Material Information

Portside Caribbean
Michael Jarrett ( Founder, Editor in Chief )
Place of Publication:
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Craig Kelman Associates
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
1 online resource : ;


Subjects / Keywords:
Marine terminals -- Management -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Sea ( lcsh )
Harbor personnel -- Management -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Sea ( lcsh )
newspaper ( sobekcm )
periodical ( marcgt )


"Mission Statement: To foster operational and financial efficiency, and to enhance the level of service to the mutual benefit of Caribbean Ports and their stakeholders, through the sharing of experience, training, information and ideas".
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Began with: Vol. 1, No. 1 (November 2014-January 2015)
General Note:
"Portside Caribbean is officially endorsed by the Port Management Association of the Caribbean".

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
Copyright, Craig Kelman Associates. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
Resource Identifier:
on10385 ( NOTIS )
1038532747 ( OCLC )
2018226751 ( LCCN )
AN1.F6 P35 F56 ( lcc )

UFDC Membership

Caribbean Newspapers, dLOC
University of Florida

Full Text


AUGUST 2021 NOVEMBER 2021 • InterAmericas Gate • New PMAC Executive Committee • Ocho Rios • Support for Seafarers PORT MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION OF THE CARIBBEAN CONSEQUENCES TRUTH &


WWW.SEABOARDMARINE.COM NORTH AMERICA CARIBBEAN CENTRAL AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA In today’s fast moving world, improving the supply chain is the only way to bridge the gap between you and your trading partners. To accomplish this, you will need an innovative team of dedicated professionals with nearly 40 years of experience in logistics and ocean transpor tation. You will need more than a positive customer experience. You will need a company com mitted to improvement and innovation. At Seaboard Marine, your customers are closer because our customers are at the center of everything we do .WE BRING YOU CLOSER TO YOUR CUSTOMERS




PORTSIDE CARIBBEAN is ocially endorsed by: Port Management Association of the CaribbeanP.O. Box 929 G.P.O. Bridgetown, Barbados Telephone: (246) 434-6505 www.pmac-ports.comMission Statement: To foster operational and nancial eciency and to enhance the level of service to the mutual benet of Caribbean Ports and their stakeholders, through the sharing of experience, training, information and ideas.August – November 2021 Volume 4, Number 21 PORTSIDE CARIBBEAN is published by: Tel: 866-985-9780 Fax: 866-985-9799 Publisher: Cole Kelman Managing Editor: Reba Lewis Marketing Manager: Rod Evason Design/layout: Jackie Magat Advertising Coordinator: Stefanie Hagidiakow All rights reserved 2021. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the express consent of the publisher. Editor-in-Chief: Michael S. L. Jarrett advertising30 ADVERTISER PRODUCT & SERVICE CENTRE4 managementWHAT PORT MANAGERS SHOULD KNOW24 TRUTH AND CONSEQUENCES: INSTABILITY AND CONFUSION PREVAIL IN THE ABSENCE OF TRUTH 26 CAUSE FOR CONCERN: PORT MANAGERS MUST TAKE THE LEAD28 THE IMPORTANCE OF RATIFICATION: WHAT? WHEN? WHY?


Truth and consequencesExploring organisational deception Receival, transportation and safe delivery of cargo across oceans is a highly complicated and precise activity, routinely demanding, normally dangerous, and often life threatening. Shipping requires more than machines and personnel. Its success rests heavily on precision planning and informed interaction with a plethora of (sometimes conicting) systems and regulations, modalities and ordinances; all of which collectively demand a pool of diverse skills and experienced minds. The reputation of shipping companies to deliver, safely and on time, the high-value cargoes entrusted to their care is of paramount importance. The skill and capabilities of those employed in shipping are therefore of similar importance. The global supply chain, like any other, is only as strong as its weakest link. And port operations (from docking to discharge) and terminal functions (cargo receival, storage and delivery) account for more than one link in that proverbial chain. The precision and exactitude that shipping demands can only be delivered where all the components are ‘good and true’; constant and trustworthy. For inanimate components, this state of good and true is readily achievable with technology, software and engineering. The far more complicated human component must also be good and true, constant and trustworthy. And no company, be it private or public, will progress if it is perceived within and without as unpredictable, unstable, and/ or untrustworthy. It is against this background that Portside Caribbean views the linchpin role of humans in the exacting business of moving and delivering cargo across Earth’s great oceans. But in that perspective looms the spectre of deception. Joseph Cervenak’s brilliant essay about truth and consequences (see page 24) opens windows to reveal the challenges and survival risks posed by deception within organizations. His recall of the Enron scandal (that brought down the 7th largest US company and two other rms with it) is timely and instructive. To be sure, as the headline posits, instability and confusion prevail in the absence of truth. Intrinsic Lying, considered an intrinsic feature of human behaviour is, arguably, the most common form of deception. Unfortunately, there are very few empirical studies on lying in organisations. Rather, the concentration has been on individuals. But there are questions about organisations to be answered, like: how do organisations develop deceitful and/or corrupt practices by accepting or ignoring deception within the culture and structure of that organisation? Fleming and Zyglidopoulos1 observed: “If undetected, an initial lie can begin a process whereby the ease, severity and pervasiveness of deception increases overtime so that it eventually becomes an organisation level phenomenon.” Jenkins and Delbridge2 concluded: “Fleming and Zyglidopoulos’ study of Enron, WorldCom and Arthur Andersen shows there was a gradual escalation of dishonesty resulting in an ‘increase in the ease, severity and pervasiveness of deceit until the organisation cannot operate without lying’. Lying became institutionalised into the informal structures and norms of the organisation to the extent that it directly and indirectly aected much of the day-to-day procedures and behaviours.” The reality is that a culture of deception at any level of any company or organisation becomes insidious and metastasises quickly, bringing to ruin trust and carefully built relationships, systems and professional careers. In port management and maritime aairs, there is little room for mistruths and mistrust. Key personnel at all levels, at home and abroad, must be trustworthy. Senior managers must therefore exercise due diligence before it's too late. Editor-in-chief Endnotes1 Fleming, P., & Zyglidopoulos, S. (2008). The escalation of deception in organization. Journal of Business Ethics, p. 837.2 Exploring Organizational Deception: Organizational Contexts, Social Relations and Types of Lying, Sarah Jenkins and Rick Delbridge, SAGE“The reality is that a culture of deception at any level of any company or organisation becomes insidious and metastasises quickly, bringing to ruin trust and carefully built relationships, systems and professional careers.” 5 Return to TABLE OF CONTENTS


A An interesting (even exciting) Caribbean initiative was announced as the year approached its halfway mark. The InterAmericas Gate, an inter-port economic observatory project, was unveiled on May 11, 2021. A collaboration of four regional seaports (in French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Saint-Martin) a long with the Caribbean Maritime University (CMU) in Jamaica, the InterAmericas Gate will be directed by the Antilles-Guiana Interport Coordination Council (using the initials CCIAG). It will be managed by the Grand Port Maritime of (French) Guiana, which was also named leader of the group of collaborators. The CMU’s association will be through its Centre for Digital Innovation and Advanced Manufacturing. The InterAmericas Gate project earned the description “exciting” because of the wide range of objectives it has set for itself and the benets that could accrue to regional shipping with the successful accomplishment of its mission.OBJECTIVESThe stated objectives are lofty but achievable. They include: • improving mutual knowledge of the ports of the Greater Caribbean and Guiana; • facilitating inter-port cooperation to build responses to common challenges; and, in the long term, • promoting the development of trade and economic exchanges between the territories of region. This it plans to achieve by sharing reliable information between ports; pooling business intelligence resources; and, by ongoing assessment of the maritime and port economy. “In the longer term, thanks to these comparative studies, InterAmericas Gate will provide a tool for strategic decision-making on common themes to optimize inter-port governance and increase the performance of each member,” as stated in the documentation to launch the project. Initial priorities of the inter-port economic observatory include: • inventory of maritime routes in the area, statistical aggregation of ports, regulatory, scal, customs and health developments; • market studies for cruises, containers, bulk, cabotage, new sectors; • socio-economic benets, port transit costs INITIATIVE INTERAMERICAS GATE AN EXCITING CARIBBEAN SIX STRATEGIC PRIORITIESThe InterAmericas Gate programme includes six strategic priorities: 1. Strengthening the competitiveness of businesses through the implementation of joint Caribbean-wide projects in research, training and businesses; 2. Strengthening the response capacity to natural hazards; 3. Protecting the cultural and natural environment; 4. Responding to common health issues through innovative actions in e-health; 5. Supporting development of renewable energies with the OECS countries; 6. Strengthening human capital by developing training in Caribbean languages (English, Spanish, French); as well as student and professional mobility within the Caribbean region. Guadeloupe French Guiana Martinique Saint Martin6


In addition to these priorities, the observatory’s study themes will be extended to include the environment, climate and operating techniques. The ultimate objective is to extend the agreements to other ports in the Caribbean, Latin America and Central America, with the expectation of establishing relations that will formally associate them with the observatory.THE MISSIONThe economic observatory’s mission is to provide its current and future members with information, including: • regular update of maritime routes in the region; • reliable, detailed and aggregated port trac; • a cartographic visualization tool, useful to other partners in each territory; • bi-annual notes by sector In this regard, the observatory will need to identify and collect a signicant amount of data, including features of ports such as plans, regulations and physical characteristics. It will also need to access and pass on information about the environment, including water quality, biodiversity and ship emissions. Ultimately, the expectations are that InterAmericas Gate will be a signicant factor in the creation of an environment conducive to the development of a sustainable business ow between the territories in the Caribbean region. It is expected to drive the establishment of about 20 systems for observation, management and response to natural hazards in the Caribbean. It is also expected to greatly assist in the development of Caribbean ecotourism. Other expected results include: • the regression of HIV and vector-borne pathologies such as dengue, chikungunya, and leptospirosis; • development of electricity production capabilities from geothermal energy and increasing renewable energies in the electricity mix, particularly in the member countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS). Financed by Interreg Caribbean, the total cost of the project is 585,625. INTERREG Caribbean is an European Territorial Cooperation programme allowing operators in Guadeloupe, Guiana, Martinique and Saint-Martin to implement win-win projects with its neighbours in the Caribbean. This allowed the InterAmericas Gate project to be extended to the Greater Caribbean and made it possible to integrate an extra-community partner the CMU. Q & AFor clarication, Portside Caribbean posed the following questions and received responses from the Antilles-Guiana Interport Coordination Council:Q1: Regarding OWNERSHIP, is InterAmericas Gate a private corporate venture?InterAmericas Gate aims to set up a sustainable port economic observatory. The GPM Guyane is appointed as lead partner. It is an inter-port cooperation approach of the three Port Authorities, members of the CCIAG (Antilles-Guyane Interport Coordination Council): French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique, with a commitment also of the Port of Saint-Martin (Galisbay). The Caribbean Maritime University is our extra-community partner, through its Digital Innovation and Advanced Manufacturing department, as part of its partnership agreement with PMAC signed in 2019 in Miami.Is InterAmericas Gate a not-for-prot project?At the moment, this is a not-for-prot project. In the long term when the digital tool is developed, we will see how the partners position themselves (by convention) for access to information on the digital platform.Are the partners (the four ports and CMU) considered owners or shareholders?The four partners have signed a partnership agreement within the framework of the Interreg Carabes funding programme (Interreg Carabes) and are therefore considered as founding members of the InterAmericas Gate observatory.Q2: Regarding AIMS, your documentation stated: “This grouping aims to develop an inter-port cooperation tool ...”. Describe/explain this proposed “tool”.This observatory will allow ports making data available to visualize and monitor maritime, port, economic and environmental indicators with high, added value, serving shared challenges. This port cooperation approach within the wider Caribbean is also a lever for the development of trade in the area. First items that will be available: • Detailed, aggregated and reliable port trac: Containers (teu), cruise lines (transit/based pax, tonnages) • Up-to-date regular shipping lines (Regular container lines, light vehicles (car carrier, cruises Rotation, ships, transit time) • Biannual notes by sector (Note deciphering a sector in the Caribbean, its market, its trends, with ow mapping).Q3: Regarding OBJECTIVES, your documentation mentioned plans to “ pool. Does “pool” and “intelligence resources” mean connecting technologies and systems?InterAmericas aims to: • Improve the mutual knowledge of the ports of the wider Caribbean and increase their performance, • Facilitate exchanges between ports with the aim of co-constructing responses to common challenges, • Identify intra-regional trade opportunities InterAmericas Gate will be based on an evolving online tool for sharing, analysing and visualizing economic, operational, social and environmental information between ports from the Guiana Shield to the Caribbean.Q4: Regarding DATA sources, storage and access, your documentation stated: “To be effective, the Observatory will have to collect a great deal of data.” Data from whom, the partners only?Tests and version 1 will include ports of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint-Martin and Jamaica, then integration of ports partners. Promote and extend the agreements already in place between the Ports of the Antilles-Guyane Interport Coordination Council (CCIA) and the Caribbean, central America and Latin America (Suriname, Amap, Para, Guyana) Port members of the Port Management Association of the Caribbean and the Caribbean Shipping Association, Trinidad, Panama, etc. 7


For port workers, there is never a dull moment. The job comes with the twists and turns of long days, arduous overnight shifts, and the unpredictability that workers may often encounter in the course of executing their duties. As such, safety has become one of the prevailing priorities for many management teams as they too want to ensure an optimum work environment for their employees. Many companies have been trailblazing in the products that they offer to port and waterfront workers in an effort to boost safety and security; one such company is Port-Safety with its innovative LifeLadder system. Since its market launch in 2017, LifeLadder has become a staple in ports and cities the world over. With a void in the market for dock ladders that would stand the test of time, Port-Safety took on the challenge of bringing one to market that would check the boxes of durability, sustainability, economy, and safety. The result? A highly visible, lightweight, non-corrosive and adaptable ladder that will t any water structure and travel just about anywhere without being too cumbersome. The invention of Stefan Urup Kaplan and Lars Techt Myrhj, LifeLadder is constructed of reinforced plastic modules in a UV-resistant and highly visible bright yellow colour and ropes made of super-strong Dyneema bres, which have been developed for marine and offshore environments. These static ropes will not stretch over time, and combine exibility and rigidity. While most ladders only last up to 12 or so years, this PORT-SAFETY PUTS PORT AND WATERFRONT WORKERS FIRST WITH ITS INNOVATIVE LIFELADDER Advertorial


Danish innovation is also environmentally friendly with an expected durability of 20-plus years in temperatures as low as -30C (-22F), thanks to the designer’s collaboration with The Danish Technological Institute, a plastic manufacturer and the plastic compound supplier. Results show that LifeLadder reduces the impact on climate change by 50% compared to traditional safety ladders of stainless or galvanized painted steel. Another great feature of the LifeLadder is its night lighting capability. While its bright yellow colour makes it highly visible in the daytime, the addition of the feature LightUnit, which comes in solar-powered and grid-powered options, makes use at night and in other dark conditions a cinch for port and waterfront workers. Illuminated by two LEDs, the anti-slip rungs and side rails of the ladder offer a clear and direct path of safety when in use. The LightUnit has a 10-year lifespan and the only maintenance that may be required is an occasional cleaning, depending on environmental conditions. Since its introduction, LifeLadder has grown in popularity. First marketed to 14 countries, it is now available in an additional 11 countries, including Greece, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. With a design that meets the European Standard and ILO recommendations for safety and health in ports and is conveniently customizable to t the needs of each client, Port-Safety has also added accessories to its product lineup which enhance the use of LifeLadders, including handholds, repair kits, and anti-tamper solutions. LifeLadder is proven to be a long-term costsaving, safety-enhancing, maintenance-free and space-saving option for port and waterfront workers. It’s an option ports can feel condent in offering to their employees. Port-Safety partnered with Alixum International Ltd. out of Barbados in June 2021, to better serve the ports of Caribbean. For more information about Port-Safety and its contemporary alternative LifeLadder system visit, or send email to Use Paper ResponsiblyToday’s forest industry is working hard to become one of the greenest industries on earth.Paper is an essential part of human civilization. While we all use and depend upon electronic communications, it is easy to ignore that it comes at an environmental cost. Worldwide spam email traffic creates greenhouse gases equivalent to burning two billion gallons of gasoline yearly, with numbers rising. More than $55 billion in toxic e-waste material is thrown away every year in the US alone, with a recycling rate of only 20% compared to 64.7% for paper. No industry is perfect. But the paper industry has made, and continues to make, huge investments in environmental responsibility. Specifying and buying paper from certified sources ensures the continuation and growth of carbonabsorbing forests. Using paper with appropriate amounts of recycled fibre helps preserve forests, conserve energy, and maximize fibre usage through paper lifecycles.


After decades of planning, transformative redevelopment, retooling and resilient management, the grand port of Barbados is now quite dierent as compared to the facility the country’s historically famous Prime Minister, Hugh Gordon Cummins, ceremonially opened in 1961. As the 20th Century came to an end, it became clear to policymakers that the country’s main port had to be expanded and upgraded to meet the needs and expectations of a technology-driven 21st Century world. A reform and expansion project aimed at upgrading human resources; improving systems, technology, security and infrastructure; and, to expand the core businesses (cargo and cruise) was designed and implemented. Out of that exercise, in 1998, Master Plan 2000 was completed. It proposed the construction of a new cruise pier so as to separate cruise and cargo operations; expansion of the passenger terminal facilities; building of Berth 5; and, expansion of the port’s storage capacity by way of land reclamation. In 2020, Barbados Port, Inc. won the Port Management Association of the Caribbean (PMAC) top performance prize, the Novaport Cup . This year the port seized the occasion of its 60th anniversary in the modern era to reect, review and rearm; and, to rebrand. It launched a new corporate symbol, which was presented in the context of a new master plan, and described as the “blueprint” for port infrastructural expansion over the period 2020-2030. Completed Barbados Port, Inc.’s CEO, David Jean-Marie listed some recent corporate milestones in the port’s continuing development. Within the last two years, plans were made to support future growth and development and a ve-year Business Plan, in line with duciary requirements, was soon to be released by the port. This plan will address how key elements of the Master Plan will be implemented, he stated. Jean-Marie listed among completed tasks and current projects: 1. revolutionizing of process eciencies; 2. conclusion of all requirements for the ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems certication by September 2021; 3. adoption of a new Environmental Social and Management System, to guide future infrastructural projects and to minimize negative impacts on social and natural ecosystems; 4. investments in photovoltaics as an alternative power source; 5. a new waste-to-energy facility; and, 6. deployment of new hybrid electric-diesel cargo handling equipment Strategic direction “Our objective is to generate sustainable value for our stakeholders through a relentless focus on satisfying the needs of our customers, and a proactive, but disciplined approach to investing in the most protable growth opportunities,” the BPI CEO stated. “We will continue our eorts to embed a high-performance culture across the company. Refreshing our corporate brand is yet another tier in our strategy to support our future growth. “The key objective of this rebranding was to create a corporate visual identity that dierentiates BARBADOS PORT, INC. Rebranding for a new eraBarbados Port, Inc., having drafted a “blueprint” for future growth and development, is implementing its Master plan for infrastructural expansion in 2020 to amongst other ports. We hold steadfastly to our name, but wanted to create an image that better aligns with our bold, new vision of being the most innovative, green maritime hub in the world by 2030. We felt the occasion of our 60th birthday could not be a more auspicious time to introduce our company’s new logo and new strategic direction.” BPI, INC. – THE MODERN ERAIn 1998, the Master Plan 2000 was completed. Master Plan 2000 included: • construction of a new cruise pier to separate cruise and cargo operations; • expansion of the passenger terminal facilities; • construction of Berth 5 and acquisition of a Panamax ship-shore gantry crane; • expansion of storage capacity by land reclamation north of Shed 4; • inner harbour dredging (in 2002) to accommodate mega-cruise ships • further land reclamation (using dredged material) to add nine acres to the port; • construction of revetment (at Trevor’s Way); • landscaping of access to main entrance to the Port; • re-pavement of container yard; • replacement of existing water mains replaced; • extension of Berth 4 (with nancing from local commercial banks). 10 Return to TABLE OF CONTENTS


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New dawn, new normalThe Economic Impact COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global trade. The reason is simple: trade and tourism are great trade patterns and supply chains. UNCTAD noted that the Caribbean is hard hit, given its dependence on overseas tourism and container trade, both heavily disrupted by the pandemic crisis. Portside Caribbean, in a three-part series, a review of the impact of this global crisis on Caribbean seaports and the implications for the future. This second in the series focuses on the economic impact. Shockwaves IAPH noted three “shockwaves” hitting the world trade port system: 1. Early 2021, China production came to a halt, resulting in a worldwide “supply shock” , quickly followed by a “demand shock” of lockdowns in Europe and the US. 2. After the summer, a recovery phase began, which was still ongoing at time of writing. 3. The recovery led to a demand hike in the USA and EU, leading to a sharp rate increase in the already disrupted maritime transport system. Charter and container rates rose sharply as the shipping lines managed capacity and reallocated supply to higher demand markets. As demand keeps rising over supply, rates continue to soar. Tom Paelinck, CEO of Caribbean Feeder Services (CFS), said, “Charter rates are rising sharply for three-year vessel contracts. And short-term contracts are sky rocketing”. Still, UNCTAD expects maritime trade to grow by 4.8% in 2021, following a 4.1% decline in 2020. In the Caribbean, recovery will be much slower, however, as demand here will only return when tourism returns. Container ports In the Americas, the full impact of COVID-19 came later than in Europe. UNCTAD reported that maritime trade growth was already decelerating in 2019, before the disruption by the pandemic. IAPH reported that transpacic container trade declined with 6.6% in 2020, and transatlantic trade declined with 5.6%. The situation started to improve in July 2020, after having reached depths of 70% decline in May/June 2020. No North American ports reported declines in container vessel calls after October 2020. The war against COVID-19 is still raging and the Caribbean remains a major battleground. Its maritime industry is ‘caught in the crossre’. The International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH) launched its Port Economic Impact Barometer in April 2020, tracking data from IAPH member ports worldwide. In May 2021, the One Year Impact Report was published. Initially, more than 40% of participating ports worldwide indicated more than 5% decline in vessels calls. This declined to 29% of ports by April 2021. By then, only 4.8% of ports had indicated declines greater than 25% – about half compared to a year before. Based on this, IAPH concluded that vessel trade has been slowly recovering to pre-COVID-19 levels, particularly in the Asia trades. However, recovery has been fragile and local disruptions still occurred. 12


The return of demand in a situation of diminished supply led to high freight rates in the main trade lanes. This led to a disparity and disruption of the regional trading system, where demand did not return. Juan Carlos Croston, President of the Caribbean Shipping Association (CSA) and CEO of Manzanillo International Terminal (MIT), Panama, explained. “Caribbean ports live in two realities: the ‘Caribbean’ and the ‘Deepsea’ reality. As demand came back strong in the major markets, already scarce capacity was relocated to the higherdemand trades, disrupting the Caribbean trade system. As a result, cargo delayed in the ports, lead to vessel delays and congestion in the terminals.” Some terminals, like MIT, also had to deal with labour shortages during the local COVID-19 lockdowns, adding to the congestion problem. Fortunately, the shipping industry worked with the ports to mitigate claims and penalties. “In the Florida trade, container rates did go up somewhat,” said Paelinck. “However, in the overseas trades, freight and charter rates tripled. Supply then shifted to these high-rate markets. The only way out of this disparity is for demand to come back to the Caribbean. That is, a return of tourism, including cruise tourism,” he said. Meanwhile, industry sources pointed to order book indications that 115 new post-Panamax container vessels will be coming into the trade in the coming years. This new capacity will certainly have an impact and Portside Caribbean will continue to monitor these developments. Cruise ports Most USA and Caribbean ports were still indicating to IAPH a 50 to 90% decline in vessel and passenger arrivals. Meanwhile, cruise lines are preparing to return to the Caribbean in the coming winter season. Demand, they claimed, was picking up, but regulatory issues prevented vessels from sailing from high-capacity US ports. As a result of using chartered airlifts, cruise lines were temporarily sailing ships half empty from Caribbean ports. The Celebrity Millenium started operations from Dutch Sint Maarten on June 5, 2021, sailing to Aruba, Cura ao and Barbados, making use of the advanced vaccination programmes and port health protocols there in the Dutch Caribbean destinations. Most vessels will return to USA ports, once the CDC Conditional Sailing Order is relaxed. However, it was unclear when exactly this would happen. Carnival Cruise Lines started its rst Miami operation on July 4 and planned to return to the ports Canaveral and Galveston shortly thereafter. A spread of vessels along the southern US seaboard will service the ever-important and less complicated drive/cruise market. The southern Caribbean will benet from a return of “y/cruises” to its homeports, like Barbados (from the UK), Dominican Republic (from Germany) and Puerto Rico (from USA). A full return of cruise ships and passengers, however, may not happen until 2023. The situation will most likely improve gradually, as vaccinations increase in the source markets and the destinations. “In June, the Florida Court decided the CDC regulations are too challenging for the cruise industry. The CDC appealed and won the case in July. The system therefore remains in place, but the pressure to nd a workable solution is there,” said Albert Elens, CSA Cruise Committee Chairman and CCO of cruise agent SEL Maduro & Sons in Curaao. “The current practice is: the CSO (Conditional Sailing Order) permits cruise ships to sail on commercial voyages, if they satisfy one of two dierent certication options. The rst is to ensure that 95% of passengers and 98% of crew is vaccinated. The second is to undertake “trial cruise” test runs to demonstrate each vessel’s COVID-control protocols. The vaccination-mandatory option has encountered one challenge. The State of Florida decided to ban all businesses from requiring proof of vaccination, including cruise lines, with a potential penalty per customer. There may be ways to work around this, but the industry does not want to end up in all kind of administration issues and liability risks.” Implications The impact of COVID-19 on Caribbean ports has been relatively high, mainly due to the regional tourism crisis and the related disruptions in the global trade system. UNCTAD points out that the pandemic has set o several trends towards more resilience in maritime trade. World production will shift towards South-East Asia and this may result in new trade patterns. Paelinck’s advice to Caribbean ports is to look more towards the actual clients ... which is not the shipping line, but rather the local trader. Juan Carlos Croston thinks the system is exible enough to deal with this temporary disruption. His main concern is the debt situation faced by Caribbean governments which, he said, may prevent them from developing required port infrastructure and services after the crisis. A shift to private sector investments may be the solution, but this will require a paradigm shift in many Caribbean territories. Albert Elens advises Caribbean cruise ports to invest in exible, approved health protocols tied in with the industry and in local vaccination programmes to stimulate a swift revival of tourism. At the moment of this writing, with new threats posed by variants of the novel coronavirus (particularly the so-called Delta variant) and widespread hesitancy slowing down vaccination rates in many countries, Caribbean demand and economic recovery may have to wait until 2023. *Jan Sierhuis is a Caribbean maritime professional with a career of more than 30 years. Juan Carlos Croston , President of the Caribbean Shipping Association (CSA) and CEO of Manzanillo International Terminal (MIT) Albert Elens , CSA Cruise Committee Chairman and CCO of SEL Maduro & Sons, Curaao. EstablishedOf The200 8 Turks & Caicos Islands Ports Authority Phone: +1 (649) 941-3662 Fax: +1 (649) Ports Authority of the Turks & Caicos IslandsAt the Crossroads of Business, High-End Tourism and ShippingProvidenciales Grand Turk South Caicos North Caicos13


rfNew Executive Committee The Port Management Association (PMAC) has a new Chairman. Darwin Telemaque, Vice Chairman of the Association since 2015, was elected on July 16, 2021, to lead the organization during the period 2021 to 2023. Presently Chief Executive Ocer of the Antigua Port Authority and Chairman of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Port Committee, the new PMAC Chairman was instrumental in the formation of the OECS Port Authority. The Association’s election of ocers, which followed the 24th Annual General Meeting (on June 23 and 24), brought one new face to the PMAC executive. Denzil James, Chief Executive Ocer of the St. Christopher Air and Sea Ports Authority (SCASPA) since February 1, 2016, was elected PMAC’s Vice Chair. Previously employed to the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB), where he worked for 25 years, Denzil James was Advisor to the Governor when he left the Bank to assume his current position at the St. Christopher Air and Sea Ports Authority. He holds a Master of Science in Finance and Accounting. The new PMAC Executive also includes Treasurer Walwyn Nichols of the St. Vincent and the Grenadines Port Authority who had previously served the Association for six years; and Glenn Roach, Executive Secretary of the Association since 2007. The new PMAC Executive acknowledged and lauded the contribution and dedication of outgoing Chairman, Bishen John, whose service to the Association began in 2015. The Port Management Association of the Caribbean was established to replace the Port Management Association of the Eastern Caribbean, which was launched on May 16, 1988. The newly founded Association expanded its parameters and broadened the scope in order to facilitate its expanded work of port development beyond the states and territories of the Eastern Caribbean. Its inaugural meeting was held in Antigua on June 26, 1998. The PMAC has 18 member ports across the four major language groups in the Caribbean. It has 29 Associate Members, including regional and extra-regional companies, organizations, universities and training institutions, as well as a wide range of marine services providers. PMAC’s new Chairman, Darwin Telemaque Our range of marine services is the most comprehensive in the industry and meets various needs including harbour rfntbrb rb 14


The rst cruise ship to dock in Jamaica in more than a year of a global pandemic arrived in Ocho Rios on the morning of August 16, 2021. Arguably the most beautiful cruise ship destination in a sea of exquisite ports, Ocho Rios was the backdrop fate had selected for the restart of business that provided bread and butter for hundreds of Jamaicans in and around the little north coast town they call “Ochie”. Cruise tourism is one of the pillars of Jamaica’s tourist industry. High hopes and expectations for the soonest-possible return of mega cruise ships to Jamaica’s gorgeous ports remained on the surface for the 17 months that the COVID-19 pandemic brought that business to a halt. Early cloud dispersion from a tropical storm in the vicinity of Jamaica did dim the morning light, but barely swayed the delight and relief experienced by those that serve and/or depend on cruise tourism. The Carnival ship arrived under cloudy skies for its scheduled mid-morning docking in Ochie. But it was not the gathering clouds from (then) Tropical Storm Grace that muted the event. Rather, it was the lingering concerns in a local community in which much of the population was still not vaccinated. At that time, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported “Jamaica has administered at least 391,076 doses of COVID vaccines so far. Assuming every person needs two doses, that’s enough to have vaccinated about 6.6% of the country’s population.” Concerns, fears, assurances One local daily reported that there was fear that the return of cruise ships “once considered the incubator of the disease” could cause an increase in infection rates if not carefully managed. There may have been some lingering concerns ashore even as the ship came alongside. But the ship and its passengers and crew (about half the 3,000 capacity) were greeted with glee and an optimism that survived a year and a half of uncertainty and anxiety. And masked local ocials, led by the government minister responsible for the Tourism portfolio, were on hand to participate in the ceremonial exchange of plaque and pleasantries. Cruise destinations must be protected and protection begins before boarding 15


“I am very pleased to announce that Jamaica has nally seen the return of cruise today with the arrival of Carnival Sunrise . We welcome this resumption as we know that thousands of Jamaicans depend on the cruise shipping industry,” said the Tourism Minister Edmund Bartlett. He emphasised that the restart of cruise business had to be planned within the strict guidelines of international safety guidelines and protocols. A week before, in announcing the arrival of the ships, Minister Bartlett moved to allay public concerns and fears. “I want to assure the public that this (cruise ship) call is being managed in accordance with strict health and safety COVID-19 protocols which are guided by global standards and best practices to ensure the safety and protection of our citizens as well as visitors. Additionally, the vessel is being managed in alignment with the Conditional Sailing Order for Simulated and Restricted Voyages promulgated by the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC). The arrival of the “ Carnival Sunshine ” (sic) on Monday marks a signicant milestone in recovery eorts and signalled the resumption of cruise operations suspended because of the pandemic. “Under the strict measures governing the restart of cruise shipping approximately 95% of the crew and passengers are fully vaccinated and all passengers are required to provide evidence of negative results from a COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours of sailing.” Fear in Caribbean cruise destination ports about COVID-19 infection are of real concern for regional governments. COVID-19 coronavirus is passed human to human. And the fear of importing a public health catastrophe via the cruise industry is bolstered by an apparent inability of some countries to maintain the restrictions required to halt the spread of this coronavirus and its dangerous variant, COVID-21 popularly called the Delta variant . Yet, in this struggle, Caribbean governments have found a strong and supportive ally in the cruise lines. None wanted a repeat of the 2020 nightmare of ships at sea full of sick people and nowhere to disembark; and awakening to a no-sail order from the USA’s Centre for Disease Control (CDC), issued along with a set of restrictions to be satised before cruise ships could sail again. Mandatory And so, Norwegian Cruise Line implemented a Sail Safe programme, inviting guests to “ cruise with freedom ” and “ experience everything on board our 100% fully vaccinated ships ”. Norwegian’s ve-point programme, published on its website and elsewhere, essentially mandated full vaccination of all sta and passengers. 1. Norwegian’s “cruise with freedom” promise rested on the following: • Mandatory Vaccinations Against COVID-19 on Initial Voyages: • All guests and crew to be fully vaccinated at least two weeks prior to departure, in order to board the ship. • Guest vaccination requirements established for all sailings embarking through October 31, 2021. • Passengers on ships embarking or disembarking at US ports to be vaccinated with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or World Health Organization (WHO) authorized single brand vaccinations. 2. Universal testing & Pre-Embarkation Protocols All guests required to take a COVID-19 antigen test, administered and paid for by the cruise line, prior to boarding and receive a negative result. Guests also responsible for complying with all local health and safety requirements which may include additional testing. 3. Socially Responsible Check-In An enhanced, staggered embarkation process and new check-in system established to streamline check in for guests by allowing documents to be signed electronically. 4. Controlled Guest Capacity (Initially) control of guest capacity onboard each ship to provide even more space per guest. 5. Hand Sanitation All guests required to wash hands frequently. Hand sanitizer will be prominently placed and easily accessible throughout the ship. It was a course of action that would have brought a great measure of relief to those operating Caribbean cruise destinations. However, mandatory vaccination was contrary to the thinking and pronouncements of the Governor of Florida, the state in which Norwegian homeports. On top of that, Governor DeSantis felt that the CDC had no basis in law to dictate regulatory action that could shut down an entire industry. The CDC, he said, had overstepped its authority by such imposing restrictions and particularly the criteria for a phased resumption contained in its Fear in Caribbean cruise ports about COVID-19 are of real concern. Yet Caribbean governments have found a strong and supportive ally in the cruise lines. 284.494.3435 284.852.2500 2 Purcell Road P.O. Box 4 Road Town, Tortola, VG1110 British Virgin Islands BVI Ports keep BVI 16


conditional sailing order issued in October 2020 (following on the initial, March 2020, no-sail order. The state of Florida took its challenge (of CDC’s authority to impose restrictive guidelines) to court. Meanwhile Norwegian Cruise Line’s Holdings challenged the constitutionality of the Florida law that prevent cruise lines from mandating vaccinations as a prerequisite for boarding ships. On the weekend of August 8, Norwegian announced that the Court case had gone it is favour and that it could require guests and crew to present ocial proof of vaccination prior to embarking ships for cruises leaving Florida ports. Although the news that the State planned to appeal the decision was immediate, it did appear likely that this verdict could inuence similar decisions in other jurisdictions, especially where documented cases of COVID-19 infection were again increasing and aecting mainly unvaccinated people. Delighted Like many Caribbean port managers now struggling to keep this pandemic at bay, President and CEO of Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings, Frank Del Rio was delighted by the Court decision. His comments on a US network television news programme (ABC News) were indicative and would have been like music to Caribbean ears. “We are very pleased with the Judge’s order. We think it’s the right thing to do, given there is a pandemic going on (with) the challenges the cruise industry has had with the pandemicwe want to do everything possible to keep Covid o our ships. And the science tells us that the best way to do that is to have a vaccinated population. “So back in the Spring, long before it was popular to do so, we (Norwegian) said we would not sail unless there was a 100% vaccination, which means all crew all guests and, on top of that, primarily because of the Delta variants and its eects on society right now, we are also testing everyone on board. “So, to learn that the State, so quickly after the Judge’s decision, plans to appeal the case is disappointing. You’d think that they would apply whatever resources they have to educate the public and do everything possible to vaccinate more people. Instead, they want to ght us in court. Here is a State that depends on tourism but, apparently, it’s not in their best interest to keep not only our residents safe but our visitors safe. So, it is very, very disappointing.” The interviewer asked: if Florida was to win the appeal would you (Norwegian) suspend operations in the State? Because of a technical glitch which apparently aected the audio, he said could not hear the question even after it was repeated. And so, no answer was forthcoming. Must be protected Passengers were allowed to disembark the Carnival Cruise ship in Jamaica on the morning of August 16. And, despite local fears and concerns, many visitors were taken inland on scenic tours. Others shopped and walked the town. It was a smooth, uneventful port call by all reports. Those ashore who received, accommodated and guided the hundreds of passengers that alighted for a long-to-be-remembered pleasure trip must be protected. Protection begins with strict safety protocols based on science and activated before passengers and crew show up to board ship. 17


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ANGUILLA – DEVELOPMENT PROGRESSES THE BAHAMAS GETS STRICT ANTIGUA CRUISE PORT RESUMESWork has started on the new Blowing Point Ferry Terminal in Anguilla. On Monday, June 28, 2021, government ocials, among others, participated in a brief ceremony to signal the start of construction. The new terminal will provide about 20,000 square feet of space structured to facilitate “a seamless inbound and outbound process”. The Blowing Point Ferry Port is Anguilla’s primary passenger port for excursions between St. Martin and St. Maarten. Most passengers are ferried from St. Martin/St. Maarten, fewer from Saint Barthlemy and other neighbouring islands. In 2020, vessel movement (departures and arrivals) at Blowing Point was down by over 72% as compared with 2019. Reecting this, passenger departures and arrivals in 2020 were both down, each by more than 77%. Road Bay Cargo Port is the main cargo handling facility for imports and exports to Anguilla. Its new multifunction jetty now under construction, delayed by disruptions as a result of the coronavirus pandemic, is As of September 3, 2021, The Bahamas will require arriving cruise passengers to be vaccinated. The new regulation by The Bahamian government was issued mid-August. The regulation will be enforced in all its cruise ports, including private islands. The Bahamas archipelago includes about 30 inhabited islands. As of September 3, arriving cruise ships must provide manifests declaring the vaccination status of all on board (crew and passengers) to the country’s Port Medical Ocer. now expected to be completed by the end of 2021. The jetty will be able to berth larger cargo ships and small cruise ships. Specications include 75m length and a 5m wide approach; circulation space of 40 metres x 55 metres; four ro-ro and three lo-lo platforms. Dredging will be required to reach the planned 8m draft. Road Bay saw an increase in total tonnage of 37.55% from 95,300 in 2019 to 131,200 tons in 2020, due largely to shipments of materials for projects being funded by the United Kingdom now underway. Otherwise, container movement in and out of Road Bay showed decline as reected in TEU data: in-bound down by approximately 17%; outbound declined by 29%. Meanwhile, planned development and infrastructural changes planned for Corito Port , Anguilla’s only dedicated facility for bulk fuel, has been halted for a while. Corito Port, with two bulk fuel depots, Sol and Delta Petroleum, receives tankers carrying diesel, gasoline, and liqueed petroleum gas. This port has been identied as a location for future expansion and development and a major deep water port facility. Antigua & Barbuda welcomed its rst mega cruise ship since the CDC pulled the plug on cruise business. St. John’s rolled out the hospitality in welcoming Celebrity Equinox and about 2,000 passengers on August 19, as the vessel slowly entered Antigua’s cruise facility. Government ocials at the level of Minister and Senators as well as representatives of Antigua Cruise Port, the Antigua & Barbuda Port Authority, and the Antigua and Barbuda Tourism Authority turned out to witness the restart of cruise business. All passengers 12 years and older must be fully vaccinated. Also, health and prevention protocols that were previously submitted by the cruise lines must be approved before permissions are granted. 20


CDC WARNS ABOUT CRUISINGThe USA’s Centre for Disease Control (CDC) has advised that people who are not fully vaccinated against the novel coronavirus should avoid travel on cruise ships. The advice applied to river cruises, worldwide. This warning, according to the CDC, is necessary because the risk of contracting COVID-19 on cruise ships is high. The virus appears to spread more readily between people who are in close contact and in close quarters as is the situation aboard ships. This is especially important for persons with an ‘increased risk of severe illness’. They should avoid travel on cruise ships, including ocean and river cruises. In this regard, the CDC has issued a Level 3 Travel Health Notice for cruise ship travellers who are not fully vaccinated. The guidelines: • The virus that causes COVID-19 spreads easily between people in close quarters aboard ships, and the chance of getting COVID-19 on cruise ships is high. Outbreaks of COVID-19 have been reported on cruise ships. • CDC recommends that people who are not fully vaccinated avoid travel on cruise ships, including river cruises, worldwide. • People with an increased risk of severe illness should also avoid travel on cruise ships, including river cruises, regardless of vaccination status. • People who decide to go on a cruise should get tested 1–3 days before their trip and 3–5 days after their trip, regardless of vaccination status. • Along with testing, passengers who are not fully vaccinated should self-quarantine for 7 days after cruise travel, even if they test negative. If they do not get tested, they should self-quarantine for 10 days after cruise travel. • People on cruise ships should wear a mask to keep their nose and mouth covered when in shared spaces. While CDC’s Mask Order is not being enforced on cruise ships, individual cruise lines may require travellers (passengers and crew) to wear masks indoors on board the ship. CAYMAN ISLANDS PORT AUTHORITY POSTS SURPLUS Despite signicant decline in revenues in 2020, mainly from disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent loss of cruise business and rental income, the Port Authority of the Cayman Islands (PACI) posted a surplus on operations of $929,000. This was well below the operational surplus of $5.1 million recorded in 2019. In 2020, the PACI spent $6.4 on capital items, including the expansion of the container storage area for RTGs; repairs to the yard at the Cargo Distribution Centre; replacement of channel markers with new technology lights; and, replacement of Wi-Fi and other IT upgrades. However, as in all ports in the Caribbean region, disruptions caused by the pandemic created dislocations and demanded interim measures and creative solutions. Adjustments instituted to survive the pandemic included: reduction of contracted sta; redeployment of cruise operations sta to other departments; leaving executive and management positions unlled, and redistributing work to competent sta. Sta salaries were not reduced and there was no lay-o of any sta employee. Executive and management personnel performed additional roles, so as to keep the PACI’s expenses in check. FOUR CRUISE LINES ANNOUNCE RESUMPTIONIndications are that by December 2021 and the start of the 2021-22 cruise season, four corporations will have much of their eets again visiting idyllic tropical islands or ancient and historic cities. Royal Caribbean Group indicated that 54 of its 61 ships (sailing under ve brands) will be back in service by the end December. The Royal Caribbean brand will have 85% of its eet (of 21 ships) back in service by December. Carnival Corporation indicated that 63 ( i.e. , 74%) of its 95-ship eet will again be in service by year-end 2021. At press time, of Carnival’s nine brands, in what is considered the world’s largest cruise ship eet, only P&O Australia had not conrmed plans for a resumption. All 24 ships sailing under the Carnival brand will be riding the waves by this December. Norwegian Cruise Holdings was expected to have 19 of its 28 ships (sailing under three brand names: Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania and Regent) are slated to be back in service by December. The largest of the three, Norwegian, will have 12 ships (70% of the eet) back in business by year end. MSC Cruises plans to have 18 of its 19 ships back in business by December 31. 21


MONTSERRAT READY TO PROCEED MARTINIQUE: ROLLING OUT STRATEGIC PLAN 2020-2024Montserrat is ready to proceed with construction of its new jetty. Tender documents were completed and issued in January. Expectations were for a contract to be awarded in September 2021. The port plans a 130M x 20M jetty with a 23M wide ro-ro ramp. Notwithstanding a year and more of global dislocation and disruption, the port of Martinique is forging ahead with Strategic Plan 2020-2024. In proactive mode to help keep the Martinique economy going, the port committed to four large projects that were not initially included in its 2020 budget. With a view to supporting the local construction sector, the port committed to support the construction sector by proceeding with projects at its three sites (Pointe des Grives, Radoub Basin and Hydrobase). Review of the major projects included in the Strategic Plan are completed and the port reported in June that action with respect to Energy Transition; adapting port capacity to accommodate very large vessels; and, the integration of the port into the city were already in play. In 2021, the Port of Martinique will be investing about 10 M in projects that directly support the economic development of Martinique. The Strategic Plan includes: • New nautical facilities for the cruise sector – 8 M (USD9.4M) • Cargo Shore Power Connection – 13,5 M (USD15.8M) • Purchase of a 4th crane – 13 M (USD15.3M) Port activity was sustained without interruption through 2020. And, in the second half of the year, the port pushed ahead with its projects. Notwithstanding, the fallout from the pandemic could not be avoided, with passenger trac and the oil sector most aected. Vessel calls were down 40% from 1,897 in 2019, to 1,120 in 2020. And there was a 75% decrease of ferry calls; and a 40% decline in cruise calls. Our concern for the environment is more than just talkThis publication is printed on Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certied paper with vegetable oil-based inks. Please do your part for the environment by reusing and recycling. 22


I cannot say Happy World Seafarers Day as it is far from happy. Seafarers are key workers and they need better support. This was an opinion recently stated at Smart 4 Sea virtual talk. One would think it obvious but regrettably it is not. I have been in the industry for almost 55 years, and I have seen the treatment of seafarers deteriorate to unbelievable proportions. Maybe the pandemic is partially to blame. However, if you do not have a proper system for the overall welfare of seafarers every bump that comes along will upset matters. One of the worse hidden horrors of the pandemic is that ships have been turned, almost overnight, from the engines of global commerce into oating prisons. On the 10th anniversary of the Day of the Seafarer in June 2020, the focus was on the need for maritime personnel to be acknowledged as key frontline workers. While some action has been taken, substantially more needs to be done. This year recognizes the unique contribution made by seafarers worldwide with the watchwords Fair Future 4 Seafarers.Seafarers need better support says Capt. Rawle Baddaloo, Co-Leader CARIBMEPA *The coordinated guidance and support provided by the IMO’s Seafarer Crisis Action Team alongside bodies such as the ICS, the ILO and the International Group of P&I Clubs has played a crucial role in delivering the progress thus far. The United Nations Resolution on International Cooperation was passed to protect seafarers. It has mainly been given lip service notwithstanding the best hopes articulated by Secretary General of IMO Kitack Lim. Indeed, one large country actually took steps to evade or sidestep the Resolution. Not sufficient traction With it not gaining sucient traction, The Neptune Declaration on Seafarer Wellbeing and Crew Change was introduced. This Declaration denes four pillars, namely to facilitate crew changes and keep global supply chains functioning, including recognizing seafarers as key workers and giving them priority access to COVID-19 vaccines, as well as ensuring air connectivity between key maritime hubs for seafarers. The other pillars are to establish and implement gold standard health protocols based on existing best practice, and to increase collaboration between ship operators and charterers to facilitate crew changes Ships cannot be infected by the virus, but seafarers can be. And they are needed to manage and sail vessels. We are not yet in the world of autonomous and unmanned vessels. Therefore, we must protect our seafarers. Seafarers full the societal role of keeping vital logistics arteries open when they are needed most. When one considers that over 90% of global trade, including essentials such as food are carried by sea, and that that number is higher in island economies as our own, seafarers have been largely overlooked. This is not a one-o initiative because of COVID-19. Thankfully the Sailors’ Society’s Wellness at sea programme is but one programme that will help the seafarer. In every shipping company, the rst clause in any standard operating procedure must be to look after the welfare of the seafarer. The IMO’s theme for 2021 is: “Seafarers at the core of Shipping’s Future” . Let us all do our best to full this motto. * Statement delivered in conference on IMO Day of the Seafarer , June 25, 2021 23


ntrtbnTruth and ConsequencesInstability and confusion prevail in the absence of truth rf In larger-than 25-point font headlines, the front cover of the April/May 2021 Fortune magazine shouts TRUST AND CONSEQUENCES. Corporate wrongdoings, lies, and headline “misstruths” from around the globe are chronicled in that April/May 2021 edition. Fortune editors assigned columnists Geo Colvin, Matthew Heimer, Beth Kowitt and Clifton Leaf to investigate and lay bare the workings of the most recognizable companies whose public faces with burnished and stately proclamations were viewed as trusted corporate citizens. Companies who, when practices were investigated and unmasked, were found to be corrupt, scandalous, and immoral. With a quagmire of lies, deception, and immoral behaviour came a loss of trust, faith and condence by their employees, customers, shareholders and the public. The US Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other regulatory law enforcement organisations following investigation labelled them criminals. The columnists found that the companies’ perceived successes and practices were based on deliberate missmanagement , deliberate missdirection , deliberate missbehavior , and deliberate corporate misseverything. On an early page, there is an invitation to the twin golden arches. Come for juicy burgers and hot, salted fries! Of the 39,198 McDonald’s outlets in the world, we understandably tend to think only of our local favourite. In its day, McDonald’s could be another Norman Rockwell cover of quintessential Americana – Community, Family, Service and Integrity. However, the headline ‘MacFamily feud: Scandal, Lawsuits, and Cultural upheaval’ presents challenges. Is this the family-oriented McDonald’s imagined by founder Ray Kroc? As we continue to read, more questions are raised. On another page, Volkswagen headquarters announced with fanfare, pomp and pride, their leadership in corporate environmental responsibilities. They pledged that by 2018, they would be “the world’s most environmentally compatible automaker.” Trust in this commitment opened wallets. We bought what we thought were environmentally friendly VWs. In reality, the new Volkswagen was not “green”. Instead, it was revealed that between 2009 and 2016 “deliberate manipulation” of onboard devices allowed the discharge of tons of pollution into the atmosphere. Why, and how do companies that reach the “pinnacled” Fortune 500 status, not to mention lessersized rms – all companies that we trust – become so misaligned and to what extent? Nicolas Rapp and Brian O’Keefe, using data from Philip Mattera’s Violation Tracker1 created a multi-page visual analysis, “Painting a picture of corporate misdeeds”. They wanted to add “a dose of reality” to the “selfcongratulatory verbiage” and faces that the corporations were intent on projecting to the public. They graphed and charted the corporations which, in the last 20 years, paid the largest nes in their industries. In the Energy and Extraction industry, BP, in 2015, paid US$20.8 billion on account of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. In Health Care , Purdue Pharma paid US$8.3 billion for the marketing and sale of opioids. In Hospitality Leisure and Entertainmen t, companies paid nes totalling over US$800 million. But it was Finance, Insurance and Real Estate that led them all as they paid out over US$60 billion for regulatory wrongdoings. Lying as a norm Ron Carucci, in the February 15, 2019 issue of the Harvard Business Review , wrote in his column: “4 Ways Lying Becomes the Norm at a Company”. He suggested that it is leadership that determines whether company personnel will be honest. Leadership failures, he proered, promote a culture that nods to lying as a norm. How does this come about? Use the Big Lie! In his 1925 autobiographical manifesto, Mein Kampf , Adolf Hitler posited the use of the Big Lie. “ the use of a lie so colossal that no one would believe that someone could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously.” Carucci identies four factors that lead to these failures: (a) Lack of strategic clarity; (b) Unjust accountability systems; (c) Poor organizational governance; and, (d) Weak cross-functional collaboration Applying Carucci’s template to real-world situations, the following strategic responses could provide insulation from the dysfunctionalitycreated by lying in the workplace. Lack of strategic claritycan be addressed byensuring that all actions are in alignment with a clearly articulated Mission Statement. For Unjust accountability systems create and codify denitional standards of measurement. Poor organizational governancerequires establishment of a direct line of communication and information ow amongst decision makers. As regardsWeak crossfunctional collaboration,the provision of incentives can promote and help to establish a culture that fosters mutual support to achieve corporate objectives. These are organizational (not individual) issues that require cultural creation. It is leadership’s responsibility to lead by example – a praxis that encourages engagement, rewards open and honest communications, encourages collective in-house challenges without competition, and builds mutual trust upon which to advance a commitment to a broader mission. Without strong leadership, corporate misbehaviour will continue. Wells Fargo CEO, John Stumpf who was named Banker of the Year in 2013 along with his company were ranked 7th on Barron’s list of the Most Respected Companies in 2015. However, in the following year, over 5,000 employees were red for unethical 24


ntrtbnsales practices for creating 3.5 million fake accounts. The company then faced nes of nearly US$3 billion. Recall the story of Enron Corporation, the seventh largest US company with its US$64 billion in assets which, for six consecutive years (1996-2001), was named by Fortune magazine “America’s Most Innovative Company”. In December 2001, Enron led the largest bankruptcy case in US history. Investigative reporting brought to light seedy accounting practices used by the executive group to hide billions of dollars of debt. These corporate executive ocers misled the board and pressured auditors Arthur Andersen to overlook the issues. The consequences: Kenneth Lay, Enron’s founder, was sentencedto 24 years in prison and ordered to pay nes, forfeitures and restitution of US$630 million. Previous CEO, Jerey K. Skilling was found guilty of 19 counts of conspiracy and fraud and served 12 years in prison. Andersen Consulting was charged with obstruction of justice for shredding and doctoring documents related to the Enron audits. It was ned US$500,000 and put on probation, losing 89 years of credibility, and soon Andersen closed. These actions by corporations and corporate leaders who abuse privilege often result in disgrace, nes, incarcerations, and suicide. The legal ramications are the deserved consequences of deliberate misbehaviour at the highest levels of authority. Authority-level dierences, however, are not insular. Stevedores, crane operators, manifest clerks and workers who perform both critical and ordinary operations at, e.g., the Caribbean entrepts, are no dierent than those of the highly presumed privileged. Right is right, truth is truth, lies are lies, and morals and ethics must be the same for all. There is no distributive class allocation for missbehaviour. David Straker, author and webmaster of, suggests that our intentions are directed, either to gain advantage, or esteem or to avoid punishment or embarrassment. All have risk-reward consequences. The perceived gains from deceit, lies and misdirection, can quickly result in an indelibly soiled reputation and permanent loss of credibility. This intentional behaviour results from a personal choice and associates personal risk with reward. Do we risk the future with the smear of an indelible mark on our reputation for a real or imagined reward? In the extreme, are we willing to damage ourselves or others in exchange for a perceived or targeted gain? Rather, should we not, instead, instinctively challenge the precept that the end justies the means? Are we all too willing to ignore the wisdom of “if it’s too good to be true, it’s too good to be true?” About 4,800 investors and charities did just that when they gave their US$19 billion to the founder and chairman of the eponymous Bernard L.MadoInvestment Securities, LLC. His giant Ponzi con caused many of his clients to declare bankruptcy. Mr. Mado was arrestedby the FBI in 2008, pleaded guilty to 11 federal crimes, and was sentenced to 150 years in prison with restitution of US$170 billion. He also solidied his legacy as a criminal who died in prison serving his sentence. Are we so incapable of telling the dierence between truth and deception; right and wrong? Or, are we simply lazy and uncaring? The reasons for lying are varied as Dr. Paul Ekman, psychologist, author, CEO Paul Ekman Group asserts. He notes that people lie for eight reasons: 1. to conceal or omit rewards and benets received in an attempt to screen the true motivation; 2. to avoid punishment; 3. to prevent the adverse eects of the truth; 4. to protect others with a Camelot belief in noble loyalty; 5. to protect oneself by projecting an exaggerated picture of accomplishment; 6. to avoid revealing information; 7. or to enjoy successful deception as an end onto itself, or as a thrill to hide a mistake or an embarrassment; and, 8. to feign politeness so as to preserve social harmony with false compliments. Regardless of the motivation, if the lie accomplished its purpose, it results in (even encourages) a continuation of undesirable behaviour. And, with each repetition of misbehaviour, we reexively decide yes/no, right/ wrong, good/bad, moral/immoral, true/untrue to make our judgmental call. Now, as embedded into our psyche, we would then measure everyone’s behaviour by our imagined and biased standard. Our biases form a jaundiced view and are projected onto everyone. If others cannot see the value of our actions, they must either be won over or treated as an enemy. So divided, have we created an architecture for aberrant ‘we/they’ camps of corruption, scandal and distrust? These camps began with an acceptable stretch of truth in the form of an innocent white lie, which became a b and ultimately became the pinnacle of a well-practiced Big Lie. “We have met the enemy and he is us.” Pogo2. The consequences of the lies, untruth and broad scale dishonesty, in a world of distrust were well chronicled by the Fortune writers. Do these writings of wrong-doing present a challenge to question our moral bre of self and of our conscience? Look in the mirror! Endnotes1 Violation Tracker, launched in 2015, is a free online database on corporate crime and law violations.2 Cartoonist Walt Kelly used the quote in his comic strip in celebration of the rst Earth Day, 1970. Joe Cervenak , industry and executive consultant, columnist, speaker, teacher and lecturer, is founder and Principal of Kemper~Joseph, LLC, ( a York, PA, USA-based globally networked consulting company. 25


Recent accounts of exceedingly high atmospheric temperatures on the North American west coast, with dozens of people dying, must now be cause for concern. Record-breaking heat in Canada early in summer 2021 validates the mission of global entities that are now actively pursuing an agenda of sustainability through protection of the environment. The wake-up calls have been many and increasing. In a Middle East port, a container carrying dangerous goods exploded on the ship during discharge. The ambient temperature was 50C and may have been the cause of the incident. Meanwhile, in Europe, recent unprecedented ooding, in Germany particularly, has caused many deaths. One might say that’s all far from the Caribbean and, as such, there is no need to worry. However Caribbean ports should get active in pursuing or actively supporting initiatives towards sustainability and environment protection. Earth’s climate is changing but it is headed in the wrong direction. Sea temperatures are rising. Land ambient air temperatures are also on the rise. Huge sections of Earth’s polar ice caps, up to seven times as large as Barbados have broken o and melted. The normally frozen Northern Passage, once impassable for much of the year with little consideration for use in commercial shipping, is now being regarded as just another sea route. The end for many Action must be taken to slow and at best stop this slide. The majority of seaports in the Caribbean are on relatively small shelves at sea level. There are hinterland plains but there is not a lot of real estate before the land rises sharply into hills and, in some cases mountains. Sea level rise (SLR) will spell the end for many Caribbean ports as we know them today. Let me hasten to add that this is an international phenomenon and action is needed to address the specic realities aecting seaports everywhere. The IMO has been initiating conventions to stem and even stop the deterioration of Earth’s environment. The biggest and most important of these is The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modied by the Protocol of 1978 and its six Annexes (loosely called MARPOL 73/78 and its Annexes). MARPOL was enforced by each participating country adopting the MARPOL Regulations and enforcing them as part of the Country’s Laws. Regrettably, this has not happened as only a low percentage of countries in the Caribbean have fully implemented MARPOL. (Of the 12 countries that ratied only three have implemented it.) This led to many more initiatives including the strengthening of the Annexes of MARPOL and introduction of other protocols and initiatives. In 2015 the Paris Agreement was adopted. It came in force in November 2016. This agreement was a legally binding international treaty on climate change and was adopted by 196 signatories. The stated objective was to limit global warming to well below two degrees, preferably 1.50C compared to pre-industrial levels. To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aimed to reach global peaking of greenhouse emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century. The question that arises is: has the Paris Agreement worked? It might be easy to answer no. However, while there were moves (like the USA’s) to withdraw, more and more countries, companies and associations are establishing carbon neutrality targets. Zero-carbon solutions were becoming competitive across economic sectors representing 25% of the emissions. This was most noticeable in the power and transport sub-sectors. While, more than 90% of world trade is transported by sea (... island-states are comparatively more dependent on cargo transported by sea than other countries), it should be noted that shipping’s share of global emissions is now less than 3%. However, it is anticipated that it will rise seriously due to the very large container ships currently on order and being delivered. It should also be noted that the European Union was already looking at implementing surcharges for both sea and air trac. Not all developing countries have the capacity to deal with many of the challenges brought by climate change. As a result, the Paris Agreement placed great emphasis on climate-related capacity building for developing countries, requesting all developed countries to enhance support for capacity-building actions in developing countries. Developments worldwide, some directly inuenced by IMO, have resulted in the formation of many nongovernmental, non-prot organizations whose main programme is to eradicate pollution and arrest climate change. I here refer to the North American Maritime Environmental Protection Association (NAMEPA) and the Caribbean Maritime Protection Association (CARIBMEPA). NAMEPA was formed in 2008. CARIBMEPA was launched in May 2019, but eventually got its registration sorted out in 2021 and is a chapter of NAMEPA. Besides being involved in projects of garbage removal, energy from waste, beach and ocean cleaning and educational programmes for schools, CARIBMEPA is actively working to establish a MARPOL Training Institute in the Caribbean region. On January 1, 2020, the IMO implemented IMO 2020 to reduce Sulphur emissions. Sulphur content in bunker fuel was now to be reduced to 0.5%, down from 3.5%. The full impact of this regulation has not yet been analyzed as COVID 19 had a serious impact on world shipping. Decarbonisation The next IMO step was decarbonisation. This reduction of carbon dioxide emissions through use of low carbon power sources helps to lower the output of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. An IMO initiative implemented four years ago was the creation of the Maritime Technology Cooperation Centres (MTCCs). This was done in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Cause for concern: Port managers must take the lead 26


Make your next safety ladder replacement visible: choose LIFELADDER +1(246) 826 3630 www.port-safety.comLatin America and the Pacic. These Regional Centres constitute the GMN or The Global MTCC Network project, funded by the European Union. The MTCCs focused on Annex VI of MARPOL. And they have implemented pilot projects requiring the collection and analysis of data. This has served the various regions in good stead as IMO has moved forward to implement the Initial IMO GHG Strategy towards decarbonisation. The data collected so far has created an excellent data base for the various regions to use for making informed decisions as they launch processes in response to related Resolutions. MTCC Caribbean is hosted by the University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT) Centre for Maritime and Ocean Studies (CMOS), Chaguaramas Campus. It has presented many successful capacity building workshops with topics on Green House Gas Emissions, Energy Eciency Technologies and the Energy Eciency Index Baseline for Maritime Shipping in the Caribbean. The data baseline for regional vessels has been established and will continue to expand as the IMO’s new Regulations become eective on January 1, 2023. The Energy Eciency Index for existing vessels i.e., pre-2013 vessels and the Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) for vessels > 400gt has been highlighted in one of MTCC Caribbean workshops. Eective January 1, 2023, vessels must cut their emissions by 40% with increasing reductions by 2030. New vessels will have an Energy Eciency Design Index (EEDI) while existing tonnage will have an Energy Eciency Existing Index (EEXI). Future Ports, Decarbonisation and Green Logistics have been part of the discussions at the MTCC Caribbean workshops. The port manager who attended these workshops is geared for the new and changing world. Imperatives Port managers need to look at every emission in his jurisdiction. Some could be solved very quickly; others may be done over a longer period. In the context of reduction of harmful air emissions for the maritime sector, January 1, 2020 (with the Low Sulphur Regulations coming into eect) marked a signicant step in the right direction. Every component of the logistics chain however must play its part. Port administrations across the region must now look towards an evolution to green ports, in order to ntrtbn be considered a ‘preferred port’ of the future. In Norway a number of green ports are now oering plug-in facilities for vessels thereby nullifying all ship emissions in port. This practice is now trending worldwide. A quick option for ports is to look at internal port activity, for example, trucking. Container trucks spend long periods with engines idling, either awaiting or delivering cargo. Moves could be made to have trucks run engines only when absolutely necessary. This, together with the port retrotting with electric vehicles, would make a signicant improvement. In a region where there are so many alternative energy options, we must, for survival, move away from burning fossil fuels. At this stage, any and all eorts to save Earth’s environment are imperatives. In the port complex, the ball is in the court of the port manager. The port manager must take the lead now. * Capt. Rawle Baddaloo , Past President of the Caribbean Shipping Association, is Co-leader of Caribbean Marine Environment Protection Association (CARIBMEPA).27


The sinking of the RMS Titanic on April 15, 1912 triggered the initiation of maritime governance and the development of international standards to guide the performance and activities of states, shipowners, seafarers and other shipping industry stakeholders. In less than two years after that historic tragedy, the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) 1914 was drafted. Following the adoption of the SOLAS Convention, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) subsequently introduced a number of conventions entailing international standards concerning maritime safety; prevention of marine pollution; liability and compensation, especially in relation to damage caused by pollution. And there were others dealing with facilitation, tonnage measurement, unlawful acts against shipping, to name a few. For these international standards to become eective, states were rst required to demonstrate their willingness to be bound by the standards. This they did by ratication. What is ratication? Ratication is the international act whereby a state establishes on the international plane, its consent to be bound by a treaty ( Article 2, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties ). In other words, the State agrees to become party to the treaty and is willing to undertake, implement and/or adhere to the legal rights and obligations stipulated in the text. Generally, implementing legislation, usually in the form of an Act of Parliament, needs to be drafted at the national level to give eect to the convention within the jurisdiction of the state. Apart from ratication, states may also express consent to be bound by a treaty by signature, acceptance, approval and/or accession. Becoming party to a treaty is only the beginning of a series of actions required by the State in honouring its obligations to be bound by the treaty. As outlined in Maritime Legislation by P.K. Mukherjee (2002), when a state becomes a party to a convention, by the process of ratication, accession, adoption or acceptance, the legal eect of it is that it (the state) then becomes bound by the convention. It is therefore obliged incorporate the convention into its body of national law. States must incorporate the international treaty within its national law in order for the treaty to take full eect within its territorial jurisdiction. How this incorporation into national law is eected will be determined by the legal system of the particular state. Dualism v Monism General principles of international law outline that international treaties can be integrated into the national legal systems by way of dualism or monism . For a monistic state, once ratied, international obligations are directly incorporated into national law. In some states however, upon ratication, treaties can be applied automatically within the jurisdiction of the State, once the treaty is self-executing. If the treaty is not self-executing, further legislative action is required for the treaty to be properly incorporated into the State’s national law; as in The Netherlands and the Dutch Caribbean Territories. Dualism, on the other hand, requires express legislative action, the enactment of a new national law or amendment of an existing national law, for the incorporation of a treaty into national law. Most commonwealth nations tend to apply a dualistic system, hence, most Caribbean States fall within this category. There are also some states, such as the United States of America, that adopt a hybrid approach to incorporation (a mixture of both the monistic and dualistic approaches). Other states which apply a hybrid approach are Guyana and St. Lucia. When is ratication required? The consent of a state to be bound by a treaty is expressed by ratication when: (a) the treaty provides for such consent to be expressed by means of ratication; (b) it is otherwise established that the negotiating States were agreed that ratication should be required; (c) the representative of the States has signed the treaty subject to ratication; (d) the intention of the State to sign the treaty subject to ratication appears from the full powers of its representative or was expressed during the negotiation. (Article 14, Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties). Following the adoption of a maritime convention by IMO Member States, the convention is thereafter opened for ratication, the conditions for which are agreed during the drafting process. For example, Article VIII (3) of the Maritime Labour Convention states: “This Convention shall come into force 12 months after the date on which there have been registered ratications by at least 30 Members with a total share in the world gross tonnage of ships of at least 33 per cent”. Similarly, Article 18 of the Ballast Water Management Convention states: The Law:The importance of ratication:Part I – The 3 Ws of Ratication: What? When? Why? trb ntrtbn “Region-wide ratication would create improved standards of maritime governance within the Caribbean region, which will ultimately deliver benets to the states ...”28


“ This Convention shall enter into force twelve months after the date on which not less than thirty States, the combined merchant eets of which constitute not less than thirty-ve percent of the gross tonnage of the world’s merchant shipping, have either signed it without reservation as to ratication, acceptance or approval, or have deposited the requisite instrument of ratication, acceptance approval or accession in accordance with Article 17”. Why ratify? All the benets and protections created by international conventions become accessible on ratication. In other words, states need to ratify conventions in order for the international standards developed to be fully established. Additionally, ratication will determine the applicability of the convention within the national jurisdiction of individual Member States. This is particularly important for dualist states, as the incorporation of the convention within the national laws will determine the applicability of the terms of the said convention within the national courts. This was determined in the decision of the Supreme Court of Belize The Attorney General of Belize v MS Westerhaven Schiahrts GMBH & CO KG and Reider Shipping BV, Claim No. 45 of 2009, as well as, the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court decision in Whitney Jacobs v Admiralty Transport Company Ltd, Claim No. 162 of 2006. Ratication is also important as, failure to ratify a convention may still result in the convention being applied by the courts, if one of the parties have ratied the convention. In the cases of Qatar v Bahrain and the Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Colombia the International Court of Justice applied the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) even though one of the parties was not bound by it. ntrtbn Perhaps the most compelling reason for the ratication of maritime conventions by States is uniformity of maritime law, which is substantively within the various maritime treaties and conventions. Uniformity regarding maritime regulations and activities is important as it facilitates the creation of international standards that are applied across all geographic areas and locations. It enables ease of administration of international shipping as it relates to navigation, insurance, agging and registration, settlement of maritime claims and other issues, training and provision of labour, port operations, and environmental practices, to name a few. It creates a surety and condence in maritime operations, regardless of the location; and, ultimately, reduces the instances of conict due to diering maritime practices within the jurisdiction of States. For Caribbean States, region-wide ratication of maritime conventions would have far-reaching eects. It would result in better regulation of the marine environment, better use of maritime resources, and greater ease in collaboration between individual countries and on a larger scale as a region. Region-wide ratication would create improved standards of maritime governance within the Caribbean region, which will ultimately deliver benets to the states, collectively and individually. Deniece M. Aiken, BSc LLB MSC (Maritime Law & Policy); member of International Association of Marine Consultants and Surveyors; Director of Corporate Aairs for the Women in Maritime Association, Caribbean; WMU-Koji Sekimizu Fellow for Maritime Governance. r f r nn tttbbn b t bnbb rf 2021013.indd 1 29/03/2021 19:28:47 + 1-514-448-2466 Since its inception, Sectus Technologies has been providing security technology to the Caribbean market and has developed unmatched expertise in supplying, integrating and maintaining cutting edge screening equipment throughout the region. With an established foothold including ofces in Barbados, Dominican Republic and Peru in addition to its Canadian Headquarters, Sectus has earned a strong reputation for excellence in service through its channel of certied eld technicians across the region. We take pride in our partnerships with manufacturers of the world’s highest quality and most advanced security technologies, which makes us the exclusive partner of Smiths Detection’s extensive lines of products: X-Ray inspection, threat detection and explosives trace detection technology for the Caribbean. The solutions we offer are proven to increase operational efciency while also ensuring the highest levels of security for your installations.29


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