FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
TWO ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES IN
BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA
HALE G. SMITH
Published at the University of Florida
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
TWO ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES IN
BREVARD COUNTY, FLORIDA
HALE G. SMITH
Published at the University of Florida
JOHN M. GOGGIN
Printed, by the University of Florida Duplicating Department
I wish to express my gratitude to the following individuals who made
this work possible. Technical aid and guidance came from Mr. Charles
D. Higgs, without whose knowledge of the area and previous explo
rations this work would never have been attempted. Financial aid
was provided by Mr. George A. Zabriskie and Mr. Sidney Lee Smith.
Mr. Elmer Denlinger, a student of anthropology at Beloit College,
assisted in the excavations. Mr. John W. Griffin aided in planning
and organizing the work and gave needed support in many ways, in
the field and in the laboratory. Funds remaining from field work
aided in the publication of this paper.
The material was analyzed by the author while acting as Assistant
Archeologist, Florida Park Service.
Ann Arbor, 1949 Hale G. Smith
THE HIGGS SITE (Br 1) 7
DESCRIPTION AND EXCAVATIONS 7
MATERIAL CULTURE 10
Mexican Ceramics 12
European and Oriental Objects 14
Other Objects 18
SOME FEATURES OF THE HIGGS SITE 20
DISPLACEMENT AND ASSOCIATION 21
PERIOD OF OCCUPANCY 22
SITE Br 2 26
PERIOD OF OCCUPANCY 29
Plates appear in the center of text
1. Non-Indian Ceramics
2. Indian Pottery and European Bottles
3. Figurine and Clay Pipes
4. Glass Goblet
1. Location of Sites 8
2. Tracing of a Portion of Romans Map of 1774 25
1. Sherd count of Br 2
THE HIGGS SITE (Br 1)
DESCRIPTION AND EXCAVATIONS
This historic European-Indian site is located on the off-shore bar,
or island, lying between the Indian River and the Atlantic Ocean, 2.4
miles south of Sebastian Inlet, Brevard County, Florida (Figure 1) .1
At the site the Atlantic beach escarpment ranges from twelve to
fourteen feet in height, and from it the land slopes gradually to the
Indian River, some 800 feet to the west. The ocean has been cutting
away the eastern escarpment yearly, and since 1942 approximately
thirty feet have been eroded away, destroying much of the site .2
The entire area of the off-shore bar is covered with a heavy growth
of palmetto, sea grape, yucca, and cabbage palm, and due to the cutting
action of the waves the primary dune vegetation, such as sea oats,
that would be expected is lacking .3 Because of this dense vegetation
the work on the site, for the most part, was conducted along the beach
escarpment where a working face might be obtained. Due to the in
accessibility of the surface, the exact area covered by the site is
unknown, but test trenches have shown that it extends a minimum of
343 feet along the escarpment and across the whole width of the
island, and some 800 feet along the main excavation axis (X-Y line).
The original ground surface, or the first layer of undisturbed sand,
is a coarse white sand that has the appearance of fragmented coquina
shell. Above this is a dark sand layer impregnated with charcoal
and overlain by a white sand layer on the escarpment, but indistin
guishable from the top sandy humus farther to the west. The top
stratum is a recent dune having a mottled appearance. This dune
reaches its maximum height at the escarpment, and undoubtedly was
The site was introduced in the literature in 1942 by Charles D. Higgs A
He, being interested in early historical materials, has spent many
years surveying the Florida area. His researches led him to the
Cape Canaveral region, and to this site, where treasure hunters had
been finding various articles belonging to the Spanish colonial period.
Higgs made some excavations but directed most of his efforts to
sifting out the materials left in the treasure hunters spoil, and to
studying Spanish documents relating to the area.
1 This inlet, closed at the time of excavation, has since been reopened.
2 A visit to the site six months after the 1946 excavations revealed that
ten feet of the site had been washed away on the Atlantic side. Alter the
hurricane of 1947 it was noted that more of the site had been cut away in
some sections. In other sections dunes had been built up by the wave action.
3 See Kurz (1942) for a description of dune and scrub vegetation.
4 Higgs, 1942.
Higgs also established an arbitrary east-west axis at a point which
he considered to be the center of the site both in space and in the
concentration of cultural materials.
At the center of the station there is a considerable area of tabby
floor at a depth of three and one-half feet. Beneath this floor is
found an occasional sherd of incised or stamped Indian pottery. The
choicest of Spanish remains lie above and scattered around at a higher
level; while still higher, about a foot below the surface, there is an
abundance ofthe cruder, undecorated, recent Indian pottery. Scattered
over a distance of 320 feet along the bluff there are four other deposits
rich in brick and mortar fragments. It is only in the vicinity of the
floor in the center of the station that the largest assortment of Euro
pean articles are found, particularly the finer Spanish pottery and
Chinese porcelain fragments. Throughout the whole area in places
where the china occurs most abundantly and in general where the
brick and mortar are concentrated, Indian pottery and midden refuse
does not appear to any noticeable extent. On the other hand, adjoining
and fringing this concentration of European materials one finds quanti
ties of Indian remains with which there is an occasional admixture of
the European, notably iron, glass, trade pipes and the coarser Spanish
cooking pottery .5
The east-west (X-Y) axis established by Higgs was relocated by the
writer in the summer of 1946, and aU excavations along the escarpment
were located either north or south of this line. In addition to the
eleven and a quarter five-foot squares excavated along this axis,
other five-foot test squares were excavated along the beach escarp
ment, both north and south of the axis, at intervals of 50 feet for a
distance of 400 feet. Tests were also made in the center of the spit
and along the Indian River side, consisting of several five-foot squares
and two by ten-foot trenches.
We found, as did Higgs, that the east-west axis was the region most
prolific in cultural remains and evidences of habitations. The occu
pational level was concentrated from 9 to 21 inches below the surface,
with occasional artifacts being found above and below this zone. This
condition seems to indicate that the ground level at the time of occu
pation was parallel to the present ground surface, although the arti
fact concentration in squares OW5, OW6, and OW7 was higher, with
the majority of artifacts being found from 9 to 16 inches below the
surface. This condition is due to the dune overlying the stratum
close to the escarpment. The height and angle of this dune seem to
indicate that it rose even higher to the east, and probably the dis
crepancy between the depth of the occupational stratum as noted by
Higgs and our own measurements may be explained by this factor.
There is a strong correlation in some of the squares, with vertical
and horizontal continuance of artifactual material.
5 Higgs, 1942, pp. 32-33.
Pottery. The aboriginal pottery at this site falls into three ware
classes: San Marcos, Glades,7 and St. Johns. San Marcos ware
was found to be relatively abundant throughout the excavated area,
in association with the other aboriginal wares and European artifacts,
and occurred at all levels of the occupational stratum, from 5.5 to
25 inches below the surface. The simple stamped decorative motif
predominated. Higgs found a complete San Marcos shallow bowl with
a curvilinear complicated stamped decoration (P1.2,C). The Glades
and St. Johns wares were represented by only a few sherds at this
San Marcos Stamped
Method of manufacture. Coil fractures present.
Temper. Small to abundant amounts of medium to large size quartz
sand and-or small to moderate amounts of crushed limestone.
Texture. Coarse to medium, slightly contorted paste.
Color. Surfaces are gray to tan, cores are gray to black.
Surface finish. Exterior surfaces were scraped before application
of stamped decoration. Interior surfaces were smoothed, and pitted
to a certain extent by leaching of tempering material and escape of
gas bubbles during firing.
Decoration. Simple stamped; clay was impressed with longitudinally
grooved paddle, with grooves averaging 6 mm. in width. Lands are
either larger or smaller than grooves. Crossed simple stamping
occurs frequently. Some curvilinear and rectilinear complicated
stamping also occurs.
Form. Rim is outcurved and folded. Lip is flat to rounded. Body
form includes small to large globular vessels and shallow bowls.
The base is rounded. No appendages were found. Thickness ranges
from 4 to 8 mm.
Plain sherds on the San Marcos paste were also found.
Glades Plain, as described by Goggin, is represented by twenty-one
sherds, and twelve sherds of St. Johns Plain were collected. One rim
sherd of St. Johns Check Stamped, with incised lines over the check
stamping, was found ,9 The rim of this sherd is thickened and the
6 Smith, 1948. This ware was found in abundance at St. Augustine by \V.
J. Winter and has been assigned to the St. Augustine Period (1565-1750).
Its affiliations are with coastal Georgia types of a comparable period.
7 Goggin, 1940 and 1944.
8 J. D. Griffin, 1945; Goggin, 1939.
9 Rouse and Goggin (personal communication) believe that the incising was
the result of the sherds having been used as a sharpening instrument. They
have similar sherds that probably were used to hone axes. The incised lines
are not those typical in the area, but are wedge-shaped grooves.
lip is flat, forming a right angle with the interior of the vessel. This
type of rim is common in the chalky ware from Br 2. Both the Glades
Plain and St. Johns Plain are types also found at Br 2.
One trade sherd of rather unusual qualities was found. It was sherd
and fine grit tempered, of a fine texture which crumbles when broken,
and has a hardness on the Mohr scale of 4.5. The color is buff through
out, the surfaces are well smoothed, and the interior has traces of
red paint. The form seems to have been a shallow bowl with a straight
rim, thinner than the body, and a rounded lip. The thickness of the
rim is 4 mm.; that of the body 6 mm.
Stone Artifacts. A partially formed stone pipe was found in the talus
along the escarpment 213 feet south of the X-Y axis. It is made of
limestone, similar to that found in fragments throughout the excava
tion, and is a "blank of the elbow type, squared off, and with rudi
mentary holes at either end. The top, or bowl, hole is conical, 7 mm.
in diameter and 7 mm. deep. The stem, or side, hole is 1 cm.in
diameter and 1.5 cm. deep. The base length is 7.2 cm., height is
5 cm., and the diameter of the bowl is 3 by 3.4 cm. The outer surface
has been smoothed down, leaving no sharp edges .10
A limestone fragment with two roughly parallel incised lines was
found. One of the lines was 2 mm., the other was 1 mm. in width.
The flat surface adjacent to the lines was burned red.
Other stone objects include a square piece of igneous rock, with
smoothed edges and sides, which may have been part of a pestle.
There were also two rounded sections of igneous rock which may be
pestle fragments. A gray-white chert nodule, 2 by 1.8 by 1 cm., with
spalls removed from all surfaces, was found. Limestone and pumice
smoothing stones occurred.
Bone Artifacts. A gouge-shaped fragment, cut from a bone of a large
animal, was found. The cutting was done at an angle to give a bevel,
but the object may or may not have been intended as an artifact. A
gouge shaped from a large animal bone, with three sides rounded
and the end smoothed down, was also found.
A possible projectile point of bone, triangular in form and sharply
pointed, measuring 2.5 cm. long and 1.7 cm. wide at the base, was
found. There is a possible bone scraper in the form of a lunar shaped
fragment of cut bone with beveled sides. The lower, or scraping
edge, is sharply beveled. There is also a triangular shaped perfora
tor formed from the bone of a large animal with two sides worked
Unworked bones from the head of catfish were common. Higgs be
lieves that these may have been kept by the Indians as "lucky stones,
but he also acknowledges that they may merely have been midden re
10 A pipe of similar material and proportions from the St. Augustine region
is in the collections at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument, St. Augus
Shell Artifacts. ABusycon sp. shell showing working on both the lip
and beak was found. The function of the piece is unknown. The core,
or columella, of another conch, which may have been used as a pounder,
was also present.
Among the more unusual finds at the Higgs site were specimens Of
two major groups of Mexican earthenware. One group,the most
prevalent (types A, Al, A2, and B), is a latter day continuance of
prehistoric Mexican ware in both paste and decoration. The group
employs the same decorative techniques and designs found in the
red ware of the late Aztec Period (Aztec IV) at Lake Texcoco. It
differs from the Aztec red ware in the presence of handles and in the
occurrence of more floral designs .H Sherds of this kind were found
only in squares adjoining the X-Y axis, with one sherd being found
on the surface of the sand road at the X base point. The majority
of sherds were from the rim or base of vessels.
The second group of Mexican ware is a glazed earthenware genetic-
aUy related to Italian majolica, and called Hispano-Mexican ware
(PI. 1, H). It was being made in Mexico by 1570, having been intro
duced from Spam only four years after the introduction of the tra
dition into Spain from Italy.12 in both Spain and Mexico the style
showed similarities to the Italian Renaissance style. At the Higgs
site this Hispano-Mexican ware was in a minority, but in other exca
vated historic sites in Florida it is the only Mexican ware that has been
found. The buff paste of this ware is due to the mixing of equal parts
of white and red clay, and the glaze is composed of tin and lead.13
Type A Ware: (PI. 1, A-D, I, L-M)
Method of Manufacture. Wheel (?).
Temper. None visible.
Texture. Fine, crumbles when broken.
Hardness. Harder than 4.5.
Paste Color. Cream,
Surface Finish. The whole vessel is covered with a cream, red or
pink paint, with the latter two being in the majority.
11 J. B. Griffin, personal communication.
12 Information from Louis Caywood. Caywood will soon publish a paper
dealing with the whole problem. This type of ware occurs throughout the
southern portions of the United States in areas formerly under Spanish con
Louis Caywood, personal communication.
Decoration: Red and black or black painted lines and conventional
figures form the decoration. Rims are decorated with red or black
lines that sometimes extend into vessel interior. Rim lines are
sometimes parallel red and black lines; sometimes an area of the
colored vessel makes a center line between lip and next applied line,
which may be monochrome parallel lines around rim and lip area.
Below the lip and rim decoration occur the red and /or black conven
tional figures such as roughly drawn spirals, curved lines and broad
curvilinear lines drawn to a point. Sometimes three of these lines
meet at an apex. The interior of the base generally has three or
more raised oval concentric circles, and one specimen has a raised
curvilinear design occuring within the raised circles. A ring of
raised evenly spaced circles between the concentric circles also occurs
occasionally. The exterior of the base has a red, or occasionally
an orange, line around it, extending upward to where the body begins.
Form. Body. Shallow bowl.
Rim. Generally straight; one slightly flaring.
Base. Annular ring, amount of concavity depending on
height of base. Interior of base slightly convex.
Thickness, Rim 3-4 mm.'; body 4-5 mm.
Appendages. Loop handles, probably paired, occur below the lip.
The one handle found is 7 mm. in diameter and 2.5 cm. long.
Type A-l Ware
The method of manufacture, temper, texture, hardness, and paste
color are the same as in Type A.
Surface Finish and Decoration: The exterior, or the entire vessel, is
covered with a red paint or red slip. Interior when not red slipped
or painted has a cream colored glaze. Red surface is decorated with
black straight and curvilinear lines and spirals. Interior of base
generally smooth and lacks raised concentric circles found on Type A,
but this treatment does occur on one sherd. One sherd has a hole in
the outer base of the rim made before firing. Diameter of the hole
is 4 mm.
Form: Same as in Type A.
Thickness: 3-5 mm. for both rim and body.
Appendages: Purely decorative loop handles applied to the vessel,
with no opening between body and handle, but with indentations where
opening would be. One lug type handle of folded piece of clay applied
to vessel just below rim. It has a rounded end, grooved over the top
side, and is indented on either side.
Type A-2 Ware
This type is the same in all respects as Type A, except that it is
black in color. The first impression is that of initial black paint,
but examination of the whole sample shows that some sherds are not
completely black, but show bits of cream and red. It is tentatively
concluded that these sherds were not originally black, but have been
subjected to secondary firing.
Type B Ware
Method of manufacture. Wheel (?).14
Temper. Small grit fragments.
Hardness. Harder than 4.5
Paste color. Reddish orange.
Surface Finish. Orange painted interior and exterior.
Decoration, One sherd has two concentric circles.
Clay Figurines and Figurine Appendages
1.Torso of human figure; head, arms and legs missing. Around the
waist there is a flaring skirt. Specimen is 5.5 cm. high (PI. 1, J).
2. A roughly cylindrical fragment 2.3 cm. long and 1.1 cm. in diame
ter. Near the center an applique strip 4 mm. wide extends two-thirds
of the way around the cylinder (PI. 1, K).
3. A horn-shaped baked clay fragment 2.1 cm. long and 1.1 cm. in
diameter at the base end.
4. A curved cylindrical piece 2.3 cm. long with an applique strip
extending from one side to the other at the angle in the cylindrical
piece. The strip is flattened and displays tool marks on one side.
5. A baked clay fragment with finger-impressed concave area.
6. A small baked clay fragment.with an impressed fern-like design.
This piece is re minis cent'of portions of the "Amerind figurines
found by Higgs, one of which is shown in Plate 3, A.
7. A trough-shaped piece, 1.6 cm. long, with an angular flaring pro
jection at one end.
The paste of all of the above objects is fine in texture with no visible
temper. No glaze or wash is evident.
European and Oriental Objects
Chinese Porcelain. Porcelain was found in all parts of the site,
although it was more abundant along the X-Y axis. Mr. Higgs sent
his porcelain specimens to the Milwaukee Public Museum for identi
fication, and they were tentatively placed in the Ming and Kang Hsi
periods.15 Mrs. Kamer Aga-Oglu^ on the checking the porcelain
sherds submitted to her for identification, said that she also believed
that they dated from Late Ming and Kang Hsi periods. There are a
few of the sherds such as the powder-blue and black wares charac-
Represented by two sherds.
15 Higgs, 1942, p. 39.
16 Assistant Curator, Division of the Orient, University Museums, Univer
sity of Michigan
terized by underglaze in fish designs which look Japanese.Mrs.
Aga-Oglu withheld judgment on the underglazed sherds until she was
able to make a more extended study .18
The Chinese porcelains probably reached this site via an established
shipping route used by the Spanish for a considerable time. The
Chinese, at this time, were making vast quantities of porcelain for
the export trade, and much of it reached the Philippines where there
was a ready market. During this period porcelain had become very
fashionable in Europe and the Spanish shipped some from their Philip
pine possession to Acapulco, Mexico, where they were unloaded and
carried overland to Vera Cruz, reloaded on ships and sent to Spain.
In all probability, the porcelain at the Higgs site came by this western
route rather than by the eastern one and Spain itself. A description
of the sherds found in 1946 follows:
1. A body sherd of considerable size. Exterior surface has a blue-
white glaze which is overglazed with an enameled black scroll line
figure and some conventionalized leaves of brown and green, with the
veins of the leaves sketched in black. It is of interest to note that a
flower rosette and meandering line decorative motif occurs which
has the appearance of being stamped upon the glaze before the vessel
was fired. The interior, which is blue-white glazed, shows throw
marks and gas bubble vents. Thickness of the sherd is 5 mm.
2. A body sherd from a plate. Interior and exterior surfaces are
glazed white, and on both minute rises caused by non-exploded gas
bubbles occur. The interior surface is decorated with a curved line
made up of two shades of brown, outside of which are green conven
tionalized leaf designs between which, and surrounding which, are
diamond-shaped underglazed designs. Thickness of the sherd is
3. Five specimens of a chalky white glazed ware, three of which are
annular ring bases of rice cups. On the bottom of the ring bases the
glaze is marred. Thickness ranges from 3 to 4 mm; rims are rounded
with a thickness of 2 mm.
4. Five rice cup sherds, glazed a bluish-white, and decorated with
figures of a darker blue.
A. One sherd, interior decorated with two horizontal blue
lines encircling vessel at 2.5 mm. below the lip, and a-
pother set of parallel lines at 4.5 mm. below the lip. Ex
terior decorated as in illustration (PI. 1, E; illustration is
reversed). The rim is straight, and the lip is flattened.
Thickness 2-3 mm.
B. Two rim sherds with a band of decoration just below
the lip on the inside. The design consists of hatchures
17 Higgs, 1942, p. 39.
18 The results of this study will be published in a subsequent paper.
within parallel lines. Exteriors are decorated with wide
blue areas surrounding conventionalized floral designs.
C. Two body sherds of the same type described above,
each with a portion of a design. Thickness 2 mm.
5. Three white glazed body sherds and one white glazed annular ring
base sherd decorated on the exterior with green, brown, blue, and red
conventionalized floral designs (PI. 1, G). Also a rim section of a
small plate (?).
6. Most of a rice cup with dull white glaze both inside and out. Glaze
has a crackled surface. Annular ring base. Thickness 2 mm.
7. Sherd of an annular ring base plate. Both surfaces glazed white.
Interior is decorated with a brown flower, 2.6 cm., in diameter, which
is surrounded by green conventionalized leaves and vines. The entire
design is enclosed in a blue circular line, and the outer border of the
plate is decorated with a dark blue glaze with the design brought out
in negative in the white surface color (PI. 1, F).
Delft Earthenware. Delft was made in Holland during the 17th century,
and copied the style, form and technique of the Chinese porcelains.
It is a glazed earthenware rather than a true porcelain, but the glazes
very closely approximate those used by the Chinese during this period.
1. An annular ring base sherd of a shallow bowl or rice cup. The
interior and exterior are glazed white, and portions of the bottom are
2. A body sherd with a white glazed, irregularly checked, exterior
surface. The interior white glazed surface is decorated with blue
(cobalt ?) conventionalized designs. The technique of decoration
seems to have involved finishing figures as the brush ran dry, giving
a shaded effect to the figures, which range from light blue to cobalt
3. Two body sherds of this ware were decorated on the exterior,
rather than the interior as above, but one of these also had a blue line
on the interior. Designs are parallel blue lines, horizontally placed,
with large blue leaf-shaped lines below. Thickness of this ware varies
from 2 to 5.5 mm.
Spanish and Moorish Ceramics. Ware of this type was made in an
area from Spain and North Africa to as far east as India, having
spread from its place of origin, presumably in Anatolia or Persia
about the 5th century B.C. Near Eastern archeologists have given it
the name Islamic Ware, and in the common storage ware such as
olive oil, grain and water jars the technique of manufacture has not
changed very much from the 2nd or 3rd century B.C. to the present
Ware of this type made in Spain was influenced by the techniques used
A-D, Mexican ceramics, Type A; E-G, Chinese ceramics; H, Hispano
Mexican ware; I, Mexican ceramics. Type A; J-K, Figurine fragments
L-M, Mexican ceramics, Type A (A-K, 62/100; L-M, 65/100).
EUROPEAN BOTTLES AND INDIAN POTTERY
A-B, Glass wine bottles; C, San Marcos Stamped
vessel (A-B, 4/10; C, approximately 1/3).
FIGURINE AND CLAY PIPES
A, Figurine; B-E, English Clay Pipes (A, Approxi
mately actual size; B-E, 9/10).
by the people of North Africa, who in turn had received their ideas
from farther east. Since the ware is so standardized it is difficult
to state from whence each piece was derived, and its value as a
dating device is limited.
Type 1 Ware
Method of manufacture. Wheel.
Temper. None to some fine sand and unidentified grit.
Color. The core is reddish gray, red or gray. Exterior surfaces
are unslipped or gray slipped and are often smudged by fire. Interior
surfaces are the same as exterior.
Surface finish: Some smooth, some with throw marks.
Form. Jar. No rim or lip fragments found.
Thickness: 8-13 mm.
Most of the Spanish-Moorish ware found was of Type 1, with the
corrugated appearance caused by unsmoothed throw marks.
Type 2 Ware
Method of manufacture. Wheel.
Temper. None to fine sand.
Texture. Very fine.
Color. Paste is dull gray, reddish or cream.
Surface finish. Interiors are glazed jade-green, white, ivory, salmon,
greenish white, bluish white, flat white, blue, light green, yellow
green and yellow. Glaze is sometimes crackled. Interiors of vessels
occasionally corrugated (throw marks). Exteriors are either un
glazed, glazed from lip to shoulder, or decorated with blue diagonal
glazed lines. Glazed drops may appear on the bottom of the base or
below the shoulder, but these were probably not intentional. Poly
chrome effects, such as yellow and blue decoration on a white back
ground, occur occasionally, and combinations such as light green
glazed interiors and white glazed exteriors are known.
Form. Flat bottomed jars, curved or straight sided to the shoulder,
and incurving above the shoulder.
Rim, Thickened, incurved or everted.
Thickness. 4-14 mm.
Appendages. Strap handles placed diagonally on the shoulder.
One sherd of Type 2, with a white glazed interior, has two post
firing incised lines which appear to have been executed with a crude
Spanish Cooking Ware
Method of manufacture. ?
Temper. Medium to large inclusions of grit and sherd temper. Some
pieces of grit as much as 6 mm. long. Quartz sand in some sherds.
Texture. Fine to medium. Well-mixed paste which crumbles when
Color, Cores are black with exterior surface color extending 1-3
mm. into paste. Interior surfaces range from a burnished black
through gray, brown and red. Exterior surfaces range from reddish-
brown to a dark red, and are generally smudged.
Surface finish. Interior surfaces cover a range from carelessly
smoothed with tool marks evident to washed and smoothed. Some
burnishing marks. Exterior surfaces are scraped, but not as smoothly
as interiors. Exteriors have a smooth, slick feel.
Form. Typical forms are shallow bowls 6.5 to 15.5 cm. in diameter,
with slightly curved sides and a rounded bottom. Lips are rounded,
and rims are straight or slightly inverted.
Thickness. 5 to 15 mm.
Glass. The glass found is, for the most part, from squat rounded
wine bottles (PI. 2, B-C) and tall square gin bottles.19 The
glass of both types of bottles has a brownish or greenish hue and the
outer surface is weathered as might be expected in glass that has
been in contact with salt air and water. The necks of the bottles were
originally fitted with lead screw tops, although none were found with
tops intact, nor were any of the tops found separately in our excava
tions. However, Higgs reports their presence. Bottles and bottle
fragments were found in quantity.
A stemmed goblet of clear handmade glass was found (PI. 4). It
approaches in form the English heavy balusters of the 1680-1710
period.20 a piece of clear glass, probably the rim of a goblet, has
thumb depressions equally spaced about its sides.
One piece of light blue glass was found in a shapeless mass, giving
the appearance of having been subjected to great heat, and so melted.
Clay Pipes. Many of the clay pipes collected by Higgs bore the name
R. Tippet, an English pipemaker of presumably early 18th
century in a cartouche on the bowl. Other of Higgs pipes had the
lettering R. T. or E. R.21 One of the pipes excavated in the
summer of 1946 had part of a cartouche which seemingly had con
tained either R. T. or R. Tippet. Other bowl fragments had smaller
portions of cartouches. Three bowl types are present: 1. flattened
lug (PI. 3, C), 2. teat-like lug (PI. 3, D), and 3. no lug (PI.3, B, E).
19 Squat early eighteenth century wine bottles are illustrated by Simon, 1926
(facing p. 234) and Honey (1946, Pi. 50, D).
20 Francis, 1926, Pis. 4-5; Honey, 1946, Pi. 52.
21 Higgs, 1942, p. 38.
Dice. Three bone or ivory dice were found, with holes drilled into
the surface in the same arrangement as used today. One pair had
sides of different lengths, perhaps a crooked set. The remaining
die was of unconventional design, with pointed corners and surfaces
showing unsmoothed cutting.
Iron. The iron objects excavated are in a bad state of preserva
tion, and many of the pieces are so completely oxidized that their
original form is obscured. Those pieces that can be distinguished, and
their function thus ascertained, are: fishhooks 3.4 cm. long, nails
of various sizes, knife blades, iron bands from chests or sword
blades, line snubbers for mooring boats, buckles, parts of flintlocks,
and rings of various sizes.
Measurements in the following description are of total length includ
ing the rust area. The iron nails range from 2.4 cm. to 5.7 cm. in
length. The broad headed nails range from 2.5 cm. long with a head
diameter of 2.8 cm. to 3.5 cm. long with a head diameter of 3 cm.
A variation of the broad headed nail is the rosette nail about 3 cm.
long. The head of this type is as broad as the nail is long, and the
rosette effect may be the result of hammering or manufacture in this
The iron spikes are from 9.2 to 11.7 cm. in length, and iron pins are
found ranging from 7.7 to 11.5 cm. long. Some of the pins have one end
flattened and the opposite end rounded, with a right angle projection
1.5 cm. long, one-third of the way down the pin from the flat end.
One iron pin is curved and has a large head.
Flat pieces of iron include a section of a knife blade with a perfora
tion at one end, square bars of various lengths, widths and thick
nesses, rounded bars that may have been sections of sword blades,
and pieces with rivet holes.
A striking platform of a flintlock was found. It is oval-shaped, 3.3 by
4.2 cm., with a hollow pin 5.6 cm. long attached at its base.
Cannon. Several cannon found at the site, generally after hurricanes
or northeasters, are in local collections. One cannon, found by Higgs,
is now in front of Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine. Detailed
information on the cannon must await study of the various specimens.
Lead. One lead pistol or musket ball, 1.9 cm. in diameter, was
found. An indented line divides the ball into hemispheres. One-half
of a pistol ball with a lead projection on the side was also found.
Two other shapeless pieces of lead, melted by fire, were probably
originally pistol balls.
Building materials. Limestone fragments of a shape and size suit
able for building blocks, roughly hewn, and measuring 5 to 7 cm.
high, with much variation in length and width, were found. No com
plete bricks were excavated but fragments, very soft and chalky, of a
salmon color, and containing grit, sand, and brick temper, were
present. Baked clay, perhaps portions of a burned floor, occured
sporadically throughout the site. It was more abundant near the
X-Y line, but showed no concentration which could be interpreted
as a floor area. Lime plaster was found in sections as large as
9.5 by 3.5 by 5 cm., with brick fragments about 5 mm. in diameter
mixed in during manufacture. Mortar of finely ground shell cemented*
together with lime plaster occurred occasionally. Fragments of
coquina, too small to be considered as a building material, were
These materials give every indication that some form of building or
buildings was in existence at the site, but other than the area of tabby
floor reported by Higgs22 no foundations or sections of buildings were
found in situ. One explanation of the presence of such materials was
offered by Higgs (personal communication). He suggests that these
remains may have been deck ovens of Spanish ships wrecked on the
off-shore reefs. Several wrecks may be seen from an airplane on a
clear calm day.
Coins. Two coins were found bearing the Spanish coat of arms with
the quartered lions and castles of Castile and Leon. Higgs found
Miscellaneous. Among other objects was a nodule of black European
flint of the type used in flintlock guns. An alabaster bottle stopper
with an iron piece extending from the bottom, and two pieces of cork
were also found.
SOME FEATURES OF THE HIGGS SITE
Six pieces of baked clay, the largest five inches in diameter, were
found extending for a distance of three feet in a line. Four inches
above this, in the sand, were San Marcos sherds. The irregular
placement of the sherds suggested wave action, but the alignment of
the baked clay below gave no evidence of this action. Two inches
from the escarpment, on the clay floor a copper coin was found.
Most prolific was a refuse area 50 inches across, with the deepest
portion being 31 1/2 inches below the surface. The top of the feature
contained an oyster shell concentration. A wine goblet, glass bottle
fragments, bones of a large animal, Chinese porcelain fragments and
three limestone rocks were found in the feature.
Of interest was a charcoal area one inch square, in the white sand
stratum. Around the area were numerous irregular shaped discolored
patches of sand. No artifacts were in close association. This feature
appeared to have been the charred end of a wooden stake.
Another charcoal area was nine inches in diameter, surrounded by
a lighter charcoal area which covered a space approximately seven
feet square. The latter portion yielded a turtle sheU and an English
Higgs, 1942, p. 32.
clay pipe. In the southwest one-quarter of the square, at the same
level, was a group of rocks and mortar pieces forming an arc, in the
center of which were two Spanish sherds. In the southeast corner
were found animal bones and some fish vertebrae.
DISPLACEMENT AND ASSOCIATION
Higgs, in his paper, stated that the cultural material was well scat- __
tered due to the aeolian nature of the sand formation and the wave
action during storms on the surface soon after abandonment, and even,
during occupation. This is undoubtedly true, but we did find areas
which were, in our opinion, unaffected by these forces, perhaps es
caping by being covered quickly after having been used. In these
undisturbed areas the same cultural associations appear that occur
in other areas of the site. It is true that the major features such
as house plans were destroyed almost completely by storms, erosion
and dune movement, and it is our belief that the area of greatest
cultural concentration has been washed into the sea rather recently,
within the past 75 years or so. Higgs earlier searches of the site
disclosed a heavier concentration of materials than was found in our
Possibly a good example of the amount of disturbance is a goblet
rim which fits onto a goblet found 23 feet away, but at the same level.
On the other hand the fragments may have originally been cast away
in different directions.
Since only fragments of tabby were found, and the largest alignment
consisted of six pieces covering one lineal yard, we did not have a
fixed point, as Higgs did, from which materials on, above, or below a
floor could be compared and quantified. All of the materials exca
vated in 1946 were found to occur in approximately equal numbers
throughout the depth of the occupational stratum.
However, we found, as did Higgs, that the intensive cultu.-al deposits
of all types of artifacts occurred along the X-Y axis. The Hispano-
Mexican pottery was only found in squares along this line, or no
farther than 10 feet from it. The bulk of the Chinese and Japanese-
like ware was also found in this same area, with only four sherds of
this kind being found in other areas. The other artifacts, such as
aboriginal pottery, Spanish-Moorish pottery, English pipes, glass
and iron were found in all of the squares excavated.
The association of all of the cultural items excavated is definitely
proven, but the question arises as to how they were brought into
association. Was the Higgs site originally an aboriginal village which
continued in existence after the arrival of the Europeans, or was a
European settlement established which drew the Indians to it, or did
the Europeans and a group of aborigines, not necessarily native to
the region, settle here simultaneously?
Other aboriginal sites on the spit show no evidence of contact in the
tests and surface collections. Br 3 and Br 5 are prehistoric shell
middens near Br 1, with a pottery tradition like that of Br 2, to be
discussed shortly. An aboriginal sand mound about one mile north
of Br. 1 revealed no cultural materials in a days testing.23 Since
the Higgs site has only one occupational stratum and contains Euro
pean, Mexican, Chinese and aboriginal materials, the logical conclu
sion is that the Europeans and Indians lived there at the same time.
This conclusion is further strengthened by the presence of building
materials in all levels of the occupational stratum; it is doubtful
whether the Indians would have used bricks, mortar and limestone
in their structures.
PERIOD OF OCCUPANCY
Some of the materials from the site can be dated rather accurately,
and in this way the maximum possible age can be established, and the
minimum age can be judged rather closely. Some of the Chinese
porcelain, the Kang Hsi, was made between 1662 and 1772, meaning
that the site can be no earlier than 1662. The other Ming ware was
earlier, and therefore does not aid us in any dating of this site. The
Spanish-Mexican ware is of the 1543-1723 period, meaning that the
site is probably not much later than 1723. Again, the English pipes
marked R. Tippet were presumably produced in the early eighteenth
century .24 Considering only these items we see that the range for
the site has been reduced to an approximate 50 year period, 1675-1725,
and if the pipes do not extend back into the seventeenth century the
dating is further restricted.
In this connection it is of interest to note that Dickinson, in 1696,
learned of no European settlement in the region.25 This, together
with the pipe data, would seem to indicate a range of 1696-1725,
rather than the alternative of 1662-1696.
The San Marcos Indian pottery belongs to the Saint Augustine Period,
which dates 1565-1750.26 The materials that came from the moat of
the Castillo de San Marcos in Saint Augustine post-date 1686, and the
majority of the San Marcos sherds from the moat were simple-
stamped, as were the majority of the San Marcos sherds from the
Higgs site. This seems to indicate that the pottery of the latter part
of the Saint Augustine Period was predominately simple-stamped.
The broad 1675-1725 dating for the Higgs site and the 1686-1750
dates for the predominating simple-stamped pottery period at Saint
Augustine seem to coincide very well.
In summary, the site may be dated as between 1675 and 1725 on the
basis of the materials found there. The Dickinson reference suggests
that it must be to one side or the other of 1696, and the pipe evidence
makes 1696 to 1725 the more likely.
23 There is a site of a fiber-tempered pottery using people a few hundred
yards from the Higgs site, on the shore of the Indian River. The sherds re
covered, to date, have come from the water, and no excavation has been at-
24 Higgs, 1942, p. 38.
25 Dickinson, 1945.
26 Smith, 1948.
This site presents us with a number of perplexing problems which
cannot be answered at this time. Several possible interpretations have
been suggested, and they should be summarized.
In early historic times this region of the Florida coast was inhabited
by the Ais Indians. The main village of the Ais was near Indian River
Inlet, approximately 20 miles south of the Higgs site. Near this inlet
Higgs found a site meeting the requirements of this main village, but
found no European artifacts in his examination of the site.2' He
arrived at the tentative conclusion that this was the Ais capital until
the discovery, period, while Br. 1 was the center of the native wreck
ing operations, and hence, the locus for the colonial administrations
The wrecking operations of the Ais, and their treatment of Europeans
falling into their hands, led to repeated attempts at conversion or
subjugation by the Spaniards. The first instance was by Menendez in
1565, the year of the founding of Saint Augustine. A conversion at
Ais is noted for 1605. The new missions and conversions at Ais
and Carlos are mentioned in letters of 1693-95, and as late as
1737 there is a recommendation for the establishment of a colony
of 200 at Ais to aid in control of shipping lanes.29
However, in none of these instances is there any evidence on exact
location, and in some cases there is absolutely no evidence that the
recommendations were acted upon. The time range suggested by the
artifacts from the site, 1675-1725, rules out any possibility that the
site represents late sixteenth or early seventeenth century establish
ments. The only one of the above mentioned efforts that is possible
in terms of the site dating is the effort indicated in the 1693-95 letters,
but it is of interest to recall that Dickinson knew of no Europeans in
the region in 1696.
When the cultural materials from this site are compared to those
from an excavated Spanish mission many differences are noted. The
mission site in question occurs in Jefferson County, Florida, and has
been dated from about 1650 to 1704, and is therefore partially con
temporaneous with the Higgs site.30 The known mission does not in
clude in its cultural assemblage such items as rum, wine, or gin
bottles; cannon; pipes; dice; glass goblets; Mexican aboriginal ware;
quantities of Chinese sherds; or Spanish cooking pot fragments. Nor
are these items, with the exception of cannon, found at the site of
San Luis de Talimali near TaUahassee, a combination fort and mission
settlement of the same period.31 Religious paraphernalia, present
27 Higgs, 1942, p. 35. However, if this is the site, trade materials should
be found, as, according to Dickinson, the site was occupied in 1696.
28 Higgs, 1942, p. 36.
29 Data summarized from Higgs (1942, mostly on page 28).
30 See Smith 1948a and 1948b for a summary of this mission. A full report
has been prepared, but has not been published.
31 John VY. Griffin, personal communication, based on Florida Park Service
in both of the west Florida sites mentioned above, does not seem to
be present at the Higgs site. The conclusion seems inescapable that
the Higgs site was not a Spanish mission.
A castigatory outpost, manned primarily by soldiers, might present
such an assemblage. However, the presence of numbers of English
clay pipes is inconsistent with the cultural picture of a Spanish site.
Dr. Mark Boyd pointed out to the writer that the Spanish have never
been a pipe smoking group, and John M. Goggin has noted that the few
presumed Spanish pipes known from Florida are of a reddish clay.32
It is also doubtful that the Spanish at this time were getting pipes
from the English in view of the friction between the two groups.
The interpretation that this was an Ais village active in salvaging
wreckage along the coast is discredited to some extent by the building
materials which suggest a European type of construction.
The site may have been an intermittent hangout for a pirate crew,
probably of English or Dutch captaincy. It is known that the English
and Dutch privateers traded with the Ais and used their inlets as
bases for their raids cn Spanish shipping. Besides having good har
bors, the factor of access to fresh-water away from any Spanish garri
son or stronghold was important.
On the whole, the site is culturally Spanish, but in that period on a
sea coast when the shifting of goods between vessels was a common
occurrence it is not at all unlikely that some crew other than Spanish
was using the cultural items found at the site.
One other historic event, falling within the period attributed to the
site, must be mentioned. The Romans map of 1774, a portion of
which is reproduced in Figure 2, bears a interesting note at the San
Sebastian River indicating that the Plate Fleet of 1715 was wrecked,
in part, at that point.33 This is, of course, the immediate area of the
In the year following the Plate Fleet wreck, 1716, Spanish sources
mention a pirates hangout at Palmar of Ays,34 which is probably to
be equated with el Palmar shown on the Romans map (Fig. 2),
and which is also in the immediate vicinity of the Higgs site.
Earlier, using the Dickinson data and the dating from the artifacts,
we came to the conclusion that the site must fall between 1696 and
1725. Here we have two documentary references which would readily
explain the amount of European material present in the area, and
dating from about the middle of the postulated time range.
32 Both sets of data are from personal communications.
33 A reproduction of this map was published by the Florida State Historical
Society in 1924.
34 From an unpublished bibliography on the area by Charles D. Higgs.
Considering all of the data it seems very likely that the Higgs site
represents materials from the Plate Fleet wreck of 1715 and/or the
pirates hangout of the following year.
It must also be borne in mind that Indians, possibly Ais, were associ
ated with the site, probably drawn there by the wrecks.35
35 Irving Rouse (personal communication) suggest? that the Yamasee, who
possibly entered the region in 1715, might be the Indian group. Their culture
would probably be more consistent with the aboriginal pottery found at the
SITE Br 2
Brevard 2 is an extensive kitchen-midden 0.35 miles south of the
Higgs site (Br 1). At the time of excavation it extended some 250
feet along the beach escarpment, but was only the periphery of a
midden formerly both larger and higher. Mr. Carter, Brevard County
Engineer, can remember when the site extended fifty feet farther
east and had a height of approximately thirty feet. The deepest point
in 1946 was fourteen feet and was located in the southern section of
the midden.l Sherds were collected from the slip along the exposed
face on the escarpment, and, in addition, one five-foot-square was
Various shell layers were present in the excavated square, and it
was hoped that these various stratigraphic levels would show a corres
ponding change of pottery types. .However, this was not found to be
the case; there was no change in the pottery types from the surface
to the base of the midden.
In the upper, oyster, levels the split bones of land animals were
noted, while the faunal remains of the lower levels were predomi
nately fish and turtle. The shell strata were alternating layers and
pockets of the cross-barred Venus (Chione cancellataf. coquina
flDonax variabilis), and oyster (Ostrea virginica). The oysters were
predominately in the central and upper portions of the midden, while
the Chione shells were concentrated in the bottom layers. Coquina
occurred in sporadic pockets throughout the deposit.
The various layers and pockets of shell were separated from each
other by several inches of sand, indicating, perhaps, that the site
was not continuously occupied. Seasonal habitation, with the yearlv
storms covering the site with the sand, may be the explanation.^
An alternative hypothesis would be that the people did not use the
whole midden area at one time, and that sand accumulated on the
temporarily deserted portions.
Underlying the shell and sand strata of the midden is a nine inch
stratum of sand heavily impregnated with charcoal. This area was
undoubtedly in use as a village area while the central portion of the
midden was growing.
The superposition of the shell layers may indicate a dietary change
from one type of mollusc to another, may reflect that at specific
1 A visit to the site in March, 1949 revealed only a small section of the
midden remaining, perhaps no more than 6 or 8 feet high. Editor.
2 Mexia in 1605 referred to the Indian custom of living on the peninsula
during the winter and moving to the mainland in the summer. A translation of
Mexias Derrotero by Charles D. Higgs will be published in a forthcoming
volume on Florida archaeology by Yale University.
times certain species were more abundant than other species, or may
merely reflect selection of different species at different times in the
process of collecting food. Since the area left for examination is the
periphery of the mound, it is impossible to judge accurately how the
entire midden actually was built.
A corner of a prepared clay floor two inches thick was encountered
in the northeast quarter of Square 70 (the excavated square) at the
base of the midden. Directly below the corner of the floor was a
conical post-hole measuring 4 1/2 inches in diameter at floor level
and one and three-quarters inches in diameter at its base, 24 inches
below the floor. The floor rested on white sand. Another small
post-hole, or refuse pit, measuring 8 inches in diameter and extending
into the white sand for 10 1/4 inches was noted. Since it was in such
close proximity, four inches, to the corner post, it may have been
part of the same structure.
Four major pottery types are present at the site; St. Johns Check
Stamped, St. Johns Plain, Glades Plain and Belle Glade Plain. There
is no significant percentile shift of these types in the various levels
of the midden. Five unclassified sherds were found that came from
areas farther to the north. Four of these are of a type that is common
in the shell heaps of Volusia County, and the other is a limestone
tempered form of unknown cultural affinity.
St. Johns Plain at Br 2
Method of manufacture. Segmental coiling.
Temper. Untempered to some very fine grit particles, hardly visible
to the eye. Occasional inclusion of quartz sand. Some sherds have
holes of various sizes throughout core which may be fiber impressions.
Texture. Paste has a laminated appearance.
Hardness. 2.5 to 4.0.
Color. Exteriors are buff, brown and gray. Some cores have gray or
black carbon streaks while others are uniformly fired and are the same
Surface Finish. Exterior surfaces range from roughly scraped, through
finely smoothed to somewhat burnished. Most interiors are very
smooth, but a few show deep parallel trough-like scraping lines. In
these cases the grooves are 4 mm. wide on the average, with the in-
between lands 1 mm. in width.
Form. Rim. Straight or slightly incurved.
Lip: Rounded or flat sometimes beveled downward from
Body. Shallow bowl forms are indicated.
Appendages. None found.
Thickness. 3.5 to 8 mm. Lip is generally 2-3 mm. thicker than body
The St. Johns Check Stamped sherds are like the St. Johns Plain in
all respects except decoration. Four kinds of checks were noted;
rectangular checks from 2 by 4 mm. to 6 by 18 mm. in size, square
checks about 3.5 mm. in size with the checks larger than the lands,
rough irregular checks overlapping and in uneven rows, and com
paratively small checks with wide lands.
Glades Plain at Br 2
Method of manufacture. Segmental coiling.
Texture. Compact, crumbles when broken.
Hardness. 3.5 to 4.0.
Color. Exteriors are red, buff and gray, with some brown and black.
Interiors are often red when exteriors are black or buff. Cores are
black with surface color extending inward from 1 to 2 mm.
Surface Finish. Exteriors are roughly scraped to smooth, a few
have exterior burnished. Exterior surfaces smudged. Interiors
Form. Rim. Straight or slightly incurved.
Lip; Flat squared lip occurs, but typical type is slanting
flat lip with an interior overhang, the slant being
from exterior to interior. One sherd appears to
have had a scalloped lip.
Body. Shallow bowl with curved sides.
Thickness. 4 to 6 mm.
Artifacts were not common at this site, but those of stone include
a limestone sharpening stone, a hemispherical limestone pounder,
a limestone net sinker grooved around the top end, and a possible
A polished pendant-like fragment of a large bone, possibly manatee
rib, and two cut triangular sections of bone that are possibly pro
jectile points make up the total of bone artifacts from the site. Shell
artifacts are represented by a Busycon hammer and a broken section
of a shell celt.
Table 1. Sherd Count of Br 2
St. Johns Check Stamped
St. Johns Plain
Belle Glade Plain
PERIOD OF OCCUPANCY OF BR 2
This site is in the Melbourne Region, as defined by Goggin6, the
archeology of which will be treated in detail by Rouse in a forthcoming
publication.4 The presence of almost equal amounts of St. Johns
ware, the dominant ware of the Northern St. Johns Area, and Glades
Plain, the dominant type of the Glades Area, together with the pre
sence of Belle Glade Plain, also identified with the Glades Area, are
which gives the Indian River Area a distinctive color.5
So far as the time period is concerned, the introduction of check-
stamped pottery in Florida is generally taken as a time marker of about
1200 AT)., and serves to set off Weeden Island n from Weeden Island
I in the western part of the state, and St. Johns n from St. Johns I in
the Northern St. Johns Area. It is also a marker for distinguishing
Malabar n and Malabar I, to use Rouses terms, in the area under
consideration.6 From the presence of the check-stamped pottery,
then, we may conclude that Br 2 falls within the range of time termed
Malabar n (roughly 1200 to 1650 A JO.). The absence of historic
materials in the site indicate that it was abandoned before contact
times, or, before contact materials reached the area.
3 Goggin, 1947. See also revisions in Goggin (1948).
4 To be published by Yale University. (The latest revision in terminology
is Rouses replacement of the name Melbourne Region by a more appropriate
term, Indian River Area. Editor.)
5 Irving Rouse, personal communication.
6 These new period terms of Rouse have been introduced in the literature
by Goggin (1948).
1945. Gods Protecting Providence. (E. W. and C. M.
Andrews, eds.). Yale University Press, New Haven.
Francis, Grant R.
1926. Old English Drinking Glasses, Their Chronology
and Sequence. London.
Goggin, John M.
1939. A Ceramic Sequence in South Florida, New
Mexico Anthropologist. Vol. 3, pp. 35-40.
1940. The Distribution of Pottery Wares in the Glades
Archaeological Area of South Florida, New Mexico
Anthropologist, Vol. 4, pp. 22-33. Albuquerque.
1944. A Tentative Formulation of Pottery Types for the
Glades Area, mimeographed. New Haven.
1947. A Preliminary Definition of Archaeological Areas
and Periods in Florida, American Antiquity, Vol.
13, pp. 114-127. Menasha.
1948. A Revised Temporal Chart of Florida Archeology,
The Florida Anthropologist, Vol. 1, pp. 57-60. n. p.
Griffin, James B.
1945. The Significance of the Fiber-Tempered Pottery of
the St. Johns Area in Florida, Journal of the
Washington Academy of Science. Vol. 35, pp. 218-223.
Higgs, Charles D.
1942. Spanish Contacts with the Ais (Indian River)
Country, Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 21,
pp. 25-39. St. Augustine.
Honey, W. B.
1946. Glass, A Handbook for the Study of Glass Vessels of
all Periods and Countries, Victoria and Albert
1942. Florida Dunes and Scrub, Vegetation and Geology.
Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin 23. Tallahassee.
Simon, Andre L.
1926. Bottlescrew Days. London.
Smith, Hale G.
1948. Two Historical Archaeological Periods in Florida
American Antiquity, Vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 313-319.
FLORIDA ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY
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1. Two Archeological Sites in Brevard County, Florida. Hale G.
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