! #" !"#$ %PEDAGOGICAL TREKKING AS A TOOL FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN TILCA RA, ARGENTINA By Maria Waked
$ #" !"#$ % A FIELD PRACTICUM REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA APRIL 2019 Committee Members: Dr. An a Puig ( Chair) Dr. An drew Noss ( Member)
% #" !"#$ % 2019 Maria Waked
& #" !"#$ % In each season as it passes; breathe the air, drink the drink, taste the fruit and resign yourself to the influence of earth (Henry David Thoreau)
' #" !"#$ %Acknowledgments Deep gratitude and many thanks to: MDP Program, Center for Latin American Studies, Tinker Foundation and College of Liberal Arts to financially support my field work in Argentina. My host Organization INECOA (Eco Andean R egions Institute), particularly to Marcos Vaira, Clarissa Otero Vanessa Juarez and Carlos Ibarra The Tourism Office The Archeological and Antrhopological Museum Eduardo Casanova, The Elementary School Eduardo Casanova and the Local Guides Association of Tilcara, particularly to Horacio Galan .%Professor Peter Feinsinger My committee chair: Dr. Ana Pui g My committee member: Dr. Andrew Noss My program director Dr. Glenn Galloway My beloved husband and my future baby mom and siblings.
( #" !"#$ % TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 7 2. INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 8 3 LOCAL CONTEXT ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 3.1 COUNTRY BACKGROUND ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 9 3.2 REGIONAL BACKGROUND ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 11 3.3 TILCARA BACKGROUND ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12 3.4 TOURISM BOOM IN TILCARA ................................ ................................ ................................ 14 3.4.1 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 3.4.2 SOCIAL FACTORS ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 17 3.4.2 CULTURAL FACTORS ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 18 3.5 LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 21 3.5.1 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL MUSEUM EDUARDO CASANOVA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 21 3.5.2 INSTITUTE OF ECOANDEAN REGIONS (INECOA) ................................ ........................ 22 3.5.3 LOCAL GUIDES ASSOCIATION IN TILCARA ................................ ................................ 22 3.5.4 TOURISM OFFICE OF TILCARA ................................ ................................ ....................... 22 4. A S USTAINABLE TOURISM MODEL FOR TILCARA ................................ ................................ .. 23 4.2 M INDFULNESS IN NATURE ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 23 4.3 E XCHANGE BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS ................................ ................................ 25 4.4 E COLOGY OF PLACE ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 25 5. CONTEXTUAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ................................ ................................ ............ 27 6. O BJECTIVES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 28 7. CO DESIGNING A NATURE WALK FOR THE TOUR LOCAL GUIDES: A PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH APPROACH ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 7.1 INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS/MEETINGS ................................ ................................ ........... 29 7.2 DIRECT OBSERVATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 29 7.3 SECONDARY DATA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 31 7.4 INQUIRY CYCLE ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 7.5 GUIDED NATURE WALK ASSESSMENT ................................ ................................ ............... 33 7.6 WORKSHOP ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 34
) #" !"#$ % 8. RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 36 8.1 DIRECT OBSERVATION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 37 9. DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 47 10. CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 50 11. RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 52 13. APPENDICES ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 59 % Figure s Figure 1: Map of Argentina. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 9 Figure 2: Map of the province of San Salvador de Jujuy. ................................ ................................ ........ 12 Figure 3: The town of Tilcara, in the Quebrada of Humahuaca. ................................ .............................. 13 Figure 4a A young women from the Kolla Community in traditiona l clothes. 4b Members of the Omaguaca community in their traditional clothes. ................................ ................................ .................. 14 Figure 5 Pucara de Tilcara common tourist destination. ................................ ................................ .......... 15 Figure 6: Throat of the devil common tourist destination. ................................ ................................ ....... 15 Figure 7: The Rio Grande just outside of Tilcara. ................................ ................................ .................. 16 Figure 8 Flooding in Tilcara, December 2016. ................................ ......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 9: Current ethnic groups in Argentina. ................................ ................................ ........................ 19 Figure 10: Celebration of the feast of the Pachamama (mother earth ) in Tilcara in August 2016. ............ 20 Figure 11: Celebration of the feast of the Pachamama (mother earth) in Tilcara in August 2014 21 Figure 12: Field Practicum Contextual/Conceptual Framework ................................ .............................. 27 Figure 13a) Guided tour given by Horacio Silva, b) and Moises Chorolque ................................ ............ 30 Figure 14: Inquiry Cycle (Basic inquiry). ................................ ................................ ............................... 32 Figure 15: Inquiry Cycle adapted for the nature walk in Tilcara. ................................ ............................ 33 Figure 16: Workshop session about the pedagogical hiking design ........... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 17: Workshop session about rural tour ism lead by a INECOA member ................................ ....... 35 Figure 18: Pilot guided walk route with indicated stopping points mentioned in Appendix 5. ................. 38 Figure 19: Important references by local residents ................................ ................................ .................. 39 Figure 20: Script for guides. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 40 Figure 21: Photography of the local guide facilitating the sensory activity described above. ........... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure 22 Common comments from the attendees about rural tourism during the workshop ................... 46 Tables Table 1: Field Practicum Objectives ................................ ......................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Table 2: Revisions to draft script from local guide and INECOA representative. ................................ .... 41 Table 3: Oral evaluation applied to a group of primary students from the Eduardo Casanova School in Tilcara. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 45 %
* #" !"#$ %1. ABSTRACT Over the summer of 2018, the Andean Ecoregions Institute (INECOA) hosted me to explore ways to improve local outreach in the Quebrada de Humahuaca region. The primary mission of INECOA is to support research to preserve natural and cultural dive rsity in the Quebrada de Humahuaca and the Yungas (or cloud forest) ecoregions, both located in Jujuy province, northern Argentina. Recently, INECOA has been promoting a variety of activities to strengthen local ecotourism, particularly capacity building for local nature guides in Tilcara, a small town in the Quebrada de Humahuaca valley. Since 2017, in association with the Tourism Office of Tilcara, INECOA has been implementing a se ries of training courses mainly focused on b iodiversity, geology, and a rchaeology. To support these activities, my fieldwork was to design a pedagogical guided walk, using interrogatory and sensory activities, inspired by mindfulness techniques and local knowledge. Using Participatory Action Research and methods such as meetings, informal conversations, direct observation, the inquiry cycle and workshops, one of the field practicum achievements was that local nature guides and members of t he I nstitute (loca l students and professors) were intimately involved in the design of the hike. The longterm goal is that INECOA researchers and the community of local guides in Tilcara will incorporate the pedagogical walk design, or selected elements, in their guided tours, course training, or as research material
+ #" !"#$ %2. INTRODUCTION Sustainable tourism is a form of tourism that takes place in natural areas, sustains local communities and involves a learning experience Mondino, Elena T ourism in places inhabited by native communitie s, that possess a natural and cultural diversity, such as the Quebrada de Humahuaca and the neighboring village of Tilcara is a growing phenomenon in northwestern Argentina H owever in this area, tourism has negatively impacted nature and local indigenous communities of Aymara and Quechua origin. H igh rate s of unemployment, loss of local knowledge, increase s in living costs and extreme poverty are some of the tourism effects on the indigenous communities in Tilcara The I nstitute of Andean Ecoregions (INECOA), that is part of the National University of Jujuy, in collaboration with grassroot organizations from Tilcara, recently have been implementing sustainable tourism project s t o address the above mentioned tourism effects on the local population. This report outlines the activities carried out for my field practicum in Tilcara Argentina during the winter season in 2018. For two months my work consisted of implementing a sustainable tourism project aimed at local tour guides and supported by INECOA. The focus of my work was to design a mindful pedagogical walk guided by local guides, and aimed to teach about the cultural and natural diversity of Tilcara using local knowledge, place based education and sensor ial experience s i n nature. This design was tested with a group of 40 students from the Eduardo Casanova elementary school Also, a workshop directed to local guides from Tilcara and their surroundings was held. The workshops main purpose was t o promote the tools used to design the pedagogical walk so local guides who were not involved in the project can implement a similar model in their com munities. This report begins by providing contextual information on the location of my field work and a background of my host organization and the other local institutions that collaborated with the project. Then, I descri be the theoretical approaches use d for the design of the pedagogical walk, and outline the main results. At the end of this report, I discuss cross disciplinary and cross scale implications of my work, and conclude with brief recommendations for my host organization.%
, #" !"#$ %3 LOCAL CONTEXT 3.1 COUNTRY BACKGROUND My field work took place in Argentina, located i n southern South America ( Figure 1 ). Argentina has an elongated shape that extends over two continents: South America and Antarctica. It s land area of over 3,761, 000 km2 is the fourth greatest in the America s after Canada, the United States and Brazil. I t borders the countries of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Uruguay ( Government of Argentina, 2007. ) Figure 1 : Map of Argentina. Source: Maps of World, 2018. Argentina has considerable climatic and ecosystem diversity. The mountain range of the Andes dominates the western side of the country from north to s outh. Apart from these highlands extensive plains cover the eastern part of the country, such as the Gran Chaco ecoregion. C limates include warm and subtropical, temperate, cold, wet, semi arid, arid, and polar or glacial (Government of Argentina 2007)
$!" #" !"#$ % Argentina has a total population of over 45,000,000 inhabitants ( United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs 2019 ). The Argentine population is mostly white of European descent mainly from Spain and Italy. According to the most recent national census from 2010, 97.2% of the country is composed of mestizos and European descendants, while the other 2. 8% are A fro descendants and indigenous peoples ( Index Mundi, 2018 ). Since the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century a migrat i on of Europeans began to populate Argentina who m ostly settled in the cities of Buenos Aires, Mendoza, Rosario and Cordoba and in the southern provinces of Patagonia and Tierra de Fuego. N orthern Argentina, mainly Salta and Jujuy, is wher ethe majority of the indigenous communities are located ( Iberoamericana 2010) The Argentine economic system has undergone great transform ations throughout the 20th and 21st centur ies Since the end of the 19th century, Argentina has integrated itself into the world economy through foreign investment, immigra tion, free trade free movement of capital and monetary stability. Until 1950 it was considered one of the richest countries in the world and one of the largest exporters of cereals and meat in the world (Llamas, 2012) But since the 1970s, Argentina has e xperienced a volatile financial system economic crises, inflation and cumulative external debt that today has reached its highest point A severe depression occurred during 2001 caused by a public and external debt crisis and 60% of Argentinians were below the poverty line. Since then, t he Argentinian peso currency has been devalued over the years. Between 2007 and 2015 Cristina Kichner governed the country applying an ideology of the extreme left. Among her measures to protect the economy stand out the nationalization of companies such as the YPF Oil Company, import restrictions to protect domestic products and currency controls. I n 2015 Mauricio Macri of a right wing political tendency, was elected president, and is leading a transformation of the economy towards a model of economic liberalization. However, since April of 2018 Argentina again is facing an economic and financial depression due to the undervaluation of currency, increasing inflation and public debt Some economists predict that the recovery of the Argentine economy will take considerable tim e ( Cohen, 2018). %
$$" #" !"#$ % 3 .2 REGIONAL BACKGROUND I carried out m y field work in the municipality of Tilcara located in Jujuy Province northern Argentina ( F igure 2 ) This region is well known for its natur al wonders and cultural heritage such as the Quebrada of Humahuaca. Tilcara is one of the three tourist towns along the Quebrada. The Quebrada of Humahuaca is an important Andean valley 155 km in length located at 3000 meters above sea level The valley boasts notable crop diversity, for example 35 varieties of potatoes that continue to be grown today. Its main natural attractions include its multicolored mountains and landscapes, as well as its fauna. Bird watching focusing on numerous native bird species is also becoming popular. In addition to its natural biodiversity, the Quebrada of Humahuaca is an ethnically diverse region. Many of its inhabitants identify themselves as indigenous, and live in communities of Quechua and Aymara origin. The rest of the population identifies as mestizo s According to the most recent census the Quebrada of Humahuaca has approximately 36,000 inhabitants mostly mestizo and indigenous rural farmers (Carrillo, 2013). The most important economic activities in the Quebrada of Humahuaca valley are livestock production, agriculture and tourism. In July 2003, the valley was declared a W orld H eritage site by UNESCO (UNESCO, 2018). Its natural beauty and culture are so impressive that it is compared with other worldfamous tourist attractions in Argentina such as Iguazu Falls or the Perito Moreno Glacier. For this reason, since 2003, the Quebrada de Humahuaca has been attracting many national and international tourists interested in its natural wonders (Vega, 2015) H iking (or trekking) and outdoor activities are some of the most popular touris t activities, not only because of the impressive mountains, but also for the archaeological sites such as L os A marillos Campo M orado, L a Huerta, Banda de Perchel A lfarcito, P ucara de Tilcara, Pucara de Juella and P uerta Juella ( C aro, 2015) However, although the Quebrada of Humahuaca has enormous cultural and environmental potential not only t h r ough tourism, but also t h rough the implementation of regional sustainable development projects in conservation and preservation of their cultural and natural heritage sites most of its population lives in poverty. Jujuy and l a Quebrada of Humahuaca are among the poorest regions of Argentina with the highest unemployment rates, low access to education, poor health care and high infant mortality rates ( La Nacion, 2000)
$%" #" !"#$ % 3 .3 TILCARA BAC K GROUND Tilcara is located in Jujuy Province northwestern Argentina ( Figure 2), 39 km northwest from San Salvador de Jujuy, capital of Jujuy. It is t he most populated town of the Quebrada de Humahuaca. Tilcara is surrounded by high mountain peaks with different colors because of the different types of minerals in the soil and rock ( Figure 3) These mountains are between 2400 and 4200 m high and the R io G rande is one of the main water sources in the region. With regards to climate i t is a n arid zone with extreme climatic fluctuations During the day, temperatures up to 30C can be recorded, but during the night they can reach as low as 5C T he s ummer is the rainy season, while the winter is characterized by dry weather, strong winds and night time frosts. Its flora is characterized by different types of cactus, pepper tree willow, acacias, and poplar ; while its notable fauna includes vicuas, guanacos, foxes, vizcachas and condors Figure 2: Map of the province of San Salvador de Jujuy Source: World Atlas 2018. According to the 2010 census, Tilcara has 4691 inhabitants M ost of its population is indigenous of Aymara origin; while the remainde r are immigrants from Buenos Aires, Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Rosario, as well as a small number of European foreigners of French nationality ( INDEC 2010 ) The first settlers of Tilcara were the Omaguacas and the Tilcaras, during the pre Columbian era before the Spanish colonization of the America s Tilcara was also part of the Inca Empire and is surrounded by ancient Inca roads and archaeological ruins The city is considered the archaeological capital of Argentina
$&" #" !"#$ % Figure 3: The town of Tilcara, in the Quebrada of Humahuac a Source: Trip Advisor 2018 In 2005, the Argentine government conducted its first survey to measure the number of families and people belonging to indigenous communities. For many years, this population remained invisible and was excluded from the national censuses. A total of 2 .8 % of Argentinians reported to be of indigenous origin. Most of the indigenous people are concentrated in the Argentine provines of Chubut, Neuquen and Jujuy. The province of Jujuy has the largest number of families that identify themselves as indigenous or descendants of native peoples: 7.9% identify themselves as indigenous, according to the 2010 national census ( Garcia, 2011; Lipcovich, 2012 ). T he Quebrada de Humahuaca is inhabited by th r e e ethnic groups : the Kollas, Omaguacas and Tilian ( Figure s 4a and 4b ) Currently in Tilcara there are six Kolla and Omaguacas indigenous communities : the cave of the Inca, Tilcara Marka Ayllu La, Tilcara Wilkiphujo, Juella, Malka, and Pucaras ( Garcia, 2011).
$'" #" !"#$ % Figure 4a: a young wom a n from the Kolla Community in traditional clothes 4 b: m embers of the Omaguaca community in their traditional clothes Source: Jeffers, 2015. %3.4 TOURISM BOOM IN TILCARA According to the Tourism Secretary of Jujuy, the number of tourists visiting the Quebrada de Humahuaca increased more than fifteen times after being declared a W orld H eritage S ite by UNESCO: from 7, 175 in 1994 to over 109,000 in 2006 (Bergesio, 2012) The towns of the Quebrada that have the most notable tourist atractions are Pumamarca, Tilcara and Humahuaca. Of these three, Tilcara is the one that attracts the most tourists for its hotel infrastructure, cafes, shops and restaurants. It is considered the a rchaeological capital of Argentina, as already mentioned, with attractions like the fortress Pucara of Tilcara (Figure 5) and t he throat of the devil (Figure 6) a natural wonder located just one kilometer from the town center ( Municipalidad de Tilcara 2018 ).
$(" #" !"#$ % Figure 5 : Pucara de Tilcara archaeological site Source: Municipalidad de Tilcar a, 2018. Figure 6: T hroat of the devil Source: Trip advisor, 2018 Although the tourism industry in Tilcara has brought numerous positive benefits to the area such as employment opportunities and better infrastructure, the tourism boom since being declared a UNESCO World Heritage S ite has also brought negative effects for the indigenous communities and other local residents: environmental degradation as well as socio cultural and economic changes. %
$)" #" !"#$ %3.4.1 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Tilcara, despite being one of the places with surprising natural beauty, in recent years has been facing a series of environmental issues associated with mining and solid waste ( La Nacion,2012 ; Centro de Informacion Judicial, 2010) Since the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina has pushed mining in the Quebrada de Humahuaca as part of the country's economic development policies. In recent years, environmental institutions have begun to denounce the environmental effects of mining particularly of uranium in Tilcara on both wildlife and human health (Orellana, 2011). However, of these two causes of environmental deterioration, solid waste is directly associated with tourist activity. Tilcaras garbage collection system works in t he following way: every day a truck collects the towns garbage and deposits it next to the Huichaira river, and at night the waste is burned. The contaminate d air is toxic to local people, especially affecting those who live on the river's bank ( La Nacion, 2012) No recycling takes place either. This situation has intensified with population growth and hotel infrastructure expansion( La Nacion, 2012) In addition to the health effects on local people, the archeological sites and hiking trails such as the "l agoon of the ducks" (Figure 7), one of the main attractions of the area are full of garbage. Thus, both the population of Tilcara and its natural surroundings are being affected by waste that is cor related with tourism activity. Figure 7: The lagoon of the ducks just outside of Tilcara Source: Guia de Cabanias 2018.
$*" #" !"#$ % 3.4.2 SOCIAL FACTORS M igration, poverty and gender inequality are some of the social factors associated with tourism activity in Tilcara. The following sections describe their main effects on the local community: M igration In recent years Argentina has experienced strong migration from the countryside to the city: between 1991 and 2010 the rural population declined from 4 to 3.5 million (Urien, 2015). T he greatest displacement occurs from the northern provinces to the region of Buenos Aire s (Urien, 2015). The province of Jujuy and the town of Tilcara have been part of this migratory process The recent tourism boom in Tilcara has amplified this migration of young adults to major cities fueled by the lack of employment opportunities in Tilcara despite this tourism boom (Rivelli, 2016). Most of the local busine sses that revolve around tourism in Tilcara a gencies, hostels, shops, cafes are owned and managed by outsiders from Buenos Aires, San Salvador de Jujuy, Salta and Tucuman. As a result, inhabitants have tended to move to other cities in search of better employment since they have not found economic opportunity from tourism industry. P overty Jujuy province has the highest poverty rate in Argentina: 52% of its population is living in poverty and 15% in extreme poverty (Aramayo, 2015). In Tilcara, 18% of nuclear families are classified as NBI (Unsatisfied Basic Needs ) This classification consists of families who struggle to meet their basic needs and present the following indicators: overcrowding of houses or more than 3 people sleeping in a single room; living in a hostel, an unfinished building or a mobile home; lack of a toilet ; and at least one child does not attend school ( Presidencia de la Republica Arge ntina, 2016). This situation of poverty for local people is also related to the tourism activities. The government of Tilcara, instead of investing in school infrastructure or social programs for local resident s has focused on roads and hotel infrastructure which favor tourists. Traditional activities such as handicrafts and farming have also been weakened as several of the consumer products
$+" #" !"#$ % demanded by tourists, including crafts or food, come from Bolivia where they are produced more cheaply. Also, the cost of living has risen--with higher costs for meals, rent, transportation, and public services -particularly during the high tourist season. Gender Inequality Another factor correlated with tourism activity in Tilcara is gender inequality. Half of the population of Tilcara are women ( Go vernment of Jujuy, 2012), but compared to men they are disadvantaged. Jujuy is one of the 23 provinces in Argentina with the highest rates of violence against women (Calvo, 2016). In Tilcara, violent acts including rape and assault against women, have increased in recent years (El Submarino, 2012), against both local women as well as tourists ( La Nacion, 2012). As a response to these events, protests and marches have been held, as well as the opening of the Women's Office in 2016 ( El Submarino, 2016 ) With respect to labor opportunities, women in Tilcara are also in a disadvantaged position, as is the case throughout Argentina (Lacunza, 2010). In Tilcara, poor women who can find work are employed as domesti c servants (Calvo, 2016). This occupation does not have the same benefits and labor laws as other professions: for example, domestic employees do not receive the annual worker bonus or maternity leave (Lacunza, 2010). Men, on the other hand, have a wider r ange of job opportunities, such as the local tour guide profession, which is mostly controlled by men. 3.4. 3 CULTURAL FACTORS A ndean culture: The Kollas Andean culture could be defined as the set of mestizo and indigenous communities that are located in the Andes mountain range and share cultural elements of Hispanic and indigenous origin (Gade, 1999). After the Spanish conquest of South America during the XV century, the S paniards established in Jujuy a gold and silver mining industry. A s a result, ther e was a migration of Quechua and Aymara peoples from the Bolivian highlands to Jujuy to work i n the mines ( Becerra, 2014) This migration produced a fusion between the Omaguacas, who were the first settlers of Tilcara, and the new Andean migrants, resulting in the current ethnic group called the Kollas that inhabit Tilcara and the Q uebrada de Humahuaca (Figure 8).
$," #" !"#$ % Figure 8: Current ethnic groups in Argentina ( Pinimg 2019) The Quechua and Aymara immigrants introduced a series of cultural traditions ranging from crops to musical instruments, ceramics and textiles. These traditions persist today and are the main livelihood activities for the Kollas communities. The principal c rops are potatoes, maize, quinoa, peas, beans, squash, oats, alfalfa, and cereals; while the important livestock are sheep, llamas and alpacas. An important product is the wool of these animals for weaving purposes. Kollas women perform household chores, t end livestock, take care of children and weave textiles. The men cultivate crops and work in salt flats. Young people prefer to move to big cities like Buenos Aires or Cordoba for better job opportunities. With respect to language, many Kollas people, and especially the young, do not speak Quechua The vast majority speak Spanish, in part
%!" #" !"#$ % because people who speak Quechua are discriminated against ( Duro, 2018) T he use of the Spanish language has been imposed in most of these communities by the Argentinian Government by making it the official language in public schools Kollas beliefs and rituals, including the pachamama (mother earth) cult, are also a syncretism between Catholic elements and Quechua rituals (Figures 9 and 10). Figure 9: Celebration of the feast of the Pachamama (mother earth) in Tilcara in August 2016 ( Blog Spot 2016)
%$" #" !"#$ % Figure 10: Celebration of the feast of the Pachamama (mother earth) in Tilcara in August 2014. Source: Periodico Lea, 2014. The Pachamama is revered throughout the year, with celebrations in February and August. Another ancestral custom is to leave a stone and an offering on mojones (piles of stones) to ask for health during long trips. Also, processions to high altitude alta rs are very common; these are located on the tops of mountains. The most popular one in Tilcara is located 4200 meters above sea level and hundreds of people gather to ascend the mountain every April. Thus the Andean culture of the indigenous communities in Tilcara is the result not only of the geographic and climatic conditions, but is also the product of cultural and historical processes such as the Spanish conquest and the migration of Bolivian Andean communities to this territory. 3 .5 LOCAL STAKEHOLDERS 3.5.1 ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL MUSEUM EDUARDO CASANOVA I was supported by the Archaeological and Anthropological Museum of Tilcara, through its communications office which helped to organize the training workshop for local guides. The Museum also publicized the event using local newspapers and radio stations, and provided a room and beverages for both sessions of the workshop.
%%" #" !"#$ % The museum is part of the University Center of Tilcara, a regiona l office for the Department of Philosophy and Letters of the University of Buenos Aires. The mission of this institution is to work for local and regional development through research, courses and extension workshops directed to the local communities in the Quebrada de Humahuaca. In this sense, my project fits in with its mission as it promotes the training and development of the local community in Tilcara. 3.5.2 INSTITUTE OF ECOANDEAN REGIONS (INECOA) I was also supported by the Institute of Andean E coregions (INECOA), located in San Salvador de Jujuy. This institution provided logistical support including field assistance, introductions to the local guide association, as well as advi c e and assessments of the design of the nature walk. Some of its staff also participated in the training workshop. The mission of INECOA is to conduct research related to cultural and environmental conservation that promotes sustainable development in La Quebrada de Humahuaca and The Yungas. The Institute also promote s community development through extension courses focused on sustainable tourism and preservation of the cultural and natural heritage of Jujuy.% 3.5.3 LOCAL GUIDES ASSOCIATION IN TILCARA The Association of Local Tour guides in Tilcara was another local institution that collaborated with me. The Association provided field assistance and guiding services for the design of the nature walk. Its mission is to promote sustainable tourism that wi ll improve the economic and social wellbeing of the indigenous communities in Tilcara (Local Guides Association, 2018). 3.5.4 T O URISM OFFICE OF TILCARA The Tilcara Tourism Office was another key institution for the implementation of my project. In addition to providing me assistance with the logistics of the training workshop for local guides, the Office also organized a meeting to present my project to the leaders of the Local Guides Association. This institutions mission is to promot e tourism in Tilcara and to strengthen economic and social development f or local people
%&" #" !"#$ %4 A S U ST A INABLE TOURISM MODEL FOR TILCARA Sustainable tourism is defined as responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well being of the local people and involves education (TIES 2015:2 ). Based on this approach, countries such as Mexico, Colombia and Argentina have promoted communitybased tourism, which refers to a system in which the local community has substantial control of tourism, and participates in its development and management, and a significant proportion of the benefits remain in the community (Orgaz, 2013:81). It gives tourists the opportunity to stay and s hare with local communities to learn about their culture and nature and to obtain an alternative tourism experience. From this perspective of sustainable communitybased tourism, I proposed a pedagogi cal hiking trail as a sustainable tourism model for the local community guides in Tilcara. This model is based on natural and cultural assets, is led by local guides and is managed by the community. This is a viable alternative for Tilcara particularly important in this region where tourism is causing negative effects on local people The sustainable pedagogical hiking model in Tilcara contains elements from three theoretical approaches: mindfulness i n nature, exchange between knowledge systems and ecology of place 4. 1 MINDFULNESS IN NATURE Mindfulness is a western term that comes from the interpretation of the ancient budhism made by T.W. Rhys Davids, at the end of the XIX century (Rupert, 2011). Inspired by Buddha's teaching and western psychotherapy, mindfulness is characterized by three e lements: awareness, attention and remembering. Awareness denotes direct attention to the present moment, while remembering refers to continuously remembering to be aware and pay attention. Putting together these elements, mindfulness could be defined as "the awareness that emerges through paying attention to the unfolding of experience moment to moment" (Pollak, 2014:2). Mindfulness researchers have developed mindfulness techniques to bring awareness and attention to the present moment using s ensory practices The s ensory practices placed the body and all senses as key elements to direct the attention to the present. Such sensory practices include breathing, observation (focusing attention through the observation of a single object), deep
%'" #" !"#$ % listening meaning listening to sounds or listening attentively to others, touching body parts to raise awareness of the present moment, mindful eating which is paying attention to what we eat using the sense of taste and breathing, or using the sense of smell (Greater Good Science Center, 2018). With the actual environmental crisis, s ocial workers are finding ways to protect our natural environments proposing ecomindfulness or the practice of mindfulness in nature ( Crews 2016). This framework suggested a radical transformation on the ways human and nature have related each other. Us, the human beings have forgotten that nature and humans are interconnect ed, a unique entity, not separated entities Protecting nature is thus, protecting oneself, and protecti ng oneself, is thus, protecting nature ( Crews, 2016: 95 ). As a product of this separation from our natural systems, our experiences with nature remained isolated. We live a noisy life, indeed we are becoming unable to find themselves in silence. In order to connect people with nature, a type of informal mindfulness practice has been introduced that uses all the senses during a nature walk: mindful hiking (Gelles, 2017) Mindful hiking is a nature walk with the purpose of not only provided leisure or a physical activity, but one that requires consciously being aware and moving in a natural environment through the use of all the senses. Some of the benefits of mindful hiking are a connection with the natural environment using the body and all the senses, as well as cognitive benefits such as improved attention, concentration and memory. With respect to the cognitive benefits of being in nature, the neuroscientist Sebastian Kaplan proposes interaction with nature for the increasing number of people who suffer from directed attention fatigue described as: "a neurological symptom that occurs when our voluntary attention system, the part of our brain that allows us to concentrate despite distractions, becomes worn down. People suffering from directed attention fatigue can experience short term feelings of heightened distraction, impatience or forgetfulness, when the condition is severe enough people can exhibit poor judgement and feel increased level of stress (Kaplan,1995:170). For the pedagogical hiking design, we used mindfulness sensory techniques as a framework to design the activities during the nature walk, with the purpose to provide a new nature experi ence to the visitors and local people in Tilcara.
%(" #" !"#$ %4. 2 EXCHANGE BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS Exchange between knowledge system s refers to: a communicative process in which two different logics are put into interaction: scientific knowledge and everyday knowledge, with a clear intention to understand each other. This process implies the recognition of the other as a different subject, with different knowledge and positions (Bastidas, 2009:40) Applying this p rocess I integrate d local knowledge from the local guides with scientific knowledge for the design of the nature walk. S ince 2003 a group of researchers from INECOA has been working with local natur e guides to preserve local knowledge. My work with this institution was to continue these eff orts t hrough the design of the nature walk. Fo r the pedagogical hiking we collected traditional oral stories about local history, A ndean culture rites and rituals, archaeological sites and the natural biodiversity of Tilcara. W e then compared this knowledge with the scientific knowledge that comes from the academic fields of a rcheology, biology botany, e col ogy, geology and neuroscience. 4. 3 ECOLOGY OF PLACE Ecology of place is understood as a type of environmental education that can leverage people's sense of place and foster ecological place meaning through direct experiences of places, social interactions and nurturing residents' ecological identity (Russ, 2015:1). F rom this perspective, sense of place means a detailed understanding of a local place through the acquisition of local knowledge ( Billick, 2010). Th is process of acquiring knowledge is not just by reciv ing information, but by observing, inquiring and reflecti ng about the place The ecology of place places outdoor places a s a central element to pedagogic practices ( Zync, 2011) The majority of the public s chool ing system in the western world has had the tendency to isolate teachers and students from outdoor places O utdoor education instead s uggest that schools should expand kids experiences and their world perceptions taking them to outoor settings ( Gruenewald, 2003; Priest, 2009)"! Based on this conceptual framework, in Latin America a type of ecology of place called schoolyard ecology was developed. First it was applied in the schoolyard by teachers and students, then to nature trails. Schoolyard ecology in nature trails is based on the interactions
%)" #" !"#$ % between local guides and visitors: visitor inquiry induces visitors to protected areas and other venues to engage in active instead of passive learning, and to relate what theyve experienced to their actions and attitudes about the ec ology and conservation of their own place (Feinsinger et al 2010: 413). In this model, the local guide plays a particular role in p roviding a new experience of natural surroundings to tourists through questions about what they are observing and experiencing. A t the end of the nature walk the guide invites tourists to make a reflection about their own place This model is applied not only with domestic and foreign tourists but also with members of the community such as local school children and fam ilies (Feinsinger et al 2010). For the design of the guided nature walk, in addition to incorporating sensory activities inspired in mindfulness based techniques, we included the visitor inquiry model explained above as another pedagogical tool that local guides in Tilcara can use to facilitate the experience of being in nature. % % % % %
%*" #" !"#$ % %5 CONTEXTUAL CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Figure 12 presents the contextual/ conceptual framework f or my field practicum. T he left side provides contextual information about the municipality of Tilcara, where I did my field work. The large blue boxes list the internal factors associated with tourism i n this area. Below, the dark gray box details outside f actors that have affected tourism in Tilcara. T he right side outlines the key elements and main actors of my project. T he orange boxes are the three theoretical approaches used for the design of the pedagogical trekking. T he light gray box lists the outcom es of the project. The three small blue boxes indicate the institutions that supported the project. And in the center of the figure in the yellow circle are the local guides, the target population of my project : % Figure 11: Field Practicum Contextual/Conceptual Framework% % %
%+" #" !"#$ % 6 OBJECTIVES The overall objective of my field practicum was to create a pilot design of a guided nature walk using sensory activities and local knowledge which can be used as pedagogical material by INECOA and local nature guides in Tilcara, Argentina. Table 1 presents the four specific objectives and the methods applied under each objective. Table 1: Field Practicum Objectives %
%," #" !"#$ %7 CO DESIGNING A NATURE WALK FOR THE TOUR LOCAL GUIDES: A PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH APPROACH For my field work I proposed a Participatory Action Research approach and its methods such as informal conversations/meetings, direct observation, surveys and a workshop ( Macdonald,2012) Using this approach, the local guides of Tilcara and members of INECOA participated directly in the design of the pedagogical nature walk. 7.1 INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS/MEETINGS Upon my arrival in the city of Tilcara, I spent three weeks meeting and having informal conversations with staff members of INECOA, the Tourism Office, the Cultural Heritage Office and leaders of the Local Guides Association of Tilcara. We spoke about the need to create new guided walks that teach tourists and local people about the cultural and natural diversity of Tilcara to benefit the local community and to support the local guide profession. As a result of these meetings, two leaders from the Local Guides Association and a PhD student in Ethnobotany from INECOA participated in the guided nature walk design. Also as a result of these meetings, the nature walk was directed not only to national and international tourists, but to local families and public school students and teacher s as well; and the guided walk included not only na tural sites, but also archeological sites located in the urban area of Tilcara. Meetings and informal conversations were recorded in a journal. Journal notes were thematically organized into flashcards These themes included pedagogical hiking, local tourism managed by local guide s and protection and preservation of indigenous knowledge. 7.2 DIRECT OBSERVATION The second method that I used for the design of the guided nature walk was direct observation to collect information about the route, stops, themes and activities. Over a period of two weeks I
&!" #" !"#$ %observed three guided walks given by two local guides from Tilcara ( see Figures 13a and 13b ) These guided walks covered two routes that passed through the irrigation canals of Inca origin. Through direct observation of these guided tours, I was able to gain a better understanding of what it is like being a local guide in Tilcara. Also, I gained some knowledge about natural and cultural diversity of the region such as t ypes of soils, medicinal plants and their uses, land formations, bird species, archaeological sites, cultural traditions and farming practices. In addition, I observed how local guides relate to each other and to tourists or other members of their communit ies. I also was able to establish a strong personal connection with them by exchanging stories. These interactions allowed me not only to collect valuable information for the nature walk design, but also to gain their trust and to encourage them to partici pate in the project. At first, I was an outsider trying to collect information, but at the end, the local guides and I combined information and cocreated the pedagogical hike design. Figure 8a: guided tour given by Horacio Silva. Figure 13b: guided tour given by Moises Chorolque. %Thus, direct observation was a key in the collection of local knowledge, but also allowed me a glimpse into the local guides daily lives and into the political, social and cultural dynamics that surround them. We realized that we had more things in common that we initially thought most importantly, we are both educators and passionate about teaching.
&$" #" !"#$ %For the analysis of the data collected during the direct observation, I used a field diary, taking notes on archaeological sites such as the "vasijas," irrigation canals ( the ancient water system of Inca origin) plants and their medicinal uses, fauna and native flora of the region, types of landscapes, landform s history of the curr ent indigenous communities, geological history ritual places such as the "Mojon" and cultural traditions such as the Pachamama ritual and the devil carnival. This information was codified thematically and subthematically. The type of coding that I used was from codes to categories, for instance, a type of plant like Schinus molle was grouped in the category of medicinal plants. 7. 3 SECONDARY DATA As a complement to the primary data collected during direct observation, I collected secondary data published by researchers and scientists from Tilcara and the province of Jujuy. Three important texts were recommended by INECOA staff members who have been trainers for local guides in Tilcara, as well as other researchers who reside in Til cara and who have participated in projects with local guides. 1) Living in the Quebrada de Humahuaca (Albeck et al. 1992). As one of the only documents that relies in traditional knowledge, t his book was developed for the students of the "Eduardo Casanova" public elementary school (the students of this school participated in the test of the guided nature walk). Tilcara teachers, researchers and parents collaborated to create a document which combines scientific and local knowledge to provide primar y school students a better understa nding of the history of Tilcara Anthropologists, geologists and agronomists contributed their knowledge, while other "nonacademic" community members such as Don Santos, who did not complete primary school, contributed t heir extensive knowledge about the territory of Tilcara. 2) New interpretations for the occupation sequence of Tilcara (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy) (Otero, 2015 ). Archaeologist Clarissa Otero coordinates the extension courses for local guides in Tilcara, and is the main researcher and expert of the most important archaeological sites
&%" #" !"#$ %in Tilcara such as the Pucara. She provides important information about the water irrigation system of Inca origin. 3) The eye of the condor: a different look at our Geography (Puente, 2015). INECOA faculty and staff produced this book on how over time geological processes formed the current landscape and the different types of sediments found in Tilcara. After reviewing the secondary sources, useful information was selected for the thematic content of the guided walk such as the irrigation system of Inca origin, geological formations of the landscape of the Quebrada de Humahuaca (types of sediments and the different tonalities or colors of the mountains) and children's stories about nature and about traditional cultural practices of the natives communities of Tilcara such as the custom of chewing coca. 7.4 INQUIRY CYCLE %Another method that was used in the nature walk design was the inquiry cycle. Under the Ecology of Place theoretical approach, this method creates a script for local guides with instructions on how to guide the nature walk. This script is based on the inquiry cycle, where inquiry action and reflection play a fundamental role in the way in which people actively experience nature (Figure 14). FIGURE A Figure 9: Inquiry Cycle (Basic inquiry) Source: Feinsinger et al 2010. For the design of the nature walk an adaptation of this model was made. The nature walk starts with an initial question, for example, what animals and plants will be observed along the way? Then at each of the stops, questions combined with actions (sensory activities) are used to facilitate the learning e xperience along the walk. At the end of the walk, a reflection is made using the initial question posed at the beginning (Figure 15): &'()*+,% ./*+,% 0(12(/*+,%
&&" #" !"#$ % Figure 10: Inquiry Cycle adapted for the nature walk in Tilcara. In accordance with the inquiry cycle method, the script was planned through the following steps: A) a list of initial questions was created for the starting point of the nature walk; B) Another list of questions was made according to the topics of the stops along the route; C) Information was collected on sensory activities in nature such as bird watching, landscape contemplation, texture and shape descriptions, sound identification, silence practice, storytelling, plant smelling, barefoot walking and rock climbing; D) For the nature walk reflection, a list of questions about the nature walk experience was used. The four sets of information collected above were used to writ e the first version of the script (see more details about the script in the r esults section below). 7. 5 GUIDED NATURE WALK ASSES SMENT %After completing the script, the nature walk went through an evaluation process that consisted of two t rial runs each followed by evaluations us ing two instruments written and oral. The first nature walk t rial was applied to a group of 7 people: three INECOA members and four national tourists from the city of Buenos Aires. The second nature walk t rial was applied to a group of 40 students, two primary school teachers and two staff members of the Eduardo Casanova Public School. The written evaluation comprised 16 elements grouped into three experience characteristics: physical aspects, presentation aspects and effectiveness ( see A ppendix 1). Each element was evaluated on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being very bad, and 5 excellent Only the four adults completed the written portion of the second nature walk evaluation. The oral evaluation was facilitated by the local guide using the following questions: how was your experience during the nature walk? What did you like the most? What did you learn during the tour? The evaluations lasted approximately 20 minutes +-+*+.2%&'()*+,% ./*+,-%345$6789:6%":;% 6$:69<=%">78?878$6@ % -.*'0(%A.2B% 0(12(/*+,%
&'" #" !"#$ %The information f rom the oral evaluation directed to the members of INECOA was thematically orgaznied in three themes: sensory activities route themes and the entire experience of the nature walk 7. 6 WORKSHOP %T he last method I used for my fieldwork was to conduct a training workshop, for a group of local guides from Tilcara, on the nature walk design and how they could implement a similar project using other nature trails located in and around Tilcara ( Figures 16 and 17) This twoday (1920 July, 2018) workshop was held at the Museum of Archeology of Tilcara (se e program in Appendix 2). The first day was divided in two parts, the first a conversation on rural tourism facilitated by Carlos Vaira, a PhD student at Ethnobotany who participated in the design of the nature walk. In the second part, I presented the nat ure walk design and ga ve each of the attendees a folder that contained the following information: steps to develop a pedagogic walk, the script, instructions on the inquiry cycle and how to formulate questions, and the nature walk written evaluation. Figure 16: Workshop session about the pedagogical hiking design led by researcher
&(" #" !"#$ % Figure 11: Workshop session about rural tourism lead by a INECOA member The second day was also divided in two parts: a talk about the role of geology in local tourism and another about the history of Tilcara since precolonial times. Both talks were by Vanesa Juarez, Clarissa Otero and Guadalupe Garcia who are researchers and staff members at INECOA. Leaders of the Local Guide Association in Tilcara and nearby communities were personally and verbally invited to attend this workshop, also through announcements by the local radio station La Caprichosa, the newspaper El Tribuno, a nd the Tourism Office of Tilcara ( see Appendix 3). T he conversation on local tourism r esponses w as recorded and statements organized according to three themes: community rural tourism original communities as protectors of the environment and financial wellbeing of the communities since the declaration of the "Quebrada de Humahuaca" as a World H eritage site Also, at the end of the event an evaluation composed of 8 questions was applied, focusing on the following aspects: workshop content, presentation and discussion results (see A ppendix 4) Each question was score d f rom 1 to 5, with 1 being very bad and 5 being excellent There were also two open questions at the end. % %
&)" #" !"#$ %8 RESULTS MEETINGS As I mentioned in the m ethods section above during the first two weeks of my fieldwork, I held individual and separate meetings with each of the institutions that supported my project: INECOA, the Tilcara Tourism Office and the Local Guides Association in Tilcara. As a result of these meetings, I held a meeting inviting members of each of these institutions to present my project to them all together, and to confirm the participation and collaboration of each institution with my project. At the end of the meetings, two local guides and members of the Loc al Guides Association, as well as a PhD student and researcher from INECOA, confirmed their involvement with my project. Another result of this meeting was to include the three elements below as part of the pedagogical trekking design. The following themes emerged from the journal notes coded: C ultural and natural diversity of Tilcara During the meeting the two leaders of the L ocal Guides Association proposed to design a pedagogical guided nature walk that focused on the cultural and natural diversity of Tilcara. The local guides reinforced the idea tha t they are educators or the ones who facilitate the learning during the tour and natural and cultural heritage protectors (Antonio Ochoa, Member of the Local Guide s Association). F or them archaeological and nature sites are a classroom (Ramiro Meneses, Member of the Local Guide s Association) The Association proposed that the guided nature walk be aimed at the Eduardo Casanova public school to initiate the program since local youthand not only tourists should have knowledge about the importance of preserving and maintaining cultural traditions. In addition to proposing that the nature walk be applied to students of the Eduardo Casanova Public School the two members of the Local Guide s Association recommended to do a workshop or plan an event to promote the design of the pedagogical walk with other local tour guides of Tilcara and ne ighboring towns L ocal tourism managed by local people
&*" #" !"#$ %The other outcome of this meeting was the recommendation to create tourism projects that benefit the local community. During the meetings the two leaders of the Local Guides Association stated that two of the most popular tourist routes in Tilcara the Pucara de Tilcara and the throat of the devil (Garganta del Diablo), are controlled by tour guides and agencies from the neighboring province of Salta, thus local guides are not benefiting economically from tourism. Therefore, it is necessary to create alternative nature walks that are promoted bette r at the provincial scale in Tilcara, and that are managed and guided only by local guides. Also, tourism should not only target domestic and foreign tourists, but also the local community. P reservation of indigenous knowledge During the meeting the members of the Local Guide s Association stated that the indigenous cultural identity and knowledge are being lost among the young population of Tilcara Thus, t here is a need to rescue the indigenous knowledge and teach it to the younger members of the com munity. For this reason, it is important to design a nature walk that promotes the conservation of the Tilcara territory and protect s indigenous traditions. Likewise, the nature walk design must value the role of local guides as preservers and protectors of indigenous knowledge 8.1 DIRECT OBSERVATION %T he main objective of the direct observation was to observe existing walks and to define the nature walk route as one of the first steps for the design. Th e chosen route (Figure 18 ) has three characteristics: 1) It crosses the irrigation system of Inca origin that was discovered only three years ago, 2) The route c an only be accessed with a local guide and 3) The route pass es by a farm property, so tourists can interact with landowners
&+" #" !"#$ % Figure 12: Pilot guided walk route with indicated stopping points mentioned in Appendix 5 The tour begins in the urban center of Tilcara, then visits the archaeological sites of the urban area. Next it goes towards the natural area where the Malka (meaning village in Aymara) route begins where the participants are prompted to recognize important plants and their healing properties, as well as their ritual uses. Then it goes up to a ritual site, the mojon. From the mojon it ascends to the acequia or the Inca irrigation system to identify endemic and nonnative plants. Further on, the route pauses at a house to rest and contemplate the different types of landscape s as well as to identify the sounds of nature At the next stop, people can observe a current Kollas native community, and consider how the past relates to the present. Then, the route descends to the valley t hrough a rocky area to talk about landscape formation and the different types of sediments that have been observed along the way. The journey ends with a reflection about the entire route in a sacred site.
&," #" !"#$ %8.2 SECONDARY DATA Each of the three important secondary sources published by local residents provided key themes addressed in the guided nature walk route, in the selection of stops and sensory act ivities (Figure 19). Figure 13: Important references published by local residents 8.3 INQUIR Y CYCLE AND SENSORIAL MODEL The first result of the inquiry cycle method was a script with instructions for local guides on how to guide the nature walk (Figure 20).
'!" #" !"#$ % Figure 14: S cript for guides. An example of the script is presented below : Before arriving at the vase, on the corner of the street of the surprise make a brief mention o f the vessels that are under the floor. Then go to the vessel exposed in one of the houses. When you arrive at this place, invite the children to close their eyes for a moment and let them imagine how the first inhabitants of Tilcara lived (calculate 30 seconds). After that, ask them the following questions: What artifacts for cooking do we use today? What did our grandparents use ? Listen to one answer or at most two ... now invite them to observe this artifact for about 20 seconds and then ask, what is it? Do you use similar devices in your homes? What do you use them for? Listen to one or two answers and then explain briefly why the first settlers used the vessels, for example, to eat, cook and store, so they will find similarities and differences between the first settlers and the inhabitants of Tilcara today. Children and tourists could also be reminded of the importance of preserving and respecting the archaeological heritage of indigenous peoples (See A ppendix 5 for more details about the other stops and activities)
'$" #" !"#$ %In Figure 21, the local guide is facilitating the activity that is described in the script above at the stop of the vessels, to a group of children f rom the Eduardo Casanova School This script also went through a revision process with the local guide who guided the pedagogical walk and with a representative from INECOA (Table 2 ). Table 2: Revisions to draft script from local guide and INECOA representative. The revised script (Appendix 5) was applied with a group of children from the Eduardo Casanova primary school and with national and international tourists who visited the area during the high season.
'%" #" !"#$ % Figure 15 : Local guide facilitating the sensory activity described above. 8.4 NATURE WALK EVALUATION In the first evaluation, 4 of 7 people expressed their opinions while in the second all participants 10 girls and 5 boys as well as a school teacher, shared their answers.
'&" #" !"#$ %Evaluation No.1 : For the first trial of the script of the nature walk design we applied a written survey and an oral survey (see A ppendix 1) Most respondents considered that the following elements were achieved or appropriate: clear presentation of the topics adaptation to the target audience stop duration ability to engage the public effective introduction and instructions a bility to leave deep traces on the visitor s mind through sensory activities and inquiries a s a whole it is a positive and pleasant experience; does not encourage a sense of guilt, shame, discomfort, sadness, anger, disappointment% it is interesting from the point of view of the target audience Mean while most respondents considered that the following elements were not adequately addressed: s e nsory activities duration de pth and quality of inquiries Also, for the first t rial we applied an oral evaluation, asking simply How was your experience during the walk? Responses addressed three different topics: sensory activities, route themes and the nature walk experience as a whole. Overall, four out of the seven participants expressed a positive opinion of the sensory activities, one of them even mentioned that: the stop that we did in the pink house was beautiful! to take off my socks and refresh my feet and be able to remember that not only am I receiving information, but I can also feel it (see Appendix 6 for original Spanish version). However, some of them mentioned that they would have liked to go deeper into the sensorial element, for example listening to birds and identifying them by their calls.
''" #" !"#$ %With regards to the route themes t wo of the participants agreed that one of the elements that they liked the most was to acquire information about the transition between the urban landscape and the natural landscape and how, over the centuries, the Tilcara landscape has changed. Also, they added that the nature walk could include information about the Aymara calendar since : "the calendar is able to integrate current farming practices that come from prehispanic time s (see A ppendi x 6 for original Spanish version) As for the nature walk as a whole, the experience was evaluated positively. All the participants agreed that they liked the trail since the route combines an urban landscape with a natural landscape, and because it incorporates the biocultural elements tha t make Tilcara a unique place. Also because the only way to get there is going with a local guide tourists can share with the local inhabit ant s along the nature walk and integrate it with them without feeling that: one as a tourist is invading the place where they live ( see Appendix 6 for original Spanish version) Evaluation No. 2 For the second t rial we also applied a two question oral evaluation. This was directed to the students and the staff members of the Eduardo Casanova Public School. The responses in Table 3 are divided by roles (students and teachers) and by gender ( boys and girls) to highlight the differences and similari ties of the experience.
'(" #" !"#$ % Table 3: Oral evaluation applied to a group of primary students and a teacher from the Eduardo Casanova School in Tilcara. According to the oral evaluation, both adults and children enjoyed the sensory experience and even adults indicated that it was what they liked the most. Among the children, the girls were more captivated by the inquiry and the sensory parts, while the boys emphasized more interest in the physical activities and the knowledge they received during the tour. Also, based on the girls comments, knowledge acquisition, such as learning about medicinal plants or ancient settlers is asocciated with the senses of touch, sight and hearing. 8.5 WORKSHOP RESULTS M ore women (20) than men (10) attended the workshop. The vast majority of the women were students from the tourism program of the National University of J ujuy, who want to become local tour guides in the near future. Other women are community leaders who are planning rural tourism projects in their communities. As for men, the vast majority of them are already local tour guides.
')" #" !"#$ % Figure 22 summarizes the main points discussed in the first workshop s ession. This session focused on tourism was designed to be conversational and interactive with guest speakers and the attendees wh o were mainly local guides and students from the tourism program of fered by the National University of Jujuy. Participants are excited about / intererested i n rural community tourism for the following reasons: tourists share with local people and actively participate in the ir daily life activities ; it is an alternative to mass tourism; it builds cultural and environmental awareness ; it builds respect for the local communities and it brings financ ial benefits and community empowerment. In contrast, mass tourism has not br ought economic benefits to the local community in Tilcara Figure 16 : Workshop participant statements about rural communit y tourism
'*" #" !"#$ % At the end of the workshop, 16 people responded to the written evaluation survey. The written evaluation contains 16 questions about the content, the materials used, the applicability of the topics in their profession and the workshop duration (see A ppendix 4). Most of the questions were scored positively, between good and excellent. Ho wever, low scores were assigned to the visual materials and to the duration of the workshop (see A ppendix 4 ). Also, the attendees, particularly the local guides, left written comments express ing their interest in receiving training in practical tools and not only in theoretical knowledge A t the end of the workshop the attende e s verbally expressed the importance to carry out more conversations about sustainable tourism in the community, for example, between hotel owners and local guides to propose joi nt projects and solutions that benefit the whole community. 9 DISCUSSION T he f ieldwork results show ed th at teaching about natural and cultural resources of Tilcara, involving the community members in local tourism and local indigenous knowledge are key elements for a sustainable tourism in Tilcara. In addition to that the project helped bring the communitycentric theoretical approaches of ecology of the place mindfulness in nature and knowledge exhange systems to support ongoing efforts to increase sustainable community tourism From the ecology of the place this project took the idea of connecting locals and visitors with the natural surroundings through the use of innovative pedagogical tools such as observation, inquiring and reflection. Traditionall y, local tour guides of Tilcara facilitated guided tour s by only giving information, so the visitors get only a passive experience characterized by little interaction with the nature surroundings. But with the training in inquir ing, observation and reflection, the local tour guides in Tilcara can now offer and guided walks using innovative tools that serves them to create a unique experience in nature for visitors that is completely different from others guided tour walks currently offered in Tilcara Another element that we use d from the the ecology of the place was outdoor education. The pedagogical hiking design places nature as a classroom to learn about Tilcara using an
'+" #" !"#$ % interdisciplinary curriculum. Along the pedagogical hikking visitors and community members such as teachers and school children can learn about natural and cultural local resources, ethnobotany, landscape transformation and local history from Tilcara in a natural setting, away from the classroom etc. In relation to the studies on mindfulness in nature this project showed that the use of all senses i n natural environments is an essential element to connect people with nature and also to raise awareness about the need to protect nature among kids and young people D uring the two hours that the pedagogical hike in Tilcara lasted the re was a decrease in the use of electronic device s, allowing the visitors a nd the primary school students a deeper connection with the natural settings t hey were visi ting. Also, t he use of mindfulness on nature for the design of pedagogical hiking demonstrated that mindfulness sensory techniques are a powerful educational tool. For instance, m indfulness in nature can be applied for biology, history, chemestry, geography or ecology courses directed to primary, highschool or college studenrts In addition to that the practice of mindfulness in nature also promotes a different way for acquiring knowledge tha t is, using the body and all senses as a vehicle for learning. In regards to the knowldege exhange systems approach, the pedagogical hiking design promoted an exchange of knowledge, since it opened the door for a dialogue between scientific and local knowledge. The design integrated different disciplines such as anthropology, history, pedagogy, biology, geology and ecology with local knowledge. In the same way, it gave the possibility of bringing scientific knowledge to a public without academic training. !Besides the elements mentioned above, the inclusion of women in the local guide profession is also important for a sustainable tourism in Tilcara Culturally in the Aymara communities located in the north of Argentina and Bolivia, men have acquired a dominant position placing women in a second place. This phenomenon is known as indigenous machismo (L ora et al, 2011) As a product of this phenomenon, t he woman has been confined to the house work, selling market or as a housemaid. One step that could change this situation is to expand the training courses offer for local guides to women who want to dedicate themselves to this profession. For instance, during the two workshop sessions that we organized, more women than men attended, suggesting that women in Tilcara are interested in to get training in this profession, but the courses offer with a gender focus is limited.
'," #" !"#$ % As for the continuity of the project, the pedagogical hiking script is now under the ownership of INECOA and the local guides who participated in the design and the workshop. Some of the upcoming INECOA proj ect s are the creation of a working group in sustainable tourism composed by scholars and Phd students who will be financed by this institution, and a winter training course t hat will include a focus session inspired by the pedagogical hiking script However, t hese projects depend on the financial support of the CONICET a public institution that funds INECOA. During the last year, CONICET has reduced funding for research in public universities and research institutions in consequence the tourism projects led by INECOA ha s been delayed. As for the local guides, members of the community of Juella, who received the workshop training are planning a communityplaced project which will also include a guided walk inspired by the script. To conclude this section, beyond Tilcaras context this type of project could be implemented in other Latin American countries, where traditional communities have been exc l uded from the tourism industry. Although there are similar local tourism innitiatives in Latin America that incorporate s sensory activities a nd the ecology of place approach as is the case of the Andean B iosphere R eserve project in Patagonia Argentina, which offer a guided walk using inquiring and reflection(Norpatagonian Andean Biosphere Reserve, 2018); sensorial guided walks guided by local guides in Capulcalam de Mendez in Oaxaca Mexico ( Me xico desconocido, 2019). Our project differs from these inniatives because include both perspectives: sensory activities and elements of the ecology of place and is directed not only to tourists but also to community members such as public school teachers and students. %
(!" #" !"#$ %1 0 CONCLUS IONS In recent years, INECOA has proposed training courses for local tourist guides in Tilcara, in various topics such as Archeology, Biology and Geology. These courses are mainly focused on providing knowledge about archeological sites and the natural diversity of the Quebrada de Humahuaca. Although, these courses have met the de mand of the guides to acquire theoretical knowledge, from recent academic research that they can use and transmit during their guided tours, INECOA lacks an offer of courses with a special emphasis on practical tools and with a focus in sustainable tourism To meet this need, my fieldwork with INECOA was to design a pedagogical hiking, using a sustainable tourism approach, which would serve as a pedagogical tool for training local tour guides of Tilcara, in practical knowledge on in how to design and guide walks. The local tour guides who participated in the design of the pedagogical hiking, and those that attended the workshop, learned s pecific skills to guide walks to invite visitors to ask questions and reflect on the place they are visiting, facilitate sensory activities, organize thematic information in stops, make use of a script and introduce evaluation tools such as oral evaluations led by the guide, which can serve them as self assessment tools to improve the quality of their guided tours. In additi on of serving as a training tool in practical knowledge, the pedagogical hiking design breaks with the concept that tourism is directed solely at national and foreign tourists. Instead, it proposes a different view of tourism in which local people such as schoolchildren, university students or other members of the Tilcara community participate in this alternative form of tourism In sum, the most important lesson I learned from this fieldwork was the importance of introducing innovative and practical training tools for local tourism guides inspired by ecology of place mindfulness on nature and knowledge exhange systems. This type of practical knowledge can be very useful for local toursim guides to propose alternative projects of tourism that not only attr act tourists interested i n rural communitybased tourism but also families and local schools that want to know and learn more about their community.
($" #" !"#$ %Challenges Although the objectives proposed by this fieldwork were achieved, there were some limitations and challenges during my stay in Tilcara Performing my fieldwork using a Participatory Action Research approach in an unknown country, in a rural area mostly populated by indigenous communities was a personal and professional challe nge. I proposed to use a Participatory Action Research Approach to encourage the tour guides to participate in the design of the nature walk and to promote local ownership of the project, however doing so was not an easy task. Despite being Latin American and speaking Spanish, gaining community trust was a process of weeks and even until the end of my stay, I was still considered an outsider by the community. Another challenge was to get the community to take ownership of the project I proposed as its own. At first when the local guides and I were designing the nature walk, they did not see it as their project. Only when we tested the pedagogical trekking design and we obtained positive results did the local guides underst and that this project was not for me, but for them (contextextualized this into his culture) Likewise, the local guide profession is mostly dominated by men, and working with local m ale guides was difficult. When I had meetings with them, I sometimes received uncomfortable or inappropriate comments. I would have liked to work from the beginning with women who are dedicated to the profession of local guides or who were interested in receiving training as local guides. As for the limitations, although INECOA is carrying out an important work in training local guides, the professors and researchers who direct the courses did not show special interest in the training of the guides in practical knowledge. Currently, the INECOA ccordination office for the training courses for local guides is led by ar chaeologists and historians, who are mainly focused on conducting theoretical research on the archaeological sites that are located in urban areas and not in the field of environ me ntal studies. The little interest in projects of environmental sustainability and sustainable tourism by the coordination office, could limit the success of projects like the one we propose.
(%" #" !"#$ % 11 RECOMMENDATIONS % Considering these challenges and limitations mentioned above, a series of recommendations for INECOA are presented below: INECOA could play an important role in strengthening local tourism and the local guide profession in Tilcara. Collaboration between indigenous communities and members of I NECOA, as well as training courses for local tour guides -not only in theory and academic information ( a rcheology, biology or geology ) but also i n practical skills -a re some of the init iatives that INECOA could lead in the region. As a complement to the information mentioned above INECOA could promote practical knowledge in the training courses for local guides using field trips and emphasizing local knowledge Also, INECOA could work closely with local guides to identify priority themes and conduct applied research to generate results tha t communities can use and benefit from. More r esearch on rural tourism, community tourism, ecology of place and sensorial pedagogy is required to strengthen the local guide profession. These topics could help generate new ideas for future projects in their communities INECOA should promote training courses target ted to youth since they are the ones who need complementary training t o motivate them to stay and work in their hometowns. INECOA could also implement the pedagogical tools for better assim i lating their work. INECOA could propose a n interdisciplinary research group focus ed on sustainable tourism led by professors and students not only from humanities but also from the natural sciences field In this way, an interdisciplinary academic dialogue could include different perspectives on the type of knowledge that tourism guides should receive in the future !Tourism cooperatives in the different towns should also be promoted and supported by INECOA and other organizations. This will help ope n dialogue s with local hotels and businesses to promote local communit yfocused tourism intiatives.
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(*" #" !"#$ %La Nacion (2012). Mineria y medio ambiente Retrieved from La Nacion: https://www.lanacion.com.ar/opinion/editoriales/mineria ymedio ambiente nid1459594 Orellana, F. V. (2011 ) Entre el peligro y la preservacion en espacios: el caso de la posible explotacin de uranio en la quebrada. Buenos Aires. Retrieved from http://repositoriodigital.uns.edu.ar/bitstream/123456789/3642/1/Civila%20Orellana.pdf Orgaz, F. (2013 ). El turismo comunitario como herramienta para el desarrollo sos tenible de destinos subdesarrollados. Nomadas 7991. Otero, C. (2015). Nuevas interpretaciones para la secuencia de ocupacin de Tilcara (Quebrada de Humahuaca, Jujuy). Intersecciones antropologicas, 16(1). Retrieved from http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1850373X2015000100009 Pollak, S. (2014). Sitting together. Essential Skills for Mindfulness Based Psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press. Priest S. (1986) Redefining Outdoor Education: A Matter of Many Relationships, The Journal of Environmental Education, 17:3, 1315, DOI: 10.1080/00958964.1986.9941413 Link: https://www.tandfonline. com/doi/abs/10.1080/00958964.1986.9941413 Reserva de Bioesfera Andino Norpatagonica. (2018). Retrieved from Reserva de Biosfera Andino Norpatagonica: https://www.biosferapatagonica.org/ Rivelli, F. (2016). Relieve, morfogenesis ordenamiento territorial y riesgos: el caso de Tilcara (Jujuy, Republica Argentina). Retrieved from Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Geograficos: http://www.gaea.org.ar/ACTAS/RIVELLI_Felipe.pdf Romano, M. W. (2016). El pueblo Kolla de Salta. Entre las nubes y las yungas. In M. W. Romano, Pueblos Indigenas en la Argentina (pp. 9 32). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educaci n y Deportes de la Naci n. Russ, A. (2015). Development of Ecological Place Meaning in New York City. The Journal of environmental education, 46(2), 7393. The I nternational E coturism S ociety TIES. (2019). What Is Ecotourism? Retrieved from The international ecoturism society: https://ecotourism.org/what is ecotourism Urien, P. (2015). El gran exodo: el campo se vacia y huye a ciudades hacinadas. La Nacion. Retrieved from https://www.lanacion.com.ar/economia/campo/el granexodo el campo se vacia y huye a ciudades hacinadas nid1802453 Vega, P. (2015, Mayo 6). El turismo vivencial como principal alternativa para que el viajero conozca la cultura de humahuaca. Retrieved from Telam: http://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201506/107769turismovivencial quebrada de humahuaca.php
(+" #" !"#$ % Zink, Robyn (2011) A review of Wattchow, B. & Brown, M. A Pedagogy of Place: Out door Education for a Changing World. Clayton, Victoria: Monash University Press. %
(," #" !"#$ %13. APPENDIC ES APENDIX No. 1: NATURE WALK WRITTEN EVALUATION ( Spanish version) EVALUACIN DEL SENDERO O RECORRID O INTEGRADO DE INDAGACIN/ ACTIVIDADES SENSORIALES COMO UN TODO %Favor asignar un puntaje de 1 a 5 en cada casillero vaco. Referencias: 1:muy mala; 2: mala; 3: regular; 4:buena; 5: excelente. % Caractersticas de la experiencia Puntaje A Aspectos fsicos 1 Accesibilidad fisica a una diversidad de pblicos B Presentacion clara de los temas 2 Clara presentacion de los temas 3 Coherencia temtica/secuencia clara 4 Integracin y proporcin de informacin, indagacin y actividad sensorial 5 Duracin de las actividades sensoriales 6 Adecuacin al pblico objetivo 7 Densidad y calidad de indagaciones 8 Densidad de paradas 9 Densidad y calidad de las actividades sensoriales C Aspectos de efectividad 10 Habilidad de seducir al pblico 11 Calidad de la introduccin/ instrucciones del recorrido 12 Calidad del cierre o reflexin del recorrido 13 Habilidad de satisfacer al pblico y a la vez de estimular un repaso por toda la experiencia justo concluida cada parada 14 Habilidad de dejar huellas profundas en la mente del visitante en cuanto al lugar que habita a travs de las actividades sensori ales y las indagaciones
)!" #" !"#$ % 15 Como un todo es una experiencia positiva y agradable; no fomenta un sentido de culpabilidad, vergenza, malestar, tristeza, enojo, desilusin (pero si fomenta inquietudes y dudas est bien, emociones como la alegra y la tranquilidad y fomenta valores como el respeto, la empata y la escucha) 16 Es interesante desde el punto de vista del pblico objetivo? *This written survey was adapted from a version provided by Peter Feinsinger trough email communication. NATURE WALK WRITTEN EVALUATION ( English translation) % (C.2'.*+,-%,1%*D(%-.*'0(%A.2B%,0%+-*(E0.*(F%A.2B%,1%+-&'+0G%H%)(-),0+.2%./*+C+*+()%.)%.% AD,2( Please assign a score of 1 to 5 in each empty box. References: 1: very bad; 2: bad; 3: regular; 4: good; 5: excellent !% Experience Characteristics Score A Physical Aspects 1 Physical accessibility to a diversity of public B Presentation Aspects 2 Clear presentation of the themes 3 Thematic coherence / clear sequence 4 Integration and proportion of information, inquiry and sensory activities 5 Sensory activities duration 6 Adaptation to the target audience 7 Density and inquiries quality 8 Stops duration 9 Quality of the sensorial activities C Effectiveness Aspects 10 Ability to engage the audience 11 Effective Introduction and instructions
)$" #" !"#$ % 12 Effective closure 13 Ability to satisfy public and to stimulate the entire experience just after each stop 14 Ability to leave deep traces on the minds visitor through sensory activities and inquiries 15 As a whole it is a positive and pleasant experience; does not encourage a sense of guilt, shame, discomfort, sadness, anger, disappointment (but if it fosters concerns and doubts is fine, emotions such as joy and tranquility and promotes values such as respect, empathy and listening) 16 Is it interesting from the point of view of the target audience?
)%" #" !"#$ % APPENDIX No. 2: WORKSHOP SCHEDULE ( SPANISH VERSION) Workshop schedule (English translation)
)&" #" !"#$ % -./01//.23"23"41456"537"028813.9:"9214./8 !<9IJ%E5$67%K89L9#867% /""L% .:7N<9O9L9#=%":;%/5L75<$P%1">5L7=%9I%(Q">7P%!N=68>"L%":;% -"75<"L%)>8$:>$6% R % -"789:"L%':8?$<687=%9I%/S<;9M"@ % THUV%"7%VWXX%"Y%)8L$:7%<99Y%9I%7N$%L8M<"<=%9I% 7N$%.<>N"$9L9#8>"L%Z56$5Y%F" <" % ;<75=2=.056"9226/"2>".3?1.4.3="537"/<3/24.56"94<@@.3="92" /94<3=9A<3"62056"9214./8 !<9IJ%E5$67%D8679<8":%Z"<]"%09>89%A"^$;%)_:>N$`% 3':8?$<687=%9I%1L9<8;"P%ZF!%!<9#<"YP%/$:7$<%I9<%2"78:% .Y$<8>":%)75;8$6@J % % THUV%"7%UXWaX%.Z%)8L$:7%<99Y%9I%7N$%L8M<"<=% 9I% 7N$%.<>N"$9L9#8>"L%Z56$5Y%F"<" % BA<"02624/"2>"9A<"C1N"$9L9#8>"L%Z56$5Y%F"<" % L428"9A<">.4/9"2001K59.23/"2>"B.60545"139.6" 9A<"544.M56"2>"NK53./A !<9IJ%E5$67%.<>NJ%C":$6"%K$"7<8`%b5_<$`% 3+-(/,. R /,-+/(* R '-b'@ % .<>N87$>7%!"ML9%,>N9"%3++* R 11=2 R 'K.@ % .<4J%/L"<86"%,7$<9%3+-(/,.P%/,-+/(*% R % ++*P%11=2P%'K.@ % cXHT%"7%UXJaX%"Y%)8L$:7%<99Y%9I%7N$%L8M<"<=% 9I%7N$%FN"$9L9#8>"L% Z56$5YP%K$L#<":9%[[\P%*8L>"<" %
)'" #" !"#$ % APPENDIX No. 3: Work shop promotion trough El Tribuno newspaper ""
)(" #" !"#$ %APPENDIX No. 4: Workshop survey ENCUESTA DE SATISFACCION DEL CICLO DE CONFERENCIAS Nombre:____________________________________________________________________ Institucin:____________________________________________________________________ Cargo:____________________________________________________________________ Favor asignar un puntaje de 1 a 5 en cada casillero vaco. Referencias: 1:muy mala; 2: mala; 3: regular; 4:buena; 5: excelente. % Caractersticas de la conferencia Puntaje A Contenido del conversatorio 1 Los temas son de mi inters 2 Los contenidos son de utilidad para mi profesin B Aspectos de presentacin 4 Claridad del tema 5 Materiales y/o presentacin visual 6 Adecuacin al pblico objetivo 7 Duracin de las charlas C Resultados del conversatorio 8 El conversatorio sirvi para obtener ms informacin sobre el contenido de las charlas 9 Usare lo que aprend de este conversatorio Por favor complete el siguiente espacio: Tiene algunas sugerencias para mejorar la calidad de los conversatorios:________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
))" #" !"#$ %Qu es lo ms y/o menos le gusto del conversatorio?:________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Workshop survey ( English Translation) SATISFACTION SURVEY FOR THE WORKSHOP Name :____________________________________________________________________ Institution : ____________________________________________________________________ Profession :____________________________________________________________________ Please assign a score of 1 to 5 in each empty box. References: 1: very bad; 2: bad; 3: regular; 4: good; 5: excellent. % Workshop Characteristics Score A Workshop Content % % 1 Topics are of my interest % % 2 Contents are useful for my profession % % B Presentation Aspects % % 3 Clarity of the topic % % 4 Materials and visual presentation % % 5 Adaptation to the target audience % % 6 Talks duration % C Workshop results % % 7 The discussion served to obtain more information about the content of the talks % % 8 I will use what I learned from this discussion % "
)*" #" !"#$ % Please complete the following space if you hve some suggestions to improve the quality of workshops: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ What is the most and / or least you liked about the workshop?: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________
)+" #" !"#$ %APPENDIX No. 5: PEDAGOGICAL HIKING SCRIPT ( Original version in Spanish) La ruta mgica: un recorrido por la diversidad cultural y natural de Tilcara RECORRIDO: El recorrido inicia en el casco urbano de Tilcara, en la plaza chica al frente de la Iglesia, y luego se dirige hacia los sitios arqueolgicos de la zona urbana, que incluyen los puntos en donde se encuentran la s vasijas arqueolgicas, que se han encontrado al interior de las casas. Luego, se dirige hacia los alrededores naturales desde donde empieza la ruta del Malka, para reconocer las diferentes plantas y sus propiedades curativas, as como, sus usos rituales. Despus se dirige al Mojn para hablar sobre la ceremonia del diablo y los recuerdos que cada uno tiene del carnaval. Desde el Mojn se asciende hasta la acequia para identificar las plantas nativas que hacen parte del paisaje y las que no son nativas de la regin. Mas adelante, se llega a una casa para descansar y contemplar los diferentes tipos de paisaje, as como para identificar los sonidos de la naturaleza. Desde ah, a unos pocos metros, se llega a otro lugar en el que se puede observar las casas donde viven los Kollas, para entender cmo se conecta el pasado con el presente de las comunidades indgenas. A continuacin, se desciende hacia el valle, a una zona de rocas para hablar sobre Geologa y los distintos tipos de sedimentos que se han observado a travs del trayecto. La ltima parada, se realiza en un lugar considerado como sagrado, por la comunidad indgena de los Kollas, con el fin de hacer una reflexin sobre la experiencia del trayecto. El punto de partida y llegada es la plaza chica, en fre nte de la plaza. Debajo se encuentra la ruta con los puntos del recorrido del circuito:
)," #" !"#$ % INSTRUCCIONES Duracion: 10 mins La plaza chica, al frente de la Iglesia, es el punto de encuentro para iniciar el recorrido. All se darn las instrucciones o reglas que se deban tener en cuenta en el camino, por ejemplo: Buenos das! Mi nombre es ______________ soy gua local de Tilcara. Antes de iniciar el recorrido tengan en cuenta, las siguientes reglas de convivencia, ya que vamos a recorrer espacios nat urales y urbanos, que son patrimonios sagrados de nuestra comunidad. Por favor escuchen con atencin:
*!" #" !"#$ %! No botar basura, si tienen alimentos por favor utilizar esta bolsa (cada gua deber tener una bolsa para tal fin, preferiblemente una bolsa de material reciclable o amigable con el medio ambiente) Ustedes saben lo que es el respeto? Durante el recorrido por favor tratemos a los dems con respeto. Por favor colocar el celular en modo avin. Los invitamos a hacer preguntas, tambin nosotros les vamos a ha cer preguntas. As mismo vamos a hacer actividades sensoriales en el que usaremos los cinco sentidos Cules son los cinco sentidos?........ Estn listos? Empecemos. Piensa en una pregunta sobre el entorno que vamos a recorrer, por ejemplo, Como er a este lugar hace 30.000 aos? Como son los rboles y plantas del recorrido? Como es el entorno natural de Tilcara? Qu tipo de animales hay? Como son los paisajes? Las piedras? Las montaas? Como es el clima cuando estemos en la parta alta de la montaa? TEMATICA No. 1: Primeros pobladores de Tilcara Duracin: 15 mins PRIMERA PARADA: ESQUINA DE LA SORPRESA Y LA VASIJA EXPUESTA EN UNA DE LAS CASAS En esta primera parada vamos a usar principalmente nuestro sentido de la vista y del odo, as que observemos y escuchemos con atencin: Antes de llegar a la vasija, en la esquina de la sorpresa hacer una breve mencin a las vasijas que se encuentran debajo de la tierra. Luego dirigirse a la vasija expuesta en una de las casas. All invitar a las personas a que cierren los ojos por un momento e imaginen como vivan los primeros pobladores de Tilcara (calcular 30 segundos) Qu artefactos para cocinar usamos hoy en da? Nuestros abuelitos? Escuchar una respuesta o mximo dosahora observen este artefacto (20 segundos) y luego preguntar, Qu es? En sus casas usan artefactos similares? Para que los usan? Escuchar una o dos respuestas y luego explicar breve mente porqu los primeros pobladores
*$" #" !"#$ %usaban las vasijas, por ejemplo, para comer, cocinar y almacenar, as ellos van a encontrar similitudes y diferencias entre los primeros pobladores y los habitantes de Tilcara en la actualidad. Tambin se les poda recordar la importancia de preservar y respetar el patrimonio arqueolgico. La actividad finaliza invitando a hacer preguntas (escuchar una o dos preguntas) Temtica No. 2: Plantas y sus usos medicinales Duracin: 20 mins SEGUNDA PARADA: INICIO DE LA RUTA DEL MALKA En esta segunda parada los invito a usar nuestro sentido de la visin, el olfato, el tacto y el gusto (mostrar con la mano cada sentido). Primero vamos a hacer una respiracin profunda para conectar con el lugar. A continuacin, vamos a hacer un recorrido de identificacin de plantas y sus usos medicinales. Cundo ustedes se enferman que hacen? Cundo van al Monte o al Valle? (Escuchar una o dos respuestas) Luego dar una breve explicacin mencionando que desde tiempos ancestrales cuando no haba hospitales ni mdicos los antiguos pobladores usaban las plantas para curar y tratar las enfermedades, y todava, hoy en da, estas tradiciones se conservan. A continuacin, elegir tres plantas y hacer las siguientes preguntas: Planta A: Como es l a textura de esta planta? Suave, pegajosa? Luego explicar cul es su uso curativo, por ejemplo, para tratar la gripe (Si es posible tomar una hoja que este en el suelo y pasarla entre ellos para ensenarles que no tomen hojas directamente de la planta) P lanta B: Podran describir el olor de esta planta? Es familiar este olor o no? Luego explicar cul es su uso curativo, por ejemplo, para calmar y tranquilizar. (Advertirles que pueden oler, pero sin tocar)
*%" #" !"#$ % Planta C: A que sabe? podras describir el sabor? Lo usaras para tus comidas? Luego explicar su uso curativo u otros usos. Al final de la actividad preguntarles Que colores tienen las plantas? son iguales todas las plantas? porque son importantes las plant as para los seres humanos? En que se parece una planta a un ser humano? La actividad finaliza invitando a las personas a hacer preguntas (escuchar una o dos preguntas) y luego se hace una reflexin sobre la importancia de las plantas y su cuidado ya que nos curan y nos alimentan. Temtica No. 3: Tradiciones y celebraciones de Tilcara Duracin: 20 mins TERCERA PARADA: MOJON En esta tercera parada los invito a usar el sentido de la escucha y de la visin. Qu es? Qu importancia tiene para la com unidad de Tilcara? (sealar el Mojn y escuchar una o dos respuestas) luego hablar muy brevemente del carnaval (historia y origen). A continuacin, pedirles que se sienten en crculo y que compartan una historia del carnaval de Tilcara (locales), o de su pas nativo (turistas), a la persona de al lado. Ya sentados en crculo preguntarles a tres personas que de manera voluntaria compartan la historia que su compaero de al lado les comento (solamente a tres personas). Antes de que ellos empiecen a contar sus historias, pedirles que todos escuchen atentamente a las personas que estn hablando. Luego, al final de la parada,
*&" #" !"#$ %hacer una reflexin acerca de la import ancia de preservar y mantener las tradiciones culturales de una comunidad, as como de escuchar al otro. La actividad finaliza invitndolos a hacer preguntas sobre este lugar (escuchar una o dos preguntas) Temtica No. 4: Recursos hdricos y los distintos tipos de rboles del lugar Duracin: 20 mins CUARTA PARADA: INICIO DE LA PRIMERA ACEQUIA En esta cuarta parada los invito a usar principalmente el sentido del tacto, de la escucha y de la visin. Para sintonizar con el lugar los invito a hacer una respiracin profunda por la nariz. Como es el clima de Tilcara durante el ao? Hace mucho viento? Luego invitarlos a que se sienten para leer el cuento sobre el viento (una copia del cuento esta anexa a este script) y al finalizar invitarlos a hacer una reflexin sobre el cuento. Escuchar una o dos respuestas. Luego quiero pedirles que por favor extiendan sus manos y describan el clima que estn experimentando ahora. Usen sus sentidos para describirlo Cmo es el clima? Ventoso? Hace frio? Hace sol? Por favor toquen la tierra Cmo es su textura? Es seca? Qu relacin hay entre el clima y la acequia? En seguida mencionar que en Tilcara por el tipo de clima (seco, rido, sol) hay poca lluvia, as, cuando llegaron los Incas, ellos crearon un sistema para transportar el agua que es la acequia. A continuacin, hablar que las plantas y los rboles que observan sobreviven por el agua que reciben de la acequia. Ahora, observen los distintos tipos de rboles Qu diferencias hay entre los rboles que se encuentran en la parte alta de la montaa y lo que estn en la parte baja? Escuchar una o dos respuestas. Luego, explicar que los cardones son rboles y que no tienen hojas ya que son nativos de esta regin, mientras que los arboles con hojas no son de la regin (elegir y mostrarles un rbol que no es nativo de la regin), as mismo decir que los arbole s no son iguales y que cada uno es nico y diferente, como lo son los seres humanos.
*'" #" !"#$ %Temtica No. 5: Objetos y sonidos de la naturaleza Duracin: 20 mins QUINTA PARADA: CASA Y LUGAR PARA CONTEMPLAR EL PAISAJE En esta parada los invito a usar el sentido de la visin, el tacto y la escucha. Para sintonizar con el lugar vamos a quitarnos los zapatos, vamos a sentir la tierra y luego vamos a escoger el lugar que nos parezca ms placentero, para sentarnos y contemplar el paisaje. Luego cuando todos estn en sus lugares van a elegir un objeto de la naturaleza (pjaro, montana, bicho) y lo van a observar por dos minutos. Luego el gua les pregunta: Como es el objeto que observaron? grande? Pequeo? Qu forma tiene? Redonda, circular, cuadrada, triangular, sin forma? Te identificas con l o no? Ese objeto se parece a ti? A continuacin, los invitamos a cerrar los ojos y vamos a usar un pauelo para tal fin listos? A continuacin, pedirles que sientan la brisa del viento sobre su cuerpo y preguntarles es la brisa del viento placentera? por qu? En la ltima parte de esta actividad indicarles a las personas que vamos a estar todos en silencio por tres minutos y vamos a escuchar los sonidos de la naturaleza, cada vez que escuchen un sonido nuevo muevan su cabeza hacia la direccin del sonido. Al finalizar pdanles que se quiten el pauelo y pregntenles Cmo se sienten? Cules sonidos son ms ruidosos y cuales menos ruidosos? Qu te producen los sonidos? calma, tranquilidad, miedo? La actividad finaliza invitando a hacer preguntas sobre este lugar (escuchar una o dos preguntas) Temtica No. 6: Paisajes naturales y aquellos modificados por el hombre Duracin: 20 mins SEXTA PARADA: PUNTO DE OBSERVACION DE LA COMUNIDAD INDIGENA ACTUAL En esta parada los invito a usar el sentido de la visin y de la escucha. Para empezar Que observan? Montaas, personas, casasBueno empecemos con las montaas y sus diferentes
*(" #" !"#$ %colores, Que colores observan? ustedes saben porque los cerros tienen diferentes colores? Escuchar una o dos respuestas. Y a continuacin explicar muy brevemente que este paisaje que observan tiene una formacin de aproximadamente 600.000 aos y que los diferentes colores son el resultado de mltiples ambientes que han ocupado este espacio: una vez Tilcara fue mar, lago, rio y a travs de los anos se fueron acumulando sedimentos de esos ambientes, formando las imponentes montaas que observamos en la actualidad, de ah que los colores sean tan distintos y diferentes. Tambin, explicar que e l hombre ha modificado el paisaje y que algunos elementos son nativos del lugar, mientras que otros los ha impuesto el hombre de ah la diferencia entre el paisaje urbano y el rural. Por ejemplo, al frente de nosotros vemos una comunidad indgena, de esta manera observamos que el paisaje no solo ha sido modificado por causas naturales sino por el hombre, por ejemplo, aqu habita la comunidad indgena llamada. (en esta parte por favor proveer informacin sobre la comunidad, sus prcticas agrcolas y sus cos tumbres). La actividad finaliza invitando a los chicos a hacer preguntas sobre este lugar (escuchar una o dos preguntas) Temtica No. 7: Rocas y sedimentos Duracion: 20 mins SEPTIMA PARADA: CAMINO DE LAS ROCAS EN EL DESCENSO DE LA MONTANA En esta parada vamos a usar el sentido de la visin y del tacto. Los invito a encontrar piedras de colores oscuros y otras de colores ms claros (puede ser una de cada una, por ejemplo, una verde oscuro y una blanca). Vamos a juntar las piedras claras aqu y las ms oscuras en este lado. A continuacin, vamos a palpar las rocas ms oscuras y luego las ms claras hay alguna diferencia entre ellas? Escuchar una o dos respuestas. A continuacin, dar una breve explicacin sobre las rocas, por ejemplo, hay que mencionar que las piedras claras son de origen marino y que en la quebrada se pueden identificar por los siguientes colores (gris, verde oliva, blancas rosadas, gris)
*)" #" !"#$ %y las de color ms oscuro como las rocas rojas, negras o amarillas son sedimentos de lagos y ros y tienen un origen ms reciente. Las rocas ms oscuras, como las rojas acumulan mayor cantidad de rayos solares, mientras que las ms claras menos. Tambin las rocas rojas tienen ese color por el hierro y las verdes por el cobre. La actividad finaliza invitando a los chicos a hacer preguntas sobre este lugar ( escuchar una o dos preguntas) CIERRE DEL CIRCUITO: REFLEXION Duracin: 20 mins ULTIMA PARADA: LUGAR SAGRADO CEREMONIAL Bueno hemos llegado a nuestra ltima parada y vamos a realizar una reflexin del circuito: Primero que todo revisen su cuaderno y lean en voz baja la pregunta que formularon al inicio. Alguien quiere compartir su pregunta y respuesta? Escuchar una o dos respuestas. Muy bien, ahora vamos a hacer una reflexin del circuito a travs de unas preguntas: 1. C mo imaginas este lugar en el futuro? 2. C mo fue su experiencia durante el circuito? 2. Cul es su opinin sobre las actividades? les produjo alegra, tranquilidad, triste za, miedo? 3. Les gust ? Cul fue su actividad favorita y la que menos les gust ? Propondras algo diferente? 4. Qu aprendiste durante el camino? 5. Cmo te sentas antes y despus de hacer el sendero? 6. Te gustara volver a hacerlo? se lo recome ndaras a un amigo? % !"#$%$"#&'(('")*'"'+",*-."+'/"('#*'(0'"+."&%1$(2.3#&."0'"#*&0.("4"1('/'(5.("+$/"('#*(/$/" 3.2*(.+'/"4"#*+2*(.+'/"0'"6&+#.(.7 ANEXO: CUENTO TRADICIONAL SOBRE EL VIENTO Y MASCAR COCA
**" #" !"#$ % PEDAGOGICAL HIKING SCRIPT ( ENGLISH TRANSLATION) The magic route: a journey through the cultural and natural diversity of Tilcara ROUTE: The tour begins in the urban center of Tilcara, then visits the archaeological sites of the urban area. Next, it goes towards the natural area where the Malka (meaning village in Aymara) route begins, where the participants are prompted to recognize important plants and their healing properties, as well as their ritual uses. Then it goes up to a ritual site, the mojon. From the mojon it ascends to the ac equia, or the Inca irrigation system, to identify endemic and non-
*+" #" !"#$ %native plants. Further on, the route pauses at a house to rest and contemplate the different types of landscapes, as well as to identify the sounds of nature. At the next pause, people can observe a current Kollas native community, and consider how the past relates to the present. Then, the route descends to the valley towards a rocky area to talk about landscape formations and the different types of sediments that have been observed along t he way. The journey ends with a reflection of the entire route in a sacred site. Pilot guided walk route with indicated stopping points INSTRUCTIONS Duration: 10 mins The small square, in front of the Church, is the meeting point to start the walk. Here are some instructions or rules to mention to the visitors:
*," #" !"#$ % Good Morning! My name is ______________ I am a local guide f rom Tilcara. Before starting the walk, consider the following rules since we are going to visit natural and urban areas, which are sacred heritages of our community. Please listen carefully: Do not throw garbage, if you have food please use this bag (each local guide has a bag for that purpose, preferably a recyclable bag) Guys? Do you know what respect is? During the tour pleas e treat others with respect. Please turn your cell phone in airplane mode. We invite you to ask questions, we will also ask you questions along the walk. We will do sensory activities in which we will use the five senses. Guys? What are the five sens es? Are you guys ready? Lets begin. Think of a question about the environment we are going to go through, for example, What was this place like 30,000 years ago? What trees and plants are there ? What are the landsca pes? What kind of animals are there? The stones? The mountains? How is the weather when we are in the upper part of the mountain? FIRST STOP: CORNER OF THE SURPRISE AND THE VESSEL EXPOSED IN ONE OF THE HOUSES In this first stop we will mainly use our sense s of sight and hearing, so let's observe and listen carefully: Before arriving at the vase, on the corner of the street of the surprise make a brief mention of the vessels that are under the floor. Then go to the vessel exposed in one of the houses. When you arrive at this place, i nvite the children to close their eyes for a moment and let them imagine how the first inhabitants of Tilcara lived (calculate 30 seconds). After that, ask them the following questions: What artifacts for cooking do we use today? What did our grandparents use? Listen to
+!" #" !"#$ % one answer or at most two ... now invite them to observe this artifact (20 seconds) and then ask, what is it? Do you use similar devices in your homes? What do you use them for? Listen to one or two answers and then explain briefly why the f irst settlers used the vessels, for example, to eat, cook and store, so they will find similarities and differences between the first settlers and the inhabitants of Tilcara today. Children and tourists could also be reminded of the importance of preserving and respecting the archaeological heritage of indigenous peoples The activity ends by inviting them to ask questions (listen to one or two questions) TOPIC No. 2: Plants and their medicinal uses DURATION: 20 mins SECOND STOP: ROUTE OF MALKA In this second stop I invite you to use our sense s of sight smell, touch and taste. First let's take a deep breath to connect with the place. Next, we will identify some native plants and their medicinal uses. When you get sick what do you do? Wh at do you do when you get sick in the high mountains or in the low valleys here in Tilcara ? (Listen to one or two answers) ... Then give a brief explanation mentioning that from ancestral times when there were no hospitals or doctors the old settlers used the plants t o cure and treat diseases, and still, today, these traditions are preserved. Next, choose three fl owers or plants nd ask the following questions. Plant A: What is the texture of this plant? Soft, sticky? Then explain its curative use, for example, to tre at the flu ... (If possible, take a leaf that is on the ground and pass it between them to teach them not to take leaves directly from the plant) Plant B: Could you describe the smell of this plant? Is this smell familiar or not? Then explain what its curative use is, for example, to calm and reassure ... (Warn that they can smell, but without touching) Plant C: How does this plant taste? Could you describe the flavor? Would you use it for your
+$" #" !"#$ % meals? To complete this stop lets reflect on the plants, what colors do the plants have? Are all plants the same? Why are plants important for human beings? How similar or different is a plant to a human being? The activity ends by inviting them to ask questions (listen t o one or two questions) and to reflect on the importance of plants for human beings. TOPIC No. 3: Traditions and celebrations of Tilcara DURATION: 20 mins THIRD STOP: MOJON In this third stop I invite you to use the sense s of hear ing and sight What is it? What is the importance for the community of Tilcara? P oint out the Mojon and listen to one or two answers then talk very briefly about the carnival (history and origin). Next, ask them to sit in a circle and share a story about the Tilcara c arnival (locals), or about their native country (tourists), to the person next to them. Already seated in a circle, ask three people to voluntarily share the story that their partner next to them told them (only three people share your story). Before they start telling their stories, ask them to listen carefully to the people they are talking to. Then, at the end of the stop, reflect on the importance of preserving and maintaining the cultural traditions of a community, as well as listening to others. The activity ends by inviting them to ask questions about this place (listen to one or two questions) Topic No. 4: Water resources and the different types of trees in the area Duration: 20 mins F OURTH STOP : Start of the first hidtorical irrigation ditch In this fourth stop I encourage you to use mainly the sense s of touch, hear ing and sight To tune into the place, I invite you to take a deep breath through your nose. How is the weather of Tilcara throughout the year? It's very windy? Then invite them to sit down and read the story about the wind (a copy of the story is attached to this script ) A fter that, invite them to reflect on the story
+%" #" !"#$ % ( l isten to one or two answers). Next, ask them to extend their hands and describe the weather they are experiencing. Use your senses to describe it. What is the weather like? Windy? It's cold? It's sunny? Please touch the soil. How is the texture? Is it dry? What is the relationship between the climate and the canal ? Then mention to them that in Tilcara because of the type of climate (dry, arid, sun ...) there is little rain, therefore, the Incas buil t a system to transport the water that is the canal Next, talk about the plants and trees that received water from the canal And ask them What are the dif ferences between the trees located in the upper part of the mountain and those in the lower part? Listen to one or two answers. Then, explain that the cardones are trees and native plants from the region, while the trees with leaves are not from this region (point out a tree that is not from this region). To close, explain to them that each tree is different and unique like human beings. Topic No. 5: Nature sounds listening Duration: 20 mins F IFTH Stop: Local home to contemplate the landscape At this stop I invite you to use the sense s of sight touch and hear ing. To tune in with the place we are going to take our shoes off, we are going to feel the soil and then we are going to choose the place that seems most pleasant to contempla te the landscape. Then, when everyone is in their pleasant places, they will choose an object to observe (bird, mountain, bug) for two minutes. Then the guide asks them: Could you describe the object you observed? B ig? Small? What shape i s it? Round, squar e, triangular, shapeless? Do you identify with him or not? Does that object look like you? Please close your eyes and put on a scarf to cover your eyes, ready? Next, ask them to feel the breeze of the wind: I s it pleasant? W hy? In the last part of this activity, tell the people that we will be in silence for three minutes to listen t o nature sounds, also, explain to them that each time they hear a new sound they have to move their heads towards the direction of the sound. At the end, tell them to take of f their scar ves and ask them : H ow do you feel? Which sounds are louder and which ones are quieter ? What sensations do the sounds produce? Calm, fear? The activity ends by inviting to ask questions about this place (listen to one or two questions)
+&" #" !"#$ % Topic No. 6: Natural landscapes and those modified by man Duration: 20 mins SIXTH STOP: OBSERVATION POINT OF THE CURRENT INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY At this stop I invite you to use the sense s of sight and hearing. To begin, what do you observe? Mountains, people, houses ... Well let's start with the mountains and their different colors, what colors do you observe? Do you know why the mountains have different colors? Listen to one or two answer s. And then explain very briefly that this landscape they observe was form ed over 600,000 years, thus, the different colors are the result of multiple environments that have occupied this space: once Tilcara was a sea, a lake, or a river so through the centuries sediments were accumulating, forming the impressive mountains with the different colors that we observe today. Also, explain that human beings have modified the landscape, thus some elements are natural, while others have been modified by humans, for example, in front of us we see an indigenous community called .... (in this part please provide information about the community, its agricultural practices and its customs). The activity ends by inviting the children to ask que stions about this place (listen to one or two questions) Theme No. 7: Rocks and sediments Duration: 20 mins S EVENTH STOP : R ocks in the descent of the mountain In this stop we will use the sense of sight and touch. Find stones of dark colors and others of lighter colors (it can be one of each, for example, a dark green one and a white one ). Let's gather the light stones here and the darker ones on this side. Next, we are going to touch the darkest rocks and then the lightest ones. Is there any difference between them? Listen to one or two answers. Next, give a brief explanation about the rocks: the light stones have a marine origin and they can be identified by t he following colors : gray, olive green, pink white, gray T he darker one s --red,
+'" #" !"#$ % black or yellow -are sediments from lakes and rivers from a more recent origin. The darker rocks, such as the red ones, heat up in the sun more than the lighter ones do. Also the red color comes from iron and the green from copper. The activity ends by inviting the children to ask questions about this place (listen to one or two questions) CLOSURE OF THE CIRCUIT: REFLECTION Duration: 20 mins LAST STOP: CEREMONIAL SACRED PLACE Well! We have reached our last stop to reflect on the walk experience: First of all, think about the the question you asked at the beginning of the walk. Does anyone want to share your question and answer? Listen to one or two answers. After that a sk the following questions: 1. How do you imagine this place in the future? 2. How was your experience during the walk? 2. What is your opinion about the activities? Did these activities produce a feeling of joy, tranquility, sadness or fear? 3. Do you like them? What was your favorite activity and the one you least like? 4. What did you learn along the way? To finish, remind them of the importance of caring for and preserving Tilcara's natural and cultural resources.
+(" #" !"#$ % About the wind Grandfat her Juan tells us here the story of the two brothers, the one poor and goodnatured, the other rich and petty. The poor brother had gone out to pasture the sheep in the field. He was coqueando of his chuspa, when suddenly there was a strong wind that caused him to throw away his coca leaves: the coquita that had cost to get was sprayed by the field. At that the wind came back and asked: `What are you doing? '` Here I am gathering my little coca leaves that t he bad wind made me spray. Then the wind felt sorry for him and helped him pastor to gather the coca leaves and told him that tonight he would have a surprise when he returned home. The pastor fell asleep and that night he felt a very strong wind, but he did not get up because the tata wind told him not to look at what was going to happen. When he woke up the next day, the wind had brought him as a gift, stacked in a corner, sugar and flour, on the other side coca, on the other side more food and so, in thi s way, the poor brother never had needs again. Having found out, the mean brother wanted to do what he went to the countryside to pasture his sheep and sprayed his coca leaves on all sides, until the wind appeared again, and he said: `What are you doing? He replied that he was gathering his little leaves of coca that the wind made him spray. The wind made it look like he pitied and told him to wait that night, that he was going to give him a present. The next day he got up and found in a corner a lot of s heep guano; on the other side, another pile of guano goat, in the other a lot of land, and so ... His ambition made that the wind would punish him." %APPENDIX No. 6: ORAL EVALUATION Horacio ( gua): vamos a hacer una evaluacin oral del circuito pedaggico, cuntenos como fue su experiencia: Sonia ( turista ) : Percib lo mismo que tan pronto me aleje de Tilcara y subimos el primer sector la de la puerta grande ah me olvide de Tilcara y empec a viajar un poco como viva la gente y a imaginarme que haba m enos arboles, los canales por eso tambin te pregunte de los canales y la parada esa que hicimos en la casa rosa estuvo hermosa sacarme las medias y refrescarme los pies y tambin poder recordar y tambin recordar eso que no solo estoy recibiendo informaci n sino que tambin puedo sentir eso fue lo que mas me gusto bueno a mi me gustan mucho los pajaros por eso tambin por cuales eran los pajaros, no reconozco mucho por ah me hubiera gustado un poco mas de eso de ecucha de pajaros e identificarlos, pero no el nombre cientfico solamente que tipo de pjaro para mi y que ah diferentes intereses no, pero si el circuito me parecio muy lindo, te olvidas un poco de la Tilcara del centro de aqu no mas.
+)" #" !"#$ %Clarisa ( miembro INECOA): la verdad me encanto mucho, me gusta que se corta el paisaje urbano con los paisajes ms realistas, si reforzara mas lo de la historia de la ocupacin quiz jugando con otros aspectos tal vez apuntndole mas a otros aspectos como el calendario para poder integrar el tema de las siembras, las cosechas y de mostrar esa tradicin que viene de tiempo prehispnico, me parece que seria un lindo enganche, lo que se esta cultivando antes a lo que se esta cultivando ahora e integrar ese saber que tiene Rosa con la misma quinta, fjense que ya arra nca ahora con el maz fruto del cambio de estacin y aparece y la aparicin de la saba, entonces poder integrar esos saberes como para darle ms vueltita a travs de la fertilidad, de la ritualidad, de la sacralidad de las culturas de los andes ahora me pa rece que es un lindo escenario para jugar con todos esos elementos viste voz mencionabas la sealada, el carnaval y poder hasta integrar lo del pueblo de sisile hay mucha para jugar esta buenisimo y bueno me gusto mucho todo esto de la parte sensorial yo c reo que hay que darle profundidad y bueno si se trabaja con esa familia hablar por ejemplo de temas de llegada y esta muy bueno hay que pulirlo y llenarlo con estos elementos. Horacio (guia) : si estamos en ese proceso de pulirlo, luego vamos a darle el circuito a los chicos de Tilcara porque hay chicos aca de Tilcara que no saben nada. Flavia ( miembro del INECOA) : a mi me gusto la idea del refuerzo del paisaje dinmico y que porque que haba que hay hoy porque hay mucho que cambia, la declaracin del patrimonio que tuvo sus consecuencias y encima me reforzaste la idea que yo haba venido elaborando de decir bueno, la declaracin del patrimonio en vez de conservar lo que tenia lo modifico con la venida masiva de turismo y bueno esa adaptacin porque todas esas personas no estaban preparadas para eso y decir bueno ahora nos estamos preparando para esto y seguimos modificando el paisaje nuestros usos y nuestras costumbres se modifican y los arquelogos en cien anos se preguntan bueno que paso. Clarisa (miembro INECOA) : y esta lindsimo esto del tema de las comunidades en la actualidad es un pantallazo impecable de la vida urbana hasta como se han reconfigurado las comunidades, lo de los cementerios eso queda buenismo es un circuito que contiene todo para Horacio (gua) : pues si hay que pulirlo porque es la primera vez que lo hacemos. Helena (turista) : este circuito cero de ser turstico a lo menos para mi, no habia ningun turista y sin e mbargo no ha habido habitualidad como que el circuito te permite integrarte con la comunidad
+*" #" !"#$ %como voz te conoces a todos uno no se senta que estaba invadiendo el lugar habitual fjate que ninguno se escondi y si en los valles cuando de pronto uno ve que va acompaado se esconden y ac tambin que haban seoras aosas mucho ms aosas que yo y se quedaron ah escondida s. Clarisa ( miembro del INECOA) : yo creo que es un recorrido muy lindo. Horacio (gua) : Gracias por la reflexin!