Citation
In the 2nd year of the Cuban agrarian reform

Material Information

Title:
In the 2nd year of the Cuban agrarian reform
Alternate title:
In the second year of the Cuban agrarian reform
Creator:
Núñez Jiménez, Antonio
Instituto Nacional de Reforma Agraria (Cuba)
Place of Publication:
La Habana, Cuba
Publisher:
Editorial en Marcha
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
1 online resource (37 pages) : illustrations ;

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Land tenure -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects ( fast )
Land tenure ( fast )
Terratenencia ( qlsp )
Agricultura -- Aspectos económicos ( qlsp )
Cuba ( fast )
Genre:
statistics ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Antonio Nuñez Jimenez, Executive Director of the National Institute of the Agrarian Reform.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
UF Latin American Collections
Rights Management:
Copyright, Cuba. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
948929724 ( OCLC )
ocn948929724
36557202 ( Aleph )
Classification:
HD1333.C9 N86 1961 ( lcc )

Full Text
In the 2nd year of the
Cuban Ag9rarian
by captain
TAT 0UNEZ JIMENEZ
,i ..... ..







IN THE 2ND YEAR OF THE CUBAN
AGRARIAN REFORM
Executive Director of the National Institute of the Agrarian Reform INRA




I A
Report to the people:
IN THE 2ND
YEAR
OF THE
CUBAN
AGRARIAN
REFORM
December 9, 1959. Dr. Fidel Castro signs the first title of ownership of the land: that of farmer Engracia Blet, from Duaba Arriba, Baracoa. In two years more than 1,425 titles have been given to an equal number of peasants. Today in Cuba, free territory of America, no peasant pays rent for the land he tills.




The President of Cuba, Dr.
Osvaldo Lortic6s, launches a new
fishing vessel for a Co-operarive in
Manzanilo
Today, May 17, 1961, our country is celebrating We can say, proudly, that our Agrarian Reform the second anniversary of the signing of the Agra- is the first in the history of mankind that began its rian Reform Law by the Revolutionary, Government work by increasing all levels of agricultural proat La Plata, which was the headquarters of the Rebel duction. Army deep in the Sierra Maestra. Since then, the Our Socialist Revolution is bringing the bread of head of our Revolution, Major Fidel Castro, has led education to 'the peasants; at the end of this year, one of our country's finest battles: a battle to make we shall have eliminated the scourge of illiteracy. sure that the soil of Cuba is truly Cuban and that The peasants already have hospitals, schools, social the most forgotten and down-trodden citizens of centers. They are no longer victims of the exploitaCuba, our humble peasants, emerge from the secular tion of unscrupulous merchants. They already posmisery which was their lot under the capitalist regime sess close to 2,000 People's Stores; and they no and imperialist domination, represented first by the longer have to depend on rapacious middle-men, Spaniards and then the Yankees, as well as native who used to buy the products from them at a low exploiters, price and sell them at a high price to the consumers
in the cities. They no longer have to suffer beatings
Thanks to this battle, in which all our people have by the machetes of the Rural Guard. Now they, taken part, the shameful bohio has now been the peasants, have weapons in their hands to defend
converted into a decent home, the landed estate the Revolution and their country. has been distributed to its rightful owners, the The Agrarian Reform, which began in this way, peasants, who previously worked the land as tenant- has become thanks to the attacks of imperialism, to farmers, sharecroppers and squatters. the excesses of 'the land owners, and above all,
The great sugar cane estates have been made thanks to the intelligence of our people, to their into 622 Sugar Cane Co-operatives; the great cattle united action, and to the revolutionary capabilities ranches and rice plantations have been made into of our Government -the first AGRARIAN RE263 People's Farms. FORM of the New World.
3




31,425 PROPERTY TITLES which they work. Those who were sharecroppers
and squatters on farms no larger than 2 caballerias are in the same position. Thanks to our Agrarian Up to May 10, 1961, the Legal Department of Reform, they are now the lawful owners, in fact
the National Institute of the Agrarian Reform, in and in theory, of the land which they work. accordance with the Agrarian Reform Law, had handed over free to the poorest peasants, 31,425 Resolution No. 251, decreed by the National Institle deeds to parcels of land which did not exceed titute of the Agrarian Reform on March 23, 1961, 2 caballerias (1 caballeria 333/3 acres). sets up the procedure for transferring the ownership
of their plots to the peasants who are on farms larger Numerous peasants have been freed from paying than 2 caballerias but not larger than 5. Many rent as tenants since about the middle of 1960, des- thousands of peasants are benefitting from the applipite not having received their property titles yet cation of this Resolution. The National Institute
-the latter being only a formality, because in fact of the Agrarian Reform is working very intensely in and theory they are the lawful owners of the land this area.
7 k *W A A
ti I i;l I
This peasant. from the old H-7 agricultural Zone, with his smile and his beg .. of groceries, purchased in a People's Store, is a living symbol of the
liberation brought about by the Agrarian Reform. In two years of revolution 1,996 People's Stores have been established in the countryI, in addition to 25 big warehouses and 58 distributing centers.




Fidel climbs the steep slopes of the Turquino, serving as guide to the Student Militia of Havana University. Following ehe leader of the Revolution are Celia Sanchez and members of the Rebel Army
The 31,425 land titles given to the peasants by F I N A N C I N G
the Revolutionary Government are distributed by To carry out its plans during the two years of
provinces as follows: Agrarian Reform, the National Institute has relied
upon resources of over four hundred million pesos, Titles coming from governmental allocations, the recovery
of stolen property and funds, grants coming from Pinar del Rio .......................................... 5,602 the people which exceed eight million pesos, bank
H abana ............................................................. 2,418 loans, etc.
M atanzas .......................................................... 2,911 These resources have been distributed in imports
Las Villas ............. 4,513 such as agricultural machinery, in agricultural deCamagiiey .............. .......... 2;458 velopment, in the development of cattle, swine and
O riente .................................................................. 13,523 poultry and of industries, in plans for visits by
the public to People's Farms and Co-opera~ives, By the application of Law No. 851 of 1960, de' the gigantic plan for peasant housing, in the development of the fishing industry, and the creation of creed by the Council of Ministers of the Revolution- oFis thing i st and traction o
ary Government, 94,007.6 caballerias were nation- 'Fishing Co-operatives, with the construction of over alized. These, distributed among 596 farms, were 200 boats in 18 shipyards, in the People's Stores, in the Iproperty of U.S. business enterprises egedthe construction of school cities, in the training of
theproert ofLI.. bsinss ntepriesengaged technicians, in the volunteer teachers program, in in the sugar industry. Of these 94,007.6 caballerias, the worker and peasant militias, and, chiefly, in the 67,210.9 were worked under the direct administration finaningeo agriculture pr dci to the financing' of agricultural production through 'the, of U.S. business, and the remainder, 26,796.7, were Agricultural Development Zones first and the Peoworked through the system of leasing. ple's Farms next.
By Law No. 890 of 1960, 2,533 farms owned by MAPP'NG A ID PROPETY CENSUS
Cuban enterprises, totalling 67,849.59 caballerias, %were nationalized. These too formed part of the The triumph of the Revolution has put into action
sugar industry. all of a long series of activitics which were shclhvcd
5




in Cuba due to the system we suffered, despite their nomy, they are given an elementary acquaintancebeing indispensable for the functioning of any effi- ship with draftsmanship, land surveying, and clasciently organized state. sification of soils, as well as the use of the Metric
One of these activities is the National Property System.
Census. This consists of the enumeration and lite- Aerial photographs, enlarged on a scale of 1:15,000 ral and graphic description of the lands which make adequately corrected, are used for the identification up our agrarian wealth, of mountains and cities, of farms. (See photographs already processed and mines, industries, etc. It tells the area, location, reduced to a scale of 1:60,000). boundaries, crops, soil quality, and other facts which must be known to make possible a more just and For villages of 1,000 inhabitants or over, towns,
equitable distribution, and cities, photographs on a scale of 1:5,000 or
There are two basic parts of the Property Census: greater are used.
the first is surveying, identifying boundaries, and In the most important areas, some control is set up measuring surface area; and the'second deals with In the scalepotneas. agricultural, livestock, geological, and urban matters. to check the scale of the negatives.
The system of work is as follows:
Property Census plans are made through direct
The Leonel Rodriguez Technical and Political copying of the mosaics formed with the photo Training Academy has been created in San Antonio plans. The sheets are organized in this fashion, de los Bafios It has a capacity of 34 students, who bearing the cultural details advised by the economic receive an intensive six-week course. Besides their factor and showing each People's Farm, Co-operamain subjects of Property Census and Political Eco- tive. or small landowner, with his corresponding card.
revlt th [ago[ helon sar
r ~
"Now the Yankees don't give the orders around here," shouted a happy peasant when the huge United Fruit latifundium was liquidated. He holds, as a'symbol of permanent revolt, the flag of the lone star.
6 L .




Democracy in practice among the members of the "'Rubn Martinez Villena"
Co-operative, to the north of the Zapata Swap.
A record (census card) is made with data about who occupied it, up to a limit of 2 caballerias, that the tenancy of the land, proof of the boundaries, is, to the small owners, tenants, sharecroppers, and names of boundaries and adjacent land, specifically squatters, has brought about the formation of a large, clarifying boundaries where difficulties exist, indi- powerful group of small farmers. Previously, all casting the adjacent land which is found in such the land taken over by the State had been operated cases. These cards will indicate the use of the land by the Agricultural Development Zones. These, 29 and its classification: farming, cattle raising, poultry in number, were the sections into which our national raising, or beekeeping. territory was divided as a consequence of taking the
Area measurements are verified through surveying holdings of the large landowners, dividing them, (using precision instruments) and looking after, in the most urgent way, the
(t maintenance at least of our agricultural production.
The following work has been accomplished: Afterwards, according to what time permitted and
Processed Photographs: 589 covering an area of following the lines of the development of our reform, 36,553.02 square kilometers or 272,373 caballerias. the General Administrations were formed. These
Farms Photographed: 69,236. see to the organizing, financing, and accomplishing
T"E ORGANIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION of the main branches of our production.
Recently, the National Institute of the
The application of the Agrarian Reform Law has Agrarian Reform has organized two important Geproduced fundamental changes in the ownership of neral Administrations, the Cane Co-operatives to the land in Cuba. The giving of land to the peasant see to the sugar cane plantations, and the Peoples




Farms, to deal chiefly with lands acquired from the The rest of the area, that is, 399,155 caballerias cattle ranches. or 59% of all arable land, belongs to the private
branch.
In summary, it can be shown that in the new
organization of agricultural-livestock production, Nevertheless, it is good to point out that within the three principal branches of Cuban agriculture are this private branch exists the National Association the Cane Co-operatives, the People's Farms, and of Small Farmers, which, as a whole, controls the National Association of Small Farmers. These 263,795 caballerias. also constitute three administrative affiliates of the These, added to the 277,220 of the Co-operatives National Institute of the Agrarian Reform. and State branches, make a total of 541,015 cabaThe present distribution of farmlands, according llerias. That is, the material base of land on which to their production, is as follows: the Revolutionary Government and the National
Institute of the Agrarian Reform depend to carry Caballerias Per cent forward the 1961 plan for agricultural-livestock production and all the measures which favor the dePeople's Farms 197,220 20.16 velopment of agriculture and livestock represent 80%
Agricultural Co-operatives 80,000 11.83 of Cuban land. This is the proportion made up by
Private (National Association the land of the People's Farms, the co-operatives,
ofvate Sm tionall F ar so n h 3 l 5and the small farmers who work less than 5 caballeanoters rias, grouped together in the National Association
TOTAL 676375 10of Small Farmers and having decided to work closely
5100.00 with the National Institute of the Agrarian fReform
In the agricultural census of 1946, a total area of in the fulfillment of our agricultural plans and goals. 676,375 caballerias was registered as the national area of arable land, as shown inthe preceding chart. Therefore, it can be noted that between the state THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LIVESTOCK FAIR and the co-operative, branches of agriculture, there are 277,220 caballerias' of. land, that is, 41 % of all As a testimonial to the organization of agriculture the previously existing farmland. through the three main administrative branches of
3,000,000 1 INCREASE IN WAGES $19250,0
1,200,0001,000,000
900,000 o
800,000 /
700,000 5
600,000
500,000
400,000 $32,211,
300,000/
200,000]
100,000,
0 ~"'195B1901
i.WW 4.




Dr. Fidel Castro explains agricultural production plans,
415 during one of the periodic
meetings of Department heads in
LABOR INCREASE IN INDUSTRY INRA. Ltnn
Captain Antonio Ndfiez Jiminez.
242
1961
9




the National Institute of the Agrarian Reform, the ported by the National Institute of the Agrarian First National Agricultural-Livestock Fair of our Reform from various socialist countries: the Soviet republic is being held at this time. On April 23, Union, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Hungary. scarcely six days after our country had been invaded There is a pavilion dedicated to education, organized by forces serving imperialism, the President of the by the Department of Technical Assistance to the Republic, Dr. Osvaldo Dortic6s Torrado, delivered Farmer. the opening address of this event, organized by the Around a thousand head of cattle, swine, horses, Production Department of the National Institute of and sheep are exhibited in the Fair. They demonsthe Agrarian Reform. trate the zeal with which the Revolution has preserThe opening of the Fair confirmed what Fidel ved, developed, and improved magnificent specimens had said when the National Institute was founded of each breed. in April, 1959:
"Although imperialism may drop boxcars on our Up to now, more than 300,000 Cubans have visited heads, production will continue to move forward." the Fair, which also shows oui 1961 production
Represented in this Fair are all the basic organiza- plans and offer some views of our agricultural prostions dealing with our agricultural-livestock produc- pects for 1965. tion, including the People's Farms, the Cane Co- SUGAR CANE CO-OPERATIVES
operatives, and the National Association of Small
Farmers. The General Administration of Sugar Cane CoThere are attractive exhibits of the production and operatives of the National Institute of the Agrarian manufacture of the products of different adminis- Reform has organized 622 co-operatives on the old trations, such as coffee and cocoa, tobacco, rice, sugar cane estates. These form 46 divisions, where cotton, hennequen, poultry, fish, potatoes, and honey. 122, 448 members work. Agricultural workers who
All the industries derived from agriculture and were exploited by capitalism before the Revolution, livestock are represented: dairy products, canned today are the owners of the places where they work. meat, fruits, and vegetables, feed and fats. In addition, 46,614 seasonal workers work on these
There is a large exhibit of the new machinery im- co-operatives.
~ t
l7-9
4'




. . ...... .... .... A,,.. '
A group of peasants and Rebel soldiers riding through
the fields of Mayari, on their way to declare
the huge United Fruit landholdings, in the name
of the Revolution, "Free Territory of America."
Each co-operative has an Administrator and a grated into the new economic and social orianizatiorManaging Council made up of a co-ordinator and brought to our country by the 'Revolution. Besides
seven officers who attend to the problems of supplies, 140 caballerias of tomatoes, '53 caballerias of potamachinery, education, housing, production, and per- toes, 500 caballerias of beans, and 700 caballerias of sonal and public order. They are all elected demo- corn (maize) were financed. An orchard has, been cratically by the members of the co-operatives. created on each Co-operative, Christmas bonuses to
To finance the Sugar Cane Cc-operatives, the the sum of $1,200,000.00 were paid to the members Revolutionary Government supplied the General of the co-operatives, and the acquisition of 1,000 Administration of Cane Co-operatives with credit in tractors was financed. More than three thousand the National Bank of Cuba for $34,200,000. This members of the co-operatives or their famfies were is employed in the cultivation of 1,500 million "arro- sent to various schools of Insemination, Mechanics, bas" 01 arroba = 25 lbs.) of cane regrowths (sugar Art, Fitting and Sewing; the National Schol of the cane in Cuba is, not replanted every year -it is Sugar Cane Co-operatives was created. TIhree oo-' cut and regows from the same plant), in the diver- del towns were built, and sixteen new towns are in sification of 'agriculture, in salaries, and for contri- the process of being built. On these co-operatis
butions and personal taxes. These add up to over miserable bohios are no longer erected, nor the filthy $5,186,608.97. In addition it was subsidizing about huts of the past. a thousand foremen, whose work was not yet inte- On the old cane plantations reined the exclusive the iels ofMayn, n thir ay t delar




cultivation of one crop, forbidding the agrarian pro- need for someone from afar to guard the place where
gress of the nation and keeping so many hundreds they work.
and hundreds of Cuban families in misery. The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform proposed to In 1961, all the co-operatives will start raising give this one-crop landed estate system the death- cows and have their own dairies. Thirteen thousand blow, establishing in its place the strong sugar-cane caballerias (432.900 acres) will be improved for co-operatives, well named because sugar cane is the agricultural diversification, and 3,000 caballerias foundation of their wealth. But it is no less certain (99,900 acres) for the sowing of "pangola" forage.
that now they are truly Agricultural-Livestock Co- In addition, we will build 60 new towns, create operatives. chicken farms, breed pigs, and carry out activities of a profound educational and cultural nature, In order to safeguard all these gains 66,000 mem- such as participation in the Campaign against Illitebers of the co-operatives have joined the National uchashparicip action ampig an tieRevolutionary Militia, integrated into combat batta- racy, theatrical presentations, talks, and lectures.
lions where they handle not only rifles, but also cannons, anti-aircraft guns, mortars, and other
weapons. In addition, comrade Fidel ordered that THE PEOPLE'S FARMS
each co-operative be given five rifles for the Public
Order Squad, which is made up by members of the The People's Farm is the state agency for agrico-operative themselves. Now there is no longer a cultural-livestock production, capable in this form of
The workers of the Pedro Betancourt Co-operative fighting a fire started by Yankee planes. The scene takes place in 1960,
"Year of the Agrarian Reform."
'12,




4< V4
42<
Workers ot the old Preston Sugar Mill of the
United Fruit Co. painting its new revolutionary name,
-Guatemala," on the roof Jacobo Arbenz presided over the act, No longer do exploiting Yankees or Cubansown the sugar mills of our country. The 160 mills
belong to the people.
regulating and solving the people's needs; and there- construction of dams and hydraulic irrigation works. fore, it and its production belong to the Cuban These constitute the basic tasks of the National people:. Institute of the Agrarian Reform in developing our,
Fidel has said: "The People's Farms belong to national economy and are reflected mainly in the rise
the people. In them are produced products that are in the living standard of the agricultural workers of indispensable to our population; in them, numerous the People's Farms. (workers earn a decent living. In addition, they and "their families enjoy the right to free housing, educa- At present 163 People's Farms are organized and tion, medical care, social centers, electricity, and in production. They have a total area of 197,220 water. The profits are reinvested in the same Farm or caballerias (6,567,426 acres) of land and a total in establishing similar ones." number of 96,498 agricultural workers. Ten diffe-From January Imst. of this year until the presenIt rent crops are grown, and 1,022,727 head of livethe National Institute of the Agrarian Reform has stock cared for. invested' $38,962,550.86 in the development of the
:People's Farms. This sum represents the cost of the THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SMALL FARMERS different. phas~s of the agricultural-livestock production of tfie People's Farms and of investments which On December 19, 1960, addressing the Sugar go, fom the purchase of agricultural machinery and Conference convened to plan the First People's Suequipment of all kinds and the importing of pure- gar Cane Harvest, the Chief of the Revolution, Dr. bred 'cattle, in order to improve our own, to the Fidel Castro Ruz, called upon all the small farmers,
13




sugar cane, vegep,5 e, potato, and coffee growers at the disposal of the small farmers, the National and livestoc isers to join the National Associa- Bank has transferred to the National Association of tion of S Farmers. Small Farmers the old rural Credit Associations,
which formed part of the no-longer-in-existence ite its being in existence for only a few BANFAIC. months the Association already has a membership of over 50,000 farmers. One of the National Association of Small Farmers' most important functions is that of serving as Following Fidel's guidance, the Association pro- an instrument in making the small farmer the owner poses to distribute 35 million pesos in credits to the of his land. At the same time creating service cosmall farmers in the course of this year in order to operatives (where the fa:'mer obtains machinery, diversify production. This includes the encourage- fertilizer, etc.) the association will contribute to the ment of the growing of cocoa, coffee, corn, millet, development of a more economical and organized and lesser crops. production by the small farmers.
Following the principle of putting the financial It is co-operating effectively with the Campaign facilities necessary for the development of production against Illiteracy, and a great many of its members*
Every Cuban works in the
First Sugar Harvest of the People
now that the 160 sugar mills
are not Yankee, but belong to the
Republic. And even from abroad
people come to help us cut cane
,4




VALUE OF TOBACCO EXPORTS
A rice co-operptive worker from Santa Md~nica, in Daganiguas,
Pinar d,1 Rio Province. "Now the product of my sweat
is for my family and not for the former owner of the farm."
I rj Af
f;A
15




are actively participating .r the Revolutionary The People's Harvest has received valuable aid Militia. from the four national conferences which marked
different stages of the great Jests Men~ndez ComG0 A R petition (a competition to improve sugar cane production and harvesting, named after a martyr of the Sugar is an ill continue to be our basic crop for sugar workers union). These sugar mill adminissome time./ wtrators, heads of co-operatives, leaders of the sugar In 196),,we had the First People's Sugar Harvest. mill trade unions, Federation of Cuban Women and The ipierialists, speaking through Herter, cxpres- voluntary work organizers, representatives of the se Aie opinion that the Cuban Agrarian Reform militia and of the various revolutionary organizations 6uld bring about a steep drop in our sugar pro- have taken part in meetings of enormous importance
-duction; however, we are finishing one of the most for the checking of work already accomplished and gigantic sugar harvests our country has ever had. for winning the battle of sugar production.
At this date, we have exceeded the six million tons
which we gathered in the biggest harvest of the last T 0 B A C C O
eight years, and we are continuing harvesting sugar with a million tons to go. which functions under the direction of the Producton
This harvest is being carried out at the 160 sugar Through the General Tobacco Administration, mills nationalized by our revolutionary government. Department, the National Institute of the Agrarian The 90,000 industrial sugar workers are working Reform sets the main lines and directs our production under the direction of the Revolutionary Adminis- of leaf tobacco in the following fashion: trations. These are advised by the Councils of To guarantee the adequate supply of tobacco Management and Technical Aid, made up of half a plants to the grower, the General Tobacco Admidozen workers of each industry. The entire sugar nistration developed a plan calling for 60 caballerias industry is directed by the General Sugar Mill Ad- (1,898 acres) to be seeded at a cost of $1,100.000.00. ministration, founded by the National Institute of The tobacco growers and members of the co-opethe Agrarian Reform, which works in perfect co- ratives are being supplied 900 million first-quality ordination with the Cane Co-operatives Administra- plants at reasonable prices. tion and the Federation of Sugar Workers. In addition to having benefitted from the eliminaCOFFEE PRODUCTION IN CUBA
.300,000 5 ?, a00
,oo. 0 00 55, 2oo
oocoESTIMATE
S000 00 0 00
600.000 7,6000(
soo.oso -." .. 4- as.eoo
>N1ooo 2,,oo u,
o /9 7/So 1958/59 .5.9/.o 1760/61 196, 16
YEAR




IA4
44
T.b2 newv cotton fields of
liguani O-ente Pro:,ince,
developed by INRA.
tion of sharecropping and rent, the most modest grower sees the prices of his crops bettered, raising his living standard extraordinarily. o.- WAGESIN COTTON PRODUCTION The leqal term having expired by which the pri..... Jvate buyers made their habitual purchases, the Na... tional Institute of the Agrarian Reform bought the
/- rest of the 1959-1960 crop, which was still in the
0oo hands of the growers, at a cost of $18,282,778.00.
_____ For the first time in Cuba's history, the growers
______ __who sold their tobacco to the State collected the
, /amount due to them from the harvest be Fore Christ_____Airculturl Waes / mas -in a record time of two and a half months.
/ The General Tobacco Administration will buy
... ;the next harvest, that of 1960-1961. For the first
______time in our history, the Cuban state will acquire the tt
.. z/entire tobacco crop, establishing payment in accor_____dance with the quality of the product. It is estimated ... that the value of this harvest will be 92 million pesos,
/ of which 70 million will go to the growers and the
~"' iadustrial Wages rest, that is, 20 million pesos, to the expenses of
?,r -; ....selection, handling, and shipping.
... .. ... .. During its' first year, the National Institute of the
--. ,' ....Agrarian Reform set aside 26 caballerias (865.6 acres) of land for the cultivation of golden (Virginia) tobacco. In its second year, the present year,
17




the area planted with this type of tobacco was raised and Improve their production of fragant Cuban to 90 caballerias (2,997.0 acres) of golden tobacco, cigarettes. plus 20 caballerias (666.0 acres) of burley, and 4 The GeneralTobacco Administration of the Nacaballerias (133.2 acres) of Turkish tobacco, the tonal Institute of the Agrarian Reform helped
last in experimental form. At this time, the harvest is being gathered. We estimate it at 30,000 hundred- organize 234 Service and Consumers' Co-operatiweight worth over one million pesos. This crop ves for small farmers:
plus that of the private growers, which will be about 142 co-operatives in Pinar del Rio.
60,000 hundredweight, guarantees the necessary 77 co-operatives in Las Villas and
leaf tobacco for our factories to be able to increase 15 co-operatives in Camagiley.
~~4L,
Farmer from the onion cooperative of Banao, "Ram6n Pando Ferrer Onion Co-operative in
Banao, Las Villas province. "The cooperative is a great thing, we help each other,
and INRA
is the father of all,"
declared this peasant form
he declared.
18




II
4
To increase production
AMS
constantly is. the slogan of the farmers in Revolutionary Cuba. They are happily tilling the land that belongs to them forever.
NUMBER OF BOXES OF TOMATO o e, orer.
PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED
IN CUBA DURING THE FIVE YEAR PERIOD 1957-1961
1,500,00
1.400,000
1.300,000
1.100,000
1.100,000
900,000
800,000
600,000
600,0007 E5_159190 93
500,000 ,,,
1957 1958 1959 1960 1961




R I C E COFFEE AND COCOA
In 1958, the last year of the tyranny, the cultiva- The General Coffee and Cocoa Administration, tion of rice in Cuba reached 109,818 hectares (I created by the National Institute of the Agrarian hectare = 18 acres). One year later, the National Reform, replaced the inoperative agencies that the Institute of the Agrarian Reform increased this cul- State had for these areas of production. tivation to 141,439 hectares, in 1960 to 159,698 The Administration has purchased the entire 1960hectares and in 1961, it reached 212,733 hectares. 1961 harvest, which, in coffee, was over 850,000 That is, in only. two years, we have doubled the area hundredweight, with an approximate value of 37 of rice cultivation. The People's Farms alone pro- million pesos, and in cocoa is estimated at about duce almost half of the rice grown in Cuba. 45,000 hundredweight, with an approximate value of
The value of the 1958 crop was $36,536,948.00, one million pesos.
while in 1961, this figure will increase to Everything indicates that we will have a large
$75,931,333.00. 1961-1962 coffee crop, which will provide all we
The area sown with winter rice in 1961 covered need for domestic consumption and a good-sized 3,160 caballerias (105,228.0 acres) or 42,409 surplus for exportation. hectares. Plans are being worked out for producing 1,750,000
hundredweight of coffee in 1965 by means of inten. The estimated spring sowing for 1961 is 12,691 sive cultivation. This includes fertilizing, rational caballerias (422,610.3 acres) or 170,324 hectares. pruning, shade control, fighting against erosion, etc.
To a great extent, this increase in rice production At this time, cocoa plantations are coming into will free us from importing from the United States, being through credits granted to the small farmers of as we were doing, especially due to the high level the Sierra Maestra and of Cristal, Baracoa, etc. of national consumption. Thousands of small farmers in the mountains are
working intensely on increasing cocoa production, In 1958, Cuba produced 2,974,814 hundredweight assuring that by 1965 we will have quadrupled our of rice,. while in 1961, our national production was present production. This will permit us to export a 4,450,650 hundredweight. product for which we have been asked by the soIn 1958, the per capita consumption of rice in Cuba cialist countries.
was 116 pounds; this increased in 1961 to 130 In order to develop the technique of profitable
pounds per person. cultivation of coffee and cocoa, the National Institute
HENNEQUEN COOPERATIVES
Name of the No. of Members Production
Cooperative Location (lbs. / yr.)
Amado Cudllar Finca San AntonioCardenas-Matanzas 600 6,500,000
Julian Alemfn Finca La Conchita,
Varadero-Matanzas 410 5,500,000
Francisco del ol JuraguS-Cienfuegos
Las Villas 460 4,500,000
Rail Hernindez Hershey-Santa Cruz del
Norte-Habana 320 3,500,000
Josd A. Echeverria Carboneras-Matanzas
Matanzas 240 2,500,000
Ren6 Arcay Guajaib6n-Mariel Pinar
del Rio 240 2,500,000
Romn Valenzuela Finca La Fe-Cdrdenas
Matanzas 150 1,000,000
Antonio Berdayes Limonar-Guamacaro
Matanzas 200 1,000,000.
Omelio L6pez Nuevitas-Camagiiey 160 500,000
Juan Manuel Marquez Guajaib6n-Mariel
Pinar del Rio 100 500,000
Reynold Garcia Guanibana-Matanzas
Matanzas 120
3,000 28,000,000
20




of the Agrarian Reform has created a magnificent has resulted in our being confident of the final coffee school on the fourth plateau of the Punta liquidation of fraud in the weight of the product de Maisi. More than 200 sons of coffee-growers and of foreign substances which formerly adulteare already attending it. After receiving a prac- rated the roasted coffee. Thus the people are tical technical course on these matters, they will guaranteed price stability and good quality of the return to the small plots to apply new techniques product they consume. that will considerably augment our coffee and cocoa production. COTTON
The Administration also manages all the coffee Cotton began to be cultivated in Cuba on an warehouses and most of the roasting houses. This appreciable scale only from 1959 on, under the iii,07
The Agrarian Rejorpt has
increased hewnequen fiber
production by 20%o with the
co-operative system.
21
L




I. N. R. A.
NATIONAL HENEQUEN COOPERATIVE
Services Received. by the Cooperative Members in 1960
Toys for the Christmas Christmas Bonus Baseball Champion ship National Henequen School
Holidays Operation
$ 2,069.79 $ 35,998.50 $ 8,263,69 $ 14,850.13
Housing Construction Commercial Deparments Value of Dairies FARMS
Agricultural $ 10,000
Poultry 5,000
4'A Livestock
Swine $ 3,000
1 town finished Sheep 2,000
3 under construction Cattle 15,000
$300,000.00 $107,062.46 $ 80,000.00
petus of the Agrarian Reform. Our textile mills the policy of imperialism, we have succeeded in were consuming 14,755 metric tons of cotton worth exporting fresh tomatoes at a value of one million $10,000,000.00, which had to be imported from dollars and cucumbers at a value of 300,000 dollars. abroad. With the growing of cotton here, we At present in accordance with the policy of the
created, in addition, a great source of work exactly Revolutionary Government to increase foreign at the time when the s-ugar cane harvest ends. trade, we are exporting oranges to Czechoslovakia.
Our 1961 production will be about 56,030 metric This exportation is possible because we have tons, which, along with its by-products (oil, nap, enough to cover our consumption of more than flour) will be worth about $16,000,000.00. 600,000.000 oranges.
The Revolution has set up nine cotton gins, con- In the same way, our export of pineapples is in full veniently located throughout the Republic. progress. We are also exporting canned pineapples
to the socialist countries, which has, produced an FRUIT AND VEGETABLES increase in the pineapple processing factories, located in Artemisa, Guanajay and Ciego de Avila. Before the Revolution Cuba had to import a good We have exported grapefruit to the English part of the canned tomatoes which it consumed, market, and are negotiating the export of oranges The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform set also. the goal of not importing a single pound of processed tomatoes. Thus, in 1959, we produced 80,000 P O T A T 0 E S
cases of canned tomatoes of 44 pounds each; in 1960, this figure increased to 1,200,000 cases; and The Potato Office plans the production and disthis year, we will produce 1,500,000 cases. tribution of potatoes in Cuba, looks after fulfilment
Even with the economic restrictions caused by of the National production goals, sets the prices
22




for both grower and consumer, arranges the im- From the National Association of Small Farmers, porting of certified seed potatoes as well as the the potato growers have been granted loans of up potatoes necessary for covering the domestic con- to 75% of the value of their farms. In the present sumption during the months of October and No- harvest, the finance loans made to the potato growvember. ers pass the $3,120,000.00 mark.
81.7% of potato cultivation is by small farmers, During the first year of the Agrarian Reform the members of the National Association of Small first experimental planting of potatoes in the Farmers, and 18.3% is by the Sugar Cane Co- mountainous regions of the Sierra Maestra and the operatives and People's Farms. Escambray was carried out with promising results.
In 1959-1960, the quantity of imported seed po- This year, 22,000 hundredweight of seed potatoes tatoes planted was 196,000 hundredweight. This, will be laid in such regions, against the 3,000 plus 30,000 hundredweight of Cuban seed potatoes hundredweight which were laid last year. named "Titina" were planted in an area of appro- If this experiment is successful, we can reduce xim atel, 684 cahallerias (27,777.2 acres). The land proportionately our need of importing potatoes in was cultivated by 1,220 farmers, increasing produc- autumn. tion to 2,i2u,000 hundredweight of first-quality potatoes worth $8,200,000.00. This was paid to the H E N N E Q U E N
producers.
In 1960-1961, the quantity of imported seed po- In, January, 1960, the National Institute of the tatoes sown was 240,000 hundredweight. This, Agrarian Reform bought all the hennequen planplus 40,000 hundredweight of Titina seed potatoes tations of Cuba from their former owners. It created was laid in an area of 850 caballerias (28,305.0 the General Administration of Hennequen Farms, acres) by 1930 workers. The sales value of the today the National Hennequen Co-operative, production is estimated at $9,900,000.00. through which it finances, organizes, and adminisThe success of the Agrarian Reform in this area ters the total production of that fiber.
is demonstrated if we remember that the last harvest The fourteen plantations thus acquired were gathered during the government of the tyranny converted into eleven co-operatives guaranteeing was almost half of the harvest of the second year cmploymefit throughout the year to 3,000 members. of the Revolution. Fcim the date of their purchase, "dead time" was
PRODUCTION INCREASE OF FLOUR FOR
CATTLE FEED
842,490 Kgs.
189315 hdwts -J
4W 140,701,488 Kgs.
1958 1961 1962 3058 728 hdwts
38,681,400 Kgs,2
840,900 hdwts
23




"W'e are being attacked
jar what we are, but we are
attacked cuen more
S because we are
showing the peoples
can achieve," declared Major
Elrnesto Che Guevara at the oo~en'ng oj the
First Latin
~American Youth Congress,
l Havana, July, 1960.
ended on the hennequen plantations. The total area themselves elect in a General Assembly, and of the co-operatives is 1,400 caballerias (46,620.0 Administrator, who is, designated by the Nation acres) of which 900 (20,970.0 acres) are planted Institute of the Agrarian Reform. with hennequen, and the rest used for agricultural- Tentoa rdcini 90ws2,2,
livetoc proucton.pounds of clean fiber, an increase of 54% over t[
We are including a list of the co-operatives, their production of the previous year, which was 18,50 location, number of members, and production in 000 pounds.1 pounds per year (see p. 20). Of the 1960 production, 2500,000 pounds
The members direct and administer their co-ope- fiber were exported to the socialist countries and rative through the Managing Council which they the rest sold to domestic rope-making plants, whi
24'




make the finished products of rope and thread for of the National Hennequen Co-operative. Each domestic use and for export. Co-operative became a Section, without changing
The gross value of the 1960 production was over the basis of the co-operatives and the regulations $2,500,000. The co-operatives shared profits of that had been established previously. more than $120,000. The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform
The planting of 200 caballerias has' begun in Reform administered the cattle of the landed estates developed areas, which will produce 10,000,000 more and the newly hought cattle through a central admipounds of fiber by 1965. nistration, until a short time ago when the People's
Five People's Stores, acquired at a cost of Farms were created.
$107,000 serve as many co-operatives. This Administration directed the production of
In order to raise the level of cultural and revo- 900 cattle ranches of about 50,000 caballerias lutionary understanding of the members of the co- (1,665,000 acres) of pastureland, employing approoperatives, the National Hennequen School near ximately 20,000 workers. Varadero has been founded. When the students Many of the cows were acquired by the Cane
finished the last course, they went to Mexico, where Co-operatives for their newly created dairies, and they studied the hennequen technique of that the Cattle Administration supplied the slaughtercountry. houses principally those of metropolitan Havana,
A new town has been built in the Jose A. Eche- daily.
verria Co-operative, with 65 homes, a department This Administration drew up plans, which the store, and a social center. People's Farms are now following, for the improAt present, towns are being built in the Rend vement and development of our cattle. These inArcay, Rafil HernAndez and Julian Alcman Co- lude the following: A) The creation of an experioperatives, mental cattle station in Madruga, where experiIn the National Conference held on March 25, ments are conducted on the feeding of cattle. B) 1960, the hennequen workers agreed to the creation The creation of a school dealing with the construcIn the Sierra
Maestra Mountains, the
,Revolution has erected
many of the buildings of
the School Ot, "Camilo
Cientuegos.
I
4< >T




"A
4f4
_
Th2! Revolution b?gins
the transformation
of the Escambray Mountain.
Swimming pool for
the country chddren.
tion and filling of silos. The school has already tories for biological products that belong to the built 150 silos and graduated about 300 students. State and that worked under different administraThis year, 600 workers will be trained; they will be tions. It has brought about a considerable increase in charge of constructing and filling 4,000 silos in the production of biological products, and has throughout the republic. C) The creation of a begun the manufacturing of pharmaceutical proschool of Artificial Insemination in El Dique. 1,200 ducts. E) The creation of the Department of Catstudents coming from the Cane Co-operatives, are tle Sanitation within the production department of being trained there. They will spread this phase the National Institute of the Agrarian Reform. This of cattle breeding throughout our national territory, has unified all the work of the professional veterinstarting the use of artificial insemination on the arian who work for different State offices, with the People's Farms and the Co-operatives. D) A La- object of co-ordinating the veterinary services. F) boratory of Production and Veterinarian Research. Publications -they have edited 12 pamphlets conThis center has been formed to unite the labora- cerning the eradication of external and internal
26




NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF THE AGRARIAN REFORM Machinery Service for the Private Farmer NATIONAL SECTION
PROVINCIAL SECTION
REGIONAL STATION REGIONAL STATION REGIONAL STATION
SERVICE STATION SERVICE STATION SERVICE STATION
An investment of $80,997,070,18 in tractors,
combines, plows,
and $5,000,000 in spare
27




parasites, feeding, insemination, and other funda- country which originate from intensive genetic work mental aspects of cattle breeding. to obtain pure-bred hens.
At this time we are working on a complementary In regard to consumer eggs, an average producplan for the end of 1961, which contemplates more tion of 1,000 boxes daily can be considered adequate and better feed for fattening animals, fertilization for the supplying of the Havana market; already of pasture lands, increasing the birth rate, obtaining poultry farms have been developed with an eye to larger numbers of females, etc., that promise magni- the market in the capital. The National Institute ficent results. of the Agrarian Reform is developing poultry raising
With regard to pork raising, we are working intensely in all the provinces, and it can be said hard on the development of a plan that will lead to that there are more than one million layers on our the production of 5 million animals of 200 pounds farms. each, coming from 500,000 sows. In the development of the poultry plan, we have
had difficulties in increasing the incubation capacity
In spite of all the difficulties placed before us by and in constructing chicken houses in proportion to imperialism we have imported more than 20,000 hogs the quantity of birds that we have imported. This belonging to highly specialized breeds. Prominent has to a certain degree, limited the impetus of the among them are the following: Landrace, Yorkshi- development of our agriculture. re, Berkhire, Iaroc Jersey, Hampshire, Large Black, It is good to point out that the National Institute
of the Agrarian Reform supplied more than 50,000
We have obtained newborn animals, and deve- turkeys for the 1960 Christmas holidays and that loped the offspring of these imported animals per- for the first time turkeys and guinea hens have fectly on-the existing farms in Pinar del Rio, Ha- been produced on our farms. vana, and Matanzas. In the same manner, it is fitting to point out the
The Cane Co-operatives and the People's Farms, great development of the production of ducks, on their part, have collected our native sows, and which has exceeded 20,000 on the Corojal farm mixed breeds for a better production of pork, and alone. the corresponding lard, which our country finds so
necessary. REFORESTATION
Undoubtedly, this plan will require a large production of forage crops, and of grains for feed. The rich landowners and the foreign imperialist This is being taken into consideration in the plans companies plund the wealth of our forests for made for this year, but it is unquestionable that with centuries. the pork production in 1965, we will be in magnifi- In the two years of the Agrarian Reform, 25 cent conditions to eliminate the large imports of nurseries for normal production and 12 nurseries lard, amounting to 30 million pounds; and at the for a special eucalyptus plan have been constructed. same time we will be supplying the country with The total production of these nurseries has been pork. This will free us, in part, from the need to 50,000,000 J s, which are already in full growth. consume beef, which we can use for exportation and Reforesta on the basis of eucalyptus has been thus increase our dollar reserves, highly developed. In only one year (1959-1960)
It is worth mentioning that recently there has 34,000,000 trees were planted in a total area of 1,120 been a growing interest on farms and co-operatives caballerias (37,333 acres). in raising sheep and rabbits, which will be another In like maner, 500,000,000 trees of various spesource of the animal protein so necessary to our cies such as cedar, mahogany linden, teakwood and people,.issc scdr aogn;lnetawo n
others have been planted.
P O U L T R Y Thirty-five hundred steady workers, fifteen
hundred temporary workers, ninety technicians in
The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform forestry and agriculture, and many members of the has given special attention to the development ot Rebel Army and the National Revolutionary Militia the poultry industry, in our country. More than 10 worked on reforestation, guardians of our-,country million pesos have been invested in the importation in the fight against erosion and the destruction of of eggs, chickens, turkeys, etc. The poultry plan our natural resources. consists of eliminating all importations through In 1961 we are producing 40,000000, trees, in developing national production. Its basis is the permanent nurseries and 60,000,000 eucalyptus tre&, production of breeders in our country, in the obtain- pines and other species are being transplanteL ing of fertile eggs for incubation from which we which will develop rapidly. The total cost of'th s can obtain chickens for fattening, and enough hens project is some $8,0000000 pesos. It will bcaried for the production of consumer eggs. out on some 4,000 caballerias (133,333.3 acres),
The plan is quite well advanced. At this time In the National Agrarian Reform nurseries, there there are approximately 700,000 breeder hens in our are 4,450,165 fruit trees that will be planted between




this date and 1963. They include mango, avocado, The Sales Department of the National Institute guanabana, and others, of the Agrarian Reform can depend on 55 buying
The Cuban Reforestation Plan carried out under centers, 15 sub-centers, 9 freezing plants, and 26 the impulse of the Revolution is one of the best of shopping centers. Between May 1, 1960 and April its kind in the world. 30, 1961, the total. volume of purchases by this department ros eto some $14,000,000.
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY The Supply Section of the Production DepartThe National Institute of the Agrarian Reform ment of the National Institute of the Agrarian Rehas a technical department of agricultural machinery form has as its present function the supplying of in every province, with a national section of seeds, fertilizers, and insecticides to the People's hydraulic and electrical plants that takes care of Farms, Cane Co-operatives, rice growers, and motors, electrical plants, pumps, and turbines for growers who are members of the National Assoirrigated land on the People's Farms and Co-ope- ciation of Small Farmers. Also it takes care of the natives, and in general all the farms in the country. supplies related to tobacco production, and, in the The National Section of Aerial Fumigation, has 65 province of Camagiiey, livestock equipment. planes for its use, of which ten were imported from The Section is divided into three administrations the Soviet Union, each of which can spray 30 ca- -Seeds, Fertilizers, and Insecticides- each of ballerias a day (1,000 acres); The National Section which takes care of the purchases and distribution of Heavy Machinery for Land Clearance began its of the product that its name indicates. tasks with a pilot plan for clearing 5,000 caballerias For the distribution of the products that it sup(166,666.6 acres) of land in the northern zone of plies, the section maintains, at this time, the following Matanzas and Las Villas for the founding of new agricultural storehouses: People's Farms, but it has already expanded its A) Storehouses directly under the control of the radius of action to the other provinces. Havana Section:
In the two years of the Agrarian Reform around No. 21 Central Highway Km. 15, Cotorro.
50,000 caballerias (1,666,666.6 acres) of old land No. 53 Camagiiey Freezing Plant Doble Via overgrown with maribu and manjgua (types of de Nuevitas.
grass that grow on uncultivated soil in Cuba) have B) Storehouses that 'work as branches of the been cleared and replanted. Section:
The National Section of Machinery for Small To cover the rest of our national territory, the
Farmers (National Association of Small Farmers) Section operates the following agricultural store
has prepared, cultivated and cleared land, and built houses: dams, performing its services at reasonable prices. No. Locality
The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform
acquired irrigation equipment and electrical plants 11 Mendoza
to a value of approximately $7,000,000 between 12 Pinar del Rio
1959 and 1961; they have drilled 1,668 wells. 22 Nueva Gerona
The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform 31 Jovellanos
has acquired from different countries tractors, bull- 41 Santa Clara
dozers, combines, plows, etc., with a total value of 51.1 Florida
$81,000,000 of which $35,000.000 went to purchases 51 Camaguley
from the socialist countries; in addition the National 61 Bayamo
Institute of the Agrarian Reform has acquired parts 62 Holguin
to a value of $5,000,000 and has bought fuel and Below is a summary of production covering the lubricants to a value of $5,300,000. second year of the Agrarian Reform:
SEEDS
SALES DEPARTMENT Vegetables 44,308 hundredweight
The Sales Department has as an etid the buying Class Quantity
of agricultural products, assisting the producer by -buying all his produce at stable and remrlu-r.tive Peanuts 26,508 hundredweight
prices, and eliminating the exploiting middleman Soy Beans 8,260 hundredweight,
who kept the producer in a critical situation, spe- Sorghum 9,750 hundredweight
culating excessively in order to obtain large profits Cotton 10,060 hundredweight
at the expense of the consumer and to directly sup- Vegetales 44,308 hundredweight
ply the industries that used agricultural products as Saffron 400 pounds
raw materials. Hybrid corn 8,642 hundredweight
At present, the sale of coffee and rice will pass into Beans 34,600 hundredweight
the hands of the general administrations of these Native corn 6,582 hundredweight
products. Average value $1.724,404
29




00,00 INRA
840,000 40,986,000 Kgs.
780,000 891,000 hdwts
720,000 PRODUCTION INCREASE
660,000 IN EDIBLE OILS
500,000
540,000
480,000
420,000
360,000
300,000
240,000
7,375,640 Kqs.
160,340 hdwts.
120,000596,942 Kqs.
1 ,00 2 12,977 hwts.
60,000
FERTILIZER Average value $4,274,133.00
Crops cultivated Tons MISCELLANEOUS
Cane 135,992.14 Class Quantity
Potatoes 22,589.62
Tobacco 48,470.60 Sacks of jute fiber 390,000 sacks
Rice 55,951.66 Material for covers 2,499,000 yards
Vegetables 39,958.85 Burlap 20,000 yards
Fruits 16,621.25
Pineapple 1,084.80 Average value $247,130.00
Seedlings 4,351.30
Garden produce 1,725.10 BAT GUANO (Fertilizer)
Other crops 23,599.31
In 1960 the Bat Guano office made saJes of Average value 21,000,000 $110,000 and this year has orders for more than
half a million pesos.
INSECTICIDES
Up to the present all the bat guano has been Class Quantity taken from only one cave, the Cueva del Circulo,
in the Cubita Mountain in Camagiiey. Insecticides,
Fungicides and liquid The utilization of bat guano in the national agri.
herbicides 674,370 gallons culture has been an absolute success in such crops as
Powdered insecticides cane, peanuts, rice, tomatoes, corn, beans, onions,
and fungicides 3,666,570 pounds citrus fruits, and in reforestation.
3O




THE MEAT AND MEAT DERIVATES CONSOLIDATED and Jatibonico in Camagiley, and Rio Cauto and
ENTERPRISE Contramaestre in the Province of Oriente. The
National Institute of the Agrarian Reform is now Briefly, the work done by this enterprise is constructing 4 new factories in La Maya, Baire, as follows: and Victoria de las Tunas (Oriente) and Col6n
A) Unification of all the slaughter houses of (Matanzas).
the provinces of Havana and Matanzas. Between May, 1960 and May, 1961 our plants
B) With the unification, giving the people of produced 2,175,994 hundredweight of feed for cattle, Havana regular meat supplies (before it was sea- pigs, horses, for the fattening of chickens, and the sonal). The people were victims of gambling on producing of laying hens. To replace other raw mathe part of the large ranchers who speculated in terials, up to 30% of sugar has been used in the meat. manufacture 'of feed for the fattening of pigs.
C) Giving the workers better salaries and steady Also, experiments are being conducted for utilizing work, which has bettered their economic status. the by-products of rice, tomato, cotton seed, etc.
A total of 664 workers are employed in this enSchools have been built at the work centers. terprise.
Cafeterias, grocery stores, and a laundry for the
workers' clothes, are supplied by the Plant, com- THE FRUIT AND VEGETABLES CANNING CONSOLIDA. pletely free. TED ENTERPRISE
The workers have increased production by 15%
in general. Slaughterhouses that always reported The Fruit and Vegetable Canning Consolidated losses are showing up to 3% profits. Enterprise possesses 20 industrial plants. The production of canned tomatoes was 981,000 boxes in CONSOLIDATED FEED ENTERPRISE 1960; in 1961 we increased it to 1,226,000 boxes
(without counting private production) vhich almost The Consolidated Feed Enterprise of the National equals the national consumption; that is, in two years Institute of the Agrarian Reform has under its of the Agrarian Reform we have eliminated the control 7 factories situated in Jaruco, Bauta, and importations that we had to make formerly from the Managua in the province of Havana; Camagiley imperialist market of the United States.
DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES OF INRA
STATISTICAL SECTION
FISH PRODUCTION 1958 AND 1960
45
- 1960
40
m0 1958
35
ca30
25
L.
20
Z 15

lE
10
5
I0
FISH LOBSTER SHRIMP OYSTER FROG'S LEGS OTHER SPECIES
31




W..'
The Fishermen's City in Manzanillo, built by INRA, founded by Fidel Castro.
In the 'Libertad" plant of Col6n, by the summer in 1961 the production of papaya fruit pulp was of this year we will be producing all the catsup that 48,900 cans and in 1961 it will be 150,000 cans. Cubans consume, and furthermore, we will export With this pulp we are going to produce 1,080,000 the surplus to our brother socialist countries, boxes of nectars of the three products mentioned
The canned pineapple production has great im- before, which represents an increase of 393.5% portance, since a large percentage of it is to be over the previous year. exported in accordance with agreements signed In regard to the production of concentrated pibetween Cuba and the socialist countries. neapple juice, we will say that we can use about
In 1960 our national production was 5,580 metric 70,000,000 pineapples from the province of Camatons and in 1961 it will be increased to 9,680 me- giey alone. The pineapple juice will be produced tric' tqns; that is, in this line, a 75% increase has in the "Libertad" plant in Col~n, Matanzas, utilizing been experienced in only one year. the best fruit concentrate equipment of Latin AmeThe production of fruit pulp is basic for the later rica, installed by a Yankee enterprise which did not production of marmalade and fruit juices. Before the put it into use for over twelve years. Revolution, Cuba consumed imported fruit juices The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform such as pear, peach, and apricot. Today we not overhauled that equipment and started it functioning. only produce all the fruit juices that we consume, There 250,000 oranges will be processed daily for but we are going to export them. about 120 days in order to produce 375,000 gallons
Let us look at the increase in production between of concentrated juice. Twelve thousands tons of 1960 and 1961. In 1960 we produced 26,780 cans pineapple will also be processed in an equal period of mango pulp (each can 5 gallons) and this year of time with a product of 450,000 gallons of conit will be in creased to 150.000 cans, an increase of centrated juice. 150.3%;'and in 1960 the production of guava pulp The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform was 83,000 cans, while in 1961 it will be 270,000; has acquired through its Department of Industria32




lization (now the Ministry of Industries directed hours. Also a plant to process 200 metric tons of by Ernesto (Che) Guevara) nine canning plants peanuts in 24 hours has been acquired. Furtherfrom Yugoslavia at a cost of $580,846.00. more we are working on the installation of a palAt present, an average of 4,130 industrial work- miche oil extraction plant (palmiche is a fruit from
employed in those industries, the palm tree), which we hope to have functioning
ers are by the end of this year. We are also studying the
installation of another plant for the extraction of THE LARD AND EDIBLE OILS CONSOLIDATED cotton seed oil.
Before the triumph of 'the Revolution. in the The value of these investments is estimated at year 1958, the production of lard and edible oils 4 and one half million pesos, of Which three million was as follows: 578 metric tons of oils with a value pesos are for equipment made in Cuba and the of $611,978.00. The year that the Agrarian Reform rest for imported machinery. was signed (1959) this production was increased to 4,720 metric tons with a value of $1.194,000; the The installation of these plants in Cuba will estimated production for 1961 is about 7,354 metric reduce the importation of oils to a minimum, since tons with a value of $3.198,000. on their going into operation, we have reduced
In relation to future projects, we can say that importation by 40.450,000 metric tons, which rewe have acquired a plant to process soybean seeds, presents a savings in dollar reserves of 13 million with a capacity of obtaining 200 metric tons in 24 pesos.
"The land is for those who till it," a watchword which the victorious revolution has made true. Captain Antonio Ndifiez Jim~nez, Executive Director of INRA acting on orders from Fidel, distributes land titles on July 26, 1960, in Giiines.
o '2 " 'A"A~~
44'
~~ ~6'k4%1 4" 'A '~.~' '2J4'~~&",,~44 4:
4.', '4s"
"' ~ ~ C 2 2) 2',4AM' .
'7 "'33




yr4
Vorint-er teachers
taking classes in the
Sierra Maestra Mountains.
THE DAIRY PRODUTS CONSOLIDATED The Santa Isabel Ranch Company -with a
This consolidated enterprise of the National Ins- factory in Bavamo.
titute of the Agrarian Reform has as its function The Dairy Products Operator Company (Natiothe administration, orientation, development and nalized) The Cuban Dairy Company with a industrialization of dairy products. pasteurization, condensation plant, and an ice cream
It is a success of the Agrarian Reform that in and butter factory in Havana.
the dry season, in which production has always The San Bernardo Dairy Products (under gofallen off it has been maintained equal or superior vernment supervision) -with a pasteurization plant to that of the previous spring, and that happened and an ice cream factory in Havana. partly, because the producer had the incentive and The Dairy Center of The National Institute of the buying power to invest with an eye to bettering the Agrarian Reform -with a pasteurization plant production, as for example, buying cattle, fodder, in Havana. balanced feed, etc. The JSanca Agricultural Territorial Company
With the increase in the production of butterfat (under government supervision) -with a pasteucoming from milk, the production of butter, cream rization plant for Milk in Bejucal. cheese, and in particular condensed and evaporated The Guarina Ice Cream Company (under go milk, with the addition of non-fat dry solids, such as vernment supervision) -with an ice cream factory dried skimmed milk, has increased, thus avoiding the in Havana. importation of many dairy products. In these they paid $7.605,514.33 in wages'and
This consolidated enterprise has the following salaries to a total of 2,722 office and permanent industries under its administration: manual workers and 1,086 temporary workers in
The National Food Company (Nationalized) 1960. During the year 1961 the e s t i m a t e is
-with factories in Bayamo and Sancti-Spiritus. $8.750,000 to be paid to a total of 2,900 office and
The Nela Industrial Electric (Nationalized) -with manual workers and 1,200 temporary workers.
a factory in Sancti-Spiritus. T h e s e industries account for approximately
The Guarina Milk Derivatives Company (Natio- 83.36% of the value of the national production of nalized) -with a factory in Camagdiey. the dairy industry.




F I S H workers have been constructing a total of 196 ships
in different ports.
The Fishing Industry was one of the most ex. Furthermore, two iron boats have been acquired
ploited in our country. Some 200 ship owners and from Poland, 90 feet long, to be used in fishing big operators controlled almost all of the national with dragnets.. We are also negotiating with Japan fishing, and middle men exploited the fishermen to acquire two 200-ton iron ships, for tuna fishing. miserably. The Revolutionary State intervened in all the fishing companies and organized them into The Department of Fisheries has organized the c-operativest. There are now 4Q, with 24 sub- National Fishermen's School, which functions in cooperatives, on both coasts. Cienfuegos training Cubans for handling larger
fishing boats. At present there are 122 students. Further, the National Institute of the Agrarian In 1958, the last year of the tyranny, the total Reform has dredged some ports; ,and has constructed the Fishing Town of Manzanillo. fish production reached 37,240,000 pounds, valued at
$6,000,000; in 1960, the production was almost The National Institute of the Agrarian Reform doubled, since the volume of fish reached 67,346,has 16 shipyards under its direction, where 552 500 pounds valued at aproximately $10,300,000.
Children from the Sierra Maestra Mountains, who are now studying in the
"Camilo Cienfuegos School
City," in Caney de las
Mercedes, Orienre Province.
;U
35




V
New Buildings in the
"Cuba Libre" Co-operative,
Matanzas Province, bulit by
the INRA.
Our exportation of frozen products has dropped water works, 62 electric installations and other 32.8%. The decrease in exportation is due to the works that we are not enumerating here. work of imperialism. PEOPLE'S STORES
HOUSING FOR THE PEASANTS The first People's Stores were created towards
the end of 1959. When the year ended there were
The Department of Rural Housing of the Na- 1,000 People's Stores; now there are 1,996 People's
tional Institute of the Agrarian Reform was crea- Stores, 25 large warehouses, and 58 subsidiary ted on the 15th of March, 1960 and in only one warehouses. year it constructed 12,500 houses plus 500 public The People's Stores put an end to the exploitabuildings such as school centers, hospitals, stores, tion of the farmers who were obliged to buy food social centers, theatres, etc. and clothing at abusive prices. It is enough to
say that People's Stores have increased the buying
This department has as its goal the replacement power of the farmers about 60%, and that before of the prehistoric and unhygienic "bohios" (shacks) the Revolution the farm families consumed an aveof the type the Indians used, with modern comfor- rage of $25.00 worth of goods monthly per family table houses. The National Institute of the Agra- and that the average has been raised to about rian Reform had invested $25,000,000 in this gi- $45.00. gantic Rural Housing Plan from March 15 to De- The annual sales effected through the People's
member 31, 1960. Stores reach the figure of $150,000,000. The craThe Department of Rural Housing has already dit granted by the People's Stores to farmers and constructed numerous model'towns td take the place workers reaches the sum of' $30,000,000. The of the old villages where our farmers lived so badly, approximate number of const.-ners served by the 12,427 housing units, 60 school centers, 13 techni- People's Stores is 420,000. cal schools, 43 sanitary units, 34 stores, 24 People's Recently the Revolutionary Covernment created' stores, 9 supermarkets, 47 social centers, 43 sports the Ministry of Internal Com'nerc z, and the People's fields, 31 farms for raising pigs, 62 sewers, 62 Stores created by the Nationzl Institute of the
36




Agrarian Reform came under the direction of the dents; the Hennequen Co-operative School with 18 new department. students.
Furthermore, the National. Institute of the AgraTHE SECTION OF TECHNICAL AND CULTURAL rian Reform has already organized a group of 1,000
ASSISTANCE TO THE FARMER farm students who will study the Russian language
in the Soviet Union. In 1961, the Year of EduThe Cuban Agrarian Reform, in reality, an agra- cation, the Revolutionary Government's literacy rian Revolution, did not limit itself to signing the campaign will make Cuba the first country in the death warrant for the landed estates, distributing New World that does not have illiterates. the land and increasing production, but it has also
been profoundly concerned with the education and RURAL MEDICAL SERVICE,
culture of the peasants. In our country, more than
30% of the population was illiterate, that is, around Under the Ministry of Public Health 482,325 2.000,000 Cubans could not read and write. This medical consultations have taken place on 89 Coreality acquired dramatic characteristics in our ru- operatives, 12 People's Farms, 16 sugar mills, towns ral areas. In 1959, the Revolutionary Government and villages. The Ministry has founded 35 hospicreated 10,000 rural schoolrooms; that is, in 12 tals and rural dispensaries, and at present is consmonths it created more than in half a century of tructing 24 more. a Republic subjected to imperialism. At the same 1,759 doctors and 80 dentists are working in the time, secondary schools were created to complete rural areas. the education of the rural school population. Among During the last years of the tyranny 1,813 other projects courses have been organized to in- sanitary units were functioning, and in 1961 the crease the technical capacity of the teachers, such Revolution constructed 4,921. units, making a total as the Adaptation Course to Rural Life in San Lo- of 6,734. renzo, deep in the Sierra Maestra, in which 2,000 The anti-parasite campaign revealed that of students participated. 116,152 fecal examinations 86.54% showed intestiIn order to train teachers capable of facing the nal parasites.
hard educational tasks in the mountains and in In 1958, the budget for parasite medicines was remote areas, Fidel called upon the Cuban youth only $10,000; at present it is $270,000.00. to work voluntarily as teachers. Thus the first One hundred thousand of the 300,000 latrines course for volunteer teachers began in May 1960, projected are now being installed. in a large school set up in the Minas del Frio, also The total budget of the Ministry of Public Health in the Sierra Maestra. The volunteer teachers clim- in 1958 was $21,752,459. bed the Turquino mountain, proving their physical The Revolution increased, thatbudget in 1959 to endurance. Fourteen hundred teachers graduated $71,515,980; that is, there is now almost fifty million from the first course. The second course began im- more for the health of the people. mediately after and 2,500 volunteer teachers were
graduated; and the third and last courses are going RURAL ELECTRIFICATION
on right now. One thousand new teachers will be
graduated, and will go to serve in the Sierra Maes- The Antonio Guiteras Electrical Industry. The tra, the Sierra Crystal, the Escambray Mountains, work carried out by the Antonio Guiteras Electrical the Sierra de los Organos, the Zapata Peninsula, Industry in co-operation with the National Institute and the Guanahacabides Peninsula. of the Agrarian Reform for the development of our
The University is going to cease being a bastion rural areas has been very important.
closed to the humble classes. The Revolutionary Eleven poultry Co-operatives in Zone H-6 in State grants scholarships to the sons of the workers Havana, another in Itabo in the province of Maand peasants in order to save the intelligence of tanzas, and another in the province of Oriente, that the people from going to waste. We must mention is, 3 Agricultural Co-operatives have been electrithe many courses where farm youngsters learn the field. most varied subjects. Thus there is the technical Electrical services have been installed for 3.925 course in artificial insemination with 1,200 students; consumers in farm homes scattered throughout the technical course in automotive mechanics with different provinces, and in like manner in seven 1,000 students; the agricultural accounting course cotton gins in the provinces of Matanzas. Las Viwith 800 students; the fitting and sewing course Ilas and Oriente, with a total of 39,740 meters of with 6,000 students, a figure that will increase no- lines. tably in the coming months; schools for Art Ins- On the Isle of Pines, the La Victoria Agricultutructors, with more than 3,000 students, a course ral and Livestock Co-operative was completely elect. in ceramics and handicrafts with 300 students; the trified, as well as four corn shellers in the province National Fishing School with 150 students; the of Oriente and 2 rice mills there and in the proNational Cane Co-operative School with 45 stu- vince of Pinar del Rio, with a total of 1,960 K.W.
37




NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL-LIVESTOCK GOALS FOR 1961
Including Statistics for Previous Years
Area Area Average Yield Value oi Price Paid to Value of
Plant ed Harvested (Hdwt. Produrtion Grower Production
YEAR PRODUCT (Cabs)* (Cabs.) X Cabs.) thousands Kgs. IS /Hdwt ouS
1958 SUGAR CANE 105,584 83,051 50,509 4.235,234 6.30 266,020
1959 Yield in arrobos of cone cob. 106,474 80,424 52,543 4.225,714 6.30 266,220
1960 Production in thousands of arre.. 105,000 87,308 47,960 4.187,298 6.25 261,706
1961 bas of ground cone. Price hun- 105,000 105,000 47,619 5.000,000 6.21 310,500
dred arrobas. Exports of crude
1062 sugar. 95,000
1958 RICE 8,185 8,185 550 4,502 8.10 36,466
1959 P'oduction and planting of un- 10,600 10,600 580 6,148 8.10 49,799
1960 husked rice. Importation and con- 11,900 11,900 560 6,664 8.10 53,978
1961 sumption of polished rice 15,852 15,852 600 9,511 8.10 77,0391958 CORN (Maize) 12,500 12,500 258 3,220 3.00 9,660
1959 Total production including corn 13,120 13,120 320 4,200 3.00 12,600
1960 which is sold, consumed on the 15,050 14,050 331 4,651 3.00 13,953
1961 form, and esed for feed. 24,822 24,822 350 8,688 3.00 26,064
1958 MILLET 850 850 350 298 2.75 820
1959 1,200 1,200 367 440 2.75 1,210
1960 1,800 1,800 385 693 2.75 1,906
1961 9,951 9,951 405 4,030 2.75 11,082
1958 BEANS 1,222 1,222 180 220 13.33 2,933
1959 1,622 1,622 185 300 13.33 3,999
1960 6,300 6,300 128 806 13.33 10,744
1961 11,650 11,650 210 2,446 13.33 32,605
1958 BONIATO (Sweet Potatoes) 3,880 3,880 895 3,473 1.00 3,473
1959 4,150 4,150 960 3,984 1.00 3,984
1960 4,380 4,380 1,144 5,011 1.00 5,011
1961 4,182 4,182 1,205 5,039 1.00 5,039
195$ MALANGA (A Root Crop) 2,393 2,393 2,050 4,906 2.00 9,812
1959 2,495 2,495 2,090 5,214 2.00 10,428
1960 2,620 2,620 2,130 5,581 2.00 11,162
1961 2,978 2,978 2,180 6,492 2.00 12,984
1958 YAMS 590 590 967 570 3.00 1,710
1959 660 660 1,010 667 3.00 2,001
1960 786 780 1,150 897 3.00 2,691
1961 94,1 941 1,200 1,129 3.00 3,387
1958 POTATOES 555 555 2,763 1,534 3.87 5,936
'959 625 625 2,885 1,803 3.87 6,978
.060 680 680 3,235 2,200 3.87 8,514
1961 926 926 3,564 3,300 3.97 12,771
1958 YUCCA 4,291 4,291 1,080 4,634 1.00 4,634
1959 4,345 4,345 1,120 4,866 1.00 4,866
1960 4,530 4,530 1,124 5,545 1.00 5,545
1961 5,257 5,257 1,310 6,887 1.00 6,887
1958 PEANUTS 300 300 275 82 4.20 344
1959 350 350 295 103 5.50 566
1960 1,800 1,800 305 549 5.50 3,020
1961 2,788 2,788 350 976 6.25 6,100
*(1 Cab.. Appwex.
33 1/9 aaes




Area Area Average Yield Value of Price Paid to Value of
Planted IHar vested i ldwt. Prodc tion Grower Produrction
YEAR PRODUCT (Cabs)! (Cabs.% X Cabs.) thousands Kge. S Hd'wt ,&uousands
, ~ ~~ ,, ,. f _X_),
1958 SOYBEANS 20 20 280 6 4.00 24
1959 80 80 295 24 4.24 102
1960 180 180 320 58 4.25 246
1961 1,056 1,056 350 370 4.25 1,572
1958 CARLIC 60 60 1,960 118 15.00 1,770
1959 65 65 1,960 129 15.00 1,935
1960 70 70 2,020 141 15.00 2,115
1961 141 141 2,100 296 15.00 4,440
1958 ONIONS lio 110 1,540 169 6.00 1,014
1959 150 150 1,610 242 6.00 1,452
1960 230 230 1,700 391 6.00 2,346
1961 372 372 1,870 696 6.00 4,176
1958 CUCUMBERS 140 140 4,320 605 1.67 1,010
1959 150 150 4,325 649 1.67 1,084
1960 98 98 4,655 456 1.67. 762
1961 82 82 4,490 368 1.67 614
1958 TOMATOES 200 200 6,000 1,200 4.50 5,400
1959 230 230 6,150 1,414 4.50 6,363
1960 400 400 6,320 2,528 3.35 8,469
.1961 519 519 6,500 3,374 3.35 11,303
1958 COTTON (Raw) 10 10 360 4 10.30 37
1959 278 278 350 94 10.30 968
1960 1,352 1,352 350 473 10.30 4,872
1961 3,043 3,043 385 1,172 10.30 12,072
1958 HENNEQUEN (A Type of Hemp) 750 450 440 198 5.50 1,089
1959 750 450 400 180 6.00 1,080
1960 809 574 470 270 9.00 2,430
1961 999 574 470 270 9.00 2,438
1958 KENAF (A type of Hemp) ..........
1959
1960 ...... ......
1961 230 230 1,000 3. 10.00 2,30s
1958 RAMIE (A type of Hemp) ... ......... .
1959 ... .........
1960 .... ....
1961 50 50 ?00 35 10.00 350
1958 TOBACCO 4,300 4,300 210 903 50.00 45,150
1959 (including golden tobacco) 4,350 4,350 215 935 50.00 46,750
1960 4,680 4,680 240 1,123 50.00 56,160
1961 5j419 5;419 240 1,%01 50.00 65,050
1958 COCOA 670 505 95 48 22.00 1,056
1959 670 520 100 52 22.00 1,144
1960 670 520 96 50 25.00 1,250
1961 1,520 520 110 57 25.00 1,425
1958 CQFFEE 9,975 6,370 106 675 4t.73 29,518
1959 9,975 7,120 168 1,197 43.73 5$2,345
1960 9,975 7,120 113 804 43.73 35,159
1961 99ns fSOD 150 1,125 ) 43.73 49,196




Area Area Average Yield Value of 1 icz Paid to Value of
Planted lHarvested (Hidwt. Produce tion Grower Production
YEAR PRODUCT (Cabs)* (Cabs.) X Cabs.) (thousands Kgs. ($ /ldwlt i housands
of S)
1958 ORANGES 1,485 990 1,530 1,515 1.51 2,288
1959 1,485 990 1,530 1,515 1.51 2,288
1960 1,520 990 1,600 1,584 1.51 2,392
1961 1,620 1,485 1,600 2,376 1.51 3,588
1958 PINEAPPLE 350 350 2,530 886 0.98 888
1959 450 350 2,750 962 0.98 943
1960 600 450 2,800 1,260 0.98 1,235
1961 1,129 600 2,800 1,860 0.98 1,646
1958 BANANAS 5,625 4,500 900 4,050 1.22 4,941
1959 5,875 5,625 920 5,175 1.22 6,314
1960 6,250 5,875 950 5,581 1.22 6,809
1961 7,345 6,250 985 6,156 1.22 7,510
1958 PANGOLA (A Forage Crop) 10,000 10,000 4,300 43,000 0.46 19,780
1959 12,000 11,000 4,400 48,400 0.46 22,284
1960 15,000 13,500 4,500 60,750 0.46 27,945
1961 30,642 22,821 4,500 102,694 0.46 47,239
CATTLE, SWINE AND POULTRY PRODUCTION
Average National Value of
Head of Livestock Annual Births Yield X Producetion P'rice Paid to Production (Units of (Units of Animnel (Lbs (Thousands Producer (S x Lb. (thousands
YEAR PRODUC Thousands) Thousands) Dressed Meat) of Hdwt.) on the Hoof) of 5)
1958 BEEF 5.385 790 450 3.555 0.135 101.318
1959 Average live weight: .950 Ibs. 5.458 850 450 3.825 0.135 109.012
1960 Noational productionn in dressed 5.532 923 460 4.246 0.135 118.368
1961 meat. Volib of production on 5.607 1.015 475 4.821 0.135 130.167
1961 the hoof.
1958 PORK 1.520 760 97 737", 0.21 23.142
1959 Average live weight: 145 Ibs. 1.647 824 97 799 0.21 25.095
1960 National production in dressed 1.774 887 102 905 0.21 27.006
1961 meat. Value .of prodticiibn on 1.901 750 105 788 0.21 22.848
the hoof.
1958 CHICKEN 20.000 18.000 2.00 360 0.31 13.950
1959 Average live weight: 2.5 Ibs 24.000 21.600 2.00 432 0.31 16.740
1960 National production in dressed 33.600 30.240 2.20 665 0.31 23.436
1961 meat. Value of production n lhve 83.500 75.150 2.20 1.653 0.31 58.249
weight.
1958 MILK 940 855 803.700 0.09 72.333
1959 Production in thousands of hliters 940 878 825.320 0.09 74.279
1960 Yield: liters per cow per year. 987 920 908.040 0.09 81.724
1961 Prices per liter. 1.036 965 999.740 0.09 89.977
1958 EGGS 2.600 120 312.000 0.04 12.480
1959 Yield: eggs i hen Petr year. 2.600 125 341.250 0.04 13.650
1960 Production in thousands oF eggs. 2.866 150 429.900 0.04 17.196
1961 Price: per- egg ... 3.500 .- 150 525.000 0.04 21.000
..







EDITORIAL EN MAR=H^ AFARTAOM rOSTAL 63-36,
LA HASANA. CUE