain which was his favorite look-out
station. He dismissed his guards and companions, sat there alone behind
the wheel of his car, looking over the green sweep of Shiloh Valley to the
pinkish hills. He sat for two hours.
Nobody knows his thoughts that day, nor ever will. But those who knew him best at
Warm Springs recalled something he had often said to them.
"You know, he used to say, "when we get hopeless patients, we ought to bring
them out here and let them look at this valley. If they can do it and not be inspired, then
well know they are really hopeless not before.
A look at the Georgia Warm Springs Foundation, over the valley of its twenty years
of existence, also presents a vista of hope.

The Little White House as it
looks from the entrance drive.
Franklin D. Roosevelt relaxing on the
rear terrace of the Little White
House overlooking the mountains
and valley.
Franklin D. Roosevelt's
favorite chair in which
he was fatally stricken.

he average American, knowing the social, financial, educational and cul
tural background of Franklin D. Roosevelt, is surprised by his first look
at the late President's Georgia home. It is an informal, inexpensive little
six-room house, the sort many ordinary men could and do build, in which
most men feel completely at home.
As an historical monument, the Little White House more closely resembles Lincoln's
log cabin than Jefferson's Monticello. There are a few unusual features: the glass wall
of the living room looking out on the rear terrace, the front and rear porches that
resemble those of the White House in Washington. But the whole place gives the
impression of being a masculine retreat, a house that illustrates the complete simplicity
of the man, rather than a decorator's dream.
The house is about sixty by thirty-two feet in size, of general southern Colonial
architecture, built low to the ground. The foundation is of white-washed stone, the
exterior walls white painted wood, the roof asbestos shingles. The shutters are green.
Rambler roses climb the columns of the front porch. It was built in 1932 for a total
cost of $8,700. Much of its raw material was locally produced. Most of the interiors
walls and ceilings are of unvarnished natural pine, the fireplace of fieldstone. Floors,
too, are of local lumber, stained darker than the walls.
The house bears few marks of having been built for what Warm Springs patients
call a "polio." Except for the doors that have no sills and the bathroom fixtures, which
are raised on cement blocks, there are no special conveniences. The hooked rugs surely
had to be moved before a wheelchair could maneuver around the furniture; there's a
metal floor grill covering a heating vent in front of the President's bedroom that must
have been an obstacle, too. No helping rails anywhere not a mirror Set at wheelchair
height. Perhaps the absence of special effects tells something about the man who
lived here.
The floor plan is simple. You enter a foyer, beyond which is a large living room,
which also was used as a dining room. A bedroom opens off either side of this room,
and another bedroom and the kitchen open off the foyer. There are two baths. From
the living room can be seen the stone terrace that overlooks the peaceful valley.
The furnishings are a mixture of old and new; old ladderback chairs and a fine welsh
dresser, a mohair davenport, chromium lamps with white parchment shades, an oval
Victorian mirror here, a stamped brass ashtray there and over each door leading
from the living room a painted plaster-bas-relief of a sailing vessel. No attempt at
"period design" nor "modern effect." Just rooms the living room meant for chatting
with friends before the open fireplace, the bedrooms strictly for sleeping purposes
with no distracting book shelves, radios or other gadgets.
The living room has the most to say to visitors. A room that definitely looks "lived
in," it contains books and a collection of miscellaneous objects probably presented
by friends and relatives. None of the objects is elaborate or a "collector's item." The
books run the gamut of law, economics, politics, international affairs, Wilson biogra
phies and murder mysteries, the latter mostly paper-backed pocket editions. There are
a number of fine old prints and quite a few ship models, including some in shadow-
boxes and several in bottles. One of the shadow-boxes still has its cereal label showing.
Your eye will fall at once on the brown leather club chair with nailheads and an
insert of gray velvet in the seat to make it skidproof. This was the chair in which the
President was fatally stricken while sitting for his portrait on April 12, 1945. Next to
this chair is a nest of tables, with a plain red string doily and a chromium ashtray with
a lighter in the form of a penguin. On the floor by the fireplace are two woven reed
waste baskets.
The President's bedroom has in it an oversized single pine bed with white candle-
wick spread, a small night table with glass lamp, parchment-shaded, one arm chair with
wheels, one ladderback chair with red and white woven seat pad, one straight armchair,
a pine chest with three drawers and a pencil sharpener screwed to it, a square blanket
chest, desk and swivel desk chair. The drapes are of cretonne with a chrysan
themum pattern in white, red, green and yellow; there is a hooked throw rug by the

bed in white, green, red and orange. On the walls are photographs of the two Dali
grandchildren, a three-sectioned folding mirror in a wood and plaster frame, and a
photograph of the south garden at Hyde Park showing flowers in bloom around the
spot which today holds the President's grave.
The other bedroom off the living room has white monkscloth drapes, white bed
spread with multi-colored flowers, a rust-colored rug, a green cretonne boudoir chair, a
small walnut desk, a blanket chest and two maps of the State of Georgia and the
Warm Springs Foundation on the walls.
The guest bedroom off the foyer has the same drapes as the President's room, with
yellow and white candlewick spreads on its twin beds, a brown cretonne boudoir chair,
green and pink Axminster rug, two lamps, a long mirror on the door and, on the
wall, an etching of a mule.
The kitchen and baths are far from luxurious. Green plaid marbleized linoleum on
the kitchen floor, walls and ceiling of unvarnished natural pine. Green oilcloth covers
the shelves and a wooden table. Canisters are red and green. There are an electric range,
an old sink with a wooden drainboard, several Georgia mountain type ladder chairs.
The china is white English type with fluting, the silver the same as that used in Georgia
Hall. The bathrooms are not tiled; white cotton curtains and lavender throw rug are
used in the one adjoining the President's bedroom.
The total effect of the house is informal comfortable happy. It was never a
"showplace," nor ever meant to be. The sentry-box entrance and hand-painted sign
saying ''Little White House" are all that distinguish it from other houses of similar
size and architecture. Yet from its friendly, cluttered, familiar interior, its conventional,
pretty tree-ringed exterior, comes the feeling of a home. It was here, at home, Franklin
D. Roosevelt lived. Here he came for rest. Here he died.
Franklin D. Roosevelt spent many
happy hours in front of this fireplace.


Early trustees of the Warm Springs Foundation. Left to right,
front: Dr. LeRoy W. Hubbard; Franklin D. Roosevelt; Leighton
McCarthy. Left to right, back: George Foster Peabody; Basil
O'Connor; Frank C. Root.

(Djjicebs
Basil OConnor President and Treasurer
George E. Allen Vice President
Keith L. Morgan Vice President
William F. Snyder Vice President and Secretary
Stephen V. Ryan, Jr Vice President and Assistant Secretary
Fred Botts Assistant Secretary
C. W. Bussey Assistant Treasurer
L. D. Cannon Assistant Treasurer
Raymond H. Taylor Assistant Treasurer
Executive Committee
John S. Burke Chairman
Vincent Cullen Clarence G. Michalis Basil OConnor
John C. Hegeman Jeremiah Milbank Louis H. Pink
William F. Snyder General Counsel
Raymond H. Taylor Executive Secretary
Jdcdica!
C. E. Irwin, M.D Chief Surgeon
Stuart Raper, M.D Internist
J. A. Johnson, M.D Consulting Physician
Robert L. Bennett, M.D., M.S Director of Physical Medicine
Bessie Mae Crowe, R.N Superintendent of Nurses
Mrs. W. A. Stewart, Jr X-Ray and Laboratory Technician
Mrs. J. O. Caldwell Corsetiere
Helen Vaughn Chief Physical Therapist
Genevieve S. Collins . Assistant Chief Physical Therapist
Physical Uheftafiy pest-^/iaJuate Scheet
Robert L. Bennett, M.D., M.S Director
Alice Lou Plastridge ... Assistant Director
Genevieve S. Collins Instructor in Physical Therapy
Helen Vaughn Instructor in Physical Therapy
Mrs. Hazel R. Stephens Recreational Director
Lamoille Langworthy Instructor
Betty Schlosser Instructor
School and Occupational Uheftajiy
Mrs. Hoke S. Shipp Director of School
Jeanette Ann Neal Director of Occupational Therapy
Administration
C. W. Bussey Business Manager
L. D. Cannon Assistant Business Manager
B. V. Davis Auditor
Admissions
Fred Botts
Registrar

Nothing jr to my
the health o* ^ur bov* -
men and
young
Franklin D. Roosevelt



# # #
Franklin D. Roosevelt is alive today in the hearts and
minds of many men. His service to his country and to the
world needs no monument for remembering.
And yet it is here, in Warm Springs, Georgia, the scene
of his own struggles against physical disability, that he is
most alive. For here he brought courage to others who had
had infantile paralysis. Here he showed others how to con
quer fear.
Today, as we dedicate his Georgia home, the Little White
House, as a national and international shrine, we feel his
presence. Whatever other accomplishments may keep his name
great throughout history, here at Warm Springs the memory
of the man is kept bright. These rooms he lived in, these hills
he loved, these red clay roads he delighted in driving over,
all are reminders. But mostly, he is alive in the spirit of the
patients here.
Georgia Warm Springs Foundation this year is celebrating
the twentieth anniversary of its founding. It is natural for
those of us who for a score of years have known that wave
of the hand at the Warm Springs railroad station and seen
that smiling face in front of Georgia Hall, to feel the presence
of the founder. And yet those who are visiting here for the
first time today will sense it, too. It is in the faces of patients
sunning on the campus, laughing in the dining room, drinking
cokes at the gift shop or golf house.
It is the spirit of Warm Springs, and it flows through from
him. How can I describe it? Debonair? Undismayed? One
man put it here in the beginning, fanned it, watched it grow.
And it is here today, just as strong as before April 12, 1945,
when Franklin D. Roosevelt died in the Little White House.
So long as there are boys and girls whose faces light with
hope, men and women who are standard-bearers in the fight
for a good, a wholesome and a happy life despite physical
handicap just so long will Franklin D. Roosevelt be
gloriously alive.
President of the
Georgia Warm Springs Foundation
and the National Foundation for
Infantile Paralysis.
June 25, 1947

GEORGIA WARM SPRINGS SCHOOL, THE FOUNDATION. WARM SPRINGS, GA.

EAGLE POST CARD VIEW CO.. New York I.

*ol chap-
iry county
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jventior^



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MARCH OF DIMES
THE NATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR INFANTILE PARALYSIS
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, FOUNDER
BASIL OCONNOR, PRESIDENT
^Loxid a
JOE C. HALL
STATE CHAIRMAN
275 N. W. SECOND ST.
MIAMI
THOMAS D. BAILEY
STATE EDUCATION
TALLAHASSEE
COACH BOB WOODRUFF
SPORTS BENEFITS
GAINESVILLE
MRS. A. KEITH BLACK
STATE ADVISER
WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES
LAKE CITY
MRS. CARL DUNAWAY
STATE ADVISOR
WOMEN'S ACTIVITIES
MIAMI
MARION T. JEFFRIES
REPRESENTATIVE
FLORIDA (SOUTH)
ORLANDO
BENSON SKELTON
REPRESENTATIVE
FLORIDA (NORTH)
TALLAHASSEE
Give
Voluntarily
m i
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>?Hi
PBIDAY, APRIL 26, 1946
Little Miss Edna Ray Black, daughter of Mr. an j Mrs, A. K,
r*>IBIack, celebrated her seventh birthday at Hope Havan, April first.
Her parents gave a party for the 65 crippled children, the nurses
and a few friends, They served turkey sandwiches, cake and ice
cream. Colored hats were given as favors which were made by
-the patients who are able to attend school.
Pictures were taken and the group joined in singing Happy
HsBirthday to the honoree. She received many fine gifts anti cards
mfrom friends all over the state, and would like to express her
I deep appreciation for everyone's thoughtfulnessi





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mods:abstract displayLabel Abstract These 25 photographs complement and are part of the book, My Scrapbook of My Illness with Polio, by Lassie G. Black and Edna R. Black Hinson. The book is based on a handwritten journal that Lassie Black (Edna Black Hinsons mother) kept between 1946-1951 recording Ednas experience with polio. It is unknown as to why Lassie Black wrote it in Ednas voice. The major concern recording this manuscript is to be true to her telling of this story. No attempt was made to change the touching simplicity of her writing. The solutions have been to add inserts to explain better to the reader what we (the collaborators, Edna Black Hinson and Nina Stoyan-Rosenzweig) believe she intended. The compelling, unique features that would encourage readers are that the format is most unusual. This story is told by my mother recording her impressions of her daughters pain, discomfort, and feelings of isolation experienced during the different stages of polio. To quote Nina Stoyan-Rosenzweig of the UF Health Science Center Libraries who produced this transcript, it also records the details of illness, treatments, activities, meetings with friends and familyFor whatever reason, this unique record helps show how a child, and a family, responded to the challenge of poliomyelitis. This work provides an important original, primary source on the experience of polio written in the time of the experience; many accounts of polio have been written much later.
mods:accessCondition type restrictions on use Rights Copyright, Lassie G. Black and Edna R. Black Hinson. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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