! THE ROLE OF KICHWA LAMAS INDIGENOUS WOMEN IN THE CONSERVATION OF THEIR COMMUNITY FORESTS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONDITIONAL DIRECT TRANSFERS (TDC) MECHANISM Three Indigen ous Communities' Case Study in the Provinces of Lamas, a nd El Dorado, San Martin Region: Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi, a nd Chirik Sacha By GRACE MELISSA PALACIOS CHVEZ A Fi nal Practicum Report Submitted i n P artial Fulfillment of the requirements for a Master o f Sustainab le Development Practice Degree at t he University of Florida, i n Gainesville, FL USA May 2018 Supervisory Committee: John Richard Stepp, Chair Catherine Tucker, Cochair Kathleen Colverson, Member
! 2018 Grace Melissa Palacios ChÂ‡vez
! ! ! To my grandpa Pap anito who enjoyed having me in his region
! ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the University of Florida, Center of Latin American Studies, Master of Sustainable Development Practice, my Supervisory Committee, and peer reviews in guiding and supporting me along this research experience I am also thankful to GIZ, and the local t eam of Bosques National Program who introduced me and also guided me during my field experience. Finally, I am especially thankful to Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi, and Chirik Sacha communities for all their hospitality and kindness, wh ich made each of my visits high ly satisfactory ! !
! # TABLE OF CONTENTS $%&'()*+,-.+'/0 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11 TABLE OF CONTENTS 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111 # *20/!(3!/$4*+0 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111 5 *20/!(3!32-67+0 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111 8 ACRONYMS 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111 9 ABSTRACT 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111 :: INTRODUCTION 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111 :; I. BACKGROUND 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111 :< Commitments and Initiatives in Peru 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111 :< Environmental tools 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111 :< CBC Project: Community Forest Conservation 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111 :5 Conditional Direct Transfers (TDC) 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111 :5 II. CONTEXT 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 == Gender in the Am azon 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111 == Deforestation in San Martin 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111 =; Kichwa Population 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1 =" III. GENER AL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY AREA 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111 =< Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi, and Chirik Sacha's Location 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111 =< Indigenous Organization 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111 =8 IV. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111111 =9 V. OBJECTIVES 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111 ;= VI. LITERATURE REVIEW 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111 ;" Forests: Women's Involvement in the Conservation of Community Forests 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111 ;# TDC: Women's involvement in the implementation of the TDC mechanism 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111 ;< VII. FIELD PHASE DEVELOPMENT 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111 ;8 VIII. APPLICATION OF METHODS AND ANALYSIS 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 ;9 SO1 Identify key aspects of the involvement of the Kichwa Lamas women in the steps of the TDC mechanism 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111 ;9 SO2 Characterize the participation of Kichwa Lamas women and the gender complementarity in the development of each of the activities of their Investment Plan, and in the conservation of their community forest. 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111 ">
! < SO3 Identify the main effects of Kichwa Lamas women's contribution to the implementation of the TDC mechanism 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111 ": SO4 Identify actions to strengthen Kichwa Lamas women's participation in the implementation of the TDC mechanism 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111 "= IX. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 "; X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 1111 5; Gender among Kichwa Lamas 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111 5; For Bosques National Program 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111 5" XI. APPENDICES 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 111111111111111111111111111 58 XII. LIST OF REFERENCES 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111111111111111111111111 11111111111 8> !
! 5 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1. TDC steps 18 1 2. Example of an Investment Plan 20 3 1. Additional D ata for Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi and Chirik Sacha 27 5 1. Specific Objectives and Actions 31 5 2. Alignment Objectives 32 6 1 W here in this S tudy are the Objectives A ddressed 33 7 1. Total number of Community M embers that P articipated in the M ethods 37 8 1. Methods and Analysis of SO1 A ctions 38 8 2. Methods and Analysis of SO2 A ctions 39 8 3. Methods and Analysis of SO3 A ctions 40 8 4. Methods and Analysis of SO4 A ctions 41 9 1. Identification of the activities in the 6 steps of the TDC mechanism 44 9 2. Type and level of participation by activity in Chirikyacu 52 9 3. Type and level of participation by activity in Chunchiwi 53 9 4. T ype and level of participation by activity in Ch irik Sacha 53 9 5. Type of men's participation by activity 56 9 6. Three Gender Expressions 59 9 7. Gender expressions among families for the development of the activities 60 9 8. Women's opinions from her experience in Bosques Program 66 9 9. Drivers of women's motivation 67 9 10. Drivers of women's constraints 68
! 8 L IST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1. Forest Loss in San Martin 23 2 2. Kichwa Population in Peru 24 3 1. Indigenous Communities' location 26 4 1. Conceptual Framework 29 9 1. Involvement of men and women in the TDC steps 45 9 3. Legend of Figures 9 4, and 9 5 48 9 4. Total number of women attending 49 9 5. Women beneficiaries (artisan and cocoa) that attend the meetings 49 9 6. Number of comuneras who answered "Yes" 50 9 7 Correlation of Type of W omen's Participation and Y ears in the TDC 54 9 8 Levels of indirect relationship "women forest" 55 9 9 Main activities in different gender expressions 63 9 10. Effect from the implementation of the TDC 64 9 11. Comuneros' perspectives of the TDC implementation, per year 65 9 12 Cycle of the involvement of women in TDC mechanism 66 9 13. Pyramid of Actions 69
! 9 ACRONYMS BMU German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Security CBC Community Forests Conservation Project CN Indigenous Community CCNN Indigenous Communities COP Conference of the Parties ENCC National Strategy against C limate Change FEPIKRESAM Kichwa Indigenous Federation of the San Martin Region GHE Greenhouse effects GIZ German Agency for International Cooperation IBC Instituto del Bien ComÂœn IKI International Climate Protection Initiative MINAGRI Peruvian Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation MINAM Peruvian Ministry of Environment PAGCC Climate Change and Gender Action Plan PEN Peruvian Currency acronym for Nuevos Soles PI Investment Plan PLANIG National Plan of Gender Equality PNBMCC National Program of Forest Conservation for Climate Change Mitigation PNAA National Plan of Environmental Action
! :> SPDA Peruvian Society of Environmental Rights SO Specific Objective TDC Conditional Direct Transfers TINI Land of Chil dren Committee (Tierra de NiÂ–os) UZDSM San Marti n Decentralized Zonal Unit
! :: Abstract o f Final Practicum Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a Master of Sustainable Development Practice at the University of Florida, in Gainesville, FL USA THE ROLE OF KICHWA LAMAS INDIGENOUS WOMEN IN THE CONSERVATION OF THEIR COMMUNITY FORESTS AND THEIR PARTICIPATION IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONDITIONAL DIRECT TRANSFERS (TDC) MECHANISM Three Indigen ous Communities' Case Study in the Provinces of Lamas, a nd El Dorado, San Martin Region: Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi, a nd Chirik Sacha By Grace Melissa Palacios ChÂ‡vez May 2018 Chair: John Richard Stepp Cochair: Catherine Tucker Major: Sustainable Development Practice ABSTRACT This research was carried out in collaboration with the GIZ project "Community Forests Conservation CBCII", which provides technical assistance to the National Program Forest Conservation in the Conditional Direct Transfers mechanism TDC. I conducted this research in three indigenous communities: Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi, and Chirik Sacha located in Lamas and El Dorado province s respectively (San Martin, Peru). The three communities are affiliated with the National Program of Forest Co nservation for Climate Change Mitigation, of the Peruvian Ministry of Environment. They have approved the implementation of the Conditional Direct Transfers (TDC) mechanism in their communities as a financial instrument for community forest conservation. T his research seeks to assess the role of indigenous women in the conservation of community forests along with the implementation of the TDC mechanism.
! := The field work phase of this research was divided in to two parts: the first part identifies the current situation of women's involvement and gender roles and the second part reports on the effects of their contribution and what measures might be taken to expand their involvement and the benefits they receive from their participation. I began this project by identifying all the activities, related to Bosques P rogram, where Kichwa Lamas women are involved. I conducted this through a review of existing documents and semi structured interviews with the women. Interviews with the women were via pa rticipant observation and mixed focus groups. For the second phase, I analyze d the re sults of the literature review that were elaborated by Bosques along the project's intervention (progress reports) and semi structured interviews to identify the c hanges in the community. I also conduct ed pa rticipatory workshops which allow ed me to validate all the collected data. Lastly, the combination of these methods lead to a final synthesis of identifying opportunities for women to expand their participation a nd contribute to the continuity of forest conservation in their communities. Key words: indigenous women, Kichwa Lamas, gender complementarity Community Forest Conservation, Conditional Direct Transfers (TDC)
! :; INTRODUCTION Peru is one of the 17 mega diverse countries of the world in biodiversity terms (Mittermeier et al, 1997), and has the second largest expans ion of Amazon rainforest. However, between 2001 and 2015 forest loss in the Peruvian Amazon was over 1 million hectares ( Finer & N ovoa, 2017 ). Deforestation accounts for half of Peru's greenhouse e missions (GHE) ( Proyecto CBC, 2013 ) thus Peru has commit ted to zero deforestation by 20 30 ( Naciones Unidas 2014). Many initiatives have been undertaken in Peru to meet this ambitious commitment, including the National Program of Forest Conservation for Climate Change Mitigation (Bosques P rogram) This program, through its Conservation Services, promotes mechanisms for Forest Conservation, such as the Conditional Direct Transfers (TDC) mechanism that works in collaboration with indigenous peasant, and/or rural communities that hold community property titles (Bosques, 2016). Bosques was launched in 2010 by the Peruvian G overnment in the means to conserve 54 million hectares of tropical forests in 17 regions which is 42% of the total national Peruvian territory It currently has communities from 12 regions affiliated to the program O nly in 2017, over 100 indigenous communities were affiliated, securing over 2 million additional hectares This National Program receives support from the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), which through their Conservation of Community Forests (CBC) Project seeks to spread the TDC economic tool among regional governments in the Peruvian Amazon (Proyecto CBC, 2013). The agreement between the government and indigenous communities, cre ates a commitment for the communities to protect hectares of primary forest, in return for financial incentives under specific terms and conditions of use. The Government guides the communities through the implementation process of TDC, providing capacity building, monitoring and technical assistance in activities listed in the community's Investment Plan (Bosques, 2016). In this way, the community affiliated with the TDC mechanism shares the responsibility of the conservation of their forests, for which ea ch interested family in the community assumes different roles that significantly contribute to this commitment. This research explores on the relationship of the Kichwa Lamas and their forest (hectares agreed for conservation only) through understanding of the ir levels interaction with the forest and recognition of its importance : How often they go, why do they go, what do they like about
! :" that area, what do they do there why is it important to conserve those hectares It also explore on the participatio n of Kichwa Lamas women and the importance of gender roles to fulfill the conditions of the TDC mechanism ; and finally provide strategies that will contribute to maintaining best practices for the project's efforts. Following this Introduction, S ection I (B ackground) provides details of the commitments and initiatives taken in Peru regarding gender, environment and climate ch ange; and a description of how Bosques and TDC and its Investment Plan work. Section II ( Context) reviews the current situation of indigenous women, deforestation in region of interest and Kichwa population Section III (General Aspects of the Study Area ) provides major details of the three indigenous communities. Section IV (Conceptual Framework) explains the joint work of the involv ed major stakeholders, and the collaboration of this research. Section V (Objectives) d etails the objectives, specific objectives and how they are accomplished throughout this research Section VI (Literature Review) provides the bases for this research's approach in its two purposes Section VII (Field Phase Development) contains logistic details for the traveling from/to/in the communities, and the sample applied per community Section VIII ( Application of Methods and Analysis ) describes the methods application per specific objectives' actions Section IX (Results and D iscussion) opens up with a box that summarizes the approach of the section. Each specific objective is break down in its actions, some of them at the bottom have annotations where key details for the result are stressed Here, the last subtitle (SO3 3.1) wraps for conclusions and hints towards some recommendations. Section X draws the C onclusion s and R ecommendations.
! :# Guidelines to understanding the results of this report The r eport uses the following coding throughout the document: The report is composed of 12 sections. These sections can be identified by the blue line white bolded letters, and the Roman numerals to the left. ? The main purpose of this research is encompassed in two purposes These purposes in turn have four specific objectives (SO1, SO2, SO3, and SO4) ? The objectives are further composed of actions These actions are labeled by decimal numbers corresponding to the specific objective number. For example: SO1 has actions 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3; SO2 has actions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3; and so on. ? Each community is assigned a color for better understanding of their details, in figures, and tables : Chirikyacu Chunchiwi and Chirik Sacha ? The TDC process has 6 steps, reference to these steps is constant along the document as: step 1, step 2, and so on. ! !
! :< I. BACKGROUND Commitments and Initiatives in Peru Environmental tools The National Program of Forest Conservation for Climate Change Mitigation was created in 2010, with the agreement that Peru signed at the 14 Conference of the Parties (COP14) (El Peruano, 2010). In the COP15 in Copenhagen, Peru agreed to reduce its deforestation rate to 45% by 2020 (SPD A, 2009). In 2011, the National Plan of Environmental Action (PNAA) was approved. The PNAA has as its goals from 2017 to 2021 to reduce deforestation, promote sustainable use projects in the Amazon, apply strategies for climate change mitigation at the reg ional level and involve the communities to actively participate in these processes (MINAM, 2011). These are all actions that contribute to meeting the agreements made at the COP15. Despite these efforts, forest loss is still widespread In 2014 the highes t rate of forest loss on record was measured, followed by 2015, the second highest ( Finer & Olexy, 2016 ). Ergo, Peru agrees to reduce 30% of its GHE by 2030 (Naciones Unidas, 2015). National Strategy for Climate Change : Each commitment that Peru agrees to requires the adoption measures and instruments that enable it to accomplish its goal in a decentralized and participatory way; and at the same time, assume more commitments. As part of accomplishing its goal the National Strategy for Climate Change (ENCC) is approved. The ENCC, approved in 2015 is one of the first documents that considers women as an important component for climate change. The ENCC intends to utilize gender and intercultural approaches for decision makin g, and involve women in the adoption and execution of measures for climate change (MINAM, 2015). Climate Change and Gender Action Plan : In 2007, Law 28983 for Equal Opportunities for Men and Women, was created. This is the official beginning in Peru of add ressing gender inequalities and the disregard of gender issues, after a long background of socia l pressure for gender concerns, f ollowed by the approval of the National Plan of Gender Equality (PLANIG) in 2012 ( El Peruano, 2016 ).
! :5 PLANIG combined with the efforts to address cl imate change mitigation, drove the Ministry of Environment (MINAM) to create the Climate Change and Gender Action Plan in 2016, which is the first official document created on women and climate change, identifying women directly as one of the main elements for climate change mitigation, nationally. T he PAGCC was approved in order to strengthen women's capacities as important agents to respond to climate change impacts, and to address gender inequality (El Peruano, 2016). This tool, asi de from adding to the agreement made o n COP21, supports the reasons for this research. Through the PAGCC there are four main objectives (Table 5 2 ) that help to explicitly incorporate women in the design of instruments, decision making, and others such as providing materials for men and women (MINAM, 2016). PAGCC also has 8 priority areas where women play a pivotal role due to their specialized knowledge o f species use and conservation practices. Their different concept s towards forest use compared to men's enable women to respond differently to climate change events (MINAM, 2 016). Nevertheless, Peru lacks data detailing women and men 's participation and their involvement in forestry activities (MINAM, 2016) in Amazonian regions which is why this research is highly valued. CBC Project: Community Forest Conservation This Project is part of the International Climate Protection I nitiative (IKI) fostered by the German Government through the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Security (BMU). In 2008, the German Government created IKI to aid developing countries to counteract climate change (Proyecto CBC, 2013). In Peru, it is implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fÂŸr Internationale Zusammenarbeit Gmbh (GIZ) through the CBC Project. GIZ provides technical assistance to the Bosques Program. Its main objective is to develop and consolidate the Conditional Direct Transfers pro gram, and encourage its sustainability after the project's intervention (Proyecto CBC, 2013). Conditional Direct Transfers (TDC) This is a cash transfer mechanism from the Peruvian Ministry of the Environment. It is enforced through its Bosques P rogram and used as a policy instrument for conservation purposes. Up until 2017 i t was developed as a five year contract followi ng six steps for its total
! :8 imple mentation (Proyecto CBC, 2013) From 2018 and on it is a 3 year contract In Peru, there are also othe r initiatives regarding cash transfers, but none with forest conservation as its main goal. There are two main requirements for this mechanism: (1) Have a community property title and (2) be affiliated with Bosques P rogram Hence, not every community can benefit from it. The ones that are eligible must follow the steps described in Table 1 1 : Table 1 1. TDC steps Step 1 Targeting Bosques selects the indigenous community according to the priority criteria Communities are eligible based on the following criteria : @ Poverty level @ Proximity to protected areas @ Number of families @ Biodiversity @ Primary forest size @ I ndigenous community area (>3000 has) @ Deforestation rate Step 2 Admission Bosques p resents the TDC to the communities and invites them to join Workshops are done to introduce the Bosques P rogram to the community and invite them to participate I F THE COMMUNITY AGREES TO PARTICIPAT E STEP 3 IS NEXT Step 3 Affiliation Official incorporation of the community in to the TDC mechanism These are the main things that are done: Agreements and Investment Plan are signed The Investment Plan (PI) details the activities based on 4 components of the TDC (environmental, social, management, and productivity). These activities are detailed and updated annually in their P lan The PI is unique to what each community decides to include ( see Table 1 2 below)
! :9 Creation of ComitÂŽ de Vigilancia ( Patrolling Committee ) Creation of other committees if applicable to the community Table 1 1. Continued Step 4 Liquidation of Transfers Bosques transfers the monetary amount into the community's bank account @ The cash incentives are used according to the different activities listed in the PI, and all of their actions. @ Only the Junta Directiva (Community Board of Directors) is in charge of managing the money (and distributing it to different committees in the community if applicable). Step 5 Fulfillment of Conditions Monitoring the fulfillment of the PI @ Quarterly reports are produced every three months, as well as one annual report In these reports, the use of money and the execution of each of the activities (of the PI) must be demonstrated. @ Technical assistance and capacity building is constantly provided. Bosques' extensio nists visit the communities as needed per month. Direct communication between them and the community members is available (cellphone). @ Communities have internal committee meetings to review their progress in the PI. Step 6 Graduation Communities leave the program At this point the Community should be well prepared to continue on their own with forest conservation practices and productivity projects that generate earnings for the community. Investment Plan As described i n step 3 ( Table 1 1 ), the PI must cover 4 components with different activities (varies per community and some are mandatory ) Each activity has a set of actions that
! => are the same in all the communities ( Table 1 2 ). The actions are detailed along with the cost which is explained in th e PI (not included in Table 1 2) Each community designs their PI, with the support of the Bosques extensionists. Table 1 2. Example of an Investment Plan Component Activities Actions Environment Patrolling and Monitoring of Forests Training in the use of GPS Setting up of Signage Organization of patrolling squads Committees Productivity Cocoa Agroforestry Systems Training in pruning, grafting, composting, fertilization, pest control, harvesting Seedling of cocoa Artisanry Improving quality of products Improving the value chain of products Production Plan Marketing of Products Management Capacity Strengthening of the Junta Directiva Computer lessons Accountability Training in Environmental Legislation, Crimes, and Threats Social Recovery of Indigenous Knowledge (for children) Mother language (Q uechua) Artisanry and music Food Security Improvement Animal Breeding (Guinea pigs, chickens) Biogardens The activities and actions listed above are a few of the total, to give an example of how the PI works. The colored cells, are activities that were performed in Chirik Sacha only (as each community has chosen activities of their own. *Mandatory activities As San Martin 's communities have further gone in their contracts, B osques Lima, commanded t he communities (through Bosques San Martin) to prioritize the use of the money in produ ctivity activities (see Table 1 2 above), instead of investing it in social activities. Thus starting the 2 nd 3 rd year of contract, social activities were reduced. Each community decided which to delete. Among the ones eliminated, was Indigenous Knowledge (teaching of Quechua and arts) for children. The productivity activities that were encouraged to be prioritized are cocoa and artisanry The government took this decision in order for the communities to have profits by the time they finish their 5 year contract.
! =: Prioritized Productivity A ctivities There are two main productivity activities that Bosques suggests the communities to include in the ir PI One of them is in agriculture and it is mandatory as Patrolling and Monitoring of forests is. However, the community can choose either if they want to do cocoa or coffee In the three communities they selected cocoa because they already had previous experience working with coffee The other main productivity activity is in the production of artisanry which is not mandatory, the community can choose not to include it Cocoa and the context: M any families in the three communities use d to have coffee, but during the 2013 yellow rust massive plague, almost all of them lost their coffee fields. Some families fear something similar could happen to c ocoa later on. Around 2006 a program was launched to reduce coca ( Erythroxylum coca ) production, offering cocoa as an innovative crop to produce. This was implemented with USAID and the government in San Martin. In Chirik Sacha and Chunchiwi some families were interested and now with Bosques they are upgrading their cocoa field. Most of the families currently working with cocoa, have introduced this field recently, with Bosques. Cocoa and its Technicians : Each community chooses their cocoa technician (not a mem ber of the community, but someone with certificate experience in the area). This technician receives training and participates in most of the activities provided by Bosques. The technici an is highly engaged in Bosques' activ ities, and each community pays t heir technician with the money received from Bosques for the conserved hectares. Each community has 2 promotores de cacao (cocoa promoters ) from the community. The promotores follow up on their technician's work in the community. The cocoa technician must follow his work plan (provided by the community and Bosques) and inform his activities in a report that is added to the community's quarterly reports. Artisanry : The three communities accepted to create an a rtisan women committee, but it did not start as the signature of the contract, they added it on the second or third year of contract.
! == This committee is only for women who volunteer to participate. In this committee women work with threads of different colors of their choice, and manually weave long weav es that are later on cut in pieces to design the final product they want to create. Among their creations: purses, change purses, key chains, chumbes (belts). II. CONTEXT Gender in the Amazon According to the Gender Inequality Index, the areas in Peru with more forest density in the Amazon are the ones with the highest gender inequality rates (MINAM, 2016), which is a huge disadvantage for the development of Amazonian populations. Gender inequality in the Amazon region is related to many factors, including l ack of access to education (USAID, 2014). This lack increases illiteracy rates and the lack of Spanish as a second language. Most young men attend high school while young women only attend through elementary school (USAID, 2014). Other factors contributing to lack of gender equality include lack of documentation, domestic violence, lack of health care, lack of support from the government along with extractive industries' interests, and the government's lack of gender perspectives in their programs (USAID, 2 014). Women and Forest Use : Unfortunately, Peru lacks detailed information regarding gender roles in forest activities. Although it is known that men and women have different roles with regards to forest use, there are cultural and institutional considerations that restrict women to get involved in certain activities, creating disparity between opportunities for men and women (MINA M, 2016). Regardless, women's knowledge is very importa nt because of their invaluable cultural expertise on species diversity and uses is very accurate (MINAM, 20 1 6). Small scale agriculture and non timber species' management are women related practices th at serve to help meet community needs of healthcare and nutrition Therefore, food security and forestry go hand in hand in Amazonian communities (MINAM, 2016). To address gender inequalities, women should have a stronger position in decision making, for t hem to participate in meetings regarding their land use. The value chain of forest products is also a strongly woman dominated activity (MINAM, 2016) Benefits from these products are demonstrated based on the commercial value of the product. E.g.: product s with the highest demand will generate more income and
! =; consequently access to technologies. Such increased demand bring o pportunities for markets training (from the government or other stakeholder), which at the same time empower women on decision making (among the ones involved in those value chains ) (MINAM, 2016). Then there are two facts that cannot be ignored: (1) among indigenous communities women are guardians and communication channels of traditional knowledge, and (2) women are responsible of the majority of decisions made for home related purposes (MINAM, 2016). Deforestation in San Marti n There are different deforestation drivers in the Peruvian Amazon, among which are gold mining, logging roads, livestock, fires near agricultural areas ( Novoa et al., 2017 ), and even natural causes such as blowdowns and landslides, to give some examples (Finer, M. et al, 2018). It is estimated that 80% o f the deforestation is due to small scale agriculture ( < 5 hectares), followed by large scale agriculture ( Finer & Novoa, 2016 ). In Peru, the San Martin region was found to be one of the most intense deforestation hotspots in 2017 (Finer, M. et al, 2018). This is due to oil palm ( Elaeis guineensis) plantations. Along with Ucayali, these regions have lost over 11,500 hectares of primary forest ( Finer & Novoa, 2015 ). Figure 2 1, shows the total deforestation in 2013, where San Martin (circle in purple) is clearly seen as a deforestation hotspot
! =" Figure 2 1. Forest Loss in San Martin Source: MINAM, 2012 Forests in the territories of indigenous communities that hold titles, are equivalent to over 14 million hectares of rainforests in Peru (Proyecto CBC, 2 013). Involving the communities in the mechanisms for the conservation of Amazonian forests is a promising strategy to limit the expansion of deforestation in Peru. In San Martin the indigenous population make s up to 4% of the total (INEI, 1993). This region is home to four pueblos originarios ( indigenous groups ): Kichwa AwajÂœn Cahuapana, and Shawi ( Ministerio de Cultura 2017 c ). Kichwa Population The Kichwa population in Peru is about 54,000 people (Ministerio de Cultura, 2017b ). There are currently, 81 Kichwa communities that hold property titles (Ministerio de Cultura, 2017 a ). There are three different Kichwa populations located each in the regions of Loreto, Madre de Dios and San Marti n ( Figure 2 2 ). The Kichwa Lamas population is found in San Martin ( bolded region below)
! =# Figure 2 2. Kichwa Population in Peru Self elaboration, 2017 The Kichwa are the only Amazonian indigenous group that belongs to the Quechua linguistic family T he Quechua that the Kichwa speak, belongs to a sub lingu i stic group in the Quechua Chinchay category (Sandoval et al., 2016) Kichwa Lamas are not descendants from the Chankas (central Peruvian Andes population), because they are related to the tested indigenous gro ups AwajÂœn, Cocamas, Shipibos, Achuar, Shuar and Kichwas from Loreto (Peru) and from Ecuador (Sandoval et al., 2016). Fishing, hunting, and agricultural practices prevail in Kichwa Lamas communities Among their crops, the following are the most common: banana ( Mussa spp.), maize ( Zea mays) cassava ( Manihot esculenta), beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris) peanuts ( Arachis hypogaea), and native fruit trees. Cocoa ( T heobroma cacao ) and coffee ( C offea arabica ) are also very popular crops. These last two w ere promote d in the 2000 decade. A lot of communities were trained to produce these, however they did not receive training for the recovery of their soils post cocoa and coffee harvesting ( ZÂœÂ–iga, 2011)
! =< III. GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE STUDY AREA Indigenous Com munities : Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi and Chirik Sacha Quechua Meaning : Cold water, dumb monkey, and wild cold Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi, and Chirik Sacha's Location Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi are located in the San Roque de Cumbaza district, central part o f Lamas province. Chirik Sacha is located in the San JosÂŽ de Sisa district, El Dorad o province, although most of its territory is located in the Alto Saposoa District, Huallaga province. Chirik Sacha is to the south we stern part of Lamas province ( Figure 3 1 )
! =5 Figure 3 1. Indigenous Communities' location Source: Sayhuite, 2017 The three communities belong to the Huallaga zone and the Medio Huallaga subzone (based on the Huallaga River basin). These communities hold titles since 1997, they are affiliated to the FEPIKRESAM indigenous organization (acronym: Kichwa Indigenous Feder ation of San Martin) (IBC, 2000). For more details of each community, refer to Table 3 1 Table 3 1. Additional D ata for Chirikyacu, Chunchiwi and Chirik Sacha Source: IBC, 2000. Community Water Bodies* Title Resolution Production** Bilingual Schools*** Chirikyacu Cumbaza river 213 97 CTAR RSM/DRA SM Beans, coffee and maize primary and kindergarten Chunchiwi Chunchiwi creek 216 97 CTAR RSM/DRA SM maize, beans and peanuts primary Chirik Sacha Pao creek 535 97 CTAR RSM/DRA SM coffee, maize and banana No school (Students go to Nauta to
! =8 access education) *For Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi, these water bodies are not accessible. They can be found further away towards their primary forest **Production resources are listed in the order of most productivity to least. The three listed are the top 3 of all production ***These schools are classified as bilingual, but they are not. Their teachers are not fluent in Quechua, and all the classes are provided in Spanish. Nauta is biggest and closest Kichwa town (caserÂ’o) where students from 3 communities are educated Indigenous Organization Junta Directiva (Board of Directors) : The Junta Directiva is the political representation of the community, which lasts 2 years in power. Community members volunteer to join the board in any of the positions. Sometimes, former members suggest new members for the board. Juntas Directivas are a rranged by the Apu (president community chief), vicepresident, secretary treasurer, and 2 spokesperson Committees : Kichwa communities are politically organized by committees for a better administration of their communal activities. These committees h ave mostly the same organization structure as the Junta Directiva. Many ComitÂŽs organizados (organized committees) can be found in a Kichwa community such as: Tourism Committee, Sacha Inchi Comm ittee, Patrolling Committee, and A rtisan Committee. These last two were organized fro m the Bosques' contract. The name of the A rtisan Committee varies per community comitÂŽ de mujeres organizadas", "comitÂŽ de madres organizadas", "comitÂŽ de mujeres artesanas ". This report uses the last one Art isan Women Committee ". Tierra de NiÂ–os (TINI) : In Chirikyacu is the only community where a children committee is found: TINI (acronym in Spanish: Land of Children). As the other committees, it also has its political orga nization; in this case, TINI's A pu is a girl, who was chosen by all the children. TINI promotes environmental and productivity practices (without profit) among the children of Chirikyacu, in order for them to appreciate their territory and their identity.
! =9 ! ! ! ! ! IV. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
! ;> Figure 4 1. Conceptual Framework Figure 4 1 illustrates the how this research project collaborates with some of the stakeholders in achieving their objectives. Consequently, is described how International Aid : Germany's main interest is to reduce GHG emissions, thus through the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Nuclear Security (BMU), they fostered the International Climate Protection Initiative (IKI) in 2008. Through IKI, Germany can aid cou ntries with smaller economies to counteract climate change (Proyecto CBC, 2013), such as Peru. IKI aids Peru through GIZ with money for achieving this goal. GIZ in Peru : In Peru, the project that GIZ runs to specifically support Bosques is the CBC Project, its main objective is to develop and consolidate the Conditional Direct Transfers program, and encourage its sustainability after the project's intervention (Proyecto CBC, 2013). National Administration : In Peru the main environmental political interest is to reduce the deforestation rate to zero. Through the MINAM's Bosques Program, Peru expects to achieve its goal. Bosques' main interest is t o achieve the conservation of 54 ,000,000 hectares of tropical forests through community forest management. Throug h the many Bosques offices in Peru the money is transferred (in Peruvian curr ency), to the very local levels; e.g.: Bosques Lima, transfers to Bosques San Martin, and Bosques San Martin to the communities in its region.
! ;: Local Management : Each Amazonian r egion in Peru has its local office (UZD) in t he case of San Martin is UZDSM, w here Bosques' local team work s in collaboration with the indigenous communities (CCNN). Bosques San Martin local offices are located in Moyobamba (San Martin's capital). I strong ly highlight and appreciate their efforts in working with San Martin indigenous communities. Even when they receive commands from Bosques Lima (national office in Lima), they have adapted (and sometimes rejected them) in order for the communities to best implement the TDC, and have a successful Bosques experience based in Bosques' main principles (recognizing the importance of forest conservation, succeeding in productive activities, and achiev ing high participation from most of the community to best inser t TDC in the community). In doing so, Bosques San Martin realized the lack of gender approach the TDC structure had. Hence, a long 2017, Bosques San Martin added gender focused workshops for the committees, cocoa technicians, cocoa promoters, J unta D irectiva, reiterating the concept of involving more women in the development of the TDC activities. Which are also now, suggested from Bosques Lima expertise. At the Community Level : One of the main tasks of the community is to achieve the fulfillment of t he Investment Plan, meeting the 4 components ( social, management, productivity, and environmental ). Field Practicum : In addition to the University of Florida this research is supported by GIZ who along were supporting Bosques in Peru in the process of improving gender practices. This report assess the role of indigenous women along the implementation of the TDC mechanism, and Kichwa Lamas indigenous adults' contribution for th e conservation of their community forest in order to understand how is women participation and if how to increase her co ntribution to TDC. !
! ;= V. OBJECTIVES Main Objective : Define and ch aracterize the involvement of Kichwa Lamas indigenous women in the conservation of community forests and in the implementation of the TDC mechanism following four specific objectives (SO) baseline (Table 5 1). Table 5 1. Specific Objectives and Actions SO 1 Identify key aspects of the involvement of the Kichwa Lamas women in the steps of the T D C mechanism 1.1 Identify the activities that are carried out in the 6 steps of the implementation of the TDC mechanism 1.2 Determine the involvement of women in the activities of the steps previously identified 1.3 Identify women's understanding of the TDC mechanism SO 2 C haracterize the participation of women and the gender complementarity in the development of each of the activities of their Investment Plan and the conservation of their community forest 2.1 Identify the activities that women perform for the fulfilment of their Investment Plan and the conservation of their community forest 2.2 Identify the activities that men perform for the fulfilment of its Investment Plan and the conservation of their co mmunity forest 2.3 Describe the gender complementarity in the development of the Investment Plan's activities SO 3 Identify the main effects of women's contribution to the implementation of the TD C mechanism 3.1 Identify the contributions and benefits of women's involvement in the activities of the Investment Plan 3.2 Validate the information that was gathered
! ;; Table 5 1 Continued SO4 Identify actions to strengthen women's participation in the implementation of the TDC mechanism 4.1 Identify the motivations and constraints of women's engagement in the activities of the Investment Plan 4.2 Define actions for enhancing the participation of women Alignment of Objectives : T able 5 2 explains how this research project complements with objectives of the CBC project, and how these two respond to the PAGCC objectives' needs. Table 5 2. Alignment Objectives Source: Proyecto CBC, 2013; MINAM, 2016. PAGCC CBC PROJECT THIS RE SEARCH Policies and Management Instruments ( SO 3) Add gender perspectives on all of these Develop standards and procedures for the development of the TDC Through SO1 and SO2, this research analyzes the implementation of these standards and procedures in the comm unities Mitigation and adaptation measures ( SO 4) include gender perspectives on all of these Information Management ( SO 1) makes sure there is information for women, that is also available to them and that is used by them Monitors the impacts of the TD C Through SO3, this research explores the impacts of the TDC through women participation Capacity Building ( SO 2) Train government decision makers on gender approaches and promote gender equality Provides development of capacities for the communities' po pulation Through SO3 and SO4, this research explores how have these capacities benefited the population and the implementation of the TDC Mitigation and adaptation measures ( SO 4) Capacity Building ( SO 2) Integrity and Sustainability of the TDC Through the SO4, this research provides strategies for the sustainability of the TDC *In parenthesis is shown the specific objective from this report that corresponds to PAGCC's objective
! ;" VI. LITERATURE REVIEW Ac cording to the purpose of this research (previous section) there are two main purposes to d etermine. These two purposes (forests and TDC) have questions to address, and each of these questions is addressed in different specific objectives (Table 6 1 ) For responding such questions, some concepts must be clarified in advance, in that way the reader can understand in what basis the methodology is applied. Table 6 1. W here in this S tudy are the Objectives A ddress ed Main Objective: Define and characterize women's involvement Purpose : Women's involvement where? Questions to address Where are these addressed? SO1 SO2 SO3 SO4 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 Forests In the conservation of community forests How is the human forest' relation? x x x What are wome n's role s ? x x x TDC In the implementation of the TDC mechanism Where did women participate? x x x x x What kind of involvement do women have? (How is she involved/how is her participation defined) x x x x x x x x x What are the effects of her contribution? x x x x x x
! ;# In this section, Forests and TDC define the following concepts : @ For Human Forest relation: ? Primary Forest ? Ecology Conservation and Protection Zone @ For Human 's role: ? Interaction @ Participation @ Gender Expressions Forests: Women's I nvolvement in the Conservation of Community F orests For Human Forest R elation In Peru, there are different classifications for forest, a mong which in these indigenous territories are found primary forests : "Forest with original vegetation, defined by the abundance of mature trees and species of uppermost canopy, or dominant species that have naturally evolved, and that has been relatively undisturbed b y human activities or natural causes" ( El Peruano, 2015 ). Primary forest s have different uses, and there are 4 categories for forestry zoning (Ley NÂ¡29763) of upon which one of them appl ies to the designated area for forest conservation, in the indigen ous communities affiliated with Bosques. It is Category B. Ecology Conservation and Protection Zone ': "Fragile ecosystems which, due to their low resilience or low returning capacity to its original condition, are unstable to events of anthropogenic natur e. These are priority areas for biodiversity conservation that restrict or limit extractive uses" (Ley NÂ¡29763) Thus this report address es the human forest relations' in the primary forest within the hectares that the community chose for forest conservat ion. For H uman's R oles: Interaction with F orests Forests TDC
! ;< To understand the relation ship of humans and forests this report focuses i n variables that link natural and human components such as the use of forest ecosystem s ervices (Liu et al, 2007). It is important to consider a local scale interaction model, with variables such as social preferences, and individual mobility (Alberti et al., 2003), understanding that the dynamics of human nature systems are influenced by many external factors (Liu et al, 2007). I nter action can have different levels within this selected scale (Alberti et al., 2003). Consequently, this report identifies actions that men and women perform within forests, why they do them, and in what contexts; the recognition of forest's importance and o ther actions that forge their relationship with the forest. These types of interaction determine the human forest relationship and their preferences at an individual scale. TDC: Women's involvement in the implementation of the TDC mechanism T o evaluate men and women's participation gender roles from a systemic perspective must be understood (Paulson, 2000) Beforehand, it must be clarified that each society has adapted and/or developed different gender norms that evolve in time and are influenced by a m yriad of inter secting patterns (Van, 2000; Paulson, 2000) Consequently, the results of this research are not a permanent definition because gender systems do change and are constantly rebuilt (Van, 2000). Gender norm s are socially constructed in their roles T h ese are learnt at the very local level and are thought through existing cultural norms, constraints, and advice ( Gero, and Scattolin, 2002 ). Gender norms can create intergenerational ( and intergender ) differences and dependencies that can be ruled by age, group, sex, time, space, and other gender identities ( Gero, and Scattolin, 2002; Paulson 2000; Van, 2000). In a binary category of any society areas of autonom y, authority and power can vary (Gero, and Scattolin, 2002) because it is not determined by one gender Therefor e, in a binary category, there are different gender systems : complementary hierarchical and patriarchal to list some examples (Gero, and Scattolin, 2002). According to Cer vone (2002) among indigenous groups a maintained system of gender complementarity is based in their equality in diversity, which means that the difference between m en and women (that does exist) legitimizes their capabilities and establishes their rights to both access the same opportunities ( Safa, 2005 ).
! ;5 Thus, to define gender expressions, this report departs from the complementary gender system, which refers to the coexistence of both genres (Gero, and Scattolin, 2002; Van, 2000). In gender complementarity, there are collaborative dependencies to complete the work, which is an attribute of mutual participation (Gero, and Scattolin, 2002 ), also defined as multiple interdependence (Paulson, 2000). These rely in differentiated approaches (when i ntegrating the interdependent individual at different levels). In this way, their roles are integral parts of equal importance in the process of achieving one activity (Gero, and Scattolin, 2002; Paulson 2000). Consequently, departing from complementary ge nder system, this report considers direct and indirect involvement, and different levels of participation in the actions and activities of the investment plan, as of equal importance to the achievement of the activity. ! ! !
! ;8 ! VII. FIELD PHASE DEVELOPMENT The field practicum was developed over a period of 07 weeks, during which 14 days were spent in Chirikyacu, 12 in Chunchiwi and 10 in Chirik Sacha. The visits to the communities were arranged in coordination with the National Program for the Conservation of forests for the Mitigation of Climate Change (PNCBMCC), at the San Marti n Zonal Unit (UZDSM) or Bosques San Mart i n as well as with the respective communal authorities. A ccess to the se communities was from the city of Lamas which was closer to Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi Therefore, visits to Chirikyacu a nd Chunchiwi were done with greater ease than t h o se to Chirik Sacha which was far to get to. Moving around in C hirikyacu was much easier th an in the other two communities because of the close proximity of housing It also has a community hostel where I slept I also slept in the house of the comuneros (people from the community) While in Chunchiwi, the first few times I went around accompani ed by a guide assigned by the A pu This situation altered the development of the activities, involving changes in the methodology, which I adapted quickly. Due to the busy schedule of the comuneros, Chirik Sacha also required changes in the methodology. Movemen t in this community was affected by high temperatures, in addition to the long, physically demanding journey from Lamas, decreasing daily productivity, compared to Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi. My stay in the 3 communities was highly pleasant and every comuner o and comunera were willing to participate in this research. Thus, for the field work 86% of the total number of beneficiaries of artisanry and cocoa contributed to this research ( Chirikyacu 88 % Chunchiwi 86% and Chirik Sacha 85%). Table 7 1 shows the number of participants Table 7 1. Total number of Community M embers that P articipated in the M ethods Indigenous community Only Artisans/ Artisans & C ocoa Only Cocoa farmers / Total O ther** Total ***
! ;9 (Total population )* Total artisans farmers Cocoa farmers Chirikyacu (26) 5/13 8/8 10/21 3/X 23/26 Chunchiwi (62) 2/10 8/9 14/27 X 24/28 Chirik Sacha (56) 10/16 3/3 9/13 2/X 22/26 The total community's population was obtained from the proceedings of the contract filled by the Junta Directiva in its first year in the TDC (respectively to each community). ** Other applies to the beneficiaries of the TDC mechanism that are not beneficiaries of artisan or cocoa production, e.g.: participate in other committees such as tourism, in the case of Chirikyacu; or other trainings such as GPS and patrolling activities. It is not added to the total.***The total of artisan women and cocoa was obtained from the lis ts provided by their respective promoters or cocoa technicians, and chairs of the artisan women committee. VIII. APPLICATION OF METHODS AND ANALYSIS SO 1 Identify key aspects of the involvement of the Kichwa Lamas women in the steps of the TDC mechanism SO1 was divided into 3 actions Actions 1.1 and 1.2 were carr ied out as planned, however for 1.3 many changes needed to be made In the case of 1.3, it was not correlated to the previous actions, and was not subject ed to any subsequent action; therefore it wa s developed along all the visits to the field. Table 8 1. Methods and Analysis of SO1 A ctions Action Indigenous community Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 1.1 For the identification of these activities I reviewed Life Plans and Investment P lans of each community which were provided by GIZ. I also interviewed extensionists from Bosques San Martin to corroborate the activities (previously identified) of each community. 1.2 I interview ed community members and technicians of each community to de t ermine in which of the activities women had participated. I also reviewed the attendance's sheet of the meetings conducted by the PNCBMCC and the ir quarterly reports to double check on the presence of women This material was provided by Bosques San Martin Apu Cocoa Technician Artisan w omen's committee member Apu C o coa Technician Apu 1.3 For this activity I designed a yes or no' 5 question survey to test women's understanding T he format of the survey kept on changing for better understanding In Chunchiwi and Chirikyacu initial s urvey s were conducted in group s I then
! "> proceeded to conduct individual surveys and finally, conduct them after the SO2's interviews Results were manually counted, and added to the total. Group Survey Individual Survey Individual Survey after interview on program activities Group Survey Individual Survey after interview on program activities In dividual Survey after interviews on program activities SO 2 Characterize the participation of Kichwa Lamas women and the gender complementarity in the development of each of the activities of their Investment Plan and in the conservation of their community forest. Table 8 2. Methods and Analysis of SO2 A ctions Action Indigenous C ommunity Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 2.1 To identify the functions carried out by women, and to corroborate their involvement in the OE1 1.2 activities I conduct ed block I interviews Each community had different interviews because of the different activities identified For the 3 communities, beneficiaries of artisanry and cocoa were selected where only women participated Also, in this interview an exploratory question about the relationship of women and their forest was included P articipatory observation was used to u nderstand this relationship. I compiled all the descriptive answers together, per community, and classified them per type of involvement, as activities of direct or indirect involvement; and per levels of participation, as high/medium/low participation. I was able to determine levels of interaction with the forest. Finally, I also selected some testimonies. 2.2 For this activity a focus group was conducted in Chirik Sacha, it was not successful so I decided to carry out semi structured interviews in the other two communities. In Chunchiwi an unexpected situation happened, where I had to adapt a focus group in the Macchos sector. In Chunchiwi and Chirikyacu, questions were based on the 2.1 interviews, about men and his contribution to the I nvestment Plan (assigned as interviews Block II) In se veral of these men also partici p a ted, being mixed interviews. I compiled all the descriptive answers together, per community, and classified them as activities of direct or indirect involvement ; and p er levels of participation, as high/medium/low participation. I was able to determine levels of interaction with the forest. Finally, I also selected some testimonies. Semi structured Semi structured interviews Focus Group
! ": interviews Focus Group (adapted) Table 8 2. Continued Action Indigenous Community Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 2.3 In the three communities, activities of complementary and non complementary systems were identified by the interviews of actions 2.1 and 2.2. In addition, in Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi, block II interviews covered aspects of mutual collaboration in each activity; while in Chirik Sacha, these were covered in the focus group. Along with the participant observation in 2.1 and 2.2, and combined with th ose direct and indirect answers, I was able to identify different gender expressions. At this stage of the research, a strong bond of trust between the community members and me was achieved. From this point, participant observation is more profitable. SO 3 Identify the main effects of Kichwa Lamas women's contribution to the implementation of the TDC mechanism Table 8 3. Methods and Analysis of SO3 A ctions Action Indigenous Community Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 3.1 In addition to the participant observation, based on the SO2.1 interviews questions were added about learning, opinions and changes that occurred in their community since the beginning of the Bosques P rogram. The semi structure d interviews that correlate to the 2.1, corres pond to block III interviews. From the answers of block III -interviews I was able to categorize the importance of executing each activity for the individual. Either if learning the activity was important for themselves, for their household, and/or for their community. Also, from their experiences in executing each activity, I was able to collect their suggestions to improve their performance in those activities, their perceptions of Bosques, and how women recognize their contributions and gained benefit s.
! "= Table 8 3. Continued Action Indigenous Community Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 3.2 From the participant observation, I was able to identify contributions and benefits, as well as from the additional information provided in the first 2 blocks of interviews. Therefore I proceeded directly to the validation. In Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi a participatory workshop was scheduled for validation, and for Chunchiwi visits to the cocoa fields were added because it was one of the needs that the results of the workshop showed, complementing this action (3.2). In Chirik Sacha the possibility of group activities was annulled from point 2.2, and therefore I insisted with interviews, but this time mixed. Validation consisted in going over all the collected data, together with community members, in order to corroborate the (data's) accuracy. Community memb ers gave their opinions in each of them. Validation Workshop Validation Workshop Visit to the cocoa fields Semi structured interviews There were two cases where men alone were interviewed: in Chirik Sacha, and Chunchiwi SO 4 Identify actions to strengthen Kichwa Lamas women's participation in the implementation of the TDC mechanism Table 8 4. Methods and Analysis of SO4 A ctions Action Indigenous Community Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 4.1 I covered this point in block III interviews (point 3.1), and also in the 3.2 validation workshops From the comunera s point of view I was able to gather information on the constraint s and motivations that women have to get involved in the activities of the PI I compiled all the opinions togethe r to create a concis e summary of answers,
! "; where I was able to identify drivers for constraints and motivations, categorizing them into internal and external drivers, for both. 4.2 This action was determined through the block III interviews ( 3.1) and the activities of 3.2 a ction I characterized the drivers for women's participation, and in combination with the participant observation I was able to define concrete actions to strengthen their women's participation, which are arranged in a pyramid o f actions in three steps: recognition and valorization of opportunities and strengths, prevention mechanisms, and action measures for problem mitigation. IX. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION To under stand the concepts utilized in this section the purposes (A and B) have a brief description below them (for additional reference, check section VI) : A. Forests a. Interaction i. Type of in teraction : direct/indirect ii. Level of Interaction No physical interaction: (1) K nows myths and stories about the forest (2) R ecognizes its importance + (1, above) Physical interaction B. TDC a. Participation i. Levels of Participation: high/medium/low ii. Type of Participation: direct/indirect iii. Participation Drivers : Characterization of women's participation M otivation (self/ external) C onstraints (internal/external) b. Gender Expressions i. Mutual: any one can take the lead roles can change ii. Integrative: one leads the same activity always norms are clear ? Men Women ? Women men iii. Non complementary To consider for all the above: I ntergenerational and intergender, differences and dependencies: ? Young Elderly ? Lit erate N on literate
! "" ? Schooled/Educa ted N on schooled ? Bilingual speaker Monolingual Quechua speaker SO 1 Identi fi cation of the key aspects of the involvement of the Kichwa Lamas women in the steps of the TDC mechanism 1.1 Activities that are carried out in the 6 steps of the TDC implementation Table 9 1 shows all the activities that were identified along the whole TDC implementation to date, in each of the communities. T he steps that are shown in gray d o not have the involvement of the community. This is because targeting' is done by Bosques to select the communities to be invited and 'graduation' has not being realized in any of the three communities Table 9 1. Identification of the a ctivities in the 6 steps of the TD C mechanism Step 's Number Step 's Name List of activities Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha Targeting ? Index of community prioritization considering the size of forest, deforestation, poverty index, proximity to protected areas and others ( see Table 1 1 ) Admission The community begins to get involve d : ? The Bosques Program was presented to the community in a communal workshop ? The community is invited to be beneficiaries of the program. ? Expression of interest of the Communities (last activity of this step) The community agreed to sign the contract: Submission, ap proval and validation of their L ife plans and i nvestment plans Zoning of Communal Forest Participatory mapping, field verification, zoning and demarcation of the # $
! "# Affiliation boundaries of the communal forest Validation Investment Plan (2014 2018) Planning Document (204 2018) Approval and validation of the document of 2015 2019 Planning and Investment Plan 2015 2019 Submission, approval and validation of the Investment Plan 2014 2017 and Life Plan 2014 2018 Table 9 1 Continued Step's Number Step's Name List of activities Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha Liquidation of Transfers* Money is now transferred to the community's Junta Directiva, per year, depending on the hectares agree to conserve (before it was transferred to the Management Committee* no longer exists) ? Community is informed through the Informative Communal Assemblies Fulfillment of Conditions Implementation of the activities set out in the Investment Plan of each community ? Preparation of quarterly reports ? Implementation of the activities of the Investment Plan (technical assistance, trainings, workshops, monitoring, other) ? Communal Assemblies for review of quarterly reports 1 4, year 2015 ? Communal Assemblies for r eview of quarterly reports 1 4, year 2016 ? Communal Assemblies for review of quarterly reports 1 2, year 2017 n/a n/a Communal Assembly for the information of the closure of implementation 2014 Review Investment Plan for the year 2016 Review Investment Plan % &
! "< for the year 2016 Annual Report 2015 Annual monitoring of 2015 Investment Plan Table 9 1 Continued Step's Number Step's Name List of activities Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha Graduation By the time the communities leave the Program, they are expected to keep Bosques' practices. Then, the expenses of those activities can be covered with the money earned from artisanry, cocoa, and other of the productive activities. In addition, at this point the community must recognize the value of their primary forest and the importance to conserve it. *The first communities to be affiliated to the program had to create a management committee who was in charge of receiving and managing the money. The activities represented in this table are only the activities that were accessed through the b ibliographic material (reports, working acts, plans, others). Therefore, there might be other activities besides what I have accessed. 1.2 Involvement of women in the activi ties and steps previously identified The percentage of assistance, invol vement and participation vary per community and by gender. W omen have a lower percentage than men in all three cases in the three communities. Steps 2 and 3: admission and affiliation From step 2, there is the presence of women in the 3 communities ( Figure 9 1 ). According to the attendance sheets ( appendices A, and B ), Chunchiwi is the community that furthe r response from women has had by having a larger amount of them involved in the initial meetings Therefore, Chunchiwi has the highest female attendance at mandatory meetings (from step 2 to step 5), but fewer presence of them in the fulfillment of conditions (step 5). Which make me think that assisting the meetings could be a
! "5 matter of communi ty commitment, but not interest because they don't remember the details of the meetings, they only slightly remember assisting. Figure 9 1. Involvement of men and women in the T DC steps Also, it is worth mentioning that in some assistance sheets there is no female attendance to meetings, but when examining the photographic record they are present I spe culate that they do not sign the assistance sheet s because they place the name of t he i r husband s instead to avoid fines; or because they assist with their husbands, and they sign as representative of the household. Since the communities signed their expression of interest (step 2) to the approval and validation of thei r documents (step 3), there are interesting patterns of these events attendance (See last Section, appendices A B, and C ) : In the 3 communities decreased the total number of attendees (men and women). In spite of the fact that the 3 communities reduced the number of attendees, the percentage of women attending remained the same in C hirikyacu and Chunchiwi ( Figure 9 2, below ), which coincides with the 7 months of difference that both communities experienced between step 2 and 3. In Chirik Sacha decreased the number of attending women Chunchiwi has the largest decline of total attendees and C hirikyacu had the least. Despite the fact that both communities experienced 7 months difference between step 2 and 3. In Chirik Sacha, despite showing no women attendees they were present in the photographic record. Despite 28 months of difference in Chirik Sacha between the act of interest and the approval and validation, the com munity had less variation (than C hirikyacu and Chunchiwi) in both: the total of attendees a nd in the number of women attending
! "8 Figure 9 2. Percentage of women who attended in relation to the total Unfortunately, the majority of comuneros do not remember these meetings in details Only the members of the former Boards of Directors and Management Committees remember the meetings in detail. Step 4: Liquidation of transfers shows mostly the presence of men ( Figure 9 1 ), because these are conducted in coordination with the Junta D irectiva where the members of these groups, to date have been only men. However, the community is informed about the money received each year. Some women remember having attended these meetings, mostly in Chirik Sacha. No one remember s the details of the meeting s no one recalled h aving asked questions of something they did not understoo d or that they were in disagreement with. The very few number of women that are in this step, are women in charge of the artisan women committee who now receive the money (through the Junta Directiva) for the expenses of their artisanry It should be noted that the number of economic activities depends on the amount of money the communities receive, and this depends on the hectares of forest for co nservation each community has All the communities receive s/.10.00 Peruvian Nuevos Soles (PEN) per hectare, which is about $3.10 USD. Each year the community can add or reduce the amount of hectares, which will affect the monetary amount they receive, an d consequently will affect the new activities in their communities. Currently, Chirikyacu has 4150 hectares and receives as incentive 41,500 (PEN); Chunchiwi, 6200 hectares and receives 62,000 (PEN); and Chirik Sacha, 1899 hectares and receives 18,990 ( PEN). >! :>! =>! ;>! ">! #>! <>! $AB!(C!2DBEFEGB! $HHFIJKL!KDM!JKLNMKOID!IC! MIAPQEDBG!! REFAEDBKSE!IC!BTE!BIBKL!DPQUEF!IC! KVEDMEEG! )IQEDWG!KGGNGBKDAE! %TNFNXYKAP! %TPDATNZN! %TNFNX!0KATK!
! "9 As it is mentioned in Tabl e 9 1 management committees were created in the first affiliated communities, among which are Chirik Sacha and Chirikyacu. However, in Chirik Sacha the management committee lasted less than 3 years and in Chirikyacu and Chunchiwi, only 1 period. Management c om mittees created conflict among the communal organization because it is an external requirement to manage communal interests. Chunchiwi is one of the communities that was able to adequately execute its investment plan once they removed the management commit tee from the communal organization. San Martin communities received strong support from Bosques local office to remove the management committees. Such office had tense negotiations with Bosques Lima, in order to support San Martin communities in this requ irement. Currently, all the affiliated communities in Peru do not have to create a management committee because it is their communal authority board who is in charge of managing and distributing the money, along with Bosques collaboration. Step 5: Fulfill ment of Conditions Both wome n and me n are involved in the fulfillment of condition s ( Figure 9 1 ). Their involvement is noted t hrough their participation in the activiti es of the I n vestment Plan Part of these activities is the communication to all the inhabitants on the decisions taken about the changes in the investment plan (PI) and its renderings Appendix C shows in detail the assistance of women to some of these meetings, based on the signatures of the available attendance sheets Despite the fact that the data in a ppendix C are incomplete figures 9 4 and 9 5 compile this information, evidencing that the time of the year when the meeting is arranged does not alter the participation of the comuneros, because the percentages keep oscillating. The amount of time of the community in the TDC is not a factor that could have altered the assistance behavior. The pattern of regular attendance ( Figure 9 3 ), both in the percentage of (all) women attending ( Figure 9 4 ), and in the involvement of women beneficiaries of the program (cocoa and artisanry ) in these meetings ( Figure 9 5 ). Note that it is registered more times low than average in both cases. The comparison of figures 9 4, and 9 5 show s that a maintained number of women tha t are not beneficiaries of cocoa and artisanry, have assisted to these meetings. Not available Lack of attendance list High 75% 100 %
! #> Average 50% 74% Regular 25% 49% Low 0 24 % Figure 9 3. Legend of Figures 9 4, and 9 5 Note this is the percent of the total number of women, from the total number of attendees (men and women) Figure 9 4. Total number of women attending Note this is the percent of women from the artisan women committee, out of the total number of women attendees. Figure 9 5. Women beneficiaries (artisan and cocoa) that attend the meetings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
! #: Finally, it is gratifying to find that in the three communities women were invited to participate in these meetings, although unfortunately, to date, the majority of them do not remember any detail s This reaffirms their low involvement in the meetings. 1.3 Understanding of women about the TDC mechanism Regardless of the time since the contract was signed in the 3 communities, their learning about the Bosques P rogram and how it works is not able ; as the recognition of the conservation of hectares of communal forest ( Figure 9 6 ). Figure 9 6. Number of comuneras who answered "Yes" The term of "Conditional Direct Transfers as such, had a very low re sponse ( Figure 9 6 ). Only one person in Chirik Sacha was able to answer correctly and explain how the TDC mechanism works However, the great majority of participants do un derstand how the TD C work s in their community and can randomly describe parts of the process, but cann ot associate it with steps 1 6 (by name) A fter participating in the survey, the functioning of the TDC mechanism was explained to t hem individually at their homes, a nd also their doubts with regard to th e other questions in the survey were clarified.
! #= Annotation Action 1.3 It should be noted that Chunchiwi's results are a bit disproportionate because only 8 comuneras participated, in contrast to Chirikyacu and Chirik Sacha were 15 comuneras participated (in each) Chirik Sacha had a more balanced sample, with 7 artisans and 8 c o coa farmers ; while Chirikyacu had 2 c o coa farmers and 12 artisans. SO 2 Characterization of the participation of Kichwa Lamas women and gender complementarity in the development of each of the activities of their Investment Plan and in the conservation of their community forest. 2.1 Functions that Kichwa Lamas women perform for the fulfilment of their Investment Plan and the conservation of their community forest (a) Women's roles for the fulfillment of the investment plan : The type of women's participation in the ac tivities of the Investment Plan is mostly indirect, this is given in the 3 communities, despite t he different levels of participation ( Figure 9 7 below ) and of the various activities available per community (Tables 9 2, 9 3, and 9 4). For how the questions were stated in the interviews, women seemed not to have participation at all so the questions were reformulated, inquiring about the collaborative role that they have in concrete activities in which their husband s participate too Women's indirect participation can be as simple as to remind her husband to attend his meeting s or as significant as to prepare him food to go patrol ling le hago fiambre, le alisto sus cosas, le preparo con lo que necesita para la lluvia, fÂ—sforos, cigarro, poncho, armas, machete, tambiÂŽn chicha como para 2 a 3 dÂ’as" Anonymous CN Chirikyacu Translation: I make his food, get his things ready, I get him wh at he needs for the rain, matches, cigarettes, his poncho, weapons, machete, also chicha (beverage) for 2 to 3 days "le preparo su fiambre, su tazÂ—n y su cuchara, si va a llevar su ollita, para que lleve, tiene una taza. Si hay huevo, huevo se le cocina, sino su ajÂ’ pucunucho se le da, ja ja" Anonymous CN Chirikyacu
! #; Translation: I get his food ready, his bowl and spoo n, if he takes his small pot so he can take it, he has a cup. If there is egg, I make egg for him, if not, he can take his pucunucho pepper, ha ha There are activities where women have a collaborative and individual role Tables 9 2, 9 3, and 9 4 ) After artisanry nursery activities (seedlings of cocoa) are the ones in which they have more collaborative activities and in which they have learnt the most from This situation is reflected in the three communities, at different levels ( s ome include more wome n than others, in some activities women have perform ed more tasks than others, per community) The following T ables ( 9 2, 9 3, and 9 4 ) show the type of participation (direct or indirect) in all the activities in which women have complementary and non complementary gender expressions : It is determined by color when: Direct Participation ? Mutual (when any leads): Mutual collaboration ? Integrative (when women lead): Women men It is colorless when: Indirect Participation ? Integrative (when men lead): Men women ? Non complementary It also shows the level of participation which is determined by the number of cocoa and artisanry women, e.g. the more women participating, then the highest level of participation (see high, medium and low columns by color in Tables 9 2, 9 3, and 9 4 ). Table 9 2. Type and level o f participation by activity in C hirikyacu High Medium Low Nursery Activities for cocoa Communal Associativity Receipts of Payment Artisanry Marketing Planning GPS training Transport Seedlings t o The Farm Accountability Transport of Bokashi Agroforestry Development of Bokashi
! #" Workshops Visit from technical support or promoter Patrolling Indigenous Knowledge Solid Waste Management Table 9 3. Type and level of participation by activity in Chunchiwi High Medium Low Artisanry Training Soil Fertilization Accountability Cocoa harvest Communal associativity GPS training Cocoa Plantation Nursery Activities for cocoa Monitoring of Plan of Life Indigenous K n owledge Indigenous organization and governance Implementation Communal Kitchen Monitoring Planning Legislation, crimes and threats Receipts of Payment Agroforestry Workshops Table 9 4. Type and level of participation by activity in Chirk Sacha High Medium Low Solid Waste GPS training Organization and Governance Soil Fertilization Patrolling Bokashi Nursery Activities for cocoa Indigenous Knowledge Business and marketing of other products Biogarden Care of cocoa plots Characteristics of your soil Guinea Pigs Visit from technical support or promoter Communal Associativity Artisanry Marketing
! ## Finally I speculate that the number of years of the TD C mechanism in the community, seems to correlate with women's level of participation ( Figure 9 7 ). Chirik Sa cha which has more years in the TDC, has greater direct participation ( dark blue ) in the activities of the Investment Plan. It can also be seen that Chirikyacu has slightl y more direct participation than Chunchiwi despite the fact that it is only hal f a year of dif ference (since the TDC implementation ) apart. I t seems to be as more years in the mechanism, the greater the participation of women in the activities. T o corroborate this hypothesis, annual measu res per activity and by community should be done. Figure 9 7 Correlation of Type of W omen's Participation and Y ears in the TDC (b) Women's roles for the conservation of their community forests The previous segment (2.1 .a ) mentions the PI's activities in which women participate, addressing step 5 (fulfillment of condi tions ) for the conservation of their community forest (by complying with TDC's requirements) None of the women interviewed mentioned going to the forest at the hectares for conservation in their communal territory for any activity. Even many mentioned to have never gone. During the period of this research there is no record of any woman that has gone to the conservation hectares in their forest during my field research In the case of Chirik Sacha, despite having strong involvemen t in the production and use of the cat 's claw plant ( Uncaria tomentosa ), women do not go to the forest T he husbands are >! :! =! ;! "! #! %TNFNXYKAP! %TPDATNZN! %TNFNX!0KATK! [EKFG!ND!BTE!/,%! )IQEDWG!RKFOANHKOID!KDM!YEKFG!ND!BTE!/,%! 2DMNFEAB!RKFOANHKOID! ,NFEAB!HKFOANHKOID! ()*+*,-./0 ()01/)*2* ()*+*,!3./). '&4 $&4 &54 %#4 564 "$4
! #< always the ones that go, sometimes by groups wi th other men. Some go first to clear the road others go to harvest the c at 's claw, and others go to bring it to the community (residential area). In the case of the three communities, some families (father, mother and children) go nearby the conservation hectares of the communal territory to harvest their coffee There, they can stay for up to a week. Women know stories of the forest and from those who have been there, none indicated that they liked doing so T hey prefer to stay in the commun ity (residential area). Therefore, there were no direct contributions of women identified for the conservation of the ir forest. H owever, from the repeated responses in the interviews, 2 levels of interaction with the forest (Figure 9 8 ) were recognized These define the relationship (women forest) that are currently in the three communities which is summarized as "no physical interaction = indirect relationship" Figure 9 8 Levels of indirect relationship "women forest" The level in the right side shows factors that explain the limited relationship of women with the forest, keeping her away from physically interact ing with it nevertheless she knows stories and tales from the forest While the level of indirect relationship on the left side recognizes forest's importance for women. As a result of recognizing the importance of the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` NBaG! MNCCNAPLB1
! #5 forest, woman suggest ed that in order to care for the forest logging must be avoided. Also, from the relationship with the forest, gender roles could also be analyze d. It must be clarified that women do have a stronger level of interaction with secondary and residual forest t hat this research did not focus on. Annotation Action 2.1 Through the tools used for this research, there was no direct relationship of women with the primary forest for conservation purposes However, the existence of a relationship cannot be ruled out. 2.2 Functions performed by Kichwa Lamas men for the fulfilment of its Investment Plan and the conservation of their community forest (a) Functions of men for the fulfillment of the investment plan : M en are involved in all the activities of the Investment Plan I ndirectly, as in the case of artisanry or direct ly as it is among the majority. I n the 3 co mmunities, 100% of the beneficiaries attend the workshops trainings and/or meetings. Hence, t he knowledge me n have developed about the program is notable a s his knowledge about the cultivation of cocoa. In terms of organization and administration knowledge is high among those who were members of the management committee and the Junta D irectiva from the early years of the contract because they received more training within and outside the community provided by Bosques Table 9 5 show all the activities in which men have complementary and non complementary gender expressions The two types are determined with the respective community colors ( blue green and orange ). It is colored when: Direct Participation ? Mutual (when any leads): Mutual collaboration ? Integrative (when men lead): Men women It is colorless when: Indirect Participation ? Integrative (when women lead): Women men ? Non complementary Table 9 5. Type of men's participation by activity Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha
! #8 Visit from technical support or promoter Soil Fertilization Visit from technical support or promoter Nursery Activities for cocoa Nursery Activities for cocoa Nursery Activities for cocoa Communal Associativity Communal associativity Communal Associativity Artisanry Marketing Artisanry Training Bio garden Development of Bokashi Cocoa harvest Bokashi GPS training GPS training Characteristics of your soil Table 9 5. Continued Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha Solid Waste Management Implementation Communal Kitchen Artisanry Marketing Planning Legislation, crimes and threats Soil Fertilization Seedlings To The Farm Monitoring Plan of Life Care of cocoa plots Receipts of Payment Indigenous organization and governance Guinea Pigs Accountability Planning GPS training Indigenous knowledge Cocoa Plantation Business and marketing of other products Agroforestry Workshops Receipts of Payment Organization and Governance Transport of Bokashi Accountability Solid Waste Patrolling of forests Indigenous knowledge Indigenous knowledge TOTAL Agroforestry Workshops Patrolling of forests Patrolling of forests TOTAL TOTAL 10.5/13.5 13/15 10.5/15.5 The activities in italics indicate those are only for the Junta Directiva and were for the management committee. Therefore men had direct involvement but only for a select group. It is worth 0.5 points in the sum.
! #9 In Table 9 5 can be seen that Chirik Sacha is the community where men are involved in more indirect activities. This is due to the variety of options tha t were available for women (biogarden animal breeding, artisanry and solid waste) in that way, men helped their wives when they asked for support (in few cases) The colored letters show the direct involvement of a small group of men, which is not the case for women (with the ex c eption of liquidation of transfers for the artisan women committee). More detail s about the activities in which men participate for the fulfillment of the ir PI, is found in next section (2.3) It also provides details about the gender complementarity in su ch activities. (b) Men 's roles for the conservation of their community forests : The men's direct participation in patrolling activities is established as part of the agreement with Bosques. This contributes for men, for him to maintain a direct interaction with the forest. In addition to this commitment, some of them like to go to montear ( hunting for household consumption ) and stay there for couple days. In the three communities, men have been organized by groups to go patrol ling their forests They ma de a commitment with the program to monitor and take care of their forest. H owever, it is an activity that not all of them like to do, since the conditions in the forest vary according to the seasons they go visit. Some of reasons given include staying wet all night due to rain, cooking meat for all, and sighting of minor species and traces of big mammals that could attack them. Chirik Sacha is the community that has their primary forest area further off to the community settlement T herefore t he assigned patrolling group is divided into subgroups, some of them go to clear the trail s and the following day, others go to do the monitoring task. In addition to the men and forest linkage throug h patrolling activities in Chirik Sacha, as mentioned i n the prev ious s egment (2.1), collecting cat's claw is one of the reasons why men frequent the forest. C hirikyacu is the only community where two elderly are dedicated to music in addition to their communal tasks To construct his pijuanos, flutes and quenas turi (brother) must go into the forest and get waywanto wood that is only found in the depths of the forest. Due to his age, he cannot go as often, so he requests other comuneros that go patrolling or that go to montear, to bring him waywanto.
! <> 2.3 Gender complementarity in the development of the activities for the fulfillment of the Investment Plan As it is mentioned earlier, indirect participation can be simple or significant (especially when integrative). In the following example, Women leads the clothing for s elling activity, she assumes he r husband won't know, and she is willing to teach him. "mi esposo siempre pregunta para quÂŽ es un vestido' o quÂŽ va con el otro vestido' porque quiere saber lo que necesitamos para que ÂŽl vaya a traer los ve stidos. Nosotros le tenemos que indicar el tipo de vestido que debe traer, ÂŽl no sabe" Anonymous CN Chirikyacu Translation: My husband always asks 'what is a dress for or 'what goes with the other dress' because he wants to know what we need, for him t o go get the dresses. We have to indicate him the type of dress that he must bring, he does not know Each year, the activities in the Investment Plan are modified according to the requests of the community, and the (4) components Bosques decide s that need to be promoted (decision taken from Lima) Therefore, the communities have /had some unique activities by communal decision. E.g.: Chirik Sacha and its communal registrar services Chirikyacu and its tourism, and Chunchiwi and its decisions on the implement ation for the communal kitchen, to give some examples. The co mun eros and comuneras, in mutual integrative and non complementary participation f ulfill different roles Hence, all the beneficiaries are interdependent individuals at different levels for the achievement of the activities. In this way, expressions are used to describe these relationships. I am using the word expression because these are not static and none is better than the other A couple (man and woman) under one expression can switch to any other ( check section VI). In this research three expressions of gender complementarity were identified (Table 9 6 ). Table 9 6. Three Gender Expressions Expression Definition Description Non Works individually not integrating # $
! <: complementary the other indiv idual Individual work Integrative One leads integrating the other individual. Norms are defined $ Men support women % $ Women support men Mutual There is mutual collaboration where anyone c an lead. Roles are not prescribed & $ Both support each other The expressions are not restricted to this single model Ba sed on this information (Table 9 6 ) Table 9 7 provides a summary of the actions and how the population respond to each of them per community To understand the letters and other features of Table 9 7 : W hen th e activity is not executed in the c ommunity: n/a (not applicable) W hen the activity was not asked, it shows a dash : ( ) W hen the majority of families perform the activity under that gender e xpression_______________ 3 W hen approximately half of the families perform the activity under that gender e xpression___________ ___ 2 Wh en the activity is perform by very few families under that gender e xpression_____ __ ________ 1 When no family in the community perform the activity under that gender expression _______________ 0 Activities in italics are because th e activity was available for a reduced group of community member s, not for the entire community ( members were selected by the community's authorities ) Table 9 7. Gender expressions among families for the development of the activities Gender Expressions Indigenous Community Ac tions Chirikyacu Chunchiwi Chirik Sacha 3 3 3 Nurse ry Activities for cocoa
! <= # $ Mutual 1 3 3 Care of cocoa plots n/a 3 3 Cocoa harvest 3 3 3 Care of the field 3 Decision on replacement of crops 3 n/a 3 Seedlings of cocoa transportation 0 2 2 Bokashi 2 3 Diet/nutrition in the plot 2 Refreshments for meetings 1 3 1 Choba choba 0 0 1 Solid Waste 2 n/a n/a Tourism Table 9 7. Continued Gender Expressions Indigenous Community Actions $ Men support women (Integrative) 0 1 1 Care of cocoa plots 1 n/a n/a Tourism 1 2 1 Agroforestry Workshops 2 1 2 Solid Waste 1 1 1 Artisanry Marketing 1 1 2 Training Workshops 1 1 0 Communal Associativity 1 1 1 Indigenous knowledge (Quechua) 1 0 1 Patrolling of forests 2 1 1 Communal Associativity 2 ? Recruitment of laborers 2 1 1 Care of cocoa plots 0 0 1 Solid Waste 3 3 3 Patrolling of forests
! <; % $ Women support men (Intergrative) 1 1 1 Indigenous knowledge (Quechua) 1 1 1 Visit from technical support or promoter 1 Refreshments for meetings 1 0 0 Planning ? 1 Diet/nutrition in the plot 1 1 1 GPS training 1 Accountability Table 9 7. Continued Gender Expressions Indigenous Community Actions & $ Non complementary 3 3 3 Agroforestry Workshops 3 3 3 Indigenous knowledge (Quechua) 1 1 Communal Associativity 0 n/a n/a Tourism 3 3 2 Planning n/a n/a 3 Raising of guinea pigs and chickens n/a n/a 3 Bio garden Legislation, crimes and threats 3 2 2 Bokashi 1 Preparation of payment receipts 1 3 1 Soil Fertilization 1 Computer Workshops
! <" 1 Indigenous organization and governance 3 3 3 Visit from technical support or promoter 3 3 3 GPS training n/a n/a 3 Registration Efforts 2 3 3 Artisanry Training Table 9 7. Continued Gender Expressions Indigenous Community Actions ? 1 Management and Monitoring Plan of Life n/a 3 n/a Decision building Communal Kitchen 3 n/a 3 Artisanry Marketing 1 1 1 Accountability 2 3 2 Solid Waste 1 0 1 Diet/nutrition in the plot Finally, Figure 9 9 shows the activities of gr eater representativeness per gender expression among the Kichwa Lamas (combined results of the three communities) either by indirect support from one person to another ( i ntegrative ) by direct involvement ( mutual collaboration ), or by working individually (non complementary) Figure 9 9 Main activities in different gender expressions
! <# Non Complementary Integrative Mutual ? Agroforestry Workshops ? Indigenous knowledge (Quechua)* ? Go with the technician to the plot during his visit ? GPS training *** ? Patrolling of forests ? Nursery garden activities for cocoa ? Care of the field ? Seedlings of cocoa transportation ? Cocoa harvest Integrative only shows women supporting men, because there were no activities representative of the three communities for men supporting women. **The interaction is directly with children, both parents are engines of motivati on. This is the only activity that can be removed from the list *** In Chirik Sacha there are records of women who were trained, however it does not mean that there was mutual collaboration for the learning of this activity. Finally, it is impor tant to con sider that when market economies are strong and indirectly force indigenous populations to look for employment outside their community, their autonomy is affected, as well as their gender complementary basis ( Safa, 2005 ). This is a factor to consider in the three communities, more in Chirik Sacha, followed by Chirikyacu and then Chunchiwi (very few). Thus, gender roles are still changing through this process. In some years from gender expressions c an be distant from what is documented in this report SO 3 Identification of the main effects of Kichwa Lamas women's contribution to the implementation of the TDC mechanism 3.1 Contributions and benefits of women's involvement in the activities of the Investment Plan Upon completion of SO 3, the information collected not only identifies the main contributions of women to the investment plan 's activities but also the benefits of the TDC implementation in 3 elements ( Figure 9 10, below ): (1) in the community, (2) among women/men and (3) in their households F rom influencing these 3 elements, the effectiveness in the constant implementation of the TD C is more no table Also, it provides tools for element 2, in
! << their roles and relationships within the community and in their ho useholds respectively ( Figure 9 10 ) Figure 9 10. Effect from the implementation of the TDC The major contribution from the community in the f irst steps of the TD C is their base of communal organization ( Figure 9 10 ). Without this, the implementation of Bosques P rogram would have been more complicated. This factor is highly recognized by the majority of the comuneros as fundamental for TDC step 2 (affiliation ) in the three communities (see SO 2 actions for women's involvement in these steps ) Since the beginning of the co ntract the com unero s had different opinions that kept positively changing (consolidat ing ) as the implementation of th e TD C progressed These views were discussed at home. It should be noted that the opinions varied per household, not per individual. A ccording to the comuneros the most relevant opinions that were recalled per year are shown in Figure 9 11 Community Year 1 2 3 4 5 Chirikyacu Always relied on the intentions of the program, there was never A few comuneros, not very involved, believed that there is corruption within the authorities and with the : = ;
! <5 any other ideas. program Chunchiwi "They want to buy our territory" Relied on the intentions of the program Chirik Sacha "They want to get our mountain's oil" "They are interested only in few of us" Relied on the intentions of the program The cells in gray mean that the community is not yet in that year. The arrows indicate the continuity of that opinion. Its length does not represent any value. Figure 9 11. Comuneros' perspectives of the TDC implementation, per year For women, the results of their involvement in the program are s ummarized in benefits that are used by themselves, their community and their families ( Figure 9 10 ). Also, she recognizes that she contributes to the implementation of the mechanism, such as it does to her own benefit, forging a constant cycle ( Figure 9 12 ). Figure 9 12 Cycle of the involvement of women in TDC mechanism From women's participation in the TDC implementation they recognize their c ontributions and their benefits, and from these, their opinions (Table 9 8 ). Table 9 8. Women's opinions from her experience in Bosques Program Contribution Benefit Opinion ? Knowledge of techniques to elaborate artisanry Acquisition of skills : ? Greater development in communal associativity ? Development of techniques for the ? Technical expertise is needed for the development of other activities (as well as in cocoa) ? There is a need for more consistency in the B818<*; (:1;+*C0;*:1 DE(! ?=>F8=81;.;*:1 >8+!-8.+
! <8 ? E xperience in cultivation of other crops such as coffee ( for cocoa) ? Willingness and desire to learn ? Dedication to motivate other family members to get involve d in the program production of chumbis (and other) ? Improved abilities for sales ? Acquisition of grafting, pruning and composting techniques ? Knowledge to assemble seedlings and saplings ? Knowledge of development and uses of Bokashi ? Practical application of acquired knowledge implementation of activities from the ones that have accepted the responsibility (compromise from the comuneros involved ) ? Husbands must not get annoyed if we assume more responsibilities ? Since my husband is more involved in th e ta lks, there are improvements in his behavior, in the house ? It is easier to cultivate c ocoa than c offee Most of the opinions and reiteration of these were given in Chirik Sacha 3.2 Validation of C ollected I nformation The result of the validated information relies in the development of each section of the current report. SO 4 Identification of additional func t i ons to strengthen Kichwa Lamas women's participation in the implementation of the TDC mechanism 4.1 Women's m otiva tions and constraints to get involved in the activities of the TDC mechanism Motivations : T he motivation of women's participation is characterized as self motivation with external stimuli ( Table 9 9 ). Table 9 9 Drivers of women's motivation Internal (self motivation ) External ( from my environment) ? Because I like to ? Because I enjoy doing so ? Because I want to learn ? Because it is important to receive training ? Because my husband likes my work ? Because my husband agrees ? Because in the community they say we have to go ? Because other women tell us how it is ? Because profit will be good*
! <9 *It is the only answer referred to cocoa, all other correspond to artisanry. In this case (testimony), the external stimulus comes from another participant in the community. "Mi sobrina fue. Ella fue lejos y me contÂ— todo lo que hacÂ’an, cuando volviÂ— nos contÂ— y nos interesÂ— todo eso, por eso nos motivÂ— a participar en las mujeres organizadas" Anonymous CN Chirikyacu Translation: My niece w ent She w ent far away and told me everything they did, when s he came back s he told us and we were interested in all that, which is the reason that motivated us to participate in the artisan women committee Kichwa women strongly respect the commitment and loyalty of word. Thereby when the motivation to engage in the activities of the program is self motivation (and not forced), the participation of women is durable and reliable. This point is evidenced in the work of women who currently make up the artisan women committee : among all of them their main motivation, is self motivation Constraints : The constraints of women's participation are characterized by internal ( communal minorities), and external (organization's weakening ) factors (Table 9 10 ). Table 9 10 Drivers of women's constraints Internal ( communal m inorities *) External (w eakening of the organization**) ? Women with small children ? Illiterate women ? New women in the community ? Single m others ? Elderly women ? Women with physical disabilities Problems that arise within the organization of artisan women committee ? Lack of coordination on additional expenditures ? Lack of trust between the committee members of artisan women committee ? Do not participate collectively in the decision making for hiring additional staff (no t related to the organization) ? Lack of remuneration equitably distributed ? L ack of equity in the distribution of work/in the allocation of functions *When classified as "communal minority" it is because they restrict themselves to participate (encouraging men indirectly to see them the same way). It should be noted that the term "communal minority" is used in this report to group the results. It is not a term adopted in the communities. It is also not known wh ether initially women chose to restrict their participation, or if the community restricted (unconsciously) women's participation because they have these characteristics, and now women have assumed themselves as a minority. *The case of "communal minority" does not apply to women disinterested in participating, and that have none of the listed above.
! 5> **These are problems identified in Chirik Sacha only Annotation Action 4.1 To consolidate this point it is recommended to add a needs assessment to know which activities best fit into the investment plan among women's preferences; followed by an analysis of stakeholders to understand how do they work with women, so it is not counter productive 4.2 Actions to strengthen the participation of women Based on the combination of findings in the 3 communities, this point focuses on 3 steps to strengthen the women 's participation ( Figure 9 13 ). Figure 9 13. Pyramid of Actions G$H! I/J:1! K8.90+89! G#H! L+8M81J:1! K8/).1*9=! G"H! 78/:N1*J:1!.1@!M.F:+*O.J:1!:>:+;01*J89!.1@!9;+81N);9! /I!GBFEDSTBED! ZIQED!KLFEKMY! HKFBNANHKBNDS /I!QNBNSKBE! HIGGNULE!HFIULEQG! BI!EDAIPDBEF /I!KJINM! AIQQPDKL! QNDIFNBNEG 3FIQ!4IGbPEG! KDM!CFIQ!BTE! AIQQPDNBY 3FIQ! 4IGbPEG 3FIQ! BTE! AIQQPDNBY
! 5: (1) Recognition and valorization of opportunities and strengths : Gender complementarity in the indigenous Mayans is proven through the interdependence of their activities, providing central units of symbolic and functional importance, accentuating the sexual duality (or parallelism) and interrelationality of gender; an d providing an essential dynamic of men and women's labor and value ( Gero, and Scattolin, 2002; Gale, 2005). The communities recognize the strengths they have as a community. Thus, it is important for them to recognize their strength as a comunero/comune ra. Once identified, it must be learnt to be appreciated in order for it to positively impact through communal associativity, in the development of their various functions. In that way bonds of trust will be tied. It is essential tha t from technical assist ance, the importance of man and woman 's work is to be enhanced. The com uneros must appreciate the othe r individual's work, and know that each of them have the skills and abilities to execute their responsibilities Below are two testimonies that show weaknesses in the ir trust. "no les tienen fe a las mujeres con la crÂ’a de animales, ellas no saben" An onymous, CN Chirk Sacha Translation: they don't have faith in women with animal breeding, they do n ot know "aquÂ’ en la casa tambiÂŽn separo yo la basura. Mi esposo? Âƒl quÂŽ va a hacer? Je je" Anonymous, CN Chirik Sacha Translation: h ere in the hou se I also separate the trash. My husband? What will he do? ha ha It is also important to recognize the opportunitie s that are available for being beneficiaries of the program. Among the findings is noted the recognition of all the beneficiaries, who consider the program as an opportunity for them ( learning production, market access, others). "yo estoy contento porque nunca nadie, ningÂœn programa, nos ha apoyado asÂ’ a que aprendamos tanto en todas las parcelas" Anonymous CN Chirik Sacha
! 5= Translation: I am happy because no one ever, no program, has supported us to learn as much in all the plots In the findings, is noted among women who admit ted having used any of the following: They have learned (at different levels) through the program. It is important to exploit the opportunities offered by the program for learning There are various ways to take advantage of learning, most of them chose for their own benefit followed by the benefit applied to their households, and finally for their communities W hen women have more opportunities to exchange knowledge out of the community, families strengthen their ties The roles begin to vary very subtly (does not apply to all cases), evidencing that gender complementarity is not static, and that gender norms are not the only definers for gender systems. Therefore, action 1 is materialized in the "a ppreciation and valorization of their own work, in group s and from the external part too (those who d o not participate: other comuneros and comuneras )". "yo pienso que es un tÂŽcnico muy excelente, ÂŽl no es egoÂ’sta en el campo, ÂŽl enseÂ–a cÂ—mo debes hacer t u manejo, cÂ—mo debes sembrar tus plantas y cÂ—mo mantenerlas, a quÂŽ distancia ponerlas, cÂ—mo es su tiempo de poda; de todo aprendemos. Todos nosotros reciÂŽn con el tÂŽcnico hemos aprendido esto" Anonymous CN Chirikyacu Translation: I think he is a very excellent technician, he is not selfish in the field, he teaches how you should do the management, how you should sow your plants and how to maintain them, what distance to use among them, how is its pruning time; all we learn. All of us from the support o f our technician, we have learned this. (2) Prevent ion Mechanism: There must be prevention actions that help avoid possible problems to arise, such as the ones evidenced in Chirik Sacha (See Action 4.1 Table 9 10 external constraints ).
! 5; (3) Action Measures for M itigation : Address the i dentified problems that weaken women's participation in Chirik Sacha, and when applicable, to the other communities as well (See Action 4.1 Table 9 10 external constraints ) "No sÂŽ cÂ—mo convencerlas, yo creo que no les interesa. Lo mÂ‡s importante es crear interÂŽs en ellas Anonymous, CN Chirik Sacha Translation: I don't know how to convince them, I think that they are not interested in participating The most important is to create interest in them. Finally, the main action is defined as to promote concrete actions to strengthen women's current participation not to increase the number of women participants, but to continue providing tools that allow them to improve their work and build skills. X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Gender among Kichwa Lamas Biases to overcome in gender research Gender approaches are still biased to be performed among women only, when the core of working in gender is working with both men and women. I do recognize the importance of having a space with women only, and mainly individually. Nevertheless, more important than understanding gender relations and focusing right away in gender, it is to first understand community relations and learn behavior n orms, then proceed to gender focus. Once in gender focus, I strongly suggest to first work with men and women together, then work with women only. In addition, participant observation and semi structured informal interviews were my main crucial tools for this research, without those, I could not have applied all the other tools.
! 5" Gender Expressions among Kichwa Lamas When selecting sources to have a baseline for this gender based research, I unconsciously enclosed myself in already existing gender systems, blocking my understanding of gender relations among the Kichwa Lamas that is where I had to depart from, and I did along the process. These broad results of three gender expressions that cluster an array of gender roles are present now, and can be conside red only now because they will change in time as more gender expressions are developed and/or adopted. E.g.: Women 's experiences out of the community in traineeship from Bosques and in fairs' participation result in temporarily developing new gender roles that in the future can create new gender norms (see Section IX, SO4 4.2). Also, even when the non complementary expression is dominant among men, and complementary expressions (mutual and integrative) are less dominant in the TDC implementation, neither ex pression is better than the other. To understand which is better, another research must be done departing from what each community member considers as best practices. Kichwa Lamas function from a community base, and in terms of community (not couple: men w omen) they are highly collaborative In the means of achieving their activities, they are all interdependent individuals at different scales. For Bosques National Program Due to shortcuts, and other reasons provided by Bosques Lima, the TDC will be reduced to a three year implementation program, for the new communities to affiliate. Three years will not be enough to achieve progress in all the different aspects that the community needs. (1) It takes time to understand ho w the program works (for comuneros), (2) it takes time to gain the trust of the entire community, (3) it takes time to begin to see the results of the committees promoted by the program (e.g.: tourism, artisanry, cocoa, guinea pigs, chickens, bio gardening ). (4) There is a constant learning during the implementation of the TDC mechanism, that constant needs time to consolidate its learning. (5) Agricultural production cannot be rushed: In a 3 year contract, there is less than half of the cocoa harvest ed per farmer, compared to the harvest s in a 5 year contract because seedlings and plant growth (to produce) per plot
! 5# section, take more than a year Hence the recommendation is to keep a 5 year contract with the new communities to b e affiliated with Bosques Pr ogram Bosques Lima who are the ones that take management decisions, must consider that every indigenous group works different The previous recommendation is based on the experience with three Kichwa Lamas communities who have a long time experience imple menting projects and working with international and domestic NGOs A three year contract for more isolated communities, could be even rougher than what it will be for Kichwa Lamas communities. This research has also proven that after their experience in t he TDC mechanism, Kichwa Lamas communities want new communities to also experience a 5 year contract and if they had to choose for their own communities again, they will choose a 5 year contract, not 3. For results with greater precision about the effects of Bosques' implementation among women and vice versa (see section IX, SO3 3.1) annual monitoring is necessary For which same evaluation indicators must be used (not restricted to not create additional). In this way it will be easier to note the progress cyclically. T he use of personalized interviews as one of the methods is highly recommended. Peru is one top countries in Latin America for the registered deaths of indigenous and non indigenous people that protect ed their forests. Illegal loggers, illegal miners and other s, have t aken their lives. Bosques is expanding towards more remote areas in Peru, affiliating new indigenous groups. What additional measures has the Program consider for the protection of the Pa trolling Squads, when they monitor their primary forest? Considering that this is a mandatory requirement from Bosques (see Table 1 2). The affiliated communities are monitored through satellite imagery, Bosques experts must be able to detect them and consequently protect the comuneros from such communities ( see Figure 9 13 ) For Bosques San Martin, and other Bosques local offices in Peru Bosques San Martin works vigorously to make sure each Investment Plan works accordingly, attaining for a strong implementation of the TDC in the communities, which is evidenced in the outstanding progress the communities have done. However, long
! 5< term outco mes are not pushed to be achieved along the TDC implementation these are two: (1) Recognition of the ecological implications of conserving the forest, and (2) Efficiency in productive activities along the whole value chain, these need to be sustainable on ce the contract ends. It is pivotal to work on those immediately mainly now that Bosques Lima has reduced th e contract's years for the new communities. It is truly pleasant to find in Chirik Sacha high satisfaction among cocoa producers with Bosques Program. The role of the cocoa technician is a key element for the farmers' satisfaction and engagement with Bosques ; also the current Apu's experience (former member of the management committee) adds i n. Chirik Sacha has greater involvement of women over the 5 years because of the diversity of the diversity of the non monitored activities. This evidenced various tensions among participant women (by weakening their women committee's organization). In thi s way, the lack of gender approach in the beginning of the TDC implementation is evident, as the urgency for its incorporation. The PNCBMCC from its initial design (see Section IV), lacks of gender focus. Therefore, the Bosques San Martin must continue wit h the gender approach actions that are currently being incorporated in the affiliated communities Chunchiwi has the potential to be an example of cocoa women leaders They need perseverance and dedication from the cocoa promoters and technician, because women have requested their advice in the management of their cocoa fields. Chirikyacu has the potential to be an example of a leading organization of artisan women Mistakes that were made in Chirik Sacha should be prevented here. Advise them in the management of their finances, rendering of its account, storing and balancing of their product. Mainly in transparency, communication effectiveness and credibility to ensure its long term organization. Involving women beyond artisanry and cocoa Substantia l trust bonds are built between local extensionists and comuneras, thus Bosques San Martin has made good progress in achieving the involvement of women in several activities as it is evidenced in this report. Additional actions are suggested to contribute to their involvement:
! 55 One of the main goals of this National Program is that the communities by the time they graduate are aware of the environmental importance of forest conservation. Some women in the three communities know the implications of not cari ng for the forest, they know of the valuable environmental aspects that their forest provide for them in their own (and neighboring) communities. I strongly suggest Bosques to work with these women in promoting this knowledge in their communities among other women, men, and children. Securing the anchoring of this knowledge in the communities is cru cial for the success of Bosques beyond its implementation. In the short term, empowering women already participating in Bosques activities, could have more impact than pushing efforts in increasing the amount of women participating: Empower women already participating, rather than increasing the number of women pa rticipating Empowering them in terms of providing more experiences within the activities they are involved. This report evidences that women's interest to get involved are mainly driven by self motivation followed by external influence Having this in c onsideration, exploratory research on women's preferences is required for/ from Bosques to have specific alternatives to offer women when meeting with them. In that way, even when only a small group of women decide to participate, they will influence other women along the 5 year contract, as it happens in artisanry, and chickens ( Chirik Sacha ). Following up in the previous point, one of the activities that this research evidences as an alternative is solid waste management. Training should be encouraged in the handling of solid waste Women show to have a high direct participation in this topic, in addition it will contribute to assure them a sanitized space in their homes (particularly in Chirikyacu ). It will also lead to environmentally responsible treatme nt and safe disposal of solid waste in the community, especially in Chirikyacu and Chirik Sacha where it was perceived as a problem that was not being handled. Creating a committee in their communities is a good alternativ e.
! 58 XI. A PPENDICES APPENDIX A : Female attendance to the meeting Step 2 Concept Community Date Women/ Total of Participants Act of communal expression of interest Acceptance for prioritization process to signing the conservation contract, and become beneficiaries of the TDC mechanism Chirik Sacha December, 2012 15/54 Chirikyacu November, 2013 4/26 Chunchiwi March, 2014 39/72 APPENDIX B : Female attendance at meetings in the process of affiliation Step 3 Concept Community Date Women/ Total Approval and validation of communal documents Submission, approval and validation of the Investment Plan 2014 2017 and Life Plan 2014 Chirik Sacha March, 2014 0/43 In the photographic records more than 9 women
! 59 2018 appear. No one signed the assistance sheet. Validation of the Investment Plan 2014 2018 and Planning Document 2014 2018 Chirikyacu June, 2014 3/19 Approval and validation of the document of 2015 2019 Planning and Investment Plan 2015 2019 Chunchiwi October, 2014 26/47 Zoning of Communal Forest Zoning of Communal Forest Chirikyacu April, 2014 0/13 Participatory mapping, field verification, zoning and demarcation of the boundaries of the communal forest for conservation Chunchiwi August, 2014 46/83 The events are sorted by date APPENDIX C : Assistance to communal assemblies for the review of Investment Plan Community Year of TDC Quarter Meeting Date in the community Women/ Total Communal Assembly for the information of the closure of execution 2014 Chirik Sacha n /a November, 2014 9/13 Quarterly Reports 2015 (quarters I IV) Chirik Sacha 3 I April 2015 13/ 36 Chunchiwi 1 I May, 2015 13/35 Chirik Sacha 3 II August, 2015 4/10 Chunchiwi 1 II August, 2015 13/35 Chunchiwi 1 III November, 2015 11/28 Chirikyacu 1 III December, 2015 1/25 Chirik Sacha 3 III December 2015 8/33
! 8> Chirkyacu 1 IV February, 2016 8/30 Chunchiwi 1 IV February, 2016 11/34 Chirik Sacha** 3 IV February, 2016 9/29 Review of Investment Plan for the year 2016 Chunchiwi N/a February, 2016 12/37 Chirik Sacha** N/a February, 2016 9/29 Quarterly Reports 2016 (I) Chirik Sacha*** 4 I April, 2016 1/41 Chunchiwi 2 I May, 2016 12/36 Chirik Sacha*** 4 I June, 2016 6/58 *The quarterly reports not shown in this table, were available, but the attendance sheets were not attached **Chirik Sacha data are the same, the data for the highlighted segment may not be accurate. ***On the first date, Chirik Sacha presents the investment plan to be implemented during the first quarter, while in the second date shows the investment plan's rendering of the same quarter. XII. LIST OF REFERENCES Alberti, M., Marzluff, J., Shulenberger E., Bradley G., Ryan C., and Zumbrunnen C. (2003). Integrating Humans into Ecology: Opportunities and Challenges for Studying Urban Ecosystems. BioScience, 53 (12), 1169 1179. Bosques (2016). [ Programa Nacional de ConservaciÂ—n de Bosques para la MitigaciÂ—n del Cambio ClimÂ‡tico ]. www .bosques.gob.pe El Peruano (2010). CreaciÂ—n del Programa Nacional de ConservaciÂ—n de Bosques para la MitigaciÂ—n del Cambio ClimÂ‡tico por Decreto Supremo NÂ¡ 008 2010 MINAM Lima: Ministerio del Ambiente, Gobierno Peruano El Peruano (2015 ). Decreto Supremo qu e aprueba el Reglamento para la GestiÂ—n Forestal N 020 201 5 MINA GRI Lima: Ministerio de Agricultura y Riego. Gobierno Peruano
! 8: El Peruano (2016). CreaciÂ—n del Plan de AcciÂ—n en GÂŽnero y Cambio ClimÂ‡tico del PerÂœ por Decreto Supremo N 012 2016 MINAM Lima: Ministerio del Ambiente, Gobierno P eruano Finer M, Novoa S. (2015). Patterns and Drivers of Deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon. MAAP Synthesis #1 Finer M, Novoa S. (2016) DeforestaciÂ—n de Gran escala vs. PequeÂ–a escala en la Amazonia Peruana. MAAP: 32. Finer M, Olexy T. (2016). Oil Palm Deforestation in the central Peruvian Amazon. MAAP: 48. Finer M, Mamani N, GarcÂ’a R, Novoa S (2018) Deforestation Hotspots in the Peruvian Amazon, 2017. MAAP: 78. Finer M., Novoa, S. (2017) Patrones y Drivers de Deforest aciÂ—n en la AmazonÂ’a Peruana. MAAP: SÂ’ntesis #2. Gale, T. (2005). Gender and Religion: Gender and South American Religions. Encyclopedia of Religion Accessed at: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps/gender and relig ion gender and south american religions Gero, J. M., and Scattolin, M. C. (2002). Beyond Complementarity and Hierarchy: New Definitions for Archaeological Gender Relations. In Pursuit of Gender. (pp. 155 171). Instituto del Bien ComÂœn IBC (2000). SICNA: Sistema de InformaciÂ—n sobre Comunidades Nativas de la AmazonÂ’a Peruana. http://www.ibcperu.org/mapas/sicna/ Ley NÂ¡29763. Ley Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre. Diario Oficial El Peruano. Lima, PerÂœ 2005 Liu, J., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S. R, Alberti, M., Folke, C., Moran, E., Pell, A. N., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., Lubchenco, J., O strom, E., Ouyang, Z., Provencher, W., Redman, C. L., Schneider, S. H., and Taylor, William, W. (2007). Complexity of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Science. 317 (5844), 1513 15 16. Ministerio de Cultura (2017a). Base de Datos de Pueblos IndÂ’genas u originarios http://bdpi.cultura.gob.pe/lista de pueblos indigenas Ministerio de Cultura (2017b). Pueblo Kichwa. http://bdpi.cultura.gob.pe/ bdpi pueblo_indigena_ _kichwa_.pdf Ministerio de Cultura (2017c). [Mapa Sonoro EstadÂ’stico Lenguas IndÂ’genas u Originarias]. http://mapasonoro.cultura.pe/#list26
! 8= Ministerio del Ambiente MINAM (2011). Plan Nacional de AcciÂ—n Ambiental PLANAA PER 2011 2021 2da EdiciÂ—n. Lima: Ministerio del Ambiente del PerÂœ. Ministerio del Ambiente MINAM (2012) [Cambio de Cobertura de Bosque a No Bosque por DeforestaciÂ—n en la AmazonÂ’a Peruana en el periodo 2009, 2010, 2010]. Diciembre, 2012. Consultado en: DirecciÂ—n General de Ordenamiento Territorial. Marzo, 2017. Ministe rio del Ambiente MINAM (2015). Estrategia Nacional ante el Cambio ClimÂ‡tico. Lima: Ministerio del Ambiente del PerÂœ. Ministerio del Ambiente MINAM (2016). Plan de AcciÂ—n en GÂŽnero y Cambio ClimÂ‡tico. Lima: Ministerio del Ambiente del PerÂœ. Mittermeier, R. C. Goettsch y Robles Gil P (1997). Megadiversidad. Los paÂ’ses biolÂ—gicamente mÂ‡s ricos del Mundo Cemex. MÂŽxico. CEMEX. 501 p. Naciones Unidas (2014). [Cumbre Sobre el Clima 2014]. Setiembre, 2014. www.un.org Naciones Unidas (2015). [La ONU y el Cambio ClimÂ‡tico]. Setiembre, 2015. www.un.org Novoa S., Finer M., Samochuallpa E. (2017) Wildfire Hotspo ts in Peruvian Amazon in 2016. MAAP: 53 Paulson, S. (2000). La diferencia e interdependencia social en el manejo agroforestal. AgroforesterÂ’a en las AmÂŽricas 7 (25). Proyecto CBC (2013). Conservando Bosques Comunitarios en el PerÂœ: SistematizaciÂ—n del Proyecto ConservaciÂ—n de Bosques Comunitar ios Lima: GIZ, BMU, MINAM, Bosques, Gobierno del PerÂœ. Safa, H. (2005). Challenging Mestizaje A Gender Perspective on Indigenous and Afrodescendant Movements in Latin America. Critique of Anthropology. 25 (3), 307 330. Sandoval Sandoval, J. R., Lacerda, D. R., Acosta, ., Jota, M. S., Roblez, P., Salazar Granara, A. A., Santos, F. R. (2016). The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations Annals of Human Genetics.
! 8; Sayhuite (2017). Sistema Nacional de InformaciÂ—n GeogrÂ‡fica con Datos Integrados. http://www.sayhuite.gob.pe/sayhuite/sayhuite.php Sociedad Peruana de Derecho Ambiental SPDA (2009). Brack en la COP15: PerÂœ propone reducciÂ—n de emisiones de 45% al 2020. Actualidad Ambiental www.actualidadambiental.pe/?p=3228 United States Agency for International Development USAID (2014). DiagnÂ—stico de GÂŽnero en la AmazonÂ’a, Amazonas, Loreto, Madre de Dios, San Mart Â’n y Ucayali. Programa ProDescentralizaciÂ—n. Lima: CIAM, Ministerio de la Mujer y de Poblaciones Vulnerables, Gobierno del PerÂœ. Van P. (2000). Materializing Thailand Thai Genders and the Limits of Western Gender Theory. Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context. X (10), XI 274. ZÂœÂ–iga, M. (2011, NOV). De la selva su quechua?! Los pueblos Quechuas amazÂ—nicos del Pastaza, Napo y Lamas. Panorama de su historia y algunas problemÂ‡ticas". Construyendo N uestra Interculturalidad, 6 (X) 2011, pp.1 23 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Grace Palacios earned her Master's Degree in May 2018 with a certificate in Tropical Conservation and Development, and Latin American Studies at the University of Florida From her background experience in technical assistance for projects' implementation on the ground. She now works as a consultant for international, and public institutions. Grace Palacios holds a Bachelor of Arts in Sustainab le Tourism a Teaching Methodology certifica te, and has also participated in the Environmental Leadership Program at UC B erkeley.