Running Head: EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 1 Evaluation o f a Multimedia Digital A rt Course for Older Adults Katrina Nelson 2018 M.A. Arts in Medicine, University of Florida Faculty Advisor: Jennifer Lee
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 2 Abstract This process evaluation was conducted on a multimedia digital art course for older adults at an independent living facility S martphones were used for ph otography, photo editing, digital scrapbook ing video graphy and augmente d reality (AR) This process evaluation aimed to identify opportunities and challenges of this pilot course as an addition to existing programming It aimed to determine if the pilot course was suitable and enjoyable for par ticipants and volunteers, run efficiently, and capable of advancing the mission of the primary arts in health organization involved Additionally, it proposed best practices for multimedia digital art courses with older adults in the future This process evaluation was conducted with a mixed methods appr oach, pragmatic worldview, convergent p arallel mixed methods design, and inductive c ontent analysis methodo logy It was found that the course was practical and enjoyable for participants, accelerated the shifting of the digital divide connected multiple generations, and enhanced joy of lifelong learning Opportunities for improvement were identified by both participants and facilitators, and b est practices have begun to emerge for future multimedia digital art courses Keywords : multimedia digital art, older adults, arts in health, process evaluation
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 3 Evaluation of a Multimedia Digital A rt Course for Older Adults This process evaluation assessed a pilot, mobile device based, multimedia digital art course for older adults at an independent living facility Course curriculum involved residents using smartphone s to engage in photography, photo editing, digital scrapbooking, videography, and augmented reality (AR) A logic model of the course is in Appendix A The evaluation aimed to determine if this type of multimedia digital art course can efficiently advance the mission of the primary organization in a way that is suitable and enjoyable for participants and volunteers I t also proposed best practices for this p opulation and setting Overall, it assess ed if a multimedia digital art course can be a positive addition to existing arts in health programming. Background This project wa s inspired by literature on the growing older adult population creative aging, neuroscience, older adult adopti on of technology multimedia digital art, lifelong learning, and evaluation process A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Art & Architecture Source, AgeLine, and Google Scholar. A search strategy (Appendix B) was utilized Academic journal articles published between 2013 and 2018 were searched by title and f iltered Only English and full text articles were searched For PubMed, only articles on humans over the age of sixty five were included Articles were excluded if they did not include participatory visual or multimedia digital art, focus ed on other cont exts ( e.g. cre ative art therapies ), or f ocused on other populations ( e.g. people with dementia ). Results yielded seventeen articles from PubMed one from Art & Architecture, and seven from AgeLine Baby Boomers & Creative Aging In the United States, t he rate of Baby Boomers turning sixty five was estimated to start reach ing 10,000 per day in 2013 (Gross, Danilo va, Vandehey, & Diekhoff, 2013). This shift has
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 4 increased the importance of identifying activities affiliated with healthy cognitive aging (Fancourt & Steptoe, 2018 ) Arts programming for older adults has grown making way for the field of creative aging ( Ueno et al., 2015; National Center for Creative Aging, 2017) In a landmark study, Cohen et al. (2006) found that arts engagement lowered medication need s and loneliness of older adults as well as improved moods, independence and morale Arts engagement has been found to enhance health, quality of life, and overall well being (Fancourt & Steptoe, 2018; Holt, 2018; Rajan & Rajan, 2017; Str out et al. 2016; Noice, Noice, & Kramer, 2014 ) It has been shown to increas e positive aspects of well being while lower ing anxiety and stress (Fancourt & Steptoe, 2018; Holt, 2018) Art making has been considered intellectually challenging ( Adams Price, Nadorff, Morse, Davis, & Stearns, 2017 ) It has help ed different generations connect (Brown, 2017) Using technology making art, and taking educational classes have been noted as preventative factors against cognitive decline in older adults (Howard et al., 2016) Rajan and Rajan (2017) found that arts engagement encourages "older adults to lead a healthier lifestyle" ( p. 6). Older adults who made art and attended an arts based e vent were noted as having better cognitive functioning fewer phy sical limitations, lower hypertension, and slower h ealth digression (Rajan & Rajan, 2017) Therefore it has been recommended to increase art making opportunities for older adults (Rajan & Rajan, 2017) Phinney et al. (2014) found that participation in community art programming helped participants be active and social. They found that art making required "hard work and effort" and allowed participants to feel they were "making a contributio n" ( Phinney et al. 2014 p 341 342) Participants appreciated the challenge of learnin g and felt more confident ( Phinney et al. 2014 )
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 5 Neuroscience Ueno et al. (2015) described how "c reativity requires diverse high level cognitive functions that are useful to integrate existing knowledge a nd to create something of value ( p 524) Creating visual art has been shown to improve interaction between areas of the brain on a neural level, which is key to preventing age related, chronic diseases (Bolwerk Ma ck Andrick, La ng, DÂšrfler, & MaihÂšfner 2014) It has recently been observed impact ing executive function and processing speed ( Sharma & Babu, 2017 ) Older Adults & Technology Older adults have often hesitate d to adopt newer technology due to poor eyesight, finances, and/or lack of interest or knowledge (Pheeraphuttharangkoon, Choudrie, Zamani, & Giaglis, 2014; Mohadisdudis & Ali, 2014; Berenguer et al., 2017) Pheeraphuttharangkoon et al. ( 2014 ) found that there is a digital divide of smartphone adoption among young and old generations" (p. 11). However, this trend has been shifting (Berenguer et al., 2017) Older adults have been found to have a positive outlook on tech nology (Chopik, 2016) S martphone usage has been linked to improved well being and social connections for older adults as well as decreased loneliness (Chopik, 2016) Taking a photograph was found to be the second most common reason for an older adult to use a smartphone (Pheeraphuttharangkoon et a l., 2014). Older adults are more likely to adopt a smartphone if it seems to fit with his or her lifestyle, encouraged by family or friends he or she understands how the level of effort appears reasonable it seems enjoyable, and he or she has the desire (Pheeraphuttharangkoon et al. 2014) Multimedia Digital Art & Lifelong Learning Within the arts in health context, v isual art has not been limited to traditional mediums It has also encompassed media art (National Organization for Arts in Health, 2017), referred to as
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 6 multimedia d igital art in this evaluation The term multimedia digital art has been selected to encompass both multimedia art and digital art. Multimedia art has been descr ibed as art that utilizes a variety of art forms (San tana, 2017) Digital art has been identified as art made with technology which has also been called new media or computer art (Tribe & Jane, 2006) Park et al (2014) revealed learning new skills as key to healthy aging Their study showed productive engagement was more beneficial to improving one's cognition than receptive engagement They described how p roductive engagement requires "active learning and sustained activation of working memory, long term memory, and other executive processes," whereas receptive engagement relies more on "passive observation, activation of existing knowledge, and familiar activities" (Park et al., 2014, p 104) Their digital photography course was found to be mo re beneficial than quilt making or cr ossword puzzles because of the unfamiliar, technical information involving computers and cameras ( Park et al., 2014 ) Participants who completed a digital photography course had a significant increase in episodic memory ( Park et al., 2014 ) Technology has become increasingly integrated into arts in health, resulting in an emerging participatory, multimedia digital art trend (Hanna, Rollins, & Lewis, 2017). In 2014, approximately 13% of older adults reported creating some kind of multimedia digital art ( Rajan & Rajan, 2017, p 2) EngAGE Inc developed multigenerational art classes that pair ed older adults with adolescents to create claymation, movies and video game s (Wohlslagel, 2014) Photography has also been used for self care (Davies, Knuiman, & Rosenberg, 2016). Facilitation of Older Adult Learning Cohen et al. (2006) identified mastery and social engagement as key components for older adult programming Learning new skills and suc ceeding in overcomi ng challenges has helped older adults fe el more confident ( Phinney et al. 2014 ; Boyer, 2007; Wohlslagel, 2014)
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 7 Wohlslagel (2014) stated that creative aging programs should last sixty to ninety minutes allow art creation include a culminating event provide achievable challeng es f ulfill needs and expectations be led by professional artists include purposeful and meaningful projects, encourage lifelong learning, and utilize assessment methods Additionally, r elevance and practical ity to participants' lives and interests have been noted as important for adult learning (Boyer, 2007; Wohlslagel, 2014). Evaluation Process P ilot ing and evaluating a program were noted as key steps that help assess appropriateness of design efficienc y, and trajectory of achieving aims (Fancourt, 2017) Creswell (2014) described c onvergent parallel and exploratory sequential as two mixed methods designs Elo and KyngÂŠs (2008) describe d inductive content analysis to be applicable when there is no clear knowledge base to which one can compa re the data Creswell (2014) proposed a s tep by step method to quantitative data analysis Methods A p rocess evaluation was conducted using a mixed methods approach, a pragmatic philosophical worldview, and a convergent parallel mixed methods design The primary aim was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the course as an addition to existing programming It assessed if the pilot course wa s suitable and enjoyable for participants and volunteer s run ef ficiently, and capable of advan cing the organization 's mission Additionally, it proposed best practices for future, multimedia digital art courses for older adult s Program Details The pilot course involved five one hour long, weekly workshops that were facilitated in person at an older adult independent living facility The course was a collaborative effort
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 8 between tw o arts in health organizations B oth the primary course facilitato r and the volunteer were professional graphic designers The c urriculum inclu ded five projects that were made with free applications ( apps ) on participants' smartphones A brief needs assessment was conducted during the first class which led to changing the pro ject for the last class Printed handouts were provided to participants for each project P roject s included digital photog raphy, photo editing ( Photoshop Express), a di gital scrapbook page ( Adobe Spark Post ), video editing ( Quik), and an AR print (Lifeprint). Once the course concluded, a c ulminating event allowed participants to share art created during or inspired by the course Artwork was printed and displayed Each participant cho se to display their AR print (from the last class) and a photo collage ( created outside class ) Population Participants. Pilot course part icipants included three older adult residents at an independent living facility all over the age of sixty five Participation was voluntary. Residents of the facility incl ude d both men and women, but only women chose to participate Volunteer. The assistant facilitator was a volunteer with the primary arts in health organization involved Sh e was a graphic designer who has been trained to work with various populations in healthcare a nd community settings She assisted with three of five classes. Data Collection Evaluation data was collected through surveys and observational notes. Two types of paper surveys were administered to participants. Participants co mpleted a project survey after each class (Appendix C) and a course survey upon course com pletion (Appendix D). A box was available for these completed surveys and the facilitator stepped out of the room during completion. A survey was administered to the volunteer upon course completion using the
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 9 Qualtrics interface (Appendix E). Qualitative and quantitative questions were included in all evaluation surveys Weekly observations were made by the primary instructor regarding date, participant quantity facilitator quantity project, successes challenges questions, concerns and additional relevant information Data was digitized and stored on a password protected computer along with the observational notes Analysis Methods Inductive content analysi s wa s used to analyze qualitative data from surveys and observational notes This evaluation followed the inductive content analysis process described by Elo and Kyng ÂŠ s (2008) Processes described by SaldaÂ–a (2016) were followed for coding, categorization, and theme development Open coding included conventional coding, memo writing, clustering, and developing a codebook ( Appendix F ) Categorization included focused coding before moving onto magnitude coding and developing themes by establishing relationships between categories and subcategories. Quantitative analysis strategies discussed by Creswell (2014) were used which included reporting participant quantity checking for response bias, descriptive analy sis, an d interpreting the results Results Qualitative Data The first cycle of coding yielded seventy four codes, and t he second yielded eleven more ( Appendix F ) A word cloud was generated with these codes ( Figure 1 ) Codes were developed into categories and subcategories These categories identified pilot course successes and improvement opportunities (Appendix G) as well as propose d best practices for future multimedia digital art for older adults (Appendix H) The pilot course was found to be practic al for participants, accelerate the shift of the digital divide connect mu ltiple generations, and
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 10 enhanc e enjoyment of lifelong learning. Opportunities for course improvement were identified by participants and facilitators. Figure 1 Word Cloud Thi s graphic shows codes extracted from qualitative data with more common codes appearing larger Practical for participants Making the course practical for participants was observed as a key component of the course Projects relevant to p articipants lives and interests helped participants accomplish personal goals Since all participants had previously taken a scrapbooking course, the facilitator observed the digital scrapbook ing project to be very compatible with the participants' lives Participants also discussed using their new skills outside class, often to make a gift for someone
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 11 Shifting the digital divide Participants were found to have existing familiarity with technology, but lacked knowledge of specifics During the first class one participant said she wanted to print a video onto a page and another stated how she saw that in a newspaper However, neither knew the term they were describing ( AR ) Presenting information in a clear and understandable way as well as the ability to address individ ual questions appeared to enhance participants' confidence using technology One participant expressed this after photo editing : I learned how to use Photoshop Express on my phone. I have [Photoshop] for my computer and never tried it 'cause it looks so complicated. NO MORE! (personal communication, January 25, 2018) Additionally, p rojects like AR help ed participants feel they were on the cutting edge of technology Connecting multiple generations. Participants appeared to believe that members of their family are more technologically advanced than they are However, this course appeared to alter this : My entire family is so technologically advanced and it's exciting to feel like I'm on the cutting edge when I 'm a [participant's age] grandmother ( participant, personal communication, February 15, 2018 ). Participants often shared their completed projects with family immediately, as well as mentioned projects as a topic of conversation with family outside of class Enhancing enjoyment of lifelong learning. Participants enjoyed the lifelong learning process and the intellectual ch allenge this course brought Two of three participants wrote a note next to a survey question asking about course difficulty level Both participants selected "very hard" and wrote a message clarifying that "very hard" meant "very good" ( personal communication, February 15 2018 ) Participants were proud of the ir projects and eager to share
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 12 the ir new knowledge with others "I love lear ning something new and sharing such cool technology with my family, one partici pant said ( personal communication, February 15, 2018 ). Participants appe a red to enjoy discovering app feature s through exploration They also expressed desire to continue mastering skills even further I'd love to have this and other exciting new tech classes " (participant, personal communication, February 15, 2018). Suggestions from participants & facilitators. Several similar suggestions for improvement were made by both participants and facilitators Both acknowledged the importance of reducing sound distraction, lowering the pressure of time constraints, and simplifying projects as much as possible The sound elements of video and AR were observed and noted to be distracting for participants The last two classes were loud and confusing to me ," said one participant (personal communication, February 15, 2018). Participants were also observed immediately silencing t heir phones Participants and facilitators felt cl ass time was constrained One participant expressed this during a project survey: A one hour class is not enough. We need two hours. (personal communication, January 18, 2018). V ideo was noted and observed as most difficult for participant s potentially due to complexity of the project or the lack of an additional facilitator A participant suggested simplification for the video project : have us all choose a certain [number] of photos and work through the program effect by effect.. ." ( personal communication, Feb ruary 8 2018 ) Suggestions from facilitators O bservations were made by facilitators that were not specifically mentioned by participants They believe d that practicing and prepping more outside of class would lead to better use of class time and enhanced learning and enjoyment When asked improvement suggestions the volunteer suggested to have a guide supplied before the
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 13 course and give instructions on how to set up their devices a large portion of the class was spent on bringing everyone up to speed .. (personal communication, February 22, 2018). Offering a variety of courses at different skill levels would be beneficial, according to the primary facilitator Additionally, it was found important that participants have r ealistic expectations of course proje cts and app limitations It was noted that f urther precautions could be taken to reduce technical difficulty, particularly regarding variance between Android and iOS devices Having enough knowledgeable facilitators available to answer individual questions appeared to correlate to participants enjoyment of learning One participant hinted at this, as well, by stating having [ volunteer's name ] to help us individually also hel ped when there are so many new things to learn" (participant communication, February 15, 2018). Quantitative Data The same three participants were present for every class, except for the second when one participant was out sick A fourth participant attended the last class, but chose to not fil l out the survey A volunteer was present as a secondary facilitator for the second, third, and fifth class es The first and fo u rth class es were led solely by the primary facilitator. Table 1 Weekly Q uantities of Course Attendees and Completed Project Surveys Measure Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Participants 3 2 3 3 4 Survey s 3 2 3 3 3 Facilitators 1 2 2 1 2 The primary facilitator v erbally discussed the class with the participant who abstained Sh e did no t fill out the survey purely because she was no t present for any other classes Her imp ression of the last class appeared similar to others Therefore, it i s anticipated that he r survey responses would no t have dramatically affected results
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 14 Statistical m easures were derived from quantitative survey questions. Participant enjoyment of the course was a measure from participant and volunteer perspective s Participant enjoyment of each project, quantity of participants who selected a project as her favorite participant interest in future courses, volunteer's perceived contribution, and perceived level of course difficulty were additional measures Quantities of partic ipants who felt they learned new skills, and/or plan to use these new skills were the last measures Means, modes, standard deviations, highs, lows, and ranges were calculated for each measure The standard deviation equation accounting for bias was utilized If the quantitative response was not a number, a number was assigned to represent an applicable value A table with detailed r esults from this analysis can be seen in Appendix I Q uantitative data indicates that participants unanimo usl y enjoyed the course and most of the projects A graph of participants' enjoyment of each project can be seen in Figure 2. Although all particip ants said they enjoyed digital p hotography in the first project survey (Figure 2) no one noted it as their favorite (Figure 3) 0 1 2 3 Digital Photography Photo Editing Digital Scrapbooking Video AR Participants Level of Enjoyment by Project Participant 1 Participant 2 Participant 3
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 15 Figure 2 Participants' Level of Enjoyment by Project. This graph shows if participants enjoyed (3) somewhat enjoyed (2) or did not enjoy each project (1) Zero means the participant did not complete the survey that week. Figure 3 Participants' Favorite Projects This graph shows participants favorite projects AR was everyone's favorite, followed by digital scrapbooking and video then photo editing, then digital photography The vol unteer felt she succeeded in help ing participants complete projects. All participants felt they learned new skills, and most plan ned to use them outside class Participants' perceptions of difficulty level varied. T wo no ted the course a s very hard while the third said it was easy All participants are interested in future, similar courses. Discussion Comparison of qualitative and quantitative data yield ed similar results in regards to suitability and enjoyment course efficiency alignment with the organization's mission and proposed b est practices O verall, the pilot course appeared to have been designed in a way that was suitable and enjoyable for both participants and volunteers It appeared to be run efficiently, but opportunities for improvement have been identified The course aligns with the 0 1 2 3 Digital Photography Photo Editing Digital Scrapbooking Video AR Participants Favorite Projects Number of Participants Who Noted Project as a Favorite
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 16 organization's mission, and best practices have been proposed in Appendix H There was only one source of contradictory information between qualitative and quantitative data In one course survey, a participant noted that she ex pected to l earn something different and did not enjoy what was taught However, in every weekly project survey, she stated that she did enjoy the project The only time she hinted at not enjoying the project was when she said she "somewhat" enjoyed the vid eo project (rather than the "yes" all other projects received). The v ideo project appeared most challenging for participants and too complicated with existing conditions Three factors came into play First, t he volunteer was not present that day which left only one facilitator available to answer questions Second it included sound elements, which were found to be distracting Last the participant that practiced the app prior to class seemed to enjoy it more than the others The structure of this course appeared to work as an introductory course, focusing on the variety of possibilities However, it was not ideal for mastery which was identified as key for older adult learning ( Cohen et al. 200 6 ). A desire for maste ry was co nfirmed in this course. Additional links to the literature emerged Adams Price et al. (2017) discuss ed the role of recognition or praise from others with in creative engagement T his involves a sense that other people recognize and admire one's creative products and the skill involved in creating them (Adams P rice et al., 2017, p 14) The importance of being able to share one s work with others appeared particularly relevant in this course, as multiple participants immediately sent projects to their children upon completion. Factors identified by Pheeraphut tharangkoon et al. (2014) that encourage smartphone usage among older adults aligned with results from this evaluation Using a smartphone was perceived to fit into their lifestyle s and their families seemed to play important roles
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 17 Participants appeared to believe in their abilities to tackle technological challenges, as long as the facilitator was available to answer questions Participants having the intention to learn new apps wa s vital to their enjoyment of the course. Intell ectual challenge was another key link to literature Phinney et al. (2014) described how participants in their study appreciate d the challenge that came with learning a new skill and felt their confidence gre w by overcoming it Park et al (2014) discuss ed how a digit al photography course encouraged productive engagem ent by providing intellectual challenge for participants with unfamiliar, technological elements This pilot course aligned with this literature in that participants expressed for its i ntellectually challenging aspects Learning new technology and feeling like they were on the cutting ed ge was very exciting for participants. Overall, categories developed in this evaluation generally aligned with existing literature. Relevance to participants' lives and interests appeared important, as discussed by Boyer (2007) and Wohlslagel (2014). The digital divide appeared to be shifting, as proposed by Berenguer et al. ( 2017 ). This course showed evidence of c onnecting multiple generations, but differently than what Brown (2017) described Ensuring challenges were achievable, expectations aligned, and workshops were led by professional artists (as suggested by Wohlslagel, 2014) appeared to enhance the lifelong learning experience. Limit ation s & Recommendations This study only had three part icipants and one volunteer all of whom were female All participants considered themselves "straight A students" and showed familiarity with technology at the beginning of class Results do not account for people who may not already own or use a smartphone A wider sample of participants would be ideal, in regards to gender, age, skill level with technology, and location.
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 18 Data collection did not involve a pre test The course survey revealed that participants felt empowered to take on new challeng es at the end of the course However, it did not ask feelings about this prior to beginning the course A pre test asking the same question at the beginning would provide a better compar ison One individual served as the primary investigator, course faci litator, and observational note taker This was the first evaluation conducted by this evaluator Having an evaluator outside the organization and less involved in the facilitation of the course itself may strengthen results. This study may have b enefitted more from an exploratory m ix ed methods d esign With this design the qualitative data would have been collected first, interpreted, and a quantitative instrument would have been created and administered to participants (Creswell, 2014 ) Since the evaluati on was not centralized around results of previous studies and the qualitative data yielded a bounty of information, this design could have been beneficial in clarifying and quantifying the interpreted qualitative data Conclusion This pilot, multimedia digital art course appeared to be a unique opportunity for older adult s to create art while also acquiring and enhancing technology based skills The evaluation found the course aligned with the mission of the primary arts in health organizatio n as i t was found to be suitable and enjoyable for both participants and volunteer s The course was practic al for participants, accelerate d the shift in the digital divide connected multiple generations, and enhanced enjoyment of lifelong learning. Suggestions were made by both facilitators and participants that will be taken into account for future courses A list of propo sed best practices (Appendix H ) has emerged for future multimedia digital art courses with older adults both within the primary organization involved as well as similar programs elsewhere
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 19 References Adams Price, C E., Nadorff, D K., Morse, L W., Davis, K T., & Stearns, M A (2017) The Creative Benefits Scale: Connecting g enerativity to l ife s atisfaction The International Journal of Aging and Human Development 0 (0), 1 24 doi:10.1177/0091415017699939 Berenguer, A., Goncalves, J., Hosio, S., Ferreira, D., Anagnostopoulos, T., & Kostakos, V (2017) Are smartphones ubiquitous?: An in depth survey of smartphone adoption by seniors IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 6 (1), 104 110 doi: 10.1109/MCE.2016.2614524 Bolwerk, A., Mack Andrick, J., Lang, F R., DÂšrfler, A., & MaihÂšfner, C (2014) How a rt c hanges y our b rain: Differential e ffects of v isual a rt p roduction and c ognitive a rt e valuation on f unctional b rain c onnectivity PLOS ONE, 9 (7), e101035 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101035 Boyer, J. M (2007) Creativity matters: The arts and aging toolkit E Hirzy (Ed.) USA: National Guild of Community Skills Retrieved from www.artsandaging.org/ Brown, L M (2017) Bridging the generation gap through art Generations, 41 (3), 55 57(53) C hopik, W J (2016) The benefits of social technology use among older adults are mediated by reduced l oneliness Cyberpsychology Behavior Social Networking, 19 (9), 551 556 doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.0151 Cohen, G D., Perlstein, S., Chapline, J., Kelly, J., Firth, K.M., Simmens, S (2006) The impact of professionally conducted cultural programs on the physical health, mental health, and social functioning of older adults The Gerontologist, 46 (6), 726 734 Davies, C., Knuiman, M., & Rosenberg, M (2016) The art of being mentally healthy: A study to quantify the relationship between recreational arts engagement and mental well being in
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 20 t he general population BMC Public Health, 16 (1), 15 doi:10.1186/s12889 015 2672 7 Elo, S., & KyngÂŠs, H (2008) The qualitative content analysis process Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62 (1), 107 115 doi:10.1111/j.1365 2648.2007.04569.x Fancourt, D (2017) Arts in health: Designing and researching interventions Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Fancourt, D., & Steptoe, A. (2018 March 25 ). Community group membership and multidimensional subjective well being in older age. J Epidemiol Commun ity Health Epub ahead of print doi:10.1136/jech 2017 210260 Gross, S M., Danilova, D., Vandehey, M A., & Diekhoff, G M (2013) Creativity and dementia: Does artistic activity affect well being beyond the art class? Dementia, 14 (1), 27 46 doi:10.1177/1471301213488899 Hanna, G., Rollins, J., & Lewis, L (2017) Arts in medicine literature review Available from Grantmakers in the Arts Funder Forum & University of Florida's Art in Medicine Master's Degree Program at https://ufl.instructure.com/courses/348144/pages/research resources Holt, N J (2018) Using the experience sampling method to examine the psychological mechanisms by which participatory art improves wellbeing Perspectives in Public Health doi: 10.1177/ 1757913917739041 Howard, E P., Morris, J N., Steel, K., Strout, K A., Fries, B E., Moore, A., & Garms HomolovÂ‡, V (2016) Short term lifestyle strat egies for sustaining cognitive s tatus BioMed Research International, 2016 doi:10.1155/2016/7405748 Mo hadisdudis, H M., & Ali, N M (2014, September 2 5 ) A study of smartphone usage and barriers among the elderly Paper presented at the 2014 3rd International Conference on
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 21 User Science and Engineering (i USEr). National Center for Creative Aging (2017) W hat is creative aging ? Retrieved from http://creativeaging.org/about/what is creative aging/ National Organization for Arts in Health (2017) Arts, health, and well being in America San Diego, CA: Author. Noice, T., Noice, H., & Kramer, A F (2014) Participatory arts for older adults: a review of benefits and challenges Gerontologist, 54 (5), 741 753 doi:10.1093/geront/gnt138 Park, D C., Lodi Smith, J., Drew, L., Haber, S., Hebrank, A., Bischof, G N., & Aamodt, W (2014) The impact of sustained e ngagement on cognitive function in older adults Psychological Science, 25 (1), 103 112 doi:10.1177/0956797613499592 Pheeraphuttharangkoon, S., Choudrie, J., Zamani, E., & Giaglis, G (2014) Investigating the adoption and use of smartphones in the UK: A s ilver surfers perspective Proceedings from the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014, Tel Aviv, Isreal Available at http://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2014/proceedings/track16/8 Phinney, A., Moody, E. M., & Small, J. A. (2014). The effect of a community engaged arts program on older adults' well being. Canadian Journal on Aging/La Revue canadienne du vieillissement 33 (3), 336 345. doi:10.1017/S071498081400018X Rajan, K B., & Rajan, R S (2017) Staying engaged: Health patterns of older Americ ans who participate in the arts Retrieved from National Endowment for the Arts: https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/StayingEngaged_0917.pdf Santana, M (2017) Creative planets (modalities of art) collide: The big bang of 1960s multimedia art Columbia University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing Sharma, S., & Babu, N (2017) Interplay between creativity, executive function and working
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 22 memory in middle aged and older adults Creativity Research Journal 29 (1), 71 77 doi : 10.1080/10400419.2017.1263512 Strout, K A., David, D J., Dyer, E J., Gray, R C., Robnett, R H., & Howard, E P (2016) Behavioral interventions in six dimensions of wellness that protect the cognitive health of community dwelling older adults: A syst ematic review Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64 (5), 944 958 doi:10.1111/jgs.14129 Tribe, M., & Jana, R (2006) New media art (U Grosenick Ed.) KÂšln, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Paris, & Tokyo: Taschen. Ueno, K., Takahashi, T., Takahashi, K., Mizukami, K., Tanaka, Y., & Wada, Y (2015) Neurophysiological basis of creativ ity in healthy elderly people: A multiscale entropy approach Clinical Neurophysiology 126 (3), 524 531 doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2014.06.032 Wohlslagel, D (2014) NCCA online artist training: A self paced introduction to planning and leading arts programming for older adults Retrieved from https://creativeaging.org/training/online artist training/
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 23 Appendix A Logic Model Inputs Activities Outputs Short Term Outcomes Long Term Outcomes Arts in medicine graduate student (with expertise in multimedia digital art and graphic design) Graduate student leads multimedia digital art course with assistance from volunteer artist(s) and guidance from established arts in health organizations. Classes are in person, hands on, and presented in a way that is understandable to target audience. A new, in person, multi week, multimedia digital art course for residents (a collaborative effort of the two arts in health organizations) Residents can attend a wider variety of programs, one that will enhance their knowledge of multimedia digital art and m obile app usage Best practices for a course like this are established and similar courses are offered in the future (other locations, similar topics) Handouts for each project Participants can practice on their own time outside of class and follow along better in class Participants have a better understanding of course content and are able to enhance their skills further Supervision and collaboration (secondary arts in health organization) Secondary arts in health organization provides the facility, participants, and guidance to ensure proper protocols and structure are followed The course upholds the values and protocols already established by the secondary arts in health organization Participants enjoy learning new skills and making art More collaborative efforts between the two organizations and other multimedia digital art courses for older adults A culminating event to show participant's work Participants are able to share work with others (in person) Others may be inspired to take a similar course Supervision and collaboration (primary arts in health organization) Primary arts in health organization provides volunteer artists who are trained to work with sensitive populations and provides guidance as needed The course upholds the val ues and protocols already established by the primary arts in health organization Staff and residents are assured that the classes are being taught by people who are both knowledgeable in the field and trained to work with populations that may be more sensi tive than the average person More collaborative efforts between the two organizations and other multimedia digital art courses for older adults Volunteers from the primary arts in health organization (photographers, graphic designers, multimedia artists, etc.) Volunteer artists provide expertise unique to his or her particular discipline Course content delivered by experienced professionals Volunteers contribute skills and expertise in a meaningful way Volunteer artists feel they are involved and contribut ing to their community in a meaningful way Older adult participants at a senior independent living facility that focuses on engaging in the arts and lifelong learning Residents attend and participate in the multimedia digital art course Participants who are interested in learning new skills Participants have an intention to learn new skills Participants continue to have a desire to learn new skills and advanced the skills established in this course, promoting lifelong learning and decreasing the "digital divide" Mobile devices (capable of downloading applicable apps) Mobile devices are made available to participants if they do not plan to bring their own and back ups are available, in case of any technical difficulties Mobile devices for each participant Participants are able to complete the projects Participants feel more comfortable to try doing similar projects in the future
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 24 Appendix B Literature Search Strategy ( "older adult" OR "older adults" OR "old people" OR "old person" OR "old er people" OR "older person" OR seniors OR "senior people" OR "senior person" OR "senior citizen" OR "senior citizens" OR elderly OR "aging adult" OR "aging adults" OR "healthy aging" OR "independent aging" OR "creative aging" OR "arts and aging" OR "silver surfer" OR "silver surfers" OR "digital immigrants" OR "digital immigrant") AND ("multimedia digital art" OR "multimedia art" OR "digital art" OR "media art" OR "new media art" OR "electronic art" OR art OR arts OR "visual art" OR "visual arts" OR artistic OR photo* OR "digital photography" OR photography OR animation* OR "stop motion" OR "film making" OR "video making" OR "making videos" OR videography OR "video editing" OR "film" OR "motion picture" OR "graphic design" OR claymation OR "stop motion" OR "g ame design" OR "digital poster" OR "digital posters" OR "digital scrapbook" OR "digital scrapbooks" OR "digital scrapbook page" OR hyperphoto OR "AR" OR "augmented reality" OR "digital postcard" OR "digital postcards" OR "mobile app" OR "mobile apps" OR ap ps OR "smartphone" OR "smartphones" OR "tablets" OR "iPad" OR "iPads" OR "iPhone" OR "iPhones" OR creativ* OR "lifeprint" OR "adobe spark post" OR "adobe" OR photoshop OR "photoshop express" OR "adobe spark" OR quik OR "adobe spark video" OR iMovie OR "art s in health") AND ( efficacy OR effective* OR evaluat* OR pilot OR "best practice" OR "best practices" OR "content analysis" OR "content analyses" OR intervention* OR treatment* OR progra m* OR strateg* OR approach* OR "case study" OR "case studies" OR revie w OR survey* OR questionnaire* OR "process evaluation" OR "process evaluation" OR "mixed methods" OR "convergent parallel mixed methods")
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 25 Appendix C Project Survey (Participants) : Administered on Paper, In Person This survey is anonymous and optional Please do NOT write your name on this, and please be honest We need to hear of any concerns you might have about the program Results will be shared with the University of Florida, [Name of Arts in Health Organization #1], and [Name of Arts in Health Orga nization #1] A report that excludes all identifiable information will be published to the University of Florida Library and searchable online The survey will take just a few minutes to complete You can skip any question you don't want to answer, and can withdraw before completing it if you want to We will provide you with contact information if you have any questions about our study Thank you! Did you enjoy this project? Yes Somewhat No Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 26 Appendix D Course Survey (Participants) : Administered on Paper, In Person This survey is anonymous and optional Please do NOT write your name on this, and please be honest We need to hear of any concerns you might have about the program Results will be shared with the University of Florida [Name of Arts in Health Organization #1], and [Name of Arts in Health Organization #1] A report that excludes all identifiable information will be published to the University of Florida Library and searchable online The survey will take just a few minutes to complete You can skip any question you don't want to answer, and can withdraw before completing it if you want to We will provide you with contact information if you have any questions about our study Thank you! How much did you enjoy this course? I loved it I liked it I thought it was OK I disliked it I hated it How difficult do you feel this course was? Very Easy Easy Average Hard Very Hard Do you feel like you learned something new? o Yes o No Would you be interested in taking another class similar to this one in the future? o Yes o No What parts of the course do you think worked well? ______________________________________________________________________ What parts of the course do you think need improvement?
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 27 ______________________________________________________________________ What was your favorite project? o Taking Photos o Photo Editing o Customized Postcard/Digital Scrapbook Page o Slideshow/Video o Aug mented Reality Why was this your favorite project? ______________________________________________________________________ How do you feel about trying other things that might be new to you in the future? ______________________________________________________________________ Do you plan to use any of the apps techniques you learned here in the future? a. Yes b. No c. Maybe Is there anything else you would like to say? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 28 Appendix E Volunteer Survey : Administered Online, Using Qualtrics This survey is anonymous and optional Please do NOT write your name on this, and please be honest We need to hear of any concerns you might have about the program Results will be shared with the University of Florida, [Name of Arts in Health Organization #1], and [Name of Arts in Health Organizati on #1] A report that excludes all identifiable information will be published to the University of Florida Library and searchable online The survey will take just a few minutes to complete You can skip any question you don't want to answer, and can withd raw before completing it if you want to We will provide you with contact information if you have any questions about our study Thank you! 1. What aspects of this course do you think went well? _______________________________________________________________ _______ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. What aspects of this course could be improved? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 3. Do you think the participants generally enjoyed the project(s)? 1. Yes 2. No 4. Do you feel that you were able to help participants complete the projects? 1. Yes 2. No 5. Is there anything else you would like to say? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________ ______________________________________________
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 29 Appendix F Codebook T his codebook include s data from volunteer cour se surveys, participant surv eys, observational notes, and memos 1st Cycle Codes below emerged during conventional coding 1 Accessibility It' s implied that a participant has regular access to relevant tools outside of class (i.e sm artphones ). Observation : All 3 participants brought their own smartphone to the class" Participant Feedback : "She showed me many things on my android camera phone that I didn't know about." The key word here is my, which implies that she owns a phone and has regular access to it. 2 Android vs iOS Challenges for handling iOS devices versus Android devices is noted. Observational Note : Adobe Spark a pps are not available on Android devices" 3 Anticipation Participant appeared to look forward to a project from early on in the course. Participant Feedback : "Augmented Reality was discussed the first week I was excited about learning it." Observation : "Participants seemed genuinely interested in multimedia art and the projects we discussed." 4 AR = Favorite Project Participants appeared to enjoy AR most. Participant Feedback : "Augmented reality was my favorite project" 5 Bring On Future Challenges! Participants feel empowered and ready to tackle future challenges. Participant Feedback : "Bring them on!" (In response to asking how they feel about learning new things in the future) Participant Feedback : "I'm looking forward to the next class!!!" 6 Clearly Stated Info Information was delivered in a way that was understandable to participants. Participant Feedback : "Clearly stated information" (Digital P hotography) 7 Cutting Edge Participants appear excited to be on the "cutting edge" of technology. Participant Feedback : "...it's exciting to feel like I'm on the cutting edge when I'm a [participant's age] yr old grandmother" Participant Feedback : "I'd love to have this and other exciting new tech classes."
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 30 8 Discovery Through Exploration New techniques were discovered by participants through experimentation and exploration of the app itself. Observation : "Allowing the participants to explore the app themselves" appeared to work well, until they had a specific task they were try ing to accomplish and couldn't figure out on their own Participant Feedback : "Fun to change photos great to add text something I really need for a project I'm working on." These were techniques she discovered just by tapping around on her own and aski ng the facilitators questions as she went, rather than following along step by step 9 Displayed Art Done Outside Class Art selected to display for others to view in the culminating event was created outside of class. Observation : Art they selected to print and show at the culminating event were more so ones that were inspired by the course and created on their own time." 10 Eager to Learn P articipants appear eager to learn The participant may have expressed excitement, practiced the app in advance, or immediately gotten started without waiting for facilitator instruction. Observation : Participants "embraced the technology and were eager to learn everything I know and all the apps that exist out there" Participant Feedback : "I'd love to have this and other exciting new tech classes." 11 Efficiency The course appears to be run efficiently, as noted by a participant, facilitator, or during me mo writing Participant Feedback : Technical "glitches were handled well' Participant Feedback : "Informative, clearly stated information" 12 Enjoyment of Course/Project Participant appears to have enjoyed the course or a particular project. Participant Feedback : Excited to go on with the next four classes." Participant Feedback : "I made a scrapbook page without having to physically cut & paste!" 13 Everyday Lives C ourse skills appear relevant and applicable to a participant's everyday life. Observation : This project seemed very compatible with the participants' lives because it is like making a virtual scrapbook page (and all participants previously took a scrapbook course)." Participant Feedback : "I made a scrapbook page without having to physically cut & paste!" All participants were had a common hobby, scrapbooking. 14 Expectation Preparation Prepping participant expectations is observable as ideal This includes examples of when participants' expectations could have been better prepped. Observation : Warning them a week ahead of time that the app and printer might be finicky because it is new technology" worked well Although we encountered random, unexpected technical difficulties, participants were not discouraged or frustrated because I had warned them it may happen the week prior. Participant Feedback : "I didn't really learn about digital s crapbooking..." This participant expected to learn more about digital scrapbooking, which was not what the class was about.
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 31 15 Expected Something Different Participant expected to learn something different. Participant Feedback : "I didn't really learn about digital scrapbooking..." This participant expected to learn more about digital scrapbooking, which was not what the class was about. 16 Exploration vs Step by step Instruction This code attempts to identify which projects exploration seemed more a ppropriate than step by step instruction and vice versa. Observation : "They think they may have preferred following along as a step by step process together" (Video) Participant Feedback : "I learned how to use Photoshop Express on my phone I have PS for my computer and never tried it 'cause it looks so complicated NO MORE!" A new confidence was instilled in this participant after a class that had more of an exploratory approach (Photo Editing). 17 Family Members = Technologically Advanced Participant bel ieves their family members are "technologically advanced" Participant Feedback : "My entire family is so technologically advanced and it's exciting to feel like I'm on the cutting edge when I'm a [participant's age] yr old grandmother" Observation : One of them has a child that is a graphic designer and she loves being able to share what she learns in this class" 18 Gratitude Participants expressed gratitude for the course. Participant Feedback : "Thanks so much!' 19 Handouts P rinted handouts appeared beneficial Memo : Handouts allowed participants to follow along in class and practice on their own outside of class Participant Feedback : "I'll practice more this week." The handouts are beneficial here because the participant is able to utilize them wh en she practices at home. 20 Individual Instruction It' s observed that having one facilitator for every one to two people is more beneficial than one to three Memo : 1:1 or 1:2 instruction = more ideal Participant Feedback : "Having [Name of 2nd Volunteer Facilitator] to help us individually also helped when there are so many new things to learn" 21 Informative P articipant appears to perceive the class or course as informative. Participant Feedback : "Informative" Participant Feedback : "[2nd Facilitator's Name] knows everything!" 22 Intellectual Challenge
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 32 Course was perceived, by a pa rticipant or facilitator, as a positive intellectual challenge for participants It was an appropriate l evel ( rather than too challenging) for the participant. Volunteer Fee dback : "Seniors need classes like these to stimulate their minds" Participant Feedback : "I learned how to use Photoshop Express on my phone I have PS for my computer and never tried it 'cause it looks so complicated NO MORE!" 23 Interests & Hobbies Course projects were noted to be relevant to participants' personal interests & hobbies. Observation : The digital scrapbook project was "very compatible with the participants' lives because it is like making a virtual scrapbook page (all participants previously took a scrapbook course)" Participant Feedback : "...something I really needed for a project I am working on" 24 Interest in Future Classes There is an interest in future multimedia digital art classes or courses This includes anticipation for the next class. Participant Feedback : "I'd love to have this and other exciting new tech classes." Participant Feedback : I'm looking forward to the next class!!!" This was feedback on the course as a whole. 25 Interest in Technology Participants appeared interested in technology Observation : "Participants are eager to learn new ways to use their smartphone and about the new technologies they can use to make art" (Video ) Participant Feedback : "My entire family is so technologically ad vanced and it's exciting to feel like I'm on the cutting edge when I'm a [participant's age] yr old grandmother." 26 Intergenerational Social Connection Participant discusses course skills as a conversation topic between multiple generations (i.e children, grandchildren) Observation : One of them has a child that is a graphic designer and she loves being able to share what she learns in this class 27 Introduce Others to New Technology Participant enjoyed introducing others to a technology they learned about in class Participant Feedback : "I love...sharing such cool technology with my family." Participant Feedback : "It was fun to send the video and posters to my daughters." 28 Joy of Learning Something New Participants appear to have enjoyed learning something new. Participant Feedback : "I loved learning something new" Participant Feedback : "She showed me many things on my android camera phone that I didn't know about Excited to go on with th e next four classes." 29 Knowledgeable Facilitator(s) People facilitating the course appear knowledgeable about the technology being used. Participant Feedback : "Very knowledgeable teacher
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 33 Observation : "Random tips/tricks that I find helpful and use myself (grid view, tap to focus/adjust lighting)" were considered something that worked well This implies that participants found the instructor knowledgeable on the topic being taught. 30 Last Classes = More Complex The last two class es were considered more complex (Video & AR) Participant Feedback : "The last two classes were loud and confusing for me" Participant Feedback : "I'd like to have two classes for each of the last two sessions." 31 Learned New Skills Participants successfully learned ne w skills. Participant Feedback : "I learned a lot!" (Video) Participant Feedback : "My entire family is so technologically advanced and it's exciting to feel like I'm on the cutting edge when I'm a [participant's age] yr old grandmother." 32 Many Questions Participants had many technical questions. Observation : "I often was just the person to ask technical questions as they figured out things on their own." Participant Feedback : "It was too confusing for me today." It is implied that the participant had many, potentially unanswered, questions. 33 Mastery Participant express ed desire for mastering skills ( directly or implied ) Observation : Participants "wanted to master the skills and actually learn them, but didn't have time to" during class. Observation : Participants were "o pen to having homework and giving them something to take home and read 34 Meaningful The course is perceived meaningful by a participant or facilitator This implies that it was more than just informative and that the class potentially had more of a positive, lasting impact on the participant or facilitator. Volunteer Feedback : "Seniors need classes like these to stimulate their minds" Participant Feedback : "My entire family is so technologically advanced and it's exciting to feel like I'm on the cutting edge when I'm a [participant's age] yr old grandmother." 35 Missing 2nd Facilitator The absence of a second, knowledgeable facilitator negatively impacted participants. Observation : Lacking a second person who is knowledgeable on the app and can yield questions" was noted as something that didn't work well that day (Video). Participant Feedback : Quik Need instruction manual"; There was only one knowledgeable facilitator that day, which may have impacted how com plex the project appeared to participants. 36 Multiple Knowledgeable Facilitators It' s observed that having multiple, knowledgeable facilitators is more beneficial than having just one
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 34 Participant Feedback : "Having [Name of 2nd Volunteer Facilitator] to help us individually also helped when there are so many new things to learn" Observation : "Having volunteers that are familiar with the project/app is very helpful." 37 New Take on Familiar Project was a new take on something already familiar to the participants For example, these participants had a common hobby of traditional scrapb ooking, so c reating a digital scrapbook page was a new take on this Participant Feedback : "I made a scrapbook page without having to physically cut & paste!" Participant Feedback : "I didn't really learn about digital scrapbooking" She appears to have been interested in the course due to this connection to an existing hobby. 38 Opportunity to Share Participants having the opportunity to share their project and/or knowledge was perceived as beneficial. Observation : Participants enjoyed showing off their newly acquired skills as they learned them; Sharing with each other as we were going along; "Look at my green cat!"; allowed them to share what they learned and their art' was noted as something that worked well. Participant Feedback : "It was fun to send the video and posters to my daughters." 39 Outside Practice Participant practiced course related skills outside of class. Observation : One of the participants downloaded the app ahead of time and explored it herself on her own time" 40 Outside Use Plan The participant expresses a plan to use a skill she learned in class outside of class. Participant Feedback : "I'll practice more this week" Participant Feedback : Fun to change photos great to add text something I really need for a project I'm working on." 41 Page Numbers Having page numbers on the printed handouts was beneficial Observation : Having page numbers: Participants asked, "What page are you on?" and I was able to re spond with a number' was noted as something that worked well. 42 Partic ipant S uggested Project A participant suggests a specific project, which was later integrated into the course. Observation : ...They all had specific projects in mind and goals they want to accomplish going into the class (i.e digital scrapbook, book with text and photos, AR)" 43 Participant Goals Participant appears to have had a specific goal for a project they are/were working on. Observation : ...They all had specific projects in mind and goals they want to accomplish going into the class (i.e digital scrapbook, book with text and photos, AR)" Participant Feedback : She stated that a technique she learned in class today is "...something I really needed for a project I am working on"
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 35 44 Periodic Check In It was perceived that periodically checking in on a participant exploring the app was beneficial. Observation : "How are you doing over here?" Periodically checking in on someone exploring the app' was noted as something that worked well. 45 Personal Touch Project was capable of having a personalized touch, such as incorporation of a participant's photos Memo : Installing apps on their phone gave them easy access to their own photos, which may be more personally meaningful than random ones that could be provided Observation : Participants brought their own phone (that they use regularly and are familiar with)" This also implies that they have access to their own photos 46 Positive Facilitator Quality A positive quality of the facilitator(s) is identified by a participant. Participant Feedback : "[1st Facilitator Name] was so gracious and enthusiastic" 47 Project as Gift Participants discussed using t heir new skills to make a gift for someone. Memo : After the video class, a participant stated, "I'm excited to have made a real music video! This is a surprise for my daughter who went with me and appears in the video along with me." Observation : Participants often wanted to share what they created with their children or even create something as a surprise for one of their children." 48 Project Pride A participant appeared proud of a specific project or task they completed. Participant Feedback : "I was able to create a great scrapbook page." Observation : They appear to really enjoy the idea of being on the cutting edge of technology and being able to show off what they learned to their kids (and impress their kids)." 49 Sharing with Family Participants enjoyed sharing projects with family Participant Feedback : "It was fun to send the video and posters to my daughters" Observation : "Participants were eager to show off their projects; one of them sending it to her daughter immediately" 50 Simplified Handouts Encouraged Exploration Handouts that were simpler and explanatory of the app features available ( less step by step) encouraged exploration and discovery. Observation : Simplified handouts (shorter, more focused on the tools available within the app; left room for exploration rat her than exact direction)" 51 Simplified Instruction Success This includes ways in which the pilot course successfully simplified instruction. Observation : Printing just a video rather than a photo with a video connected to it" (AR)
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 36 Participant Feedback : I learned how to use Photoshop Express on my phone I have PS for my computer and never tried it 'cause it looks so complicated NO MORE!" The class in which this participant stated that was one were the instruction was more simplified and explo ratory. 52 Simplified Instruction Opportunity This includes ways in which future courses may want to simpl if y instruction further. Participant Feedback : There was so much to learn it might have helped to have us all choose a certain # of photos and work through the program effect by effect so we can do it all at the same time It was too confusing today to me." Participant Feedback : Quik Need instruction manual"; Quik is the app that was used that day; t his statement implies that the project appea red too complex and could have been simplified. 53 Sought Skill Course taught specific skills that participants were seeking. Participant Feedback : "Fun to change photos great to add text something I really need for a project I'm working on." 54 Sound Distracting Participants found background sounds distracting. Observation : "Sound/noise from the videos this class and last class seemed a bit distracting and unenjoyable for participants...they often tried to immediately silence it Maybe we should offer headphones or silence and focus on sound separately, later?" Participant Feedback : It was too confusing today to me." This was a response from a participant in regards to a class in which sound was introduced into the class for the first time. 55 Specific Vision + App Limitations = Frustration Participants showed signs of frustration when they had something specific in mind and couldn' t quite do it in the app Participant Feedback : "I have ideas I want to do, but can't do it on this program we prac ticed on today." Observation : "Participants expected to be able to customize their project a bit more than the app was capable of, but still enjoyed discovering new features and techniques" 56 Suggestion Avoid Technical Difficulty (When Possible) A way to avoid technical difficulties in the future is suggested Memo : If Wi Fi is required, test it out in the setting you will be in prior to the course starting; t his was a memo in response to Wi Fi issues on Day 1, 2, and 3. Memo : Test out all projects on someone else's phone (ideally opposite of yours I.e Android vs iOS); This was a memo in response to: "Androids can't download Adobe Spark apps" and "Could not print AR hyperphotos from their phone...had to do it from my phone" 57 Suggestion Class V ariation Having multiple variations of the course is noted as potentially beneficial (i.e introduc tory and mastery opportunities, topic variety ) Memo : Different variations of the class would be good: This one was good as an intro to show them what is out there, but not a good opportunity for mastery.
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 37 Observation : "They are interested in real advanced programs, not just the simple apps you can do on your phone" 58 Suggestion Encourage Outside Practice It' s suggested to have participants practice what they are learning outside of class. Observation : Participants said they were open to having homework and giving them something to take home and read" Observation : "The participant who downloaded the app and experimented with it ahead of time seemed to e njoy the workshop most." This implies that outside practice may be beneficial for participant s enjoyment of the course. 59 Suggestion Extend Class Duration It' s suggested or implied by a participant or facilitator to consider extending the class duration Observation : "Could have kept going...felt a bit short on time" Participant Feedback : "...a one hour class is not enough We need two hours." 60 Suggestion Isolate Sound It' s suggested to isolate sound from the main video project for future courses. Memo : A memo was written that suggested potentially isolating sound elements, directly in response to this feedback. Observation : "Maybe we should offer headphones if they want to hear sound?" This was in response to noticing that the sound was di stracting. 61 Suggestion Keep Class Moving A way is suggested to keep class moving or better manage the time in the future. Observation : Trying to capture the photos before giving instruction so the participant using my phone would have her photos (ev eryone else just got really far ahead); should've just let her try it with other photos already on my phone first and swapped it later." This was noted as something that did not work well. Observation : Ran out of time to go through all the photography terms AND take photos.managed to squeeze photo taking in at the end." 62 Suggestion Multiple Levels It's expressed/ implied that having multiple skill levels of multimedia digital art courses would be beneficial in the future. Memo : May be worth having course offered at different levels Participants who attended the class were fairly familiar with smartphones already However, not all residents are I had the "Straight A Students". Observation : "They are interested in real advanced programs, not just the simple apps you can do on your phone 63 Suggestion Outside Class Participation (Participant) A way is suggested, by a participant or facilitator, to have participants do as much as possible outsid e of class to be better prepare for and optimize class time. Observation : One participant downloaded video app ahead of time and explored it on her own first "This seemed to allow her to enjoy herself a bit more than the other two in this week's class She was able to come with specific questions in min d and show off what she had already done at the beginning of class."
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 38 Volunteer Feedback : give instructions on how to set up their devices to be ready for the class just because a large portion of the class was spent on bringing everyone up to speed on wha t they need to download, connect to, etc." She is implying that participant s should download and pre p are ahead of class. 64 Suggestion Outside Class Preparation (Facilitator) A way is noted, by a participant or facilitator, for the facilitator to better prepare participants for the next class Volunteer Feedback : "...have a guide supplied to the participants before the course as to what we will be working on (apps & software) and give instructions on how to set up their devices She is suggesting handouts prior to class (rather than during class). 65 Suggestion Simplify Project It' s suggested by participant or facilitator to simplify the project. Participant Feedback : There was so much to learn it might have helped to have us all choose a certain # of photos and work through the program effect by effect so we can do it all at the same time It was too confusing today to me." 66 Tackle Current Challenge Participants appear empowered/ ready to tackle the technical challenge at hand. Observation : "Participants felt confident and ready t o tackle the project at hand" (Photo E diting) Observation : "Participants appeared determined to learn the app of the day" 67 Teaching Others Participants were observed or noted helpi ng other people (i.e classmates family members, fellow residents) learn the skill they just learned from class Observation : Participants helped each other figure things out As they went to try to do something, they informed the others how to do it once they learned (shared the info they learned); 1 of the participants gave some random people who walked in near the end an impromptu photography lesson based off what she just le arned" Participant Feedback : "I love...sharing such cool technology with my family." 68 Technology Adoption Factor Factors of older adult adoption of technology (as described by Pheeraphuttharangkoon et al. 2014) were present and potentially positively impacted participants' perspectives on using the smartphone Observability : All participants owned smartphones Compatibility : Digital Scrapbook page particularly relevant to participants lives because they all took a scrapbook course; AR print directly applicable to scrapbooking hobby Social Influence : Participant Feedback : "We have a lot of classes together, and we always talk about this one." ; p articipant shared edited photo with her daughter immediately Facilitating Condition : Participants a sked a lot of questions (generally technical), which the facilitators were able to answer Effort Expectancy : Participants appeared to believe in their capability to learn each new app (i.e photo editing) Enjoyment : Participants appeared to enjoy photo edi ting Behavioral Intention : All participants very much wanted to learn about AR, which they noted as their favorite project
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 39 69 Technical Difficulty/Unnecessary Obstacle An issue was noted that negative ly impact ed the efficiency of class, enjoyment of participants, or facilitator's stress level This unnecessary obstacle was not the fault of the facilitator, but extra attention should be given to these details to improve efficiency in the future Observation : Wi Fi "; The Wi Fi was not working properly in the room like it should have been. 70 Technology Awareness Participants appeared already aware of a newer technology Observation : "AR idea came from them! Pleasantly surprised!" 71 Technology Awareness, But Lacking Knowledge Participants were aware of new technology, but lacked knowledge to use it. Observation : Appear capable of utilizing apps, but unsure of what apps to try to use; need someone to tell them about the apps that are out there" Memo : Participants coul d describe the technology, but not what it was called (AR) 72 Technology Use It's implied that a participant already utilizes and feels fairly comfortable with applicable technologi cal tools (i.e smartphone ) Observation : "Participants brought their own phone" Participant Feedback : "She showed me many things on my android camera phone that I didn't know about." This implies that the participant owns a smartphone that she is generally comfortable using. 73 Too Complex The project appeared too complex for participants. Participant Feedback : "It was too confusing today to me." Participant Feedback : Quik Need instruction manual ." This implies that it was so complex that participants needed an instruction manual to feel capable of using it. 74 Very Hard = Very Good Participant perceives that a course being "very hard" is "very good" Participant Feedback : Course was "very hard", "that means it was VERY GOOD!!" Participant Feedback : Course was "very hard" = "very good ______________________________________________ 2nd Cycle Code s below emerged when assigning codes from this codebo ok (above) to each line of data 75 Lack of Enjoyment Participant or facilitator notes something that was frustratin g, discouraging, or unenjoyable Participant Feedback : "I didn't really learn about digital scrapbooking & didn't enjoy what was taught." On the individual project surveys, this participant said they enjoyed all (except for potentially one project) However, on the course survey, she said she did not enjoy the course.
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 40 76 Missed Sought Skill Participant or facilitator notes a skill that a participant would have liked to learn and/or was expecting to learn, but didn't Participant Feedback : "I didn't really learn about dig ital scrapbooking..." 77 Potential Best Practice A potential best practice is noted for future multimedia digital art courses for older adults Observation : Asking what projects they wanted to do " was noted as something that worked well. 78 Socialization C lass appeared to be an opportunity for the participants and/or facilitator(s) to socialize. Observation : Talking and listening to what they had to say (i.e stories about a trip they just took pictures at, etc.)..." appeared to work well 79 Technique Worked A participant or facilitator note s a specific technique ( used by facilitators ) that appeared to work well This does not necessarily imply that app roaching it differently wouldn' t work. Observation : All 4 of us sat at the same table (I sat with them rather than standing up like an instructor)" 80 Technology Formerly Intimidating A participant appears to have been intimidated to tackle a technological challenge in the past but not anymore Participant Feedback : I have PS for my computer and never tried it 'cause it looks so complicated. PS = Photoshop 81 Time Restricted A participant or facilitator expresses or implies that they felt the time in the class was restricted Observation : Ran out of time to go through all the photography terms AND take photos." Observation : Talking and listening to what they had to say (i.e stories about a trip they just took pictures at, etc.), but it took up half the time" 82 Too Easy Instructions or project appeared too easy for participants Observation : Initial instructions targeted a little lower than the level participants were at, but they still learned stuff" 83 Understanding Multimedia Digital Art (Lacking) It appears a participant may not have an understanding of multimedia digital art and that all of the projects they mad e could be considered art Memo : When asking a participant what art she wanted to show at the culminating event, the participants stated that she hadn't made any art in class. 84 Very Open to Using Computer A participant appears open to using a computer in addition or instead of a mobile device
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 41 Observation : One participant verbally said that she would prefer to do the class on a computer rather than a mobile phone...one that either already has the app downloaded or only download well trusted apps." Observation : "All participants also seemed comfortable with operating a computer/laptop, as well Multimed ia art classes do not need to be limited to mobile devices...we could consider doing it on computers if we have the proper software available." 85 Vigilance A participant appeared cautious toward downloading an app because they were wo rried about potential viruses Observation : One participant verbally said that she would prefer to do the class on a computer rather than a mobile phone...one that either already has the app downloaded or only download well trusted apps She is cautious to download ing apps because of potential viruses She is cautious to downloading apps because of potential viruses."
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 42 Appendix G Categories & Subcategories (Qualitative Data) Suc c esses 1. Category: Making course practical for participants a) Subcategory: Selecting projects that relate to participants' lives & interests b) Subcategory: Helping participants accomplish personal goals c) Subcategory: Applying new skills outside class 2. Category: Shifting the digital divide a) Subcategory: Recognizing participants existing familiarity with technology b) Subcategory: Recognizing factors that help lower the divide c) Subcategory: Helping particip ants feel like they are on the cutting edge d) Subcategory: Enhancing participants confidence using technology e) Subcategory: Presenting information in a clear & understandable way f) Subcategory: Addressing individual questions 3. Category: Connecting multiple generations a) Subcategory: Believing their family is normally more te chnologically advanced b) Subcategory: Discussing & sharing course projec ts 4. Category: Enjoy ing the lifelong learning process a) Subcategory: Providing an appropriate level of intellectual challenge b) Subcategory: Sharing projects c) Subcategory: Discovering through exploration d) Subcategory: Recognizing participant desire for mastery e) Subcategory: Sharing learned knowledge with others
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 43 Improvement Opportunities 5. Category: Participants & facilitator suggesting opportunities for improvement a) Subcategory: Reducing sound distraction b) Subcategory: Lowering pressures of time constraints c) Subcatego ry: Simplifying projects as much as possible 6. Category: Facilitator suggesting opportunities for improvement a) Subcategory: Practicing and prepping more outside class b) Subcategory: Offering multiple variations of the course c) Subcategory: Ensuring participants have realistic expectations d) Subcategory: Taking additional precautions to reduce technical difficulty e) Subcategory: Ensuring enough knowledgeable facilitators are present
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 44 Appendix H Proposed Best Practices ( Multimedia D igital A rt Courses for Older Adults) 1. Encourage practice and preparation outside c lass Have participants download apps onto their phones prior to class. Provide a guide that participants can take home to prepare for the next class Encourage participants to explore and practice apps on their own outside class 2. Offer c ourse v ariety This course worked well as an introduction to the types of apps and possibilities that exist Additional courses that offer an opportunity for mastery in a particular app or technique wou ld enhance the learning experience. Offering classes at multiple skill levels would be ideal, as it is hard to anticipate incoming participants' existing familiarity with technology otherwise. 3. E nsure participants have realistic e xpectations Ensure partici pants have a proper understanding of what the course entails. Warn participants early that technical difficulties may occur occasionally that are out of your control. Inform participants of capabilities and limitations of each app. It is important for them to be able to accomplish what they set forth to accomplish, which is only achievable if it is within the scope of the app itself. 4. T ake precautions to reduce technical d ifficulty Test out projects, prior to facilitating them with participants, on both an Android and iO S device. Apps, features, and user interfaces often differ between different operating systems. This also helps make you aware of any other technical difficulties that may arise. 5. E nsure enough knowledgeable facilitators are p resent One facil itator for every one to two older adult participants worked best in this pilot course. It was important for the facilitators to be knowledgeable and capable of answering technical questions affiliated with the app being used.
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 45 6. R educe sound d istraction Soun d elements of the video and AR project were distracting for participants. It is recommended to isolate or eliminate this element in the future. 7. S implify p rojects All projects should be simplified as much as possible. Set limits and guidelines for projects to ensure this. For example, as k participants to follow templates or make a limit for the nu mber of photos to bring in for the video project. Include printed handouts that allow participants to follow along in class, as well as practice outside of class. 8. Select practical & e xciting p rojects Ask participants what their interests and goals are and help them accomplish those, when possible. It was observed that most participants came into the course with specific personal goals in mind. Relate projects to p articipants' everyday lives and interests, when possible. It was observed that t he more "cutting edge" technology a project used the more exciting it was for participants in this pilot course 9. P rovide an a ppropr iate level of intellectual c hallenge Assess participants' familiarity and comfort with technology and tailor it to their skill level as much as possible. The project should be mentally stimulating, but not so complex that participants feel they are unable to complete it. 10. E ncourage exploration and d iscovery For some projects, a step by step process may work well. For others, it may be more ideal to allow participants to primarily explore an app on their own. Encouraging exploration allows the participants to experiment with the interface and enjoy moments of discovery.
EVALUATION OF A MULTIMEDIA DIGITAL ART COURSE 46 Appendix I Descriptive Analysis of Quantitative Statistical Measures