Citation
Power and agency

Material Information

Title:
Power and agency strengthening efforts against gender based violence through entrepreneurship training in Gauteng, South Africa : an evaluation of "The Sunrise Campaign" by Gender Links, South Africa
Creator:
Maingi, Sheila Nyokabi ( author )
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (109 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sustainable Development Practice field practicum final report, M.D.P
Genre:
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
theses ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Abstract:
In South Africa, women suffer from a myriad of physical, psychological and financial problems linked to alarming acts of gendered violence perpetrated against them. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the most common form of Gender Based Violence in the country. A 2009 study found that "one woman was killed by a partner every eight hours in South Africa." 1 Cases of femicide have also been a major issue alongside 'honor killings' especially targeting the LGBTQI community. This has prompted various Non-­â€ Governmental Organizations to seek solutions that can help mitigate incidences of Violence Against Women (VAW). This research is an evaluation of the 'Sunrise Campaign' a project spearheaded by Gender Links, Southern Africa. Rooted in Gender Links' 'Theory of change' , the project is premised on the ecological model which assumes that the vicious cycle of VAW can be turned into a virtuous positive cycle by working around different initiatives that target all levels of the model from individual to societal. It thus seeks to empower women who are survivors of Gender Based Violence (GBV) with life skills training, digital literacy skills and entrepreneurship skills through a series of training workshops that can help increase their agency and independence. The main objective of this research was to monitor the implementation of the second phase of the project, based on recommendations generated during the pilot-­â€phase evaluation, as a means to strengthen anticipated project outcomes. Research was conducted between May-­â€July 2017, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Key findings indicate that, while some of the proposals such as working with younger women, partnering with councils which showed commitment and revising training manuals had been instituted, many of the other recommendations including rigorous participant selection, strengthening
Abstract:
Monitoring and Evaluation(M&E) processes and increasing the number of staff tasked with the project were yet to be adopted. This report recommends that Gender Links strengthen its relationship with local councils, improve its participant selection criteria, tighten its M&E processes, incorporate practical skills training and pursue partnerships with other organization as a strategy to meet its project objectives. This paper contributes to the global development agendas of ending all forms of violence, especially those that contribute to disproportional levels of violence against women. It further suggests women's economic empowerment as a tool to combat GBV. The implication of this work is enshrined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) specifically, SDG 3 which focusses on promoting good health and wellbeing; SDG 5 which calls for gender equality and SDG 8 seeks to achieve decent work and economic growth for all. It is further enshrined in the various international laws and frameworks that seek to end all forms of violence against women.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
General Note:
Major departments: Latin American Studies, African Studies.
General Note:
Major: Sustainable Development Practice.
General Note:
Advisor: Leslie, Agnes.
General Note:
Committee member: Serra, Renata.
General Note:
Committee member: Galloway, Glenn.
General Note:
The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Sheila Nyokabi Maingi.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
036752171 ( ALEPH )
Classification:
LD1780.1 2018 ( lcc )

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! ! POWER AND AGENCY: ST RENGTHENING EFFORTS AGAINST GENDER BASED VIOLENCE THROU GH ENTREPRENEURSHIP TRAINING IN GAUTENG, SOUTH AFRICA An Evaluation of The Sunrise Campaign' by Gender Links, South Africa by Sheila Nyokabi Maingi A Field Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice Degree at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, FL USA December 2018. Supervisory Committee: Dr. Agnes Leslie, Chair Dr. Renata Serra, Member Dr. Glenn Galloway, Member

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! # Acknowle d gement s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! V Table of Contents List of Abbreviations 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333 W List of Figures 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333 L List of Tables 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333 L Abstract 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333333333 X Introduction 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333 Y Country Background: South Africa 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333 "Z Research Objectives 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333 "X Conceptu al Framework 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333333333333333 "Y Brief Overview of Gender Based Violence in South Africa 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333 #V !"#$%& 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333333333 #Y Project Background 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333 #Y Gender Lin ks, Gender Based Violence and Women's Economic Empowerment 33333333333333333333333333333333 3 V[ The Pilot phase Project 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333 Z[ The Second Phase 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33 ZW !"#$%&& 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333 ZX Methodology 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333 ZX i)Focus Groups 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333 ZY ii)Interviews 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333 W" iii)Participant Observation 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333333 WZ iv)Secondary Data Analysis 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333333333 WZ Co ncerns over Quality of Information 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333 W\ !"#$%&&& 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333333333333 WX Results 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333 WX i)Participants 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333 WX ii) Content 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333 \Z iii) Council Sel ection, Follow Up, Mentorship & Council Support 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333333333333 L[ iv) Monitoring and Evaluation 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333 L# Discussion 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333 LV i)Participant Selection Criteria 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333 LV ii) Training Model & Content 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333333 LW

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! Z iii)Council Selection, Project Sustainability and Increased Collaboration 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333 LY iii)Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning (Processes and Tools) 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333333333333333 X# iv ) Financial Capacity & Partnerships 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333 XL !"#$%&' 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333333333333 XY Cross Scale & Cross Disciplinary Issues 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 XY GBV, WEE and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333 Y" !"#$%' 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333 YV Recommendations 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333 YV Conclusion 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333 "[[ References 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 333333333333333 "[V Annex 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 33333333333333333333333333333333 3333333333333333333333 "[Y

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! W List of Abbreviations ANC : African National Congress DV: Domestic Violence GBV: Gender Based Violence GDP : Gross Domestic Product GEI: Gender Empowerment Index GFP: Gender Focal Person GL: Gender Links GPS: Gender Progress Score GRB : Gender Responsive Budgeting HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICRW : International Centre for Research on Women IPV: Intimate Partner Violence LED: Local Economic Development ME A L: Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning Systems MOU : Memorandum of Understanding MRC: Medical Research Council (South Africa) OECD: Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development OCI : Overseas Development Institute RSA: Republic of South Africa SADC: Southern Africa Development Community SADHS : South Africa Demographic Health Survey

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! \ SAPS: South Africa Police Services SDG : Sustainable Development Goals SETA: Skills Education Training Authority (South Africa) SIDA: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency USAID : United States Agency for International Development UNICEF : United Nations Children's Fund VAW: Violence against Women VAWG: Violence against Women and Girls WEE: Women's Economic Empowerment WHO : World Health Organization

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! L List of Figures Fig1: South Africa Geographic Location Fig 2: South Africa n Provinces with Gauteng shown Fig 3: Sunrise Campaign Conceptual F ramework Fig 4: Gender Links Theory of Change Fig 5: Oxfam's Rights Based Transformative Approach to GBV Fig 6: S IDA Women's Economic Empowerment Model Fig 7: Gauteng Province Municipalities R esea rch Locations Fig 8 : Participants during the Second Phase of the Training Fig 9 : Age Differences Among Participants between Pilot phase and Second Phase Fig 10 : Participants Education Levels Comparison Pilot phase and Second Phase (%) Fig 1 1 : Participants Self Reported Digital Access Fig 1 2 : Frequency Word Crowd Generated from Participants' Responses Fig 13: Interaction of various cross cutting issues in GBV and WEE Fig 14: Interaction of SDGs in GBV & WEE Programs List of Tables Table 1: Global Gender Gap Index South Africa Table 2: SAPS Rape Statistics at Province Level 2016 2017 Table 3: Incidences of Physical Violence among Women 2016 Table 4: Incidences of Sexual Violence among Women 2016 Table 5: Factors E nabling and C onstraining W omen's E conomic E mpowerment Table 6 : Gender Links Training Program Outline from pilot phase Table 7: Research Methods Table 8 : Participants Entrepreneurship Flair

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! X Abstract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`&.7,'4 # ."5#$\A#a# 322:3#'%#.-(,2;2#5 2-2"'# 0 %+:#."5# 2 -%"%1,-# 8 +%0'(# *%+#.77<# # !'#,3#*&+'(2+#2"3(+,"25#,"#'(2#;.+,%&3#,"'2+".',%".7#7.03#."5#*+.120%+:3#'(.'#322:#'%#2"5 # .77 # *%+13#%*# ;,%72"-2#.8.,"3'#0%12"< # # # # !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1 A brahams N, Mathews S, Jewkes R, Martin LJ, Lombard C. Every eight hours: intimate femicide in South Africa 10 years later! MRC Policy Brief. Pretoria: Medical Research Council:2012. http://www.mrc.ac.za/policybriefs/everyeighthours.pdf

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! Y Introduction Despite the existence of some of the best integrated domestic and international laws The Domestic Act of 1999, The Criminal Law Amendment Act of 2012 and others (Text Box 1 below) aimed at addressing G ender Based Violence (GBV) in South Africa, VAWG (Violence Against Women and Girls) remains widespread with var ious forms of physical, sexual, emotional and financial abuse disproportionately perpetrated against them. Research has found that h alf of women murdered in South Africa are killed by their intimate partner. 2 Mortality data (2009) for example show that, o ut of 3,797 female homicides, 50.3% were from Interpersonal Violence ( IPV ). 3 4 Higher m ortality from IPV was recorded among those 14 to 44 years and women of color Out of all adult women killed in 2009, 494 were identified as sexual homicides which was 19.8% of all adult female homicides The report further found that 92% of all the child sexual homicides were among girls Even with these high figures much of the violence perpetrated against women goes unreported due a myriad of reasons including poor police attitudes ; weak justice systems and laws ; challenge of burden of proof and lack of awareness of existing laws. The impact s of GBV on women's lives are enormous and detrimental to their general well being Violence can lead to: deterioration of women's physical health, depression and emotional !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 Joyner K., Rees K. and Honikman S. CPMH Policy Brief. November 2015.'Intimate Partner Viol ence (IPV) in South Africa: How to break the vicious cycle' http://www.sun.ac.za/english/faculty/healthsciences/Documents/News/2016/IPV_policybrief%2012%2001%2015%20final.pdf 3 Mathews S, Abrahams N, Martin LJ, Vetten L, Van Der Merwe L, Jewkes R. Every six hours a woman is killed by her intimate partner: a national study of female homicide in South Africa. MRC Policy Brief. Pretoria: Medical Research Council & Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation:2004. Available from: http://www.mrc.ac.za/policybriefs/woman.pdf 4 Abrahams N, Mathews S, Lombard C, Martin LJ, Jewkes R (2017) Sexual homicides in South Africa: A national cross sectional epidemiological study of adult women and childre n. PLoS ONE 12(10): e0186432. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0186432

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! "[ problems, poor economic and social productivity, isolation, sexually transmitted infections, intergenerational cycles of violence, disability and even death. 5 Text Box 1 South African Domestic Legislation focussed on Gendered Violence: o The Domestic Violence Act (No. 116 of 1998), o The Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act (No. 6 of 2012), o The Maintenance Act (No. 99 of 1998) o The Protection from Harassment Act (No. 17 of 2011 ) South Africa has ratified or is a signatory to : o T he Beijing Platform for Action ( BPFA ) o T he SADC Declaration on Gender and Development o T he UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (COVAW) o The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women ( CEDAW ) among other) other international instruments. Source : Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR). 2016. Gender Based Violence (GBV) in South Africa Multiple theories and ideas have been put forward to explain the existence and global prevalence of violence against women also commonly referred to as Domestic Violence (DV) against women or Inter Personal Violence (IPV) against women. The cause of VAW range from individual factors such as low levels of education, early marriage, low economic status; relationship relate d factors such as income differences between spouses, conflict in relationships, level of marital satisfaction, infidelity; community and social factors including cultural tolerance of GBV, social relations between men and women, gender roles and poverty. Many of these factors do not happen in isolation but instead work in combination to re produce violence. For this section of this report focus is on how economic dependence on the part of women can lead to increased instances of violence against them. S tudies by researchers such as Annan 6 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 Strengthening Health System Responses to Gender based Violence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: A resource package. "Consequences of gender based violence" http://www.health genderviolence.org/guidance for health care professionals in strengthening health system responses to gender based vi 4

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! "" Gibbs 7 Aurelien 8 have highlighted th e relationship between GBV and women's economi c dependence. They suggest that part of the reason why many women remain in abusive relationship is because they lack the economic freedom to sustain themselves outside of these relationships. Traditional gender roles play a huge role in perpetuat ing gender inequalities between men and women by f or example : denying women access to education, confining them to unpaid household chores or to low income jobs Men on the other hand tend to have more freedom, more opportunities in terms on access to education and high er paying jobs. The consequences of such econo mic differences and how they create violence are best understood when examin ed in how they play out within the interpersonal s etting. In th e domestic sphere and especially in situations where gender inequalities are well pronounced men tend to have more economic power meaning t hat they also control household bargaining power Ultimately, this grants them higher decision making authority compared to women since they have the ability to distribute resources and determine who gets what. It is thus assum ed that women will depend on men and tolerate some level of violence in return for such economical s upport. 9 Moreover, women who are economically dependent on their abusers are less able to leave and more likely to return to abusive partners. Such arrangements often !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 Annan, J., Falb, K., Kpebo, D., Hossain, M., & Gupta, J. (2017). Reducing PTSD symptoms through a gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence: a randomized controlled pilot study in C™te D'Ivoire. Global Mental Health 4 e22. http://doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2017.19 7 Gibbs, A., C orboz, J., Shafiq, M., Marofi, F., Mecagni, A., Mann, C., Jewkes, R. (2018). An individually randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of the Women for Women International Programme in reducing intimate partner violence and strengthening livelihoods amongst women in Afghanistan: trial design, methods and baseline findings. BMC Public Health, 18, 164. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889 018 5029 1 8 AurŽlien Dasre, Angela Greulich, Inan C eren. Combating domestic violence against women in Turkey. The role of women's economic empowerment. Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2017.52 ISSN : 1955 611X. 2017. halshs 01660703 9 Bolis, M. and Hughes C. Women's Economic Empowerment and Domestic Violence: Links And Lessons For Practitioners Working With Intersectional Approaches. Oxfam Intersectionality Series. https://www.oxfamamerica.org/static/media/files/Womens_Empowerment_and_Domestic_Violence_ _Boris__Hughes_hX7LscW.pdf

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! "# perpetuate vicious cycle s where women's economic and social status is dictated by men Further, the degree of women's economic dependence on an abuser is associated with the severity of the abuse they suffer. Greater dependence is a ssociated with more severe abuse. 10 The reverse of this relationship can also be true but not always. Other hypothes es linking VAW to economic dependence have looked at DV as an instrument of extraction where it is used to control others' behaviour or the allocation of resources Y In such instance s, violence many increase as women gain more economic independence M en may resort to control ling women's eco nomic activities and or their income. Renzetti (2009) cites multiple scholars who f ound that w omen reporte d that their attempts to obtain paid employment outside their homes precipitate d or aggravate d their partners' abuse and efforts to control the m especially when they themselves are unemployed or underemployed. 11 Finally, household violence might also be linked with frustr ation over access to financial resources. Research has found a strong relationship between couples worried about financial strain ( subjective feelings ) of financial strain and the likelihood of intimate partner violence. 12 The increased likelihood of repeat victimization i s high in such situations. Women might choose to remain in these types of relationships when the weighed economic benefits of staying are perceived to be greater than the risk of violence. Additionally, employment and unemployment may contribute to increased IPV. One study for example, found that, where the male was always employed, the rate of intimate partner violence was 4.7 percent When men experienced !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10 The University of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX) Cooperative Extension. 2012. Family Financial Education: Financial Capability and Domestic Violence. Retrieved From: http://fyi.uwex.edu/financialseries/files/2012/02/Financial Capability and Domestic Violence.pdf 11 Renzetti, C.M. 2009. Economic Stress and Domestic Violence. CRVAW Faculty Research Reports and Papers. 1. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/crvaw_reports/1 12 National Institute of Justice. (n.d) Economic Distress and Intimate Partner Violence. https://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/intimate partner violence/Pages/economic distress.aspx

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! "V one period of unemployment the rate rose to 7.5 percent and when men experienced two or more periods of unemployment the rate of intimate partner violence rose to 12.3 pe rcent "# Repeated exposure to violence can affect women's ability to be economically engaged which may in turn reinforce financial stress and ultimately the pattern of violence. Based on theories presented above it is clear that an u nderstanding of t he complex relationship s between GBV and women's economic empowerment is central to designing multipronged initiatives that can tackle violence against women from an economic standpoint. In response to this need, various stakeholders have been working across different sectors to find much needed solutions to combat GBV globally In recent times, their efforts having been directed towards address ing the intricac ies of economics as a solution to gendered violence E xamples of such attempts to highligh t the envisioned models of change targeting both GBV and Women's Economic Empowerment ( WEE ) are discussed in the Theory of Change section of this paper Notabl e however is the fact that while heavy emphasis has been placed on formulating and rolling o ut projects that seek to combat GBV while promot ing WEE the same cannot be said about similar efforts to critically evaluat e the impact of such interventions. This has left knowledge loopholes in our informed understanding of the success or failures of such initiatives how they can be improved upon and even their scalability Remedying information gaps demand s deliberate attempts by relevant stakeholders when it comes to invest ing in rigorous M onitoring, E valuation and L earning ( ME A L) systems capable of thoroughly delineating the impact of cross sector al interventions. Undertaking these measures can help map out future impact pathways by documenting best practices t o end GBV while at the same time improv ing the economic status of women,

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! "Z This research attempts to contribute to such efforts through it s evaluation of the Sunrise Campaign This is a project spearheaded by Gender Links which seeks to mitigate GBV though the economic empowerment of women in South Africa. Th is research evaluates the implementation of the organization's business training initiative aimed at equipping women with life skills that can help decrease GBV in the ir lives and entrepreneurship skills that can help improve their financial outcomes. Monitoring and Evaluation data generated by Gender Links following the Pilot phase project informs the main content and findings of this research. Specific attention is paid to the intersection of the three key components of the training; the participants, the training model and the councils and how they influence project outcomes. It is important to point out that this research is not an evaluation of the pro ject's outcomes ( that is whether the women experienced less violence or whether their economic status changed ) Rather, it is an assessmen t of the processes and inputs employed during the formulation and implementation of the training stages of the project Such evaluation is c rucial since these processes, inputs and how they are implemented ultimately impact s the extent to which project objectives are met. Poor execution would mean that Gender Links is channeling vast resources while making little impact in the lives of the women. Consequently this research seeks to provide recommendations that can be useful in improving the success of t he Sunrise Campaign' as relate to its project objectives. Country Background: South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bordered to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana and

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! "W Zimbabwe, and on the east and northeast by Mozambique and Swaziland and surrounding the kingdom of Lesotho. Fig1: South Africa Location Fig 2: South Africa n Provinces with Gauteng Sho wn Source: Geology.com Source: E iseverywhere.com The country endured decades of unrest, violence and the quest for freedom following years of colonization by the Dutch and the British starting around 1625. The infamous Apartheid system that favoured white people, giving them privileges over black native people was abolished in 1994, with majority led African National Congress (ANC) taking power following international pressure and boycotts. South African black majority people earned the right to vote and majority rule. Some s tudies have argued that the normalization of GBV in South Africa has roots in the apartheid regime that w as marked by violent practices. 13 The World Bank sets the population of South Africa at 54,956,920 as of 2015. 14 On average, the population consists of 48.2% male population and 51.7% female population. 15 The country is !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13 Moffet, H. 2006. The political economy of sexual violence in post apartheid South Africa' https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d4dd/34f93ac18412afa854be9666a28f499663b3.pdf 14 World Bank: Data Accessed on 17 th March 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?name_desc=true

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! "\ diverse with people representing multiple origins, cultures, languages and religions. The 2011 census figures for these groups were Black African s at 79.2%, White s at 8.9%, Coloured s at 8.9%, Asian s at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%. 16 There are 11 official languages English, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa, S iswati, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Ndembele, Venda, Tsonga and Tswana. The urbanization rate stands at 1.59% annually. Nearly two thirds (62%) of the total population of 50 million live in urban areas. 17 Presently, the country is divided into nine provinces each governed by a unicameral legislature which is elected every five yea rs by party list proportional representation The largest metropolitan areas are governed by metropolitan municipalities while the rest of the country is divided into district municipalities each of which consists of several local municipalities South Africa enjoys one of the largest econom y in Africa with a total GDP of $314.6 billion and is ranked as an upper middle income country. It also has one of the highest GDP per capita among African countries at $7593.36 as of 2015. 18 The country has a diversified economy including agriculture, mining fisheries, automotive manufacturing, financial and business services, agro processing, textiles, tourism, energy and real estate. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 15 The Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) Factbook. South Africa accessed February 16, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/sf.html 16 Statistics South Africa Census 2011' 17 Turok, Ivan. "Urbanization and Development in South Africa: Economic Imperatives, Spatial Distortions and Strategic Responses" International institute for environment and development united nations population fund, no 8 (2012) http://www.delog.org/cms/upload/pdf africa/Urbanisation_and_Development_in_South_Africa_ _Economic_Imperatives_Spatial_Distortions_and_Strategic_Responses.pdf 18 Trading Economies. South Africa GDP Per Capita Accessed on 18 th March 20 17 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/south africa/gdp per capita

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! "L Despite this vibrant economy, unemployment remains a major challenge coupled with high levels of inequality. 19 Unemployment i s higher in non metro areas as compared to the metro areas. There is the presence of a huge informal economy in South Africa with most of the i nformal workers likely to be wage workers than self employed. Furthermore, g ender income disparities are prevalen t across both the formal and informal sectors. Gender disaggregation of informal participation shows that informal employment contributes a greater share of total employment among women than men." 20 A study by Bhorat and Goga in 2013 found that South African women earned less than men, on average, in 2001 and 2005 and that the gender gap increased over time; women earned 18% less than men in 2001 and 20% less in 2005." 21 Table 1 below show s the 2016 Gender Gap Index by the World Economic Forum (WEF) S outh Africa is ranked at position 62 out of 144 countries globally when it comes to gender equality against estimated earned income (US$, PPP). The report further indicates that t he mean nominal monthly earnings for women is $9,972 while for men the figure is $16,230. This reflects the deep gender income inequalities in the country. Table 1: Global Gender Gap Index South Africa !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 19 Industrial Development Corporation(IDC). Recent developments in the South African economy and drivers of growth ove r the medium term (2016). https://www.idc.co.za/images/download files/research reports/IDC RI publication EconomicOverview May201 6_1.pdf 20 Wills, Gabriel. "South Africa's Informal Economy: A Statistical Profile" Women in Informal Employment Globalizing and Organizing no 6, (2009). http://www.inclusivecities.org/wp content/uploads/2012/07/Wills_WIEGO_WP6.pdf 21 Women Department: Republic of South Africa : 2015 Accessed March 1, 2016: http://www .gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/Status_of_women_in_SA_economy.pdf

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! "X Source: World Economic Forum Racial disparities emanating from the apartheid era have also contributed to gendered income inequalities across race Studies find for example that Black women are more likely to be employed in low skilled position at 43% while W hite women are likely to be employed in skilled positions at 57.9%. Given these inequalities, multiple literatures have linked the h igh prevalence of GBV (specifically against women) in South Africa to economic marginalization. This marginalization of women is linked to factors such as low income s, high poverty, distribution of household wealth, household decision mak ing land and asset ownership Consequently, to make a well informed analysis of GBV in South Africa, an understanding of the intersection of unemployment, income inequalities poverty and racial issues is critical. Research Objectives Research Statement

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! "Y Strengthen the capacity of Gender Links to effectively and efficiently deliver training for the Sunrise Campaign' through M onitoring and Evaluation(M&E) of the second phase of the training. Th e project seeks to empower women who are survivors of Gender Based Violence (GBV) with life skills training, digital literacy and entrepreneurship skills in South Africa General Objective Use recommendations generated by Gender Links from pilot phase project evaluation processes to monitor their adoption and implementation during the second phase of the project. Specific Objectives Assess p articipant s election c riteria, p articipants n eeds and their c ommitment to the t raining Assess t raining m odel, c ontent and i mmediate l earning o utcomes a mo ng p articipants Assess c ouncil s election, c ouncil s upport and s ustainability Assess m onitoring & e valuation p rocesses, t ools and their s uitability for the p roject's o bjectives Conceptual Framework Fig 3: Sunrise Campaign C onceptual F ramework

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! #[ The framework above focuses on the relationship between the various components included in th e Gender Links Sunrise Campaign based on their Theory of Change' model. It also includes additional aspects that this research has found as useful in making the project outcomes more achievable. This project by Gender Links seeks to empower women who are survivors of GBV in South Africa with training in life skills (awareness on GBV, personal agency and positive relationship control), digit al literacy and entrepreneurship skills. For this to happen financial resources (funding) is crucial as is represented by the blue square. Going into the second phase of the project, funding was a concern for Gender Links as they were e xecuting with a much lower budget than what had been available in the pilot phase. Th is raises questions about the impact

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! #" reduced funding would have on project activities and the quality of the training. It also means that Gender Links has to find more cost effective measures to meet the project costs. Partnerships with other organizations working within space can help reduce redundancies of interventions and costs associated with them. The Monitoring and Evaluation component is important as results from the Pilot phase project evaluation informed decisions about how the three aspects: participants, training model and councils could be improved upon in subsequent phases. These tools also informed the bulk of this research. Furthermore, continuous process monitoring throughout the implementation phases provide d feedback that would be used to redesign the next phase of the project. Therefore, process monitoring is important in that it provides information tha t allows crucial modifications to the project at all levels. The Sunrise Campaign's anticipated p roject o utcomes are represented by the large oval shape in the middle of framework. They include reducing GBV, increasing new and expanded business enterprises increasing women's income, increasing women's relationship control and empowering women overall For these outcomes to be achieved, the three core aspects represented by the hexagon shapes that is : participants training model and councils are the main It is anticipated that working with young women who are GBV survivors by having them participate in a training model that combines life skills and entrepreneurship training can lead to reduction of violence and improved economic outcomes. Such training wou ld help women develop an understanding of GBV and its impact on the survivor ; their relationship with an abuser on an individual level and would facilitate an understanding of financial abuse in a relationship as a form of control

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! ## Th e Sunrise Campaign' is undertaken in collaboration with decentralized local government councils in jurisdictions where the participants ( women ) work and live. The councils are tasked with select ing women who then undergo through training Councils also provide training venues teaching material s and other in kind support. This research found that gaps in Gender Links' model through it lack of inclusion of men It therefore m ake s recommendation that partners or spouses (men specifically) be incorporated into the training as key targets In volving men and families in initiatives that target GBV and economically empowering women improves the chances of transforming gender relations that can reduce the risk of violence in households. This is discussed by Carlson et al (2015) who st ate that The struggle inherent here { working with men} is developing engagement strategies that appeal to both men and women within the goal of preventing gender based violence, a tensi on that some programs approach through intensely community driven and controlled program planning and implementation. 22 Since, Gender Links' Theory of Change' proposes to transform community relations in relation to GBV, this should be critical consideration for them. Still at the community level, targeting structural issue s that lead to violence against women and the economic marginalization of women is important and should be pursued alongside projects such as this one that target women 's exclusively This means addressing gender roles, community policies, redress sys tems for violence and the role of cultural relations. External barriers refer to factors that can hinder the realization of the project outcomes. These include access to credit/finances, whether or not the women have decision making power in their househo lds and in society, time constraints that hinder women's full economic participation and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 22 Carlson, J., Casey, E., Edleson, J. L., Tolman, R. M., Neugut, T. B., & Kimball, E. (2015). Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective. Violence against Women 21 (11), 1406 1425. http://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215594888

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! #V policies that have to do with the labour markets, poverty and addressing Gender Based Violence. These must be taken into account and addressed if project objectives ar e to be met. Brief Overview of Gender Based Violence in South Africa Gender Based Violence (GBV) means all acts perpetuated against women, men, boys and girls on the basis of their sex which causes or could cause them physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or economic harm, including the threat to take such acts, or to undertake the imposition of arbitrary restrictions on or deprivation of fundamental freedoms in private or public life in peace time and during situations of armed or other forms of conflict." 23 (SADC, n.d). South Africa has a high prevalence of GBV including physical, emotional and sexual abuses, honour killings and femicides. G lobally, GBV is shaped by cultural and social norms that both employ silence around violence or support and encourage its perpetuation. Colonization and the legacies of normalized violence, patriarchal attitudes, inequalities and weak justice systems have been cited by scholars as some chief contributors of violence against women in the South African context. I n trying to contextualize these root causes, it is indicated that GBV in South Africa is marked by multiple social drivers, including widespread and racialized poverty, persistent unemployment, and extreme income inequality; patriarchal notions of masculi nity that celebrate toughness and risk taking; extensive exposure to abuse in childhood; access to firearms; excessive alcohol misuse; and weaknesses in law enforcement. 24 When it comes to availability of statistics on GBV, knowledge gaps exists in South Africa and as is noted the information on trends and patterns of GBV is based on community self reporting surveys conducted with limited samples to make generalized national conclusions !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23 Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Gender Based Violence http://www.sadc.int/issues/gen der/gender based violence/ 24 Seedat M Van Niekerk A Jewkes R Suffla S Ratele K Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention Lancet. 2009 ; 374: 68 79 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140 6736(09)60948 X

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! #Z about the extent of the problem. 25 Because of the varying research methods used to collect these data, challenges in conducting comparative analysis to make conclusive findings arise. The South African Police Service (SAPS) produces limited statistics on physical violence and sexual as sault contained in their annual crime report. For the year 2016 2017 for example, 39,828 rape cases were reported down from 41,503 in 2015/16. 26 This is an average of 109.1 rape cases re ported each day. These numbers are not disaggregated by sex. For example Table 2 below shows that number of reported rape case have been declining overall except in Northwestern Province and in Gauteng Province where this research was conducted. H owever, police statistics have often been called to question due to c once rns over the underestimations of true extent of violence. Many women are unlikely to go police station to report rape because of the poor handling of such cases. A s such, there is gross under reporting. Table 2 : SAPS Rape Statistics at Province Level 2016 2017 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 25 Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR). 2016. Gender Based Viol ence (GBV) in South Africa: A Brief Review. http://www.csvr.org.za/pdf/Gender%20Based%20Violence%20in%20South%20Africa%20 %20A%20Brief%20Review.pdf 26 South Africa Police Services (SAPS). 2016 2017. Crime situation in South Africa https://www.saps.gov.za/services/final_crime_stats_presentation_24_october_2017.pdf

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! #W Source: SAPS 2016 2017 Other official data comes from the South Africa Health and Demographic Survey (SADHS). Recent statistics (2016) from S ADHS indicate s that one in five (21%) partnered women has experienced physical violence by a partner, and 8% had experienced physical violence in the 12 months prior to the survey. Women who are divorced or separated were more likely than other women to have ever exper ienced physical violence (40%) versus 14% 31%. 27 The report further analyzed sexual violence and noted that 6% of ever partnered women age 18 years and older had experienced sexual violence. 28 Experience with sexual violence was also higher among divorced or separated women. Violence can start in early childhood as a different study on substance abuse and HIV in rural South Africa found that women (girls) before 18 had experienced sexual abuse at a rate of 39.1%. 29 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 27 STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA. 2016. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey: Key Indicator Report. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report%2003 00 09/Report%2003 00 092016.pdf 28 FACTSHEET: South Africa's Crime Statistics For 2016/17 Https://Africacheck.Org/Factsheets/South Africas Crime Statistics 2016 17 29 N, Puren A. "Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV and HSV2 in rural South African youth. Child Abuse Negl. 2010; 34: 833 41. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213410002255

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! #\ Tables 3 and 4 below show demographic health survey data indicating the prevalence of physical and sexual abuse among women by age, residence and province. Table 3 : Incidences of Physical Violence among Women ( 2016 ) Source: StatSA.gov.za Table 4 : Incidence of Sexual Violence a mong Women ( 2016 ) !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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! #L !"#$%&'(!)*)!+,-".,/* Other stud ies such as the conducted by the Medical Research Council (MRC) in three South African provinces show that one in four women in the general population have experienced physical violence at some point in their life." 30 Additionally, t he rate of homicide of women by intimate partners in South Africa is six times the global average. Even more concerting is the fact that "most cases of the femicides are committed by partners or ex partners, and involve ongoing abuse in the home, threats or intimidation, sexual violence or situations where women have less power or fewer resources than their partner." 31 As has been noted, t hese alarming !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 30 Mpani P. & Nsibande N. Understanding Gender Policy and Gender Based Violence in South Africa (2015) http://www.soulcity.org.za/projects/advocacy/gbv/resources/understanding gender policy and ge nder based violence in south africa a literature review 31 WHO. Understanding and addressing violence against women' http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77421/1/WHO_RHR_12.38_eng.pdf

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! #X statistics, do not provide a complete picture of the true extent of violence due to high levels of under reporting and gaps in research. Sout h Africa has previously made various commitments to eliminate GBV. In 1999, The Domestic Violence Act came into effect. 32 The Act defines abuse and provides redress for victims of abuse and violence. The Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act, also referred to as the Sexual Offences Act came into effect in 2007 and contains laws relating to sex crimes. 33 The country has also ratified several international protocols that seek to end violence against women globally. The country is a member state of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), which is committed to the elimination of GBV among its member countries through its SADC Protocol on Gender and Development'. The protocol has six clauses that specifically address the issu e of GBV and its elimination in the region. 34 The SADC Gender Protocol Alliance (a conglomerate of gender organizations in the region) has been integral in spearheading the elimination of GBV by pushing member states to adopt national action plans that see k to find redress for the problem regionally. D espite an arsenal of progressive laws and policies to deal with gender based violence, there has been poor implementation hence impact and gender based violence continues to be pervasive and at the level of systematic women's human rights violation 35 Lack of specialized training for !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 32 Domestic Violence Act 116 Of 1998 http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/1998 116.pdf 33 Criminal Law (Sexual Offences And Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 Of 2007 http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/2007 032 .pdf#page=10 34 Southern Africa Development Community( SADC). Gender Based Violence. http://www.sadc.int/issues/gender/gender based violence/ 35 United Nations. Despite progressive la ws, gender based violence pervasive' in South Africa, UN expert warns' http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2015/12/despite progressive laws gender based violence pervasive in south africa un expert warns /

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! #Y police officers, magistrates, prosecution officers as well as resources and capacity to implement policies and the legal framework itself are largely to blame. There is need therefore to increase the capacities of these institutions to follow through with their r espective mandates of combating GBV. Through provisions contained in the complementarity of these different laws, policies and interventions, increased effort should be placed towards strengthening reinforcement processes to end GBV in South Africa. C coll aborative efforts encouraging multi stakeholder solutions are required if the country hopes to eliminate GBV in the near future. !"#$%& % Project Background !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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! V[ Gender Links, Gender Based Violence and Women's Economic Empowerment ()*+),%-.*/0 Gender Links is a Southern African organization established in 2001, whose vision is described as, "committed to an inclusive, equal and just society in the public and private space in accordance with the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development." 36 Gender Links operates in 1 0 SADC countries and works with local, national, regional and international partners to promote gender equality through media and local governance. One of the key working areas for Gender Links is to promot e campaigns that seek to end GBV a s well as promot e economic justice for marginalized groups. In 2013, the organization undertook a project aimed at meeting the SADC Protocol to halve GBV in the region. The project Ending Violence, Empowering Women' (recently rebranded to Sunrise Ca mpaign), provides women with the tools to make alternative long term choices and sets out to increase women's agency and independence. Thereafter the program focuses on supporting women to develop their businesses through providing access to finance, educ ation and support to help them either start new business or improve existing ones." 37 The overall objectives of the project were to : develop an understanding of GBV and its impact on the survivor ; their relationship with an abuser on an individual level and to facilitate an understanding of financial abuse in a relationship as a form of control. Furthermore, it wanted to promote skills that can provide alternative sources of income and build traine es confidence i n their ability to support themselves and their children !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 36 Gender Links, accessed January 2, 2017 http://genderlinks.org.za/ 37 The Sunrise Campaign http://genderlinks.org.za/what we do/justice/advocacy/the sunrise campaign/

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! V" This project, rooted in Gender Links' Theory of Change shown in Fig ure 4 below, "is premised on the ecological model which assumes that the vicious cycle of VAW can be turned into a v irtuous positive cycle by working around different initiatives that target all levels of the model from individual to societal" 38 Descriptions of the various transformative actions needed under each of the four domains (individual, close relationships, community and society) are described in detail under the organization's mission policy. 39 Notable however, is the fact that s ome of th e proposed actions at the societal level such as effecting women's land rights,' fa ll outside the scope of Gender Links' empowerment project. Fig 4 : Gender Links Theory of Change !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 38 Gender Links. 2016. Empowering Women, E nding Violence : Review of the South Africa Project 39 Gender Links. Theory of Change http://genderlinks.org.za/who we are/gender links theory of change/

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! V# Source: Gender Links From Figure 4 above, Gender Links seeks to address th e fundamental need for change in all four domains as a means to end violence against women. This is the most important component of the project. For the Sunrise Campaign' specifically, their focus is primarily on the individual and close relationship (private) realms. Some of the measures proposed unde r these two domains include promoting an understanding of GBV among participants, building participants' self confidence and assertiveness, improving their relationship control and promoting skills that can provide participants with income. At the communit y level, the project seeks to promote community based training (hence Gender Links collaboration with local governments) and economic development through mainstreaming of women into local economic development (LED) and procurement initiatives.

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! VV At the societal level, the project focuses on facilitating frameworks which recognize the needs of women entrepreneurs beyond micro finance, with Gender Links' specific focus being business training Furthermore, through this project Gender Links seeks to promote the collection of gender disaggregated data on women in business at all levels The Sunrise Campaign' was implemented through Centres of Excellence (COEs) in local governments. COEs are partnerships between Gender Links and local governments councils established in 2007, across 430 municipalities in the SADC region. 40 Gender Links works with these local government municipalities to promo te gender mainstreaming within the latter's agenda s and policies Local governments have been identified as potential drivers of change due to their proximity to citizens as the closest representatives of government. Thus, Gender Links sees COEs as capable of spearheading progress on gender equality (including combating GBV) at the community level. However, as will be discussed later in this paper, though the Gender Links framework encompasses these tiered dynamics of change, much of the ir work and impact has remained within the individual domain Impact at the close relationship, community and society domains was minimal. Gender Links can consider approached such as those represented by Gage and Dunn (2010) who recommend that, "e fforts sho uld be made to bring together participants representing the four categories of GBV intervention (that is, community mobilization, behaviour change communication, services, and law and public policy )." 41 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 40 Gender Links. Centres of Excellence for Gender Mainstreaming http://genderlinks.org.za/what we do/governance/centres of excellence for gender mainstreaming/ 41 Gage, Anastasia J. & Dunn, M. 2009. Monitoring and Evaluating Gender based Violence Prevention and Mitigation Programs Final" https://goo.gl/2yFwQ7

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! VZ Theories Linking GBV and Women's Economic Empowerment S tudies such as those conducted by SIDA 42 Oxfam Y Gupta 43 and USAID 44 have found a relationship between women's economic empowerment and GBV. What these findings have shown is that, p art of the reason why women remain in abusive relationship i s because they lack the economic freedom to sustain themselves financially outside of these relationships. As one paper notes, women who are economically dependent on their abusers are less able to leave and more likely to return to abusive partners. Further, the degree of women's economic dependence on an abuser is associated with the severity of the abuse they suffer. Greater dependence is associated with more severe abuse." 45 T heory that link s GBV and WEE informed the design of the Sunrise Campaign Gender Links note that they were testing the hypothesis that economic independence can reduce a GBV survivor's vulnerability to further abuse through the integration of positive personal agency and sustainable economic opportunities, which can offer exte nded financial confidence and therefore affirmative personal choices 38 Thus, outcomes for this project w ere modelled around Gender Links' Theory of Change which is discussed in the previous section. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 42 Sida. 2015. Preventing and Responding to Gender Based Violence: Expressions and Strategies http://www.sida.se/contentassets/3a820dbd152f4fca98bacde8a8101e15/preventing and responding to gender based violence.pdf 43 Gupta, J., Falb, K. L., Lehmann, H., Kpebo, D., Xuan, Z., Hossain, M., Annan, J. (2013). Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural C™te d'Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study. BMC Inter national Health and Human Rights 13 46. http://doi.org/10.1186/1472 698X 13 46 44 USAID. How to Integrate GBV Prevention and Response into Economic Growth Projects : Why GBV matters in the context of Economic Growth Projects' https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/USAID%20Toolkit%20GBV%20EG%20Final%20Section%204.pdf 45 The University of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX) Cooperative Extension. 2012. Family Financial Education: Financial Capability and Domestic Violence. Retrieved From: http://fyi.uwex.edu/financialseries/files/2012/02/Financial Capability and Domestic Violence.pdf

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! VW In evaluating how projects can reduce GBV, Oxfam uses a multi laye red approach it considers to be transformative, in that it promotes change at individual and collective, legislative/political and social levels. 46 .Measuring change in the four domains shown in Figure 5 below is pertinent in addressing the systems and structures that propagate violence against women. Fig 5 : Oxfam's Rights Based Transformative Approach to GBV ((((((((((((((((((( !"#$%&'(012*3( Going back to the Gender Links' Theory of Change with specific focus at the level of the project' intervention, it is clear that their work is highly centered around the individual empowerment domain. This includes both project activities and outcomes. For pilot phase M&E data for example, outcomes were most ly at the individual level though close relationships, community and society realms were examined. This raises potential questions given that the project did not directly necessarily intervene directly in the last three domains Comparing Gender Links' ap proach to GBV the Oxfam model above, one can argue that working with women (at the individual level) and with local government councils (at the community level) might not sufficient in overcoming other structural and institutional barriers that lead to GBV A more diverse approach that focuses on targeting collective empowerment of communities, !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 46 Ending Violence Against Women: An Oxfam Guide. 2012 Retrieved on Oxfam International Website

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! V\ policies and social norms is needed. This is supported by Ellsberg M. and Heise L. who state that, "If the primary purpose of research is to help plan an interventi on, it may be more constructive to use available resources to understand community attitudes toward violence and the responses and attitudes of institutional actors." 47 Equally important is the need to examine how other related models of WEE theorize and v isualize change in order to make comparisons that establish what works and what does not. One such model is SIDA 's Women Economic Empowerment Framework shown in Figure 6 below. Fig 6 : S IDA 's Women's Economic Empowerment Model Source: SIDA SIDA's Women Empowerment Framework captures similar elements to the entrepreneurship training model by Gender Links The spiral section in Figure 6 above shows that women can achieve economic empowerment if: they have the resources skills economic opportunities and !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 47 Ellsberg M & Heise L. (2005) Researchi ng Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists http://www.path.org/publications/detail.php?i=1524

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! VL these accrue economic benefits. The model goes even further by highlight ing the fact that women ought to have control over such economic benefits. This is especially important since research has shown that women may lack a say over the use of economic resources especially within households. The Ove rseas Development Institute (ODI ) support this argument noting that WEE initiatives should be concerned not just with increases in women's access to income and assets, but also with control over them and how they use that control in other aspects of life. 48 In the Gender Links Theory of Change model, though the issue of resource control is mentioned within the close relationship domain, assessment of the pilot phase M&E data fails to provide information on whether women control the economic resources they get. Without this kind of knowledge, it is impossible to determine whether actual empowerment has occurred and whether women have true decision making power over their own resources SIDA's framework further highlights other enabling and inhibiting factors such as discriminatory labour practices (shown in th e right hand column) that can affect women's economic empowerment. These are especially important when it comes to assessing why women who have home through business training may or may not transition into entrepreneurship. It can also inform where additional support for women entrepreneurs more so at the struct ural level, is required. Some factors that may influence women's entrepreneurial capabilities as discussed by t he ODI are summarize d in Table 2 below 48 Table 5 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 48 Hunt A. and Samman E. 2016. "Women's economic empowerment: Navigating enablers and constraints" ODI Research Report https://www. odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource documents/10683.pdf E nabling Factors Towards W omen's E conomic E mpowerment Education, skills developing, and training Access to quality, decent paid work Address unpaid care and work burdens Access to property, assets, and financial services Collective action and leadership S ocial protection. U nderlying factors, pertaining to structural conditions, includ e : Labor market characteristics Fiscal policy Legal, regulatory, and policy framework

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! VX Source: ODI While there are multiple literatures highlighting the posi tive relationship between improving women's economic wellbeing and ending GBV, is important to also point to other literatures that are critical of this approach Some scholars and practitioners in this field have argue d that economic empowerment of women is not sufficient to transform structural problems that create gendered power inequalities which in turn beget gender based violence. 49 The argument underlying this is the idea that patriarchal norms and gender power imbalances precede economics (including the economic status of women) For these school s of thought, g ender ed inequalities are rooted in historical practices and beliefs that cannot be undone by simply altering women's economic situation. Case studies have for example found that, d omestic violence can arise as a backlash effect to women's new economic activities where men feel threatened by women's new economic independence or where women engaging in some types of economic activities clashes with cultural gender roles. What such cases allu de to is th e fact that economic empowerment of women as a standalone intervention cannot deemed sufficient to eliminate GBV. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 49 Aune K. 2017. Women's Empowerment and Gender based Violence in Post Conflict Liberia https://uu.diva portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1106593/FULLTEXT01.pdf

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! VY Based on arguments presented by both schools of thought, there is need to further investigate the relationship between WEE and GBV. Economic marginalization of women if not addressed remains a hindrance towards ending GBV. Supporting girls and economically empowering women is integral to changing attitudes and behaviours t hat contribute to GBV. However, this must be accompanied by other intervening measures. Women Deliver provide examples of such measures stating that, effective programs include those that increase girls' access to education; provide marketable skills training for women as well as finance opportunities; and work t o secure land, inheritance, and property rights impacting women." 50 Based on this awareness, it is possible to assess the Sunrise Campaign' as such an attempt at providing a holistic GBV intervention through collaborat ion with the local governments in a bid to improve women's overall economic status and combat violence against them. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 50 Women Deliver (Policy Brief). Dramatically Reduce Gender Based Violence and Harmful Practices: Facts, Solutions, Case Studies, and Policy Recommendations" http://womendeliver.org/wp content/uploads/2017/09/Deliver_For_Good_Brief_5_09.17.17.pdf

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! Z[ The P ilot phase Project T h e pilot phase of the Sunrise Campaign' was undertaken in 10 SADC countries between 2013 and 2015 under the project name End Violence, E mpower Women Table 6 below shows the full schedule of the training program used for the pilot phase Table 6 : Gender Links Training Program Outline from P ilot phase Pre Training Outcomes "I" stories and gender Empowerment Index (GEI) surveys are carried out with survivors of GBV before the training starts. These combined instruments provide a baseline on which to measure change over time. Both are repeated. The GEI measures attitudes towards gender relations before. Phase one training (Five days) Personal development action plans are completed during this training. A five day course comprises life skills training and an introduction to entrepreneurship ad introduces women to computer training. At the end women, complete two exercises in developing a business idea. These are worked on through the period of the programme. Goals are set to increase self confidence and awareness and short term goals. Women develop insights and skill for personal and enterprise agency.

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! Z" Source: Gender Links Gender Links partnered with 100 councils through their COEs for the project. Countries that participated include: Botswana, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe Entrepreneurship consultants were selected as facilitators for the training. For each council, a total of 15 women were targeted to be part of the training. Regionally 1500 women were eventually trained and 1350 completed the full training. R egional successes as presented by Gender Links can be foun d in the Annex section of this paper. In South Africa, 11 councils across three provinces : Gauteng, Western Cape and Limpopo took part Overall, 194 women participated in phase one of the training, 153 in the second phase and 136 in the final phase. Some of the key successes of the South Africa project as indicated by Gender Links include: I ncrease in the number of businesses started from 56% to 71%, I ncrease in average monthly income from a negative number to R595. ($50) Increase in personal agency by 3% and improvement in gender attitudes by 1%. Phase two training (Five Days) A further five day course provides a more in depth training on business management skills such as financial planning, stock management and record keeping. The women continue to work on their business plans on the course of their training. Applied knowledge is learnt to start and/or run a business Business ideas are further developed. Phase Three (2.5 days) Further review of business planning and recommendations for mentorship Networking opportunities to identify potential support and opportunities for the women who have completed phase two. Identifying potential sources of funding in country Business plans are assessed for maturity and plans laid to enhance sustainability. Groundwork laid for networking, identifying business opportunities and possible sources of funding. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is repeated with "I" stories and GEI o measure change. Change in personal and economic progress is measured.

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! Z# In terms of changes in relationship control the numbers remained the same which mean s that not all women were able to transfer power to their relationships. In the evaluation, 85% of the women overall indi cated the levels of GBV was now less or much less. Overall, GBV increased by 3%. The explanation given for this in crease is that not all women were able to transfer power into their relationship. According to Gender Links, what these figures show is that the South African program was not able to achieve significant changes in relationship control and e limination of GBV in the short span of the project duration. Massive changes cannot be expected within the short period of time that the project was undertaken. However, such average figures mask important changes that were observed at individual council level and as such there is need to assess change axiomatically. In the M&E process for the Sunrise Campaign, several challenges and weaknesses with the project were identified by Gender Links. These weaknesses are basically aspects of the project that could be improved upon in the future to strengthen project outcomes They also form the main basis of this research, which was to assess how the soluti ons proposed to address these issues were being adopted in the subsequent phase s The most notable weakness areas as identified by Gender Links included: high drop out by participants, poor selection criteria for participants ( some women were not survivors of GBV which defies the logic of the Gender Links Theory of Change') a lack of commitment by some of the local councils, poor post training support for participants and project funding challenges. Based on these findings Gender Links propos ed some undertakings to improve phase two of the project. Some of the recommendations made are listed below and discussed in detail further in

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! ZV the paper. The main purpose of this research was to monitor whether Gender Links had adopted the recommendations above during the second phase of the project. They include: Refine d selection of candidates for phase two Honing the model, workshop materials and accreditation Selection of councils for 2017 Training of staff councils for sustaining the program Selection of existing participants for mentorship in 2016 Broadening partnerships to include national and regional agencies Financing Since 2015, Gender Links has undertaken some steps such as revising manuals and improving council selection processes to address these challenges in anticipation of the second phase These are analyzed in detail in the results and discussion section of this paper. Sample C ase Study from P ilot P hase

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! ZZ Source: Gender Links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! ZW The Second Phase The second phase of the End Violence, Empower Women Campaign' (rebranded to Sunrise Campaign') in South Africa officially began in July 2017 and is expected to run until July 2018. I partnered with Gender links between May July 2017 to monitoring the implem entation stages of this project. Four councils from Gauteng province were selected for the life and entrepreneurship training program that is : Emfuleni, Midvaal, Lesedi and Mogale City. However, by the time of my departure from the field, only two councils had started the project. The reduction in number of councils compared to the pilot phase (total of 11) was based on the need to fine tune th e project on a smaller scale and also due funding constraints for the program. Councils selected for the second phase of the training are shown by arrows in F igure 7 below. Fig 7 : Gauteng Province Municipalities R esearch Locations Source: Wikipedia

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! Z\ Gauteng Province is smallest of the nine provinces of South Africa It has a population of 13.2 million, making it the most populated province. Despite Gauteng's prosperity, multiple inequalities exist along poverty levels, income, occupation, race and gender. Gendered violence is seen as a by product of these cross cutting ine qualities. A report by UNICEF notes that, "while gender violence cuts across class, race and ethnicity, there is no doubt that poor women and children are far more vulnerable to violence, and have less access to recourse, than those who are ec onomically empowered." 51 Research conducted by Gender Links found that Gauteng has a high rate of GBV with 53% of women report ing to having experienced some sort of violence 52 This calls for increased effort to end violence in the province. In phase two of the Sunrise Campaign the target group of participants was 20 young women per council. The selection cut off criteria participants were that they had to be between 18 35 years of age be survivors of GBV and have completed a high school education a lso known as matric. I attended six training of the workshops in total. The first four sessions were focused on life skills training covering topics such as : types of gender violence, relationship control, building personal agency and self esteem. The rest of the workshops focussed on introduction to basic entrepreneurship concepts D ue to time constraints, I was unavailable to attend the rest of the training and will rely on data provided by Gender Links for further analysis. Training workshops were conducted in venues provided by the municipalities. The sessions started around eight thirty in the morning and run until four in the evening, with two breaks in between. Attendance rates were slightly lower than expected. During the first day of the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 51 UNICEF. South Africa Violence Preventio n Model And Action Plan https://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF_resources_violenceprevmodel.pdf 52 Gender Links. 2010. Gauteng Gender Violence Prevalence Study http://genderlinks.org.za/programme web menu/gauteng gender violence prevalence study 2010 11 22/

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! ZL trai ning, t here were one or two participant walkouts (meaning women who did not stay until the end of the training) in both councils On subsequent days however, all participants completed each day's training. Participation was high especially in the topics re lated to Gender Based Violence. During the workshops, I conducted participant observation and took notes of the proceedings. These informed many of the findings documented in this paper. Fig 8 : Participants during the Second Phase of the Training

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! ZX !"#$%&& % # Methodology Planning for methods began in the spring while still at the University of Florida. Instruments prepared beforehand to capture information about: participant selection, training model, council selection, project sustainability and monitoring tools were revised in the field, based on a new understanding of the context and in line with an updated review of the program literature and data This research employed a mixed methods approach to collect and analyze data However, the use of quantitative data was minimal and was limited to questions of demographics and digital literacy. In these instances, actual frequency was calculated from the individual responses provided by the focus group participants. The bulk of the research was centered on qualitative methods to collect a nd analyze data This approach was important in pursuing exploratory information in a way that encouraged participants, GFPs and trainer s to provide in depth answers to questions regarding their perceptions of the training, their challenges and recommendat ions they had The study sample consisted of 36 women in total, six GFPs and one trainer. Focus group questions were directly related to participants' perceptions of the training and what they had gained from the process. Similarly, interviews with GFPs sought to find out their perceptions and any suggestions that they had about the training. T he purpose of these questions was to therefore highlight the challenges relevant actors involved at different levels of the training had identified and what they proposed as a remedy to such problems Overall, I combined focus groups,

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! ZY interviews, my own observation s and knowledge to highlight best practices and to put forward recommendations for future consideratio n by Gender Links. Table 7 below pro vides a summary of the methods used for this research. Table 7 : Research Methods Methods Who Number Where Analysis in the c/c Framework 1. Focus Groups Participants (women) 32 Midvaal & Emfuleni Councils Participants 2. Interviews a) One on one b) One on one c) Phone Interviews GFPs Trainer GFPs 1 1 4 Emfuleni Council Gender Links Polokwane, Blouberg, George, Cape Aghulus Councils Training Councils 3. Participant Observation Participants, Trainers & GFPs Midvaal & Emfuleni Councils Participants, Content, Councils &Training 4. Secondary data analysis Publications M&E Tools 3 3 University of Florida & Gender Links Offices M&E Tools i) Focus Groups Initially a combination of focus group discussions and one on one interview questions had been designed for collecting information on participants' perceptions of the training and their learning outcomes. However, due to delays in commencement of the training, time was extremely limited and focus groups were ultimately chosen as the most time sensitive and effective means to collect this data.

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! W[ Design Focus group questions were prepared before heading to the field but wer e later revised to better capture additional information. They consisted of a total 35 structured interview questions broken down into five main sections: Digital Literacy Content ( GBV Entrepreneurship ) Trainers Support Structures Administrative General Issues Implementation Focus groups were conducted in council offices in Emfuleni and Midvaal municipalities. Pre t esting of questions was done with four participants in Emfuleni council and questions were modified based on feedback obtained. All the 36 women taking part in the training from both councils were invited to be part of the focus groups In the end 32 of them participated. The participants were further divided in t o groups of five each consisting of a maximum of between five and s even participants This was to ensure that everyone had an opportunity to contribute to the discussion. In Midvaal municipality a total of 19 women participated. They were randomly divided into three focus groups of seven, six and five women per group. In Emfuleni council, 13 women participated and were randomly divided into groups of seven and six women each. The f ocus group sessions were conducted once the participants were done with the six days training workshops They each took about 45 minutes and were conducted over a span of four days. I facilitated the discussions with the participants during the process as I did not have

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! W" anyone to assist. Sessions were not tape recorded due to consent issues. However, detailed notes were recorded. Analysis of Focus Group Data At the end of each day notes taken were reviewed and answers recorded in short form in predesigned interview sheets. Key words and concepts were later coded from these notes. ii) Interviews Interviews were conducted with GFPs and the workshop trainer. Interviews with the trainer were conducted to collect specific information about the training contents and model. A combination of one on one interviews and phone interviews was used for this research. Phone Interview Design The phone interviews were designed to provide insights about Gender Focal Person's (GFPs ) assessment of the training as well as their recommendations on how the project could be improv ed upon Since GFPs are the main council representatives for the training and the women come from their physical jurisdictions, their input on the program was of critical importance. Phone interviews were chosen as a cost cutting and time saving measure given the vast physical distance between the researcher and councils and as well as among councils themselves. A casual interview approach was used and was guided by a flexible interview plan containing a list of key topics tied to the research objective s The questions focused mainly on the issue of support structures and program sustainability The y covered five key areas:

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! W# o Understanding GFPs general thoughts on the entrepreneurship training o Understanding GFPs continued contact with participants from the pilot phase of the training o Understanding h ow many of pilot phase participants had transitioned into entrepreneurship after the training o Understanding w he ther councils had receive d follow up and/or support from Gender Links post training o Conceptualizing what issue needed most attention in the future Phone Interviews Implementation Phone interviews were conducted with four GFPs representing councils that had participated in the pilot phase training. Two GFPs were selected from both Limpopo and Western Cape provinces. Selection was based on availability and on past performance as ranked by Gender Links. Both high performing and low performing councils were selected. From Limpopo P rovince, phone interviews were conducted with GFPs from Blouberg and Polokwane municipalities. In Western Cape, tele phone interview s were conducted with GFPs from Cape Aghulus and George municipalities. Telephone c alls were made during normal working hours between 9am to 5pm. Since the interview format was flexible, the duration was dependent on how much information the GFP was willing to share. Once key questions had been asked, the GFP was free to steer the conversation in any direction they wished based on their own experience with the training. One on One Interviews O ne on one interviews were conducted with GFPs in Emfuleni and Midvaal councils in Gauteng province during the second phase of the training

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! WV In Emfuleni, a semi structured interview was conducted with the current GFP while in Midvaal a brief face to face informal interview was conducted with the former GFP who had since transitioned out of the role and had handed over to a new GFP. Questions asked were centered around: o Perception and assessment of training o Support structure for parti cipants from the pilot phase o GFP s involvement and contribution to the training o Follow up and support GFPs had received from Gender Links o Recommendations GFPs would make for futur e consideration o Informal Interviews with Trainer A lot of time was spent with the trainer traveling back and forth from the training venues and within Gender Links' offices. During this time, she answered informal interview questions pertaining to the training H er input was crucial in understanding the different elements of the training since she was charged with many of the project responsibilities including: content creation, designing training manuals, conducting training and collecting part of the M&E data. Her contributions thus informed a large pa rt of this research. Analysis of All Interviews For the phone interviews, all answers were recorded in detailed notes. Key words and concepts were noted a t the end of the interview a nd used in the data analysis. For the one on one interviews with GFPs in Gauteng Province, notes were taken during the interview and key concepts noted and used to build upon the research. For informal interviews with the trainer, notes were recorded and used in the data analysis

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! WZ iii) Participant Observation I conducted p artici pant observation during the training sessions for a total of six days. This method was us eful in assessin g participant trainer interaction the trainer's facilitation skills and participant's interaction with course content. During these sessions, I occasionally engaged in some of the activities and interacted with the participants to create rapport which was necessary for successful focus group discussions. Participants' r e action s, questions, difficulties and overall engagement were captured through notes iv) Secondary Data Analysis I n depth research was done once in field for a period of about one and a half months. Th e process involved analyzing booklets and pamphlets published by Gender Links as well as anal yzing M&E data collected from the pilot phase both for the region al and the South African program s Since this research was focused on monitoring how recommendations from the pilot phase were being incorporated into the second phase, a cl ear assessment of M&E tools and processes employed by Gender Links was crucial Secondary data review instilled a deeper understanding of the project. M&E tools used by Gender Links are discussed below. a) Review of Publications i) Taking Charge: Life Skills manual by Gender Links

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! WW This booklet covers training on sex and gender roles, GBV and manifestations of abuse, relationships between GBV and economic empowerment as well as topics on self confidence and personal agency ii ) Taking Charge: Applied Entrepreneurship Skills manual (1 &2) by Gender Links These manuals cover the entrepreneurship aspects of the training and include topics such as understanding entrepreneurship, venture creation, marketing and selling, start up fin ance, customer service, record keeping and stock control. iii )Empowering Women, Ending Violence: Review of the South African Project & Regional Project These are booklets prepared by Gender Links, which evaluate the project, its objectives, outcomes, challenges and propose future recommendations based on the pilot phase findings The South African book was especially important, as the recommendations made during the pilot project formed the basis for assessment o f the implementation of the second phase for this research. Secondary literature review also involved an in depth analysis of the M&E tools employed to measure various project outcomes such as increase in the number of businesses, entrepreneurial flair, pe rsonal agency and relationship control. This was necessary to gauge how these tools were being employed as well as whether were the most efficient and effective for measuring such changes. The M&E officer at Gender Links assisted in helping to make sense o f the tools. b ) Review of In House M&E Tools Gender Empowerment Index (GEI) These are quantitative questionnaires administered before and after the training to measure changes in participants' circumstances. They measure progress in areas such as income, personal

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! W\ relationships, business flair and gender awareness and are directly related to the program's outcomes. Demographic data about participants taking part in the second phase of the training and collected through the GEI forms, was used for this research. This saved time since it was not necessary to collect this information again. I Stories These are first hand accounts of participants' personal experiences with GBV. They also form the qualitat ive analysis of change in the program. They are administered before and after the program to measure change in awareness of GBV. An example of an I story is the case study ( see p. included in this paper. Gender Progress Score (GPS) These are questionnaires administered before and after the training and measure changes in gender a ttitudes at the wider level of the council and community. Epi info This is a quantitative analysis tool used to analyze and synthesize data collected from the project. Concerns over Quality of Information Time was a major challenge for this study as the actual training kicked off a few weeks before my time in the field was up due to various logistical delays at Gender Links. Due to the fact that d ata for this research w as collected at a very early stage in the training program. It might not cover changing perceptions among the participants and GFPs nor assess pro ject adjustme nts made by Gender Links during the rest of the training.

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! WL As mentioned previously, time constraints did not allow for one on one interviews with the participants as was planned. Data collected from focus groups might not be the most effective in capturing individual perceptions and opinions about the training from the participants. In as much as an open environment was created for the focus groups, those with different op inions might not have been able to share them as they would in a one to one interview setting It has been noted that measuring learning outcomes within a group setting is difficult as some may echo' answers given by others. 53 Phone interviews were used with some GFPs from the pilot phase due to the physical distance and costs associated with travelling to these councils. While the GFPs were forthcoming with information, a lot more data that could have been obtained through the intimacy of one on one conv ersations might have been left out therefore limiting the scope of information obtained The study sample was also smaller than had been planned for. Only two of the four planned councils participated in the training by the time of my departure from the field. Th erefore, data collected may not be sufficient to make generalized statements about the kind of information in other councils with a separate set of participants would have produced. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 53 Ellsberg M & Heise L. (2005) Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists http://www.path.org/publications/detail.php?i=1524

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! WX !"#$%&&& % Results i) Participants Objective 1 : Assess Participant Selection Criteria, their Needs and Commitment to the Training Data about participants was collected through focus group discussions and from some of the demographic information they had provided through the GEI forms. a) Demographics Age: For the second phase of the training, Gender Links recruited women who were younger than those in the pilot t o be part of the works hops. In the pilot phase project, participants were aged 28 years and above, with no upper cap limit. 72% of the partici pants were over 40 years of age and 24% were over 60 years. In comparison, for the second phase, 58% of participants were between 18 and 25 years and 36% were between 25 40 years. Only two women were aged 41 years and above. The justification behind sele cting women younger women in phase two, was because young women were viewed as an ideal target group who could be taught about GBV early in their lives and were thus capable of recognizing and preventing personal violence in their lives in the future. Fig ure 9 below shows age differences between participants from the pilot phase and those in the second phase.

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! WY Fig 9 : Age Differences Among Participants between P ilot phase and Second Phase Education Level was the second selection criterion set by Gender Links for participant selection A high school education was preferred as a means to prevent literacy and language barriers experienced in the pilot phase training. In the pilot phase, 16% of the participan ts had primary education, 57% had secondary school education and 11% had some form of tertiary education. In the second phase, 83% had a secondary school education while 16% had tertiary education. However, secondary education does not mean that all the p articipants had graduated, they attended high school but may not have graduated. Figure 10 below compares education levels (%) between participants in the pilot and second phases of the training. [! #L! #Y! "Y! WX! V\! \! [! [! "[! #[! V[! Z[! W[! \[! L[! "X]#W! #\]Z[! Z"]W[! W"]\[! ;/2`?*
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! \[ Fig 10 : Participants Education Levels Comparison P ilot phase and Second Phase (%) Survivors of GBV: the women selected for participation in the second phase had to be survivors of GBV, meaning they had experienced personal violence in one form or another. My findings show that this prerequisite was not always followed which is one of the weaknesses of this project as discussed later In Midvaal Municipality, none of the women invited for the training had been briefed on what the training was about prior to attending. GFP's explanation for this was th at previous attempts to recruit participants by using the term GBV had failed, possibly because of the stigma associated with violence The GFP had opted to invite women to the training then proceeded to brief them on nature of the training and finally giv en them the option to choose if they wanted to continue with training In the GEI forms and I' Stories collected some of the women indicated that they were not GBV survivors despite this being a required criterion. It should be noted however, that before the training some participants did not fully grasp the concept of GBV or its different manifestations. "\! WL! "Y! [! XV! "\! [! "[! #[! V[! Z[! W[! \[! L[! X[! Y[! ;2*>/25! F,?&0)/25! c&?/`&0/(dI,2`/25! ;/2`?*
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! \" Their answers on whether they had experienced violence in their lives changed once they had gone through the first phase of training and the concepts be came clearer. In Emfuleni municipality most of the women were well aware in advance what the training entailed, and some identified as GBV survivors. They also expressed high levels of interest in learning about GBV. b ) Occupation and Needs Data in this section and in the next one was collected by tabulating individual responses from the focus group discussions The intention was to acquire a sense of how many of the participants were already entrepreneurs and what their general entrepreneuri al interests were. Currently own Business: From the focus group discussions, 7 out of 32 women owned businesses. Two owned hairdressing businesses, one owned a beauty supplies business while four owned catering businesses. Interest in Business: 25 out of the 32 focus group participants noted an interest in entrepreneurship. The rest were either unsure or indicated an interest in securing employment. Some of the potential future entrepreneurial interests expressed by the participants include: hair & beauty clothing, catering, property management, financial services, farming crafts, running internet cafÂŽ and car dealerships. Table 8 below shows these findings

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! \# Table 8 : Participants Entrepreneurship Flair Currently Own Business Type of Business Owned Indication of Interest in Business Business Interests Midvaal (N= 19) 4 Hairdressing (2) Catering (2) 12 Catering, Real Estate Clothing, Hair & beauty Financial services Emfuleni (N=13) 3 Catering (2) Beauty (1) 13 Catering Hair & Beauty Farming Crafts Other Services Total ( N=32 ) 7 25 iii ) Digital Literacy This information was collected through focus groups and sought to find out the participants access and use of the internet and their IT Knowledge. Access to Computer or Smartphone: From the focus group discussions 15.6% of the participants owned computers while another 56.2% had access through friends, families or cyber cafes. 87.5% of the participants owned a smartphone with internet access. Internet Access: 75% participants indicated that they use d the internet. Of these 29% use d it daily, 29% use d it at least three times a week, 21% use d it once a week while the rest us ed it once a month or less than that. Frequently used online platforms: When surfing the internet, the most visited sites were social media platforms. WhatsApp was the most commonly used followed by Facebook. Twitter and Instagram were also mentioned by a few participants. WhatsApp is special in that, besides being

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! \V used for s ocial interactions with friends, a quarter of the participants noted that they used it for marketing purposes for their businesses. Google was also used frequently by at least half of the participants who had access to the internet. It was mostly used to conduct business personal research and general information seeking. Online and mobile phone b anking and financial services were underutilized as only one participant mentioned using them. This indicates a great area of need as entrepreneurship training en tails learning how to save money through banks. Figure 1 1 below shows participants digital access. Fig 1 1 : Participants Self Report ed Digital Access iv ) Participant Commitment to Training Through focus group discussions, many of the participants indicated that the training was a top priority for them. Attendance for training was high and the women were always punctual. Many of the women indicated interest in the Skills Education Training Au thority (SETA) accredited 12% 13% 14% [! W! "[! "W! #[! #W! V[! UF_!$7I_H7_I!! 6KK_FF!Ie!F:6HI;Qe7_! 6KK_FF!Ie!Ke:;UI_H! 5.6.789%"::)00%";<*6%!8,=:.>8*70%% 7&3!&9!E&>,0!J7fV#M!

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! \Z training provided by the South African government, which Gender Links was thinking of incorporating into the training. Such a ccredited training was seen by the participants as a means to acquire tertiary education thus improv ing their skills and employability To assess commitment and how much say the women had in taking part in the training, I asked the participants if they would stop participating in the training for any reason M ost indicated that they would continue to participate in the training even without the support of their families and friends. Some of the noted that the life skills training had given them the confidence to see themselves as agents of change in their own lives and as such pursuing this training wo uld improve their overall well being. ii ) Content Objective 2: Assess Training Model, Contents and Immediate Learning Outcomes T his se ction assessed whether participants could replicate the key concepts that were covered in the life skills component of the training These included topics such as: gender and sex, gender roles in society, forms of GBV, relationship between GBV and income inequalit ies self esteem and building personal agency. Some key focus groups questions included: What important co ncepts have you learn ed about Gender and GBV? What did you learn that you were previously unaware of? What are some concepts that were not clear or difficult to understand? From my findings, t erms such as : sexual abuse, financial dependence, physical abuse, roles of women and men, domestic violence, differences between sex and gender were highly repeated in all the focus groups indicating a high absorption of content. Financial abuse was mentioned

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! \W repeatedly by many of the participants as a concept that they were previously unaware of. This is especially important as it sets the base for entrepreneurship training for this particular project. Learning to differentiate between sex and gender w as ano ther indicated outcome for the participants. Related to this, participants mentioned new knowledge in areas of: sexual identification, gender conformity, patriarchy and gender mainstreaming. They further stated that they could now identify different forms of abuse if they witnessed them and could relate past subjective experiences with abuse, in a way they had not done previously The word crowd in Fig ure 1 2 below shows the frequency of key responses ob tained from the participants on what they had learned from the training. Fig 1 2: Frequency Word Crowd Generated from Participants' Responses When asked how they would address instances of GBV if they were to happen to them or to the people around them, participants mentioned steps such as confronting abusive partners in personal contexts, talking to both parties involved in the conflict helping victims seek shelter or the assistance of a social worker, sharing experiences with close friends, seeking police assistance and obt aining protection orders.

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! \\ On the future implications the training would have on the m, participants noted that emotional abuse was prevalent in many of their lives and they were now aware of it and would work towards addressing it This was to be done thr ough discussions with their famil ies and spouses. They also mention ed physical abuse as a problem that needed attention. Some indicated that they would take time to sensitize themselves further o n GBV issues around them, spread awareness and support organi zations that work on the problem On a personal agency level, participants indicated that they were on a journey to improve their self esteem, self worth and self confidence. Engaging with other women in the training had made them realize that they were n ot alone in their personal struggles. Additionally, o ther participants indicated that they would go back to school to complete their studies and would stop seeing themselves as incapable of high achievement. On the question on what challenges participants had experienced related to training content, some answers included: difficulties in understanding gender as a concept ; understanding the relationship between GBV and equality ; and understanding the idea of patriarchy. Such answers were the exception however, as they were only mentioned by a few of the participants. Training Activities Enjoyed Most F ocus group participants were asked which activities they had enjoyed the most as part of the training. Many mentioned group activities in class including small group discussions and shared exercises. These were viewed as an opportunity to share ideas, engage and learn from others. One of the most mentioned activity was a group exercise that focused on discussing self esteem, self worth and self confidence from a personal point of view. The other was The tree of life' exercise, where participants were asked to share experiences about their backgrounds, current

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! \L situat ion and their desires or hopes for the future. Participants stated that these activities had made them reflect on their own lives in a way they had not done before. Additional ly the incorporation of case studies as learning tool s was noted as an enrichin g practice. Participants further indicated that meeting other women who had similar experiences as theirs was an important aspect of the training. Assessing Participant Trainer Engagement This section focused on participants assessment of the trainer and the language of instruction. Focus group participants were asked questions on whether they felt comfortable with the trainer's approach in delivering content. They were further asked whether they felt comfortable approaching the trainer to seek clarification on concepts that were not clear to them. In all focus groups, participants indicated that they had a good relationship with the trainer and felt she was easily approachable. Most noted that they would be comfortable seekin g help from the trainer outside of class hours. They also noted that she ( trainer) had effectively covered and explained the different terms and concepts contained in the training manuals. This was also observed during my time at the workshop sessions given the high participant and trainer interaction. However, a few women did indicate that they had a difficult time understanding the trainer's accent and that she spoke too fast sometimes for their comprehension On whether participants were comfortable with the use of English as the language of instruction, most noted that they had no issues and clearly understood everything. Participants in one focus

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! \X group did note however that, in as much as English was well understood, they would prefer to be taught i n their local languages, as it was hard expressing themselves in English. Perception and assessment of training by GFPs From the interview data with GFPs they seemed to agree that the entrepreneurship training was a promising idea and something that c ould benefit the women from their councils. However, many were concerned about issues related to follow up, mentorship, council support, quality of the content and other external factors that would hinder participants' ability to pursue entrepreneurship. O n the quality of the training, GFPs raised concerns over a few issues. One GFP mentioned that the training was too short and too basic, thus inadequate in equipping participant s with actual skills required to run businesses. A different GFP noted that the program had no practical element to it and participants needed to acquire actual experiences on what they had learned in class In George municipality for example the former GFP noted that the council had invited p ilot phase training participants to desi gn a business plan for an internal council project. Only two or three women could come up with something close to a business plan Many others were unable to draft a basic plan His recommendation was that there needs to be a sort of evaluation mechanism t o assess learning outcomes among participants. Related to the above, GFPs also mentioned the need to provide accredited training to the participants. This would involve evaluating learning outcomes through exams and other kinds of testing. This was recomme nded as a means to motivate the participants but also as a means to assess learning outcomes. One GFP noted that providing advanced accredited training would

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! \Y also nudge some participants to complete their high school education (a formal pre requisite) before they could pursue the training. In the end, this would be beneficial to them. Tailoring the program to meet the different educational levels and learning capabilities of the learner was also mentioned as something that should be considered. One GFP from a rural council noted that lack of literacy was a huge challenge for participants in her council and this was not addressed in the training. The issue of mentorship was also brought up among all GFPs. On the question of whether councils were in touch with and supported (mentored) participants from the pilot phase Emfuleni, Midvaal, Polokwane, Blouberg and Cape Aghulus GFPs noted that they did maintain contact with some of the participants, some of who had transitioned into entrepreneurship. However, exact numbers were not provided. In Emfuleni municipality for example, the GFP maintained a WhatsApp database where she kept in touch with participants and kept tabs on their economic engagements In Cape Aghulus, the GFP indicated the existence of a data base with previous participants' details but mentioned little to no communication with them. In George council, the GFP who had now been transferred to a different department noted that in the immediate period after completion of the training, he was in to uch with the participants. However, with time this relationship slowly fizzled away and with his transfer the support structure for the program had collapsed. He indicated the need for a support structure to keep the project going beyond the training peri od. GFPs recommended that a mentorship program be put in place for the participants. This would expand participants' knowledge beyond what the training had provided. Such a program would focus on issues such as securing business capital, managing finances, networking and linking

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! L[ participants to relevant opportunities. Having e stablished entrepreneurs attend workshops and share their expertise with the women was seen as s a great co learning opportunity. One GFP suggested that previous participants should ha ve regular get together workshops with each other where they would share and learn from one another on their entrepreneurial journeys thus far. iii ) Council Selection, Follow Up, Mentorship & Council Support Objective 3: Assess Council Selection, Council Support and Project Sustainability One of the major recommendations made by Gender Links based on the pilot phase M&E process was to hone council selection to include those that showed high levels of commitment to the program. Gender Links wanted to work with councils that had adequate resources and capacity to provide support for the women not just during the training but also at the end of the training and in the future. Information from this section was collected through phone interviews with four GFPs who had participated in the pilot phase training and from one on one interviews with two GFPs who had participated in both the pilot and second phases of the training. For the second phase of the training, four councils were selected for the proj ect in Gauteng Province. This was a reduction from the initial 11 councils that took part in the pilot. The cutback was a way to fine tune the model and quality of training before scaling to other provinces. Gender Links conducted potential assessment for councils in 2016. Four municipality councils were selected for this second phase including: Emfuleni and Midvaal (both of which were part of the pilot phase) as well as Mogale City and Lesedi (both new to the training). However, by the

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! L" time of leaving the field, the last two councils were yet to commence with the training and could therefore not be included in this research. Findings from the pilot phase indicate that Emfuleni and Midvaal councils had some of the most highly committed GFPs. These councils were certified Centers of Excellence (COEs), meaning that gender mainstreaming was central to their work. Furthermore, the councils had budget allocations set aside to support gender activities and offered to provide in kind support for the training inclu ding training venue, audio visual equipment and organiz ing catering services. I analyzed GFPs commitment based on their level of contact and interaction with participants during the second phase. Through one on one interviews with the two GFPs from Emfuleni and Midvaal, I established that they were still in contact with some of the participants from the pilot phase but with varied levels of success. They were aware of the whereabouts of the previous participants and what kind of economic activities the latter were engaged in even if the support the offered was minimal. In Emfuleni, t he GFP maintained a business WhatsApp group and held regular meet ups with participants from the pilot phase. The GFP in Midvaal had handed over her position to a new GFP during the second phase of the training. My observations of the training found a high level of involvement and commitment to the training by the new GFP. I noted that both GFPs from these Emfuleni and Midvaal councils attended all training sessions and actively engaged with the content, facilitator and participants. Support from Gender Li nks On the question of whether councils had received support from Gender Links post training, most indicated minimal to no suppor t. This m ade it hard for them to sustain any meaningful activities with the participants post training. Some noted that even within the course of the pilot t iming between various stages of the training would take too long that participants would be

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! L# demotivated to return for other workshops GFPs thus suggested that Gender Links find a way to keep activities and engagement going between subsequent stages of the training and post training. GFPs further noted that the entrepreneurship training need ed to be formalized with in the councils operational structures By doing so, the project would be recognized formally i n councils' agenda and w as therefore likely to receive increased support from top management This would promote long term sustainability of the project even when GFPs had to leave the program for whatever reason. iv ) Monitoring and Evaluation Objective 4: Assess Monitoring & Evaluation Processes, Tools and their Suitability for the Project Monitoring and Evaluation tools employed for this study have been discussed in detail in the methods section. Since these tools informed the biggest part of this research, a lo t of time was dedicated to trying to understand how questionnaires like the Gender Empowerment Index (GEI) and personal essays like the I' stories were administered and how they were analyzed. What stood out in the administration of these tools was not necessarily how they were designed but how they were administered. The GEI for example was filled within the first hour of the trainer meeting the participants on day one of the training. The GEI contains questions that asks the participants to fill out pe rsonal information such as their current financial situation their income, savings and debts. It further asks the participants to check boxes highlighting their experiences with personal violence and relationship with their significant others. The I' St ories require women to write detailed essays about their personal experiences with GBV.

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! LV Many of participants indicated their discomfort in disclosing this kind of personal information to people they deemed as strangers (the trainer and other participants). Some of the sections were left blank on the GEI and some women opted not to write any I' stories. The biggest challenges with this is that the two instruments the GEI and I'stories constitute an integral part of b aseline data against which final project outcomes are assessed. For examples they indicate whether the women's experiences with GBV have declined or whether have their incomes improved. Consequently, b lank incomplete and inaccurate information o n forms po ses the risk of distorting baseline data against which final results are evaluated. A different yet crucial concern was the fact that all information collected by Gender Links in the post pilot phase evaluation was self reported by the participants. Gende r Links do es not indicate whether they verified changes indicated by participants such as new businesses, changes in income and so. This then raises the question of how valid and reliable self reported data is or whether it can be relied upon to measure ch ange. Discussion I.,!)*8?'88*&08!A,(&%!/2,!A/8,)!&0!-.,!9*0)*0=8!2,<&2-,)!*0!-.,!<2,B*&'8!8,?-*&03 i) Participant Selection Criteria Participants in the second phase were younger and had access to higher levels of education compared to those in the pilot phase The rationale behind this selection process was that working with younger women would be important in addressing GBV in its early stages and such women could be the needed agents of change in their societies. Once the women were

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! LZ familiar with concepts related to GBV and their attitudes begun to change, they were capable of stopping GBV before it happen ed In terms of education, women who possessed a minimum high school certificate would facilitate easier engagement with the training content, w ithout having to worry about literacy issues as was the case in the pilot phase. Standardizing the education requirement also helped overcome language barriers experienced in the pilot phase, as all the participants in the second phase possessed good worki ng fluency in English. This language requirement is especially important as the training seeks to move towards formal accredited training administered in English. That said, I did note that not all women had completed their high school education, language and literacy barriers were present among some of the participants. In two of the focus groups some women indicated a preference to hav ing discussions facilitated in their na tive languages. As highlighted in the results section, the requirement that participants be victims of GBV was not necessarily followed in all instances. This raises questions on whether councils should be tasked with identifying and recruiting participant s single handed or whether this should be a more collaborative process done in conjunction with Gender Links through rigorous interview processes. It also raises questions on how women with no personal GBV experiences affect the objectives of the program given that it seeks to document more strongly, the relationship between gender violence and women's economic empowerment. The question is how including women who are not necessarily GBV survivors affects baseline data, outcomes and ultimately knowledge on how interventions targeting GBV and economic empowerment work. This it seems should be a core component of the program design which was highly overlooked.

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! LW A different question that arises is on the heterogeneity of the participants. From the selected parti cipants in the two councils assessed here, I noted that there were no women with disabilities taking part in the training for example Not factoring in disability excludes many such women who are GBV survivors and in need of similar training Additionally, g iven the participant selection methods explained by GFPs as discussed in the results section, it was clear that inclusion of other minority groups such as LGBTQIA persons was not followed through. The exclusion of vulnerable populations of women exacerbates already existing inequalities. Another concern is the age of the participants during the second phase of the training. Most of them were in their prime working year and employment may be an easier option that entrepreneurship. In the focus groups discussions, a number of participants indicated that they were interested in gaining employment more than they were in becoming entrepreneurs. Notably, y ounger people tend t o be less socially constrained and are often mobile in search of employment. This raise concerns given that Gender Links was considering a move to accredited training which runs up to a year and demands longer commitment from participants The question th en becomes h ow can Gender Links enhance participant retention through the entire duration of the training? Given the fact that it is difficult to anticipate or even implement this, perhaps the process of participant selection should be more rigorous in ide ntifying women whose main motivation is entrepreneurship. However, this runs the possibility of locking out women who may not been keen on entrepreneurship but who are survivors of GBV. Therefore, careful selection criteria balancing these needs must be es tablished. ii) Training Model & Content

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! L\ In assessing the training content, one can approach it from two perspectives: the first, is delivery and how this influences learning outcomes The second is model quality and its effectiveness Both factors are discussed next respectively. It is important to begin by highlighting that overall the level of engagement among participants was high and this was achieved through the use of participatory group activities. Small group activities were a great tool to use as they boosted engagement and interaction Participants were curious and sought clarification on concepts that were not clear. Moreover, t he trainer mixed up the participants frequently to ensure that there was no dominance by one group and to promote overall participation. Focus group discussions showed high retention of key GBV terms and a good understanding of r elated concepts. Participants further showed an interest in combating GBV not just in their own lives but in their communities. Given such high levels of interaction and learning one can conclude that the trainer and the training itself were successful i n equipping the participants with knowledge on gender socialization, gender roles and GBV. This was one of the strongest components of the training which highlights the importance of having such workshops. They were also successful in giving the women an o pportunity to see themselves as agents of change in their lives and those of others, as expressed by participants. Future post project assessments that includes analyzing the delivery of the entrepreneurship component of the training and the learning outc omes will provide deeper insights. This paper has noted that participants had varying levels of education and entrepreneur ial experience How effective was the training in addressing these differences ? During training sessions, I noticed that the women who had completed high school or had a tertiary education were more vocal and active in the workshops. They were the first to engage with the content,

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! LL with the trainer and likely to volunteer themselves f or group activities. In contrast, those who were yet to complete their high school education were more likely to be quiet and to engage less in discussion s In terms of business heterogeneity, the participants' level of entrepreneurship varied, creating po tentially different entrepreneurial needs. Here too, those who were already established entrepreneurs were more active during the workshops. These differences matter in how they affect learning outcomes and is a fundamental aspect that the training might h ave overlooked W omen are not a homogeneous group. Participants come from different backgrounds and have different needs, and these should be accounted for. In an evaluation of similar entrepreneurship projects, it is noted that "the client matters when a ssessing what works to promote women's economic empowerment. Few evaluated interventions work for all women across different socioeconomic and age groups." 54 Consequently, this calls for a more intentional approach that recognizes these differences. Additional c oncerns were raised about the overall training model and its capacity to transform business practices. Some of the problems identified with the model have to do with the fact that, aside from the training, women need credit, asset s, technical s upport for the women, sufficient timeframes to get their businesses running or to transform poor business practices and they need mentorship as well. The current Gender Links model does not and cannot provide all these things. It is therefore seen as insuf ficient in creating successful entrepreneurs or ventures. Tied to the above concern is the quality of the training model itself, GFPs felt training was too simplistic and a broader range of interventions was needed to back what was learned in class so as to enhance entrepreneurship skills. It can be said that the effects of providing business training as a standalone incentive remains unclear when it comes to altering the economic situation of the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 54 Mayra Buvinic and Rebecca Furst Nichols. 2014. "Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment: What Works?" The World Bank Research Observer Advance.

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! LX very poor and poor women. A proposed alternative is what is referred to as bundled services', that is, provision of a large (often in kind) ,capital transfer, asset specific training and technical assistance, cash stipend and access to savings, and often health information and life skills coaching." 55 This idea is supported by the OECD in their Gender Equality paper that states, Women need access to the full range of credit, training and business services { and} microfinance to develop strong and viable enterprises." 56 Further on quality, GFP s raised concern with the overall duration of the training (12.5 days total), which they termed as inadequate to impart any meaningful skill. Buvinic and O' Donnel in a review of business training interventions note that, updated evidence since 2013 provi des a more robust explanation of the benefits of standalone business management training and suggests that high quality training of reasonable duration can have positive economic outcomes for poor women entrepreneurs ." 55 Examples of such effective high intensity training s that increased women's earnings and sales have varied from six weeks in Mexico to three months in Peru. The report further states that "training programs must, be high quality (in terms of training materials, trainers, and duration) and address the constraints (time and other costs) that women micro entrepreneurs face to attend and complete the training." These findings might be viewed as congruent with GFPs claims that Gender Links' training duration may be too short to significantly change business practices. GFPs further called for the inclusion of mentors (established entrepreneurs, past program participants etc.) into the training. This was echoed by participants who indicated that they !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 55 Mayra Buvinic and Megan O'Donnell. 2016. "Revisiting What Works: Women, Economic Empowerment and Smart Design" https://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/CGD Roadmap Update 2016.pdf 56 OECD Element 3 Paper 1. Gender equality and women's rights in the post 2015 agenda: A foundation for sustainable development" https://www.oecd.org/dac/gender development/POST 2015%20Gender.pdf

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! LY would like to have mentors included in the training workshops. Katz and Cassar in their analysis of women's economic ventures support this noting t hat, "programs designed to empower w omen through business training or by giving them loans or cash grants may be more successful if they harness peer support as part of the program design, particularly when working with clients from restrictive social backgrounds." 57 Such contact between est ablished peers and new entrepreneurs can ease concerns associated with risk taking in entrepreneurship among the latter group. At the time of leaving the filed, Gender Links was in the process of reviewing the various logistics involved in incorporating a government accredited training to their own program. This accredited training encompasses a more rigorous approach that requires participants to have a high school education, to go through a one year training, to take exams and to participate in the practi cal aspects of the business training. The women get certificates that are national recognized qualifications at the completion of their training. Perhaps such a formal model can help to address some of the issues raised about quality and quantity raised in this section. iii) Council Selection, Project Sustainability and Increased Collaboration This research established that demonstrated commitment by councils is crucial in ensuring sustainability of the training and the kind of support participants get in the future. In both Midvaal and Emfuleni municipalities, the full engagement of GFPs was a good indicator for potential success and su stainability of the project. Through its post pilot phase recommendations, Gender Links outlined working with GFPs and councils that had resources and showed commitment towards sustaining the pro gram long term They considered it the !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 57 Alessandra Cassar and Elizabeth Katz. 2016. "Gender, Behavior, and Wome n's Economic Empowerment." http://www.womeneconroadmap.org/sites/default/files/Gender Behavior Womens Economic Empowerment.pdf

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! X[ mandate and responsibi lity of the councils to ensure continued support of the women and to link them to other opportunities once training was over. On the contrary GFPs indicated the need for increased support and follow up from Gender Links, once training was complete. They noted that without continued support, it was difficult to sustain any meaningful activities between the councils and the participants. The councils thus saw Gender Links as a useful partner in fostering networks that could link participants to credit, networking opportunities and other business specific training. From GFPs' perspective Gender Links was in a position to link councils with other organizations that could further suppor t the women. This speaks to the need for both Gender Links to assess and determine the best way through which the women can be supported and who is to be charged with overseeing this process. I further noted that the relationship between the council and Ge nder Links tended to exist on the level of GFP to Gender Links staff, rather than organization to organization. This can undermine the strength of the project if the basis of the connection is not at the organizational level. One GFP suggested having a Mem orandum of Understanding (MOU) signed between councils and Gender Links as an ideal starting point to improve working relations. It is important to note that Gender Links had such plans in the offing. GFPs further indicated that the councils and their limi ted gender budget allocations could only do so much for the participants during and after the training. Often, municipal council gender budgets were inadequate to support not just this particular training, but other kinds of special' programs undertaken by the councils. To give an example, at the beginning of the second phase of the training in July, the Midvaal Municipality government had already passed their annual budget, given that their fiscal year starts around June. The budget ary allocat ion set aside for

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! X" special programs (under which gender programs fall) had been significantly reduced compared to the previous year according to the GFP. For this reason, councils did not have enough funds to cover participants' travel reimbursements dur ing the entrepreneurship training as they had done before in the pilot phase. Consequently, Gender Links had to step in to cover these costs. To address such challenges in the future, an MOU signed between Gender Links and the councils would help to ensure that project activities are aligned and incorporated into council annual budgets. This would improve project co financing and eliminate the need for Gender Links to stretch their budget thin in covering unanticipated costs. Collaboration in Staffing A major challenge for this project was the lack of adequate staffing capacity to support program activities Having a single trainer was an overwhelming responsibility, given that she had to prepare content, train, carry out administrative functions as well a s collect M&E data. The project requires more training and administrative support to allow the trainer to focus exclusively on training. As Gender Links considers moving towards government accredited training, which will be more demanding and time consumin g more staff will be required to handle these demands. One step that would be beneficial in bridging this gap would be to integrate GFPs as trainers in sections of the project. Given that most GFPs are central to the entire training they can be trained as trainers (ToT) and would thus provide additional support to the main facilitator during workshops. GFPs can also help bridge language barriers where needed since, many of them are attuned with other South African languages outside of English This would be a cost effective measure for Gender Links not to mention that it would enhance councils' sense of ownership in

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! X# the project. For example, engaging GFPs a s trainers can help improve participant selection criteria as they would under stand the rigour required in selecting the right candidates and may even lead to increased interest in maintaining post project support for participants. Therefore, i ncorporating GFPs into the training will be a crucial step in strengthening the relationships between Gender Links, councils and participants. iii) Monitoring Evaluation and Learning ( Processes and Tools ) Str ong monitoring and evaluation processes are an integral component in assessing pro grams such as the Sunrise Campaign P roject impl ementation methods and processes employed in such programs are cr itical in determining whether intended outcomes are achieved. Thus, i nstruments used to collect and analyze data project data and the processes involved must be rigorous, appropriate, verifiable, updated regularly and cost effective. However, this not always the case and according to one study, a huge knowledge gap exists when it comes to collecting data that seeks to understand what works in GBV interventions and Women's Economic Empo werment programs. There is very little evidence on the costs and benefits and even less evidence about the sustainability of interventions ." 58 Many such interventions lack clear M&E processes and thus findings remain inconclusive when it comes to what wor ks when it comes to the intersection between GBV and WEE. Such gaps can be observed even within the South African context where data on long term GBV interventions remains limited Consequently, this calls for projects designed with a specific emphasis on rigorous M&E processes Below were some of the M&E challenges identified by this study. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 58 Mayra Buvini !, Rebecca Furst Nichols And Emily Courey Pryor. "Roadmap For Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment http://www.womeneconroadmap.org/sites/default/files/WEE_Roadmap_Report_Final_1.pdf

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! XV Self Reported Data Most M& E data collected from the participants in this project was self reported including: change in financial status/income, establishment of new business, personal agency, relationship control and change in IT skills. The question that arises with this type of approach is how reliable self reported information ? Baseline questionnaires including the Gender Empowerment Index ( participants i ncome, e ntrepreneurship status g ender a wareness) and I Stories (participants' personal experiences with GBV) were administere d on the first day of training. Given that the women may not have been comfortable sharing true information about themselves on day one, how can the accuracy of what they self reported be ascerta ined either at the beginning or at the end of the training? What are the implications of relying exclusively on self reported data and how does this affect quality of findings presented by Gender Links, more so when it comes to documenting the relationship between GBV and economic empowerment? W ithout a real understanding of the women's actual experiences with GBV, one can question how Gender Links can ensure that they are providing an effective program design that is both aligned to their Theory of Change' and that is actually tailored to participants' actu al need s. Perhaps there is need to rethi nk and redesign how baseline data is collected while being aware of the sensitivity associated with such information and the need to guarantee privacy. In focus group discussions participants noted that they were not comfortable revealing and openly sharing personal information about themselves on the first day. Many indicated that they would have preferred to confide this information with just the train er during t hat first workshop and perhaps with their colleagues once they had grown more comfortable around each other. A

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! XZ solution would be to possibly obtain such information from the participants during the proposed pre selection interview process. Alter natively, participants can be given more time to fill out the questionnaires as they get more comfortable with the proces s to ensure as accurate information as possible. To assess project outcomes among the participants, a follow up phase of the South Afri can program ought to have been undertaken as was done in the other southern African countries where Gender Links had implemented the project. In such follow ups GFPs visited pilot phase participants' businesses to assess new enterprises, expansion of existing businesses and progress noted by participants and GFPs. During this evaluation process, women that were doing extremely well businesswise were selected to showcase their work and network with other participants at a regional conference organized b y Gender Links. They also received further mentorship to grow their businesses In the South African context, Gender Links had failed to secure funds to conduct such a follow up. The implications of this were that Gender Links was unable to actually verify or document the self reported changes by participants of the Sunrise Campaign' in South Africa. Without verified information, it becomes difficult to be conclusive about the project outcomes. This alludes to the need for well planned and costed M&E proce sses to ensure that project impact and effects can be measured. A different yet important consideration when it comes to evaluating project outcomes is defining what might count as empowerment of the participants. As was discussed earlier, participants in the second phase of the training were young and in age group suitable for employment. Given the challenges that are associated with running entrepreneurial ventures, some of these women may opt to get into formal employment. This would be considered a po tential ly positive unintended outcome of the project since the women would still be improving their lives in a

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! XW different way The GFP in Midvaal Municipality for example, noted that this had happened with some of the participants from the pilot phase. Can such outcomes be captured in definitions of empowerment and measured by Gender Links? Measuring Long term Impacts Measuring and reporting project outcomes or impacts is costly and sometimes falls outside a project's time frame, often requiring additional funding. Moreover, they are always pressing donors' time frames within which results from funded projects are expected Such timelines may not allow sufficient time to accurately measure cha nges especially where those changes are not immediate For interventions such as the Sunrise Campaign' targeting both GBV and economic empowerment, short term results are inadequate in reflecting reality. This is supported by The World Health Organization (WHO) who note that evaluations of cultural and social norm interventions aimed at preventing violence should use actual violence as an outcome measure." 59 Measuring violence is difficult and is not something that can be evaluated short terms given the sensitivity of the issues as well as the legal mechanisms that are involved. For Gender Links, evaluating project impact means attributing any anticipated changes in the participant' s lives to the program's specific interventions. But this can be a cumbersome process given the various confounding and external factors. Linking long term changes to the training is !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 59 WHO. Series of briefings on violence prevention Changing cultural and so cial norms that support violence' http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/norms.pdf

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! X\ therefore a difficult process that requires a well designed evaluation framework. This challenge is captured by Gage and Dunn (2009) who note that "in choosing an evaluation design, one is often balancing statistical rigor, timing and cost. More rigorous evaluation designs are costly and may not provide data within a short time frame measuring program impact requires extensive knowledge of sampling, it is recommended that programs hire consultants to help maximize the quality of their evaluations." Z" Going even further, one can evaluate the gaps within the Gender Links models when it comes to how well the whole program is designed to address wider structural issues around violence against women and women's economic marginalization. A good comparative m odel is one by International Center for Researc h on Women ( ICRW ), shown in Fig ure 13 below Measuring women's economic empowerment entails capturing both agency and economic achievements. T he ICRW notes that Agency /power and economic advancement can be measured separately. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are appropriate for measurement, depending on what type of information is needed and feasible to collect. 60 This is show by Fig 13 below where the top section (blue) measures change in terms of power while the bottom part( green) looks at the economic advancement component. In measuring these changes, questions that deal with agency are best be approached through qualitative tools (since they require answers that go beyond yes or no) while those that measure changes in earning or sales can be captured through both quantitative and quantitative means ( Fig 1 3 : ICRW's Framework to Measure Women's Economic Empowerment !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 60 Anne Marie Golla, Anju Malhotra, Priya Nanda, and Rekha Mehra. 2011. Understanding and Measuring Women's Economic Empowerment Definition, Framework and Indicators'. International Center for Research on Women (ICRW).

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! XL Source: International Center for Researc h on Women (ICRW) While it is common for projects to measure outputs and outcomes, long term impacts are harder to measure and often fall outside a project's time frame. For this particular research, focus was based more on monitoring the process and output stages of the training. These are part icularly important as they ultimately affect how the outcomes and impacts of the project are achieved. This research can therefore be useful to Gender Links in evaluating the initial stages of the Sunrise Campaign. This section has illustrated the complexi ties involved when it comes to measuring short term and long term changes around GBV and even WEE. A thought for future consideration is how organizations like Gender Links can reconcile th e need for short term assessment with long term evaluations while putting bo th costs demands and with donor time frames into consideration. iv ) Financial Capacity & Partnerships Financial resources are a crucial for any kind of development project. For the Sunrise Campaign' resources were central to all project activities including recruitment, training, staffing and follow ups. With increased competition for donor funds, organizations like Gender Links

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! XX will be forced to be more adapt ive in employing more creative and cost effective measur es to meet project targets without compromising on the quality of training offered. One way to do so is through p artnerships with other private entities organizations and individuals moving forward. This would be partnerships founded on mutual interests in the areas of GBV and WEE. Additionally, stronger collaborat ive efforts between Gender Links an d councils will be especially important in financing the training. One area that has seen great focus in recent years has been Gender Responsive Budgeting (GR B), referring to the idea of being sensitive to the unique needs of men and women while allocating and spending of public funds In Kenya for example the Kenya National GBV Conference developed its own theme Framework to Action: Devolution and its Opportunities in Addressing GBV to see how both national and county governments can institutionalise gender budgeting to uplift the marginalized and vulnerable. 61 Similar GRB models can also be adopted or strengthened in councils where t hey exist in South Africa This would be to ensure planned allocation of resources for projects like the GBV entrepreneurship training and would also supplement the training resources provided by Gender Links. To incorporate bundled services' into the training that is those that combine business training cash and/or asset transfer and technical support in their efforts to economically empower women, partnerships will be especially for Gender Links. This includes collaboration with financial institutions, organizations working on GBV campaigns, organization working on assets or cash transfer to women and so on. Given that many of the women in the entrepreneurship training are financially underprivileged, combinin g cash or asset transfers with the training would be particularly useful. Some of the things participants noted when asked what they felt were their !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 61 Chimbi, J. 2015. Kenyan Woman Gender responsive budgeting key to fighting GBV' http://kw.awcfs.org/arti cle/gender responsive budgeting key to fighting gbv/

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! XY biggest entrepreneurial needs include: capital, equipment and information services. Joint partnerships wit h organizations that seek to meet these needs will be most beneficial to Gender Links meeting its project objectives in the long run. !"#$%&' % Cross Scale & Cross Disciplinary Issues Fig 1 3 : Interaction of various cross cutting issues in GBV and WEE

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! Y[ Data collection, analysis and recommendations from this research are based on existing works rooted in multidisciplinary and multi sector al approaches towards ending GBV and promoting WEE initiatives. Both G BV and WEE are crosscutting social, public and development issues. Furthermore, GBV is a public health issue and women's economic empowerment has also been linked to women's general physical and psychological well being Studies rooted in social sciences v iew GBV as a societal problem and various social theories have been proposed to understand these dynamics. Gender Links' Theory of Change for example approaches GBV from an individual, famil y and societal level (see F ig 4 ) as these are considered reinforcing components in the prevalence of GBV In mapping GBV indicators for th e Sunrise Campaign, Gender Links employs tools and M&E processes premised on social science approaches, to identify markers of well being including relat ionship control personal agency and financial autonomy One such social science lens through which gendered violence can be understoo d is through studies and interventions grounded in feminist theories. Here GBV is seen an issue that cuts across social, economic and development sectors and that must be addressed at the structural level. For example, transnational feminis t discours e analyses the role colonial systems played in perpetuating GBV The model goes further by appraising the hegemony of western centric approaches in combating GBV in the global south It criticizes how western models continue to dominate and influence GBV interventions ( through the work of development organizations) in countries like South Africa Such western approaches a re often removed from the contextual underpinnings of critical aspects such as culture, in their work. As a result, their overall effectiveness or success in mitigating GBV therefore becomes minimal. Such schools of thought

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! Y" grounded in social theories have been important in acquiring a deeper understanding of GBV related concerns for this research. From a d evelopmental e conomics standpoint, GBV is viewed as an economic problem and thus issues related to income, property ownership and poverty are examined as underlying contributors in the prevalence of gendered violence Additionally, d evelopmental economics often i ncorporate social and political factors to problems and can be employed to understand how gendered violence affects the economic output of women and vice versa. Solutions are then approached from an economic angle as Gender links has partially done through the Sunrise Campaign. Finally, GBV is also a legislative or political problem. Literature review for this p aper focused on understanding the poli cy and legal components in South Africa in terms of how both GBV and WEE are addressed This specifically entailed gaining an understanding of how both political and l egal policies can be designed to address both GBV and improve the economic status of women. Such a process would involve identifying major gaps in the implementation and enforcement of existing political and legal frameworks as well as formulating new policies where necessary. GBV, WEE and Sustainable Dev elopment Goals ( SDGs ) On a broader level as pertains to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Sunrise Campaign' in its work broadly touches of five of the goals shown in Figure 1 4 below. They include gender equality, decent work and economic growth; no poverty; good health and wellbeing; peace, justice and strong institutions The SDG targets are built on the premise that are capable of reinforc ing each other positively if well implemente d As Zhang et al note, "An

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! Y# awareness of the interactions and feedbacks among the SDGs should drive interdisciplinary collaborations and enable development professionals to recognize the power and potential of using their knowledge and skills to implement appropriate solutions that impact more than one SDG at a time (directly and indirectly)." 62 Gender equality is a strong leverage point for many other SDGs and improving gender relations including reducing GBV has the potential to create direct and indirect impacts on the other SDG goals SDG 5 (Gender Equality ): Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 62 Qiong Zhang, Christine Proutya, Julie B.Zimmerman, James R.Mihelcica.2016. More than Target 6.3: A Systems Approach to Rethinking Sustainable Development Goals in a Resource ScarceWorld. Environmenta l Science: Water Research and Technology, Volume 2, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S209580991730084X _71$74!4_71_H! ^6F_1!c$eG_7K_ _Ke7e:$K! _:;eE_H:_7I! eP! Ee:_7 Fig 1 4 : Interaction of SDGs in GBV & WEE Programs FU7H$F_ K6:;6$47! J 4,0),2!G*0+8M

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! YV SDG1: (No Poverty): By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, SDG 8 (Decent work and Economic Growth): By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men SDG 3 (Good Health and well being ): By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes SDG 16 (Peace and Ju stice): Reduce the p roportion of population subjected to physical, psychological or sexual violence in the previous 12 months !"#$%' % % Recommendations Given the strengths and challenges identified and discussed in this paper, there are future opportunities for Gender Links to refine the implementation and operational phases of th e Sunrise Campaign' for improved outcomes Many of the recommendations proposed here are not new to Gender Lin ks as they were generated in house following the evaluation of the pilot phase. However, what this paper does is to build further on these recommendations by offering expanded insights on how they can be adopted and implemented. This paper further identif ies important gaps in the training model that Gender Links have might overlooked. This paper therefore proposes incorporating much of the literature into practice.

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! YZ 1. The first recommendation is that Gender looks should consider pursuing partnerships with other private and public organizations that work on GBV and WEE issues. Such a process would entail partnering up with organizations that provide other beneficial service such as micro finance, cash or asset transfers to women. Focus grou ps responses from the participants revealed that for the women, finances and equipment were what they perceived as the biggest barrier to their entrepreneurship success. If Gender Links can find ways to partner with organizations working in South African t o provide women with services such as credit or assets to for entrepreneurship purposes, then the women might have improved chances of either starting new businesses or expanding their existing businesses. Other potential partnerships can be done with orga nizations working on GBV issues at the community level, those working with men on gender issues and so on. This can go a long way in realizing the broader goals hypothesized in Gender Links Theory of Change' that would be impossible to attain single hande d. 2. T he second recommendation is that p articipant selection processes should be more rigorous emphasizing interest and commitment to entrepreneurship. S election criteria including age, education and experien ces with GBV need to be adhered to if Gender Links seeks to truly explore the relationship between GBV and WEE based on their Theory of Change model Additional ly the selection process should be well designed to ensure that it does not exclude women with disabilities, women with different sexual orientation or gender identities and other minority groups. As Gender Links h ad previously proposed, both measures can be achieved by incorporating a pre selection interview process through which potential participants backgrounds, needs and overall interest in the training can be identified One way that would make it easier and cost effective to achieve this is by adopting GFPs as

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! YW trainers and training them on how to select and interview potential candidat es against a scored checklist of defined qualifying criteria. This checklist would then be handed over t o Ge nder Links for further assessment and finalization. GFPs also ought to be provided with sufficien t time to conduct thorough participant selection. 3. The third recommendation w hen it comes to participant selection is acknowledging that their heterogeneity matters in reaching project outcomes There is need to identify the differences in women's (participants) education al status income and even entrepreneurial level s The danger of clustering participants with diverse backgrounds i n to one entrepreneurship training is that learning outcomes may be impacted based on various learning capabilities influenced by such divergent backgrounds. Th at is to say the rate of learning outcomes may not be similar with some participants falling behind. This challenge calls for a recognition o f participants needs by ensuring that t raining content especially within the entrepreneur ship topics is more participant need based as opposed to a one size fits all approach. Alternatively, G ender Links can select a very specific uniformized demography or category of women f or the training This would be equivalent to standardizing the selection criteria for participants against say education, income and entrepreneurial need s. Such a move would be useful in overcoming the challenge of excessive heterogeneity among participants. Gender Links can also opt to work with a smaller yet heterogenous number of as opposed to the current 20. Fewer number of participants would allow the trainers to concentrate on giving the women individualized attention which may prod uce better outcomes. Closely related to this is the point that, Gender Links should seek to diversify its pool of participants by ensuring that entrepreneurial needs among selected participants are not restricted to the

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! Y\ traditional realm of gendered profe ssions ascribed to women Occupations often deemed unfit for women ( due to t he perceived gendered division of labour ) should be assimilated into the training to cater to different needs among participants This can be done by broadening the scope of business interests among selected participants. 4. The fourth recommendation that this paper focuses on is the quality of the training as was addressed by GFPs through interviews and by Gender Links in their M&E evaluation One aspect that was brought up is duration of the training The current 12 day training was deemed insufficient in in creasing business knowledge or changing business practices significantly among the participants As was noted in th e discussion section similar successful entrepreneurship training projects in Peru and Mexico employed a reasonable time frame ranging from six weeks to three months However, given that there is no universal agreed upon duration for an entrepreneurship training to be successful conducting rigorous participant needs assessment is the only way Gende r Links can determine what would work within the South African context. Once a n appropriate time frame is determined it can then be adjusted as necessary in subsequent training workshops Notable also is that project duration by itself is not enough Entrepreneurship training needs to high quality in terms of content material and the trainers' competencies. This means that t rainers will require up to date knowhow not just in the content but also in skilful faci litat ion. Additionally challenges associated with under staffing when it comes to trainers should be addressed by incorporating GF Ps as part of the training team The training must further accommodate the time constraints that women face which may inhibit their participation in the training. This has been touted as a crucial component of training s that work with women. This will be especially important if the training moves towards longer hours with the accredited training.

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! YL Still on the traini ng, Gender Links should incorporate digital entrepreneurship lessons early in the workshops as participants showed high usage of social media Google and other web platforms. My recommendation is that the digital training be conducted before the entrepreneurship phase of the training. This means that participants learn early on in the program how to use computers and internet resources to search for information including the bu sin ess plans which they are required to draft as part of the training. GBV and Entrepreneurship lessons should be uploaded onto these computers and participants can continuously access and enga ge with learning materials such as cases studies, videos and qu izzes The trainer can also initiate online mentorship sessions by engaging potential mentors o ver platforms like Skype. This can be a cost effective measure for Gender Links when it comes to reducing printing costs associated with manuals and other expens es related to facilitating mentor visits. P articipants indicate d low affinity towards using online banking and financial services By incorporating computers into the full training, Gender Links can train participants on how to access and use online banking systems including online savings access to account statements, online communication with banking officials and how to research the different types of financial packages available to them This approach has high potential given South Africa's dive rsified banking portfolio through online and mobile phone banking. 5. The f ifth recommendation is that Gender Links should reconsider is its model that solely focuses on women and fails to engage their partners This is especially true because there is expectation that the training will change household dynamics ( increase women's relationship control, reduce violence) without involving their spouses and partners. This alludes to a gap in Gender Links' Theory of Change'. Studies have f ound that GBV and WEE interventions

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! YX that also address gender norms and reach out to couples and communities can reduce GBV. This is often done by incorporating men into the training or by running parallel training session with men that focus on issues related to GBV and household economic dynamics. This is because in many households' men are the main decision makers when it comes to women's freedom, agency and wellbeing. The challenge Gender Links faces in trying to work with men i s most participants a re young and may not be married. Trying to incorporate their non married partners into the training can be difficult Therefore, Gender Links needs to rethink how the training can tap into such dynamics that is, how women's empowerment in relation to reduc tion in GBV a s well as improvement in economic wellbeing is conceptualized and measured at both the household and non household level. 6. The sixth recommendation has to do with council relations and sustainability of the project. Gender Links should see k to strengthen the role of councils, more so that of GFPs and their co ntribution to the project. GFPs involvement remains cent ral to this project and having them assimilated as part time trainers by familiarizing them with trai ning contents prior to commen cement of project is crucial, as it promotes a sense of buy in, greater ownership and continuity for the program. Gender Links should also seek to align training activities with councils own annual operational calendars, so that the training is not viewed as a one off event but as a continuing effort to address GBV and WEE. Given that Gender Links works with these councils in their gender mainstreaming projects, more effort should be directed towards linking the Sunrise Campaign' with other COE activities. As GFPs proposed, having an MOU signed between Gender Links and councils would go a long way in facilitating such an outcome. Th e anticipated effects of this would be increased Gender

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! YY Responsive Budgeting (GBR) by the councils such that th ey can provide consistent and additional financial support for the project. It would also provide an avenue to clearly define the responsibilities or obligation s expected of both the Gender Links and the councils. Strengthening this relationship can further s trengthen Gender Links' vision of councils tak ing over the responsibility of supporting the women in accessing other opportunities at the end of the training. 7. Finally, internal M&E processes should be improved upon including collection and reporting of data that is verifiable Baseline studies need to be thorough with the information they gather through the GEIs, GPSs and the I stories Gender Links can do this by adopting pre workshop i nterviews with each participant where they would foster an environment that allows the women to provide truthful information about themselves while offering them the privacy needed to do so. Post project data collection shou ld be equally rigorous espec ially when it comes to validating the changes self reported by participants. In that sense, follow ups and actual business inspectio ns needs to be adopted to assess any changes indicated by the participants in areas such as open ing of new business ventures, increase in business assets, growth of business and changes in income. Other measurements that have to do with changes in GBV including changes in relationship, agency and attitudes towards gender issues could also benefit fro m more detailed qualitati ve data collection techniques. For example Gender Links can incorporate home visits to assess how participants are faring in terms of non violent relationships and financial wellbeing Follow up and mentorship processes as were conducted in the other SADC countries where the project was implemented will be crucial in assessing long term project effects in South Africa. Fail ure to conduct such long term impact assessments will hinder the process of gaining an

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! "[[ understanding of int erventions related to GBV and WEE work As a learning organization, Gender Links should strengthen their MEAL processes through emplo yment of external project evaluations for thorough project assessments Addressing the challenges described above, increases the possibilities of Gender Links meet ing their project objectives which are to contribute to overal l physical, psychological and economic well being of women This project when combined with the COEs local government gender main streaming activities can act as a catalyst for improving gender attitudes and practices within South Africa. Conclusion Through its 'Sunrise campaign' Gender Links is integrating three core interconnected dimensions of combating GBV: the political level t hrough work with local government, the social aspect by examining societal gender norms and the economic aspects by seeking to empower wome n with entrepreneurial skills GBV approach es t hat embed local dynamics into their operations have been supported by the work of scholars and organizations working to end VAW. CARE International note that local ownership of this change process {combating GBV} is critical. Because the issues are so deeply embedded in social and cultural traditions, the most effective programs are those most closely attuned to local context and where local leaders and activists are supported to lead the process of change." 63 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 63 Challenging Gender Based Violence Worldwide (CARE's Program Evidence): Strategies, Results and Impacts of Evaluations 2011 2013. https://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/Challenging GBV Worldwide CARE_s program evidence.pdf

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! "[" This research found some strengths in Gender Links implementation of the second phase of the training. These inclu de: high levels of engagement with the training as displayed by c ouncils through their GFPs and a n expressed desire to support participants after the training was completed GFPs in selected councils noted that some of the participants from the pilot phase had successfully transitioned into entrepreneurship based on the knowledge and skills they had acquired through the training. This reflects the impact and potential of the program. In the second phase of the project participants through focus groups disc ussions displayed high learning outcomes when it c ame to GBV awareness They further indicated commitment towards gaining a more comprehensive understanding of issues related to GBV such as how they c ould be the voices of change to end violence in their communities. This reflects one of the strength s of Sunrise campaign' in that by Gender Links has been successful in making participants conversant with issues around gendered violence in South Africa. T his research further identified key areas where Gender Links had instituted some of the recommendations they had proposed from the pilot phase evaluation including working with younger women refining council selection and updating training manuals. However, other areas such as participant mentorship, trainer sup port, council relations and M&E processes need further strengthening if Gender Links is to successfully meet its project objectives. T his project has shown great potential in combat ing GBV and improving women' s economic outcomes. With even greater refinement of the implementation processe s t he Sunrise Campaign' has better prospective of attaining its objectives in South Africa

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! "[# To conclude, t he Irish Consortiu m on Gender Based Violence notes that GBV activists should acknowledge and celebrate the significant progress that has been made so far. No step that prevents or reduces instances of GBV is too small." 64 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 64 Irish Consortium on Gender Based Violence. 2014. Monitoring & Evaluation of GBV Responses. http://www.gbv.ie/monitoring evaluation of gbv responses/

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! "[V References Abrahams N, Jewkes R, Martin LJ, Mathews S, Lombard C, Vetten L. 2009; 24: 546 56. "Mortality of women from intimate partner violence in South Africa: a national epidemiological study" DOI: https:/ /doi.org/10.1891/0886 6708.24.4.546 Abrahams N, Mathews S, Jewkes R, Martin LJ, Lombard C. Every eight hours: intimate femicide in South Africa 10 years later! MRC Policy Brief. Pretoria: Medical Research Council:2012. http://www.mrc.ac.za/policybriefs/everyeighthours.pdf Affinity. June 4, 2017. South African Men Are Trash, and Here's Why'. h ttp://affinitymagazine.us/2017/06/04/south african men are trash and heres why/ Alessandra Cassar and Elizabeth Katz. 2016. "Gender, Behavior, and Women's Economic Empowerment." http://www.womeneconroadmap.org/sites/default/files/Gender Behavior Womens Economic Empowerment.pdf Annan, J., Falb, K., Kpebo, D., Hossain, M ., & Gupta, J. (2017). Reducing PTSD symptoms through a gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence: a randomized controlled pilot study in C™te D'Ivoire. Global Mental Health 4 e22. http://doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2017.19 Anne Marie Golla, Anju Malhotra, Priya Nanda, and Rekha Mehra. 2011. Understanding and Measuring Women's Economic Empowerment Definition, Framework and Indicators'. International Center for Rese arch on Women (ICRW). Aune K. 2017. Women's Empowerment and Gender based Violence in Post Conflict Liberia https://uu.diva portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1106593/FULLTEXT01.pdf AurŽlien Dasre, Angela Greulich, Inan Ceren. Combating domestic violence against women in Turkey. The role of women's economic empowerment. Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2017.52 ISSN : 1955 611X. 2017. halshs 01660703 Bolis M. And Hughes C. Oxfam. 2015. Women's Economic Empowerment And Domestic Violence: Links And Lessons For Practitioners Working With Intersectional Approaches https://www.oxfamamerica.org/static/media/files/Womens_Empowerment_and_Domestic_V iolence_ _Boris__Hughes_hX7LscW.pdf Carlson, J., Casey, E., Edleson, J. L., Tolman, R. M., Neugut, T. B., & Kimball, E. (2015). Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective. Violence against Women 21 (11), 1406 1425. http://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215594888

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! "[Z Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR). 2016. Gender Based Violence (GBV) in South Africa: A Brief Review. https://bit.ly/2pcphLo Challenging Gender Based Violence Worldwide (CARE's Program Eviden ce): Strategies, Results and Impacts of Evaluations 2011 2013. https://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/Challenging GBV World wide CARE_s program evidence.pdf Chimbi, J. 2015. Kenyan Woman Gender responsive budgeting key to fighting GBV' http://kw.awcfs.org/article/gender responsive bud geting key to fighting gbv/ Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters) Amendment Act 32 of 2007 http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/2007 032.pdf#page=10 Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998 http://www.justice.gov.za/legislation/acts/1998 116.pdf Ellsberg M & Heise L. (2005) Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists http://www.path.org/publications/detail.php?i=1524 Ellsberg M & Heise L. (2005) Researching Violence Against Women: A Practical Guide for Researchers and Activists .' http://www.path.org/publications/detail.php?i=1524 Ending Violence Against Women: An Oxfam Guide. 2012 .Retrieved on Oxfam International Website Factsheet: South Afric a's Crime Statistics For 2016/1. Https://Africacheck.Org/Factsheets/South Africas Crime Statistics 201617 Gage, Anastasia J. & Dunn, M. 2009. Monitoring and Evaluating Gender based Violence Prevention and Mitiga tion Programs Final" https://goo.gl/2yFwQ7 Gender Links, accessed January 2, 2017 http://genderlinks.org.za/ Gender Links. 2010. Gauteng Gender Violence Prevalence Study '. http://genderlinks.org.za/programme web menu/gauteng gender violence prevalence study 2010 11 22/ Gender Links. 2016. Empowering Women, Ending Violence: Review of the South Africa Project

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! "[W Gender Links. Centres of Excellence for Gender M ainstreaming. http://genderlinks.org.za/what we do /governance/centres of excellence for gender mainstreaming/ Gender Links. Theory of Change http://genderlinks.org.za/who we are/gender links theory of change/ Gibbs, A., Co rboz, J., Shafiq, M., Marofi, F., Mecagni, A., Mann, C. Jewkes, R. (2018). An individually randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of the Women for Women International Programme in reducing intimate partner violence and strengthening livelihoods amongst women in Afghanistan: trial design, me thods and baseline findings. BMC Public Health, 18, 164. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889 018 5029 1 Gupta, J., Falb, K. L., Lehmann, H., Kpe bo, D., Xuan, Z., Hossain, M., Annan, J. (2013). Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural C™te d'Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study. BMC International Health and Human Rights 13 46. http://doi.org/10.1186/1472 698X 13 46 Hunt A. and Samman E. 2016. "Women's economic empowerment: Navigating enablers and constraints" ODI Research Report https://www.o di.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/resource documents/10683.pdf Industrial Development Corporation (IDC). Recent developments in the South African economy and drivers of growth over the medium term (2016). https://www.idc.co.za/images/download files/research reports/IDC RI publication EconomicOverview May2016_1.pdf Irish Consortium on Gender Based Violence. 2014. Monitoring & Evaluation of GBV Responses. http://www.gbv.ie/monitoring evaluation of gbv responses/ Joyner K., Rees K. and Honikman S. CPMH Policy Brief. November 2015.'Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in South Africa: How to b reak the vicious cycle'. https://bit.ly/2uHeHk8 Mathews S, Abrahams N, Martin LJ, Vetten L, Van Der Merwe L, Jewkes R. Every six hours a woman is killed by her intimate partner: a national study of female homicide in South Africa. MRC Policy Brief. Pretoria: Medical Research Council & Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation:2004. http://www.mrc.ac.za/policybriefs/woman.pdf

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! "[\ Mayra Buvini Rebecca Furst Nichols and Emily Courey Pryor. "Roadmap For Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment http://www.womeneconroadmap.org/sites/default/files/WEE_Roadmap_Re port_Final_1.pdf Mayra Buvinic and Megan O'Donnell. 2016. "Revisiting What Works: Women, Economic Empowerment and Smart Design" https://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files /CGD Roadmap Update 2016.pdf Mayra Buvinic and Rebecca Furst Nichols. 2014. "Promoting Women's Economic Empowerment: What Works?" The World Bank Research Observer Advance. Moffet, H. 2006. The political economy of sexual violence in post apartheid South Africa' https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d4dd/34f93ac18412afa854be9666a28f499663b3.pdf Mpani P. & Nsibande N. Understanding Gender Policy and Gender Based Viole nce in South Africa (2015) http://www.soulcity.org.za/projects/advocacy/gbv/resources/understanding gender policy and gender based violence in south africa a literature review National Institute of Justice. (n.d) Economic Distress and Intimate Partner Violence. https://www.nij.gov/t opics/crime/intimate partner violence/Pages/economic distress.aspx N, Puren A. "Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV and HSV2 in rural South African youth. Child Abuse Negl. 2010; 34: 833 41. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213410002255 OECD Element 3 Paper 1. "Gender equality and women's rights in the post 2015 agenda: A foundation for sustainable development" https://www.oecd.org/dac/gender development/POST 2015%20Gender.pdf Qiong Zhang, Christine Proutya, Julie B.Zimmerman, James R.Mihelcica.2016. More than Target 6.3: A Syste ms Approach to Rethinking Sustainable Development Go als in a Resource ScarceWorld. Environmental Science: Water Research and Technology, Volume 2, https://www.sciencedirec t.com/science/article/pii/S209580991730084X Renzetti, C.M. 2009. Economic Stress and Domestic Violence. CRVAW Faculty Research Reports and Papers. 1. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/crvaw_reports/1 Seedat M Van Niekerk A Jewkes R Suffla S Ratele K Violence and injuries in South Africa: prioritising an agenda for prevention Lancet. 2009 ; 374: 68 79 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140 6736(09)60948 X

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! "[L Sida. 2015. Preventing and Responding to Gender Based Violen ce: Expressions and Stra tegies.' https://bit.ly/2p5dDyh South Africa Police Services (SAPS). 2016 2017. Crime situation in South Africa https://www.saps.gov.za/services/final_crime _stats_presentation_24_october_2017.pdf Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Gender Based Violenc E http://www.sadc.int/issues/gender/gender based violence/ Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Gender Based Violence. http://www.sadc.int/issues/gender/gender based violence/ Statistics South Africa Census 2011' Statistics South Af rica. 2016. South Africa Demographic and Health Survey: Key Indicator Report. http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report%2003 00 09/Report%2003 00 092016.p df The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Factbook. South Africa accessed February 16, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the world factbook/geos/sf.html The Sunrise Campaign Gender Links http://genderlinks.org.za/what we do/justice/advocacy/the sunrise campaign/ The University of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX) Cooperative Extension. 2012. Family Financial Education: Financial Capability and Domestic Violence. Retrieved From: http://fyi.uwex.edu/financialseries/files/2012/02/Financial Capability and Domestic Violence.pdf The University of Wisconsin Extension (UWEX) Cooperative Extension. 2012. Family Financial Education: Financial Capability and Domestic Viol ence. Retrieved From: http://fyi.uwex.edu/financialseries/files/2012/02/Financial Capability and Domestic Violence.pdf Trading Economies. South Africa GDP Per Capita Accessed on 18 th March 2017 http://www.tradingeconomics.com/south africa/gdp per capita Turok, Ivan. "Urbanization and Development in South Africa: Economic Imperatives, Spatial Distortions and Strategic Responses" International institute for environment and development United Nations population fund, no 8 (2012) https://bit.ly/2JeHzTZ

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! "[X UNICEF. South Africa Violence Prevention Model and Action Plan https://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF_resources_violenceprevmodel.pdf United Nations. Despite progressive laws, gender based violence pervasive' in South Africa, UN expert warns' http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2015/12/despite progressive laws gender based violence pervasive in south africa un expert warns / USAID. How to Integrate GBV Prevention and Response into Economic Growth Projects : Why GBV matters in the context of Economic Growth Projects' https://www.usaid.gov/sites/d efault/files/documents/1865/USAID%20Toolkit%20GBV%20 EG%20Final%20Section%204.pdf WHO. Understanding and addressing violence against women' http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/77421/1/WHO_RHR_12.38_eng.pdf WHO. Series of briefings on violence prevention. Changing cultural and social norms that support violence' http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/norms.pdf Wills, Gabriel. "South Africa's Informal Economy: A Statistical Profile" Women in Informal Employment Globalizing and Organizing no 6, (2009). http://www.inclusivecitie s.org/wp content/uploads/2012/07/Wills_WIEGO_WP6.pdf Women Deliver (Policy Brief). "Dramatically Reduce Gender Based Violence and Harmful Practices: Facts, Solutions, Case Studies, and Policy Recommendations" http://womendeliver.org/wp content/uploads/2017/09/Deliver_For_Good_Brief_5_09.17.17.pdf Women Department: Republic of South Africa : 2015 Accessed March 1, 2016: http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/Status_of_women_in_SA_economy.pdf World Bank: Data. Accessed on 17 th March 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?name_desc=true

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! "[Y Annex Regional Project Outcomes for the Sunrise Campaign' ( (


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mods:abstract displayLabel Abstract In South Africa, women suffer from a myriad of physical, psychological and financial problems linked to alarming acts of gendered violence perpetrated against them. Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is the most common form of Gender Based Violence in the country. A 2009 study found that "one woman was killed by a partner every eight hours in South Africa." 1 Cases of femicide have also been a major issue alongside 'honor killings' especially targeting the LGBTQI community. This has prompted various Non- Governmental Organizations to seek solutions that can help mitigate incidences of Violence Against Women (VAW). This research is an evaluation of the 'Sunrise Campaign' a project spearheaded by Gender Links, Southern Africa. Rooted in Gender Links' 'Theory of change' the project is premised on the ecological model which assumes that the vicious cycle of VAW can be turned into a virtuous positive cycle by working around different initiatives that target all levels of the model from individual to societal. It thus seeks to empower women who are survivors of Gender Based Violence (GBV) with life skills training, digital literacy skills and entrepreneurship skills through a series of training workshops that can help increase their agency and independence. The main objective of this research was to monitor the implementation of the second phase of the project, based on recommendations generated during the pilot-phase evaluation, as a means to strengthen anticipated project outcomes. Research was conducted between May-July 2017, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Key findings indicate that, while some of the proposals such as working with younger women, partnering with councils which showed commitment and revising training manuals had been instituted, many of the other recommendations including rigorous participant selection, strengthening
Monitoring and Evaluation(M&E) processes and increasing the number of staff tasked with the project were yet to be adopted. This report recommends that Gender Links strengthen its relationship with local councils, improve its participant selection criteria, tighten its M&E processes, incorporate practical skills training and pursue partnerships with other organization as a strategy to meet its project objectives. This paper contributes to the global development agendas of ending all forms of violence, especially those that contribute to disproportional levels of violence against women. It further suggests women's economic empowerment as a tool to combat GBV. The implication of this work is enshrined in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) specifically, SDG 3 which focusses on promoting good health and wellbeing; SDG 5 which calls for gender equality and SDG 8 seeks to achieve decent work and economic growth for all. It is further enshrined in the various international laws and frameworks that seek to end all forms of violence against women.
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Major departments: Latin American Studies, African Studies.
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The MDP Program is administered jointly by the Center for Latin American Studies and the Center for African Studies.
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